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Three-Dimensional (3D) cell culture monitoring: Opportunities and challenges for impedance spectroscopy

journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-28, 03:55 authored by SE De León, A Pupovac, Sally McArthurSally McArthur
AbstractThree‐dimensional (3D) cell culture has developed rapidly over the past 5–10 years with the goal of better replicating human physiology and tissue complexity in the laboratory. Quantifying cellular responses is fundamental in understanding how cells and tissues respond during their growth cycle and in response to external stimuli. There is a need to develop and validate tools that can give insight into cell number, viability, and distribution in real‐time, nondestructively and without the use of stains or other labelling processes. Impedance spectroscopy can address all of these challenges and is currently used both commercially and in academic laboratories to measure cellular processes in 2D cell culture systems. However, its use in 3D cultures is not straight forward due to the complexity of the electrical circuit model of 3D tissues. In addition, there are challenges in the design and integration of electrodes within 3D cell culture systems. Researchers have used a range of strategies to implement impedance spectroscopy in 3D systems. This review examines electrode design, integration, and outcomes of a range of impedance spectroscopy studies and multiparametric systems relevant to 3D cell cultures. While these systems provide whole culture data, impedance tomography approaches have shown how this technique can be used to achieve spatial resolution. This review demonstrates how impedance spectroscopy and tomography can be used to provide real‐time sensing in 3D cell cultures, but challenges remain in integrating electrodes without affecting cell culture functionality. If these challenges can be addressed and more realistic electrical models for 3D tissues developed, the implementation of impedance‐based systems will be able to provide real‐time, quantitative tracking of 3D cell culture systems.

History

Journal

Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Volume

117

Pagination

1230-1240

Location

London, Eng.

Open access

  • No

ISSN

0006-3592

eISSN

1097-0290

Language

eng

Publication classification

C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Issue

4

Publisher

Wiley