With increasing demands for safe, high capacity energy storage to support personal electronics, newer devices such as unmanned aerial vehicles, as well as the commercialization of electric vehicles, current energy storage technologies are facing increased challenges. Although alternative batteries have been intensively investigated, lithium (Li) batteries are still recognized as the preferred energy storage solution for the consumer electronics markets and next generation automobiles. However, the commercialized Li batteries still have disadvantages, such as low capacities, potential safety issues, and unfavorable cycling life. Therefore, the design and development of electromaterials toward high-energy-density, long-life-span Li batteries with improved safety is a focus for researchers in the field of energy materials. Herein, recent advances in the development of novel organic electrolytes are summarized toward solid-state Li batteries with higher energy density and improved safety. On the basis of new insights into ionic conduction and design principles of organic-based solid-state electrolytes, specific strategies toward developing these electrolytes for Li metal anodes, high-energy-density cathode materials (e.g., high voltage materials), as well as the optimization of cathode formulations are outlined. Finally, prospects for next generation solid-state electrolytes are also proposed.