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Treatment effect heterogeneity following type 2 diabetes treatment with GLP1-receptor agonists and SGLT2-inhibitors: a systematic review
journal contributionposted on 2023-11-06, 00:43 authored by Katherine G Young, Eram Haider McInnes, Robert J Massey, Anna R Kahkoska, Scott J Pilla, Sridharan Raghavan, Maggie A Stanislawski, Deirdre K Tobias, Andrew P McGovern, Adem Y Dawed, Angus G Jones, Ewan R Pearson, John M Dennis, Jordi Merino, Abrar Ahmad, Catherine Aiken, Jamie L Benham, Dhanasekaran Bodhini, Amy L Clark, Kevin Colclough, Rosa Corcoy, Sara J Cromer, Daisy Duan, Jamie L Felton, Ellen C Francis, Pieter Gillard, Véronique Gingras, Romy Gaillard, Eram Haider, Alice Hughes, Jennifer M Ikle, Laura M Jacobsen, Jarno LT Kettunen, Raymond J Kreienkamp, Lee-Ling Lim, Jonna ME Männistö, Robert Massey, Niamh-Maire Mclennan, Rachel G Miller, Mario Luca Morieri, Jasper Most, Rochelle N Naylor, Bige Ozkan, Kashyap Amratlal Patel, Katsiaryna Prystupa, Sridaran Raghaven, Mary R Rooney, Martin Schön, Zhila Semnani-Azad, Magdalena Sevilla-Gonzalez, Pernille Svalastoga, Wubet Worku Takele, Claudia Ha-ting Tam, Anne Cathrine B Thuesen, Mustafa Tosur, Amelia S Wallace, Caroline C Wang, Jessie J Wong, Jennifer M Yamamoto, Katherine Young, Chloé Amouyal, Mette K Andersen, Maxine P Bonham, Mingling Chen, Feifei Cheng, Tinashe Chikowore, Sian C Chivers, Christoffer Clemmensen, Dana Dabelea, Aaron J Deutsch, Laura T Dickens, Linda A DiMeglio, Monika Dudenhöffer-Pfeifer, Carmella Evans-Molina, María Mercè Fernández-Balsells, Hugo Fitipaldi, Stephanie L Fitzpatrick, Stephen E Gitelman, Mark O Goodarzi, Jessica A Grieger, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Nahal Habibi, Torben Hansen, Chuiguo Huang, Arianna Harris-Kawano, Heba M Ismail, Benjamin Hoag, Randi K Johnson, Robert W Koivula, Aaron Leong, Gloria KW Leung, Ingrid M Libman, Kai Liu, S Alice Long, William L Lowe, Robert W Morton, Ayesha A Motala, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, James S Pankow, Maleesa Pathirana, Sofia Pazmino, Dianna Perez, John R Petrie, Camille E Powe, Alejandra Quinteros, Rashmi Jain, Debashree Ray, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Zeb Saeed, Vanessa Santhakumar, Sarah Kanbour, Sudipa Sarkar, Gabriela SF Monaco, Denise M Scholtens, Elizabeth Selvin, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Cate Speake, Nele Steenackers, Andrea K Steck, Norbert Stefan, Julie Støy, Rachael Taylor, Sok Cin Tye, Gebresilasea Gendisha Ukke, Marzhan Urazbayeva, Bart Van der Schueren, Camille Vatier, John M Wentworth, Wesley Hannah, Sara L White, Gechang Yu, Yingchai Zhang, Shao J Zhou, Jacques Beltrand, Michel Polak, Ingvild Aukrust, Elisa de Franco, Sarah E Flanagan, Kristin A Maloney, Andrew McGovern, Janne Molnes, Mariam Nakabuye, Pål Rasmus Njølstad, Hugo Pomares-Millan, Michele Provenzano, Cécile Saint-Martin, Cuilin Zhang, Yeyi Zhu, Sungyoung Auh, Russell de Souza, Andrea J Fawcett, Chandra Gruber, Eskedar Getie Mekonnen, Emily Mixter, Diana Sherifali, Robert H Eckel, John J Nolan, Louis H Philipson, Rebecca J Brown, Liana K Billings, Kristen Boyle, Tina Costacou, Jose C Florez, Anna L Gloyn, Maria F Gomez, Peter A Gottlieb, Siri Atma W Greeley, Kurt Griffin, Andrew T Hattersley, Irl B Hirsch, Marie-France Hivert, Korey K Hood, Jami L Josefson, Soo Heon Kwak, Lori M Laffel, Siew S Lim, Ruth JF Loos, Ronald CW Ma, Chantal Mathieu, Nestoras Mathioudakis, James B Meigs, Shivani Misra, Viswanathan Mohan, Rinki Murphy, Richard Oram, Katharine R Owen, Susan E Ozanne, Wei Perng, Toni I Pollin, Rodica Pop-Busui, Richard E Pratley, Leanne M Redman, Maria J Redondo, Rebecca M Reynolds, Robert K Semple, Jennifer L Sherr, Emily K Sims, Arianne Sweeting, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Miriam S Udler, Kimberly K Vesco, Tina Vilsbøll, Robert Wagner, Stephen S Rich, Paul W Franks
Abstract Background A precision medicine approach in type 2 diabetes requires the identification of clinical and biological features that are reproducibly associated with differences in clinical outcomes with specific anti-hyperglycaemic therapies. Robust evidence of such treatment effect heterogeneity could support more individualized clinical decisions on optimal type 2 diabetes therapy. Methods We performed a pre-registered systematic review of meta-analysis studies, randomized control trials, and observational studies evaluating clinical and biological features associated with heterogenous treatment effects for SGLT2-inhibitor and GLP1-receptor agonist therapies, considering glycaemic, cardiovascular, and renal outcomes. After screening 5,686 studies, we included 101 studies of SGLT2-inhibitors and 75 studies of GLP1-receptor agonists in the final systematic review. Results Here we show that the majority of included papers have methodological limitations precluding robust assessment of treatment effect heterogeneity. For SGLT2-inhibitors, multiple observational studies suggest lower renal function as a predictor of lesser glycaemic response, while markers of reduced insulin secretion predict lesser glycaemic response with GLP1-receptor agonists. For both therapies, multiple post-hoc analyses of randomized control trials (including trial meta-analysis) identify minimal clinically relevant treatment effect heterogeneity for cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Conclusions Current evidence on treatment effect heterogeneity for SGLT2-inhibitor and GLP1-receptor agonist therapies is limited, likely reflecting the methodological limitations of published studies. Robust and appropriately powered studies are required to understand type 2 diabetes treatment effect heterogeneity and evaluate the potential for precision medicine to inform future clinical care.