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Type 1 diabetes: a disease of developmental origins
journal contributionposted on 2017-09-01, 00:00 authored by J E Phillips, J J Couper, M A S Penno, L C Harrison, H Anderson, E Bandala-Sanchez, S C Barry, T Baskerville, R Battersby, N G Bediaga, D Bezuidenhout, E Brownrigg, J Catteau, A Choo, P G Colman, A Cotterill, M E Craig, S Curran, E A Davis, J M Dodd, D Edwards, J French, E Gibson, L C Giles, A Gwiazdzinski, M Harris, A Haynes, C M Hope, C Hsieh, D Huang, W Hu, A Keytash, M Krieg, S C Law, C Lloyd-Johnsen, G Morahan, A M Neale, K Ngui, A T Papenfuss, M Poth, B Ramoso, W D Rawlinson, A Roberts, T J Sadlon, A Schulze, J S Penington, R O Sinnott, K Spooner, N L Stone, R L Thomson, S Toome, A Tully, Peter VuillerminPeter Vuillermin, K Watson, J M Wentworth, J Wilson
The incidence of type 1 diabetes globally has increased dramatically over the last 50 years. Proposed environmental reasons for this increase mirror the modern lifestyle. Type 1 diabetes can be viewed as part of the non- communicable disease epidemic in our modern society. Meanwhile rapidly evolving new technologies are advancing our understanding of how human microbial communities interface with the immune system and metabolism, and how the modern pro-inflammatory environment is changing these communities and contributing to the rapid rise of non-communicable disease. The majority of children who present with clinical type 1 diabetes are of schoo l age; however 80% of children who develop type 1 diabetes by 18 years of age will have detectable islet autoantibodies by 3 years of age. The evolving concept that type 1 diabetes in many children has developmental origins has directed research questions in search of prevention back to pregnancy and early life. To this end the world's first pregnancy to early childhood cohort study in at-risk children has commenced.