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Vanillin mediated green synthesis and application of gold nanoparticles for reversal of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates

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journal contribution
posted on 2019-07-01, 00:00 authored by Sagar Arya, M M Sharma, R K Das, Jim RookesJim Rookes, David CahillDavid Cahill, S K Lenka
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious concern in pathogenic bacteria. As a new approach to addressing AMR, we report here the green synthesis of vanillin capped gold nanoparticles (VAuNPs) using the popular flavouring molecule vanillin (C8H8O3) as a reducing and capping agent. Physicochemical characterization revealed that the synthesised VAuNPs were stable and crystalline in nature. VAuNPs were non-bactericidal even at high concentration (>2000 μg/ml). The antibiotic potentiation activity was studied in combination with seven widely used antibiotics against extremely drug resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Major reductions in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 10–14-folds) of the antibiotics meropenem (10 fold) and trimethoprim (14 fold) were observed in the presence of VAuNPs (50 μg/ml). Furthermore, it was found that VAuNPs in combination with meropenem or trimethoprim provided 1.5–3-fold better potentiation effects than that of vanillin alone. Use of an ethidium bromide agar cart wheel assay indicated that VAuNPs can block the activity of efflux pumps. High reduction in the MIC of antibiotics was therefore attributed to the efflux pump repression activity of VAuNPs. Further, RT-qPCR of clinically relevant MexAB-OprM efflux pump components showed down-regulation in mexB and OprM transcripts in VAuNPs treated P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Our results reveal that VAuNPs impart susceptibility to the last line antibiotics meropenem, trimethoprim and few widely used antibiotics in XDR P. aeruginosa clinical isolates that display resistance to these antibiotics. Therefore, this study indicate the ability of VAuNPs and vanillin to be used as antibiotic adjuvants for inhibiting bacterial efflux pumps to potentiate antibiotics for addressing AMR problem affecting human health and environment.








Article number



1 - 11




Amsterdam, The Netherlands





Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2019, Elsevier Ltd.