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Variations in daily cigarette consumption on work days compared with nonwork days and associations with quitting: findings from the international tobacco control four-country survey

journal contribution
posted on 2013-01-01, 00:00 authored by Jae Cooper, Ron Borland, Hua YongHua Yong, Andrew Hyland, K Michael Cummings
INTRODUCTION: We explore whether reported daily cigarette consumption differs between work days and nonwork days and whether variation in consumption between work days and nonwork days influences quitting and abstinence from smoking. We also explore whether effects are independent of measures of addiction and smoking restrictions at work and home. METHODS: Data were from 5,732 respondents from the first five waves of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, occurring between 2002 and 2006. Respondents were current smokers employed outside the home. Variation in daily cigarette consumption on work days compared with nonwork days at one wave was used to predict the likelihood of making an attempt and the likelihood of maintaining a quit attempt for at least a month at the next wave. Generalized estimating equations were used to combine data for multiple waves. RESULTS: Just under half reported smoking more on a nonwork day, a little over a third reported no difference, and around one fifth reported smoking more on a work day. Controlling for possible confounding factors, smoking more on a work day was associated with making quit attempts. Among people who made a quit attempt, variation in consumption did not consistently predict one month's abstinence, being positive in Australia, but negative in the United Kingdom. CONCLUSION: Those who smoke more on work days try to quit more. Country differences for success may be related to the extent of bans on smoking, with those smoking more on work days more likely to succeed where bans in workplaces and public places were more prevalent, such as Australia at the time.



Nicotine and tobacco research






192 - 198


Oxford Academic


Oxford, Eng.





Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal