What Proportion of New Tuberculosis Patients Has a History of Household Tuberculosis Exposure? A Cross-Sectional Study from Udupi District, South India
journal contributionposted on 2019-01-01, 00:00 authored by Chidananda Sanju SV, Nikhil Srinivasapura Venkateshmurthy, Divya Nair, Vrinda Hari Ankolekar, Ajay MV Kumar
While tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy among household contacts is effective at an individual level, its population-level impact on reducing TB incidence has been unclear. In this study, we aimed to assess, among the new tuberculosis patients started on treatment between 1 October, 2018 and 30 June, 2019 in the public health facilities of Udupi district (South India): i) the proportion with a ‘history of household TB exposure’ and ii) sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with it. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving record review and patient interviews. Of 565 TB patients, 273(48%) were interviewed. Of them, 71(26%, 95% CI: 21%–32%) patients had a ‘history of household TB exposure (ever)’ with about half exposed in the past five years of diagnosis. Considering a new TB case as a proxy for incident TB, and ‘history of household TB exposure’ a proxy for household transmission, and assuming 100% effectiveness of preventive therapy, we may infer that a maximum of 26% of the incident cases can be prevented by giving preventive therapy to all household contacts of TB patients. In multivariable analysis, females and tobacco users had a significantly higher prevalence of household TB exposure. If there are resource constraints, these subgroups may be prioritized.