Price THREEPENCE    v*


S ANGUS & ROBERTSON’S 1

GRAMMAR

AND

I DERIVATION BOOK I

I OR USG IN AUSTRALIAN SCHOOLS.

UJ.üCtßlJRht

.VA Edition, Revised and Enlarged

.....i Publi?hed by

428 ANGUS & ROBERTSON LIMITED,

a


Ang w v-XSTI.I'K FACH STREET, 1924 IMES' SYDNEY.

Wholl> sei up and printed in Australia by Eagle Press, Ltd., Sydney, 1924

- Restereo bv the Postmaster-General for transmission

through the post as a book.    si

Definitions explain the exact sense in which terms are to be

understood.

Grammar (Gk. gramma, a letter) is the art of speaking and writing a language correctly.

Langcaue (i^at. limjua% a tongue) ie the expression of thought by

sign* or sounds.

The chief divisions of Grammar are Orthography, Orthoepy, KrYM*»LOGYt mxtax, and Prosody.

Orthogr achy (Gk. ortho#, right; grauho, I write) deals with the forms a?id sounds of letters and the correct method of spelling wools.

Orthokpy (Gk ortho#, right; tpo$, a word) deals with the correct method of proii&mcisig words

Etymology (Gk etymos, true: logos, a discourse) treats of the classification, inflexion, and derivation of words.

Syntax (Gk. *%m, together; taxi#, an arrangement) deals with the agreement, government, and proper arrangement of words in a sentence.

Prosody (Gk. pros, to ; ode, a song) deals with the laws of versification.

Accidence (I>at. aendere, to happen) is that part of Etymology which treats of the changes of form which words undergo

Parts ok Sri ►> n are classes into which words are divided according to the purpose they serve in a sentence.

Parsing is stating the part of speech of a word, its inflexion, and its relation toother words in a sentence.

Analysis (Gk. ana, up; luo. I loosen) is the processor loosening the structure of a sentence and »flowing the relation of its different parts to one another.    ’

Inflexion (I*at. in, into; Jlecto, I bend) is the variation made in the form of a word to express a change in its meaning.4 The inflexion of a noun or pronoun is called declension; the inflexion of an adjective or adverb is called comparison ; and that of a verb conjugation. Prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections are not inflected.)

Ellipsis (Gk. ek, out; lei no, I leave) is the omission of a word or wonts which are obviously necessary for the complete grammatical structure of a sentence.

Government is the influence exercised upon the case of a noun or pronoun by some other word.

An Absoluts Construction (Lat. ah, from; solutu*, loosed) is one in which a word is used apart (i.e., looted) from its ordinary dependence upon some other part of speech.

PARTS OF SPEECH.

There are eight parts of speech, viz : the noun, adjective (including the articles), pronoun, verb, ADVERB, PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, and INTERJECTION.

1.    A Noun is the name of anything.

(It is the name of the thing and not the thing itself that is the noun. The word noun means name.)

Nouns are divided into two great classes Proter

and Common.

A Proper Noun is the name of only one person or thing of a particular class or kind : as Charles, William the Conqueror, Sydney, Victoria, Bucephalus (the favourite warhorse of Alexander the Great).

A Common Noun is the name given to each one out of a class of things of the same kind.

Besides ordinary Class Names (as, man, book, river), common nouns include Collective Nouns and Abstract Nouns.

A Collective Noun is the name given to a number of persons or things forming one body: as, crowd, mob, Jlock, army, conyr^ya-tion, multitude, &c.

An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality, state, or action : as, whiteness, weiyht, depth, wisdom, beauty, growth, readiny, 8wimining, coronation, &c.

(The names of Arts and Sciences and of passions and powers of the mind are also Abstract Nouns: as, astronomy, geometry, arithmetic ; love, anger, memory.)

2.    An Adjective is a word used with a noun either

to distinguish the thing spoken of or to point out its number or amount [or, An Adjective is a word joined to a noun to limit its application]: as, goodsweet, first, the, this, my, our, three, fifty, much, some, no, &o.    .

3.    A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun : as,. I, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they, who, which, what.

4.    A Vkkb is a word w liicli expresses an action or a Uate [or. A Verb is a word without which we cannot make a statement] : as, tea*, run. has been praised, See.

5.    An Adverb is a word which tells how, n'hen, where, or why [or, An Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, or other adverb]: as, well, quickly, there, very, where, &c.

6.    A Preposition is a word put before nouns and pronouns to show the relation in which things stand either to one another or toactions [or, “ A Preposition is a word that can be placed before a Noun or a Pronoun so that the Preposition and Noun or Pronoun together are equivalent loan Adjec tive or Adverb ”] : as, by, to, for, in, about, under, over, with, thro)iyh, across, against except, on, upon, from, See.

7.    A Conjunction is a word which joins words, phrases, clauses, and sentences : as, and, but, if, or, nor, because yet, lest, therefore, See.

[In order that, inasmuch as, as if, teeing that, provided that, kc., are phrasal conjunctions )

8.    An Interjection is a word used as an exclamation or to express some emotion or state of the mind ' as, Coo-ee ! Oh! Ah! Alas! Adieu! (= to God), Good-bye! (= God be with ye). Zounds! ( = God’s wounds), Scc. [Marry (= By Mary) is absolete].

(An Interjection has no grammatical relation with any other word in the sentence, and is nearly always followed by a mark of exclamation )

The Noun (Lat. nomen, a name).

Nouns (and Pronouns) have Number, Gender and Case.

NUMBER.

Number is an inflexion which shows whether we are speaking of one thing or more than one.

ivwin 11 •

There are two numbers—singular . and tlural. When a noun signifies one thing it is said to be in the singular number, and when it signifies more than one thing it is said to be in the plural number.

The singular number is that form of a noun which denotes either one thing, or a collection of things considered as one : as, boy* hat, crowd, multitude.

The plural number is that form of a noun which denotes two or more things : as, boys* men, girlswomen, ladies, hats, crowds, multitudes.

Rules for forming the plurals of nouns :—

General Ride: Add s to the singular : as desk* desks; key* keys ; boy, boys ; book, books ; mayor* mayors.

Special Rides: (i.) When the singular ends in s> sh$ ch (soft), xy or Zy add es; as, gas, gases ; ass* asses i summons, summonses ; briish* brushes ; fishy fishes churchy churches ; birch, birches ; box* boxes; Jox* /ores ; topaz* topazes.

(ii.) When the singular ends in /"or // the plural is generally formed by changing the /into r and adding es. (When tho singular ends in /e, change the /« into res) : as, loaf, loaves; leaf, leaves; wolf* wolves; wife* wives.    [But nouns ending in te/*% oo/*, jf,

and r/ usually add s for the plural : as, c/iie/ chiefs ; grief* griefs ; hoof, hoofs ; roof. roo/s ; cliff, nb/7$ ; «jfct#, skiffs ; dwarf * dwarfs. Note, however, thief* thieves ; fife> fifes ; strife, strifes ; wharf, wharfs or wAarres.]

(iii.) Nouns whose singulars end in y preceded by a consonant change the y into i and add es: as, duty* duties; baity* babies; lady, ladies; variety, varieties; boundary, boundaries ; lily ; lilies.

(Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel form their plurals by adding s : as, chimney* chimneys ; monkey,

monkeys; attorney, attorneys. Note however, soliloquy,

soliloquies )

(iv ) Of nouns ending in o, some take es and others $

to form the plural :

(a)    Nouns with plurals in -oes: buffalo, buffaloes: calico, calicoes ; cargo, cargoes ; echo, echoes ; hero, heroes ; mosquito, mosquitoes; negro, negroes; no, noes; potato, potatoes; tomato, tomatcies; tornado, tornadoes; volcano, volcanoes.

(b)    Nouns with plurals in -o* : bravo, bravos; canto, cantos; (olio, folios; grotto, grottos; memento, mementos; nuncio, nuncios; portfolio, portioiios; solo, solos; tyro, tyros.

(v.) By change of vowel in the body of the word: as, man, men ; woman, icomen ; foot, feet; goose, geese ; tooth, teeth ; mouse, mice.

(vi.) By the ending en: as, ox, oxen; child, children; brother, brethren.

[The plural ending en or n was formerly very common : as, eye, eyve ; cow, iine (= kyen—i.e., cows) ; hose, hosen ; house, housen ; shoe, shoon (t.e., shoes.)]

(vii.) Some nouns have the singular and plural alike : as, cannon, deer, sheep, species, scries, sicine, bream, salmon, schnapper, trout.

(viii ) Some nouns have no plural: e.g(a) Proper Nouns : as, London, Sydney, Milton, (b) Abstract Nouns : as, sobriety, prudence, courage, geometry.    (c)

Certain metals, materials, <fcc. : as, iron, lead, water, granite, maize, wool, milk. (of) News, gallows.

(ix.) Some nouns have no singular ; as :

Bellows, pincers, pliers, scissors, shears, snuffers, spectacles, tongs; breeches, drawers, trousers, pantaloons; billiards, draughts, rounders; measles, mumps, sulks, dumps, entrails, vitals, bowels ; thanks, odds, shambles, tactics, suds, morals, manners, matins, vespers, nuptials, betters, assets, aborigines, antipodes, banns, Commons (House of), Customs (taxes), filings, fetters, proceeds, credentials, ups and downs.

(The names of sciences ending in ics are singular : as, acoustics, dynamics, physics, optics, mathematics, mechanics, politics )

(x.) Some nouns have two plurals differing ia meaning: as, brother, brothers and brethren; clothcloths and clothes; die, dies and dice; genius, genii and geniuses; penny, pennies and pence; indexindices and indexes.

(xi.) Compound nouns formed of a noun and an adjective phrase usually form their plurals by add-iug 5 to the first word of the compound : as, aide-de-camp, aides-de-camp;. father-in-law, fathers-in-/aic; sofi-in-laxo, fons~in-law ; man-of-war, men-of-war; hanger-on, hangers-on; member of parlia-merit, members of parliament.

(xii.) Most foreign nouns retain their foreign plurals: as:

Larva, larvae; lamina, laminae; nebula, nebulx; radius, radii; facus, foci ; fungus, fungi ; nucleus, nuclei ; datum, data ; erratum, errata ; addendum, addenda ; stratum, strata ; axis, axes; oasis, oases; analysis, anaylses; amanuensis, amanuenses; crisis, crises; genus, genera; aphis, aphides ; miasma, miasmata ; vertex, vertices ; phenomenon, phenomena ; automaton, automata ; beau, beaux ; bureau, bureaux; flambeau* flambeaux: madam, mesdames; monsieur, messieurs ; seraph, seraphim; cherub, cherubim; bandit, banditti or bandits ; conversazione, conversazioni ; dilettante, dilettanti ; prima donna, prima donnas (Eng.), or prime donne (It.).

GENDER.

Gender is that form of a noun or pronoun which shows whether that which is spoken of is a male*-a female, or an inanimate object.

There are four genders: (i.) Masculine, (ii.) Feminine, (iii.) Common, and (iv.) Neuter.

The names of males are masculine: as, Williamboy, mariy king, horse.

The names of females are feminine: as. Ellen, girl, woman, queen, mare.

Names applied to individuals of either sex are of

the common gender : as, parent, baby, child. fcw\ &ov? reign, friend.

The names of things without life and therefore of neither sex, also of individuals looked upon as a whole, are of the neuter gender : as, hat, chair, book, crowd.

(It is usual to consider Sun, Ocean, Death, and IF inter as Masculine; and Moon, *>wpt Sature, Liberty, and Spring as

Feminine.)

There are three ways of forming the feminine :

(i.) By adding -ess to the masculine : as, Aeir, heiress ; mayor, mayoress; lion, lioness; Jew, Jewess; host, hostess ; count, ccmntess ;    goddess ; prior, prioress :

prophet, prophetess.

(It frequently happens that the masculine form has to be slightly altered before adding the -ess : as, duke, duchess; elector, eleclress; actor, actress; emperor, empress ; sorcerer, sorceress ; abbot, abbess.)

(ii.) By prefixing or affixing a word expressive of sex : as, man-servant, maid servant; he-goal, she-goat ; cock-sparrow, hen-sparrow ; male-child, female-child ; peacock, peahen.

(iii.) By a different word :

Masculine. Feminine.    Masculine. Feminine.

father

mother

fox

vixen

gander

goose

gentleman

lady

hart

roe

h<yse, 1 stallion J

!> mare

husband

wife

king

queen

lad

lass

lord

lady

man

woman

master

mistress


beau    belle

bachelor maid or spinster boy    Kiri

sister

doe

cow

| heifer

hen

filly

bitch or slut

duck

countess


bridegroom bride

brother

buck

bull

bullock,

ox, steer

cock

colt

dog

drake

earl

Mainline. Féminins.

Masculine. Fejtiiuine

monk.    1

friar    jnUn

nephew    niece

papa    mamma

ram    ewe

Sir    Madam


sire

son

sta*:

uncle

widower

wizard dam

daughter

hind

aunt

widow

witch

[Note also hero, heroine; executor. executrix; ad-ministrator, a/lminUtratrix ; prosecutori prosecutrix . testator, testatrix ; czar, czarina ; don, rfon/ia ; infantinfanta ; signor, signora ; sultan, ¿tt/lana.]

CASE.

Case is that form of a noun (or pronoun) which shows its relation to some other word in the sentence.

There are three cases—Nominative, Possessive and Objective.

The Nominative (Lat. nomeUi a name)    or

naming part is that form of a noun (or pronoun) when it denotes the subject of the sentence—that is, the name of the person or thing about which something is said.

(The Nominative Case is found by asking the question Who ? or What ? before the verb.

Thus, in the sentence, The hoy broke the slate, the word boy is the subject, because it is the answer to the question Who broke the slate ? And in the sentence, The house was burnt to the ground, the word house is the subject because it is the answer to the question What was burnt ?

The Possessive Case is that form of noun (or pronoun) which indicates ownership.

Thus, in the sentence The boy's hat fell into the water, the word boy's is in the possessive case, because it shows who was the owner of the hat.

[I he apostrophe before the s in the possessive case is a device for showing that a letter (viz., e) has been diopped out or turned away (apostrophe— a turning away). In the word Wednesday—i.e. Wodirisday— tlie e is retained. ]

The Objective Case is that form of a noun which either stands as the direct object of a verb, or follows a preposition in an adjectival or adverbial phrase.

The direct object of a verb in a sentence is found by asking the question Whom ? or What ? after the subject and verb.

Thus, in the sentence The teacher punished the boy, the noun boy is the direct object, and, therefore, in the objective case, because it is the answer to the question Whom did the teacher punish ?

In the expression .4 paddock of lucerne was destroyed, the noun lucerne is in the objective case, because it follows the preposition of in the adjectival phrase oj lucerne. Also, in the sentence The. boy jumped over thejence, the noun fence is in the objective case, because it follows the preposition over iu the adverbial phrase over the fence.

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.

Sing

Plur.

Sing. Plur.

Nom.

Roy

Boys

Man

Men

1 }oss.

Roy’s

Boys’

Man’

s Meu's

Obj.

Boy

Boys

Man

Men

Sing

. and Plur.

Nom.

Ass

Asses

Sheep

Poss.

Ass’s

Asses'

Sheep’s

Obj.

Ass

Asses

Sheep

The Adjective.

Adjectives may be divided into five classes : (i.) Adjectives of Quality, (ii.) Adjectives of Quantity, tiii.) Numeral Adjectives, iv.) Distinguishing Adjectives, and (v.) Interrogative Adjectives.

Adjectives of Quality : good, bad, sweet, pretty, black red, heavy, Australian, British, French.

Adjectives of Quantity : any, enough, little, much, no.

Definite Numeral Adjectives: a or an and both, and the cardinal numerals: e.g.y one, five, twelve, forty, ninety.

Indefinite Numeral Adjectives: all, few, many, some, half, several, most.

Distinguishing Adjectives:

(a)    Demonstrative Adjectives (Lat. demonstro, I point out): this, that, these, those, such, yon, yonder.

(b)    The Definite Article : the.

(c)    The Ordinal Numerals: first, second, tenth, ninetieth, next, latter, last, previous, former.

(d)    The Possessive [or Pronominal) Adjectives: my, thy. his, her, its, our, your, their, whose.

Interrogative Adjectives: whose and whate.g.y Whose hook has been lost? What boy took my pencil ?

[Grammarians, as a rule, do not now regard a, an, and the as forming a separate part of speech. In parsing, the is called a distuupiithing adjective, and a or an a numeral adjective. [Thus, in the sentence, “The horse was stolen,” the is a distinguishing adjective pointing out “horse.”]

An is another form of the numeral adjective one ( = A.S. ane), and a is a shortened form of an.

An is used before words beginning with a vowel, or a silent h (as Aeir, Aonest). When a word begins with u that has the sound of y before it. a is used ; as, a useful book ; but an utter failure.

An becomes a before a word beginning with a consonant or

pirated h : as, a boy, a horse, a harvest, a yacht.]

[The words in Itaiics in the following are adjectives : The then governor ; the dvicn train ; the late mayor ; “ His face is like the tan the above declaration. ]

The inflexion of an adjective is called Comparison. There are three degrees of Comparison—viz., Positive, Comparative, and Superlative.

The positive degree is the simplest form of an adjective.

The comparative degree is that form of an adjective which states that a quality exists in a higher degree in one particular thing or group of things than in some other single thing or group of things.

' The superlative degree (Lat. super, above ; latus, carried) is that form of an adjective which denotes the highest degree of a quality existing in one thing or group of things as compared with all others.

The comparative degree is used w hen two persons or things are compared : as, John is taller than James. This desk is longer than that.

When a comparison is made betw een more than two persons or things, the superlative degree is used : as, John is the tallest boy in the class. Mount Kosciusko is the highest mountain in Australia.

Adjectives of one or two syllables usually form their comparatives by adding r or er, and their superlatives by adding st or est to the positive: as, wise, wiserwisest ; free, freer, freest ; strong, stronger, strongest.

If the adjective in the positive degree ends in ?/, preceded by a consonant, the y is changed into i before adding er and est: as, lovely, lovelier, loveliest. (But: get y gayer. gayest.)

If the adjective in the positive degree ends in a consonant preceded by a single vowel, the consonant is doubled before adding er and est: as, big, bigger, biggest; hot, hotter, hottest.

Adjectives which in the positive consist of more than two syllables usually form their comparatives and superlatives by prefixing respectively the adverbs more and most to the positive : as, beautiful, more beautifulmost beautiful.

Some adjectives are compared irregularly : as, pood, better, best ; littll, less, least; bad, worse, worst, &c.

An adjective whose meaning: does not admit of increase or diminution cannot be compared : as, supreme, excellent, straight, perfect, circular, square right, empty, external, everlasting* dead, supreme ; brazen, golden, wooden ; weekly, daily, annual, Australian.

Adjectives Compared Irregularly.

PosiUvt

Comparative.

Superlative.

Rail )

Evil }

worse

worst

in )

Ear

farther

farthest

Fore

former

I foremost \ first

Forth (adv.)

further

furthest

Good

better

best

Hind

hinder

hindmost

In (adv. or prep.)

inner

(inmost \ innermost

Late

(latter

(latest

\later

\ last

Little

less

least

Many ) Much j

more

most

Near

nearer

( nearest X next

Old

(older

( oldest

\ elder

( eldest

Out (adv. or prep.)

fouter \ utter

Coutmost x utmost C uttermost

South

south most

Top (noun)

topmost

Up (adv.)

upper

( upmost ( uppermost

Very

veriest

[Older and oldest may be used of both persons and thirg> ; elder and eldest of persons only.

Farther means “more far away.*’ i.e., "more distant ’; further means “more to the front. ’ i.e., "more advanced,'’ or “additional."!

The Pronoun.

There are seven kinds of pronouns, viz.: Personal, Relative, Interrogative. Reflexive, Demonstrative, Indefinite, and Distributive,

A. A Personal Pronoun is one which names either the person speaking, the person spoken to, or the person spoken about: as. /, thou, he, she, it.

Pronouns (and Verbs) have three persons, viz.: the First. the Second, and the Third.

Person (Lat. persona, an actor’s part in a play) is that form of a pronoun or a verb “which shows the part played in conversation, whether (1) speaking, (2) spoken to. or (3) spoken of.“

The First Personal Pronoun (/. We) denotes either (i.) the speaker or (ii.) the speaker and those associated with him.

The Second Personal Pronoun (Thou, You) indicates the person or persons spoken to.

The Third Personal Pronoun (He, She, It, They) denotes persons or things different from the speaker and from the person spoken to.

(“The Romans, whose grammar we have copied, thought it natural for a person speaking to think first of himself (/), secondly of the person to whom he was speaking (you), and thirdly of any one else about whom he was speaking (him or her).’f)

DECLENSION OF THE PERSONAL

PRONOUNS.

First Person.

Singular.    Plural.

we

ours

us


A7om. I Poss. mine Obj. me

Second Person.

X 0711.

thou

ye or

Poss.

thine

vours

V

Obj.

thee

you

Th

ird Person (masculine).

Notn.

he

they

Poss.

his

theirs

Obj.

him

them

Ti

hird Person (feminine).

Norn.

she

they

Poss.

hers

theirs

Obj.

her

them

Third Person

(neuter).

Nom.

it

they

Poss.

its

theirs

Obj.

it

them

B. A Relative Pronoun (Lat. re, back ; latus, carried) is one which relates or carries us back to a preceding noun or pronoun called the Antecedent (Lat. ante, before ; cedo> 1 go).

The relative pronouns are : whoy which, what, that, a*, with their compounds whoevery whichever, whatever ; whosoever, whichsoever, whatsoever.

.4 6* is a relative pronoun when used after sucA or aa/?ie. ir/io and whom refer to persons ; which, to animals and things without life ; and to^ensoris and things.

H'Aai (which practically is equivalent to ¿/¿e which or ¿/ia£ which) is the neuter of tt'Ao. It refers to things only, and its antecedent is now always omitted. In parsing don’t call what a compound relative pronoun In the sentence “.Tell iue what,the boy sajd,” H hat = rel. pro., sing., neut. (antecedent suppressed), obj. governed by “ said.”

Declension of WHO and WHAT Singular and Plural.

Mas. and fern.

Neut.

Nom. who

what

Poss.

whose

whose

Obj.

whom

what

C.    An Interrogative Pronoun (Lat. inter% between ; royo% 1 -ask) is one by means of which a question is asked. The interrogative pronouns are who, which a?id what. Who relates to persons, which and what to things. Who is declined in the same way as the relative who.

D.    A Reflexive Pronoun (Lat. re, back ; fledo, I bend) is one which denotes that the object of an action is the same person or thing as the doer : as, The boy hurt himself. The children lost themselves in the bush.

The reflexive pronouns are :—Singular : my self% thyself yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

In the sentence “ I saw the accident myselfthe word myself is used emphatically and is nom. casein apposition with 1.

E.    A Demonstrative Pronoun (Lat. demonstro, I point out) is one which points out a person or thing definitely. The demonstrative pronouns are : this, that (with their plurals these and those), such, same, so.

The words in italics in the following are demonstrative pronouns : (i.) This is the boy i spoke to. (ii.) That is a fine vessel, (iii.) These are books well worth reading, (iv.) Such is not the case, (v.) Let $ucf\ teach others who themselves excel, (vi.) 11 is condition is the sajne as when I last saw him. (vii.) 1 told you so ( = that).

[When this, that, these, such &c., immediately precede nouns, they are demonstrative adjectives: as, ri his boy worked all his sums correctly. Those vessels are

ready to sail. Such bravery is deserving of all praise.]

F/An Indefinite Pronoun is one which does not point out precisely the person or thing it refers to.

The Indefinite Pronouns are : one, note, any, sornet other, another (all of which may also be used as adjectives) ; aught, naught, somebody, something, nothing, anything, and sometimes it and they.

Examples : One could see that the ship was rapidly sinking. One must be sure of ones ground. Heed not though none should call thee fair. I have a lot of marbles ; do you want any? Go, my son, and see if aught be wanting. Who is it standing on the hill? They say that the natives of New Guinea are very treacherous.

G. A Distributive Pronoun is one which denotes that two or more tilings are taken separately.

The Distributive Pronouns are : each, every, either, neither.

Examples: Let each try to assist-his neighbour. Never more shall either enter my house.

(When each, every, either, and neither are followed by nouns, they then become adjectives.)

Each other and one another are Compound Distributive Pronouns.

The Verb (Lafc. verbumn a word).

The verb is the chief word in a sentence.

There are two kinds of verbs—transitive and intransitive.

[The word transitive (Lat. trans, across; it us, gone) means passing over ; and intransitive means not passing over.]

A Transitive Verb expresses an action which passes from an agent or doer to an object: as, John

broke the slate. In this sentence the action of breaikng passes from John (who is the doer or subject) to slate (which is the object or thiug aimed at in the action).] (Briefly, a Transitive Verb is one which has an object.)

The Object is either (i.) the word which stands for the person or thing aimed at in the action denoted by the verb, or (ii.) “ the word or collection of words answering to the question whom ? or xchat ? after a Verb or Preposition/'

An Intransitive \ erb is one which indicates either (i.) a state or (ii.) an action confined to the doer or subject : as, The girl was glad. The boy ran quickly.

Many verbs usually intransitive have occasionally a transitive force: as—

Intransitive.

The tops spin.

The boy ran quickly. The vessel floats.

The horse walks.

The boy 1 cent away.

Also, many transitive as—

Transitive.


Transitive.

The boys are spinning their tops.

The boy ran a race.

The crew' floated the vessel.

Tom walked the horse up the hill. They went their way in silence, verbs are sometimes used intransitively :

Intransitive.

The heat of the sun melted the

snow.

The boy opened the door.

The boy broke the glass.


The snow melted.

The door opened just as we arrived.

The glass broke owing to the heat.


Prepositions compounded with some intransitive verbs make them transitive: as, rtm, outrun; lie> overlie ; stand, understand ; &c.

Verbs are inflected (t.e., undergo changes of form) to mark differences of Person, Number, Tense, Mood> and Voice.

Person is the form of a verb which shows whether its subject stands for the person speaking, the person spoken to, or the person or thing spoken about.

If the subject of the verb stands for the speaker, the verb is in the first person; if for the person addressed, it is in the second

person; and if for neither the speaker nor the person addressed, it is in the third person.

Number is the form of a verb which shows whether one thing or more than one is spoken of.

Verbs have two numbers—viz., Singular and Plural.

When the subject of the verb is in the singular number the verb is in the singular, and when the subject is in the plural, the verb is in the plural.

Tense (Lat. tempus, Fr. temps, time) is the form of a verb showing the time of an action. There aro three times of which we can speak : (i.) the present time, (ii ) time gone by, and (iii.) the time to come: hence a verb has three simple tenses—viz., Present, Past and Future. Besides these there are (in the Indicative Mood) the Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect tenses.

The present and past tenses have each three forms— viz. : the ordinary form, the progressive form, and the emphatic form : and the future has an ordinary and progressive form : thus.:


Emphatic. I do run. I did run.


Ordinary.

I run.

I ran.

I shall run.


Present

Past

Future


Progressive.

I am running.

I was running.

I shall be running.

Tense is shown either (i.) by inflexions, or (ii.) by means of certain companion verbs called Auxiliaries (Lat. avxilium9 help).

An Auxiliary Verb is one that helps other verbs to form some of their tenses, inoods, voices or forms : as, be, have, shall, wiUy may, wouldy should do.

The auxiliary verbs of tense are have, shall, will. The auxiliaries of mood are may, might, should and would. The only auxiliary of voice is be(with its inflexions). The auxiliaries of form are be (for the progressive) and do (for the emphatic).

[In the following sentences: (i.) The boy can do that sum easily; and (ii.) You may go home now as "your mother wants words can (= is able) and may ( = are permitted to) are not

auxiliaries.]

To conjugate a verb is to state the inflexions (t.e., changes in form; which it undergoes for variations of person, number, tense and mood-.

The future tense is formed by the help of the auxiliary verbs shall and will. (Shall is used in the first person and will in the second and third persons).

The perfect tense is formed by the aid of the auxiliary verb have, the pluperfect \>v the aid of had, and the future-perfect by the aid of shall have and will

have.    m .

In order to conjugate a verb we must know’ its chief parts—viz., the present tense indicative, the past tense indicative, and the past participle : as, give (present), </are (past), and given (past participle).

Mood vLat. modus, a manner) is the form assumed by a verb to show the different ways in which a state or an action is thought of or represented.

Verbs have four moods—viz., Indicative (or Moodoj Fact), Imperative (or Mood oj Command), Subjunctive (or Mood oj Supposition), and Infinitive.

The indicative mood (Lat. indieo, I point out) either states as a fact or asks questions : as, 1 he boy came to school. Who read hist ?

The imperative mood (Lat. impero, I command) commands or requests : as, Give him the book. Oh, Lord, hear us !

The subjunctive mood expresses a supposition, doubt, possibility, purpose, wish, or condition : as, Jf I were in your place I would accept the appointment. T refuse to follow his advice whatever it may he. if such a thing should happen the country would suffer greatly. I brought the lad to the museum that he might see the meteorite. Long may she retyn. The boy could do the sum if he would only

The subjunctive mood usually follows the conjunctions if, although, unless, lest, jnrovided that, so that, until, kc. These conjunctions, however, are no part of the subjunctive mood.

A verb may be either Finite or Infinite. A finite verb (Lat. finis, an end) is one which is limited by person and number, in addition to tense and mood. A verb in its infinite (Lat, in, not ; finis, an end) form is not limited by person and number. The verb infinite includes (i.) the Infinitive Mood, (ii.) the Okrund, and (iii.) the Participles.

1 he infinitive mood is the simplest form of a verb, and represents actions or states without reference to person or numlier : as, We wish to go. To err is human. Let him go. She made me laugh.

In modern English the infinitive usually has to before it. 'To, however, is no part of the infinitive ; it is merely the most frequent sign of the infinitive. At one time the infinitive had no to before it, but was expressed by the suffix an (e.y.,    to drink ;

gif an, to give ; cuman, to come).

The verbs may, can, shall, wilt, let, must, do, bid, make, see, hear, <fcc., are followed by the infinitive without to : as, You may go. We shall see. Bid him come.

The simple infinitive is an abstract noun, forming either the subject or object of a verb : as, To err is human. (To err = noun, nom. to “ is”). He wants to speak (to speak = noun, obj., gov. by “ wants”).' •

When the infinitive is used (i.) as an adjective phrase, or (ii.) as an adverbial phrase of purpose, it is called a gerundial infinitive: as, (i.) The agent has a nouse to let. (Here, to let = gerundial infinitive, used as an adjective, limiting “ house/' (ii.) They came to town to see the show. (Here, to see = for the purpose of seeing, and is parsed as a gerundial infinitive, used adverbially, modifying “ came. ')

There are three tenses in the infinitive mood, viz. —(i.) Present Infinitive (as, to give); (ii ) Perfect Infinitive (as, to have given) ; and (iii.) Future Infinitive (as, to be about to give).

A Gerund (Lat. gero, I carry) is a verbal noun ending in -tug, which carries on the action of the verb, and when formed from a transitive verb can take an object : as, Healing the sick is a noble work. He escaped by crossing the river. He is fond of reading the newspapers. The boy was very sorry for being late.

In the sentence “ The boy is delighted at having won the prize,” having icon is a compound gerund of the verb to win. objective in an adverb phrase after “at.” Similarly, in the sentence “The prisoner w*as afraid of being captured,” being captured is a compound gerund.

A Participle is that part of a verb ending in -in<7, -td, or -en, and is in its nature partly a verb and partly an adjective (or, briefly, a participle is a verbal adjective).

There are three participles, viz.—(i.) the Present {e.g. Jailing) ; (ii.) the Past (e.g.y fallen) ; and (iii.) the Perfect (e.g.% having fallen).

In 44 Expecting a storm, we rowed for the shore,” Expecting is the present participle of the verb expect, depending upon 44 we.” Id 44 We saw the prisoner escaping over the gaol wall,” escaping is the present participle of the verb escape, depending upon 44 prisoner.”

In 44 We have spoken to the boatman.” spoken is past participle of the verb to speak depending upon 44 have/’

VOICE.

Voice is the form of a verb which shows whether the subject of the verb stands for the doer or the object of the action spoken of by the verb.

Transitive Verbs have two voices—Active and Passive.

The Active Voice is that form of a verb which shows that the subject of the verb stands for the doer of the action which the verb describes : as, The boy caught the parrot.

The Passive Voice is that form of a verb which shows that the subject of the verb stands for the object of the action which the verb describes : as. The parrot was caught by the boy.

The Passive Voice is formed by adding the past participle of a Transitive Verb to a part of the verb to he.

(Only Transitive Verbs can be used in the passive voice )

Active.    ' Passive.

The teacher praised the boy.

The girl won the prize.


The boy was praised by the teacher.

The prize was won by the girl.


An Impersonal Verb is one in which the source of the action is not stated : as, It rains. It hails. Methinks (i.e.. It seems to me: from A.S. thyncan, to seem). In these examples “It" is an impersonal pronoun nom. case to “rains " fee.

Verbs may be either REGULAR, IRREGUL VR or Defective in their conjugation.

A Regular (or Weak) V erb is one which forms its past tense and past participle by adding d, ed. or to the present tense: as, love, loved, loved; walkf walkedwalked; dream, dreamt, dreamt.

an Irregular (or Strong) Verb is one whose past tense and past participle are not formed by adding </. ri, or t to the present. (Such verbs visually form their past tense by modifying the vowel sound of the present tense): as, steal, stole, stolen ; drink, drank„ drunk ; eat, ale, eaten ; give, gaur, given.

A Defective Verb is one which has not all the usual moods and tenses: as, s/m*'/ (present), should (past), (past participle wanting). Similarly, con. could. (past participle wanting):    ¿m/s/, (past

participle wanting).

( A tense which may be expressed by a single word is called a Simple Tense, and a tense which can only be expressed by tne helpof an auxiliary verbis called a Compound Tense.)

Conjugation of the Verb, To Be.

Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.

1.    Sing. lam.    1. Plur. we are.

2.    thou art.    2.    ye or you are.

3.    he, she, or it is.    3.    they are.

Past 'Tense

1.    Sing. I was.    1. Plur. we were,.

2.    thou wast.    2.    ye or you were.

3.    he, she, or it was.    3.    they were.

Tutu re Teme.

1.    Sing. I shall be.    1. Plur. we shall be.

2.    thou wilt be.    2.    ye or you will    be.

3.    he. she. or it will    be.    3.    they will be.

OO to *-*    CO K> ►“*    WtCM to to»—    to    cotot-* COt«H to to


Perfect Tense.

. Sir ig.    I have been.    1.    Plur. we have been.

.    thou hast been.    2.    ye or you have been.

.    he, she, or it has been.    3.    they have been.

Pluperfect Tense.

. Sing.    I had been.    1.    Plur. we had been.

.    thou hadst been.    2.    ye or you had been.

.    he, she, or it had been.    3.    they had been.

Future Perftct Tense.

. Sing. I shall have been.    1. Plur. we shall have been.

.    thou wilt have been.    2.    ye or you will have

.    he, she, or it*will have    been.

been.    3.    they will have been.

Imperative Mood.

. Sing. Be thou.    2. Plur. Be ye.

Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense (after if, that, although, &c.).

. Sing,    (if) I be.    1.    Plur. (if) we be.

.    (if) thou be.    2,    (if) ye or you be.

.    (if)    he, she, or it be.    3.    (if) they be.

Present Tense (2nd form).

. Sing,    (that) I may be.    1.    Plur.    (that) we may be.

.    (that) thou may est be.    2    (that) ye or you may be.

.    (that) he, she, or it    3.    (that)‘they may be.

may be.

Past Tense (after if: 1st form). *

. Sing,    (if) I were.    1.    Plur. (if) we were.

(if) thou wert.    2.    (if) ye or you were.

.    (if) he, she, or it were.    3.    (if) they were.

Past 'Tense (after if: 2nd form),

. Sing, (if)    I should be.    1. Plur. (if) we should be.

(if)    thou shouldst be.    2.    (if) ye or you should b*

(if)    he, she, or it    3.    (if) they should be.

should be.

[The Past Tense has two other forms: (i.) wRK no c«ojunction; I should be; thou wouldst be; he should be.* We shbuid be; ye or you would be; they would be. (ii.) (that) I might i>e ; thou mightst be; he might be. We, ye, or they might be.

Perfect

Sing, (if) I have been.

(if) thou hast been, (if) he, she, or it have been.


Tense.

1.    Plur. (if) we have been.

2.    (if) ye or you have

been.

3.    (if) they have been.


(The form (if) thou have been is almost obsolete.)

Pluperfect or Past Perfect Tense (with if).

(if) I had been; (if) thou hadst been ; &c#, as in the Indicative.

(The Pluperfect has two other forms : (i.) with no conjunction : 1 should have been ; thou wouldst have been ; he would have oeen. We should have been ; ye would have been ; they would have been, (ii ) (that) I might have been; thou mightst have been ; he might have been, &c.)

Ikeikitive Mood.

Present: to be. Perfect: to have been. Future: to be about to be.

Participles.

Present: being. Past : been. Perfect : having been.

Conjugation of the Regular Verb,
To Love.

ACTIVE VOICK.

Indicative Mood.

Present Tense (Ordinary Form).

Sing. I love.    1. Plur. wc love.

2.    thou lovest.    2.    ye or you love.

3.    he, she, or it loves.    3.    they love.

Present Tense (Progressive Form).

. Sing. I am loving.    1. Plur. we are loving.

thou art loving.    2.    ye or you are loving,

he, she, or it is loving.    3.    they are loving.

Present Tense (Emphatic Form).

Caíio»-» ce hon    coto M Co to *-* co ro ►-*    00    ►— catón-*


\.

2.

3*


ye or you do love, they do love.


2.

3.


Sing. I do love.    L Plur. we do love,

thou dost love, he, she, or it does lore.

Past Tense (Ordinary Form).

Sing. I loved.    1.    Plnr.    we loved.

thou lovedst.    2.    ye or you loved,

he, she, or it loved.    3.    they loved.

Past Tense (Progressive Form).

Sing. I was loving.    1.    Plnr.    we were loving.

" thou wast loving.    2.    ye or you were loving,

he, she, or it wasloving    3.    they were loving.

Past Tense (Emphatic Form).

Sing. I did love.    1.    Plnr.    we did love.

thou didst love.    2.    ye or you did love,

he, she, or it did love.    3.    they did love.

Future Tense.

1.    Plur. we shall love.

2.    ye or you will love.

3.    they will love.


Sing. 1 shall love.

thou wilt love, he, she, or it will love.

The progressive form of the Future is : I shall be lovingi kc.

Perfect Tense.

Sing. I have loved.    1. Plnr. we have loved.

thou hast loved.    2.    ye or you have loved,

he» she, or it has loved.    3.    they have loved.

Pluperfect Tense.

Sing. I had loved.    1. Plur. we had loved.

thou hadst loved.    2.    ye or you had loved,

he, she, or it had loved.    3.    they had loved.

Future Perfect Tense.

Sing. I shall have loved.    1. Plur. we shall have loved,

thou wilt have loved.    2.    ye or you will have

he, she, or it will have    loved.

loved.    3.    they will have loved.

Imperative Mood.

Sing, love thou.    Plnr. love ye.

Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense (after

1.    Sing, (if) I love, he loving,

or do love.

2.    (if) thou love, be lov

ing, or do love.

3    (if) he, she, or it love,

be loving, or do love.


1.    Plur. (if) we love, be loving,

or do love.

2.    (if) ye or you love, be

loving, or do love.

3.    (if) they love, be loving,

or do love.


Present Ten*e (after that).

1. Sing, (that) 1 may love.    1. Plur. (that) we may love.

2.    (that) thou mayest love    2.    (that) ye or you may

love.

3.    (that) he, she, or it 3.    (that) they may love.

may love.

Past Tense (after if: 1st form).

1.    Plur. (if) we loved or were

loving.

2.    (if) ye or you loved or

were loving.

3.    (if) they loved or were

loving.

[The Past Tense has three other forms :—(i.) (if) I should love ; thou shouldst love ; he should love, (if) we should love ; ye should love ; they should love, (ii.) with no conjunction : I should love; thou wouldst love; he would love. We should love; >e would love ; they would love, (iii.) (that) I might love ; thou mightst love ; &c\]

Perfect.

1.    Sing,    (if) I have loved.    1.    Plur.    (if) we have loved.

2.    (if) thou hast loved.    2.    (if) ye or you have

3.    (if) he, she, or it have    loved.

loved.    3.    (if) they have loved.

(The form (if) thou have loved    is    almost obsolete.)

Pluperfect or Past Perfect (with if).

(if) I had loved ; thou hadst loved ; &c.

Pluperfect or Past Perfect (with no conjunction).

I should have loved; thou wouldst have loved; he, she, or

it would have loved ; Ac.

Pluperfect or Past Perfect (with that).

(that11 might have loved; (that) thou mightsthave loved, Ao.

Infinitive Mood.

Present: To love.    Perfect: To have loved.

Future: To be about to love.

Participles.

Present: Loving.    Past: Loved.

Perfect: Having loved.

PASSIVE VOICE.    *

Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.

1.    Sing. I am loved.    1. Plur. we are loved.

2.    thou art loved.    2.    ye or you are loved.

3.    he, she, or it is loved. 3.    they are loved.

Past Tense.

1.    Sing. I was loved-    1. Plur. we were loved.

2.    thou wast loved. 2.    ye or you were lo.ed.

3.    he.she.or iiwasloved. 3.    they were loved.

Future Tense.

1.    Si tig. I shall be loved.    1. Plur. we shall bo loved.

2.    thou wilt be loved. 2.    ye or you will be

3.    be. she, or it will be    loved.

loved.    3.    they will be loved.

Perfect l'e*se.

1.    Sing. I have been loved. 1. Plur. we have been loved

2.    thou hast been loved. 2.    ye or you have been

3.    he, she, or it has been    loved.

loved,    3.    they have been loved.

Pluperfect Tense.

1.    Sing.    I had been loved.    1.    Plur. we had been loved.

2.    thou hadst been loved.    2.    ye or you had been

loved.

3.    he, she, or it hail been    3.    they had been loved.

loved.

Future- Perfect Teuse.

1. Sing. I shall have been loved.


2.    thou wilt have been

loved.

3.    he, she, or it will have

been loved.


1.    Plur. we shall have been

loved.

2.    ye or you will have

been loved.

3.    they will have been

loved.


Imperative Mood.

2. Sing, be thou loved.    2. Plur. be ye loved.

Subjunctive Mood.

resent Tense (with if).

(if) 1 ne loved ; (if) thou be loved ; &c.

Present Tense (with that).

(that) I may be loved ; (that) thou mavst be loved;

Past Tense (1st form : with if).

(i.) (if) I were loved ; (if) thou wert loved; <fec.

(ii.) (if) I should be loved; (if) thou shouldst be loved; <fcc.

(iii.) With no conjunction).

Sing. I should be loved ; thouwouldst be loved ; he would l>e loved. Plur we should be loved ; ye or you would be loved ; they would be loved.

(iv.) (that) I might be loved ; (that) thou mightst be loved;

Perfect.

(if) I have been loved ; (if) thou hast been loved ; &c.

Pluperfect or Past Perfect.

(1.) (if) I had been loved ; (if) thou hadst been loved ;

(ii.) (With wo conjunction).

I should have been loved ; thou wouldst hare been loved ; kc.

iii.) (that) I might have been loved; (that) thou mightst have been loved ; (that) he, she, or it might have been loved

Infinitive Mood.

Present: to be loved.    Perfect: to have been loved.

Participles.

Present: being loved.


Past : loved.


Perfect: having been loved.


Conjugation of Shall, Will, May, Can,
and Do.
SHALL.

Indicative Mood

Present Tense.

1. Sing. I shall.


3.

thou shalt.

he, she, or it shall.


1.    Piur. we shall.

2.    ye or you shall.

.3.    they shall.


Indicative and Subjunctive

Past Tense.

1.    Sing. I should.

2.    thou shouldst.

3.    he, she, or it should.


1.    Piur. we should

2.    ye or you should

3.    they should.


WILL.

Indicative .Mood.

Present Tense.

1.    Piur. we will.

2.    ye or you will.

3.    they will.

Indicative and Subjunctive.

Past Tense.

Sttt£. I would.    1. Plur. we would.

thou wouldst.    2.    ye or you would,

he, she, or it would.    3.    they would.

MAY.

Indicative and Subjunctive*

Present Tense.

Sing. I may.    1. Plur. we may.

thou mayest, or mayst.    2.    ye or you may.

he, she, or it may.    3.    they may.

Past Tense.

Sing. I might.    1. Plur. we might.

thou mightsfc.    2.    ye or you might,

he, she, or it might.    3.    they might.

CAN.

Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.

Sing. I can.    1. Plur. we can.

thou canst.    2.    ye or you can.

he, she, or it can.    3.    they can.

Indicative and Subjunctive.

Past Tense.

Sing. I could. .    1. Plur. we could.

thou couldst.    2.    ye or you could,

he, she, or it could.    3.    they could.

DO.

Present Tense.

Sing. I do.    1. Plur. we do.

thou dost or doesU    2.    ye or you do.

he, she, or it does, 3    they do.

doeth or doth.

Past Tense.

1 Sing.    I did.    1.    Plur. we did.

2.    thou didst.    2.    ye or you    did.

3.    he, she, or it did.    3.    they did.

(The other tenses of do are regular.)

List of Strong1 or Irregular Verbs.

Present. Abide Am Arise Awake

Bear, to bring forth

Bear, to carry

Beat

Become

Begin

Behold

Bend

Bereave

Beseech

Bid, to command

Bid, at auction

Bind

Bite

Bleed

Blow

Break

Breed

Bring

Build

Burst

Buy

Cast

Catch

Chide

Choose

Cling

Clothe

Come

Cost

Past.

abode ,

was

arose

awoke or awaked

bore

bore

beat

became

began

beheld

bent or bended bereft or bereav ed besought bade or bid bid

bound

bit

bled

blew

broke

bred

brought

built

burst

bought

cast

caught

chid

chose

clung

clothed or clad

came

cost

Past Participle. abode been arisen awaked born home

beat or beaten

become

begun

beheld or beholden bent or bended bereft or Ik*reared besought bid or bidden bid

bound

bitten or bit

bled

blown

broken

bred

brought

built

burst

bought

cast

caught

chidden or chid

chcsen

clung

clothed or clad

come

cost

Past.

crowed or crew ore t

cut


durst

dared

dealt


drew

drank

drove

dwelt

ate

fell

fed

felt

fought

found

fled

flung

flowed

flew

forbore

forgot

forsook

froze*

got

gilt or gilded

gave

went

ground

grew

hung or hanged

had

heard

helped

hewed

hid

hit

held

hurt

kept

knelt or kneeled


Present.

Crow

Creep

Cut

Pare, to ventvre I »are, to c halt nine Deal 1%

I>o

1 »raw

Prink

Drive

I »well

Kat

Fall

Feed

Feel

Fight

Find

Klee

Fling

Flow, at uater Fly

Forbear

F orget

Forsake

Freeze

Get

Gild

Give

Go

Grind

Grow

Hang

Have

Hear

Help

Hew

Hide

Hit

Hold

Hurt

Keep

Kueel

Past Participle. crowed crept cut dared

dared [rtg.) dealt dug done draw n

drunk or drunken

driven

dwelt

eaten

fallen

fed

felt

fought

found

fled

fluug

flowed (req.)

flown

forborne

forgotten or forgot

forsaken

frozen

gotten or got

gilt or gilded

given

gone

ground

grown

hung or hanged

had

heard

helped or holpen hewn or hewed hidden or hid hit

held or holden

hurt

kept

knelt

Past. knit, knitted knew laded laid led left lent let lied lay

lighted or lit

lost

made

met

mowed

paid

put

quit or quitted

read

rent

rid

rode

rang

rose

ran

sawed

said

saw-

sought

sold

sent

set

sewed

shook

sheared or shore

shed

shone

shewed

shod

shot

shrank or shrunk

shut

sang


Present.

Knit K now 1-ade

Lay, to place

Lead

Leave

I>end

Let

Lie, to speak faUely

Lie, to lie down

Light

Ix>se

Make

Meet

Mow

Pay

Put

l^uit

Read

Rend

Rid

Ride

Ring

Rise

Run

Saw

Say

See

Seek

Sell

Send

Set, to place

Sewr

Shake

Shear

Shed

Shine

Shew

Shoe

Shoot

Shrink

Shut

Sing

Past Participlt.

knit, knitted

known

laden

laid

led

left

lent

let

lied (reg.) lain

lighted or lit lost made met

mown or mowed

paid

put

quit

read

rent

rid

ridden or rod«

rung

risen

run

sawn or, we

said

seen

sought

sold

sent

set

sewn

shaken

shorn

shed

shone

shewn

shod

shot

shrunk

shut

sung

Past.

PaM Participl

Sink

sank

sunk

Sit. to re*t upon

sat

sat

Slay

slew

slain

Sleep

slept

slept

Sling

slung

slung

Smite

smote

smitten or smit

Sow

sowed

sown

Sj>eak

spoke or spake

spoken

Speed

sped

sped

Spend

spent

spent

Spill

spilt or spilled

spilt or spilled

Spin

span or spin

spu n

Spit

spit or spat

spit "/ spit ten

Split

split

split

Spread

spread

spread

Spri ng

sprang

sprung

Stand

stood

stood

Steal

stole

stolen

Stick

stuck

stuck

Sting

stung

stung

Strike

struck

struck or stricken

String

strung

strung

Strive

strove

striven

Strew or strow

strewed or strowed

* {strew* strown or < t

( strow«

Swear

swore

sworn

Sweep

swept

swept

Swell

swelled

swelled or swollen

Sw im

swam

swum

Swing

swung

swung

Take

took

taken

Teach

taught

taught

Tear

tore

torn

Tell

told

told

Think

thought

thought

Thrive

thro\ e or thrived

thriven

Throw

threw

thrown

Thrust

thrust

thrust

Tread

trod or trode

trodden

Wake

woke, waked

waked

Wear

wore

worn

Weave

wove

woven

Weep

wept

wept

THE ADVERB

35

Presen t.

Past.

Past Participle.

Win

won

won

Wind

wound

wound

Work

wrought or worked

wrought or worked

Wring

wrung

wrung

Write

wrote

written

Adverb (Lat. a<J, to; cerium, a word).

Adverbs modify the meaning: of a verb, adjective, or other abverb. [They were so called because of their close and most frequent relation to the verb.]

Adverbs are classed (i.) according to their functions (or duties) into simple and conjunctive, and (ii.) according to their meaning into adverbs of time, place, manner, degree, rcason, and negation.

A simple adverb merely modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or adverb: as, The boy runs quickly. That flower is very pretty. The girl writes exceedingly well.

A conjunctive adverb nbt only modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or adverb, but also joins the clause to which it belongs to the rest of the sentence: as, The burglar ran away when he saw the policeman. Tell me why that word is an adjective. Wait, if you please, while I read this letter. I wonder where the boy left the book.

Adverbs of Time: After, afterwards, always* already, anon, before, by and by, ever, forthwith, lately, now, presently, soon, still, to-day, then, when, yesterday, &c.

Adverbs of Place: Above, below, down, firstly, in, out, up, within, &c. [From the stem of he are formed here (= in this place) ; hence (=from this place) ; and hither (=tothis place). From the stem of the are formed there (=in that place) ; thence (=from that place) ; thither (=to that place) ; and then (=at that time). From the stem of who are formed where (=in what place) ; whence (=from what place) ; whither (=to what place), and when (=at what time).]

Adverbs of Manner: How, ill, well, and adverbs ending in ly (e.gquickly,. freely, unwittingly, Arc.)

Adverbs of Degree: Enough, exactly, just, little, much, more, most, scarcely, the {e.g., The sooner the better), very, &c.

THE PREPOSITION*

38


Adverbs of Reason: Consequently, hence, therefore,

wherefore, why, Ac.

Adverbs ol .N egation (Lat. tiego, I deny): No, not.

The inflexion of an adverb is called comparison. Adverbs may be in the p<^sitioe, c*mparatizx, or superlative degree.

The positive degree of most adverbs is formed by adding the surtix ly to the corresponding adjective in the positive degree : as, street, sweetly.

The comparative and superlative of adverbs are mostly formed by prefixing more and most respectively to the positive : as, sweetly, more sweetly, most sweetly.

Many adverbs (e.n , here, there, then, therefore, thus, too, &c cannot be compared, and others are compared irregularly : as) badly or ill, wor*e. word ; well, better, best ; much, more, most ; far, farther, farthest ; late, later, ¿¿ud ; &c.

Preposition (Lat. pro;, before ; positns,
placer!)-

Prepositions may be classed as either simplk or phrasal.

Simple Prepositions : (i.) At, by, for, from, in, of,off, on, through, till, to, up, with, over, under, (ii.) Above, about, aboard, along, amid, around, athwart, beside, between, but, throughout, towards, until, without. See. [As far as origin is concerned the prepositions in group (ii.) are really compound.]

(The following prepositions are participial in form :—Concerning, considering, during, except, including, pending, respecting, past, regarding, touching.)

Phrasal Prepositions : As to ; as regards ; according to : as for ; in addition to ; instead of; in spite of ; owing to ; round about; with regard to ; with reference to ; Sec.

A preposition and the noun (or its equivalent) following together form either (i.) an adjkctivk purask or (ii.) an advkr pur ask : e.g. :

A.    Adjective phrases : A man of courage(i.e., acourageous man); a man oj little education ; the walls of the city ; &c.

B.    Adverb phrases : The boy swam across the stream ; the train ran of the line ; &c.

THE PREPOSITION

o*

04


Prepositions.

The horse bolted along the road.

All but Janie« had gone to the cricket match.

The football is on the ground.

The children swarmed about him like bees.


Adverbs.

Go along quickly.

Tis but a trivial matter.

Put your hat on.

The papers were scattered about.


After certain words only certain prepositions CAn be used, thus: Abhorrence of; abound in or tmth ; accede to ; accord irith or to ; accuse o/; acquiesce tn ; acquit oj ; adjacent to ; agree with (person); agree to (proposal); alienate from ; assent to; bestow upon ; capable of; compatible with ; conform to; confide to or in; conformable to; differ from; conscious of; convince of; deficient in ; dependent on ; derogate from ; desirous of; die of or by; dissent from; enjoin upon; foreign to; glad of or at; ignorant of; incapable of; independent of; indifferent to ; insist upon; intent on or upon; martyr for or to; militate against; mistrustful of; part /rom (a person); part with (a thin«*) ; prejudice against; prejudicial to ; profit by ; proud of; pursuance of; reconcile to or with; redolent of; relevant to; remind of; replete with; similar to; sympathise with; triumph over; unmindful of; warn of; worthy of.

Conjunction (Lat. con, together; junclus,

joined).

Conjunctions are co-ordinate, subordinate, or phrasal.

A co-ordinate conjunction joins clauses which aro indepfndent of one another : as, and, both, butt either ... or, neither . . . nor, kc.

A subordinate conjunction joins two clauses, one of which is dependent upon the other : as, that, after, since, till, because, for, lest, if, unless, but. though, than, whether ... or, kc.

A phrasal conjunction is a string of words having the force of a conjunction : as, tn order that, as if, as though, provided that, kc.

Derivation.

Deri\ ation deals with the origin of words and the wavs in which words are formed from roots or other words.

Words are either primitive or derivative.

Primitive words are those which cannot be traced to any simple Words in the language : as, boy, good, great.

Derivative words can be traced to simpler words in the language: as, boyhood, goodness, greatly-

A compound word is formed by joining together two or more words: as. book-bitider, quartermaster-sergeant. Derivative won is are formed by Uri Composition : as, walking-stick \t) Internal Changes : as. breach (from break). ic> Adding Prefixes or Affixes: as, un-happy, fearless»

WORDS FORMED BY COMPOSITION.

ia) Nouns: Kailway, bull-baiting, dining-room, good-will* quick-silver, pickpocket, water spout, butter-keg.

16) Adjectives : Seagirt, moth-eaten, well-bred, out-spoken, almighty, soul-killing, seasick, foot-sore.

(c)    Verbs: browbeat, whitewash, under-sell, undergo, un

dermine. overdo, don (do-fon), doff (do +■ off).

(d)    Adverbs: Straightway, thereupon, headforemost.

WORDS FORMED BY INTERNAL CHANGES.

ia) Nouns: Hilt from hold, lair from lie. seam from.sew*, team from tow, seed from sow. blast from blow, sight from see, strength from strong, deed from do, birth from bear, drought from dry, fodder from feed, tale from tell, flight from fly, woof from weave, drogher from drag.

(b) Vf.kbs: Gild from gold, brand from burn, dazzle from daze dribble from drop, kneel from knee, linger from long, wince from wink, dodge from dog, throttle from throat, gamble from game, hitch from hook, glaze from glass. (o) Adjectives: Hot from heat, proud from pride, live from live, brittle from b enk, healthy from heal.

A Prefix is a significant particle placed before a word to alter its meaning.

An Affix or Termination is a significant particle put

after a word to alter its meaning,

ANGLO-SAXON PREFIXES.

A

Be

En, em

For

Fore

Mid


or. in, or to: as, ashore, afield, aboard, abed. to make: as, belittle, bedim.

- in, into, or on; also, to make: as, embody.

enclose, embark, enable.

= denial: as, forbid, forgive.

= before: as, foremost, foretell, foresee.

= middle: as, midway, midshipman.

= u-rcny : as. mishap, mislead, misconduct.

Mi?

K

Off

Out

Over

To

Un

Under

t'P

With


not: as, never, nor.

*= from, away : offshoot, offset.

= beyond : as, outbid, outdo, outrun.

■= above : as, overcharge, overdo, overflow.

= this: as, to-day. to-night.

not: as, unwilling, unwise, undone.

~ beneath : as. undermine, undergrowth.

*= upwards : as, upstart, upset, upheave.

= /rom, against: as, withdraw, withstand withhold.

LATIN PREFIXES.

A, ab, abs Ad, ac, af, ag *) al, an, ap, ar, J-. as, at    )

Am, amb, ambi

Ante    i

Bene    ■

Bi    .

Circum    i

Cis    1

Con, co, col,) com, cog, cor j Contra    =

De    .

Dis, di, dif «

E, ex, ef, ec = Extra    *

In, im, ir (be-) .

fore a verb) ji In, im, il, ig, ir) (before nouns and adjectives)    ^

Inter Intro Juxta Non, ne

Ob, o, oc, of, op


from or away : as, avert, abbreviate, abstract. to : as, adjoin, accede, affix, aggressive, alluvial, annihilate, appear, arrive, assistattend.

around or about : as, ambition, amputate, ambidextral.

before : as, antecedent, antediluvian. well: as, benefit. two or twice ; as, biped, biennial. around or about: as. circumnavigator. on this side : as, cisalpine. with or together : as, conduce, connect, coeval, collect, compute cognate, correct. against : as, contradict, counteract. down or from : as, deject, defame, descend. asunder or away : as, dislodge, dissuade, diverge, diffidence.

out of: as, emit, exfraet, efface, eccentric. beyond: as, extraordinary.

into : as, insert, immerse, irrigation.

not: as, insane, immortal, illegal, ignoble irrational.

betioeen : as, intercede, intercolonial,

within : as introduce.

near to : as, juxtaposition.

not: as. nonsense, neuter.

against : as, object, omit, occur, offend.

‘ oppose.

almost : as, peninsula.

Rene

Per, pel

Poet

Fra, pre

Preler

Pro

Re

Retro

Se

Sine

Sub, sue, suf, ) sug, 6Up, sus Subter Super, sur

Trans, tra Ultra


A or an

Amp hi

Ana

Anti, ant

Apo, ap Arch-An toCata, oat Dia di Dis, di En, em

Ek, ex

Epi, ep

Ex

Eu

Hemi

lleteros

Hyper

Hypo

Meta, met


through : as, perspire, pellucid.

after : as, postpone.

before : as, precede, prearrange.

beside, beyond : as, preternatural.

forth or for tea rd : as, provoke, project.

back or ayain : as, report, repel, remit.

backwirds : as, retrograde, retrospective.

aside, apart : as, separate, select, secede.

without: as, sinecure.

under or after; as, subtract, succour, suffer, suggest, suppress, suspend. under : aa, subterfuge.

above or over: as, superfine, surface, superfluous.

across : as, transition, traduce. beyond: as, ultramarine, ultramontane.

GREEK PREFIXES.

se not or without : as, amorphous, anarchy, anonymous.

= about, both : as, amphitheatre, amphibious.

= up, apart, through : as, analysis, anatomy.

= against : as, antagonist, autipathy, Antarctic anti-Christian.

= from or away : as, apostle, aphelion.

*= thief : as, archangel.

self: as, autobiography, autocrat.

= down : as, cataract, cataclysm, catastrophe.

= through : as, diameter, diorama.

sb tico or twice : as, dissyllable, dicotyledon.

= in or on : as, endemic, energy, empiric, emphasis.

= from or out of: as, ecstasy, exodus.

upon : as, epitaph, epidemic, ephemeral.

« out : as, exodus, exosmosis.

«= well : as, euphony, euphemistic.

= half : as, hemisphere.

different : as, heterodox, heterogeneous.

« above : as, hypercritical, hvpermetric.

= under : as, hypocrite, hypothetical,

= beyond, after, change : as. metaphor, metaphysics, metonymy.

Para« par    z=zbeside, near to: as, paradox, parallel, paren

thesis.

Peri    =round about: as, period, perimeter.

S} n, sy, syl, > z=ziuith or together: as, synthesis, system, sym    > syllable, sympathy.

Affixes.
1. To Nouns.

1.    The Substantive of the

An ^

^historian.

Ess '

f

Ant

assistant.

Ina

Ar

beggar.

Ine

Aid

.

©

drunkard

1st

Ary

-R

i si .

adversary.

Ite

LtJ

Ate

r*i

graduate.

Ive

r i

Ee

St

©

patentee

lx

R

Eer

musketeer.

Ox

Ent

student.

Ster

Er • J

„ carrier.

j

Si


may ore*#, czarina, heroine, botaniw. favourite, fugitioe. executrix, benefactor, chorister.

2. The Substantive of the Thing.


Acy *

/intimacy.

Age

foliaye.

A1

refusat.

Ance

ignorance, variance.

Ancy

vaca/fty.

Ence

silence.

Ency

ageney.

Hood

N

manAood, falsehood.

Ice

cowardice.

Ledge

know ledge.

Lock

wedlock.

Ness

'Vi

blindne##, kindne##.

Bed

3

V>

hatred, kindred.

Ric

bishopric.

Ship

friendMi/), hard#Ai/>

T

height, drought.

Th

strength.

Tude

magnitude.

Ty

cruelty.

Y

„ modesty


Ary, the place where, the thing that; as. library.

Ate, office or jurisdiction ; as, pontificate.

Dom, the place where, the rank' of; as, kingdom, dukedom, freedom, thraldom.

Escence, the state of growing or becoming; as, effervescence, quiescence.

Ics, the art or science of; mechanic#.

Ion, act of; contribution.

Ism, doctrine, state of being ; Calvinism, parallelism.

Ment, the thing that, act of; as, refreshment, abatement.

Mony, the thing that; as, harmony.

Orv, erv, ry, y, the thing that, tAc /dace where; as, memory, armory, rookery, nunnery, yeomanry, gmithy.

Ric, office ; as, bishopric.

Ship, office, *tate of; partnership

T, a tAiny; as, gift, cleft.

Tide, time ; as, eventide.

Ure, tAe ¿tate ; as, departure.

3. Denoting diminution, endearment.

Cle ^

/particle.

I king ^

Cule

ntietde.

Ock

En

*%\

kitten, maiden, chicken.

i Ule Y, or

r SH

Et Kin Let J

M

, floweret.

| lambkin, manikin, ^stream let.

Ie

Ow

«►


gostmy, darfiny. hillccfc.

globu/e.

Tommy, baby, doggie, laddie, shadow (shade), shallow (shoal).

II. Affixes to Adjectives.

Ac

A1

An

Ane

Ar

Ary

Ese

Ic

leal

Id

Ine

Ory


a


'elegiac, capital, human, human*, lunar, military. Chine**, majestic, historical, splendid, nui r/nc. ^introductory.


Aceous, like, of or consisting of; as, cetaceous.

Ant, of or belonging to; as, triumphant.

Ate,full of; as, accurate.

Able )    ( malleatde.

Ble ■-s’ ^ \ credible.

Ible )    ( ftexitde.


Kn, made of; as, brazen.

Ent, being ; as, absent.

Kscent, growing ; as, quiescent. Ful    ) - 3 f joyful.

One V *5 . ^ y verboee.

Ous ) s^'o ^zealou*.

I le, of or belonging to; infanti/e. Ish, belonging to; as, childi*A, EngluA.

Ish, diminution; as, green t* A.

I\ e, having power ; as, creative. Less, want of; as, homete#*.

Ly or Like ; resembling; as, fatheriy, childtiAre.

Some, full of; as, troublesome. Ward, in the direction of; as, outward

Y, full of; as, flowery, dusty.

III. Affixes to Verbs.

Ate

En


Fy


1    „ (abbreviate,

[voj widen.

J &    Imagni fy.

Ish    ^    *<u    f diniini*A.

Ize, or j-®*5 g - solemnize Ise    J    S    (advertise.

IV. affixes to Adverbs.

Ly. like: as. joyfully.    Ward, wards, in the direc

tion of: as, homeward.

Latin

Acer, acris, sharp: acrid, ac-rirnonv, acrimonious Ædes, a house: edifice, edify Æquus, equal: equinox, adequate, equivalent Ævum.age: coeval, primeval Ager, a field: agriculture, agrarian, agriculturist Agger, a heap: exaggerate Ago, actus,/ do or d rive: act, agent, agitate, cogent Aibus, white: Alps, album, albino, albumen, albedo Alius, other: alien, alienate Alter, other of two: alteration. alternate, altercation

Alo, I nourish: alimony, alimentary, aliment Altus, high: altitude, exalt Ambulo, I walk: per&mbu-late, somnambulist, amble

Amo, I /ovc:amicus,a friend : amiable, enamour Amp)us, large: ample, amplify

Ango. I vex: anxiety, anguish Angulus,« corner: angle, rectangle, triangle Anima, life: animal, inanimate

Animus, mind : magnanimous

Annus,« year: triennial, perennial, biennial, annuity Aperio, apertus, I open, April, aperient, aperture Aqua, u»«/er: aqueous, aquarium,aqueduct, aquatic

Arbor, a tree: arbor, arboriculture. arboreal Arcus, a bow: arcade, arc. arch

Ardeo, arsus, I Prove: argue, argument.

Aro, / plough: arable Ars, art is, art: artificial, artificer, artsian, artless Audax, audacis, bold: audacity. audacious

Audio. I hear: audible, audience

Augeo, I increase: auction augment, augmentation Auris, an car: auricle Auster, the south wind: Australia, Austral Aurum, gold: auriferous Auxilium, help: auxiliary Avis, a bird: aviary Barba, a beard: barber Beatus, blessed: beatific Bollum, war: belligerent, rebel

Bibo, / drink: imbibe, bib Bini, two by two: c mbino Bonus, good: bounty, bonus Brevis, short: brevity, abbreviate, abbreviation Cado, casus, / fall: cadence, case, accident,accidenco Credo, C808U8, 1 cut or kill: suicide, incision, incisive Calculus, a pebble: calculate Campus, apiain: camp, campaign, Campania Candoo, I shine: candle, candour, candidate Capillus, a hair: capillary

C&pio, captus, I take : capture, captive, captor, words in •cexve and -eept

Caput, capitis, a head : capital, precipice, decapitate Career, a vri$o>i: incarcerate Cardo, a hinge : cardinal Caro. camis.^A: carnivorous Castigo, / punish: castigate.

chastise, chastisement Cavus, holloic: cave, excavate, cavern, cavity

Cedo, census, I go: recede, procession, recess, cede Censeo, census, / judge or value: censor, census

Centum, a hundred : century Cerno, cretus, / distinguish: discern, secret, discreet • Cert us, sure : certain, certify Charta, paper : chart, cartoon Cingo, cinctus, I gird: cinct ure, succinct

Circum, round, circus, a circle : circle, circulate, circuit Civis, a citizen : civil, civic Clarus, bright: clarify, declare Claudo, I shut: exclude, cloister Clino, I bend: incline, inclination, decline, declension Caelum, heaven : celestial Coffito, 7 think : cogitate OciO, l till: cultivate, colony Contra, against : counter, contrary, contradict Copia, plenty: copious Coquo, cocfcus, / boil : cook, decoction

Cor, cordis the heart : cordial, eoncord, discord, accord Corpus, corporis, body : corps, incorporate, corporation Credo, 1 believe : incredible Cresoo, / grow: increase

Crimen, a charge : crime, criminal, incriminate Crux, crucis, a cross: crusade, crucify, crucial, crux Culpa, fault : culpable Curro, cursus, 1 run : discursive. current, occurrence Debeo. debitus, I oxce : debt, debtor, debit

Decern. ten : December, decimal, decimate

Dens dentis. a tooth : dentist, trident, indentation Deui, God : deity, deify, deist I>exter, right : dexterity Dico, dictus, I say : contradict, predict, indict, dictator Dies, a day : diary, diurnal Digitus, a finger : digit IMgnus, worthy : dignity deign I>o.datUR / give : add addition l>oceo, doetus / teach : docile, doctor, doctrine Dolor, grie f, doleo, l grieve : dolorous, condole Dominus, a lord : dominion Domus, a house: domestic bormio / sleep: dormant, dormitory, dormouse Duco. ductus, 1 lead : conduct, educate, reduce, induce Duo two : duet, duel Durus. hard : endure, durable, Edo, 1 eat : edible, esculent Emo, emptus, 1 buy: redeem, exempt, preemption Eo, itus, 1 go : exit, transition, transitory Kquus, a horse : equine Erro, l wander : error, erroneous, erratic, errand Experior, expertvis, 1 try : expert, experience Faber, a mechanic : fabricate

Fabula, a story : fabulous Facies, the face : superficial Facilis, easy : difficulty, facilitate, facile, facility Facio, factus, I make, do: fact, affect, benefactor, words ending in - feet Fallo, falsus, 1 deceive : false, falsify, infallible l ama, report : fame, infamous Felix, happy: felicity Fomina, a woman : feminine, effeminate, effeminacy Fendo, 1 strike : defend, fence Fero, I hear: fertile, ferry Fide*, faith : fidelity, confide l .ado, fissus, 1 cleave : fissure Fingo, fictus, 1 shape : fiction, feign, fictitious, figment Finis, an end : final, infinitive Firm us, strong : infirm Fascus, the treasury : fiseal, confiscate, confiscation Flecto, 1 bend : deflect, flexible Flos, floris, a flower : florid, flourish, flora, floral Fluo, fluxus, ljlot#: influence, fluid, flux, influx Fodio, fossus, 1 dig : fossil, fos-siliferous, fossilise Folium, a leaf: foliage, trefoil Forma, form : formation Fort is, strong : fortify, fort, fortress, fortitude Franco, fractus, I break: fragile, fracture, fraction Frater, a brother : fraternal, fraternity, fratricide

Frigus, cold: frigid, refrigerate, refrigerator

Fugio, 1 flee ; fugitive, refuge Fundo fusus, 1 pour : foundry, confuse, fusible, infuse

Fundus, the bottom : found, foundation, profound Fungor, functus, 1 discharge : function, defunct Gelu, ice : congeal, gelatine Gero, gestus, / bear : gesture, suggest, digestion Glacies, ice : glass, glacial Gradus, a step : grade, digression, congress, gradient Gratia, favour : ingratiate Gravis, heaiy : grave, gravity Habeo, 1 have : habit, habitual liabito, 1 dwell: habitation, inhabit, uninhabitable Ha?reo, haesus, 1 stick : adhere, adhesion, coherent Haurio, haustus, 1 draw : exhaust, inexhaustible Homo,hominis.a man: human, homicide

Horreo, I shudder: horrid, abhor, abhorrence llortus, a garden : horticulture llospes, a guest : hospitable, host, hostess, hospital Hostis, an enemy : host, hostile Ignis, flre : ignite, igneous lmpero, 1 command : empire, imperial, imperative Insula, an island : insulate, insular, peninsula Integer, whole : integral, integrity, integer Ira, anger : ire, irascible Iter, itineris, a journey, itinerant, iteration, reiterate Jaceo, 1 lie: adjacent Jacio, jactus, 1 throw : words in -jecte.g , eject, objh'Jugum, a yoke : conjugal, conjugate, subjugate Jungo, junctuf, / join : juncture, conjunction

J jro, l norM ; jurv, perjury Juvenis, young : juvenile Labor, lapsus, 1 slide : lapse, collapse

Labor, toil : laborious Lac, laetis, t/jilk: lacteal Laedo, latsus. 1 hurt : elide, collide, collision Lapis, lapidis, a stone : lapidary, dilapidated, lapilli I^atus, broad : latitude, dilate I^atus, lateris, a tide : lateral, equilateral, multilateral Laus, latidis, praise: laudable Lavo, / wash : lavatory, lave Lego, lectus, 1 gather, or read : elect, college, legible Levis, light : levity, alleviate Lex, legis, law : legal, legislate, illegal, legitimate Liber, free : liberal, deliver Liber, a book: library, libel Libra, a balance : deliberate 1 igo, / tie : oblige, religion Limes, a boundary : limit Linea, a line : delineate Lingua, a tongue : linguist, language, sublingual Litera, a letter : literal Locus, a plane : local, locality, locate, locomotion Loquor, locutus, I speak : elocution, loquacious Ludo, lusus, / play : prelude, elude, ludicrous, illusion Lumen, light : luminary Luo, I wash : dilute, alluvial Lux, l ti c i s, l i g h t : lucid, lucidity, elucidate, Lucifer Magnus, great, major, greater : magnitude, mayor Mai us, bad : maltreat, malady Mando, l order : command, demand, mandate


Maneo, rnansus, I retnatn : remnant, permanent Manus, the hattd : manual, manuscript, amanuensis Mare, the *ea : marine, mariner Mater, a mother : maternal, matricide, material Medeor, I heal : remedy, remedial, medicine, medicinal Medina, middle : mediator, immediate, Mediterranean Memor, mindful : memory Mens, mentis, mind : mental, vehement, demented Metior, niensus, 1 measure: immense, mensuration Miles, o soldier : military Minor, less : diminish, minor Misceo, I mix.: mixture, miscellaneous, miscellany Miser, wretched : miser, misery Mit to, missus, 1 send : permit, promise, missionary Modus, a manner : mood Moneo, 1 warn: monument, monitor, admonish Mons, a mountain : promontory Morbus, disease : morbid Mordeo, morsus, J bite : remorse, morsel, mordant Mors, mortis, -death : mortal.

mortuary, mortgage Moveo, motus, J move : motive, emotion, motor

Multus, many : multitude, multiple, multifarious Muto, I change: mutable, commute, mutation, mutual

Nascor, natus, I am born : nascent, cognate, natal

Navis, a ship: navigate, navy

Neeto, nexus, I tie: connect* annex, connective

Negó. / deny : negation, renegade, negative Niger, black: negro, negress Nihil, nothing : annihilate Noceo I hurt : innocent Noxius, hurtful : noxious Nomen, a name : nominal Norma, a rule : normal, abnormal, enormous

Nosoo, / know : denote, notion Novus, )ww: novel, renovate Nox, noctis, night : nocturnal, equinox, equinoctial Nullus, none : annul, nullity Numerus, a number: numeral, enumerate, numerator Octo, eight: octave, October

<    Kudus, an eye : ocular, oculist Odium, hatred : odious, odium O.ficium, duly : office, officious Omnis, all : omnipotent, omnibus, omnivorous

Onus, onerisy a load : exonerate Opto, / desire: option, adopt

<    >pus, operis, a Avork : operate Orbis, a circle : orbit, exorbitant Ordo, a rule : ordinary, order Orior, ortus, / ri>e: origin,

abortive. Orient (fro, I speak : orator, adore ovum, an egg : oviparous, oval Pagus, a village.; up ~an, peasant Pando, pa ns us, I spread: expand, expanse Pañis, bread: companion Par, equal : peer, compare l’:g*co, l a jopear : apparent Pono. / bring forth : parent, viviparous, oviparous Paro, 1 prepare : preparation Pars, partis, part: partition, particle, partial, separate Pascor, pastus, l feed : pasture, pastor, depasture, repast

Pater, a father: patron, patrimony, paternal, patricide Patior, / safer: patient P&tria. o country : patriot, expatriate, compatriot Patior, passus, 1 safer: patient, pa-sion, compassionate Pax, pacis, peace : pacific Pectus, the breast: pectoral, expectorate, exj>e<*toration Peculium, private property: peculiar, peculation Pecunia, money : pecuniary Pello, pulsus, 1 dries : compel, compulsion, repulse Pendeo, l hang : depend, perpendicular, independent Pes, pedis, <i foot pedestrian, impede, impediment Peto, petitus, / ask, seek : compete. appetite, petition Pingo, pictus l paint : depict, picture, Piets, pigment Placeo, 1 please : complacent, pleasant, pleasurable Plaudo, 1 clap: applaud, plausible, plaudit Plecto, l weave: complex, perplex, perplexity Plenus, full: plenty, plenitude Pleo, I fill : complete, replete Piico, 1 fold : complicated l'loro, 1 weep: deplore,explore Plus, pluris, more: plural, plurality, surplus Poena, punish awn* : penal Pondus, weight: pound. ponderous, imponderable Pono, posit us, I place : deposit Populus, people : popular, popu-larit}', population, publish Porto, / carry : export, important, porter, portage Postulo, I demand: postulate

Praeda, plunder : predatory, prey, depreciation Precor, l pray : deprecate, precarious, imprecation Pre hendo, / grasp : apprehend Preuio, pres^us, / pre** : express, incompressible Primus, first: primeval, primitive, primer, primrose Probus, funic *ty qo<'d ; probity Proprius, one's own : proper, proj>erty, appropriate Puer, a boy : puerile, puerility Pugno, 1 JMj&t: pugnacious, impugn, repugnant Purus, pure : purify, impure Puto, 1 think: compute Putris, rotten: putrid, putrefy Qua ro, / seek: question, inquire, inquisitive (¿uali 8, of which kind : quality, qualify, disqualify Quantus, how much : quantity i^uartub, fourth : quarter Queror, 1 complain : querulous i^uie*, rest : quiet, acquiesce Radius, a ray : radius, radiate Radix,a root : radical, eradic ate Kado, rasus, I scrape : erase, erasure, razor, rase Ramus, a branch : ramify Rapio, 1 snatch: rapture, rapine Rex regia, a kitig : regal, regicide, regent

Repo, I creep : reptile, surreptitious

Res, a tinny : real, republic Rideo, risus, / laugh : deride, derision, risible Rivus, a brook : rival, rivulet Robur, oak, strength : robust, corroborate

Rogo. / ask: arrogate, prorogue, interrogate

Rota, a wheel : rotate, rotary Ruga, a tcrinkle : corrugate Rumpo, ruptus, I break : eruption, eruptive, corrupt Rus, runs, the country : rustic, rusticate, rural

Sacer. *acred : sacred, sacrifice Sagax,sagacis,fruoicinc: sagacious, sagacity, presage Sal, salt : saline, salary Salio, saltus, l leap : assail, assailant, assault, salmon Salus, salutis, safety : salute, salutary, salutation Sanguis, sanguinis, blood : sanguinary, sanguine Sanus, sound : insane, sanitary Sapio, 1 taste, am icise : sapient, insipid, sapid, sapience Satis, enough : satiate, satisfy Scando, / climb : scan, descend, ascend, ascent Scio. / know : science, conscience, conscientious Scribo, scriptus, I write : describe, scripture, scrip . Seco, sectus, / cut : sector, sect, dissect, segment Sedeo, sessus, I sit : sedentary, sediment, session Semen, seed : seminary, disseminate

Senex, old man : senile senate Sentio, I feel, think : sentence, assent, sentient, sensitive Sepelio. sepultus, I bury : sepulture, sepulchre Sequor, secutus, I follow : sequel, consequent, pursue Servo, l keep : preserve Servus, a slave : serf, servile Signum, sign: signify, signature, insignificant Silva, a wood : silvan, savage

Sparÿo,sparsus, 1 strew :s parse, disperse, dispersal Spero, / hope : despair, desperate, desperation Spiro, I breathe : spirit, conspire Stella, a star : stellar, constellation


Similis, like : similar, assimilate, similarity

Siuguli, one by'one: single, singular

Sisto, 1 stop, I stand: consist, insist, persist, resistance Socius, a companion : social, society, dissociate Sol, the sun : solar solstice Solus, alone : solitude, desolate Solvo, solntus, 1 loosen or pay: solve, solution, insolvent Soninus, sleep : somnolent, somnambulist

Sterno, stratus, 1 scatter : consternation, prostrate Sto, statum, I stand : stature, obstacle, stationary Stringo, strictus, I tighten : stringent, strict Struo, siructus, I build or pile up: structure, construct, destroy

Sumo, sumptus, I take: assume, consume, consumption Surgo, 1 rise: surge, resurrection, insurgent Taceo, / am silent: tacit, taciturn, reticent

Tango, tactus, 1 touch : contact, contagion, tangent

Tego. tectus, 1 cover: protect, protector, integument

Temno, I despise : contemn

Tempero. I moderate: temperate, temper

Terupus, time: temporary, contemporary, tense Tendo, tensus, f stretch : contend, tension, attentive Tcneo, tentus, 1 hold : tenant, tenacious, tenacity Terminus, a boundary : term, terminate, exterminate Terra, the earth : terrestrial.

terrene, inter, territorial Terreo, / frighten: terrify, deter, deterrent, terrible Testis, a witness : testify, testimony, testimonial, test Texo, textus, I weave: context, texture, textile Torreo, tostus, I parch : torrid, toast, torrent

Traho, tractus, / draio: attract, contract, subtract Tres, three : triennial, triad Tribuo, I bestow: contribute Trudo, trusus, / thrust: extrude, intrusion, protrude Tuber, a swelling: protuberance Turba, a mob : turbulent, turbid Unguo, unctus, I anoint: unguent, ointment Unda, a wave: abundant, inundate, inundation    •

Units, one: union, uniform, unite, unison, unity I’rbs, a city : urban, suburb Utor, usus, I use: utility Vacca, a cow: vaccination Valeo, I am strong: valour, prevail, invalidate Yanus, empty : vaunt, vanity Vapor, steam: vapour, evaporate, evaporation Veho, vectus, I carry : convey, vehicle, vehement Vendo, I sell: vend, venal Yenenum, poisoti: venom

Vcnio, ventus, / come : con- » vene, prevent, intervene Venter, the belly : ventriloquist Ventus, the icind: ventilate Verbum, aicord : verb, proverb Verto, 1 turn : convert Yerus, true: verify, aver Vestis, a garment : vest, vesture Vetus, veteris old : inveterate, veteran

Via, road : deviate, pervious Vicis, change : vicissitude, vicar "Video, visus, / tee : visible, provide, provident Vilis, cheap : vile, vilify

Yinco victus /conquer: victor, vanquish, victim, invincible Vinum, trine: vintage Virtus, colour : virtue Vi a. life : vital, vitality Vivo, victus, 1 lire: revive, victuals, victualler Yoco, 1 call: voice, vocal Volvo, volutus, I roll: revolve, volume, revolution Yoro, / devour : voracious, voracity, devour Vulgus, common people : vulgar Vulnus, vulneris, a wound: vulnerable, invulnerable

Greek Roots

(Note.—The Greek k = English c ; and Greek a =

English y. )

Aer. air: aeronaut, aerial Agon, a contest : antagonist Athlon, a contest : athletic Angelos, a messenger : angel Anthropos, man : philanthropy Akouo, I hear : acoustics Arithmos, number : arithmetic Arktos, a bear : arctic Aster, a star : astronomy Autos, self : autograph Atmos, vapour : atmosphere Hallo, I throw : problem Bapto, 1 dip : baptise Haros, weight : barometer Biblion, a book : bible Bios life : amphibious Bronchos, the windpipe : bronchitis, bronchial Chole, bile: melancholy Chronos, time : chronometer, chronology, synchronous Chrusos, gold : chrysalis Chroma, colour : chromatic

Daktulos, a funger : dactyl Deka, ten : decalogue Demos, the people : democracy Doxa, an opinimi : orthodox Dunaniis, power: dynamics Ethnos, a race< ethnology Lidos, shape : rhomboid, spheroid, kaleidosco)*e, idol Eikon, an image : ieonoclast Ergon, a work : energy Etumos. true : etymology Eu, well : euphony •

Ge. the earth : geography Gala, m>'ik : galaxy Gamos, marriage : bigamy Gignosko, 1 bioto: prognostic Genos, a race : heterogeneous Grapho, 1 write: paragraph Glossa, a tongue : glossary Helios the sun : heliotrope Hcmera, a day : ephemeral llemi. half : hemisphere Hepta, seven : heptarchy

Hed ra, a sept : cathedral Hippos, a horse : hippodrome Ilodos, a way : period Idios, peculiar: idiot Isos, equal: isosceles Kauo, 1 burn: caustic Kalos, beautiful : calligraphy Kalupto, 1 hide: eucalyptus Klino, I bend: enclitic*

Kosmos, the world : cosmic Kratos, power: democrat Krustallos' ice : crystal Kuon, a dog : cynic, cynosure Kuklos, a circle : cycle Lithos, a stone: lithography Logos, a word : dialogue Luo, 1 loosen: analysis Martus, a witness : martyr Melas, black: melancholy Metron, a measure : barometer Mikros, small: microscope Misos, hatred : misanthropist . Monos, alone: monarch Morphe, shape : amorphous Naus, a ship: nautical Nekros, dead : necropolis Nesos, an island : Polynesia i>omos, a law : astronomy Oikos, a house : economy Onoma, a name : synonym

Oxus, sharp: oxygen Orthos, straight : orthography Ophthalmos, eye: ophthalrmst Pente,yh>e: pentagon Petra, a rock: petrify Planeo, 1 wander: planet Polemos, war : polemic Polis, a city : metropolis Pol us, many : polygamy Pous, a foot : ant inodes Pur, hre : pyramid Poleo, 1 sell: monopoly Phleps, a vein: phlebotomy Sarx, sarkos, fiesh : sarcasm Silos, food: parasite Skopeo, 1 view: telescope Stasis, a standing : ecstasy . Slello, 1 send: apostle Sukon,afig: sycophant Schole, leisure : scholar Sphaira, a sphere : spherical Tome, a cutting: atom Topos, a place : topography Tropos, a turning : tropic Therme, heat : thermometer Techne, art: technical Thcos, God : theology Zelos, ardour : zealous Zoon, an animal: zoological

Anglo-Saxon Roots.

Ac, an oak : acoru, Auckland A^cer, a field: acre, ‘God’s acre *

Aer, before: early, erst Bacan, to baAc : batch Dana, death: baneful Beorgan, to shelter : burgh, borough, Canterbury, harbour, borrow (to raise money on security) ; harbinger (literally, oue sent

on in front to procure shelter for an army (A.b. here = an army)

Bidan, to wait: bide, abide Bindan, to tie : bandage, bundle Blawan, to puff: bladder, blare, blazon, bloat

Bofc, advantage: to boot, boot less

Brynan, to burn : brown, brunt* brimstone, brandy

Hand, dog : hound, hunt Hus, « house : husband Leaf, consent: leave Mang, a mixture : mongrel, mingle, among

Mere, lake : names of places ending in mere Nether, lower: Netherlands Niman, to take : benumb Noese, nozzle : nozzle Pennan, to shut up : pen, pin, pound, impound Recan, to care : reckless Refa, overseer: porr-rteve, sheriff

Snican, to creep : sneak, sn;,ke Soth, true, genuine : sooth, forsooth, soothsayer Spell, a story : gospel, spell Steopan, to bereave: stepson, stepfather

Stigan, to climb: stair Stow, a place: bestow Tellan, to count: tell, teller, toll, tally, tale Thaec, a roof : thatcl), deck Wadan, to go : wade, waddle Wald, a wood : weald, wold Wana, deficiency : wan, wane, want

Weard, guard : ward, warden Wenden, to go : wend, wander Wiht, a thing : whit, wight, aught, naught

Witan, to know: witness, wisdom, wit, wot, wise


Buan, to dwell : neighbour (* near boor), bovver Bug&n, to bend : bow, elbow, bough, bight

Cunnan, to know: can, ken, canny, uncouth, to con Cyn, people: kin, kindred Dael, a portion: dole, deal 1 nin, a mound: dunes Dtji, a noise : din old: aldermen

FVngan. to grasp : fang, finger Fian. to hate: fiend, foe, feud Ful, unclean : foul, filth, defile Frican, to jump : frog, freak Oalan, to ¡sing : gale, nightingale, yell

Oast, a spirit: ghost, gas Olomung, twilight: gloaming, gleam

<i»afan, to dig: grave Hal, whole, sound: hale, health, (w)hole, (w)holesome, holy Halig, holy : holiday ilefan to lift : heave, heavy, Heaven, heap

Ham, a home : Petersham, hamlet

Here, an army : harbour (».£., refuge for an army) herring (the army or shoal fish), harbinger

Hlaf, bread : loaf, lord ( = hla-ford = loaf-ward), lady (= hlaf-dige ; from digan, to i knead)

Holm, inland : Stockholm

Foreign Words in English. •

1. Italian. —These relate chiefly to poetry, music, painting, sculpture, <fcc.—e.g., canto, ooera, oratorio, sonnet, stanza, adagio, alto, cantata, concert, ballad, guitar, forte, pianoforte, palette, studio; colonnade, piazza, portico, stucco; alarm,

f

*2. Spanish : alligator (from el lagarto, the lizard), armada, cigar, cork, don, flotilla, galleon, grenade, merino, mulatto, savanna, sherry (from Xeres), tornado, vanilla, verandah.

3.    French : beau, belle, coup d’etat, débris, début, dépôt, éclat, élite, environs, etiquette, naïveté, soiree, toilette, trousseau.

4.    Dutch (chiefly nautical terms) : boom, bowsprit, lubber, luff, schooner, skipper, smack, sloop, splice, yacht.

5.    Hebrew: abbot, amen, cabal, cherub, hallelujah, jubilee, leviathan, manna, rabbi, sabbath, shekel, shibboleth.

6.    Hindu: bungalow, calico, chut nee, coolie, jungle, palanquin, rajah, rupee, shampoo, suttee, thuggee.

7.    Arabic: admiral, alchemy, alcohol, algebra, assassin, cipher, divan, mosque, nadir, sofa, simoom, tambourine, zenith, zero.

8.    Chinese: caddy, gong, junk, mandarin, nankeen, tea.

9.    American : buccaneer, canoe, caoutchouc, hammock, ipecacuanha, opossum, potato, squaw, tobacco, tomahawk, wigwam.

10.    Malat: bamboo, bantam, cockatoo, gutta-percha, ourang-outang, sago, upas.

11.    Australian and Polynesian: bandicoot, boomerang, goburra, gunyah, kangaroo, koala, nulla-nulla, tattoo, tabu.

RULES OF SYNTAX.

1. A verb must agree with its nominative in person and number.

To be Corrected: There’s three or four of us. Not one of the boys are satisfied. The mechanism of the telephone and phonograph were then quite unknown. Neither of us were injured.

I!. Transitive verbs in the active voice (as well as their participles and gerunds) govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case.

To be Corrected: Who did you see in the street during the disturbance? Let you and I walk fo Botany to-morrow. She and they we know well but whom are you? Somebody, I know not who, has taken my blotting paper.

III.    Prepositions are followed by the objective case.

To be Corrected: Who were you talking to just now? It is not we who they are so vexed with. W’ho’s the book for?

IV.    Two or more singular nominatives joined by and take a verb in the plural.

T6 be Corrected: Both John and his brother was punished. Me and you was there, wasn’t we, Peter? The boy and his father was robbed last night.

V.—Two singular nominate es joined by or or nor take a verb :n

the singular

To nr. Corrected.—Either John or his brother were in the wrong. Ignorance or downright carek^ness have caused that mistake. Neither their prudence ncr their wealth cause them to admired.

Vi.—A collective noun in which the idea of unity is prominent takes a verb in the singular, but if the idea of plurality is prominent the verb must be in the plural.

To bk Corrected.—Tiie fleet were seen sailing towards the port. The battalion were divided into three companies. The people is sometimes injured through their own carelessness. His family are neglected.    .

V11.—The verb to be, pa&ice verb* of naming, making, con-sideling and appointing and the intransitive verbs to become, to appear, to teem and to grow take the same case after them as before them

To be Corrected.—I am certain it wasn’t me that did it Whom did the witness say I was? If I was him 1 would contradict the statement. Was it her that said so ?

Yill.—Verbs signifying to axk, teach, offrr, promise, deny and some others of like meaning are frequently followed in the passive voice by an objective case: as, I was asked several questions. He was offered an unconditional pardon.

IX. —When two or more nominatives of different persons are connected by am:, the verb will agree with the first person rather than with the second, and with tiie second rather than the third person.

To be Corrected—He and I studies together. Both the teacher and 1 has read that story. He and you was running to school this morniug

X. —The past participle (not the past tense) must be used after the verbs have and be.

To be Corrected.—He has did his exercise. William should have wrote more carefully. The horse was stole from the stable last night. He has bro e the slate. The boys have ran two miles. There's a list of the places he has saw.

XT.—Relative pronouns agree with their antecedents in number

and gender.    #    .

To bk Corrected.—That is the pastime whom I like. The horse who kicked the child was shot. The girl of which you spoke met with an accident yesterday. The man what we saw was lame.

XH.—When two nouns ora noun and a pronoun come together sjgiiifying the same person or thing they are said to be in apposi* lion, aud must agree in case.

Thus, in tha sentence, “ William, the boatman, was rewarded r his bravery/' boatman is nominative case in apposition with William/* In •• William the boatman’s oars were lost during the storm,” William is possessive case governed by

**


oars, ' and


boatmans is possessive case in apposition with “William/* In “ We all saw William, the boatman, rowing towards the shore,’’ boatman is objective case in apposition with William.

XIII.—The relative is nominative to the verb when no other


nominative comes between it and the verb, but if a nominative intervenes the relative is in tlie objective case.

To be Corrected. —Did you heai who the bushranger robbed ? The boy who the teacher praised is now head of the class. Who did you call ? Who do you think him to be ?

XIV —When two nouns come together denoting different things the first is in the possessive case, anc! when several nouns in the possessive case come together the apostrophe with s is added to the last only.    .

To be Corrected —The ladys bonnet was torn. Here is a grocers shop. William's, John s and Mary’s books were stolen.

XV. - Adjectives qualify or limit nouns either expressed or understood.    *    #

To re Corrected.—Them apples arc unfit to be eaten. Colonial


tweeds give better wear than them.

XVI.    Conjunctions join the same oases oi nouns and pronouns and the same moods and tenses of verbs.

To be Corrected.—Me and the carpenter removed the ladder, lie lent my brother and I this buggy. Does she or him own that house? if he were to call and heard you sing he would be astonished.

XVII. —When two singular nouns are connected by with, as well a*, like, or their equivalents the verb must be singular.

To be Corrected.—This rectangle together with that square are equal to this parallelogram. John as well as James deserve to be punished. Industry with sobriety secure contentment. William like his brother have gone to sea.

XVIII. —Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, and adjectives should not be usee; as adverbs nor adverbs as adjectives. %

To re Corrected.—The blind girl sings very sweet. The boy reads too slow. I will attend school more regular after the holidays. Our crew won easy last Saturday, but they will be beat had at the regatta. Maud has a remarkable pretty jacket.

XIX. —When a noun or pronoun precedes a participle, and has no grammatical connection with any other word in the sentence, it is said to be rt tlie nomination absolute. Thus in the sentence,

56    KUIXS OF SYNTAX

J

“Lessons being over we immediately started tor home,” “lesso:^” is nominative absolute, preceding the participle “being.'r

AX.—When a noun or pronoun stands for a person or thing spoken to, it is said to be in the nominative case addressed. Thus in the sentence, •* vyiliiam, show me your slate,’* 41 William M is nominative case addressed.

XXI. —When the qualities of different things are compared, the latter noun or pronoun is not governed by the conjunction than or as, but is nominative to the verb, or is governed by the verb or preposition expressed or understood.

To be Corrected. —Tom is taller than me. He can’t read as well a* us. We ran much faster than him. The teacher praised him as well as I.

XXII. —Comparatives are used in reference to two persons or things only ; superlatives when more than two are referred to. Double comparatives and superlatives must not be employed.

To kk Corrected.—Of them two boys the youngest is the best scholar. Which of the two methods is the shortest ? Of the four towers that one is the prettier. Which is the richest country— New South Wales or India? A more pleasanter evening 1 never spent. That is the most safest road to take.

XXIII. —'Two negatives in a sentence make an affirmative, arid when such affirmative is not intended by the speaker the double negative should be avoided.

To bk Corrected.—Tom wouldn’t give me none of his marbles.

I wasn’t doing nothing when I was sent into school. He will never get no better.

Miscellaneous Sentences for Correction.—1. Whom

do you think he is? 2. Let you and I go together. 3- Neither the boy nor the girl were doing what I ordered. 4. The children have ate all the grapes. 5. Who did you ask to come to tho picnic? 6. Who did you think him to be? 7. Whom did you think he was? 8. Being a moonlight night, I went for a long walk. 9. Nobody but I was sent for. 10. The number of boys that were promoted were twenty-five. 11. What right have you or me to speak ? 12. IIis explanation was so clear as even to bo plain to thè dullest. 13. Neither he nor his brother smoke. 14. Everyone has their faults. 15. Are either of these books yours? 16. There are always a great variety of vegetable products at the show. 17. Each of the girls carry a banner. 18. Tho boy as well as the girl have been well cared for. 19. I will try and come. 20. We are worse off than them. 21. You ought not to wear these kind of hats in summer. 22. The boy told his mother that he didn’t know nothing about the accident. 23.

F.ither you or 1 are in the wrong. 24. Between you and I there 6hould be no secret®. 2a. This is the boy whom 1 had heard had won the prize. 26. Dost thou think that thou art wiser than him? 27. Can she have mistook the 1 muse ? 2S It is not me who he promised to write to. 29. It is most likely that neither of these accounts are true. 30. That is either a man or a woman's voice. 31. I went to town for to buy a new hat. 32. 1 have not found out whom he was. 33. The ebb and flow of the tides were explained by Newton. 34. 1 didn’t know who he meant. 35. Let everybody please themselves 30. No one shall help me and I will be drowned. 37. He neither knows 1-atin nor French. 33 That ballad was sang at the concert last Tuesday. 39. The atrocious crime of being a young man l shall neither attempt to palliate nor deny. 40. Sailing in a \aeht down the stream the banks seem to move more faster than we. 41. No sooner had the boy broke the window than the police officer appeared on the scene. 42. I differ with you altogether. 43. The frequency of imposture, together with the inadequacy of present arrangements, &er»e as an excuse for not giving at all. 44. Hither John or James must lend me their knife. 45. She can w rite as well, if not better, than me. 40. Hoping that I will soon hear from you, believe me, yours faithfully. 47. Tffe general frankly admitted that the state of the reserves were far from satisfactory. 43. The fog was so dense that one could hardly see their nearest neighbour. 49. Who are you thinking of inviting to the picnic? 60. Who gave you or 1 the right to interfere ? 51. The sides of the building had fell in before the Fireman had went for further help. 52. See that the trophy is gave to me who has fairly won it 53. The women and children had flown from the city before the troops of the enemy had came in sight. 54. I don’t know who we can get in his place. 65. Your goodwill or displeasure cause him much concern. 66. Who had you spoke to just before James and his sister was ready to start for the tram ? 57. On the way back to town we shall choose a more safer track. 58. I do not wish for nothing from you. 59. I seen the boy on my way home, and told him that he should have did his work more careful. 60. Having reached the river, orders were given by the general for the whole line to advance. 61. That is the worst writing I have saw for a longtime.

Analysis of Sentences.

When a chemist splits up a compound substance into it« different ingredients he is said to analyse it. so when we split up

a sentence into it? different parts, and point out the relation of thet*e parts to one another, we are said to analyse it,

A sentence (Lat. gententia, a thought) is a complete thought expre>sod ir. words—e <7., Sydney, which is the capital of Ne'r South Wale?, is the oldest city in Australia.

A clause (fjat. d(i"do% I shut) is a part of a sentence containing a cl and a predicate (oh, A clause is a part of a sentence containin'.: a finite verb).

A phrase ;Gk. phrazo, I speak) is a string of words having a definite meaning, but containing no finite verb : as, Playing cricket n the play/round was not allowed.

In any clause the word or phrase in the nominative case, together with the words qualifying or immediately depending upon such nominative, forms the subject; and the finite verb, together with all words depending on it, forms the predicate. [The predicate (Lat. praedicot 1 state or declare) is a word or group of words making a statement about the subject.)

The word or phrase which is nominative to the finite verb (».«* which forms the answer to the question Who f or What ? before such verb) is called the simple subject; and in cases where the finite verb is transitive, the word it governs in the objective case it called the object. [The object is found by asking the question Whom f or What r after the subject and the finite verb.)

In the sentence, “The clever artist painted two fine pictures last year,” artist is the simple subject, painted the simple predicate, and pictures the object; while The clever aitist is the subject, and painted t no fine pictures last year the predicate.

The subject may he (i ) A noun : as, Birds fly. (ii.) A pronoun: as, We saw the wreck. )le is a good swimmer, (iii.) adjective used as a noun : as, The tricked are unhappy, (iv.) A verb in the infinitive mood : as, To err is human, (v.) A phrase ; as, To swim across the harbour is a difficult task. Eating unripe fruit is very dangerous, (vi.) A substantival clause: as That Mount Kosciusko u the hlyhest peak in Australia is a fact.

The predicate may be (i.) ^4 verb by itself: as, Birds fiy. The sun is shining. The brave boy was rewarded, (ii.) A verb of incomplete predication (e.rj., to be, to become, and passive verbs of namingcallingt appointin'¿c ) together with its complement : as, James is a splendid swimmer. Saul became a Christian. The highest scorer was appointed captain of the team. Henry the Seventh was crowned King. Ca'sar was elected consul. (The verb “to becannot form a predicate by itself, except when it means te exist—e.g., “Whatever is is right. ’]

The simple subject may be enlarged by

(\.) An adjective: as. Many vessels sailed for London fast month. The birds sing. The lucky digger unearthed a big nugget. Hi* face was like the tan.

di ) A noun in the possessive case : as. AVtr Zealand's sorNi'S and hot lakes have a world-wide reputation

(iii ) A noun in apposition : as Leichhardt, the explorer, perished in the wilderness.

(iv.) An appositional phrase: as, It is a sin to steal a pin. It must be very unpleasant, this constant worry

(v.) An infinitive phrase : as The pesirb to succeed is the root of all progress

(vi.) A participial phrase : as. The soldi kr, covered with ¡pounds, still remained at. his post. The general, having reduced the enemy to submission, decided to bring the war to a close.

(vii.) An adjective phrase: Streams of molten lava poured down the sides of the volcano.

(In the above sentences the wora^ in small capitals are the siTnple subjects, and the words in italics are the enlargements. In analysing a clause take the simple subject and the enlargement together and call them the subject.

Clauses are of two chief kinds—Principal and Subordinate.

A principal clause is one which in itself conveys complete sense, and. a subordinate clause is one which in itself does not convey complete sense. Thus in the following sentences, the clauses in italics are principal, and the other clauses subordinate: (i.) The horse which James bought last week died this morning. (ii.) A sergeant, who had served for many years in Wellington’s army, was pensioned after the battle of Waterloo.

Subordinate clauses are divided into adjectival, adverbial, and substantival.

An adjectival clause is one which tills the place of an adjective: as (i.) The book uhioh was stolen was extremely valuable, (ii.) A lad whom we met gave 11s an account of the disturbance, (iii.) Rich and rare were the gems she wore, (iv.) The time when we arc to start has been fixed, (v.) The place where we live is a mile from the railway station, (vi.) The reason why the captain decided to take that course is a mystery, (vii.) A Turkey carpet was the lawn whereon he loved to bound, (viii.) Tears such as angels weep burst forth. Such as it is 1 give it to you. That's the same man as '» saw in the park. Upon the left-hand half of your drawing leave such lines as you have employed ?Vi constructing it. (ix.'» The man whose horse was stolen has just informed the polL< of the occurrence.

'An adjectival clause usually contains a relative pronoun, either expressed or understood, and is said to be adjectival to the antecedent of the relative pronoun.

An adverbial clause is.one which fills the place of an adverb ; as (:.) The doctor came when he was sent for. (ii.) We started as the sun rose. (iii.) You cannot reap where you have not sown, (fv.) Be attentive that you may understand the reason-iny. fv.) They will certainly be drowned if they venture out m this storm. (yi.) The boy acted so bravely that everybody praised him. (vii.) Except ye see signs and wonders ye will rot believe, (viii.) James is as tall as his sister (is tall). (ix.) ihafc lad is not as far advanced as l expected, (x.) As soon as I go to town I shall call at your father’s office, (xi.) Virtue is better than riches (are good), (xii.) The sooner he goes the better it will he for everybody.

A substantival (or Soun) clause is one which fills the place of a noun: as (i.) Ue hear(^ that the dtp was captured (Obj. of heard), (ii.) Whatever is is right (Norn, to “is”). Which, boy won is uncertain (Norn, to *‘is“). That the vessel was wrecked is a fact (Nom. to “is”), (iii.) Word was brought that payable gold had been struck (Nom. in apposition with ‘word”); It is said that the train was two hours late (Nom. in apposition with “it”), (iv.) Observe how dark it is getting (Ooj. of “observe”), (v.) I know where the match is to take place vObj. of “know ’). (vi.^ 1 found out why they started so early (Obj. of “found out”), (vii.) The manager was noti-fieu as to what had occurred (Obj. after “as to”).

Sentences are of two kinds—simple and compound.

A simple sentence (Lat. semel9 once; plica, a told) contains only one clause: as The sportsman shot five kangaroos. We made the boat fast to a strong sapling growing on the river’s bank.

A compound sentence contains more than one clause: as. The general had decided to attack the enemy’s stronghold, but on hearing that his ammunition waggons had not arrived, he was farced to abandon the enterprise.

[Some grammarians use the term Complex for such sentences as contain one principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. ]

Figures of Speech.

1* igines of speech are deviations from the plain forms of statement whereby, for the sake of vividness, words or phrases are used in a sense different from that in which they are ordi-nanlv employed. The principal of these are PersonificationSimile, Metaphor, Irony, Hyperbola, Metonymy. and Synecdoche.

Personification is that figure by means or which we attribute life and sensation to an inanimate object or to an idea : as, 44 Earth felt the wound."The Angel 0/ Death has been abroad through the land." 44 Pale-eyed Envy sees him climb and sickens at the sight

When the object personified is directly addressed the figure is then called Apostrophe (Ok. apo, from ; strophe, a turning): as, (i.) 44 0 Solitude, where are the charms, which sages have seen in thy face" (ii.) 41 1 e crags and peaks, I'm with you once again." (iii ) 0 Grace, where is thy victory ? 0 Death, where is thy sting *

A Simile (Lat. sivulis, like), whose sign is cither like or as, expresses the resemblance which one object bear* to another : as, (i.) He was like a Hon in the fray, (ii.) Ltis wrath u*as as the storm.

A Metaphor (Gk. meta, beyond; phero, I bear) is a compressed simile —1 e~, a simile with the sign (like or 05) omitted : as. (i.) He was a lion in the fray, (ii.) All the woild's a stage, (iii.) The wish is lather to the thought, (iv.) Ye are the salt of the earth (v.) Public meetings are the safety-valves of society. The ship ploughs the sea.

By Irony (Gk. eiron, a dissembler in speech) one expresses, by a particular tone of voice or by an accompanying gesture, quite the opposite of what the words employed literally express: as, You are an intelligent hoy, without a doubt.

By Hyperbole (Gk. hyper, beyond ; hallo, I throw) we represent things as immensely greater or less, better or worse than they are In reality; as, (i.) Tom, I've got loads of marbles, come and have a game, (ii ) It's an age since I saw you. (iii.) 44 My story being done, She gave me for my pains a world of sighs.**

* By Metonymy (Gk. meta, preposition indicating change ; onuma (= onoma). a name) we put the cause for the effect, tin container for the thing contained, the author’s name for his worj>s, and in general, indicate some particular thing, not by its own name, but by that of some prominent accompaniment: as, (i.) Poverty deserves a helping hand. (ii.) Grey hairs should be respected. (iii.) The bench and the bar were greatly surprised at the prisoner's calmness, (iv.) He reads Shakspeare daily, iv) The kettle is boiling, (vi.) 'The bottle was the cause of his downfall, (vii.) The whole House teas thunderstruck when the resignation of (he Ministry ivas announced.

By Synecdoche (Gk. syn, with ; ek, out; dechomai, I receive) we put the whole for a part, the name of the material for the thing made, &c. : as, (i.) Ticenty sail were in sight, (ii ) Over 50 hands are employed at the foundry, (iii.) Forty head of cattle, (iv.) He wielded the xciilow with marvellous dexterity.

Prosody.

Metre (Gk. metron. a measure) is the recurrence within certain intervals of syllables similarly accented.

Rhythm (Gk. rythmos, measured motion) is the flowing or harmonious succession of sounds, resulting from the division of a, verse into groups of words, with a regular recurrence of accents.

A Foot is the smallest recurring combination of syllables taken as a basis of the line.

Accent is the particular stress or emphasis laid on certain

syllables or words.

In Roetry the accents occur regularly, while in Prose they have no regular succession. .

A Verse or a Line is a combination of feet having generally a regular recurrence of accents.

\ Couplet consists of two verses, a Triplet of three, and a Stanza is a regularly recurring group of two or more verses.

Feet are of three kinds—viz., Monosyllabic, Dissyllabic, and Trisyllabic.

Monosyllabic feet are rare: the italicized words in the following are examples:—

(i.) I Toll 1 for the brave. 2

(ii.) The bluest of heavenly things below,

| The skies. ]

There are four kinds of dissyllabic feet, viz:—

(i.) The Iambus (Gk. iapto, I assalii), e.p., implore.

(ii.) The Trochee (Gk. trecho, I run), e.p., rosy.

(iii.) The Pyrrhic, e.o., ffir ft ; òn ft.

(iv.) The Spondee (Gk. sponde. a libation), e.p., henoefòrth. There are four kinds of trisyllabic feet, viz. :—

(i.) The Dactyl (Gk. dactylos, a finger), L.g., merrily, (ii.) The Ananzest (Gk. and, back ; paio, 1 strike), e.p., colonnade.

(iii.) The Amphibrach (Gk. ampin, on both sides; brachys, short), e.p., ¿tòrnftl.

(iv.) The Tribrach (Gk. /ri-, three; brachys, short), e.p., for à rè | buke.

Verses or Lines are measured by the number of feet of which they are made ui>, thus:—

(i.) A monometer (Gk. monos, alone; metron, a measure) is a line of one foot.

(ii.) A Dimeter (Gk. di-, two) is a line made un of two feet, (iii.) A Trimeter (Gk. tri-, three) is a line made up of three _feet. ._

(iv.) A Tetrameter (Gk. te*sare*% four) is a line of four feet.

(v.) A Pentameter (Gk. pente five); llexa meter (Gk. hex, six); Heptameter (Gk. hepta, seven), and Odometer (Gk. okto, eijrht), are lines made up of five, six, seven, and eight feet respectively.

IAMBIC METRES.

(a)    Iambic Monometer :

Thflse fears |

Thèse tears !

(b)    lambic Dimeter :

! TO mC i thè ròse |

NO lôn I gèr glows |

(c)    Iambic Trimeter :

Âlôft I In àw fill state |

Thè Gôd I like hê | rô sût | d) lambic Tetrameter :

(i.) I 'Tfs bét I tèr tO \ hive loved ; And lost |

I Thin nCv | Or to | hive loved j it ill j

(ii.) I firn I bica march | frOm short | to lOng |

[e) Iambic Pentameter:

(i ) I Thé cur I féw tolls | thè knèll i Of pirt | Ing diy |

(ii.) j NOw Is j thé win | tèr Of | Our dis | content

I Mide glOr | iôus sum | mèr by | this sun | Of York | (The iambic pentameter is also called Hkroic Mktkk, and wheunrhymed is called Blank Ykrsr. It is used by Shakespeare in in his plays and by Milton in his epics.)

( f) lambic Hexameter (or Alexandrine)

(i.) A needless Alexandrine ends the song :

I Thit like I i wound | éd snike | drigs Its | slow length I ilông |

(ii.) I FOr thee | thè 0 | cean smiles | ind smoothes | his wi I vy breast |

(iii.) I Thy realm | for Cv | Or lists | Thy Own | Mèssi | ih reigns |

(g) lambic Heptameter :

I Bètween | Atri | dès king | Of mèn | ind Thè | tls’ god | like son |

TROCHAIC METRES.

(a) Trochaic Dimeter:

I Rich thè I trèasttre |

I Sweet thè | plèasûre i

(b) Trochaic Tetrameter :

<i.) I Süeoce i ôn Che j town dé | scendéd |

(ii.) I TéHjné I nOt In j mournful | numbers ?

(iii.) I You mQst j wake And | call mé | early-)

ANAPAESTIC METRE*.

<a) Anapaestic Manometer:

î As yê sweep |

I Throùgh thé deep |

(6) Anapaestic Trimeter :

I I Am mòn | Arch Of All J fsûrvéy |

<c) Anapaestic Tetrameter.

(i.) j Thé Assyr _iAn cAme dòwnj like A wolf | òn th& fold |

(ii.) j With A leap | And A bound | thé swift ân I ¿rests

throng I    * *77*

(iii ) I ’Tts thè voice | 6f thêslûg | gird f héar | him cOmpliin I

(d) Anapaestic Hexameter :

I h rom thé roots | Of the rocks j ûnderly | Ing thé gulfs | thAt engird | It Around |

I WAs thé Isle I nOt énkln | d]éd with light | Of him lAnd | ing Or thrilled | nOt with sound J ?

DACTYLIC METRES.

(а)    Dactylic Dimeter :

li.) I Touch her nOt | seOrnfftliy |

I Think Of her | moûrnfùlfv |

(ii.) I CAnnOn tO | right Of théin |

I CAnnOn to | left Of them |

(б)    Dactylic Tetrameter (Catalectic) :

(i.) I BrightestAnd | bést Of the | sons Of the j morning— | (ii.) 1 SoiXnd thedOud | timbrèfò/er L Egypt’s dark | sea— |

AMPHIBRACHS.

(a) Amphibrachic Dimeter:

I Most friendship | Is feigning |

I Most lôvlng I mere fôIlyT | # ib) Amphibrachic Tetrameter :

(i.) I There came to' 1 thebeach A | poor éxile I Of Erin I

^    V-, -    ^    ^    ,    -

(ii ) I Dear harp of | my country ! (In dirk ness | 1 found thee I

A Htpfrmrtktc Lt>B(<«k. haver. beyond) is one which ends In an unaccented syllable of an iuc^iuplett foot; as :

lambic Trimeter (hypermeter) :

| FlOw On | thOn shin log riv l er A Catalkctic (or Truncated) Link fGk. kata, down*; //?*. I leave off: (l-at trunc**. maimed)) is one which ends in an accented syllable of an incomplete foot; as:}

(a)    Trochaic Tetrameter (Catalectio) .

| Haste thee, | Nymph, ind j bring with | thee — |

| Jest ind | youthfftl f jolli J tv — |

(b)    Trochaic Octometre (Catalectio):

| Comrades | ltkve me") hire A j littlel while Us I yH *lls | Pa*'y | morn — |

Rhtmk (A.S. Km, number) is a chiming or similarity of sound between words or syllables. The essentials of a yrfeci rh*nne are :

(i.) The vowel sound and the consonant sound following it must be the same; as, dark, bark; win#, sing; rose, biowt; round, UVttvd.

(Note that similarity in spelling between the words rhvmed is not essential.)

(ii.) The consonants immediately ' receding the vowel sound must be different ; as, «end. xen<l; fo»ar,/eefc.

(iii.) The rhyming syllables must be accented a ike ; as, gracious, spacious; cargo, embargo ; remember, Noveiul*er. The Sonnet is a short poem of fourteen Iambic Pentameters. Alliteration (Lat. ad, to ; litem, a little) consists in the recurrence of accented words or syllables commeuciag with the same consonant: as,

(i.) .dpt alliteration’s artful aid.

(ii.) The ¿»ookful blockhead ignorantly rend.

With /oads of /earned /timber in his head.

(iii.) He rushed into the yield and /bremost/ighiing/ell. (jv.) The *ound must «eem an echo to the *ense.

The C/F.scra (Lat. casunt, a cutting ; from cmdo, I cut) or sense pause is a break usually near the middle of a line where the sense and the metre both admit of a «¡light interruption; as (i) The proper study |[ of mankind is mam (ii.) Honour and shame || from no condition rise;

Act well your part; j| there all the honour lies.

(iii.) When Eastern lovers jj feed the funeral fire,

On the same pile || the faithful nair expire.

(it.) Strange horror seize thee, U ana pangs unfelt before

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1

   Sing, (if) I loved or were

loving.

2

— indicates an accented syllable, and an unaccented. I From its first being used first in satires.