Farmers’ Friend

The Australasian Dairyman

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SUÜLIOHT

Çoeoa JNÎut Oil Çal^e

18 GUARANTEED PURE,

DIRECTIONS FOR USE.

For dairy stock commence with 1 lb., gradually increasing the quantity up to 3 lbs. or more per day, mixed with other food.

For working horses gradually increase up to 6 lbs. per day, according to work and size. Mix with ordinary food.

For store and fattening cattle 4 to 6 lbs. per day, according to age, mixed with home-grown produce.

For fattening pigs mix Cocoanut Meal with maize or barley meal, or usual food, in equal proportions.

For poultry make the meal into a porridge, with about equal proportions of other food.

With all animals commence gradually, as the food is too rich to be accepted in large proportions by stomachs accustomed to a spare diet.

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Lever Brothers, Ltd.,

MANUFACTURERS OF

Sunlight Soap

HAVE BEEN APPOINTED BY

Special Royal Warrant,

SOAPMAKERS

TO

HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN.

Harrison, Jones & Devlin, Ltd.,

SYDNEY,

FAT STOCK SALESMEN,

Stock and Station

GRAIN FACTORS, &c„ &c.

STOCK! STOCK!!

BI-WEEKLY SALES OF SHEEP AND CATTLE CONDUCTED AT HOMEBUSH.

PIUS AND CALVES SOLD AT CORPORATION SALE YARDS.

SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO THE DISPOSAL OF STORE STOCK.

GOOD PADDOCK ACCOMMODATION PROVIDED FOR, AND SKILLED MEN EMPLOYED TO HANDLE ALL STOCK CONSIGNED TO US.

ACCOUNT SALES & PROCEEDS RENDERED DAY AFTER SALE. LIBERAL ADVANCES MADE AGAINST CONSIGNMENTS.

GRAIN! GRAIN!!

EFFECT DAILY SALES IN WHEAT, MAIZE, OATS AND OTHER CEREALS, AND HAVING LONG EXPERIENCE IN CONNECTION WITH THIS BRANCH, ARE IN A FAVOURED POSITION FOR DEALING TO ADVANTAGE WITH CONSIGNMENTS.

WE ACT AS SELLING BROKERS ONLY.

CHARGES BASED ON A LOW SCALE.

ACCOUNT SALES AND PROCEEDS RENDERED PROMPTLY. BAGS SUPPLIED AT CURRENT RATES.

THREE MONTHS FREE STORAGE ON WHEAT.

LIBERAL ADVANCES WHEN REQUIRED.

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ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST of all the above Posted on Application.

HEBBLEWHITE & CO.

(Opposite Sydney Arcade and Strand),

377—GEORGE STREET, SYDNEY-377

THE

Australasian Dairyman

FARMERS' FRIEND.

:

TURNER AND HENDERSON, HUNTER STREET.

FOR

the FARM AHD garden

Are “ ALWAYS THE BEST.”

GRASS SEEDS. CLOVERS.

MANGOLD

and

TURNIP SEEDS.

SORGHUMS. SEED WHEATS.

SEED MAIZE. OATS, RYE and BARLEY.

GARDEN

and

FLOWER SEEDS

FRUIT TREES, PLANTS, &c.


LARGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE,

Free on Application.

. Jà V 'ey    _____ __________

INTRODUCTION.

The rapid changes and improvements in the methods of farming make it necessary for a man who would succeed to keep pace with the times—to be up to date. Old ideas give place to new and to-day if we would keep to the front we must have our eyes and ears open. It is with the object of supplying the latest and best information that we place this little book in the hands of our readers. Even this book will perhaps before long become obsolete, for knowledge is being added to day by day. We simply aim at giving our readers to-day the best information obtainable and in a condensed form. It is, however, more in the feeding of stock that a great increase of knowledge has taken place, and of which we have to speak especially. The large exports of butter from Australia to the United Kingdom have stimulated other producers into greater activity. Taking the lead in this trade and foremost among our competitors is Denmark, whose success depends to a great extent upon the fact that by stall-feeding she keeps up her supply all the year round, notwithstanding the rigours of her winter. Supplies of butter from Australia on the other hand are intermittent. We either flood the London market or send none at all, it is a feast or a famine, and in consequence we lose that hold upon the consumers which we ought to have if we would retain the trade. We allow ourselves to be too much at the mercy of the seasons, and unless we would be ousted from the best market in the world, we must adopt more advanced methods of dealing with our dairy stock. We must give more attention to the relative values of foods; by scientific feeding prolong the milking period ; and for the expenditure in money and work we shall recoup ourselves manyfold by always having butter, cheese, etc., to send to those who want it.

CONTENTS

Introduction ... ... ... ... ...

PAGE

v., vi.

CHAPTER I.

Hand-feeding—Why Cows go off Milk and Starve—Good Concentrated Food ... ... ... ...

1, 2

CHAPTER II.

Getting on the Land—Selecting the Farm ... ...

3-8

CHAPTER III.

Fencing, Ringbarking, Burning off, Buildings, Paints, &c....

9-21

CHAPTER IV.

Stocking the Farm—A Few Hints about Dairy Cattle— Their Various Breeds ... ... ... ...

22-39

CHAPTER V.

Milk Fermentations : Effect on Milk and Cream—Modern Dairying—Clean Yards and Sheds ... ...

40-53

CHAPTER VI.

Food and Its Uses—Composition of the Animal Body — Experiments with Rich Foods—Silage ... ...

54-64

CHAPTER VII.

The Farm and Station — Farm, Garden, and Station Calendar ... ... ... ... ...

65-74

CHAPTER VIII.

The Orchard—Trees to Plant—Apples, Apricots, Oranges, Lemons—Orchard Cultivation ... ... ...

75-85

CHAPTER IX.

The Vineyard—Plant Diseases and Remedies ... ...

86-91

CHAPTER X.

Pigs on the Farm—Breeds—Diseases—Medicines—Bacon and Hams ... ... ... ... ...

92-102

CHAPTER XI.    PA0S

SHEEP.—Useful Breeds—Management—Dentition—Wool

Classing    ...    ...    ...    ...    ... 103-114

CHAPTER XII.

Poultry on the Farm—Poultry for Fancy and for Profit—

Poultry Farms—The Cottager’s Poultry Yard—Poultry Diseases    ...    ...    ...    ...    ... 115-136

Appendix ... ... ... ...

...

... 137-170

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Australasian Merino Ram ... ... .

PAGfi

Frontispiece

Belalie Farm and Bore ... ...

... 7

Clydesdale Stallion ... ... ...

... 23

Suffolk Punch ,, ... ... ...

...

... 24

Blood Horse ... ... ...

... 25

Champion Durham Bull ... ...

...

... 26

Australian Bred Ayrshire Cow ...

... 30

„ ,, Jersey Heifer... ...

...

... 32

Champion English Dairy Cow ...

... 34

Kerry Cow ... ... ... ...

... 35

Dexter Kerry Bull ... ... ...

... 36

Australian Crossbred Cow ... ...

... 38

The Milkmaid’s Pet ... ... ...

... 45

Planting Trees (4 Plates) ... ...

... 78-80

Berkshire Pigs ... ... ...

... 94

Small White Pig ... ... ...

... 97

Champion Merino Ewe ... ...

... 106

Bringing the Wool to Market... ...

... 108

Australian Sheep Dogs ... ...

... Ill

A Country Railway Station ... ...

... 112

Portable Fowl House ... ...

...

... 116

Silver Pencilled Hamburghs ... ...

... 117

Game Fowls—Plymouth Rocks ...

... 119

Poultry on the Farm ... ...

...

... 121

A Profitable Turkey... ... •••

... 123

Summer Poultry House for the Orchard

... 162

Useful Sheep Yard ... ... ...

...

... 163

The Australasian Dairyman

AND

Farmers’ Friend.

CHAPTER I.

We toilers, taken as a whole, do not read enough, but plod along in the old beaten tracks, and if we pick up a book it will be probably one which tells in three or four hundred pages why Evangeline never married Sir Cholmondely de Vere. A visitor to a selector’s house in one of the western districts of New South Wales was struck by the fact that the sons and daughters were well up in current fiction and that was all. In what was called the garden there were two pepper trees, and two old kerosene tins containing geraniums. The sons had made no attempt to raise a few vegetables on the rich soil or to utilize the manure of the stockyard. A Chinaman brought vegetables once a week, which, after carting nine miles, he sold to the family at a big price.

There was no milk for porridge or tea because the cows at first sign of cold had gone off their milk, and of course there was no butter. These are only ordinary instances of want of knowledge.

In this grand country cows will frequently go off milk and starve when they might be yielding abundantly if some knowledge of correct feeding were possessed by those

B who own them. Australasia is exporting some 18,000 tons of butter a year to Great Britain, most of which goes from Victoria, and yet the majority of cows there do not yield milk more than half through the year because not being properly fed, and never stall-fed, they go off milk each autumn. Worse still, it is stated on good authority that a large proportion of the cows do not give more than 200 gallons of milk a year. The newspapers, of which there are several good ones, never seem to tire in advocating regular scientific feeding of dairy stock, but so far their exhortations have been without much effect.

A small expenditure on food other than unreliable grasses would during last years drought have saved Australia the lives of stock which were worth millions of pounds. Even the farmer and the ordinary grazier of stock now concede that the time has arrived when some measure of hand-feeding is necessary for Australia—some cheap good concentrated food such as oil-cake mixed with the, less nourishing food such as hay, bran, or chaff.

The object of this little book is to help farmers and dairymen to make their undertakings more profitable, and to point out the way to success to those who contemplate taking up such pursuits.

CHAPTER II.

GETTING ON THE LAND ;—SELECTING THE FARM.

“ Send the people out on the soil” has been the cry for many years in Australia. This settling of the people on the soil has been, so far as public expressions show, the earnest desire of all Australian politicians. Still this settlement business has not been the success it ought to have been. There was one peculiar disease in the people which our lawmakers overlooked. It was earth hunger, an abnormal craving for big estates. It is a disease which breaks out in nearly all new countries. We want to bite off more than we can chew. Now this, although not a polite remark, so very clearly sets out the after effects of earth hunger that it should be remembered by all persons when selecting the farm or run. Look back a few years and you will discover why it is that many parts of Australasia are held unprofitably. The pieces or tracts chosen were too large. Our advice to the farmer or the squatter is commence in some way which is well within your means, or instead of your fattening on the land, somebody will fatten on you. Where it is possible, keep clear of debt. Don’t be in too great a hurry to make a fortune.

The Australian farmers who have achieved the greatest success are the men who clustered together like bees upon the land. The farmer must be either near a market or be connected to markets in some way which will permit of low freight charges. Every farmer in selecting his farm either as a would-be freeholder or lessee from the State or from private owners should regard the proximity of markets as one of the most necessary of factors to success.

One of the most successful of the farmers within our acquaintance often says “ Give me twenty acres of good soil near a market. None of your one sheep to ten acres for me. I don’t want to have my cows climbing trees for their grub. I can afford to feed them in their stalls, and still keep the balance on the right side of the ledger.”

Such a man as this is worth following, and our advice to the intending settlers who are about to start in a small way is, keep close to those who are doing well. The man who is paying 30s. per acre rent for his land may be doing better than the one who has his rental at l^d. per acre. If you wish to become a dairy farmer, go to the dairying districts, travel through them, even if you have to carry your swag and camp out in so doing. Take a job where you can get one and keep your eyes and ears open. Learn at least something of the business before entering upon it. A little patience and a moderate outlay are necessary before making a definite choice of the farm.

It matters little which of the Australasian colonies the intending settler is in. Each of them presents room enough for the farmer. The man who wishes to succeed in dairy farming will of course recognise the wonderful changes which the last eight years have brought about in dairying. Eight tenths of the butter used now is made from cream which has been separated by machinery. Australasia is sending butter abroad. The farmer must base his calculations on the export as well as the local market. It is the English quotation which now rules the Australasian butter market.

Dairying of to-day, although much lighter labour, is quite as profitable as it was eight years ago. So steady are the markets that it will pay well to feed the milking cows all the year through.

The modern system of dairying has many advantages over the old one. Gallon-a-day cows kept in poor pastures on large farms don't pay. Such cows are regarded as wasters. Dairy stock are being improved by selection. The plough is being used. Winter feeding is being practised. There are shelter and feeding sheds and good well-paved yards. The factory hands make the butter—the dairyman has more time to increase the quantity and quality of the milk. Small, compact, well-furnished and well-stocked farms are each day becoming more popular. Men who never thought before are thinking hard. New districts are being developed by the dairy factories. Many inland districts which five years ago had to regularly buy their butter from the coast are now exporting butter by hundreds of tons to England. The field for the selector or dairyman is widening. Britain wants good butter and to the extent of more than 120,000 tons per annum. England is the greatest butter consuming country in Europe, the consumption per head per annum being 13 lb. as against 8 lb. in Germany, 6 lb. in Holland, 4 lb. in France, and 1 lb. in Italy respectively. When these facts are considered with the knowledge that no country in the world, except it may be the Argentine Republic, can produce butter at as low a cost as Australia, the possibilities of the dairy farmer can be fairly well gauged. The Americans are perhaps the most enterprising men and keenest traders in the world. They exploited the British Markets with dairy produce many years ago, but as the population of America increased there was less butter to export, and America is now sending but very little dairy produce to Britain. Denmark has stepped in md taken the vacant place. But the latter is a small count y. The Australian dairy farmer will as he proceeds find the market of Britain much more reliable than it has hitherto been. We may accomplish with dairy produce almost as much as we have done with wool.

In making the choice of the dairy farm it must not be forgotten that supplies of water are to be reckoned amongst the premier considerations. Where cows can be profitably kept there must be good pure water in convenient situations. It will not do to have the cows travelling miles for the drinks which they frequently require. A tip top milker can drink as much as 50 quarts of water a day; the cow which does not consume as much as 25 quarts is actually necessarily a poor milker. Of course the pure cool springs of the mountain sides such as are to be found in many districts of Australia are as a rule difficult to obtain. There are such advantages in the Illawarra district but the land in that fertile part of Australia is valued at about £30 per acre. In districts where the surface supplies are small, much can be done by tanks, dams and wells. Pumping machinery is now very effective and, if economically bought, well within the reach of farmers. A windmill will keep the tanks near the shelter sheds constantly filled, that is, of course, assuming that the farm has wells, tanks, or dams, in which there are stores of water. A small outlay in pipes and a few iron troughs render suitable for dairy farming

Belalie Farm and Bore

what would otherwise be dry paddock. Dry country, no matter how cheap, is not suitable for cattle and to the dairy farmer is dear at any price. Where the wool grower might thrive, the dairy farmer would starve. Better far will it be for the intending dairyman to start on a small plot of land with a range of stables to which water is laid on than to select a big area of badly watered country as the site for his work.

CHAPTER III.

FENCING, RINGBARKING, BURNING OFF, BUILDINGS, PAINTS, ETC.

The settler who has good timber on his land may save a great deal in his fencing. No greater mistake can be made than starting with inferior fences. The old brush fence which was constructed by hauling together logs and covering them with small branches was of the most wasteful style of farming. This style of fence is more useful as a harbour for vermin than a barrier for cows. It is dangerous too when bush fires are in the district. The good old-fashioned two railer is a serviceable fence to the dairyman and can be rendered closer at any time by the addition of a couple of lines of wire. Autumn is the best season to fell timber for farm purposes. One of the first lessons a young bushman should learn is how to fall a tree. You will test the splitting qualities of the tree by taking a chip from it with the axe. If the chip shows a straight grain and divides easily, you may trust the tree to give you posts or rails. It will require good straight timber to give 9 or 10 feet rails. Many trees which will not do this will be good enough to yield posts say of 6^ feet in length. You can judge by the appearance of the branches if the tree is sound at the heart. A practical bushman can tell a hollow tree by the sound which is produced by a tap of the axe on the trunk. If there are dead, hollow branches atop, your tree

is certainly hollow in the trunk. Commence your falling cut either with axe or saw on the side the tree is likely to fall. When you have cut half way through commence at the other side. When your tree is about to fall do not bustle yourself. Keep close to the butt until the tree is fairly canted, then take your tools and quickly move back some yards in a direction opposite to that in which the tree is falling, fearing that there may be a set back caused by a jump from a branch. In all cases notch a ring of bark off the trunk before sawing. Split your tree trunk from the top end. Mark the line you wish the division to take by using a mallet and small wedge. When you have the line marked which means when you have started the work by making the wedge do a clear line of division, you can by using two fine wedges, burst the log. You will find that once the log is quartered or divided according to the shape presented, that the hacking off is an easy matter. A common wedge axe materially assists the splitter in his work. A month in the bush with a good preceptor will leave the new settler with a mass of knowledge of a kind which books cannot impart.

In erecting two and three-rail fences the rails should be about 9 ft. in length, so that two panels will make a rod or 5| yards, the top of the top rail will be from 4 to 4\ feet from the ground, the distance from the crown of the post to the top of the highest mortise will be from 6 to 8 inches, the gauge for the mortise holes will be made in accordance with the width of the rails. Select for observation some good fence in the district chosen for settlement. You can easily follow the example of such a fence. Place the posts with the butt ends up. The depth which you

place them in the ground should depend on the nature of the soil and the style of fence. A three-railer post should be in the ground 24 inches. Chock-and-log fences, zigzag fences, double post and saplings, and basket fences are easily made, and if properly erected will last for many years, but not for the terms which post and rail or post and wire will stand. A good fence may be made with posts 10 feet apart, 4| feet out of the ground and three barbed wires stapled on to the posts. A hundredweight of barbed wire will go 400 yards in a single line. Quarter of a mile of fencing such as this will cost for wire about £4. Post and rail fences will cost from 2s. 6d. to 7s. per rod. A three-wire fence will suit for cattle. If you desire to make it sheep proof, bore the post for three ordinary wires, so that the position of the six wires will be as follows:—Ascending from the ground line, 6 inches up a plain wire, 6 inches a plain wire, 6 inches a barbed wire, 9 inches a plain wire, 9 inches a barbed wire, and 18 inches a barbed wire, total for six wires, 4-| feet. The line for this fence of three wires was cleared, all the splitting, carting, and erecting done at Is. 9|d. per rod. There were two posts to the rod. No. 14 wire was used to fasten the top wire to the post. The straining posts were three feet in the ground. A fence that will last almost for ever may be made with ironbark posts and seven wires, posts 8x4, two feet in the ground and charred, 9 feet panels, seven wires, straining posts 12 inches all over and thirty panels apart.

Pine timber is useful for posts, which will cost 10s. a 100; hardwood will cost £1 or 25s. a 100. Pine for rails is comparatively useless. Belar, myall, yarran, gidyea, boree, are used for posts in wire fencing. The box timber makes an excellent post. A good boundary fence for cattle can be made with a top rail and three wires. Posts in ordinary country should be in ground about 2 feet. Where black soil forms part of the farm, 2\ feet will not be too deep for the post holes, as the fences are apt to sag with rain. Rails should be 10 feet long, well shouldered and lapping a clear 6 inches through the mortise, filling the latter completely side and end.

Settlers on the tablelands now use a great deal of stringy bark for fences and put up a top rail fence with three wires beneath at the cost of about £20 per mile. Six wires, No. 6 or 7, the spaces from the ground being 10, 4|, 44, 5|, 10, and 12 inches, posts a rod apart, is a fence which has been much used for sheep and cattle. Straining and erecting generally is a trade which cannot easily be learned from a book. A roller 3 feet long and 4 inches in diameter, worked by an iron pin or pins put through the roller, will do for straining rough bush work. Boring is done with ordinary small augers or with frames and augers. Straining posts are put deeply in the ground and are fitted with stays.

Slip rails are but poor substitues for gates,

therefore have gates where openings are necessary. About 11 feet is a fair width for the passage of cattle, sheep, and drays. Four bars of inch hardwood, mortised into stout heads, with a couple of strong lateral stays, bolted right through, makes a capital gate. Never hang gates on the posts of the fence. They are sure in such case to either lift or fall—in fact, follow every caprice of the fence itself-But if a couple of stout posts are sunk alongside the wire or top rail ones, as the case may be, and the gates hung thereon, they will last twice as long as if attached to the fence itself. A bushman’s charge for a 5 ft. 6 in. gate is generally from 7s. 6d. to 10s. Many selectors make their own gates. If a man isn’t “ handy ” with tools it is far better to pay someone who is, to make the farm gates.

The following is an excellent means of preserving posts or timber about the homestead and has also the merit of being cheap :—Take boiled linseed oil, stir in pulverized charcoal to the consistency of paint, and with an ordinary paint brush give a coating to the portion of each post that is to be placed in the ground. It also acts as a preservative for timber that is exposed to the air. The cost of treating posts with this mixture is about threepence per dozen.

In making the plan of a farm it will be well to take note of the belts of timber or scrub which should be left standing for shelter. When these are defined, good substantial belts being left on the sides from which the bleak winter winds come, the work of clearing off or killing trees may be commenced. In the olden time Australians did much falling and left the stumps, which, as a rule, took many years to rot. The modern farmer either clears the timber right off by grubbing with mattock and cutting roots with the axe. Or he kills the standing timber and clears by burning off.

The forest deYil, as it is called, plays an important part in the clearing off work. The devil is in varied shapes. Its main principle is the lever which is worked either by horses or hand. An ordinary traction engine with winding gear and good lengths of steel wire rope can do much clearing and it is a matter for surprise that steam

QUANTITIES AND WEIGHTS NEEDED FOR A MILE OF FENCING.

Gauge

Number

Weight

per

Mile.

Yards per Cwt.

Breaking

Strain.

Diameter.

Weight of Fen

ce per

Mile for

2 Wires.

3 Wires.

4 Wires.

5 Wires.

lb.

yards.

lb.

cwt.

9r

lb.

cwt.

qr

lb.

cwt.

qr

lb.

cwt.

qr

lb.

4

714

276

2,197

0-240

12

3

0

19

0

14

25

2

0

31

3

14

5

595

332

1,830

0-220

10

2

14

15

3

21

21

l

0

26

2

7

6

495

397

1,528

0-200

8

3

10

13

1

1

17

2

20

22

0

11

7

412

479

1,268

0185

7

1

12

11

0

4

14

2

24

18

1

16

8

344

573

1,060

0170

6

0

16

9

0

24

12

1

4

15

1

12

9

290

680

893

0155

5

0

20

7

3

2

10

1

12

12

3

22

10

241

819

741

0-140

4

1

6

6

1

23

8

2

12

10

3

1

11

186

1,059

573

0125

3

1

8

4

3

26

6

2

16

8

1

6

12

142

1,393

436

0110

2

2

4

3

3

6

5

0

8

6

1

10

The Australasian Dairyman

power is not more used for this purpose. But in the majority of cases the new settlers going on virgin forest cannot afford to do general clearing. They kill the timber, wait until it dries, and then acre by acre is either burned off or pulled down.

Of course, what would do for lightly timbered country would fail in dense coastal scrubs where the cost of clearing is very heavy. All the heavy timber is cut down, left to dry, and when fit for burning a great fire is made to do all it can in clearing the masses of scrub and logs. This is a big job to undertake, and the way to do it most economically is to learn how men well acquainted with the work set about it. But on ordinary land sap-ringing is the simplest and cheapest way of killing trees or scrub. The best time for this work may be from December to * March. It is not well to be positive as to which is the best month for this operation. When the foliage is at the greenest stage the ringing can be commenced. Cut a ring around the tree, three feet up from the butt and downwards, lifting a chip of wood out every second cut—one below the other and an inch or so up. By this plan, as rain falls and there is water pouring down the trunk, it is caught in a notch and helps to cause decay. If ringing is done before the sap is up in the tree there will be a bountiful crop of suckers, and in less than three years there will be a dense shrubbery.

Ringbarking is a distinct operation from sap-ringing, and is usually done in the spring. A ring of bark, from six inches to a foot wide, is taken from the tree. By this plan, notwithstanding a tree takes longer to die, an advantage is gained by timber not becoming so brittle, there being less trouble with branches, etc., falling on the grass. Where it has been determined not to clear timber off the ground, but leave the land permanently for grazing purposes, bark ringing is preferred.

After the killing of timber is done the land can be ploughed. If it be lightly timbered country the ordinary ploughs may be used for this work. Where stumps, trees, and roots are plentiful and in stoney land, some good breaking up is possible by using what is known as the stump jump plough. Harrows are made on the same principle to jump over obstacles, and by this means the farmer who has to raise something to keep the flour bin full accomplishes fairly good work. Waiting for the timber to dry is of course sometimes impossible. The land must be turned to some use, and this makeshift kind of farming answers the purpose as well as any other system. With dried timber on the land the farmer by using the “ forest devil can pull down and burn his trees at a small cost per acre. The pulling down is best done after rain, but the burning off can be most successfully accomplished in the dry warm months, say after the wheat harvest.

Contractors clear and burn off ordinary box forest country for £1 per acre, the agreement being that nothing shall be left which the plough is likely to touch. This freshly burned off virgin soil usually gives very heavy crops.

A bushel of wheat sown broadcast in the month of April or in May will usually give a better crop than late sowing, say at the rate of more seed per acre put in, in June. Late sowing of cereals is, where possible, to be avoided. In the inland districts, two or three crops of wheat, oats or bailey may be taken from the land before lucerne is sown.

This is the system which is now in vogue in many of the Australian pastoral districts : the land is let on halves, the farmer supplies the labour, ploughs, harrows, puts in and reaps the crops, half of which is given to the owner of the land who, when from two to four crops are taken in this way, gives the soil a thorough stirring, so that it may be in fine tilth to receive lucerne. Of this matter something will be said in a future chapter.

Farm buildings in Australia are of all sizes and shapes. Many men who are now well-to-do farmers w'ith good balances in the bank, spent the earlier years of their settlement in tents. It is far better to do that than to run into debt, but a good slab hut is better still. The slab hut with its bark roof is a familiar object in all parts of Australia. It is unnecessary in a work of this kind to describe how such huts are built, but as bark is now scarce, galvanised corrugated iron has taken its place. The favourite lengths used are 8, 9, or 10 feet, but they range down to 5 feet. Each sheet being 26 inches wide, covers 2 feet and allows a lap. A case contains about half a ton of this iron.

A ton of 5 feet lengths gives 220 sheets.

6    „    „    180    „

7    „    „    156    „

8    „    „    136    „

9    „    .,    120    „

10    „    „    106    „

In nearly all districts where settlement has far advanced, there are saw mills and in some localities weatherboard of hardwoods for walls, and pine for inside work may be obtained very cheaply.

The white ants—the great enemy of wooden buildings. Where the ants are plentiful, cottages are built on piles, each of which is capped with a tin dish. The dish baffles the ants, and if poultry are occasionally allowed to run under the buildings, the destructive work of the ants is somewhat lessened. The lower parts of the building and the piles are sometimes coated or saturated with tar or kerosene. Another precaution is the use of molasses and arsenic daubed on the outsides of the logs. As a poison there can be recommended 100 grains of perchloride of mercury dissolved in half a pint of methylated spirit; add half a pint of water to this mixture and paint the wood with it. The arsenic dose for ants is 20 grains of arsenic to each ounce of sugar scattered as baits. But when these baits are about keep children and chickens away. Timber before being placed in the ground should be barked, charred and tarred.

For dairy purposes concrete should play an important part. A concrete floor when well made can be easily cleaned. To make it properly take 16 cubic feet of 2i inch gauge hardstone, 5 cubic feet of dry river sand, and one cask of best cement.    Measure the stone and sand

accurately. Mix the sand and cement dry. Turn it over once and then throw the mixture over the broken stone. Then turn the mass completely over twice. This being well done, pour over the mass from a watering can with finely perforated rose, sufficient water to thoroughly wet the material, which is to be turned over as the water is sprinkled on it. Spread the damp material over the surface about four inches thick, and ram or roll it level. Leave the floor until it is quite hard on the surface, when it will be ready for a top dressing, one inch in thickness, of one of cement to one of clean, course, washed sand, made into an easily worked mortar which should be smoothed to a very even surface. As this dressing becomes set, throw a bucket or two of water over it, and allow it to rest for a day or two, at the expiration of which it will be hard enough to carry a waggon. If the ground to be floored is of a clayey nature, cover it with about three inches of sand before laying the concrete. In dry weather the clay shrinks and leaves cracks, which the sand will fill and thus save the floor from serious harm. A concrete wall is erected by using moulds formed of boards. Brick earths are suitable tor pise' walls. Very cool useful buildings may be made with a blend of light earth and strong clayey soil in which gravel is placed. The foundation for earth walls should be of stone, concrete, or brick work rising not less than six inches or a foot from the surface of the ground and about six inches wider than the the thickness of the intended walls. The top of the foundation should be coated with cement which will prevent the damp rising to the earth wall. There is a considerable amount of skill required putting up earth buildings. It would be a difficult matter to obtain all the knowledge necessary in this class of work from books; a few lessons from an expert should be taken before attempting this style of building.

The wattle and daub is simple enough for any ordinary labourer to master. The framework of the house is put up as if it were intended to nail boards on the outside, but instead of boards light saplings or scrub are tacked to the supports of the wall-plate, forming a receptacle for the earth mortar, which is poured in and plastered on until a smooth surface is obtained inside and outside the building.

The barrel of cement known to commerce contains five bushels and weighs three hundredweight. The outside of the Pisé houses are finished in two ways—rough cast and stucco. The former is mortar diluted with water in a tub, to which a small quantity of pure lime is added, sufficient to make the whole to the thickness of cream. The wall is sprinkled with water, and the rough cast is dashed against it with a brush. A cheap wash for the outside of wood cottages, out-buildings, etc., is made by slaking fresh quicklime with boiling water, and adding-some sulphate of zinc. The addition of a little sulphate of iron will give the wash a warm tint which will be more agreeable than brilliant white. A wash useful for brick and stone walls, rough casted or stuccoed, is made by mixing equal quantities of clean sharp sand and fresh burnt lime in six or eight gallons of water. The mixture must be well stirred while using. A good paint for rough outside work is made with fresh skimmed milk 2 quarts, slaked lime 6^ oz., linseed oil, 4 oz., common whiting, 31b. Put the lime in a stoneware vessel ; pour upon it sufficient milk to make it a thick cream ; add the oil a little at a time, mix thoroughly, and add the remainder of the milk.

Another good outside paint is made of whiting mixed with raw linseed oil and a little turpentine added as a drier. For old wood work use half of whiting and white lead, oil as required and a little turpentine. Chrome yellow, amber, or Venetian red will give agreeable tones to this paint. A white wash which is almost as good as the best oil paint may be made by taking a bushel|of good unslaked lime and slake this with boiling water, covering it to keep in the steam ; strain the liquor through a fine sieve ; add a peck of fine salt previously dissolved in warm water; three pound of good rice ground to a thin paste and stirred in while boiling hot; half a pound of Spanish whiting ; one pound of clean glue dissolved by soaking it well over a small fire in a small tin within a large one filled with water; add five gallons of hot water to the mixture ; stir it well and let it stand a few days covered.

This paint requires to be put on quite hot. In fact it may be necessary to use a portable furnace in doing the work. One pint of the mixture will cover a square yard on the outside of a house and it may be coloured in the way suggested for other washes. Putty is made with whiting and linseed oil. In painting woodwork, cover the knots with fresh slaked lime; after twenty-four hours rub the lime off and apply white or red lead. If there are rough places use pumice stone before putting on a second coat of paint.

CHAPTER IV.

STOCKING THE FARM; A FEW HINTS ABOUT DAIRY CATTLE—THEIR VARIOUS BREEDS.

The good farm deserves good stock, but in no branch of life is care and knovdedge of more value than to the man who on going on to the land is about to expend his small or large capital on live stock. Take the case of the sheep farmer. He should have a fair acquaintance with the various breeds of sheep before entering into contract to purchase. He should know the flocks from which his stock are about to be obtained ; if the country from which they are offered is sound and the sheep healthy. Fluke worms and foot rot cause great losses in many parts of Australia and are to be avoided when possible. When buying, all bargains should be avoided. The owners of good stock don’t give their sheep away at bargain prices, and it has been proved over and over again that the farmer who starts with a small flock of a good kind comes out better than those bargain hunters who go in for thousands of culls. Something more on this subject will be said in another chapter, but here it may be remarked that the rule of selecting good ones even at higher prices applies as much to cattle and pigs as to sheep.

Let us commence with horses. The farmer must have two or three horses;—let us say three. A pair of medium heavy draught geldings. The Clydesdale and Suffolk Punch stamp of horse is very suitable for the waggon, the plough, the mowing machine and the reaper An active Clydesdale should be able to walk at the rate of three miles an hour. The height should not be above

Clydesdale Stallion.


sixteen nor below fifteen hands. Horses are cheap in nearly all parts of Australia. A pair of horses such as is here suggested should be worth, even at low rates, £30. The third horse may be of the heavy hack stamp, and suitable for the saddle, the buggy, or the spring cart.

Buy sound new harness and keep it under reliable shelter. The collars especially need great care, and should be cleaned and beaten, so that the padding may not cake and give the working horses sore shoulders. The sets of harness should be cleaned at least once a week. This is really more in the interests of economy than appearances. Wash the leather well and where necessary use soap, and before the straps are quite dry, briskly rub in a liberal application of neatsfoot oil. The economical farmer does not keep his harness hung up in the stables, or close to manure heaps, but has a harness room in which probably he stores many other things besides harness.

Almost as important as this is the shed or house for the waggon, cart, and farm machinery. The practice

of leaving implements and machines in the field under all kinds of weather, and the vehicles exposed in the open air is more conducive to the welfare of manufacturers than farmers.

Feed your horses liberally and do not be sparing of the brushes when cleaning them. All English farmers know that it is the well-groomed and well-fed horse which lasts the longest and does the most satisfactory work. It is much better to have well-stocked mangers than heavy whips. Australian farmers do not pay sufficient attention to the requirements of their equine stock in the matter of having mixed foods. A heavy working horse such as a Clydesdale or a Shire when ploughing or drawing heavy loads should have thirty-two pounds of food a day. Half of this quantity may be hay, oaten or wheaten chaff, but the other half should be of more nutritious food. The use of

cocoanut cake

will prove of great advantage. About 8 lbs. of bruised oats, 41bs. of peas,

4 lbs. of maize,

1 lb. of bran and 10 lbs. of chaff is a good ration, but the substitution of cocoanut cake meal for the maize    Suffolk Punch Stallion.

and bran should be of decided advantage as it will cause the horse to be less sluggish, brighter in eye and sleeker in

coat. A ration for a day may be made with 13 lbs. of


cracked maize, 3 lbs. of cocoanut meal and 16 lbs. of hay or chaff. The chaff used in towns is for the greater part too finely cut. The length should be from half inch to one inch, and when it is thus cut and freed from dust it is as a rule much better masticated. In cases where there is

Australian Blood Colt.

even a suspicion of mould existing the food should be well steamed. The values of various kinds of food will be given later on.

What is a good cow for the dairy? This question is so frequently asked that it is evident the dairy

A Champion Durham Bull.

farmers of Australia are now devoting more than ordinary attention to the selection of the stock. The breeds which are most popular and most used in Australian dairy-farming are Durhams, Ayrshires, Jerseys, Alderneys, and what are known as Illawarra cattle. Each of these breeds has special qualities but all of them are suitable for the dairy.

It may be confidently said that there are good and bad cows in each of the breeds mentioned. To make a success in dairying it is necessary to keep clear of the bad ones. For instance, it is not because Durham cows are big, shapely, and highly pedigreed that they should be good milkers. There is a strongly defined line distinction between the dairy and beef-making Durhams.

Durhams or Shorthorns are the descendants of the old north-east of England breeds. The “ Durham,” “ Teeswater,” “Yorkshire,” or “ Holderness ” British cows were crossed with large bulls from Holland and Denmark. The colours of the early Shorthorns were much like those now prevailing. Yellowish-red was present with the good milking powers. Thornton states yellow, roan and red were in the early part of this century looked upon with much favour. It appears that dark red or pure whites were not favourites with dairymen. The two great branches of the Booth and the Bates tribes had a common origin in the bull “ Hubback.” The family of the Booth is associated with shorthorns since 1777 as breeders of the massive beef cattle.

Pure-bred Herefords are among the best known of British breeds, and are related to the ancient white forest cattle of Wales. A red Yorkshire bull, with a white face, is spoken of as being in the Hereford district in 1750.

Benjamin Tomkins improved it before the year 1800, and Hewar took up the work and succeeded admirably, but Herefords are not ranked as milkers suitable for the dairy.

Devon cattle are excellent beefers, Rive a rich milk, but not in great quantities. They are called “ rubies,” being beautifully formed and red in colour. Their origin is not clearly indicated by historians, but their improvement is noted back as far as the work of the brothers Quartly, of Molland, who, like the Codings, took a scientific line, and followed it successfully. Farmer Davy followed on the same line, and founded the Devon Herd Book. It is said that the South Devon acquired their milking powers by crossing with the Channel Island’s cattle.

The polled breeds are useful beefers and milkers and Professor Wallace, from whom these historical details are taken, states that the white herd of hornless cattle located in Cheshire, the direct descendants of the ancient white forest cattle of Britain, have extraordinary milking powers.

The Ayrshire breed of cattle is well known throughout the world, although the records of its use in the dairy do not date back more than 140 years. The breeds mentioned as having been used in crossing with the original Ayrshires and the Teeswater (Shorthorns), Jerseys, and Alderneys. Wallace says: “ The extraordinary resemblance of the Chillingham Park wild cattle to the Ayrshire breed in horn, in colour, and in form, clearly points to an introduction of blood from some direct descendents of the wild forest breed, possibly crosses from the cattle of Cadzow Park.” Landseer’s picture, “ Wild Cattle at Chillingham," strongly supports this view. The heads depicted by the great artist might be accepted as the actual representation of this day’s most fashionable type of Ayrshire. The wild cattle, as mentioned in this chapter, were good milkers. Another proof is that the modern Ayrshire has gradually grown lighter in colour.

The writer of this work recently visited Ayrshire and saw the Ayrshire cattle on their native pasture. One of the first points noticed was that there was a great variety of colours even in the best herds. Black, white, red and white, and red were present, but in no case were the colours blended together as they are in the Durhams. There were no roans. The red or black spots were distinct from the white, and all had the distinguishing cock of the horn, the lean head, and the full kind eye. The udder or milk vessel was flat and carried well under the paunch, not hanging deeply down between the flanks or hocks. The teats were of moderate size, perhaps a little smaller than Australian dairymen would like. It was found that these cattle were great milk yielders, and never was a more useful lesson presented than was shown in the care bestowed on the milking herds. The beneficial effecis of liberal feeding were everywhere prominent in the records of milk yielded. The cattle were stall-fed and housed for nearly half of each year, and, no matter how good the pasture, received more or less of some more nutritious food than grass each day of the year. The result was that these cows yielded about double the quantity which is obtained from the Ayrshires which are used in Australia, and doubtless the milk was all the richer than what is obtained from Australian cows. Some of the best Australian grass-fed cattle do not yield more than an average of two gallons of

The Australasian

milk per day. The good herds of Ayrshire average as much as four gallons per cow each day. Some of the Australian dairy stock do not give more than one gallon per animal milked.

The breeding of Jersey cattle is unmistakably conducted on the purest of lines on account of the importation of foreign cattle being forbidden by law. Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney cattle were for many years imported into England under the generic name of Alderney, although the animals from that island have been throughout the least important of the Channel Islands cattle. The Jersey is the most numerously represented of the three breeds, which, it is said, originally sprang from the Brittany of the adjacent French coast. The light shades of the improved Jersey are of a comparatively recent date, and have been encouraged by the American demand. Originally the Jerseys were red or red and white, cream coloured or cream and white, black with a dingy brown-red about the nostrils and on the back ridge, also black, and black and white.

The Jersey cow is well esteemed in Australia for the richness of her milk and the Jersey bull is much used for crossing with other breeds. The breed, however, is a delicate one, and requires greater care than ordinary dairy stock.

The Guernsey is a much larger animal than the Jersey, and is in colour a light yellow, brown or fawn with flesh-coloured muzzle; large packets of white are sometimes seen. Guernsey cows are usually good milkers and their milk is almost as rich as that of the Jersey.

The Alderney is now rarely seen. She is darker in colour than the Jersey. In 1844 Colonel Le Conteur, of

co

to


Australian Bred Jersey Heifer.


The Australasian Dairyman


Jersey, contributed to the Royal Agricultural Society of England an essay on “ The Jersey, misnamed Alderney, cow.” In this he says :—“ The breed familiarly known throughout Great Britain as the Alderney, and correctly termed in the article on cattle in the ‘ Library of Useful Knowledge' the ‘ Crumpled Horned,' was originally Norman, it is conceived, as cows very similar in form and colour are to be seen in various parts of Normandy and Brittany also; but the difference in their milking and creaming qualities is really astonishing, the Jersey cow producing nearly double the quantity of butter. The race is miscalled Alderney as far as Jersey is in question, for about seventy years since, Mr. Dumaresq, of St. Peters, afterwards the chief magistrate, sent some of his best Jersey cows to his father-in-law, the then proprietor of Alderney, so that the Jersey was then an improved breed superior to the Alderney race.”

There are in Australia small herds of what are known as Dutch and Frisian cattle—a large breed, big as the Durham, in colour black and white. The cows are notably large yielders of milk, which, however, is of poor quality. The bulls have been successfully used as crosses where an increase in quantity is the object. In this respect the breed is the opposite of the Jersey cross.

Professor Shelton, the agricultural expert of Queensland, travelled through Australia recently for several purposes, the main one of which being the inspection of dairy herds. At the close of his travels he awarded the palm to the dairy cattle of Illawarra, which closely resemble the milking Shorthorn of Britain. The south coast settlers of New South Wales were called upon to make

C

A Champion English Dairy Cow

a breed suitable for the rich moist pastures which Illawarra, when cleared of its heavy forests, presented, and they have devoted about ninety years to the work. It is known that the cattle now on the south coast and in many parts of the northern rivers contain much of what is favourably known in England as the Yorkshire milking strain.

Kerry Cow.

Kerry cattle are well known and fairly popular in Victoria. Their original home was the south-west of Ireland, where they are still regarded as the friends of the poor cottiers. Recently they found admirers in many parts of Britain, and are now regularly honoured in the prize lists of leading agricultural societies. The true Kerry colours are orange skin with black hair. The bulls should be a pure black, but a few white markings on the udders and bellies of the cows are not regarded as objectionable.

They are small cattle, smaller than the Jersey, to which they are in qualities very closely associated. The Dexter Kerry is an improved form of Kerry, the outcome of careful selection in breeding.

Dexters are smaller, more compact, and shorter in the leg than the Kerry. The head should be small, lean, with

Dexter Kerry Bull.

gracefully set small horns. Shoulders should be well set on. The skin should be thin, the back straight, and the tail light, but with a long brush. Dexters are very nuggety, and in some respects should be like a miniature Durham, with which and with other breeds they cross in a successful way.

The following'are the British averages of dairy stock:— The Dairy Shorthorn or Durham weighs about 1,350 lbs., gives when properly treated 600 gallons of milk

per year. Average quality of milk fat 37 per cent., solids not fat 9,0 per cent.

Devons.—Weight 1,150 lbs., average yield of milk 500 gallons, average quality fat 420 per cent., solids not fat 8'85 per cent.

Red poll.—Weight 1,100 lbs., average yield of milk 500 gallons, average quality fat 4T0 per cent., solids not fat 910 per cent.

Ayrshires.—Weight 1,000 lbs., average yield of milk 550 gallons, average quality of milk fat 3’8 per cent., solids not fat 8’95 per cent.

Kerries.—Weight, 700 lbs., average yield of milk 420 gallons, average quality of milk fat 372 per cent., solids not fat 903.

Jersey.—Weight 830 lbs., average quantity of milk 450 gallons, average quality of milk fat 464 per cent., solids not fat 932 per cent.

Guernsey.—Weight 1,000 lbs., quantity of milk 520 gallons, quality of milk fat 4‘55 per cent., solids not fat 925 per cent.

The British Isles are rich in their breeds of dairy cattle. No other in the world—indeed, no group of countries, not even those composing the remainder of Europe itself—has produced such cattle. France is justly proud of her famed Norman cow, Switzerland of the Braunvich or Schweitzer, Holland of the group of black and white cattle which we recognise as Dutch, Belgium of the Flemish breed, and Denmark of the Angeler and the Jydsk; but none of these meritorious breeds equals the British Shorthorn for quantity of milk, nor the Jerseys and Guernseys for quality. In aking note of the averages quoted, it should not be

The Australasian Dai\

Australian Crossbred Dairy Cow.

forgotten that British dairy stock are as a rule stall-fed and housed. Very few Australian cattle yield the quantities obtained in Britain, but the qualities of the milk are almost similar in both countries.

Quantity, Quality, and health depend to such a great extent on the foods supplied that it amounts almost to an insult to the intelligence of Australian farmers to say that judicious liberal feeding is the great requisite in Australasian dairy farming. Combine this with knowledge in the selection of stock and careful breeding, and instead of cows which average yields of no more than 300 gallons of milk a year, there will be records quite as high as the ones which leading dairy authorities consider necessary for profitable dairying.

A great deal of breeding goes in at the mouth.

CHAPTER V.

MILK FERMENTATIONS AND THEIR EFFECT ON MILK AND CREAM; MODERN DAIRYING; CLEAN YARDS AND SHEDS.

The glands in the udder of the cow are the producers of milk. When the udder is cut open it is found to be made up of very small tubes, which lead from many small bags in which the formation of milk occurs. These small tubes unite and form larger tubes and lead to cisterns, one of which is above each teat. Milk is derived from blood-like bile and the gastric juice, but it differs to some extent from ordinary secretions. Most of the secretions of the various glands in the animal system are formed from the blood by a process rather like filtration. That is, those substances contained in the blood that are required for the formation of any special secretion simply pass out of the blood into the gland without undergoing any change, while the substances that are not required pass on with the blood. But in the case of milk there is not this simple passing of material into the gland, for several of the substances in milk are not to be found in the blood, showing that a change of some sort has taken place.

The food most appropriate to the wants of a young animal is shown by the composition of milk. The milk supplied to the young immediately after birth is of a very concentrated description. During the first week after birth the quantity of milk increases and its composition alters from that of colostrum to what forms ordinary milk.

In the following tables (taken from Warington's “ Chemistry of the Farm ”), will be found the composition of the colostrum and milk yielded by various animals; the numbers given are the mean of many analyses

Composition of Colostrum.

Water.

Albumi

noids.

Fat.

Sugar.

Ash.

Albuminoid

ratio.

Ewe.........

664

16-6

10-8

50

1-2

1 : 1-8

Sow ... ... ...

701

15-6

9-5

38

0-9

1 : 1-6

Cow... ... ...

717

20-7

3*4

3 2

1.1

1 : 0-5

Composition of Milk.

Water.

Albumi

noids-

Fat.

Sugar.

Ash.

Albuminoid

ratio.

Ewe ...

813

63

6-8

48

0-8

1 : 31

Sow ...

84-6

63

4-8

34

0-9

1 : 22

Cow

87-0

37

39

47

0-7

1 : 3 6

Human

87-0

24

3-9

62

0-5

1 : 61

Goat

873

35

39

4-5

0-8

1 : 37

Ass ...

89-6

22

16

61

05

1 : 42

Mare

90-2

1-9

11

64

0-4

1 : 44

There is a high percentage of albuminoids in the colostrum. In milk it is much smaller, but there is a larger proportion of sugar. The solid matter of milk has a

very high feeding value, owing to the large proportion of fat and albuminoids present and its perfect digestibility. IT we take, as before, the heat-producing capacity of dry cake as 100, then the heat-producing capacity of dry cow’s milk will be 143. Milk also supplies the ash constituents necessary for the formation of bone and tissue : 100 lbs. of cow’s milk will supply about 0‘20 lb. of phosphoric acid, 0.17 lb. of lime, and 0‘17 I’d. of potash.    .

Place milk under the microscope and the globules of butter fat of which it is said there are about forty thousand millions in each pound of milk are very plainly observable. Various breeds give various sizes of these globules. The Ayrshire and Holstein give small ones. Jersey cows usually give globules of the largest size obtainable from the bovine race. The specific gravity of British milk is about T032 (authorities here claim that Australian milk is 1*030), and that of cream about *92. Hence it is that the latter rises to the top when the former is left standing.

The minimum standard of milk required by the British law is per cent, of solids not fat and per cent, of fat. Under this rule there have been several prosecutions against milk sellers, although it is a difficult matter unless by analysis to discover when milk is adulterated. The albuminoids of milk are chiefly casein and albumen. You can coagulate the former by acids and rennet, but not by heat; the latter is not coagulated by rennet or most acids, but is by heat. This leads to important difficulties which have been brought to light by recent developments in dairying practice.

Modern dairying requires that butter shall be able to resist the influences incidental during its carriage long distances. Australian butter has to be sent to England, and recently a process known as Pasteurisation has been suggested as the means of preserving the best qualities of the butter while it is in transit.

Pasteurising is a process for heating milk which was first brought to knowledge for dairying in Sweden, and appliances for the purpose were completed bv the world-famed De Laval Company, of Stockholm. The method is now adopted in nearly all the factories in Sweden, Denmark, and in many parts of England, Ireland, and Normandy. It is said that the climatic conditions of Australasia make the Pasteurising more necessary than it is in other countries, which is a matter for regret, because these very climatic conditions render the process more difficult here than in Europe. The chief advantages to be gained by heating are uniformity of produce, better keeping qualities, and the prevention of rancidity.

To secure these advantages the milk must be heated in a Pasteuriser or heater from 150 deg. to 176 deg. Fahr., and then instantly cooled down. This is sometimes done before separation, but it entails considerably more work, and the method adopted in practice is to pass the milk through the separator at Pasteurising temperature, and then cool down the cream to 58 deg. to 60 deg., or lower, if there is sufficient time available for ripening.

In the winter or cool seasons Australian milk may be heated up to 176 deg. without coagulating, but in the summer it will be well not to heat up past 160 deg. What is more, in the warm seasons it seems certain that, in order to carry out the Pasteurising of milk, it will in most cases have to be delivered and separated twice daily—a practice at present not usual ; some artificaial means of refrigeration will have to be employed at the separating station ; greater care will have to be taken to prevent the undue shaking of the cream in transit to the central factory, and provision made for its not becoming over-heated.

Pasteurisation of cream is practicable, but more difficult than of milk, the butter fat being concentrated in smaller volume. The cream, which should be sweet, must be separated thin and of easy flow, by regulation of the cream screw, in order to avoid the damage the direct heat does on the butter fat, both in taking off the bloom in the appearance and spoiling the body of the butter. By Pasteurising cream there will be a loss in butter yield, similar to Devonshire cream butter making. But when Pasteurising milk, the loss of butter yield is fully compensated by the cleaner skimming, through its being done at Pasteurising temperature. These considerations show that while there are drawbacks and defects in applying the process to cream, there are special advantages derivable from its application to milk.

The fat of milk chiefly consists of the glycerides of palmitic and oleic acid. The glycerides of oleic acid, and of the soluble fatty acids, are fluid fats at ordinary temperatures. The proportion of fluid and solid fats varies somewhat with the diet and condition of the animal, and these requirements are specially noteworthy and will have attention in the chapter on food.

Under the old system of dairying, when each farmer made his own butter from cream skimmed in dairies

and Farmers’ Friend.

where the milk was set for twenty-four hours or more in open pans, the quality of the milk was not often taken into consideration. It was noticed probably that the fifteen cows of A yielded more butter than the twenty cows of B, but the percentages of butter fat in the milk was very rarely determined. It was not until the modern system of making butter in factories, to which several dairy farmers supplied milk, that it was found to be absolutely necessary to discriminate between the poor and the rich milks. This change came about slowly, but is now in almost full force. Nearly all the butter factories now pay not for the quantities of milk delivered, but for the butter fat sent from the farms. This being the rule dairy farmers have perforce to pay attention to the quality of the cows which they milk. Two or three years ago there was in force, as there had been for many years, an erroneous idea that food, although capable of influencing quantities of milk produced, could not affect the yield of butter fat. Recent scientific assertions are entirely opposed to this view. Dr. Fream states that if the cow has to rely chiefly upon a large quantity of poor herbage or other watery food, the milk will become poorer in solids, the butter-fat being the constituent most likely to fall in quantity. Warington in “ Chemistry of the Farm,” edition 1891, gives without any reservation the opinion that both quantity and quality are greatly influenced by the character of the food supplied. A diet of watery grass will probably yield a moderate quantity of poor milk ; the addition of oil-cake will increase both the yield of milk, and also its richness.” In the same way it is now known that the quality of butter is more or less influenced by the character of food. Milk

as before stated is obtained from blood, which requires nourishment from food; therefore it is possible to so modify the food of the cow as to regulate the quantity and quality of the milk which she yields. The amount of solid matter contained in different samples of milk may fall as low as 10 per cent, and rise as high as 16 per cent. There is a variation in quality, even in the udder, as dairymen can easily perceive, who test the milk first drawn at milking time, and comparing it with the quality of the last drawn milk or strippings. The latter as a rule, as before mentioned, is much richer than the former.

The sweet well-flavoured oil of the cocoanut cake tends to improve the flavour of the butter while it does not interfere with its keeping qualities.

The following table, taken from Fleam’s Agriculture, is instructive :—

Percentage Composition of Whole Milk, Skim-milk, and Whey.

Whole milk.

Skim milk.

Whey.

Water ... ... ... ...

87-0

90-0

93-4

Albuminoids (casein, albumen)...

4-0

37

0-9

Milk-sugar (lactose) ... ...

4 6

4'8

4-8

Fat (butter) ... ... ...

37

0-8

0-3

Ash ... ... ... ...

07

07

0-6

Total ... ... ...

1000

1000

1000

The Albuminoids, or nitrogenous compounds,

are casein and albumen, the latter in ordinary cow’s milk constituting not more than one-ninth of the total albuminoids. The ash consists of lime, potash, soda, magnesia, and iron, with phosphoric acid and chlorine. The figures relating to skim-milk show that most of the fat is removed in the cream. It is further apparent that the liquid part of the milk, after separation of the fat globules, still retains all the milk-sugar and most of the albuminoids, and is therefore a very nitrogenous food.

Cream is nothing more than a part of the milk and is formed by the globules of fat. The largest globules of fat will be nearest the surface of milk which is set in pans. Thus it happens that the first skimming from the milk pans gives the richest cream. The temperature of the dairy should be as low as possible in summer and as near to 56 deg. as is practicable in winter. The old system of skimming cream from pans and churning such cream is so well understood that no reference from those already made to it may appear in this work. One rule however must be observed in all systems of dairying. It is that in all parts of the dairy strict cleanliness must be observed.

Milk when it leaves the cow will have a temperature of about 90 deg. Fahr. It will be necessary to cool the milk before sending it from the farm, and this is accomplished in various ways by appliances with which farmers are now fairly familiar. Nor is it necessary here to give descriptions of modern appliances such as separators, cream-coolers and factory churns. But there are certain principles in connection with factory work which should be explained.

No factory can turn out good butter or cheese if the milk which it uses is not produced from farms which are clean. The milking requires to be done in yards and sheds which are as free from filth as possible. No substance likely to injure the milk should reach the pail or cans used on the farm. The milker should have clean hands, and the udders and teats of the cows should be regularly cleaned. These are necessary conditions to the production of good butter. For instance the factory may be faultless, but may fail if its suppliers do not send pure milk.

Cream, being at a high temperature when it leaves the separator, requires to be cooled to a point below 60 deg., otherwise it will give when churned an oily kind of butter. If possible, bring the cream down to 50 deg. and stir it frequently, so that it may ripen under conditions which are favourable to the production of good butter. The ripening process may take from twenty-four to forty-eight hours. Under the new systems of butter making there is added to the cream what is known as a starter, made in the following way:—Take one gallon of skim milk or fresh milk (having a good flavour) for each ten gallons of cream to be ripened, and warm it to 90 deg.; add to it about a gallon and a-half of clean water for each ten gallons of milk used in making the starter and set in a clean, warm place for twenty-four hours. Then break up fine by pouring or stirring, and strain into the cream the amount necessary to ripen it properly in the desired time. When a good flavour is got in this way, it is advisable to propagate it by pasteurising the milk used in making the starter from day to day. Do this by setting the milk in boiling water and stirring constantly while it is heating to 160 deg. ; then remove and let stand for twenty or thirty minutes. Afterwards place in cold water and stir till it cools to 75 or 80 deg.; then add about a quart of the old starter (having the good flavour) to each ten gallons of Pasteurised milk, with a gallon and a-half of clean water at the same temperature. Mix and set in a clean warm place. Do not stir again until it is wanted ; then use from one to four quarts of the starter in each ten gallons of cream to be ripened, varying according to the condition of the cream, the season of the year, the time allowed for the cream to ripen.

The starter should be put into the cream vat when the separating begins, to fix the flavour of the cream before any undesirable bacteria develop in it.

Churning.—Separator cream should contain about thirty per cent, of butter fat and be cooled to 52 deg. to 54 deg. in winter and 50 deg. to 52 deg. in summer about two hours (and longer if the cream is ripened at high temperatures) before the time for churning. Cream containing a high percentage of butter fat gives less volume to cool and handle, as it can be churned at a lower temperature, which gives the butter a firmer texture. The churn should first be cleaned with hot water, and then cooled with cold water, before straining the cream into it. The churn should not be filled half full ; one-third full is better. Add butter colour to the cream before starting, if required to give the butter the proper colour to suit the market. It may be added at the rate of about half an ounce of colouring to 1000 pounds of milk. A smaller quantity of colouring is required in the spring; but in the fall the amount may be gradually increased to the above figure. Cream containing a high percentage of butter fat will thicken in churning, and the desired concussion may then cease. At this stage add to the cream about one gallon of water to each two gallons of cream being churned (at the same temperature), and continue churning until the butter is about half gathered ; then add sufficient water at a lower temperature to keep the butter in the granular form until the cream is properly churned—till the granules are even in size and not larger than grains of wheat. The churn should make from sixty to seventy revolutions per minute, and the time required to churn should be from forty-five to sixty minutes. The lower temperature at which cream can be churned in this length of time, the better will be the texture of the butter. If small specks of butter appear on the first buttermilk drawn off, then the churning should be continued a little longer, and more water should be added if there is danger of the butter gathering too much by the addional churning. Always run the churn at a high speed when finishing the churning and when washing.

Mr. Rogers, an expert in dairy-farming, gives the following hints regarding washing, salting, and working butter :—

Washing.—The quantity of water used for washing the butter should be equal to the quantity of cream churned, and should be at a temperature of from 54 deg. to 58 deg. in winter and 48 deg. in summer, if the butter is to be salted on the worker; and at 45 deg. or lower, when it is to be salted in the churn. If the water which you have in summer is too warm, use about two quarts of salt in the water and let it stand for ten minutes before drawing off. Avoid using water at high and low temperatures on the same lot of butter, as it has a tendency to cause white specks and an uneven body in the butter. When the butter is to be packed for export, or held for some time, wash it twice, but only once when it is going into consumption within a month. Unwashed butter, from cream churned at a low temperature, gives good satisfaction, if it is put up in pound prints and forwarded to market as soon as it is made. This method works well in fall and winter, and where water is scarce. When not intending to wash the butter the maker will find it an advantage to add an extra quantity of very cold water to the contents of the churn when the granules are the proper size, and revolve the churn quickly for a few turns before drawing off the buttermilk. This will cause the buttermilk to run off the butter more freely and give less trouble when working the butter. It is also well to use a little water to wash the buttermilk from around the butter when near done working, but none on the butter.

Salting.—The butter should remain in the churn to dry for twenty or thirty minutes before salting. Salt for butter should have a fine, even grain, and be kept in a clean, cool place, free from bad odours. The salt should be fresh and clean. The proper time and place to salt butter is while in the churn. Use about one and one-eighth ounces of salt to each twenty-five pounds of milk separated, or to the number of pounds of milk required to make a pound of butter. Sift on about half of the salt; then tip the churn gradually to turn the salted portion under. Sift on some more, and turn the churn the opposite way till the remainder of the unsalted portion is exposed ; then sift on the remainder of the salt. Use a long wooden fork or spade to mix the butter and salt evenly. If the work is done properly, it will not be necessary to revolve the churn. The butter should remain in the churn, if the room is cold enough ; if not, it should be removed to the cold storage room for from two to four hours before working. Salting in the chum is the most perfect method of salting butter, as by that method a more even colour is obtained and the texture of the butter is preserved in consequence of less working being necessary. When salting butter on the worker, use about one ounce of salt to one pound of washed butter, and one and a quarter ounces per pound of unwashed butter, varying the quantity to suit the taste of the market. About one-half to three-quarters of an ounce per pound suits the English market when the butter is shipped fresh.

Working the Butter.—Work carefully and evenly all parts of the butter alike, turning in and out, doubling alternately on the revolving worker. When the butter is salted on the revolving worker, the worker should be turned twenty-four times to finish the butter at one working. When the butter is to be worked twice, about eight turns the first time will be sufficient, and say ten turns, or just enough to make the colour even, the second time. We prefer working butter twice when packing for export, as in this way we get less moisture, a closer body, and a more even colour. It is also preferable to the one-working method for the inexperienced butter maker.

When the butter is salted in the churn, ten to fourteen revolutions of the worker will be sufficient, the aim being to remove the excess of moisture and get an even colour. This should be done in every case. The butter, when working, should in no case be colder in winter or warmer in summer than 55 deg.

CHAPTER VI.

FOOD AND ITS USES ; COMPOSITION OF THE ANIMAL BODY; EXPERIMENTS WITH RICH FOODS; SILAGE.

The foods which give the greatest return with the least waste and at the lowest cost are the ones which the farmer should use. Many men who are erroneously classed as practical deride what they term “book-farming.” To these “ balanced rations” and “Albuminoid ratio” and food units are as so much book stuff. To properly carry out this principle these “practical” men should reject as useless the A, B, C and simple sums of arithmetic taught at schools. The adversity experienced during the last ten years is driving farmers to books. They now want to know what to grow, how to grow it, and where to market it. It was adversity which caused New Zealand to take up the exportation of frozen meat, and to learn how to make cheese ; branches of industry in which she has achieved great successes. It was adversity and the knowledge that the land was capable of doing greater things, that caused Victoria to enter upon the modern system of dairying. And now it is the necessities of adversity which are causing all Australasians to seek out the best means of increasing their exports.

One of the chief factors towards this intended increase will be the proper selection of foods.

The cow which yields 600 gallons of milk in the year takes from the farm about 36 lb. of nitrogen, 12 lb. of phosphoric acid, and 10 lb. of potash. In plants food is called upon to do no more than build up vegetable tissues —in animals it has to make tissues and furnish the material for heat, and the means for executing mechanical work. It is here that nature needs aid from various sources. The simplest form of this aid is the placing upon the pastures salt for the stock to lick. All farmers now use salt as a help to production, but few of them know that common salt, in addition to its being essential for the building up of the animal, is useful in facilitating the passage of the albuminoids of the food from the digestive canal into the blood and the circulation generally, thus increasing the energy of the vital processes. An excess of salt is therefore necessary in the dairy farm, especially where foods such as potatoes and roots are a stock meal. Cows allowed to go without the extra ration of salt on a farm for five days lost 2 per cent, in quantity, and largely in quality of their milk. See then what a powerful lesson even this common salt places before farmers.

The albuminoids, fats, and carbohydrates, which enter into the food of animals, are capable of being built up, so far as is known, only by the activity of living bodies, usually of plants. This is not the case with the mineral food-stuffs, of which water and common salt are the most familiar examples. Albuminoids stand apart in the important characteristic that they alone contain nitrogen. Consequently, it is only albuminoids that can supply the nitrogenous requirements, such as the building up of flesh, etc., in the animal body. Hence, the albuminoids are termed flesh-formers, though they are also capable of placing carbon and hydrogen at the disposal of the animal body.

The chief object in cattle-feeding is to arrive at the quantity and proportions of the several nutriments required or available on the farm. The feeding standard

for milk cows per day, of 1,000 lb.

live weight, is as

follows:—

lb.

Digestible protein ... ...

... 25

Digestible fat ... ...

... 04

Digestible carbohydrates ...

... 125

Nutritive value ... ...

... 1 : 5 4

Total Dry matter ... ...

... 24

The Colonial Consignment and Distributing Company, Limited, state, in their review of the dairy produce season just passed, as follows :—

By far the strongest opponents that Australasia meets in British markets are Denmark and Sweden, but the policy of fighting them, as many Australasians recommend, is one of cut-throat tendency. Though it were possible ultimately to oust them, at present it would be far wiser to come to some workable understanding so that the three countries, which supply very nearly two-thirds of the total import, should assist each other in securing better values, instead of injuring one another by reducing prices to the lowest possible level. It is almost impossible for any one of these countries to destroy the others’ trade by a policy of low prices, though Denmark and Sweden are feeling severely the depression caused by recent low values, and their farmers are complaining of Australasian competition in the butter market, as well as increased rates and taxes and enhanced expenses of the management and maintenance of their holdings. The position of Denmark as a great dairying country is seen from the fact there are about 450 cows per thousand of the population (as against only 100 per head in the United Kingdom), and, thosgh only about 75 per cent, of the butter exported from Denmark is made in that country (the other 25 per cent, being imported butter re-shipped), yet in 1895 43,600 tons of genuine Danish made butter were exported to Britain. How carefully the Danes look after winter feeding is seen by the fact that 17,400 tons of bran and 60,300 tons of oil cake were imported in 1890. Since then the import of bran has decreased, but that of oil cake largely increased The cost of this must be enormous, yet winter feeding pays, and the Australasian supremacy in British markets cannot be secured without an all-the-year-round supply of butter, which will necessitate winter feeding in the colonies.”

There is nothing better than the oil cake from the cocoanut of the Pacific. Wolff, the highest authority on the subject in Germany, in his celebrated work on farm food, says :—“ The digestion co-efficient of cocoanut cake was determined at Hohenheim by feeding pigs on a mixture of one part cake to two parts of barley meal.” The pigs ate the cocoanut cake greedily while they absolutely refused to touch any other food. “ Palm nut cake was found at Hohenheim and Moekern to be highly digestible, and not only palatable but productive of the best results with milch cows and fat beasts.”

It is “ keeping a cow in condition ” that is of so much importance. An ill-conditioned cow cannot do her best. The food must be complete in its feeding constituents. Hence the importance of cocoanut cake. By getting your cows in condition they will give a maximum of milk on a minimum of food, and that is what is wanted.

Cocoanut cake will be found rich in oil and flesh and fat formers, and undoubtedly will be the best kind of food to increase the production of good milk and butter. It will

add richness to cheese where such is required. Its qualities are well appreciated in Great Britain and Denmark, where its consumption is gradually increasing. As already shown, with regard to the countries which are exporting butter, cocoanut cake has become a necessity, because it has been found that the oil of cocoanut is much nearer allied to butter than any other vegetable fat. Indeed, in many countries large quantities of cocoanut oil are used as human food in place of ordinary butter. The cake has been advantageously used as food for ordinary stock. It is known to be the best artificial food that can be given to ewes during the lambing season ; and it is noteworthy that on farms where cocoanut cake is used, the manures obtained are of very high value. This is well shown by the reports of Sir John Lawes and Sir Henry Gilbert, who estimate the manurial Yalue of the cocoanut cake at almost as much as the cake itself, which is no slight consideration to dairy farmers who haYe to grow crops. Another important point is firmness in butter; cocoanut cake helps to give firmness, and experiments have shown the melting point of butter from cows fed on oilcake to be raised about 10 deg. Fahr.

Where cattle, horses and sheep have to take long YOyages, oil cake proves more than ordinarily valuable as a food which, although high in point of nutritive value, can be stowed in small spaces. During the time stock were being shipped to England, a great drawback to the ventures was the absence of a cheap rich food which might be easily carried.

Cake will be much used on the ordinary cattle and sheep stations for the stud stock and station working stock, and possibly as a much-needed stand-by for use in the times of drought. A pound of cocoanut cake given each day to a sheep might pay in many cases. What was before this a food which was on account of its price outside the range of pastoral consideration, is now so cheap and so near that it must take a very important part in lessening what are known as the drought losses of Australia.

Professor John Wrightson, in his recent work on Live Stock, recommends as the best foods for keeping up supplies of milk:—

35 lbs. of turnips or beet,

6 lbs. of oil cake,

40 lbs. of silage,

| part of a bushel of brewer’s grains,

6 lbs. of hay, with straw chaff,

and says that, with a good supply of water, about two bushels of pulped roots and chaff will be found sufficient in bulk for an ordinary sized cow. The routine of stall-feeding dairy-cows consists of giving a little hay before milking, afterwards a bushel of the chaff, pulped roots, and the cake. The cows are then turned out for water and exercise while the stalls are cleaned. At eleven o’clock they can have their silage, and at 3 o’clock p.m. the allowance of pulped roots, chaff, and cake. At 6 p.m. they can have hay, and thus ends the day’s feeding. He makes it a special condition that there should be given a more liberal amount of cake to the cows which yield the largest quantities of milk.

Ensilage, a process by which ordinary farm crops can be taken fresh from the field, and kept in a moist, wholesome condition, for three or four years, so as to be useful food for farm stock, has impressed so many modern farmers with its special advantages that no book on dairying would be complete without some particulars of silos and silage. The silo, in the common acceptation of the term, may be a hole in the earth, lined or unlined, a building of any kind, or a stack, so that it is a receptacle for a mass of green food, from which, by pressure, air can be excluded. The ancients understood the system, but it may be said that it has not been extensively in force with modern farmers until during the last twenty years. The moist stuff which is taken from the silos is now called silage. It is a food which has passed through many tests and trials in France, America, Great Britain, and Australasia.

During the last ten years silage has been on its trial on this side of the world, and the verdict is generally in its favour. If dairying had been as popular ten years ago as it is at present ensilage would have received much more attention than has up to the present been devoted to it. The next ten years are likely to place it in a good position for reasons which this chapter will set forth.

The literature of ensilage, unfortunately for the welfare of the system, was until recently of the high-flown, booming order. Silage was to perform many wonderful services, and, possibly, to entirely overcome roots and hay. It has not done this, but it has its uses and special advantages. On the great pastoral property, which in good seasons gives immense growths of grass and other green stuff, but which in dry seasons has very little grass and very many bush fires, the silo should be a great institution. A stack or pit of silage will not burn as a haystack will do. Each cubic foot of the full silo has from 40 to 50 lb. of succulent, nourishing fodder.

A Royal Commission, appointed in England some years ago, to investigate the merits claimed for the ensilage system, obtained much useful information. The members reported :—

We have received the strongest evidence of the unbounded advantage of the system for the feeding of dairy stock. The effect of dry winter-food given to such stock has always been to reduce in quantity, and to deteriorate in quality, milk, cream, and butter, as compared with the same products resulting from green summer-food. Although the degree of perfection attainable in summer has not been reached, it has been, at least, much more nearly approached by ensilage than by the use of hay and other dry foods, while, at the same time, the objections inseparable from the employment of roots for this purpose have been overcome. A sensible improvement in the colour of butter has been especially noticed. Green fodder preserved by ensilage has been successfully employed in feeding sheep and cattle at the time of breeding, and as it has been shown to increase the flow of milk, it will undoubtedly be found useful for this purpose, although the proportion of its admixture with other kinds of food must always require care and judgment. It forms a complete and wholesome food for store stock, and in fattening, although its value is not so widely demonstrated as in the case of dairy produce, it enables farmers to use profitably straw-chaff, rough hay, and other dry materials.

The Department of Agriculture in this Colony has published in the Agricultural Gazette, and also in a pamphlet, a mass of evidence taken from Australasian sources regarding the usefulness of silage.

The agricultural productions susceptible of being silaged are:—grain and seeds, such as wheat, oats, maize,

roots; tubers, such as beets, turnips, potatoes; pulps or refuse of distilleries and wineries, starch factories, etc., and green fodder of every description.

Mr. J. A. Despeissis, one of the Department’s Inspectors, when reporting upon the sugar industry of the northern coast districts, drew attention to what might be done with sugar-cane tops in the silo. About 20 tons of tops and green leaves are taken from each acre of cane cut. These, he states, could be easily preserved in a silo stack. It is probable, however, that these tops would be more serviceable if they were chaffed with some other crop, and placed in pits.

Maize and Sorghum are favourite silo crops in Australia. The former yields from 15 to 40 tons per acre according to quality of soil and methods of cultivation. Thick broadcast sowing was at one time thought to be the best system, but later experience favours drilling in the seed in rows three feet apart, using about twelve quarts of seed per acre. The best time to cut for ensiling is when the grain is in a dough state and the stalk glazed.

It would be a difficult matter to define what greenstuff grown on soil could not be made into palatable food for cattle under the ensilage system. The large farm which takes all the sewage of that important city, Adelaide, has its silos, and in these there have been placed from time to time the “ rubbish or weeds which have been grown under the great forcing system of irrigation. All the ordinary crops, such as grasses, are sold ; all the refuse goes into the silos,” reported the farm’s manager. “We feed young store cattle with the silage, and make a good profit on the transaction. The only stuff that grows here which cannot

FEEDING VALUES OF VARIOUS FOODS.

Food

Units.

Water.

Oil.

Albumi

noids.

Carbo

hydrates.

Bran ... ... ...

109

11-45

4-33

16-46

5701

Carrots ... ... ...

12

87-25

•20

1-25

8-80

Clover Hay ... ...

68

16-68

•86

11-75

3739

Clover, green ... ...

12

87-50

•20

300

4-00

Cocoanut cake ... ...

C 123) < to > ( 130 )

8-70

ri2-oo)

il4°96)

21 19

4029

Crushed Oats ... ...

102

13-45

677

1112

56-92

Silage (from meadow grass) ... ...

24

68-74

235

3 04

11-10

Lucerne, green ... ,.

19

7400

■30

4-50

730

Maize, old ... ...

108

11-25

4-80

1020

70-17

Maize, new ... ...

99

17-45

4-06

9-25

66-14

Mangels... ... ...

12

8789

•17

1-32

8-63

Meadow Grass... ...

23

70-48

•83

2-95

14-14

Meadow Hay ... ...

68

14-30

1-48

932

41-28

Mixed Oats and vetches, green ... ...

14

84-00

•20

2-40

700

Molasses ... ...

9

92-00

...

2-00

4-50

Potatoes ... ...

26

75-80

•20

2-08

19-90

Rye Grass, green ...

22

70-00

•30

3-60

12 30

Straw (oat) ... ...

52

15 15

1-52

404

3847

Straw (barley) ... ...

47

1465

1-45

3 25

35 35

Straw (wheat) ... ...

41

1381

1-47

296

30-29

Swede Turnips... ...

9

9042

•20

•91

6-61

Turnips ... ... ...

8

91-85

•20

1-05

5-25

Wheat Pollard ... ...

113

11-65

5-13

1769

5559

White Clover, in flower

18

80-50

•50

3-50

800

pass as silage is mustard weed.” There was no dairying done on this farm, because objections were raised against dairy products from a sewage farm. The buildings which were erected for dairies were used as silos.

Experts’


v-A


<y


Opinion

ON .

Sunlight Oil Cake.


'£W£'

“il Better Fodder than . . .

Bran or

OIL FOODS THE MOST VALUABLE.


33i*/o HIGHER IN FLESH= FORMING COMPOUNDS THAN BRAN OR POLLARD.


Sunlight Oil Cake

For Feeding Cows, Calves, Horses, Stud Sheep, Pigs and Poultry.

EXPERTS’ OPINION.

Alfred Smetham, F.I.C., F.C.S., Consulting Analytical Chemist of the Royal Lancashire Society, in an article on the Choice of Feeding Stuffs, writes :—

“ There is no gainsaying the fact that oil or fat is a necessary constituent of food, and that, weight for weight, it is the most valuable. Roughly speaking, it may be said that for feeding purposes oil is worth two-and-a-half times as much as an equal weight of starch, sugar, or other digestible carbo-hydrate.”

Sunlight Oil Cake contains from two to three times as much oil as bran, pollard, or maize, and six to seven times as much orl as hay, meadow grass, or wheat straw.

Mr. Smetham also states :—

“ Next in importance to oil is the class known as albuminous or flesh-forming compounds. This class includes those substances which, like white of egg, are capable on digestion of forming flesh in contradistinction to fat.”

Sunlight Oil Cake contains 33^ per cent, more albuminoids than bran or pollard.

G. S. Thomson, N.D.D., the Govern- GIVES A ment Dairy Instructor for South Australia, HIGHER just recently had experiments in the MELTING

hand-feeding of cows for milk and butter    AND

,    ,    i • i •    ,    , SOLIDITY

OF BUTTER.


production, and in his report wrote as

follows :—

In the experiment a striking illustration of the value of Sunlight Oil Cake, and one of particular importance in a hot climate, was the higher melting point and solidity of the butter manufactured, and at the same time the good properties of the product were retained.”

In the same report Mr. Thomson gives YIELD OF the following result of the yield of milk MILK from four cows from various rations :—    GREATER.

Morning

Yield.

After

noon

Yield.

Total Yield.

Foods in Ration.

lb$.

lbs.

lbs.

270

196

466

Chaffed hay and brewers’ grains

w

268*

203*

472

Chaffed hay and Sunlight Oil Cake.

261*

188*

450

Chaffed hay and bran.

227*

159

386*

Chaffed hay and double quantity of bran.

Mr. Thomson, from the same series of experiments proves that there is a decided improvement in the quality of milk from rations with Sunlight Oil Cake.

o

AS

COMPARED WITH BRAN, A BETTER FOOD.


H. W. Potts, F.C.S. (until recently Government Dairy Expert for Victoria), reports as follows :—

“ I hereby certify that I have examined samples of Sunlight Oil Cake manufactured by Messrs. Lever Brothers, Sydney, and find it a valuable food for cattle, horses., sheep, pigs and poultry, being rich in fat, flesh and bone-forming material.

“ It is specially to be recommended as a suitable concentrated food for dairy cattle, and as a means of prolonging and augmenting the milk flow in the extremes of winter and summer, when natural fodder or grasses are scarce.

“It is highly nutritious, easily digested and assimilated, and, as compared with bran, a better food.

“We are conducting a series of practical experiments in feeding cattle suffering from cripples, impaction, and other dietetic disorders, with Sunlight Oil Cake. So far the results are highly satisfactory.”

Mr. Jno. Williamson, the Head Dairyman and Pedigree Stock Overseer, Coolangatta, N.S.W., testifies to the excellent feeding qualities of Sunlight Oil Cake.

MOST SATIS FACTORY CALF FOOD.


INCREASES

MILK

SUPPLY.


BUTTER

FIRMER

AND

SWEETER.


He says:—

u Cattle take readily to it, thrive well upon it, and when fed to dairy cows they yield an increased supply of milk of superior quality. As a calf food it gave most satisfactory results.”

The Manager of the Australian Dairying Co., Ltd., Sydney, writes that he has been using Sunlight Oil Cake as food for cows, calves, pigs and poultry, and that the results have been most gratifying. After feeding for a short time with the Oil Cake his cows not only increased their quantity of milk, but the milk was also improved in quality. He is perfectly satisfied from experience that it will pay farmers (whether poultry or dairy farmers) to use Sunlight Oil Cake.

Mr. H. C. L. Anderson, of Kingswood, N.S.W., writes that after feeding with Sunlight Oil Cake for a fortnight, he had just taken First Prize at Penrith Show for separator butter. It was firmer and sweeter than any other sample.

Mr. J. J. GillHam, of Gillham Bros , A . . . Carriers, Circular Quay, Sydney, writes BENEF1CI/ that Sunlight Oil Cake has a very beneficial EFFECT O* effect on his horses, and that they have H°R5E,S* 5 been doing more work lately than any previous winter He also says that with the use of Sunlight Oil Cake his horses continue to improve, and out of 160 head, doing fast and slow work, there has not been a case of colic or a death amongst them for months.

Mr. Philip F. Richardson, St. Ives, HENS LAY North Sydney, writes that they have BETTER, used Sunlight Oil Cake with great advantage on their Poultry Farm. They find it is economical, and that the hens lay better, and are getting through the moulting season well. There has been no disease amongst their poultry, although there has been a good deal in the neighbourhood. For rearing ducks they found it invaluable.

FREE. —A Pamphlet of 24 Pages, giving full instructions on Sunlight Oil Cake, and How to Use It, can be obtained from the manufacturers, Lever Brothers, Limited, Sunlight Works, Sydney.

CHAPTER VII.

THE FARM AND STATION; FARM, GARDEN AND STATION CALENDAR.

It cannot be expected that in a work like this, which is restricted in size, full information can be given about the management of farms, orchards, stations and vineyards, but there is room for a number of useful hints and explanations about general principles. One of the latter which should be ever before the farmer is that he should have some definite plan of action in all his undertakings. The main object is to make a good living and perhaps something more from the soil. Therefore the farmer should study the crops or stock which pay best and avoid what is already overdone. Another principle is that very little success can be hoped for in farming without hard work. Elbow grease is the great lubricant which keeps the machinery of the farm moving. See what is wanted and produce it. In this way the system known as mixed farming usually succeeds where no useless crops are grown. The eggs, butter, bacon, fruit and cheese help to pay the storekeeper’s bills and the by-crops supplement the little bank account. Here is a little calendar which may assist in the work.

JANUARY.

If the wheat is off the land, put sheep into the

stubbles. You can give the soil a little useful manure

D

by this plan. Prepare for burning off on the new clearings; plough deeply on the best lands for crops of green maize, rape, Calcutta oats, Cape barley and vetches. On

stations keep a sharp look out for bush fires and be ready for an early start when news of fires is to hand. In the garden sow French beans, cucumber, borecole, turnips, peas, lettuce (broadcast in a moist place, to be thinned but not transplanted), celery (in boxes), cabbage, cauliflower, bush squash (for succession), radish, broccoli, parsley, onion, carrot, leek, spinach. Plant out from seed beds, cabbage, cauliflower, celery (in trenches); stop cucumber vines when setting fruit by pinching off the points of shoots.

FEBRUARY.

If the ground is not too hard, plough. Early ploughing gives great advantages and is worthy of special efforts. Skim plough lands intended for grasses so that weeds may be harrowed out and deeper ploughing given later on. Keep down the weeds in the root crops and stir the soil. If the rains have come, sow turnips. Dig potatoes and raise the onions. Sow for green crops so that there may be a supply of food in Autumn. Devote some attention to the machines. Screw up all washers and do some painting. On stations plough fire breaks, and do some cultivation. In the vegetable garden sow turnips (white, yellow and Swede), celery, lettuce, carrot, onion, cabbage, spinach, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, peas, kidney beans, radish, parsnip, beet, savoy, mustard and cress, cauliflower. Plant from seed bed, cauliflower, cabbage, celery; plant garlic and eschallots (bulbs), Early Rose potatoes.

MARCH.

Burn off weeds and stubbles, give the surface a light harrowing to encourage the germination of what seeds remain, so that when they germinate they may be ploughed down. One of the best months to make improvements on sheep farms and stations. The drafting yards, fences, woolshed and buildings generally should have alterations and repairs where necessary. Tanks and dams should be cleaned of silt, so that the Autumn rains may have a chance of giving large stores of water. In some districts grasses may be sown ; directions on laying down pasture appear in the notes of May. In the vegetable garden sow cabbage, turnip, radish, spinach, broad beans, lettuce, onion, parsley, mustard and cress, beet, carrot, parsnip, peas, water cress, French beans. Plant out celery, cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, leek ; also plant Early Rose potatoes and eschallots.

APRIL.

This is the best month to sow wheat in all districts except the very late ones. Furrow drains should be made along the lands and in such directions that they may convey surplus surface to cross drains which have good outlets. Lay down well-tilled land in lucerne; about six pounds of good seed per acre should be sufficient. The lucerne areas should be divided so that each paddock may have a rest when necessary. Care should be exercised in feeding off lucerne when it is in its early stages of growth. Sow lettuce, onion, radish, turnip, herbs, cabbage, leek, water cress, peas, broad beans, mustard and cress, spinach, broccoli, carrot, parsnip. Plant out cabbage, celery, rhubarb (roots), garlic and eschallots, and early potatoes.

MAY.

Put in green crops. Oats and Cape barley will give quick returns and be very useful. Lay down grasses for permanent pasture.

Autumn is the best period of the year to grow grass seeds, and especially when it is contemplated to sow a mixture of seeds for permanent pasture. March, April and May are the best months, as the young plants can then make some strong growth during the winter, before the hot weather sets in; still, in some of the late and cooler districts, grass seeds may be sown during August and September. The preparation of land for grass and clover seeds is very important, and good, deep ploughing will be found to pay well, as some of the artificial grasses root deeply, and the roots being very fine, good open land is essential to success; besides, grass and clover seeds are very small, and in rough land a very large proportion of the seed is likely to be lost. A cross ploughing and a good harrowing before sowing the seed will repay the labour. When the land is in good tilth sow the mixed grass seeds broadcast first, choosing a fine clear day, then sow the mixed clovers, and to gain an even distribution of such a small quantity of seed as is required of clovers over an acre, a good plan is to mix the seed with about four times or so its bulk of soil or sand, and sow broadcast. This done, harrow all down together with a light harrow; or a good rolling may give a sufficient covering, and nothing can possibly be more beneficial to the land than a rolling after the grasses are a few inches high. Sow the grass and clover seeds broadcast, at the rate of 4 lbs. to the acre, thickest in the poorest parts, and then turn in a flock of sheep closely driven; this will ensure the

breaking of the turf, and treading in of the seed, and if the land is pretty soft and not too heavy to cake, this operation will doubtless be successful, and a good thick meadow may result. The practice may also be followed under favourable circumstances in newly cleared and stumped bush land.

Messrs. Anderson & Co., the well known seedsmen, say:—“ We have given the matter of grasses for permanent pastures, in the different parts of the Colony, a great deal of attention, and have worked out, from a long experience of those varieties most suitable for various districts, the following Tables of Mixtures which are generally suitable to the cooler and warmer parts as named. Prairie grass, rye grass and cocksfoot are three good grasses ; they do remarkably well in nearly every district in the Colonies, and form the bulk of all our mixtures. Perennial rye grass will not

do so well as the others in the hotter parts.

FOR THE WARMER

DISTRICTS.

TABLE A.

TABLE B.

5 lbs.

Cocksfoot Grass.

20 lbs. Prairie Grass.

10

Perennial Rye Grass.

12

Cocksfoot Grass.

20

Prairie Grass.

5

Rib Grass.

3 „

Rib Grass.

3 „

White Clover.

9

" >>

White Clover.

40

Sufficient for 1 acre.

40

Sufficient for 1 acre.

FOR THE COOLER

DISTRICTS.

TABLE C.

TABLE D.

15 lbs.

Perennial Rye Grass.

21 lbs. Perennial Rye Grass.

4

Cocksfoot Grass.

5

Cocksfoot Grass.

10

Prairie Grass.

7 „

Prairie Grass.

G „

Mixed English Grass.

2

w n

Rib Grass.

3 „

Rib Grass.

5 ,,

Mixed English Grass.

2

White and Red Clover

3 „

White Dutch Cloverl

where suitable.

2

Red Clover. .) suits

40

Sufficient for 1 acre.

45

Sufficient for 1 acre.

House the dairy stock and as explained in the chapter on food. Feed them liberally with a ration in which oil cake takes an important part.

JUNE.

Lamb marking on stations usually commences in this month. Where late sowing has to be done June is not too late for wheat, but instead of the one bushel per acre which would suit for broadcasting in April, one and a quarter bushels will be required in June. In the case of early sown wheats, it may be well to feed off rank growth this month. Sheep are very effective for this purpose. A light harrowing and rolling will also do service, but the ground should be dry before rollers are put on. Dairy stock will, of course, be well housed. Sow peas, broad beans, carrot, cabbage, brussels sprouts, leek, broccoli, turnip, spinach, borecole, cucumber, tomato, Cape goosebery, capsicums and egg plants, lettuce, radish. Plant out rhubarb, asparagus, herbs, eschallots and garlic, horse radish.

JULY.

Prepare good seed beds for chicory, potatoes, mangels, carrots, parsnips and sugar beets. The beet or mangel crop requires a somewhat friable or well worked soil. The soil may be inclined to a sandy loam, but it must be fertile. Work the soil thoroughly to a good depth, and dress liberally with farm yard manure. Artificial manures may also be used, which can be drilled in with the seed. Liberal treatment is necessary except upon the richest soil, but the crop will generally pay well for the labour and manure. Soak the seed in water from 12 to 24 hours before sowing, and sow in drills about 2ft. apart, at the rate of from 41bs. to

61bs. of seed to the acre. The land should be prepared in the autumn, and kept in order until sowing time, which is the early spring. When the plants come up, thin out to about 1ft. apart. Store the roots as you would potatoes before the winter sets in; but in many parts of this Colony the pumpkins have the place which roots occupy in colder climes. Maize for the ordinary cereal crop should be sown in all parts except the extremely cold districts. The seed can be put in furrows 3|ft. to 5ft. apart, or in hills so laid that two or three plants grow in each clump, the distance from clump to clump being fully 4 ft. Shearing is usually commenced this month in the warm districts of Australasia, but many pastoralists consider that this is injudicious, as the cold weather for which July is remarkable is likely to injure the stock. Give good shelter and liberal rations to dairy stock and horses. Sow peas, broad beans, carrot, rhubarb, cabbage, onion, parsley, asparagus, broccoli, peas, radish, sea-kale, cucumbers and melons. Plant out onion, herbs, asparagus, horse-radish, and rhubarb, bulbs of eschallots, garlic.

AUGUST.

Barley should be sown on well-worked rich soil. The seed should be clean. For malting use English chevalier and battledore. For feeding purposes sow Cape barley. These are crops which do not require feeding off. If late sowings of oats are made, Cape or Calcutta seed should be used. Peas may be sown; the early varieties of dwarf growers are suitable. Tobacco will require attention this month and in September. The farmer who would like to try a crop will receive advice and assistance, probably even seed, from the Departments of Agriculture. The services of

experts are available for all tobacco growers, and as it is a crop which requires more than mere book instruction, novices should have a few lessons from men who can turn out good marketable leaves. Fodder, corn, sorghum, and planter’s friend should be sown this month. Shearing should be in progress in all but the cool districts. The housing and stall feeding of dairy stock and horses should be continued during this month. In the vegetable garden sow onion, leek, swede, parsnip, beet, carrot, lettuce, squash, broad beans, cucumber, melons, peas, pumpkins, kidney beans, herbs, tomatoes, capsicums, egg plants, cabbage (for succession), parsley, broccoli, rhubarb, brussels sprouts, turnips, radish, spinach. Plant out Jerusalem artichokes, sweet potatoes, eschallots and garlic, rhubarb and asparagus.

SEPTEMBER.

September is suitable for sowing lucerne, clovers, and grasses generally. Where such work is done the land should be specially clean and rich. Sow for native grasses where seed is available. Pastures in their first year of growth should not be allowed to seed ; run the mowing machine over the young growth, or if the plants are firmly rooted give a careful feeding off with light stock. Many pastoralists select this as the best month to sow lucerne. The quantity of lucerne seed to be sown is, as we have often explained, a moot point. Southern men on the Murray are satisfied that 61bs. to the acre is quite as much as need be sown, while western and northern farmers still adhere to 16 lbs., or in the case of rich lands larger quantities. Sow sorghum, millet and mangels. In the early districts plant potatoes, sow cucumber, melons, spinach, sweet corn, kidney

beans, egg plant, celery, Cape gooseberry, capsicum, rhubarb, pumpkin and vegetable marrow, tomato, peas, turnips, beet, lettuce, radish, carrot, parsnips, onions, sweet turnips.

OCTOBER.

On sheep farms the rams are usually put into the ewe paddocks this month, and the dipping of lambs which usually takes place five or six weeks after shearing, should receive attention. Sow chicory, maize for grain, potatoes and carrots. Hay making may be done in many districts ere the closing the month. Much fallow work should be done. Rape or buckwheat make good green fallow crops. In the vegetable garden sow French beans, peas, celery, sweet corn, pumpkin, melons, cucumber, cabbage, leek, radish, lettuce, carrot, parsnip, onion, turnip, vegetable marrow and squash, tomato, spinach, beet, parsley, leek, capsicum.

NOVEMBER.

Wheat harvesting will require attention in all districts where early sowing was practised. The horses should be in first class condition, and it is here that the advantage of autumn and winter feeding will be apparent. The dairy stock will be on the pastures but should receive a small ration each milking time. The value of good barns for stores of hay is well appreciated by all agriculturists. These barns should, where possible, stand in the centre of either green crops, or be well surrounded by freshly ploughed areas or fire breaks. All parts of the station should have good breaks against fire. The fire plough is a most useful implement.

DECEMBER.

Reaping, stripping, threshing and winnowing will be the chief works of the farm. It will not be too late to sow maize, cattle melons and pumpkins. Mangel sowing can be done in cool districts all through the year. This, like other crops depends so much on rainfall or on irrigation that no fixed rule can be observed in sowing or treatment. One rule however can always be observed, keep down the weeds. The rams should be taken out of the ewe paddocks. Preparations for burning off fresh areas should be made and a sharp look out kept for bush fires. Sow cauliflower, French beans, broccoli, brussels sprouts, beet, cabbage, savoy, carrot, cucumber, water melons, pumpkin and vegetable marrow, celery, radish, turnip, mustard and cress, lettuce. Apply water liberally.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE ORCHARD, VARIETIES OF TREES TO PLANT. APPLES, APRICOTS, ORANGES, LEMONS, ORCHARD CULTIVATION.

Each farm in Australasia should have its fruit-garden

or orchard. The best site for one is usually between north and east, which takes the morning sun. Nearly all soils are either suitable, or may be made suitable for the production of fruits, but there are certain soils which are best adapted for certain kinds. Settlement has sufficiently advanced to give the young orchardists object lessons. A tour around the intended settlement usually suffices to give a fair idea of what may be grown. One fact is always plain—it is that an orchard should be well drained. Drains can be made by filling up the bottom of trenches with coarse stones, or by forming vacancies with slabs. Stiff soils and level land require a complete system of drainage. Pipes make the best drains. To drain an acre of land with drains 21 feet apart, about 2,074 feet of pipes are required.

To prepare the land for trees, it is necessary to stir it to a depth of from 18 inches to 3 feet. The former depth will suit for light gravelly soils, while the latter is needed for stiff soils. Dig a hole and fill it with water; if it drains off quickly, the cultivator will know that he will not require much drainage, but if it remains say for days, he must drain effectually, or lose his young trees. Select the kind of trees that are likely to give satisfactory results. Do not deal in rubbish, and buy from men who have a good reputation.

David A. Crichton, one of the best authorities in Australasia, says:—

“ In the warmer regions of Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, and in many parts of Queensland, the fruits that should receive special attention are the grape, peach, apricot, fig, orange, and lemon. All these fruits reach the highest degree of perfection in the warmer districts, as the strong hfeat and light at the ripening period develops their flavours to the fullest perfection. Though the apple, pear, plum, cherry, and other fruits, that naturally belong to cooler regions, may be grown with a fair amount of success in the moderately warm districts, yet better results will be obtained from other localities. 1 hese fruits, when grown in the cooler portions of the Australasian colonies, will generally be higher in quality, and keep better than if raised in the warmer regions. Then again, the trees are not likely to prove so durable in warm as in cooler regions, as their constitutions become weakened more rapidly. For the colder parts of Australasia the apple, plum, cherry, and pear should receive special attention, as also the currant, gooseberry, raspberry, and strawberry, as the fruits that will give the best returns. The banana, pineapple, bread fruit, mango, mangosteen, and other tropical fruits are only suitable for the warmer regions of Queensland, northern river districts of New South Wales, and other tropical or semi-tropical localities in Australia. These fruits all require a very strong heat to bring them to perfection. In some districts, however, there is a sort of intermediate climate, between the warmer and cooler regions, and in those localities planters may indulge in a wider range of fruits with success. Special care should be taken in

planting to select varieties of each kind that are best adapted for the particular requirements of the grower, who should decide as to the way in which his fruit will be utilized before starting. If his object is to supply fresh fruit to the market, he must, as a rule, have varieties that will yield in succession, and those that will keep well, so that he can meet the demand for a long period. In some localities early varieties will pay well, but in the later districts they will often prove unprofitable, as they will be anticipated by supplies from the warmer parts of the colony. If the object is to grow for an export trade such fruits as apples and pears, only late and long keeping varieties should be planted. It is also advisable in the case of all dessert fruits that they should be good-looking varieties, as well as possessing other desirable qualities.”

The best time to plant deciduous trees is about the end of winter. Oranges, lemons, and other evergreens should be transplanted late in the summer. Plant in straight lines so that cultivation may be done by horses. Here are some favourite distances :—

Table showing the number of trees to plant an acre of land at distances from 30 to 10 feet apart:—

Distance.

Number per Acre.

Distance.

Number per Acre.

Feet.

N umber.

Feet.

Number.

30

48

17

150

28

55

16

169

26

64

15

193

24

75

14

222

22

90

13

257

20

100

12

302

19

120

11

360

18

134

10

435

Watch the trees old and young closely, and see that they are thriving. At the first sign of failure apply suitable manures. Shelter is required by all fruits; that is, the orchard or garden must be saved frorm chilling or other blasts. Where rainfall is deficient, water must be applied to the trees. Frosts can be to some extent warded off by lighting fires around the gardens. Straw, weeds or rubbish with a little tar are, when lighted, great frost fighters. Learn the art of pruning. There is not space in this small work to explain how it should be done.

Tasmanian growers go in for six varieties of apples, and confine themselves almost exclusively to that number.

The six are Ripstone Pippin, Cleopatra (called New York Pippin in Tasmania), Sturmer Pippin, Scarlet Nonpareil, French Crab, and King of the Pippins (called Adam’s Pearmain in Tasmania). These varieties, when grown in Tasmania, are better appreciated in London than any of the other varieties. The season in London when apples lealise the highest price, extends from about the first week in April until about the end of the first week in June. In Victoria among the best proved varieties of apples, from a dessert standpoint, are the Jonathan, ^sophus, Spitzemberg, Rome Beauty, Red Canada, King of the Pippins, Shockley,

Nickajack, and Rokewood, all of which take a foremost position as dessert fruits, and can also be kept for several months. Most of these varieties can be shipped to the English market. The Rome Beauty is also a most profitable apple for drying. Other good keeping, cooking, and drying sorts might be found among the following : Cleopatra, Five-crown Pippin, Sturmer Pippin, Prince Alfred, and Ben Davis.

Apricots, although a tender fruit, have the advantage of being suitable for converting into apricot-pulp, or for canning, bottling, or drying purposes, should the fresh-fruit market be glutted. The most suitable kinds to grow for the

purposes named are the Moor Park, Mansfield Seedling, Alsace, Campbellfield Seedling, and Hemskirk. The Oullin’s Early, although a payable apricot to grow, is only suitable as a fresh fruit, and therefore should be sparingly planted in localities far removed from large centres of population.

Peaches—Although peculiarly subject to the aphis and curl-leaf, the peach is about the most profitable fruit to grow. It begins to bear fairly well three years after planting, and will, with care, continue bearing for a long time. Peach-trees have been known to thrive and bear well for a

period of over twenty years. The earliest varieties are only fit for use as fresh fruit, but, nevertheless, they pay well. These varieties are : Briggs’ Red May, Arkansas Traveller, Early Alexander, Waterloo, and Bilyen’s Late October. The earliest vellow-flesh peaches are the Colliding and Yellow Crawford. These kinds are excellent as fresh fruit, and are equally suitable for drying or canning. Other well-known peaches for any purpose are Susquahana, Brandy-wine, Elbertha and Forster. They ripen in mid season ; and in

the order named, would equal if not surpass any other foui varieties of peaches grown. The best mid-season whiteflesh peach is the old Mixon Free. Besides being a splendid peach, it is a heavy bearer, sets well on the main branches and not on the twigs of the tree, and is also a very showy fruit. Lady Palmerston, Solway, and Comet are fair peaches for bottling or drying, but they ripen too late, have very little colour when ripe, and might well be overlooked by the

orchardist. The best varieties of cling-stone peaches are Orange Cling, Yellow Italian, Nicholl’s Orange Cling, and Heath’s Cling. Whilst these kinds are good as fresh fruit, they are principally suitable for canning purposes, in which respect they have very few equals.

Citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons grow in nearly all parts of Australasia, but great care should be exercised in selecting suitable varieties. Parramatta in New South Wales supplies good trees, and these are in such great variety that their enumeration here cannot be attempted. A good seedsman should be able to supply proper trees and advice. The chief causes of failure are well shown by the following notes from L. G. Corrie of Queensland, who, in a paper read before a conference of fruit growers held in New Zealand, says :—

“ Where Citrus cultivation has failed in Queensland, this can be traced in most cases to some of the following reasons :—

Unsuitable soil selection, most often owing to same not being naturally well drained, or through having clayey, uncongenial conditions for roots too close to the surface.

Planting on sites too much exposed, or, as is almost universally the custom, the cutting away of the natural sheltering timber or scrub growth which obtains on all fair to good coastal land.

Planting indifferent trees—viz., those unsuitable through the stock used, etc. Even when the orange stock is adopted, unless due care has been paid to selection of same, trees may grow-off badly.

Planting trees lower than they were in the nursery. More especially in case of flat or low land—upon which heavy mulching or top-dressing is subsequently gone in for—this a fatal error.

Planting too close : a cause ruining many fine plantations—as soon as trees grow big enough, to find that not enough soil has been left for roots of all.

Failing to supply the elements of nutrition—needed to secure healthy growth of trees—that the particular soil may lack, whether in a virgin state or after the growth of trees has exhausted same.

Want of pruning, such as the trees may need under varying conditions.

Injudicious cultivation, such as cutting the fibrous roots just before a dry spell.

Want of cultivation—viz., the allowing weeds and grass to grow upon land where the tree-roots should have soil to themselves, especially in dry weather.

Endeavouring to get two or more crops out of the same ground by growing other plants amongst and more or less close to trees to detriment of both crops.

Non-spraying or otherwise coping with insects or other pests, especially at the time when trees are first attacked.”

ORCHARD CULTIVATION.

Albert H. Benson, the well-known expert, lately of New South Wales, but now in the Department of Agriculture, Queensland, says :—“ If you want to grow good fruit, and to make ^fruit-growing pay, you must cultivate your orchard

thoroughly. Thorough cultivation is a sine qua non of successful fruit-cuhure in all the warmer and drier parts of the Australian colonies, and the success of the orchard is dependent on the thoroughness and intensity of the method adopted; the more thorough the method the better the return. Thorough cultivation is the best remedy against drought, and it is also the best remedy against the ravages of insect-pests, as by keeping the land free from weeds, and in a state of thorough tilth, there is nothing to harbour many of our insect-pests; and the trees, being kept in vigorous health, are able to throw off and withstand disease when a less vigorous tree would succumb to it. Thorough cultivation is the best remedy against drought, in that by keeping the surface of the soil in a fine state, and never allowing it to set, the surface soil acts as a mulch, and prevents the loss of moisture from the soil by surface-evaporation. By preventing the surface soil setting you prevent the formation of capillaries right to the surface of the land, and it is through the capillaries that surface evaporation takes place. Every orchardist knows how moist the soil keeps when covered by a mulch of straw, leaves, or bush-rakings, and a soil mulch produced by thorough cultivation has the same results, and for the same reason—viz., that it prevents surface-evaporation. The method of cultivation to be adopted is the same in all cases, the implements used depending on the nature of the soil and the size of the orchard. Plough the orchard during the winter and cultivate during the summer. Ploughing tends to sweeten the soil, and to break up any pan that maybe formed, as well as bury any weeds or trash that may have gathered in the orchard after the summer cultivation is dispensed with.

Plough the orchard as soon as it has been pruned, and leave it in the rough, so that any sourness in the soil may be sweetened. Plough the orchard well, the depth depending on the variety of fruit and the nature and depth of the soil. Use ploughs that turn the soil right over, and for this purpose the short-breasted American ploughs are far the best, being easier to pull, better to handle, and doing more work than the ordinary English type of plough. In small orchards a single-furrow one-horse plough is all that is required, but in large orchards two-, three-, or four-gang ploughs can be used if the trees are planted at a proper distance. All the land that can be ploughed by means of big ploughs should be so ploughed, and that close to the trees should be ploughed with single-furrow one-horse ploughs, fitted with special side-draught so that the whole of the land can be ploughed right up to the line of trees. The summer cultivation consists of keeping down all weeds, and keeping the surface of the soil from setting. For this purpose implements of the Planet Junior type, worked by one horse, and fitted with sets of teeth for surface-working to kill all weeds, and with narrow cultivator-teeth to stir the land deeply, are the best for small orchardists, whereas for large orchardists two-horse implements, such as the Planet Senior top-notch cultivator or Morgan spading-harrow are to be preferred. The latter is a splendid orchard implement that reduces the surface-soil to a very fine state, and consequently renders it a good mulch, as the finer the surface-soil the more perfect the mulch and the less the surface-evaporation. There are two great secrets in summer cultivation: the first is to work the land at the right time, and the second is never to allow a

crust to form. After heavy rain the cultivators should be kept going as hard as possible—as soon as the land will carry the horses without packing—as the sooner the surface of the soil is stirred after a rain the finer the tilth that will be obtained, and the more moisture will be retained in the soil. Never neglect this; remember that the more moisture you can retain in your soil in a dry district the better your returns, and neglecting to retain the moisture when you get it, very often means the loss of your crop. You cannot over-cultivate if you cultivate properly. Stir the land and stir it deeply ; do not turn the land, as if you turn the land you bring moist soil to the surface and consequently lose moisture, therefore use narrow teeth that stir but do not turn the soil.”

CHAPTER IX.

THE VINEYARD : PLANT DISEASES AND REMEDIES.

The grape Yine grows well in the open in most parts of Australasia. The best localities are in loamy river banks, on the volcanic chocolate soils of hillsides; a north eastern aspect which catches the sun for the longest part of the day is the best site. In the preparation of the soil for the planting of the vine the character of the soil must be taken into consideration. A friable loamy soil of great depth will not require as much labour to prepare as a shallower and a stiffer soil. In the former soil the land is broken in early winter and exposed to the action of the atmosphere until spring, and then cross ploughed deep, say ten inches. The land is thoroughly harrowed, smoothed with the clod crusher, and rolled if necessary. If the land is not then thoroughly pulverised, the operation should be repeated. The land will then be ready for planting. The red and chocolate soils will require deeper ploughing. It will, however, all depend upon the character of the subsoil. If it is of clay it will be well to run the subsoil plough through the furrow after the ordinary plough in the second ploughing. If the subsoil is intermixed with gravel and fairly loose, a ten inch plough will do without any subsoiling. The land should be well prepared and fined down before planting. The next most prevalent class of soil is the clay soils of the coast regions. These soils, as a general rule,

require trenching by ploughing to a depth of eighteen inches with a trench plough, and many of them would, no doubt, be much the better for hand trenching. The vineyard is usually planted with cuttings which should be prepared when the vines are pruned. The strongest and healthiest should be selected, and the cutting from twelve inches to fifteen inches in length. They may be tied in convenient bunches of say fifty each, and immersed in water for a time if the weather is dry. They should then be buried in shallow trenches dug in the ground, laid crosswise in the trench, spread out about four inches deep, and covered over with soil, and permitted to remain there until required for planting. It would, however, be very much better to place them in a nursery row for one year, to root before planting. The nursery rows should be about from four to six feet apart, to allow a horse and small cultivator to work between them ; and the cuttings should be placed in the row about four inches apart. By rooting before planting a chance is given to the planter to re-select his vines and reject all imperfect ones; and there is a great saving too in labour in the vineyard, as the rooted vines will come into bearing one year earlier than those planted permanently in the cutting. Table grapes, such as the Black Prince, the Black Hamburg, and the Muscats thrive best on the loamy soils. For wine grapes of numerous varieties the clay hills and chocolate soils answer admirably, producing grapes exceedingly rich in saccharine matter. Sandy loams, sandy and loamy grit, containing plenty of sulphate of lime and oxide of iron, suit raisin grapes, embracing all the muscats. The time to plant is in the early spring.

The distances apart for vines is a moot point. In small vineyards where the cultivation and manuring receive careful attention, distances of four feet will answer, but for ordinary vineyards six feet, eight feet, and even ten feet are now adopted. It is also well at varied spaces to give fifteen feet in width, so that carts may take the grapes in the vintage season. In laying off a vineyard a wire line should be used. The wire should be joined together like a surveyor’s chain, in lengths of two feet or four feet, so that it may be doubled up for carrying purposes if necessary. Along the line tags are fastened on at such spaces as apart as it is desirable to plant the vines in rows. To space the distance correctly apart a line will be stretched along each end of the field, and pegs will be set along the line at the spaces where it is intended to plant the vines between the rows. Vines placed in proper and correct rows will look well and be found very convenient for the operation of horses and implements in the field. In planting cuttings not much hole digging is necessary. It is by no means a good plan to plant the cuttings in a stiff soil in holes punched with a crowbar. Cuttings cost very little and in some parts of Australia are given away. A hole about ten inches deep and eight inches square should be dug for the reception of the vine. In planting, a boy should hold the vine and another fill in the soil. If no water is used in planting fill in the soil around the roots of the vine with the foot, but if it is possible to employ water and the soil will receive it, run a small stream of water along the rows of newly-planted vines to settle the soil around them. The cutting should be set upright in the ground, leaving about four inches clear of the soil, with

one eye above ground. If not buried too deep the cutting will sprout, even if all the eyes are underground. The cost of preparing a vineyard and planting is but small. It is the subsequent cultivation, the staking and training, which require much labour. All persons who intend to enter upon the wine production should visit some good wine producing centre before entering upon even the earliest stages of their work, but for ordinary fruit producing the systems of staking, pruning, tying or training on wires are easily acquired.

PLANT DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT.

The following list of washes and emulsions is recommended by Anderson :—

The three cheapest, and possibly the best, are Nos. 1, 5, and 6.

1.    Tobacco, 1 lb., or 61bs. tobacco stems; boiling water, 3 gallons. Strain when cool, and add a gill of kerosene to each 3 gallons. Very effective when used as a spray for aphides, lice, beetles and ticks, or pear scale, on all soft-wooded plants.

2.    Quassia chips, 1 lb. ; boiling water, 3 gallons. A good preventative. Apply as a spray to destroy aphides on rose bushes, and plant lice.

3.    London purple, Paris green. Use 1 lb. of the poison to 200 gallons water. Dissolve a little flour paste in the water to make it sticky ; stir frequently. A sure cure for all insect plagues.

-A. Bordeaux mixture. 1 lb. sulphate of copper dissolved in 1 gallon hot water (in one vessel) ; in another, I lb. of rock lime is slaked in gallons cold water; when

cool pour into the copper solution and strain. Add 2 gallons water and it is ready for use.

5.    Soap. 1 lb. carbolic soap to 1 gallon hot water. Use as a spray. Valuable remedy for small and soft insects.

6.    Kerosene. 4 lbs. soft soap, dissolved in 1 gallon hot (boiling) water; remove from the fire; add 2 gallons kerosene while hot, and 1| pint spirits of turpentine. Thoroughly emulsify the oil and add 27 gallons cold water for use.

7.    Dissolve 2 lbs. copper sulphate in hot water; also lbs. sodium carbonate in another vessel of water; mix

together, and before using add 1^ pints of ammonia; then dilute to 30 gallons with water. A sure remedy for the pear blight.

The Codlin Moth.—Use a hay band, or a band of bagging or other like material bound loosely round the butt of each tree, about twelve inches from the ground level; this should be done early in Spring so that it may act as a trap for the larvae to nidify in. The Codlin Moth must be destroyed by continuing the band system till it disappears; the bands should be renewed frequently, and the old ones either burnt or plunged into hot water. If this could be done for a year or two by all apple growers, we should cease to be troubled with the Codlin Moth.

The Aphis.—Treat with kerosene emulsion as soon as the trees begin to shoot. A fine spraying, as early as possible will save much trouble.

Scale Insect.—Spray with kerosene emulsion. Before applying the emulsion all dead wood should be cleared away, and if the branches are too dense they should be

thinned out, so that light and air may penetrate into the interior of the tree.

Pear Slug.—A blackish brown, slimy, slug-like insect, about five-eighths of an inch in length. It not only feeds on the pear leaves, but also attacks plums, cherries, quinces and hawthorns. Spraying with strong tobacco water quickly kills this insect. As a general rule never spray when trees are in full bloom, the operation should be done either before or after the fruit has “ set.”

Black smut on orange trees.—Take a bucket of starch, not too thick, and syringe the trees with it. This, of course, must be done on a dull day, or in the cool of the evening. The first day’s sun will crack the starch and it will come off in a skin and take the smut with it, leaving the leaves bright and clean. If scale should be found on the leaves or stems it must be dressed with kerosene emulsion, otherwise the ants will return and reproduce the smut.

Mildew on pears.—Apply No. 4 mixture frequently to the whole tree.

CHAPTER X.

PIGS ON THE FARM, BREEDS, DISEASES, MEDICINES, BACON AND HAMS.

In a paper read by an American farmer recently before his agricultural association upon “the advantages of the hog on the farm,” the author of the paper indulges in the following enthusiastic peroration :—I would not have you infer that I wish to unduly depreciate other classes of live stock on the farm. Far from it; but hog growing to-day is receiving the greatest attention of all other industries pertaining to American agriculture. The pig is the farmer’s best friend. He pays the taxes, clothes the family, schools the children and lifts the mortgages —all these too, in many instances, with nothing for a covering but the canopy of heaven, and not a decent place to lay his head. It has been said: for big money, breed horses; for sure money, cattle, and for quick money, hogs. Yet to-day we might combine these three sayings in one, and assert that for big, sure and quick money, breed hogs. And now for a couple of verses on the autocratic porker, and I have done :—

You may talk about your venison,

Yer bar meat and yer fowl,

You may blow your horn ’bout everything From turkey down to owl,

You may chirp about your quail on toast,

And such as that you see,

But the fine old fashioned porker Is good enough for me.

You folks that’s living in the town on dried up maccaroni An’ cod fish balls an’ terrapin an’ secondhand bologni,

Come out into the country once,

Yer welcome an’ yer free ;

You’ll find the porker good enough—

For either you or me.

Why do the Americans respect pigs ? For the simple reason that there is money, immense stores of wealth in them. They keep about forty millions of them and they export pork products to the value of about £12,000,000 annually. Australians do not half use the pig. Most of the skimmed milk from the butter factories goes to waste. Skimmed milk is first-class food for pigs but it requires to be mixed with something which will restore the fat which has been taken from it by the separator. What could be better for this purpose than Cocoa Nut Cake or Meal ? The chapter on foods shows what a wonderful value of richness this cake has and how ravenously it is eaten by hogs. Hitherto the bacon and pork manufacturers had to use pollard, bran, and maize meal with the milk—good foods in themselves, but needing the addition of a food rich in vegetable oil and albuminoids. Oil is the most fattening of substances used as food. It passes with little or no change into the circulation.

The best albuminoid ratio in food is as 1 : 5 or 1: 6. It is therefore evident that oil cake is too rich in albuminoids to be used alone ; but when given with lower qualities of food such as skim milk, whey, barley meal, grasses, corn husks aid other kinds of food it makes a perfect ration.

Whey contains about 1 per cent, of albuminoids, 4‘6 per cent, of milk sugar, and only 03 — 06 per cent, of fat.

Berkshire Pigs.

Feed the pigs well; each bit of rich food you give them goes straight away to pork. The following data were wrought out in a long series of experiments made by

Mr. Shelton when Professor of Agriculture at the Kansas State Agricultural College : —

On a half acre of lucerne was depastured, by a variable number of hogs, six months, with a resultant gain in weight by the lot of 388 lbs.

Ten full-grown pigs were fattened on shelled maize; 5‘8 lbs. of maize gave 1 lb. of increase ; 1 bushel of maize yielded 9'7 lbs. of gain.

Ten weanling pigs were fed on new milk and pollard, and pollard alone ; result 5T lbs. of milk and 2-6 lbs. of pollard, and T2 lbs. of pollard alone, gave 1 lb. of increase.

Fifteen full-grown hogs were fattened on maize meal, with the average result that 5'4 lbs. of meal gave 1 lb. of gain, or 1 bushel of maize gave 103 lbs. of pork.

Five hogs were fattened on cooked maize, and five on raw; the cooked gave 1 lb. of increase for each 7 5 lbs. of feed ; the raw, 1 lb. of gain for each 63 lbs. of feed.

Five hogs were fattened on pollard and bran, cooked, in the proportion of two of the former to one of the latter, and five at another season on the same materials in like proportions, with the result that the cooked gave 1 lb. of gain for each 466 lbs. of the mixture fed, and of the raw 5‘35 lbs. of feed gave 1 lb. of increase in the weights of the pigs.

Five hogs fed on maize meal and English potatoes cooked in equal parts, gave 1 lb. of gain for each 6 lbs. of the mixed feed.

Lumps of salt should be placed within the reach of all pigs, and a little sulphur mixed with their food will have a beneficial effect. They are also extremely fond of coal cinders, and they will even eat coal itself. Pigs should also be supplied with pure fresh water, and the water-trough should be frequently cleaned out. If cleanliness, plenty of fresh air, clean water, regularity of feeding, and shelter are attended to, you will not be troubled with much disease or death among your pigs.

The following table by E. Wolff, the great German authority, gives the constituents of food which are necessary for a growing pig :—

Growing Swine — Per Head per Day.

Age.

Live

Weight

Organic

Dry

Matter.

Albu

minoids.

Carbo

hydrates.

Nutritive

Ratio.

lbs.

lbs.

lbs.

lbs.

2—3 months ...

50

21

0-38

15

1 to 4

3—5 „ ••

100

31

0 50

25

1 ,, 5

5—6 ,, •••

125

3-9

0-54

2-96

1 „ o -l

6—8 „ ...

170

4'6

0-58

317

1 „ 6

8—12 „ ...

250

52

062

405

165

Well-bred porkers, from 40 to 70 lbs. will bring from ¿d. to Id. per lb. more than medium or rough-bred pigs.

Bacon pigs sell best from 110 to 130 lbs., and when of good quality, with (say) an inch of fat on back, will bring better prices in the market than when kept longer. Large numbers of pigs are spoilt by being kept too long.

Small fat porkers rarely or seldom realise a profitable price in the maiket. Mixed medium qualities sell much better at more profitable prices, and it depends upon the locality and the quantity of feed available whether it pays better to sell as porkers or keep the pigs until fit for bacon.

If you are near the market sell as porkers, but if at a considerable distance from the buyer, it will be better to keep for bacon.

There are many breeds of pigs to select from, each having its own special qualities. The Improved Berkshire being a black pig, and one not given to go too much to gross fat, is a great favourite in Australasia. The Tam-WOrth is a deep lean pig much liked by makers of bacon. The Large White Yorkshire is a great feeder, and puts all his food to good use, but being a thin skinned pig, is not suitable for warm climates. The Improved Essex display good qualities and make a good cross. If a pure

Small White Pig.

Berkshire boar is crossed with fine-haired cross-bred sows, better results will be obtained by the smaller farmers than by breeding from pure-bred Berkshires. Such sows are better mothers, being of a quieter disposition and better sucklers. In selecting a boar for stud purposes, one of the purest breed obtainable should be procured. He should be an even pig throughout, with plenty of length, hams coming well down to hock, and legs straight and clean. It is advisable at all times to guard against selecting pigs for

E

stud purposes with heavy bones. Head should be broad, with a short square-shaped snout. The shoulders should be of the same width as the hips. As pig-breeding is influenced to a great extent by climate, it will be found that the cross above mentioned will produce the hardiest pigs. They are rapid growers on dairy farms, and should weigh at months old, when dressed, 110 lbs. If ordinary care is taken in the feeding, pigs of this size would suit all parts of Australia, as the long hair will protect them from either extreme heat or cold weather.

The litter of pigs should be weaned when six weeks old, unless the weather is very cold, when they may remain with the dam until eight weeks old. The young ones when weaned should be kept by themselves and have, where possible, a good grass run, and good warm quarters. Have the pig paddock so that water may be kept in it. A shallow bath made of concrete helps materially to please the pigs, and there should also be good shade.

Many of the diseases which develop in swine are contagious. Few medicines are requisite for the treatment of swine diseases.


^ oz. to 2 oz.

\ oz. to li oz.

1 scruple to 1 drachm. 1    „ to 1    „

1 drop to 3 drops.

\ oz. to 2 oz.

1 scruple to \ drachm.


Also salad or olive oil, mercurial ointment, and turpentine and kerosene as ingredients for ointment mixed with sulphur, for skin diseases. Turpentine should be useful in cases of worms, given in doses of about ^ oz. or more in gruel. It is a difficult matter to dose pigs, but much in this way may be done by coaxing the animals to take drinks and mashes. One who is a successful pig-breeder suggests the use of an old shoe with the toe cut out as the best dosing appliance ;—“ secure the hog by a rope attached to the leg; cause him to snap at the shoe, and when he catches hold of it pour in the dose.”

Inflamation of the lungs is termed “ heaving or rising of the lights.” Dullness, fever, loss of appetite, and a cough" are noticeable. Bleeding from the brachial, or plate vein, which is inside the foreleg, above the knee, a tight ligature being placed around the limb above the cut being previously applied, is recommended. Take about a pint of blood before removing the ligature, give an aperient dose of Epsom salts, and half a drachm of sulphur. Keep the patient in a cool, dry, warm place, and a recovery is possible. If such be the result fatten the animal as soon as possible for the butcher. In no case breed from a sow which has doubtful lungs. Looseness of the bowel can be treated with warm starchy gruels ; colic by small doses of castor oil and ginger, given in warm gruel; mange by sulphur ointment and cooling medicines.

Bacon and Hams.—A pig that is to be killed should be left without food for twelve or sixteen hours. “When the pigs are laige,” Thompson says, “ I find it best to shoot them with a bullet on the forehead—this prevents all squealing or exciting the other pigs. The shot pig will immediately drop, and can be stuck thoroughly with a long knife in a slanting direction towards the heart.” Every effort should be made to get every drop of blood out of the body, otherwise the carcase will not cure so well. The pig is next immersed in nearly boiling water. The proper temperature of the water is very important. If either too hot or too cold, the hair will not come freely off. A good old-fashioned plan to try the temperature is to let a few drops of the pig’s blood drop into the water; if it spreads all over the surface the temperature is right. Leave the pig in the water until the hair comes off freely. Pigs are not easily lifted out of the water, especially when hot, and it is a good plan to erect a block overhead, so as to facilitate this operation. The pig should now be vigorously scraped with a blunt instrument. There is nothing better for the purpose than the lid of an old billy. When the hair is all removed the skin should be well dried. The internals are then removed in the usual way, and the inside wiped dry with a clean cloth. The pig should then be allowed to hang in a clean, airy place for twenty-four hours. It is then cut up into hams, hands, spare ribs, loins and belly pieces. The spare-ribs and loins are generally used for roasting fresh. The other portions are rubbed over with coarse salt and a little saltpetre, and laid on a table flesh uppermost, so as to drain off any blood. The system of drysalting is to be recommended, as by this system the bacon is not so flabby as is the case when steeped in brine. To make good bacon by the dry process, equal quantities of best Liverpool salt and brown sugar are used, with ^ oz. of saltpetre to each pound of the mixture. This thoroughly rubbed into the pork every second day, and the position of the meat changed at each rubbing, that is, put the top portions at the bottom, and vice versa. The time required for finishing the bacon will depend upon the size of the pig and the state of the weather. The salt goes into the meat more quickly in wet than in dry weather. The place for curing should be cool, with a free circulation of air. Ventilation is equally necessary for live creatures and dead meat. From three to four weeks will be required for the curing of a good-sized hog. In farm houses bacon and hams may be smoked in the chimney, but this is an unsatisfactory way of doing it, especially in this country, and a bacon smoking-house is very easily constructed. A hut about eight feet square, composed of bush timber, with strong beams across the top to hang the flitch upon. The flitches can be hung as close together as not to touch. The roof may be nearly flat, with only a very small opening to let out a portion of the smoke. The floor is then covered over with about six inches of hardwood sawdust, and this is lighted at two different sides. It will burn, but not cause any flame to injure the bacon. The door must be kept closed. About ten days will be required to properly smoke the bacon, after which it may be packed away in sawdust or bran until required for use. Sugar is now much employed in equal proportions of salt, and its use imparts a fine rich flavour to the meat. Of course, there are many little things in connection with the killing of pigs that can be utilised by the thrifty housewife, such as the lard, the head, sausages, pork pies, etc., etc.

One of the largest ham and pork curers in the United States lately gave to an interviewer the following description of his process of curing :—1. The hams are placed in a large tray of fine Liverpool salt, then the flesh surface is sprinkled with finely ground, crude saltpetre, until the hams are as white as though covered by a moderate frost—or, say, use 3 lbs. or 4 lbs. of the powdered saltpetre to the 1000 lbs.

of green hams. 2. After applying the saltpetre, immediately salt with the Liverpool fine salt, covering well the entire surface. Now pack the hams in bulk, but not in piles more than three feet high. In ordinary weather the hams should remain thus for three days. 3. Then break bulk and re-salt with fine salt. The hams thus salted and re-salted should now remain in salt, in bulk, one day for each and every pound each ham weighs—that is, a 10 lb. ham should remain ten days, and in such proportion of time for larger and smaller sizes. 4. Next you wash with tepid water until the hams are thoroughly cleaned, and, after partially drying, rub the entire surface with finely-ground pepper. 5. Now the hams should be hung in the smokehouse, and this important operation begun. The smoking should be very gradually and slowly done, lasting thirty to forty days. 6. After the hams are cured and smoked they should be re-peppered to guard against vermin, and then bagged. These hams are improved with age, and the Todd hams are in perfection when one year old. The following brine is recommended in curing hams and bacon :—For 100 lbs. meat; 8 gallons water, 8 lbs. salt, 5 lbs. brown sugar, and 5 oz. saltpetre. The bacon is left in the brine about four weeks. For beef, salt 5£ lbs., saltpetre \ oz., sugar i to £ lb., water 3| gallons, meat 100 lbs. For beef, sprinkle enough salt to draw the blood (a mere sprinkle will do it), pour this off. Make the brine and skim it well, then pour it on the meat and let it lie some thirty days until the heaviest pieces are salted through, then hang, and smoke to suit the taste.

CHAPTER XI.

SHEEP.

USEFUL BREEDS; MANAGEMENT; DENTITION;

WOOL-CLASSING.

That sheep haYe golden feet has been well illustrated in Australasia. While the farmer sleeps the wool grows. There is no kind of produce more acceptable to markets than its fleece. For many years, Australasia has stood in the • premier position as a producer of wool, and although so much has been done, there is yet room for the expansion of the industry. Three-fourths of the wool produced in this part of the world is from sheep fed upon nothing more than the natural pastures. New Zealand and Tasmania have assisted nature by helping the grasses with manure and cultivation, and have to some extent followed the European custom of sheep-farming, by feeding their sheep with turnips, grain meals, and other strong foods. The limits of keeping sheep on ordinary pasture, are now defined. So well marked is the line, that recent years have brought to light many cases of overstocking. It is known that dry seasons cause grass and herbage to fail, and that when this occurs, millions of sheep die of starvation. Australian sheepfarming of the future, must be conducted on lines which are more humane and more likely to promote general welfare.

New South Wales which is more than fully stocked under the present conditions with sixty millions sheep,

should when cultivation and a liberal policy of extra feeding is practised, be able to keep one hundred and twenty millions of these valuable wool-producing animals, with greater certainty of profit and much less chance of loss, than under its present system.

There was a time when Australian sheep died through the absence of water, the surface stores of which were small and unreliable. Sheep although small drinkers, must have water, and now much to the credit of Australia’s pastoral enterprise, large subterranean stores of this requisite fluid are being tapped by artesian bores. Work done in this way during the last eight years, has proved that there is “ water, water, everywhere.” That the soil of Central Australia is a crust over great cretaceous basins in which at depths varying to 200 to 4,000 feet, there are strata bearing never failing supplies of water. Combine these stores with foods such as oil cake, one pound of which when mixed with chopped grasses or scrub, will keep a merino sheep for days, and there should be no more records of drought losses.

There is not space here for historical details ; if there were, many pages could be occupied with the literature of early sheep breeders. Columella, one of ihe earliest writers on agricultural subjects, advocated the keeping of live stock on the farm. Master Fitzherbert whose “ Book of Husbandry ” was written about 1523, makes therein the following remarks “ An hosbande can not well thryve by his corne without he have other cattell, nor by his cattell without corne. For else he shall be a byer, a borrower, or a beggar, and because that shepe in myne opynyon is the most profitablest cattell that any man can have, therefore I purpose to speke first of shepe.

“ Profitable ” Australian experience has strongly supported this view. So profitable have sheep been that thousands of the settlers in the soil have derived their living and profits from nothing more than sheep, but it is possible to overdo or overstrain even the best branches of an industry. It was the ready adaptability of sheep to Australia’s climate, which caused the earth-hunger which has been Australia’s bane. Obtain land for sheep by any means, fair or foul, fight for the grass, the wool will pay the cost of the battle ; these were the cries which led to all the dummying troubles ; these were the motives which caused the drought losses. Sheep-farming of the future must and will be conducted upon more liberal lines.

“ What sheep shall we keep ? ” is a question so frequently asked, that some kind of reply should appear here. It is a stupid question, but a pardonable one; as well might a man ask what food shall I eat, or what clothes shall I wear ? Climate, soil, and other conditions have to be considered ere the expert can express an opinion as to what sheep will suit a district.

Many years ago in the times of Macarthur, Lawson and Cox, there was discovered the important fact that there was no part of the world in which finer wool could be grown,— and in this case, the term fine is applied in its correct sense,— than in Australasia. More recent trials of Australian soil have proved that all Australasia is suitable for the merino. What one hundred years ago had to be forced into the London market—Australian wool—is now eagerly sought for. It has created a revolution in trade, and agents from manufacturing houses travel from Europe to Australia, to buy wool.

The Australian merino of the present day, is perhaps as close to perfection as any kind of animal can ever hope to be. Its breeders are sparing no pains to keep it in the front rank. Frequent changes of blood are made in the flocks.

A Grand Champion Merino Ewe, Two Years Old.

The merinos of France, Germany, Spain, America, are brought to these shores. There is a constant change of strains. Annual stud sheep sales have become universally recognised as necessary to the production of good wool. Enormous sums are paid to maintain the quality of the

fleeces. And in the face of these conditions, does it not seem strange that there should be an absence of liberal provision in the way of food for animals, the breeding of which obtains so much respect ?

But now to the question, which breed shall I keep ? In the central parts of Australia keep merinos, which if properly selected and carefully tended, should give average fleeces of from five to seven pounds each.

On the lowlands and richly grassed flats keep a heavier class of sheep, such as are so useful in parts of Britain similarly favoured with heavy pasture. The Lincoln, Leicester, Border Leicester and Romney Marsh are good breeds to cross with the merino. Lincoln on merino is one of the most successful crosses in Australia, but the other breeds mentioned have their friends, and at the annual Stud Sheep Fairs sell very readily at good prices. In cross-breeding it is most important that the breeds selected for crossing shall be pure. Great haim has been done to flocks through the want of sufficient care in selecting rams. New Zealand has many pure bred flocks of English sheep, but as in other lines of business, dealers will sometimes manage to ring in stock which are many removes from the pure and necessary standard.

One of the greatest advantages derivable from the keeping of cross-bred flocks, is that on good country the lambs grow very quickly, and are fit for market much sooner than those of the merino. There is a strong demand for cross-bred lambs for export. They also bring the best prices in local markets. Young cross-bred sheep are in New Zealand classed as freezers, and usually give a good return when shipped to Britain.

The Australasian Dairyman

Road Scene in Australia—Bringing the Wool to Market.

The Downs sheep, although well appreciated by butchers, have not made so many friends in Australasia as the larger breeds of British sheep. During recent years, however, there have been large importations of Shropshire sheep, which are having a fair trial. South Downs and Hampshire Downs have been tried in many parts of Australia, and have to some extent proved profitable.

Sheep are of great service to the farmer, especially to one who has sufficient land to indulge by long rest. When wheat growing is the main object, the sheep are used to feed off rank growth, and after reaping time, are put upon the stubbles, and help to keep the land free from weeds.

English farmers use manures, and keep their small farms in good condition by practising what is known as rotation in cropping. There is more land and less manure in the practice of Australasian farming. The spare paddocks are resting while under sheep, and after a couple of years resting, are sufficiently freshened for the production of wheat or a green fallow, such as a sowing of rape or buckwheat affords, may be given to the land, and under this system the sheep proves a valuable assistant.

Where the soil is rich and the rainfall reliable, as it is in New Zealand and Tasmania, it pays well to have large fields of turnips for sheep feeding. These and other matters require to be learned slowly and from examples. A book, no matter how large, cannot make a sheep-farmer. Sheep-farming is a trade, and as recommended in preceding chapters, the novice must learn slowly. The special advantage which cultivation gives, is that the ploughed lands usually leave sound country for sheep. On large sheep stations where the sheep have nothing else than natural pasture to eat, the surface after many years of grazing, becomes what is known as sheep-sick, and many diseases trouble the flocks. Fluke and foot-rot are very prevalent in most of the sheep countries. Worms, too, cause many losses. The sheep-farmer will require liberal supplies of salt, so that his sheep may have a “ lick” when such is required. Lice and licks also plague the sheep. To overcome these, dipping after shearing in various mixtures is the practice. There are many manufacturers of dipping materials. One of the oldest and best known dips is made with 100 lbs. of sulphur, 50 lbs. of lime, and 500 gallons of water.

Overstocking, early shearing, and parsimonious management are the greatest faults in Australian sheepfarming. All sheep-farmers should know that it is necessary to keep fair stocks of food for farm animals. The old-time system of doing with any class of sheep is gradually disappearing in Australasia. Keep good sheep, feed them well, and heavy fleeces of a valuable kind will be obtained.

The young sheep farmer should, in the early stage of his career have lessons in the dentition of sheep. In all domestic animals there are two sets of teeth—first, deciduous, or milk dentition, and second, permanent, or adult dentition. When complete, each set is composed of incisor, canine, and molar teeth. The sheep’s foraging facilities are chiefly dependent upon the condition of its incisor or front teeth. The canine teeth, sometimes called the eye teeth, are next in importance. They are four in number, and more firmly fixed in the jaw than the incisors. Both of these kinds of teeth have only one fang. The molars, or grinders, have two or three fangs, while their crowns are also broader. The food is reduced to pulp by the molars. It is a peculiar fact that sheep never suffer from injury to or decay of grinders. The age of the sheep is determined by its incisors. At a month old a lamb will have eight incisors, which, however, are temporary. At from ten to twelve months old, the centre pair of incisors are replaced by two larger and permanent teeth. At from fifteen to twenty months, the second pair appear, the third at two years and three months, and the fourth and last at three years, or soon after. The

shedding of the teeth will depend upon the feeding to which the sheep have been subjected. If fed on soft food such as grass, the period of shedding will be much later than would be the case if the sheep were fed on roots, or other foods prejudicial to the teeth. Early maturity has tended to develop precocity in teething in sheep. A well-fed sheep will have its mouth of teeth much sooner than one which has had no forcing food.

The shearing of sheep properly is a matter of education and practice. Quite as important as good careful shearing and general management of flocks is proper wool classing. On these subjects probably no man in Australasia knows more than Mr. Alfred Hawkesworth, wool classer to the Technological Museum, Sydney from whose writings the following hints on classing are taken :—

“ It is not desirable to make a number of sorts, as small lots are objectionable, and rarely fetch their full value as well as large lots.

“ The classer should not finally fix his sorts from the start, but by placing the fleeces before the bins into which

A Country Railway Station in the Wool Season,

he thinks they ought to go, and at a convenient time afterwards carefully going through each lot, fleece by fleece, he can throw out any misplaced fleeces and thus form a more distinct and intelligent standard.

“ In classing there should be three sorts of sound combing made, also a cast and three sorts of clothing.

“ The first combing will consist of the great bulk of the combings, being an average quality and length of the whole clip, and it must be sound and even. A super combing consists of fleeces little shorter than the first but much finer. The second combing should contain much longer, stronger, and deeper grown wool than the first combing, and consist of nothing but sound wool. The cast takes all cross and very low fleeces. This is sent to scour.

“ In clothings the classes should be made according to quality independent of length. A super-clothing consists of highest quality, the staple being short with good colour, density, fine serrations for felting purposes, and soft and kind to the touch. First clothing contains the bulk of the short wool, and will be a little longer than the super and not so fine. Due attention should be paid to brightness, softness, and pliability. Second clothing is a very wide grade, containing much tender from the low combings, and the rough, low, harsh wool. Generally this sort is of much bolder growth than the other two sorts, but will occasionally contain a few very short, low, rough fleeces.

“ Skirtings. A most difficult part in connection with shearing is to get these nicely picked, there being a scarcity of reliable-bush hands for this work, but the difficulty might be largely overcome by a slightly increased wage and extra hands. This extra expense, which only amounts to a few pounds at the finishing of shearing, will certainly be returned many times. Three sorts and a stained are sufficient for the skirtings, when the wool contains seed. ‘Broken’ contains all the big, free and clean ; next first pieces comprise the bulk, generally not so lofty as the broken ; second pieces are ‘ bitty,’ generally dirty, seedy, discoloured, but should be free from ‘ stained.’ ”

CHAPTER XII.

POULTRY,

POULTRY ON THE FARM; POULTRY FOR FANCY;

POULTRY FOR PROFIT; POULTRY FARMS;

THE COTTAGER’S POULTRY YARD.

It would be a difficult matter to find the Australian farm where poultry are not kept. Indeed it may be said that in Australasia everyone who has the space for a fowl house, keeps fowls. If there is not room for the fowls, pigeons or canaries are kept, “ something with feathers on.” In Ireland, the pig is known to be the gentleman who pays the rent; in Australia, it is the fowl which helps to keep down the store account. Lately the fowl has been raised from its humble position, and is now taking an active part in swelling Australasia’s export trade. It has been found that the British race are more willing to receive Australasian poultry and eggs, than Australasian mutton. Furthermore, and equally important is the recent discovery, that there is much profit in poultry rearing, if the poultry are properly and economically fed. It is quite probable that oil cake will take a very important part in the future of Australian poultry farming, because it is more than ordinarily suitable for use in feeding chickens and laying stock.

How shall I begin my poultry yard ? enquires the would-be-farmer, and when he looks around for examples, he finds that in the majority of instances, the fowls are kept anyhow. They roost either in the open or in dirty, drafty houses, and then he understands why poultry diseases are so frequently a topic, and also why eggs are so very scarce and dear in the cold seasons.

The sensible man therefore makes his first step in the direction of building a comfortable house which can be easily cleaned, and in which the whitewash brush can be

A Portable Fowlhouse.

(Nest boxes on outside are locked.)

kept at work as often as it is required. The lime washbrush, the manure scraper, and the stiff broom are almost as necessary to the well-being of the poultry, as are good food and a plentiful supply of clean water.

Yards can be made now very cheaply, because wire netting is so very cheap. It is an easy matter to put up a few posts and stretch around them some six feet wide two inch mesh wire netting. The structure can be strengthened

4

around the sides and over the top with wire. Each fowl should have ten square feet of a run. It is well to have these yards and houses where fowls are kept, even if on the farm, and the feeding should be done either near to or in

Silver Pencilled Hamburghs.

the yards close to the places where the nest boxes are. It is not veil to mass too man)' fowls together j diseases will come e\ en to the best managed farms, and diseases are very easilv

spread. Where more than 200 head are kept, there must be another house and yard, and each farm should have its poultry hospital, where the fowls which are ailing should be promptly confined.

There are various ways of commencing the poultry farm. One will buy a cock and ten or twelve hens of his fancy breed, and will by saving the eggs soon have a big lot of fowls ; another will buy a few settings of eggs. The hatching is best done in the cool months, but may go on any part of the year.

It is important to determine whether eggs be the sole object of the beginner, or birds for table purposes, or whether he desires a happy combination of eggs and table qualities. The space that can be spared must be considered, and birds must be selected suitable for the accommodation. If an unlimited run, and eggs are the chief wish, then secure Leghorns, Minorcas, Andalusians, or Ham-burghs. For size the Minorca and Andalusian are the best, and the birds are good meat, and run to good weights. Leghorns mature wonderfully quick, are fair for table, lay medium-sized eggs, and, strange to say, the white birds lay the largest eggs. The Hamburghs lay the smallest eggs of the lot. They bear confinement much better than is usually supposed. Of all the great laying varieties? Leghorns are the worst in confinement. Their natural home is large fields, and when locked up they look for exercise and amusement. Failing sufficient space they start plucking one another, or the hens peck at the combs of the cocks, and give no end of trouble. It is a good plan to bury the grain or mix it well with soil, and let them scratch for and find it.

If one intends producing table fowls only, then look to Game—British, Malay, Indian or Australian. British

are the best layers amongst these, but they require any amount of room. It is useless wasting time endeavouring to rear them in confinement. Australian game come next

Game.

progeny so much desired.


Plymouth Rocks.


as all round fowls, very fair layers, bear confinement well, and can be reared almost anywhere. Malays and Indian Game are fair layers only, but their eggs are very rich, and both bear confinement well. All of the Game varieties are useful for crossing! as they add a plumpness to the On account of the white delicate flesh of the Indian Game, they have become most popular lately for crossing for table fowls. In fact the demand has been so heavy that few have been able to keep pace with it, and consequently prices have been somewhat high. If the beginner feels that he does not care for the extreme in either quality, viz., laying or for table, but wants an all-round fowl that will lay well and be fair on the table, he has plenty to select from. The Langshan, Orpington, Wyandotte, Plymouth Rock, Dorking, Brahma, and Cochin. Their quality is about in the order named, unless, perhaps light Brahma, come after Wyandottes. The Langshan is a

great favourite; it runs to large size, is hardy, matures rapidly, has nice white skin and flesh, and is a good winter layer. We find Langshans in black only at present. Orpingtons are generally black ; a few buffs have been recently imported. They are fine large fowls, more blocky and lower set than Langshsans. These have become very popular on account of their good qualities, and are pushing the Langshan very hard. Wyandottes are weighty, plump birds, good layers, good on the table, and good mothers. As layers the average can be put at 170 eggs per annum, while in 1887-88, thirty hens averaged 180 eggs each. We find them in silver, golden, and white. They are very pretty. The colour of the silver hens is white, heavily laced all round each feather, with black on the breast and back ; the hackle silver-grey, with black stripe through the centre of each feather. The male has a handsome breast, each feather heavily laced with black, and the centre pure white, the back silver, wingbows the same colour as the back, the tail black, and neck silver heavily striped down the centre of each feather with black. The goldens are very rich and handsome, the difference being that a golden-yellow or bay colour takes the place of the white and silver in the silver Wyandottes. Plymouth Rocks are very popular. Their handsome frames, hardiness, and good all-round qualities commend themselves. We have them generally in barred. Recently whites have been introduced. Dorkings, Brahmas, and Cochins are so well known as to need no description.

In breeding Game for table purposes, look to the hens for size. Select those with nice rounding breasts, and be sure to see that the breast bones are straight. If

intending to produce some exhibition birds, get them as leggy as possible, with fine square shoulders, flat backs and bodies, tapering off neatly at the tail. In Black-reds for pullet breeding, get the hens as free from rusty feathers on the shoulders as possible, and as clear partridge marking on the back and shoulders as possible. Get nice, bright-coloured cocks for these. For cock-breeding the same coloured cocks should be mated to pullets or hens rather rusty on the shoulders.

In breeding poultry prefer two and three year old birds for good strong healthy young stock. It is not always

Poultry on the Farm.

possible to secure these, hence cockerels may be put to hens of two or more years old, and cocks of two and three years should be mated to pullets. For large numbers of eggs no bird should be kept more than three years, but a good stock hen will be kept so long as she lays at all—some to seven and even ten years.

During the breeding season our birds should not be allowed to have spices, condiments, so-called genuine or quack egg-producing powders. This forcing of stock hens to lay a large number of eggs is responsible for much of the disappointment beginners have. The chickens from such

eggs cannot be expected to be healthy. Those who keep hens for eggs for eating only may give them the spices, &c. In this case the eggs will keep all the better if no cocks be allowed with the hens. Birds kept in confinement must have bonedust. This is steamed first, then cut up finely. The fresh bonemeal-shanks ground up with a little meat on them, is splendid for laying hens. Having the eggs, it is well to go through them and set average-sized eggs only. Extremely large eggs or small ones from the same hen should be avoided, as also those of irregular shape. On no account set a hen where the laying hens can molest her. Hens prefer setting on the ground. Some put four bricks in a square and fill up the centre with loam, then just sufficient dry fine grass or hay to keep the nest in shape. If boxes are used ordinary starch boxes are the proper size. Take the lid and cut it, and nail a piece nine inches deep on to the front at one end. Then stand the case up this end on the ground. Put some loose, loamy earth into this, and form the nest as above. If removing a hen from a bad place to a secure wire pen, put some china eggs into the nest, and place the hen on them after dark ; then drop a bag down over the front. The next evening take a lamp and put it close to the nest, and some good wheat and water in a shallow vessel. Open the front of the nest quickly, and very carefully put your hand under the hen, and lift her off, and place her on the ground with the food under her mouth. Go away and leave her there. The chances are that she will take her food and a drink and go back on to the nest. If not, catch her and put her on, and close up as before. The first time she goes back she is safe, and the eggs may be put under her the next evening

when taken off for her feed. With a nice, quiet hen, one can train her to come off and go back ; then, before placing the eggs under her, leave the front open, so that she will come off and go back of her own accord. Good fresh eggs should hatch out on the morning of the twenty-first day. Do not be in a hurry to remove them. If all out and dry, take the hen off, then catch the chickens, and remove the lot to a nice, dry, warm shed, but under a coop, so that the hen cannot run about too much to tire the chickens, and on

A Profitable Turkey.

no account have too much loose earth or dust, or the hen may bury the little flock. Do not trouble about water for chickens until next day. Let the hen have her drink in a deep pot that the chickens cannot get to. The best food to commence with is hard boiled eggs, chopped up very finely. The egg mixed with dry bread crumbs, or cocoanut-cake meal may form the food for the first three days. After this bread and milk with meal can be given twice daily. When the chickens are a week old the cocoanut meal will make a good evening ration. In no case give sour or stale foods,

and you may thus save your chickens from diarrhoea. A little finely cut meat, or bullock’s liver boiled and cut up is splendid for young chickens. The steamed bonemeal should be put into the soft food. The hen will do well on the luxuries, and soon come round to lay again. At about five or six weeks after the hatching, if the weather be not very cold, the chickens will do all the better for being left to themselves. Don’t allow them to go to perch, but let them camp on the dry, dusty floor in a warm spot. At about two to three months old, the cockerels should be separated from the pullets. The smaller breeds, such as Leghorns and Hamburghs, may go to perch, but the heavier breeds will be better on the level.

Three meals a day at most are sufficient for any fowls, and they do generally as well with two, if theiT yards or runs are of good size. The first meal, when fowls are confined, should be a soft—not sloppy—breakfast, and be fed early in the morning. If the fowls have an unlimited or very large run, they do not require a noon meal—nothing but their grain feed, about half an hour before roosting time.

As soon after daylight as possible have your boiling water ready, then get your cocoanut meal, or pollard sometimes, and if any potato peelings, table scraps, &c., be left from the day previous (which are cooked over night), mix the meal and scraps, adding a pinch of salt and pepper; then mix the lot with boiling water into a stiff crumbly mass, not soft or sloppy. The breakfast is fed warm, and the fowls get as much as they will eat up with an eager appetite, and no more. If the fowls are penned, they get a small dinner of grain or table scraps, and are compelled to scratch for it, as it is placed under litter or straw. But

fowls that have a good run do not require a midday meal, their supper of wheat, oats, or barley being sufficient—the same kind of grain which is given to the fowls penned. Twice a week bonedust is mixed in their breakfast—about a small handful in each meal—and once a week a little cayenne pepper. Lean meat scraps once a week, and chopped green bones occasionally ; the latter, fowls are very fond of, and will eat it ravenously every day if they can get it. Corn or maize should be used very sparingly. If fowls are confined in pens, “green food” should be supplied. A sod of grass, lettuce, cabbage, turnips, &c., are all good for the purpose, and should be supplied fresh every day.

To preserve eggs, several modes are used. If the object be to keep them for say three months, setting them on end on shelves wherein holes have been cut for their reception, and turning the eggs every second day will suffice. Or, if rubbed over with a little lard or butter before being shelved, they will keep for six months. The grease closes the pores and prevents the contents evaporating, which is the cause of them going musty. Were they not greased over and left lying on their side without moving them, the yolk would break through the white, and immediately it touches the shell decomposition sets in, hence the reason consumers can tell badly kept eggs. Another plan is to bury them in salt, but where there is a large quantity to preserve it is better to secure a barrel. Into this put a bushel of slack lime, not hot, two pounds of salt, and half a pound of cream of tartar. Pour in as much water as will cover over 600 eggs, and mix all well together, when it is ready for the reception of the eggs, which can be preserved in this for twelve months if necessary. The

salt and cream of tartar are frequently omitted from the mixture. When eggs are treated in this way some of them will break in the boiling, and it is a good plan to prick the large end immediately before disposing of them. Of course they also require a good wash.

Incubators are now much used in poultry-farming. There are several kinds of incubators made, all more or less useful. So much depends on the constant care bestowed in the work of incubating by machines and rearing chicks under conditions which are not natural, that no one who has not the time and the determination to obey all the directions which accompany the machines, should buy an incubator. When properly worked it is a great help to the poultry-armer.

DISEASES OF FOWLS AND THEIR TREATMENT.

Apoplexy.—A true apoplectic fit evidenced by giddiness and unsteadiness of walk, generally arises from over-feeding chiefly on maize. An injury to a blood vessel on the brain, will cause loss of power on one side and escape of blood. In the first case, fasting and a brisk aperient—fifteen grains of jalap, and one grain of calomel will effect a cure. In the second, a penknife plunged longitudinally into the large vein under the wing, and allow it to bleed freely. When consciousness returns, a styptic of burnt alum or diluted carbolic acid will stop the bleeding. The patient must be watched, as it may try to peck and re-open the wound. It must be kept on low diet for several days.

Black-rot.—Commences with blackening of the comb and swelling of the legs and feet. Treatment.—Administer a simple tonic—dose of calomel or epsom salts, and give warm and nourishing diet.

Bronchitis.—Denoted by frequent coughing without discharge from the organs of the head.    Treatment—

Remove to a dry and moderately warm place. Slightly acidulate the water with nitric acid, add enough glycerine to slightly sweeten the water. A little cayenne or ginger may be mixed with the food.

Bumble Foot.—Denoted by a corn or abscess at the bottom of the foot. Common complaint in Dorkings from the structure of the foot.—the fifth toe.    Treatment—Daily

application of lunar caustic, or painting the spot with iodine applied with a brush ; later on actual excision. When the tumour is soft or in the form of an abscess, a puncture may be made, the matter pressed out, and the part fomented with warm water. After a day or two apply lunar caustic. The roosting perch should not exceed six inches from the ground, and it should be padded with carpet or the bird be compelled to sleep on straw.

Catarrh.—Shown by a discharge from the eyes or nostrils. Remove to a warm place, and put three drops of Mollier tincture of aconite in half-a-pint of the drinking water. Feed moderately on soft warm food.

Cholera or Chicken Cholera.—Symptoms.—A sudden accession of thirst accompanied with diarrhoea. The droppings at first being of a greenish character, by degrees becoming thin and whitish. Weakness is manifested by the “fowl falling aboutcramps also supervene. Causes.— Too much exposure to the sun, impure and warm drinking

water. Insufficient supply of fresh green food. Treatment —Give immediately and every three hours, a mixture composed of five grains of rhubarb, two grains of cayenne pepper, ten drops of laudanum. Between each dose give a teaspoonful of brandy diluted with rather less than half its bulk of water, into which has been dropped five drops of McDougall’s Fluid Carbolate, or three grains of salicine. If the disease is general in the yard, twenty grains of salicylic acid should be added to every pint of the drinking water, and it placed under a shade. Let a free use of green food be supplied.

Cramp.—The most frequent sufferers are young chickens which have been too much confined during damp or cold weather. Symptoms.—Imperfect walking or inability to walk on the feet, contraction of the toes, squatting on the hocks. Treatment.—A dry lodging and free run. In cases where the toes are much contracted, the affected chicks should be taken from the hen and placed in a wooden coop with well-sanded floor, set close to a fire. Bathe the legs and feet with moderately warm water, expanding the toes and working them backwards and forwards under the water; dry them well with a warm cloth and rub with a little turpentine ; then put back in the coop. Return them to the hen every night, and put them back in the coop in the morning. Give good soft warm food. That treatment will effect a rapid cure.

Crop bound.—The crop becomes distended and swelled, and the passage to the stomach closed. Causes.— Hard grain feeding, and the opposite, too much soft or fluid food and excessive drinking after thirst. Treatment.— When first noticed, pour some warm water down the throat

and gently knead the distended crop until it becomes soft; then administer half a teaspoonful of epsom salts, and put the bird in an empty pen, and feed sparingly for several days. If such treatment fails to give relief, make an incision an inch long in the top of the crop, free from the large blood-vessels ; then remove the contents with the handle or bowl of a large teaspoon ; grease the finger and pass it into the crop, and feel the outlet to ascertain if any piece of bone or hard substance is causing the obstruction ; if such is present, remove it. Then with a glover’s needle threaded with horsehair put five stitches in the inner skin, drawing the edges together; put three stitches in the outer skin, within those in the inner skin, taking great care not to sew the two skins together. Feed on sopped bread, not too moist, and do not allow water for twenty-four hours. Leave the horsehair. This operation should not be delayed if the other measures do not succeed in forty-eight hours. In the case of swelled crop through soft food, put the bird by itself, and feed three times a day with a small portion of thoroughly cooked food ; allow moderate drinking of water slightly acidulated with nitric acid. Chopped onions or garlic have a remedial effect.

Debility.—The bird gets low in condition and seems prostrated. Caused by over-showing, shock, or sudden fright. Treatment.—Administer twice daily hali-a-teaspoon-ful of Parrish’s chemical food mixed with a full spoonful of water. Change every alternate or third week for a teaspoonful twice daily (with a spoonful of water) of quinine and iron or salicine mixture. A raw new-laid egg should also be slipped down the bird’s throat every day till the strength and appetite appear to be returning ; change for a little cooked

F

meat; discontinue the tonic, except a little tincture of muriate of iron in the water.

Diarrhoea or Dysentery.—Caused by a sudden change of diet or weather. Treatment.—If the looseness be observed early, by giving a meal or two of well-boiled rice, dredged over with finely powdered chalk. If that is ineffectual, give six drops of camphorated spirit thrice daily on a pill of barley meal, feeding on boiled rice, barley meal, and barley alone, with a little cut grass daily; or a pill made of five grains of chalk, five grains of rhubarb, and three grains of cayenne pepper. In severe cases add half a grain of opium, giving one morning and evening. After an attack do not over-feed. Give a quinine or salicine tonic. When the evacuations are mingled with blood, administer five drops of laudanum every three hours.

Diphtheria, Diphtheric Roup.—Symptoms: Sores or ulcers about the head or upper part of the neck, also about the tongue, throat, and comb. The most serious cases are those in which the throat or mouth are attacked. Treatment: This disease is a serious one. The fowls attacked should ai once be placed apart in a hospital, free from draught, and a dose of one-third to half a teaspoonful of epsom salts given. Obtain from a chemist a bottle of ordinary chlorate of potass and perchloride of iron mixture. Six hours after the salts, give one quarter doses, feeding on the best soft food, mixed with brandy and water. Procure a mixture of one drachm carbolic acid, three drachms sulphurous acid, half an ounce of tinc-perchloride of iron, and half an ounce of glycerine. With a camel-hair or sable pencil touch all the parts which show sores morning and evening with the mixture. Care must be

taken in annointing the throat, as a drop going the wrong way may choke and kill it. For bantams and chickens dilute the lotion with one-third water. If the outside sores do not heal, touch them with lunar caustic.

Egg-bound, or inability to lay on account of the unusual size of the egg. Symptoms: The hen having gone to the nest and remained some time, comes off without having laid, and walks slowly about with wings hanging down on the ground, and evidently in distress. Sometimes she remains on the nest. Merely going to the nest repeatedly is no proof that she is egg-bound. Treatment: A tablespoonful of warm treacle given at intervals of an hour will give relief, especially if a syringe is passed up the oviduct till it meets the egg (taking care not to fracture the shell), and an ounce of olive oil injected. If a syringe is not obtainable, an oiled feather will answer the purpose. Foment the vent with hot water to relax the tissues before applying the oil. When operating, handle the bird gently.

Elephantiasis.— Scaly or rough unsightly scurf on the shanks. Occurs chiefly in Asiatic breeds, especially the Cochin. Sudden exposure to wet and cold was at one time considered to be the cause, but it has been proved that it is due to a parasitic insect, and is consequently contagious. Treatment.—If taken at an early stage, a cure can be effected by placing the bird in a warm domicile, and scrubbing the part affected with soap and warm water by means of a hard nail-brush. Scrub in with a brush, sulphur ointment every day, giving half a teaspoonful of sulphur internally. When first observed in young chickens, apply glycerine.

Eruptions.—Cochins, especially, if not supplied with green food, are liable to an eruption called “white-comb,” a whitish scurf which, if not checked, extends down the neck, and denudes it of feathers. It is also prevalent among fowls kept in dirty yards. Treatment.—Cleanliness and a supply of green food. Dress the parts with a mixture of tar and sulphur, give a dose of epsom salts, and a teaspoonful of sulphur in the food daily for ten days.

Feather Eating.—A propensity confined to hens. In the majority of cases the primary cause is thirst. Treatment.—No unfailing specific has been discovered. The most effective has been the copious use of lettuces when running to seed. Extracting the stumps of feathers, and dressing the parts with carbolated vaseline, or with a stiff lather of carbolic soap. Keep cool fresh water always within reach. To find employment for feather-eaters, bury corn in the yard, and let them scratch for it, or hang up a cabbage just within reach, so as to keep it bobbing about as it is pecked.

Fledging .—When young chickens seem to be suffering much, and the weather is bad. Treatment.—Put tincture of iron in the drinking water, and also give them warm milk to drink.

Fractures.—Fowls being lively in disposition their bones when broken are difficult to set. The shank bone of the leg can be set by putting it in a splint of porous brown paper, saturated with white of egg. Thigh and wing bones in the way best suited to the operator.

Gapes.—A disease confined to young fowls or chickens, caused by a worm or worms in the throat. Treatment.— Salt is the greatest enemy of all the viscous worms, the red one equally (which is red only on account of the blood sucked out of the fowl’s body), and the best preventive remedy is to mix a reasonable quantity in the chickens’ soft food. After any heavy rain, sprinkle some salt on the ground around the chickens. The disease itself is quickly got rid of by mixing crushed or soaked wheat with ammonia, diluted to such an extent that the smell is nearly gone. Garlic, cut thin and mixed in soft food, never fails. Turpentine or kerosene mixed in the proportion of one tablespoonful to two quarts of dry wheat, so as to cover every grain with a coat of oil; this is not eagerly swallowed by the birds, but it acts wonderfully.

Giddiness .—A fowl will sometimes suddenly run round in a circle or stagger about. Treatment.—Hold the head under a strong stream or tap of water. Reduce the diet and give a dose of epsom salts.

Gout.—Distinguished by swollen legs and feet, which feel hot. Treatment.—Remove the bird to a warm place, give a dose of jalap or calomel, and rub the legs and joints daily with sweet oil.

Indigestion.—Caused by giving spiced food or overfeeding. The bird walks lazily about and does not seem to care for food, while the droppings are scanty and unhealthy in character. Treatment.—Give five grains rhubarb, changed every fourth day for one grain of calomel. Restrict the food to two meals daily of well-cooked food. Give water moderately and a little fresh grass cut into chaff. In many cases a little powdered charcoal mixed with soft food is sufficient to effect a cure.

Leg-weakness.—Frequently affects cockerels of a large breed, arising from either muscular weakness or deficiency of bony matter. Treatment.—The free use of bone-dust acts almost as a preventative, or a pill administered three times daily, made up as follows:—sulphate of iron, one grain; strychnine, one-sixteenth-of-a-grain; phosphate of lime, five grains; sulphate of quinine, half-a-grain.

Lice will rarely give trouble if the houses, nests, and perches are whitewashed twice a year with hot lime in which has been dissolved some sulphate of iron. Syringe the whole building with diluted carbolic acid. In chickens and individual cases take every bird in turn, put some oil in a saucer, and with the tip of the finger put some on the poll, the back of the neck, under the wings, and here and there about the body; or reduce carbolic soap to a lather and with a shaving brush put some of it all over her body, but do not wet her plumage.

Pip .—The hard and horny appearance which often appears at the end of a sick fowl’s tongue, cannot be regarded as a disease. It rather arises from obstruction in the nostrils, causing the bird to breathe through its nostrils, thus drying the tongue.    Treatment.—Give a dose of

aperient medicine, and apply chlorinated soda to the part, first removing any scale or crust which will come off easily.

Roup.—With the exception of cholera, is the most troublesome, offensive, and fatal of all poultry diseases, and is highly contagious. The first cause of its coming is a neglected cold. Over-feeding of sulphur is a cause of it. Roosting in draughts, confinement in damp houses, or undue exposure to wet or cold lead to it. Treatment.— Isolate the bird or birds affected, by putting them in a dry warm place free from draughts. Take a teaspoonful of lard, half-a-teaspoonful each of ginger, cayenne pepper,

and mustard, mix them thoroughly with flour enough to work into shape; roll out into slugs about an inch long and f of an inch in diameter. Give each affected bird one of these, by putting it down its throat. Add bromide of potassium to the drinking water for the whole flock, in the proportion of two grains to each fowl, for three or four days. If the first slug does not cure in twenty-four hours, give another one. Another simple cure is to inject with a small oil can kerosene into the fowls nostrils, and slit in the roof of the mouth. Bathe the fowls head if swelled, with warm water for five or ten minutes, dry it perfectly, and apply a mixture of kerosene and lard.

Soft Eggs .—If these occur frequently it is almost a sign of over-feeding. In some cases this occurs from the absence of material wherewith to form the shell. Treatment.—Give less food and that sparingly of mashed potatoes, supply old mortar pounded, burnt oyster shells or lime in any shape, or put a piece of lime in the drinking water, and stir occasionally.

Canker or Ulceration.—Treatment.—For canker spots in the mouth or throat, use powdered chloride of potash or burnt alum. Put Douglas mixture daily in the drinking water, and keep the diseased fowls apart from the others.

Worms.—Fowls are frequently troubled with worms. Treatment.—When seen in the excretions, give a capsule of turpentine, and follow it with a dose of castor oil, Sanfoin has been given with success.

Cause of Diseases.—Neglect somewhere and uncleanliness are the primary causes of sickness and death in poultry. Dampness in poultry houses, and roosting in

draughts are direct causes of sickness and death. Lice carry off whole broods of chicks Lack of vigour on the part of the parent birds is another cause. Want of grit, a supply of small pebbles, is another cause. Overcrowding, keeping more fowls than the space allotted can accommodate, is a fruitful cause of disease. Admission of strange fowls into a flock of healthy ones often introduces disease which the poultry-owner cannot account for.

APPENDIX.

IN HONOUR OF AGRICULTURE.

Of all which has been said in honour of agriculture and horticulture, probably there is nothing better than the words of Whittier, the American poet:—

Give fools their gold and knaves their power,

Let Fortune’s bubbles rise or fall,

Who sows a field, or trains a flower,

Or plants a tree, is more than all.

For he who blesses most is blest,

And God and man shall own his worth,

Who toils to leave as his bequest An added beauty to the earth.

Or if the toiling farmer needs further encouragement, let him read the never to be forgotten words of Longfellow in that grand “ Psalm of Life ” :—

Lives of great men all remind us,

We can make our lives sublime,

And, departing, leave behind us Footprints on the sands of time.

Let us, then, be up and doing,

With a heart for any fate,

Still achieving, still pursuing,

Learn to labour and to wait.

FEEDING CALVES.

The use of oil cake as a portion of the ration for calves is gradually growing in the best dairy yards. One of our reasons for specially mentioning it is that we hear a cake factory is already at work at Balmain, Sydney. A prominent authority gives it as his opinion that it is a natural antidote to scouring or a feverish condition of the stomach and intestines. With regard to its use in connection with young calves intended for dairy cows, they should always be allowed to receive a sufficient quantity of new milk for the first three or four weeks; after this period skim milk may be fed, but it must be improved by ground cake added. This addition to the skim milk should always be boiled or steamed and not given raw, not so much that it may possibly do harm in a raw state as that it is made more effective and more easily digested by having been cooked. The food, when it is given to the calf, should be at a temperature of 95 degrees to 98 degrees, which is the temperature of the milk in a cow’s udder. If the prepared food is higher or lower than this, it is so far a deviation from nature’s rule. While the quantity of food a calf requires naturally increases a little daily, over feeding should always be carefully avoided. A calf will always thrive better when its appetite is stimulated rather than satiated by over-feeding. During the first two or three days it should be decidedly under rather than over fed. It is difficult to lay down any rule as to the quantity to be given, for a strong and vigorous calf will require more than a weak and delicate one—that is a point on which judgment must be exercised. It is safe, however, to boil a pint of the cake meal in six times its bulk of water. Mix one or two parts with skim milk and feed at the temperature mentioned.

FEEDING MEAL TO COWS.

The question “ How much rich meal should I give to my cows?” is often asked. An American cow-keeper, a lady who farms scentifically, says :—“ Very few farmers, taken as a class, make a business of testing each individual cow, so as to know the quantity of butter she can make. This is not business-like. The different kinds of grain should be fed to each cow, in order to ascertain what mixture will produce the best results with each cow, as I know by experience that there is a perceptible difference. Some cows will do their best on a mixture of grain that costs less rather than on one that costs more. One fall I bought an ordinary cow to eat some stock hay I had on hand. Two weeks after calving I was feeding her five pints Indian meal and three pints shorts per day, half in the morning and half at night. She had this feed five weeks, and was then fed two quarts of cake meal and two of shorts, with the result of an increase of one-half space of cream per day and a perceptible gain of flesh in the next two weeks. I tried other mixtures of grain, but none did so much good as the cake meal and shorts, and no other mixture cost so little. Perhaps with a large herd this way of feeding each individual cow could not be readily carried out, but it might be done easily with six or eight cows.” Further tests proved that there was no ration better than what contained a large proportion of cake meal.

HOW TO FEED HORSES.

Horses doing full work should be fed at least three times a day. If they can be fed four times so much the better. The horse has a small stomach, and little given make any at home. Still, on the farm this kind may not always be obtainable, and for that reason we give the following recipes for home-made yeast:—

Water, two quarts.

Medium size potatoes, three.

Salt, one-third teacupful.

Sugar, one-third teacupful.

Ginger, one-half tablespoonful.

Hops, one tablespoonful.

Molasses, two tablespoonfuls.

Flour, three tablespoonfuls.

Yeast two teacupfuls.

Pare the potatoes and boil in a porcelain kettle in the two quarts of water. Tie the hops in a clean muslin bag, and boil with the potatoes until they are done. Press the water thoroughly from the hops and remove. Take the potatoes from the water and mash until smooth. Mix with the water again, and return to the fire. Stir the flour in a little cold water until smooth, and with this thicken the potato and hop water. Pour all in a stone jar, and when lukewarm add the yeast, and beat. Allow this to stand until light in a temperature of about 70 deg. It should then be removed to a cooler place, and at the end of twenty-four hours the other ingredients should be added. This will keep for four weeks in a cool place. A scant teacupful will make six loaves.    •

Another good yeast, but a little more trouble to make, is the following :—

Potatoes, 2 oz.

Hops, 2 oz.

Cold water, 4i quarts.

Flour, 1 lb.

Salt, one tablespoonful.

Sugar, (granulated), -§- lb.

Tie the hops in a clean muslin bag and boil in the four quarts of water for one hour. Allow it to become lukewarm before removing the bag, pressing it free of the water. Stir a little of the flour at a time in part of the liquor to a smooth paste, and add to the hop-water until the entire amount is used. Put in the salt and sugar, and beat three minutes. Place in an open dish, cover with a thin cloth, and set in a moderately warm room or closet for three days. The temperature should be kept even. On the third day peel, boil, and mash the potatoes until free from lumps, and stir gradually into the hop liquor. Stand in a warm kitchen for twelve hours, and stir frequently. It can then be put into carefully cleaned jars and well corked. It will keep one month in a cool place.

The last thing before retiring set the sponge—in warm weather the later the better. Have three potatoes carefully mashed and 1^ quarts of potato water. Mix with this one cupful of the yeast and enough sifted flour to thicken it. In the morning measure out three quarts of flour, and reserve one pint of it for kneading. Place the sponge into the flour and knead twenty minutes, cover it with a clean, woollen cloth and set to rise quickly in a temperature of 75deg. or SOdeg., free from draughts of cold air, until light. Turn out and mould into small loaves, which when twice their original size, should be baked for one hour. One must be able to judge the time when the bread is ready to knead and bake. Twelve hours after the sponge is set is about the time the bread should be ready to bake.

When the bread is removed from the oven turn it out of the pans and stand on end, and never cut it until cold. Bread requires a moderate oven ; a good test can be made with white paper. If the paper turns brown it is hot enough for pastry ; if dark yellow, then it is right for bread ; and if light yellow, for cake. Many people add a little shortening when mixing their bread, and of course, salt always. Delicious rolls may be made by adding to part of the bread sponge a couple of eggs, a small cup of butter or lard, and a little sugar. It should be rolled out to less than an inch in thickness, cut with a biscuit cutter, and the top brushed over with melted butter. It should then be folded to form a crescent, left to rise until twice as thick, and baked a crisp brown. These rolls are very lovely for coffee. Very nice coffee cake is made in this manner :—Roll out a good sized piece of the biscuit dough to about half an inch in thickness, and brush over with melted butter. Spread over this a mixture of currants, stoned raisins, and citron chopped fine. Turn up one edge of this cake, and roll over and over like a jelly roll. Grease a pie pan well, and lay the roll in it, forming a ring. After it has risen sufficiently, brush the top with white of egg, sprinkle on sugar and cinnamon, and bake a good brown, taking care that it does not scorch.— Farm and Home.

ROTATION OF CROPS.

The fundamental fact in regard to the usefulness or advantage of a rotation of crops is, that no two plants of different kinds require the same substances in equal proportion for their nourishment. A field which will not yield a second or third crop of wheat may, without another dose of manure, give a good crop of rape. The old English or Norfolk practice is to take—1, clover; 2, wheat; 3, turnips or mangels ; 4, oats or barley. This is called the four-course shift in farming; but it is open to much variation. In the Lothians of Scotland the crop after breaking up the lea is oats or wheat, the second turnips or potatoes, the third barley, and the fourth rape. Sometimes a fourth crop is not taken, but along with the last crop grass seed is sown and the land is then allowed a spell for three years, when it is again ploughed up for cropping purposes.

HOW TO TELL THE AGE OF A HORSE.

The horse has 40 teeth, and the mare, as a rule, only 36, the four canine teeth being wanting. Occasionally mares have the tushes or canine teeth developed, this taking place at different times. An old “ saw ” states that this is indicative of a mare’s incapacity to breed, but in reality this has nothing to do with it. The horses’ teeth consist of the following :—12 incisors or front teeth, six in each jaw; 4 tushes or canine teeth, two in each jaw ; 24 molars, twelve in each jaw, six on each side.

As a rule, at birth, a foal has two central incisors. If not, they will appear in a day or two. From 14 to 21 days the two middle teeth, i.e., the two next on each side of the incisors, develop, and in about two months after appearance they become level. The third teeth on the outside of the incisors or corner teeth are generally level with the others at about eight months. Little change takes place in the teeth for some months. At one year, the cups have left the centre teeth. These cups are the hollows in the crowns of the teeth. The cups at 18 months leave the middle

incisors, and at two years the same takes place on the outside incisors, so that the crowns of the lower incisors are flat at that age. This makes it possible to tell an early foal from a late one at the foaling period, by the development of the cup, if any, in the corner teeth. In developing the colt teeth the upper and lower usually appear at the same time.

The permanent teeth begin to displace the colt’s teeth soon after the animal reaches two years. This displacement is brought about by the actual absorption of the fangs by the permanent teeth. It begins with the centre incisors, which will show a slight contraction, discolouring and a separation. After the fangs have been absorbed, the remains fall off, and the permanent teeth appear. When this is the case the colt is rising three. At three years the two permanent central teeth are level with the two middle incisors. When the same process has begun in the two lower middle incisors, the colt is “ three off ” in horsey parlance. When the two middle colt teeth have dropped, he is “ rising four.” At four, the two permanent middle incisors are level with the two permanent centre incisors. The same process goes on with the outside incisors until the colt reaches five, when the incisor teeth are level.

At five years the mouth is complete. The cups are moderate sized in the centre incisors, a little larger in the middle incisors, and the outside walls level but thin, the inside being low in the corner or outside incisors. The top corner incisors are wider than they are long, with sharp edges on the enamel of the crown. They exhibit little wear. The inside wall is very irregular, and generally has a deep notch in it. At six years old the cups begin to have the centre incisors, and get enlarged in the middle incisors.

The wall of enamel in the inside is level, the outside thickens out in the corner teeth, while the top corner teeth are wider than they are long. At seven years the cups leave the centre teeth, and get smaller in the middle teeth. The inside wall in the corner teeth shows wear, and the outside is thicker. The top corner tooth is square, with a tendency to become longer than it is wide. At eight the cups leave the middles, and they begin to contract in the corner teeth, the outside walls of which are much thicker. The indentation in the inside wall of the upper corner tooth will be barely perceptible to the touch. At nine years old the cups have left the teeth entirely. Both walls of the enamel will be level in the top corner incisors. This is about the limit to which the age of a horse can be judged, except by great experts, who usually judge by the length of the teeth, and the marks down their centre. The top corner incisors will show a full mark all the way down the centre when the horse is fifteen years old.

TO TELL THE AGE OF A COW.

The age of a cow is commonly told by the rings or circles in the horns. The first distinct circle appears when the animal is three years old, and each successive year adds a ring. If there are six visible rings, the animal will be eight years old. In the case of hornless stock, it is usual to approximate the age from the teeth. When a calf is a month old, it has eight teeth—called milk teeth—in its lower jaw. When the animal is nearly two years old, the two central teeth (which have been, in common with the rest, decreasing in size) will be pushed out, and two permanent teeth will appear. In the course of a year two will be removed, one on either side, until the whole eight incisors are renewed. When the mouth is completely furnished, the animal is about four years old. It should be noted, however, that a well-fed animal will have dentition earlier than a poorly-fed one. It was this fact which gave rise to so many grievous disputes about the age of stock.

PERIOD OF GESTATION.

The following is the duration of pregnancy in domestic animals:—

Species.

Premature Labour.

Regular Labour.

Protracted Labour.

Mare ... ...

330 days.

340 days.

420 days.

Cow ... ...

240 „

285 „

330 „

Sheep and Goat ...

135 „

144 „

160 „

Sow ... ...

110 „

120 „

130 „

Bitch ... ...

55 „

60 „

63 „

DENTITION OF SHEEP AND PIGS.

SHEEP.

Period.

No.

Position.

Temporary Incisors.

Four to 7 days old ......

2 ...

Central.

Ditto ...............

2 ...

Lateral central.

Seven to 10 days old ......

2 ...

Lateral.

Twenty-one two 28 days old

2 ...

Corner.

Permanent Incisors.

One year old............

2 ...

Central.

One year 6 months old ...

2 ...

Lateral central.

Two years and 3 months old

2 ...

Lateral.

Three years old .........

2 ...

Corner.

Temporary Molars.

Fourteen to 21 days old

... 3 ...

First, second, third.

Permanent Molars.

Three months old......

... 1 ...

Fourth.

Nine months old......

... 1 ...

Fifth.

Eighteen months old ...

... 1 ...

Sixth.

Eighteen to 21 months old ... 3 ...

First, second, third.

Period.

THE PIG.

No.

Position.

Temporary Incisors

and Tushes.

Birth ............

... 2 ...

Tushes.

Ditto ............

... 2 ...

Corner Incisor.

One month old ......

... 2 ...

Central.

Three months old......

2

Lateral.

Temporary Incisors

and Tushes.

Nine months old......

... 2 ...

Tushes.

Ditto ......

... 2 ...

Corner Incisors.

Twelve months old ...

... 2 ...

Central.

Eighteen months old ...

... 2 ...

Lateral.

Temporary Molars.

One month old ......

... 3 ...

First, second, third

Permanent Molars.

Six months old ......

... 1 ...

Premolar.

Ditto........

... 1 ...

Fourth.

Nine months old......

... 1 ...

Fifth.

Twelve months old ..

... 3 ...

First, second, third

Eighteen months old ..

... 1 ...

Sixth.

FOOT-ROT IN SHEEP.

Dressings recommended by Mr. E. Stanley, Government Veterinarian of New South Wales.

Arsenic Dressing.—Arsenic, from 1 to 2 oz ; potash, from 2 to 4oz; water, 1 gallon. To be used in troughs for the sheep to walk through. The mixture to be boiled slowly for half-an-hour at. least, till the arsenic is thoroughly dissolved.

Sulphate of Copper (Bluestone) Dressing.—

Sulphate of copper, from fib. to lib., dissolved in a gallon of water, may be used instead of arsenic. The following healing dressings may be used by hand after the above caustic applications:—

Tar Dressings.—Stockholm tar, 20 parts; carbolic acid, 1 part; or, Stockholm tar, 8 parts; bluestone in powder, 1 part; or, oil of tar, 10 parts; carbolic acid, 1 part; olive oil, 1 part.

Lime Dressing.—Quick-lime sprinkled on a dry surface, and the sheep walked through it frequently, will be found very beneficial. Before any dressings are used, the whole of the loose horn should be pared carefully from the diseased feet. It is of the greatest importance that the sheep’s feet should, on the dressing being applied, be kept thoroughly clean and dry for at least three hours afterwards. They should, therefore, on leaving the troughs, or being dressed, be passed directly on to a battened or wooden floor, if it can be got, and where neither of these is obtainable, they should be passed into a dry yard, in which there is a good coating of straw, cut grass, or dry bark taken from trees which have been rung, or in fact, any other thing which will keep their feet clean and dry.

BUTTONING THE HORNS.

A simple remedy for bad-tempered cows that horn their mates is simply to screw on a broad five-eigths octagon nut on the tip of the horn. A new nut will cut its own thread, and is a permanent fixture at less than a penny cost.

DEHORNING CATTLE.

Old cattle are frequently dehorned in America, and recently a dehorning machine was imported to Australia, and accomplished satisfactory work. It is better, however, to commence the dishorning when the stock are young. The following mixture has been successfully used in preventing the growth of horns upon calves in experiments conducted by the United States Bureau. The mixture is prepared by taking 50 parts of caustic soda, 25 parts of kerosene oil, and 25 parts of water. An emulsion is made of the kerosene and soda by heating and vigorously stirring, and this is then dissolved in the proper proportion of water. This mixture should then be put into a bottle with a cork of solid rubber. It is applied as follows, when the calf is from one to three weeks old ; the age should not exceed three weeks, as the horn cannot be killed with certainty if that age is exceeded. Clip away the hair from around the horn bud, and drop upon it two or three drops of the mixture, and rub it in well with the rubber cork. Apply it first to one horn and then to the other until each has had three or four doses, and the rubbing should be continued until the caustic has softened and removed the hair and surface skin around the horn. Care must be taken not to drop more of the fluid than is necessary, as it may run

down the calf’s face and get into its eyes, which culpable carelessness may well be termed downright cruelty. This mixture is said to be more certain and effective than the stick ot caustic potash with which we are acquainted.

A TABLE OF DISCOUNT PER CENT.

s.

d.

s.

d.

21

is

0

6 in

a pound.

171

is

3

6 in

a pound.

5

is

1

0

55

20

is

4

0

55

7'i

is

l

6

55

221

is

4

6

55

10

is

2

0

55

251

is

5

H

55

121

is

2

6

55

30

is

6

0

55

15

is

3

0

55

35

is

7

0

55

CUBING TIMBER.

To measure square timbers: Multiply the length, width, and thickness together, and divide the product by 12. How many square feet in a joist 2x8, 18 feet long ?

2 x 8 x 18 = 288 -r-12 = 24 ft.—Ans. How many square feet in a joist 8x8, 22 ft. long ?

8x8x22 = 1408-^12 = 117| ft.—Ans.

TO FIND THE NUMBER OF FEET OF BOARDS THAT MAY BE CUT FROM A LOG.

From the diameter of the log in inches, subtract 4 for the slabs. Then multiply the remainder by half itself, and the product by the length of the log in feet, and divide the result by 8: the quotient will be the number of feet. Example.—What is the number of feet of boards that can be cut from a log 24 inches in diameter, and 12 feet long ?

Diameter ...    ...    ... 24 inches.

Deduct for slabs    ...    ...    4

Remainder ...    ...    ...    20

Multiply by half remainder 10

200

Multiply by length of log ...    12

Divide by ...    ...    8) 2400

Number of feet in log... 300

USEFUL LAND AND OTHER MEASUREMENTS.

The following figures will be found useful in laying out or estimating the areas of paddocks :—

60 feet by 726 feet ..

1

acre.

5 yd

s. by 968 yds. .

.. lacre

110

396 „ ..

1

>>

10

» 485 „ .

.. 1 »

129 „

363 „ ..

1

35

20

» 242 „ .

• • 1 „

220 „

198 „ ..

1

33

40

„ 121 „ .

.. 1 „

240 „

181* „ ..

1

33

70

» 69^ „ .

•1 „

440 „

99 „ ..

1

33

80

,, 60^ „ .

•1 „

It is not generally known that a half-penny is exactly one inch in diameter. If this coin be laid upon a map of an inch scale it will just cover 500 acres.

surveyor’s measure.

7'92 inches 25 links ... 4 rods ...


...    1    link.

...    1    rod.

...    1    chain.


10 square chains )


... 1 acre.


100 square rods )

640 acres ... 1 square mile.


SQUARE MEASURE.

144 sq. inches .. 1 sq. foot.

40 sq. rods ...

... 1 rood.

9 sq. feet ... 1 sq. yard.

4 roods ...

... 1 acre.

30i sq. yards ... 1 sq. rod.

MILES OF VARIOUS NATIONS.

English and American mile is

1,760 yards.

Scotch ,,

1,984 „

Irish „

2,240 „

Italian „

1,766 „

Prussian and Dutch „

o

00

T?

CO

Swedish and Danish „

7,3415 „

German „

8,106 „

Vienna ,,

8,296 „

Swiss ,,

... ...

9,153 „

SIZES OF BOXES FOR DIFFERENT MEASURES.

A box 24 inches long by 16 inches wide, and 28 inches deep, will contain a barrel (3 bushels).

A box 24 inches long by 16 inches wide, and 14 inches deep, will contain half a barrel.

A box 16 inches square and 8-f inches deep, will contain one bushel.

A box 16 inches by 8f inches wide, and 8 inches deep, will contain half a bushel.

A box 8 inches by 8f inches square, and 8 inches deep, will contain one peck.

A box 8 inches by 8 inches square, and 4| inches deep will contain one gallon.

A box 7 inches by 4 inches square, and 4| inches deep, will contain half a gallon.

A box 4 inches by 4 inches square, and 4^- inches deep, will contain one quart.

In purchasing anthracite coal, 20 bushels are generally allowed for a ton.

RUST OR MILDEW ON WHEAT.

The Departments of Agriculture of the four leading Australian Colonies have been holding a series of conferences on this subject, and the following recommendations are the result of their most exhaustive enquiries.—1. Early sowing, and the cultivation of early ripening sorts. 2. Harvesting rust-infected crops in the early or “ dough-stage.” 3. The growth of sorts which local experiences have shown to be rust-resisting or rust-escaping 4. The growth of wheat after fallowing or after crops of a different order. 5. Thin seeding, with due regard to varieties and local conditions of soil and climate. The 3rd is the most important recommendation of all.

They placed no less than 500 varieties of wheat under examination in different colonies, with the result that the following are unanimously declared to enjoy more or less immunity from rust:—Imperial Fife, Blunt’s Fife, White Fife, Blount’s Lambrigg, Marshall’s No. 3, Tourmaline, Pringle’s Defiance, Fluorspar, Allora Spring, Horneblende, Sicilian Baart, and the various Durums.

POTATO PLANTING.

Experiments extending over five years have just been concluded in France, with the object of establishing the effect of the size and treatment of seed on the resulting crop. Tubers of 1 oz., three planted together ; lf-ozs., two planted together; 31 ozs., planted whole and cut into two portions respectively; 7 ozs., cut into two portions; and 101 ozs. cut into three. The results proved :—1. The maximum crops were obtained from the 31 ozs. or medium sized tubers whole. 2. The crop is diminished about 30 per cent, if such tubers are cut into two portions. 3. It is diminished 20 per cent, by planting cut seed weighing 31 ozs. from whole tubers weighing from 7 ozs. to 101 ozs.

4. If two or three small tubers, weighing in all 31 ozs. are planted together, the crop is on the average from 5 to 10 per cent, less than that obtained by planting whole tubers of medium weight. In a word, these experiments prove that divided large seed are only a little more than two-thirds of the croppers of uncut potatoes of moderate size.

DISTANCE TRAVELLED IN PLOUGHING.

Width of furrow.    Ploughing one acre.

7 inches

141 miles.

8 inches

12* „

9 inches

11 „

10 inches

91 „

11 inches

9 „

12 inches

8* „

13 inches

71 „

14 inches

7 „

15 inches

»

16 inches

61 „

TO PREVENT WEEVILS IN SKINS.

Take 11 lbs. of arsenic, 1 lb. common soap cut in thin slices, and 1 lb. washing soda. Place these in a five-gallon drum half full of water. Put on the fire and boil for an hour or two, stirring frequently. Then fill up the drum with cold water. Apply this mixture to the fleshy sides of the skins with a brush.

TO KEEP TOOLS FROM RUSTING.

The following are recipes for preparations to keep tools from rusting :—Dissolve ^ oz. of camphor in 1 lb. of melted lard ; take off the scum and mix in as much black lead (graphite) as will give it an iron colour. Smear the tools with this mixture, and after 24 hours rub clean with a soft linen cloth. Another coating is made by mixing slowly 6 ozs. of lard to 1 oz. resin, and stirring till cool. When semi-fluid it is ready for use.

BORDEAUX MIXTURE.

Bordeaux Mixture—use on trees and vines soon after pruning:—Copper sulphate, 4 lbs., quicklime, 6 lbs., water, 25 gallons. Dissolve the bluestone in a portion of the water; pass the remainder of the water through the lime and strain, getting as much in suspension as possible. Only mix before using, and use only wooden or earthenware vessels.

TICK BITES ON DOGS.

When the dog exhibits the usual symptoms of the tick’s poison (a loss of power of the limbs) a tablespoonful of castor or salad oil should be administered, to be followed in ten or fifteen minutes by giving eight drops of aconite in a tablespoonful of water. In half an hour, if the bad symptoms do not disappear, repeat the dose of aconite. When the dog shows signs of recovery and it is considered necessary to administer more aconite, not more than three or four drops should be given. This treatment, it is said, will cure the worst cases.

POISONS.

Poison the wallabies or rabbits with phosphorised pollard or bran. Take two jugs, one containing a half-pint and the other two quarts of cold water. Mix a stick of phosphorus and a tablespoonful of bisulphide of carbon in one, and three pounds of brown sugar in the other. After the ingredients are well dissolved mix them together, and having put half a bushel of bran or pollard in a tub, pour in the mixture, and make a dough with a flat wooden mixer. You can do without the bisulphide of carbon by mixing the phosphorus in boiling water. When the paste is made roll it on a board to a cake form half-inch in thickness, and let it dry thoroughly; then break into pieces about one inch square, and place in furrows near the animals’ tracks. The phosphorus is sold in sticks, which should be kept in cold water placed in bottles. It is dangerous to handle, and may burst into flame if exposed to the air in hot weather. Strychnine may be dissolved by taking |oz. of it with 2 oz. of tartaric acid, and boiling the two until they are thoroughly dissolved. It is possible to make into poison half a ton of twigs or other material with an ounce of strychnine. To dissolve arsenic, dust it gradually into a vessel in which water is boiling; a little washing-soda added to the water will help this process. Cyanide of potassium is, in proportion to its deadly effects, the cheapest of all poisons. It will dissolve in hot water, and one pound of it will kill as many as 1,000 rabbits.

DRESSING FURS.

For dressing furs at home a simple and convenient plan is described by James Dale in the American Agriculturalist as follows :—“ If the skins are dry, soak in perfectly cool water 24 hours. Do not put too many together, as the temperature of the water may be raised, which may cause the hair to come off. When quite soft take out and drain. Make a fleshing board of 1 in. or 1^ in. material, round on the edges. On this stretch the skin, and with a large knife, or drawing knife, remove all the flesh and grease from the skin side. It cannot be cut off, but may be removed by pushing. This is accomplished by holding the narrow width of the knife perpendicularly. For a skin the size of a dog skin bring 2 gallons of soft water to a boil, and add a bar of good hard soap, a lump of borax half the size of an egg, and the same amount of washing soda. In this, wash the skin, keeping the liquid as hot as the hand can bear it, until all the grease has been removed. Wring dry. While still warm rub into the flesh side, a mixture composed of 1 teacupful of salt, \ teacupful of alum, and a tablespoonful of saltpetre. Then fold the skin closely together, flesh side in, and lay in a cool place away from fire or sun. Turn over daily for four or five days, after which open out and pull a few minutes each day until it is dry. When fully dry sandpaper the flesh side. This makes a fine finish.” To prevent weevils in skins, a useful mixture is made by means of 1\ lb. arsenic, \ lb. of common soap cut in thin slices, and 1 lb. of common washing soda. Place these in a five-gallon drum and half fill with water, put on a fire and boil quietly for an hour or two, stirring frequently ; then fill up with cold water. When cold it can be applied to the fleshy sides of

the skins with a brush. The quantities mentioned will be sufficient for a large number of rabbit or wallaby skins, but for smaller numbers it is easy to suit the proportions of the ingredients to the amount of work to be done. Stockowners who desire to try the experiment of trapping on a large scale or otherwise securing rabbits for the sake of storing up the skins and selling them, as opportunity offers, will find the above recipe very serviceable.

SOMETHING ABOUT TANNING.

Have a trough ready, large enough to hold a hide when spread out; into this put a mixture of lime and water of about the consistency of thick cream. After soaking the hides, one over the other, in water until they are pliable, lay them in soak ; draw them out every day, and put them back until the hair can be scraped off—generally in 12 or 14 days. Then scrape off all loose flesh, and trim the hides. To tan them, use terra-japonica, common salt, and alum, in the proportion of 6 lb. of the former, 4 of salt, and 1 of alum, for every 28 lb. of hide. Dissolve the mixture by boiling. Put the hides in as large a vessel as possible, cover them with water, to which one quart of the tanning composition has been added for every 28 lb. of hide. Add the same amount of composition each night and morning for three days ; then add the remainder. Shift the hides about two or three times daily while tanning. The tanning liquid may be again used by adding half the quantity of new liquor. When it is desired to give the leather a dark appearance, put in 1 lb. of sumac to the foregoing quantities. In using this composition, kip skins require about twenty days; light horse hides for harness, thirty days; calfskins require from six to ten days. Tanning with acid is a still quicker process. After removing the hair and washing the hide, take sulphuric acid and water, equal parts of each, and thoroughly soak the flesh side of the skin with it by means of a sponge or cloth on a stick; then fold up the skin, letting it lie for twenty minutes only, having ready a solution of soda and water, say 1 lb. to a bucket of water, and soak the skin in that for about two hours; then wash in clean water and apply a little dry salt, and let the hide lie in the salt over night, or that length of time ; then remove the flesh with a blunt knife. When dry, or nearly so, soften by pulling and rubbing with hands, and also with a piece of pumice stone. The above plan is a good one, and if the quantity of the acid is not too great, there is no reason why it may not be used. The only caution necessary, is to see that the strength of the acid does not kill the fibre of the hide, and that it is not kept on too long; in proper quantities, it tans only, instead of destroying the fibre.

TO CURE HIDES FOR WHIPS.

Take a hide fresh from the animal, fold it up in the ordinary way and bury it in sand for about three days, by which time the roots of the hair will be decomposed. Then spread it out on the barn floor and pour a couple of bottles of strong vinegar over it. Give a rub over with a brush or a broom occasionally until all the vinegar is absorbed, when the hide may be removed and hung in the shade to be used

G as required. As a rule, the hair will be found on the floor on the removal of the hide. The fleshy substance can be removed as the hide is cut for use, when, after a few minutes’ rubbing, it will be found tough and pliable.

HENS IN THE ORCHARD.

Many farmers and orchardists would like to have hens in the orchard for the good their presence would do the trees, were it not that the fowls must be kept confined because of the damage they would do to the adjacent garden and flower beds. The sketch shows a way to keep one or more flocks

of hens in an orchard. A light, low house, made of £ in. matched stuff, has a wire run attached to the end, as shown in the illustration. The house has no floor. The eggs are gathered by opening the hinged board in the end. Low trucks are attached to the corners, so that the whole can be moved occasionally to a new location. It can thus be moved up and down beside the rows of trees, stopping for a day or two under each tree, scratching, fertilising the ground and

destroying insects. The fowls all do well under such conditions, and their presence will be of great value to the orchard. The lower sill of the sides of the house should continue out and from the base of the sides of the run.— A merican Agriculturist.

USEFUL SHEEP YARD.

In these days of mixed flocks, these yards and their system of working may supply a good pattern to large sheepowners, and a plan is therefore appended.

The yards cover about two acres of ground, and, in addition to the gates shown on the plan, each pen can be opened direct to the paddock surrounding them— Canterbury Times, New Zealand.

NUMBER OF SEEDS IN A POUND WEIGHT.

Name.

No. of Seeds per lb.

No. of lbs. per Bushel.

Wheat ... ... ...

10,500

58 to

64

Barley ... ... ...

15,400

48 „

56

Oats ... ... ... ...

20,000

38 „

42

Rye ... ... ... ...

23,000

56 „

60

Vetches ... ... ... ...

8,330

60 „

63

Lentil ... ... ... ...

8,200

58 „

60

Beans ... ... ... 600 to

1,300

60 „

65

Peas ...... 1,800 ,,

2,000

60 ,,

65

Flax ... ... ... ...

108,000

50 „

60

Turnip ... ... ... ...

155,000

50 „

56

Rape ... ... ...

118,000

50 „

56

Mustard (white) ... ...

75,000

57

Cabbage ... ... ..

128,000

52

Mangold ... ... •••

24,600

20 „

24

Parsnips (com. cattle) ... ..

97,000

14

Carrot (Belgian) ... ...

257,000

9

Sainfoin ... ... ... ...

23,300

20

24

Lucerne ... ... ... ..

205,000

58

60

Clover (red) ... ... ...

249,600

60

63

,, (white) ... ... ..

686,400

59

62

Trifolium incarnatum ... ..

118,400

60

Rye-grass (perennial) ... ...

334,000

20

28

,, (Italian) ... ..

272,000

13

18

Sweet vernal grass ... ...

923,000

8

WEIGHT PER BUSHEL OF GRAIN AND PRODUCE AS SOLD IN AUSTRALASIA.

Names.

Lbs. per Bushel.

Names.

Average Bushels per bag.

Wheat ... ...

60

Wheat ... ..

4

Barley, Cape ...

50

Barley ... ...

4

,, English ..

52

Oats ... ...

4

Oats ... ...

40

Maize ...

4

Maize ... ...

56

Beans ... ...

4

Beans ... ...

60

Peas ... ...

4

Peas ... ...

40

Malt ......

4

Malt ......

60

Bran ... ...

7 to 10

Bran ... ...

20

Pollard ... ...

7 to 10

Pollard ... ...

20

TO FIND THE WEIGHT OF HAY IN A STACK.

Multiply the length of the stack by its breadth, and multiply the result by its height, all in feet ; divide the product by 27 which will give the number of cubic yards ; this multiply by 6, if new hay, if oldish, 8 or 9, and the product will be the weight in stones. In measuring the height deduct two-thirds of the distance in feet from the eaves to the top.    .

TABLE OF SQUARE MEASURE.

Square Links.

Square

Feet.

Square

Yards.

Square Poles or Rods.

Square

Chains.

Square

Roods.

Square

Acre.

1

0 3 2 2 "1089

1

20-8-0-

"U120

9

1

625

272i

>-<k

o

CO

- 1

10,000

4,356

484

16

1

25,000

10,890

1,210

40

2i

1

100,000

43,560

4,840

160

10

4

1

64,000,000

27,878,400

3,097,600

102,400

6,400

2,560

640

TABLE OF LINEAL MEASURE.

Gunter’s Links.

Feet.

Yards.

Fathoms.

Poles or Rods.

V    £

V    C

C d

Fur

longs.

Mile.

1

lil

■*■33

1

4 i

3

1

Q 1

6

2

1

25

I6à

51

2f

1

100

66

22

11

4

1

1,000

660

220

110

40

10

1

8,000

5,280

1,760

880

320

80

8

1

A Gunter’s Chain is 4 poles or 22 yards in length. It consists of 100 links each,7-92 inches long. Ten square chains, or 10 chains in length, and one in breadth, make one acre.

RAINFALL PER ACRE AND PER SQUARE MILE.

Inches of

Rainfall.

Gallons per Acre.

Cubic Feet per Acre,

Tons Per Acre.

Gallons per Mile.

Cubic Feet per Mile.

One-tenth inch

equal to

2,377

363

1016

1,450,000

232,320

1 inch

)) )f •••

23,770

3,630

101-64

14,500,000

2,323,200

2 inches

ft ft # * *

47,540

7,260

203 28

29,000,000

4,646,400

3

M ))

71,310

10,890

304-92

43,500,000

6,969,600

4

) ) »> •• •

95,080

14,520

40656

58,000,000

9,292,800

5

tf )) * * *

118,850

18,150

508-20

72,500,000

11,616,000

« „

,, ,,

142,620

21,780

60984

87,000,000

13,939,200

7

I ) ft • • •

166,390

25,410

711'48

101,500,000

16,262,400

8

190,160

29,040

81312

116,000,000

18,585.600

9

* ) ft •••

213,930

32,670

914-76

130,500,000

20,908,800

10 „

ft ft * * *

237,700

36,300

1016-40

145,000,000

23,232,000


and Farmers' Friend.


WELLS AND TANKS. .

Every 1,000 Gallons of capacity requires nearly 6 cubic yards of Earth to be moved.

Circular.

Diameter.

Gallons for every foot of depth.

Depth required for every 1000 gals.

3 ft.

44

22 ft.

8 in.

4 „

~k

00

12 „

9 ,,

5 „

122^

8 „

2 „

6 „

176*

|5 „

8 >f

7 „

239f

4

2 „

8 „

313*

3 „

2 „ •

Square or Rectangular.

Dimensions.

Gallons for every foot of Depth.

Depth required for every 1,000 gals.

4

ft. by 4 ft.

99f

10 ft.

0 in.

4

5 n

124|

8 „

o

4

„ „ 6

149|

6

8 „

5

„ „ & „

155f

6

5 »

5

», 6

187

5 „

4 „

6

.. » 6 ,,

224*

4 „

6

WELLS AND TANKS.

Capacity.

Earth to be moved.

Surface Required.

Tank 5 feet deep.

Tank 10 feet deep.

Tank 15 feet deep.

Gallons.

Cubic yards.

Feet. Feet.

Feet. Feet.

Feet. Feet.

250,000

1,486

90 by 90 or 126 by 63

63 by 63 or 90 by 45

52 by 52 or 74 by 37

500,000

2,972

127 „ 127 or 180 ,, 90

90 „ 90 or 126 „ 93

73 „ 73 or 104 „ 52

750,000

4,457

155 „ 155 or 220 ,, 110

110 „ 110 or 156 „ 78

90 „ 90 or 126 ., 63

1,000,000

5,943

179 „ 179 or 254 „ 127

127 ,, 127 or 180 „ 90

103 „ 103 or 146 „ 73

1,250.000

7,429

200 „ 200 or 284 „ 142

142 „ 142 or 200 „ 100

116 „ 116 or 164 „ 82

1,500,000

8,914

219 „ 219 or 310 „ 155

155 „ 155 or 220 „ 110

127 „ 127 or 180 „ 90

1,750,000

10,400

237 „ 237 or 336 „ 168

168 „ 168 or 238 „ 119

137 „ 137 or 194 „ 97

2,000,000

11,886

253 „ 253 or 358 ,, 179

179 „ 179 or 254 „ 127

146 ,, 146 or 206 „ 103

Note.—In the above Squares and Rectangles fractions of a foot have been omitted. Other Rectangles than those given can be _ ascertained by observing, that when the tank is 5 feet deep, every 250,000 gallons will require a surface of 8,023 square feet; or when 10 feet deep, a surface of 4,011 square feet ; or when 15 feet deep, a surface of 2,674 square feet.    to


and Farmers’ Friend.


ROUGH CALCULATIONS FOR ASCERTAINING AREA OF SQUARE OR RECTANGULAR TANKS HAVING SLOPING SIDES.

(a.) The top length and breadth are multiplied together.

(b.) The bottom length and breadth are multiplied together.

(c.) The results of a and b are added together and divided by two.

(d.) This result is multiplied by the depth, and to the number obtained add one-hundreth of the whole quantity.

The capacity of the tank in gallons is obtained by multiplying d by 6*232.

INDEX xx-

PLGE

A Cheap Wash ...... 20

A Good Paint ...    ...    20

Agriculture, In Honour of 137 Albuminoids ...    ...    47-55

Aldcrneys ...    ...    ...    31

Americans in British Markets 5-6 Andalusian Fowls ...    118

Ants ...    ...    ...    18

Apples, Best Varieties ...    78

Apricots ...    ...    ...    79

Artesian Bores    ...    ...    104

Australasia’s Export of Butter 2 Ayrshires ...    ...    ...    28

Bacon, How to Cure ...    100

Boar, How to Select ...    97

Boards from a Log    ...    152

Bordeaux Mixture    ...    157

Bread, How to Make ...    141

British Dairy Stock, Stall-

fed and Housed ...    39

Britain’s Import of Butter    5

Buildings ...    ...    ...    17

Burning Off    ...    ...    13

Bush Fires    ...    ...    9

Bushel Weight of Produce 165 Butter, Firmness    of    ...    58

Butter, Making of    ...    51-53

Butter, Flavour of    ...    47

Butter Fat...    ...    ..    46

Butter, Australasia’s Export of    ...    ...    2

Butter Imported to Britian    5

Butter, Consumption of in

Various Countries ...    5

Buttoning the Horns ...    151

Cake Rich in Oil ...    57

Calves, Feeding    ...    ...    138

Cattle Feeding, Chief Object of ... ...

PAGE

56

Cattle, How to Dehorn ...

151

Cement ... ... ...

20

Cereals, Time to Sow ...

16

Chief Object in Cattle Feeding ... ...

56

Chock and Log Fences ...

11

Churning ... ... ...

50

Citrous Fruits ... ...

81

Clearing Land ... ...

13-15

Clearing Land, Cost of ...

16

Cocoanut Cake ... ...

24

Colostrum, Composition of

41

Composition of Milk ...

47

Concentrated Food ...

2

Concrete Walls ... ...

19

Concrete, How to Make...

18

Consumption of Butter in Various Countries ...

5

Cows, Meal for ... ...

139

Cow for the Dairy ...

25

Cow, How to tell the Age of a ... ... ...

147

Cow, What she takes from the Farm ... ...

55

Cow, Udder of ... ...

40

Cows, Gallon-a-day ...

5

Cows going off Milk ...

1

Cows, Water required for

6

Cows, Weights of various Breeds ... ...

37

Cows, Various Breeds of

27

Cream ... ... ...

48-49

Cream, Starter for ...

49

Crossbred Sheep ... ...

107

Cubing Timber ... ...

152

Dairy Shorthorn ...

36

Foot-rot in Sheep, Dressings


PAGE

Dairy Cattle of lllawarra    33

Dairying To-day    ...    ...    5

Dams    ...    ...    ...    6

Dehorning Cattle...    ...    151

Denmark and British

Countries    ...    ...    G

Dentition    of Sheep and Pigs    148

Devons    ,.    ...    ...    28

Dexter Kerry Cattle    ...    36

Diseases of Poultry    ...    126

Diseases of Pigs    ...    ...    98

Discount, Table of    ...    152

Drains    ...    ...    ...    75

Durhams ...    ...    27

Dutch Cattle    ...    ...    33

Earth Hunger    ...    ...    3

Effect of Food on Milk    ...    46

Eggs, To Preserve    ...    125

Ensilage    ...    ...    ...    60

Export of Pork from America    93

Early Sheep Breeders    ...    104

Factors to Success    ...    4

Farm, Selecting    the    ...    3

Farm Buildings    ...    ...    17

Farm Calendar    ...    ...    65-74

Farm, Plan of    ...    ...    13

Farm Stock    ...    ...    22

Fat of Milk    ...    ...    44

Feed the Milking Cows all

the Year    ..    ...    5

Feeding Calves    ...    ...    138

Feeding Values of Food...    63

Feeding Horses    ..    ...    24

Feeding in Winter    ...    5

Fences, Two and Three-rail    10

Fences, Cost of    ...    ...    11

Fences, How to Construct    12

Fence Posts    ...    ...    10

Fencing ...    ...    ...    9

Flavour of Butter    ...    47

Fluke and Foot-rot    ...    110

Food •    ...    ...    ...    54

Food—LEffect on Milk    ...    46

Food, Feeding Values of    63

Food for Pigs    ...    ...    93

for ......... 150

Forest Devil ...    ...    13

Fowl Diseases and their

Treatment ...    ...    126

Fowl Foods ...    ...    124

Freight Charges ...    ...    3

Fruit on the Farm    ...    75

Furs, How to Dress    ...    159

Gallon-a-day Cows    ...    5

Galvanized Iron ...    ...    17

Game Fowls ...    ...    119

Garden Calendar    ...    65-74

Gates, How to Hang    ...    12

Gestation, Periods of    ...    148

Getting on the Land    ...    3

Going on the Land    ...    22

Grapes—Varieties to Plant    87

Grasses ...    ...    ...    69

Grubbing ... •••    ...    ...    13

Guernseys... ...    ...    31

Hamburg Fowls ...    ...    117

Hams, How to Cure    ...    101

Hand-feeding Necessary    2

Harness ...    ...    ...    23

Hens in the Orchard    ...    162

Herefords ...    ...    ...    27

Hides for Whips...    ...    161

Hogs on the Farm    ...    92

Horns, Buttoning...    ...    151

Horses ...    ...    ...    22

LI orse, How to tell the age

of a ...    ...    ...    145

Horses, Howto    Feed    ...24,139

How to Begin a Poultry

Yard......... 115

How to Feed Horses    ...    139

lllawarra Cattle    ...    ...    33

lllawarra Land    ...    ...    6

Iron, Galvanized ...    17

Jerseys ...    ...    ...    31

Keeping up Supplies of


Milk......... 59

Kerry Cattle    ...    ...    35

Land Clearing    ..    ...    13

Land, Going on to    ...    22

Land in Illawarra...    ...    6

Land Measurements    ...    153

Langshan Fowls    ...    ...    120

Leghorn Fowls    ...    ...    118

Lineal Measure    ...    ...    166

Machinery Shed    ...    ...    23

Maize ...    ...    ...    62

Manurial Value of Cocoa-

nut Cake    ...    ...    58

Markets, Proximity of    ...    4

Meal for Cows    ...    ...    139

Measures ...    ...    ..    166

Merino Sheep    ...    ...    106

Miles of-Various Nations    154

Milk .........40-44

Milk, Composition of    ...    47

Milk, Fat of    ...    ...    44

Milking Herds    ...    ...    29

Milk, Keepingup Supplies of    59

Milk, Standard of    ...    42

Minorca Fowls    ...    ...    118

Mouldy Fodder    ...    ...    25

Oilcake for Long Voyages    58

Oilcake for Pigs    ...    ...    57

Oilcake for Sheep    and

Lambs    ...    ...59,140

Oilcake used in Denmark    57

Old System of Dairying...    44

Orchard Cultivation    ...    82

Orchard, Site for    ...    75

Orpington Fowls    ...    120

Paint and Washes    ...    20

Pasteurising Cream    and

Milk ...    ...    ...    43

Peaches ...    ...    ...    79

Pigs, Berkshire    ...    ...    97

Pigs, Essex    ...    ...    97

Tamworth Pigs    ...    ...    97

PAGE

Pigs, Weight of ...    ...    96

Pigs, White Yorkshire ...    97

Pise Walls    ...    ...    19

Plan of Farm    ...    ...    13

Plant Diseases & Remedies    86-89

Planting a Vineyard ...    88

Plough, Stump Jump ...    16

Ploughing, Distance travelled in    ...    ...    156

Plymouth Rock Fowls ...    119

Poisons ...    ...    ...    158

Poisons for Ants ...    ...    18

Polled Breeds    ...    ...    28

Pork Exported from America 93 Portable Poultry House ...    116

Posts for Fences ...    ...    10

Potato Planting    ...    ...    155

Poultry on the Farm ...    115

Preserving Timber    ...    13

Proximity of Markets    ...    4

Pure Cool Springs    ...    6

Putty ......... 21

Rainfall per Acre...    ...    167

Rations, Balanced    ...    54

Remedies for Plant Diseases 89-91 Ring-barking    ...    ...    15

Rust on Tools    ...    ...    157

Rust on Wheat    ...    ...    155

Salt for Stock    ...    ...    55

Salting Butter    ...    ...    52

Sap-ringing    ...    ...    15

Season to Fell Timber    ...    9

Seeds in a Pound Weight 164 Selecting the Farm    ...    3

Selecting a Boar ...    ...    97

Setting Hens    ...    ...    122

Shed for Machinery    ...    23

Sheep, Australian Experience with    ...    ...    105

Sheep—Breeds    for the

Farm...... 106-107

Sheep—Dentition of    ...    110

Sheep Diseases    ...    ...    22

Sheep Dogs    ...    ...    Ill

Sheep in Dry Seasons    ...    103

86


PAGE

Sheep on Stubbles ...    65

Sheep, Useful Breeds of...    103

Sheep Yard ...... 163

Silos ......... 60

Site for Orchard ..    ...    75

Sizes of Different Measures    154

Sorghum ...    ...    ...    62

Sow, Treatment of ...    98

Springs, Pure and Cool ...    6

Square Measure ...    ...    166

Standard of Milk    ...    42

Starter for Cream ...    49

Station Calendar ...    ...    65-74

Stocking the Farm ...    22

Stump Jump Plough ...    16

Success, Factors to ...    4

Supplies of Water ...    6

Tanks, Dams, and Wells    6

Tanks, How to Measure 169-170 Tanning ...    ...    ...    160

Traction Engine ...    ...    13

Treatment of Plant Diseases 89 Trees, How to Plant ...    78-80

Tree, How to Split a ...    10

Trees, Preparing Land for    75

Trees to the Acre ...    77

Tick Bites on Dogs ...    157

Timber, Cost of ...    ...    11

Timber, How to Preserve 13-18 Timber, To Fell..... 9

Tools, To Keep from Rusting 157 Udder of the Cow ...    40

Vineyard

Walls ...    ...    ...    19

Washing Butter...... 51

Water, Supplies    of    ...    6

Wattle and Daub    ...    19

Weevils in Skins    ...    156

Weight of Hay in Stack    165

Wells, Dams and Tanks...    6

Wells and Tanks Measurements    ...    168-169-170

Weight per    Bushel    of

Produce    ...    ...    165

Weights of Cows    ...    37

Wells, How to Measure 169-170 Wheat, Rust on    ...    ...    155

White Ants    ...    ...    18

Windmills...    ...    ...    6

Winter Feeding    ...    ...    5

Wire Fences    ...    ...    11

Wire for Mile of    Fence ...    14

Wool-classing    ...    111-114

Working Butter    ...    ...    52

Wyandotte Fowls    ...    120

Yard for Sheep    ...    ...    163

Yorkshire Milking Strain    35

Turner and Henderson, Printers, Sydney—6103.

“ALPHA” LAVAL CREAM SEPARATORS.

OVER 100,000 IN DAILY USE.

allo

Mr. PATESON, the Manager of the well-known N.S.W. Fresh Food and Ice Company, writes :—

“To Messrs. WAUGH & JOSEPHSON,    Sydney, May 19th, 1896.

Dear Sirs,—We may mention that the latest improved ‘ Alpha ’ Laval Separators, supplied by you for our new Creameries, are all we could wish for.—Yours faithfully,

_ H. PATESON, Manager.”

FREEZING PLANTS


For Ice-making, Cold Storage, or any purpose requiring Artificial Refrigeration.

We have supplied REFRIGERATING PLANTS for Hawkesbury Agricultural College— Messrs. Denham Bros., Sydney—N.S.W. Creamery Butter Co., Ltd. (3 plants)—Young Dairy Co., Ltd. -Mr. John Lavis, Hinton—Mr. George Forrester, Branxton—Ulladulla Refrigerating Butter Company, Ltd.—Mr. J. W. McDouall, Tiaro—and others.

WAUGH & JOSEPHSON,

342, 344, 346 SUSSEX STREET, SYDNEY,

And 197 Elizabeth Street, Brisbane.

Representatives of the Laval Separator Co’y for N.S.W. and Queensland.