SPT x' v
C a-^/Ac^c / 5- ¿3 TEACHERS ARE USIHG:
Written Specially to the Programme of the Victor* Education Department.
PART I. — (From the Roman Invasion to the
House of York) .. .. • • 2d»
PART II. — (From the Tudors to the last of
the Stuarts) .. . * •• 2d.
PART III.—(From the Accession of the House of
Hanover to the Diamond Jubilee) .. 2d.
Also the whole complete tn 1 Volume, fully Illustrated .. 8d.
N.B.—The arrangement of the dates, etc., is such that the memory is greatly helped.
AT ALL BOOKSELLERS.
DO YOU USE
The New and thoroughly Revised Edition of
Complete Edition for all Classes ... .. 9d*
Part I.—For Junior Classes .. .. .. * 4d*
Comprises the Complete Programme of the Victorian Education Department.
At All Booksellers.
CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited, Publishers»
» 376 LITTLE COLLINS ST., MELBOURNE.
And London, Paris, New York and Sydney.
52 Maps, Diagrams, and Illustrations,
Fifth & Sixth Classes,
ARRANGED TO SUIT THE
PROGRAMME OF INSTRUCTION
OF THE • .
CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited, Publishers,
376 Little Collins Street, Melbourne,
LONDON AND PARIS.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
if l ft t ft' ( i
CASSELL’S AUSTRALIAN ATLAS GEOGRAPHY has been
written to meet the requirements of the Education Depart ment, for the Fifth and Sixth Classes. It has been so arranged that it will be useful for home or school work.
No less than 52 Diagrams and Maps haYe been included,
so that it is an Atlas as well as a Geography. It has been the author’s aim to make the information as manifest to the eye as possible.
This Atlas Geography will be found a great boon to the teacher when giving geographical lessons, as each child will have a map, and will be able to see distinctly the exact position of each place referred to. The hazy notions that children often get from distant wall maps will be Impossible to those using this work, and inexactness in answering geographical questions should, wherever the Atlas Geography is used, be a thing of the past. Every scholar will have a map to refer to when working Home Lessons
Thousands of inland school children do not understand what the names of a palace, a cathedral, a dock, or a canal really
mean, as they have never seen either the things themselves, or a pictorial illustration. Engravings of these have been inserted.
Teachers will doubtless welcome such aid when endeavoring to impart instruction, while scholars will be materially helped thereby.
Sketch maps of noted river basins have also been added, showing their source, tributaries, mouth, and how towns cluster on them when navigable.
Mr. R. Craig, in the Australian Schoolmaster, for May, 1897, writes of this Geography '.—'‘Having seen this book in use for several years, we can confdently recommend it."
A teacher writes:—"7 find your 7/.- and 4d. Geographies just the books for the classes, according to the Programme of Instruction."
V, and VI, CLASSES.
• • • •
• • • •
• • • •
New South Wales......
• • • •
8outh Australia ......
• • • •
Western Australia.. .. ..
,, . .
Tasmania .. .. .. ..
New Zealand .. .. ..
New Guinea and Fiji ........
British Possessions in Europe, Africa, North
and South America and Asia
• • • •
England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland ..
VI. CLASS ONLY.
Denmark and Switzerland, German Empire,
V. and VI. CLASSES.
The Axis is an imaginary line round which the earth rotate*
The North and South Poles are
the extreme ends of the Axis.
The Equator is an imaginary line passing round the earth equidistant from the Poles.
The Meridians are Great Circles passing through both Poles.
The Chief Great Circles are the
Equator, all Meridians, Circle of Illumination, and Ecliptic. Great Circles divide the earth into two equal parts.
A Meridian is so called because when
the sun shines directly over any one it is noon along that Meridian.
The First Meridian passes through Greenwich.
Longitude is distance from the First Meridian.
Parallels of Latitude are circles drawn parallel to the
Latitude is distance from the Equator (North and South).
Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn are two parallels o*
latitude, drawn respectively 23^ North and South of Equator, to mark the extreme points over which the sun shines perpendicularly.
Arctic and Antarctic Circles mark the limits to which the sun’s rays are withdrawn from, and to which they extend beyond the North and South Poles.
The Tropic of Oancer and Capricorn and the A»ctlc
and Antarctic Circles divide the earth into Zones.
The Torrid Zone lies between rtie Tropic of Cancer and Capricoun.
The Temperate Zones lie between
the Tropics and the Polar Circles.
The Frigid Zones lie 23J0 around the Poles.
All Circles are divided into 360 equal parts called degrees.
The Earth rotates 360°, or one revolution, in 24 hrs., or 360° -5- 24 =■ 150 in one hour and 60 minutes, -i-150 = 4 minutes, or i° = 4 mnts.
The Orbit is the earth's path round the sun.
The Zenith is the point directly overhead.
The Nadir is the point directly under the feet
DELTA OP NILE.
A River is a stream of fresh water flowing on the land. The Source is the place where a river rises.
The Right Bank is on the right side going down with the
The Left Bank is on the left side going down the stream The Mouth is the place where a river empties itself.
A Tributary is a river that flows into another river.
The Basin is all the land drained by a river and its tributaries (called sometimes a river-basin).
A Water-shed is land elevated much or little which divides river-basins.
A Delta is silt deposited by a river at its mouth, and which causes the river to form two or more outlets. The enclosed silt forms a triangle which resembles the Greek letter Delta. (See Delta of the Nile, page G.)
A Creek is a name given to small streams in Australia.
A Continent is a large portion of land containing many countries.
A Mountain is an elevated peak or range of land 1000 feet and over in height.
A Hill is a peak or range of land under 1000 feet high.
A Plain is level land not raised much above the ocean.
A Valley is hollow land lying between hills or mountains.
A Desert is a tract of waterless, sterile or barren land.
A Cape is a point of land jutting out into the sea.
An Isthmus is a narrow neck of land uniting two larger portions. Isthmus means neck.
A Peninsula is land almost surrounded by water. Pent means almost; insula, land.
A Promontory is mountainous or hilly land jutting into .he sea.
An Island is land surrounded by water.
Volcanoes which eject ashes, lava and flame, are called active ; when the internal fires have died out they are called extinct.
An Ocean is the largest portion of salt water.
A Sea is a portion of salt water partly enclosed by land. •
A Bay is similar to a sea, but has a wider opening.
A Gulf is the same as a bay with a narrower opening. .
A Channel is a passage of water connecting two larger portions A Strait is the same as a channel but narrower.
A Lake is water surrounded by land.
RELATING TO TOWNS.
A Village is a small collection rf houses. generally in one street
AN IRISH VILLAGE.
(From a Photograph by W. Lawrence, Dublin).
A Town is a collection of houses, shops, churches, schools, facing streets, with a corporate governing body.
A Oity is the same as a town, but larger, and must have a revenue of £20,000 or more.
The Capital is the principal city, containing the Sovereign’s Palace, or the Houses where the governing body meet and make the laws.
Typhoons are circular storms peculiar to the China Sea.
Tornadoes blow over the Torrid Zone.
Sirocco is a hot wind which blows from North of Africa to South of Europe.
Harmattan is a very hot wind that blows from the Sahara to the Atlantic Ocean.
Simoon and Samiel are deadly winds which blow in the deserts of Sahara and Arabia.
Victoria, is an irregular triangle, situated in the South-east of Australia. Its coast line has a few important indentations : Port Phillip, situated in about the centre, being large but shallow, and has Melbourne at its head.
Mountains: The Dividing Range, running about 70 miles from the coast East and West through Victoria, is the water-shed, and causes the rivers to flow in a northerly and southerly direction. The Dividing Range has brotight large quantities of the precious metal, gold, to or near the surface, and mining is carried on extensively and successfully in a number of places along the chain for it.
The Rivers flowing North are of an intermittent character, and many in North-west flow into lakes which often dry up entirely in summer, being then covered with salt, which is collected and sold.
The Eastern part of Victoria is very hilly and covered with forests, while the North-west and South-west are plains. That in the North-west being arid and dry, but it has been found to l>e well adapted for the growth of grains, especially wheat. The South-west plain is fertile, and is used principally for pasturing sheep and foi orchards; the grass grows luxuriantly.
The Lakes are principally brackish and shallow, and are uninteresting in consequence of being on plains. The inter-connected lakes of Gippsland are the largest and most picturesque, but they are really an arm of the sea.
The Climate is temperate. In the North hot, and in the South mild. During summer the prevailing wind is from the North, which is hot, blowing for about three days without a change, bringing with it clouds of dust, and producing much lassitude. It is generally followed by a delightful change of cool wind from the South-west often accompanied by rain, which refreshes and revives all languishing nature.
Tiie Productions are wool, hides, tallow, grain, wine, gold, timber, skins (rabbit and kangaroo), leather, brandy, preserved meats, precious stones, brown and black coal, butter, cheese and fruit. It is the most densely populated colony of Australasia. Manufactures are carried on extensively in Melbourne and Suburbs. Mining, agricultural and pastoral pursuits are extensively conducted throughout the country.
The People are,—aboriginals, who are fast dying out (considered to be the lowest in the scale of humanity), immigrants from the British Islands and Europe, and descendants of immigrants.
Portland Bay, South of Victoria; is sometimes visited by whales
Port Phillip Bay, South of Victoria; is large and fortified.
Hobson’s Bay, North of Fort Phillip Bay ; has ship piers and is fortified.
Western Port, South of Victoria. Oysters are obtained here.
Corner Inlet, South of Victoria. Fish sent from here to Melbourne.
Bass Strait, separates Tasmania and Victoria ; usually rough.
Cape Otway, South of Victoria; telegraphs arrival of all
vessels from the West.
Cape Schanck, South of Victoria; signals arrival of all vessels from the Hast.
Wilson’s Promontory, South of Victoria; is the most southerly point of Australia.
Cape Howe, South-east of Victoria; sea is usually very rough.
Phillip Island, in Western Port; is a summer resort for fishing and shooting, and to observe in November the black petrels, which arrive in thousands to lay their eggs.
Flinders Island, in the East of Bass Strait ; has a lighthouse; exports wool and bird oil; large.
King Island, in the West of Bass Strait; has a lighthouse.
Gabo Island, East of Victoria; has a lighthouse.
The Dividing Range runs East and West through Victoria, about 70 miles from the coast. It forms the watershed, causing the rivers to flow North and South. Gold and timber obtained in large quantities from the range.
The Australian Alps, the eastern portion of the Dividing Range ; contains many high peaks, snow clad.
The Maccdon Range is the central portion of the Dividing Range ; has an observatory, and the Governor’s summer residence on it.
The PryeneGS are tile western part of the Dividing Range; gold mining carried on.
The Grampians run North from the Western end of Dividing Range ; have free-stone quarries, and produce gold.
The Baw Baw, South of the Dividing Range, in Gippsland, runs westerly ; mining.
TAbarat«« ■ ;Ba LI ARAT,°
The Murray River rises in Forest I Till, flows North westerly, forming the northern boundary of Victoria, through South Australia into Lake Alexandrian, which has a bar preventing the ingress of ships into this fine river of 2000 miles long. Its tributaries are: Mitta Mitta, Ovens, Gouiburn, Campaspe and Loddcn, which rise in the Dividing Range, and flow North-westerly into the Murray.
The Avoca River rises in the Pyrennes, flows North through a wheat district into Lake Bael Bael.
The Wimmera River rises in the Pyrennes, flows North and West and North into Lake Hindmarsh.
The Snowy River rises in Australian Alps, flows South into Bass Strait.
The Tam bo River rises in Australian Alps, flows South into Lake King.
The Mitchell River rises in Australian Alps, flows South into Lake King.
The Latrobe River rises in Baw Baw Mountains, flows Fast into Lake Wellington.
The Yarra River rises in Baw Baw Mountains, flows South west into Hobson’s Bay.
The Werribee River rises in Dividing Range, flows South-east into Port Phillip Bay.
The Barwon River rises in Otway Range, flows by a circuitous course, through Lake Connewarre, into Bass Strait.
The Hopkins River rises in Dividing Range, flows South into Southern Ocean.
The Glenelg River rises in Grampians, flows West and South into Discovery Bay.
Corangamite Lake, situated in South-east of Hampden, 60 miles West of Geelong. Largest shallow salt lake in Victoria.
Colac Lake is in the North of Polwarth, 50 miles West of Geelong. A fresh water lake in centre of a rich agricultural district.
Hindmarsh Lake is in Lowan, and contains brackish water, shallow.
Wellington, Victoria & King Lakes are intercommunicated coast lakes in Gippsland. Have picturesque scenery and are connected with the sea.
Portland, on Portland Bay, Mr. Henty settled here in 1834 from Tasmania. The first inhabited place in Victoria Fishing and dairy produce.
Port Fairy, on the Moyne, produces potatoes, dairy produce,
^ and has an increasing coastal trade.
Warrnambool, near the mouth of Hopkins River, produces large quantities of potatoes, dairy produce and manufactures beet sugar.
Camperdown, near foot of Mount Leura, in Hampden; is in centre of rich pastoral district.
Colac, on Lake Colac, in Pol war th ; in the centre of a rich agricultural and pastoral district.
Geelong, on Corio Bay, connected by rail and steamer with Melbourne. Manufactures woollen cloth, leather and salt.
Melbourne, on the Yarra, Capital. A fine large commercial city. It has many splendid public buildings. Many of its streets are paved with red gum blocks, and traversed by a splendid system of trams. Manufactures clothing, boots and machinery. Exports gold, wool and butter. Named after Lord Melbourne.
Sale, near the McAlister, in Gippsland; supplies Melbourne with fish, and has a market.
Bairnsdale, on the Mitchell; grows maize and hops largely.
Hamilton, on the Grange Creek ; in Normandy, is in the centre of an agricultural and pastoral district.
Nhill, on Adelaide Railway, in Lowan ; is in the centre of a splendid wheat district.
Horsham, on Wimmera River, in Borung ; wheat growing, and
has fine public schools.
Stawell, North-west of Ararat, in Borung ; has many gold mines.
Ararat, in North of Ripon ; extensive gold mining carried on.
Clunes, in the South of Talbot; is a gold mining centre.
Maryborough, in North of Talbot; mining, and wine manufactured.
Daylesford, in the South of Talbot; mining carried on. Has mineral springs, and consequently a health resort.
Castlemaine, in the North-east of Talbot; a mining town, and
manufactures woollen goods.
Ballarat, on the Yarrowee, in North of Grant. Second city in Victoria. Noted for its rich gold mines. Manufactures mining machinery and many of the locomotives running on the Victorian railways. Has some fine statuary.
Bendigo, on Bendigo Creek, in Bendigo. The third city in Victoria, and an important mining centre. An annual Fair held.
Shepparton, on the Goulburn River; is in centre of a rich
Mildura, in the North of Karkarooc, on the Murray : is an irrigation colony, and produces wine, raisins, currants and dried figs, also candied fruits
Echuca, on the Murray, in Rodney ; river barges and steamers bring wool which is sent to Melbourne by rail. A fine bridge crosses the Murray here. „
Numurkah, on Broken Creek; produces wheat and butter in large quantities.
Benalla, on the Broken River, in Delatite ; is an agricultural and a pastoral district.
Wangaratta, on the Ovens River, in Delatite; produces tobacco, grain, wine and gold.
Beechworth, near centre of Bogong; is noted for its scenery. Produces tobacco and wine. Has a fine bracing climate.
The Coast Line is long, but is not cut up by any deep indentations. The Eastern Coast is protected by a coral reef, the longest in the world, which extends about noo miles. This reef renders navigation dangerous.
The Mountains under the general name of Coast Range, extend Southwards from about the 18th parallel in more or less detached ranges to New South Wales. Mount Morgan in the North is famed for its gold deposits.
The Rivers flow easterly, northerly and South-westerly from the Coast Range. Those on the East side are short, and subject during the rainy season to enormous floods. The South-western are long, shallow and intermittent in character, but are subject to iloods. Those that flow northerly are fine streams, but are also subject to floods.
The Lakes of Queensland are of no importance.
The Climate is tropical, and therefore much hotter than Victoria. It has a rainy season. In February, 1893, the highest known floods occurred. Vast bridges over Brisbane River, were destroyed ; ships stranded in the botanical gardens ; houses swept away, and the damage amounted to from two to three millions. The table-lands are cool, while the plains are very hot.
The Races are aboriginals and European descendants, chiefly British. The prevailing religion being Protestant.
The Exports of Queensland are varied, cattle and sheep, gold and wool, tobacco and cotton, sugar and coffee, opals and coal, ,and bananas and pineapples, being the chief. Many of these industries are in an incipient state, as also are the manufactures.
Gulf of Carpentaria, North of Queensland ; is large but shallow.
Torres Strait, separates Queensland from New Guinea.
Great Barrier Reef, extends noo miles along eastern coast of Queensland ; coraline formation and dangerous.
Cape York Peninsular, in North of Queensland.
Great Dividing Chain, runs North and South, near eastern coast.
Flinders River, flows North into the Gulf of Carpentaria • infested with alligators.
Burdekin River, flows South-east and North-east into t^e Pacific Ocean, near Cape Bowling-Green.
Fitzroy River, flows easterly into Keppel Bay.
Brisbane River, flows South and East into Moreton Bay • navigable.
Barcoo River, flows South-west into Lake Eyre. Here Bur*e and Wills died on their return journey from Gulf of Carpen_ taria.
Brisbane, on the Brisbane River; the Capital, and exports wool, hides, bananas and pineapples.
Maryborough, on the Mary River; is the port for tlie Gympie goldfields, and has plantations of sugar.
Rockhampton, on the Fitzroy ; is the port for Moud1 Morgan goldfields, and has plantations of sugar and cotton
Townsville, on Cleveland Bay ; is the port foi Charters Towei‘s goldfields ; has a breakwater.
Cooktown, on the Endeavour River ; is named after Captai11 Cook ; has a large Beche-de-mer or Trepang fishery, i11 which a large number of Chinamen arc engaged.
Toowoomba, West of Brisbane; exports tobacco, pineapple.3* bananas and opals.
Charters Towers, West of Cooktown ; is a rich goldfield.
Mackay, on the Pioneer River; grows large quantities cotton, sugar and bananas.
. ♦ -
The Coast Line has many indentations which, however* do not penetrate far inland, but are in many cases most picturesqud
The Coast Range runs North and South near the coast-in which are situated the mines for gold, and in some places coal In the western portion of New South Wales is the famous Barrier Range, which is exceedingly rich in silver.
The Rivers are short on the east side of Coast Range, rapid* and during rainy season enormously flooded. Those rivers on the western side of the range flow South-west into the Murray and ard long and sluggish, except in flooded seasons.
The Plains through which the South-west rivers flow are used for pastoral purposes.
The Lakes of New South Wales are few and insignificant, this vast territory being almost devoid of lakes.
The Climate is much hotter than Victoria, and in North is sub-tropical ; but it has not the depressing hot winds from which Victoria suffers.
The People are descendants of Great Britain and the European Continent. The aborigines are similar to those of Victoria.
Productions : Silver, gold, coal, bananas, grain, maize, sugar, wool, hides, tallow, iron, leather and skins. Manufactures well developed.
Port Jackson, East of New South Wales; is noted for its beautiful scenery ; is well fortified and is a splendid harbour.
Point Danger, North-east of New South Wales; a reef here renders navigation dangerous.
Blue Mountains, run North-east and South-west, West of Sydney; known for their scenery and the Zig-Zag railway which passes over them.
Mount Kosciusko, in the Australian Alps; highest peak in New South Wales, 7000 feet.
Barrier Range, runs North and South in the W est of New South Wales; rich silver mines.
Clarence River flows East from Macpherson Range into Pacific Ocean, through sugar district.
Hunter River flows East into Pacific Ocean, through a coal val'ey.
Hawkesbury River flows East into Pacific Ocean from Blue Mountains; very high floods.
Snowy River flows South through Victoria into Bass Strait.
Darling River flows South-west from the Dividing Range, New South W’ales, into the Murray.
Murrumbidgee River flows West into the Murray; is
Murray River rises in Forest Ilill, forming southern boundary
of New South Wales.
Laohlan River flows North-west and South-west into
Murrumbidgee, through a pastoral district.
Sydney, on Port Jackson ; is the oldest city in Australia; has fine public buildings; is served with a motor tram system ; is strongly fortified, and exports wool, tallow, gold and frozen meat.
Parramatta, on Parramatta River, near Sydney; has large
plantations of limes and oranges.
Grafton, on the Clarence River; is well adapted to the growth
of sugar cane.
Newcastle, at mouth of the Hunter; is the chief coal district.
Maitland, on the Hunter; is the second city, and exports coal.
Goulburn, South of Sydney, on Southern Railway; has a cathedral, and is in the centre of a squatting district.
Wagga Wagga, on the Murrumbidgee; is in a squatting district.
Albury, near the Murray; terminus of Sydney Railway and Victorian ; change of gauge necessitates changing trains.
Deniliquin, on the Edwards, in a rich squatting district; the chief town in Riverina.
Broken Hill, at Barrier Range; has very rich silver mines.
Wilcannia, on the Darling; crossing place for stock; large transit trade ; opals are found here.
Bourke, on the Darling ; is in centre of a squatting district; is connected by rail to Sydney ; was flooded out.
Bathurst, near the source of the Macquarie River; is a mining and agricultural district.
Wentworth, at the junction of Murray and Darling The river trade of the Darling and Murray centres here. "
The Coast Line fairly long, with two extensive indentations on south coast, which penetrate far inland.
Several small Mountain Ranges running North and South, but which do not characterize the shape of South Australia, nor give direction to its rivers.
Its Rivers are of an intermittent character, few and of very little use for navigation.
South Australia is chiefly a vast plain of an arid character, resembling in some parts an old sea bottom being almost destitute of vegetation.
, Its Lakes are long and shallow, being situated North of Spencer Gulf, and are supposed to have been connected therewith in the past.
its Climate extends from warm temperate in the South, to tropical in the North ; the southern climate being hotter than that of Victoria.
The People are of European descent and aboriginals. Many immigrants are from Germany, being attracted to South Australia from adaptability of its climate to vine growing, from which large crops are obtained and wine made.
Its Productions are: copper, gold (in small quantities), grains, wine, oranges, wool, hides, tallow, and manufactures of various kinds.
St. Vincent Gulf, South of South Australia; is a long shallow inlet.
Spencer Gulf*, South of South Australia; is a large shallow inlet.
Gulf of Carpentaria, East of Northern Territory; is large, shallow and very hot.
Port Darwin, North of Northern Territory ; is a fine harbour, and where the overland telegraph cable terminates, and the sea one commences.
Great Australian Bight, South of South Australia; has high bluffs.
Investigator Strait, between Yorke Peninsula and Kangaroo Island ; was named after Flinders’ ship.
Catastrophe Cape, South of Eyre Peninsula; Flinders’ boat crew was lost off here.
Kangaroo Island, South of South Australia; has a lighthouse, and the quarantine station is situated on it.
Yorke Peninsula, South of South Australia; produces copper largely.
Lofty Range runs North from Cape Jarvis; has an observatory on it, and some fine orchards
Flinders Range runs North from Spencer Gulf; is a barren,
Gambier Mountain in South east; is an extinct volcano, and
the lake in the crater supplies the town with water; limestone.
Torrens River flows South-west into Gulf of St. Vincent.; is a small, shallow river.
Murray River flows South-west from North of Victoria into Lake Alexandrina; is a long, fine river, but unfortunately barred. .
Roper River flows East into Gulf of Carpentaria; tropical
Torrens and Eyre Lakes, North of Spencer Gulf; are large, shallow, brackish lines.
Amadeus Lake, South-west of McDonnell Range; a large lake near west centre of South Australia.
Adelaide, on the Torrens River, is the Capital; is a fine but small city, with a splendid sanitary drainage, and a system of horse-trams connecting it with its suburbs.
Port Augusta, at the head of Spencer Gulf; is a port, and exports copper, grain and wool.
Palmerston, on Port Darwin, a fine harbour ; is the submarine telegraph cable (from England) station; suffered great damage from a cyclone.
The Coast Line of Western Australia is long, but with few indentations worthy of being called good Harbours or Bays, which do not penetrate far inland.
The Mountains are mostly in detached Ranges or Peaks. A coast range extends down its Western Coast, but which does not give any character to the land or determine the direction of its rivers.
The Rivers are long, but like most Australian ones are of very little use for navigation on account of their intermittent and shallow character. In the North-west there are a few except-
ions. The central portion consists chiefly of plains cf an arid character, interspersed with forests and fertile plains. It is chiefly used for grazing purposes, but gold has been found to exist over extensive areas.
Many large Lakes abound in Western Australia, but they are almost all brackish and shallow.
The Climate is fine, and passes from warm temperate in South, to tropical in North. The coastal districts of Western Australia are not so subject to droughts as the other Colonies are
The Natives in North of Western Australia are fiercer in character than in the southern districts. The colonists are of European descent, chiefly British.
The Productions are gold, sandal wood, jarrah, wool, hides, tallow, leather &c.
Cape Leeuwin, South-west of Western Australia (Tha Lioness). Is named after a Dutch ship.'
Steep Point, West oi Western Australia; is the most
Shark Bay, West of Western Australia; has a pearl shell fishery station.
King George’s Sound, South of Western Australia ; is land-locked ; fortified ; coaling station for mail steamers.
Dirk Hartog, in Shark Bay, West of Western Australia; has a pearl shell fishery station.
Swan River flows North-west and South-west into Indian Ocean ; black swans were first seen here, hence name.
Fitzroy River flows North-west into King Sound, from Kimberley district.
Perth, on Swan River; the Capital ; has a fine climate; rapidly increasing commercial prosperity. Exports wool, gold and jarrah timber.
Fremantle, at mouth of Swan River ; the port of Perth. Has a fine breakwater.
Albany, on King George’s Sound ; is fortified, and is a coaling station for the mail steamers.
Coolgardie is 350 miles East of Perth ; has lately sprung into existence, and is an active rich mining centre.
Kalgoorlie, 24 miles North-east of Coolgardie; rich quartz gold mines.
The Coast Line is long and well indented, especially in South, being admirably adapted for purposes of navigation. The Bays are both deep and commodious, and connected with fine, broad, deep river estuaries.
It is very mountainous; the Eastern and Western Tiers running through centre of Island. Mountain Ranges and Peaks are scattered in all directions over the Island ; Bischoff, in the Northwest, being very rich in tin ; and Mount Zeehan in galena ores, and copper.
1 ne Rivers flow into the various seas surrounding, and are both large, long and deep, being especially well adapted for commercial purposes.
There are very few Plains of any extent, but these consist of rich soil, and are all highly cultivated, while the hilly country is used for pastoral purposes.
It has a few Lakes rather extensive and in about centre of island. They contain fresh water, and are attractive on account of their scenery. Good fishing and shooting,
The Inhabitants are chiefly of British descent. The nati/e population is exiinct. Religion chiefly Protestant.
The Productions are fruit, jam, timber hops, grain, gold, silver, lead, tin, iron, stone and coal. Woollen manufactures, hides, tallow, leather.
Wellington, West of Ilobart; is4iCC feet high, and in winter covered with snow, and is an important meteorological station. The observations from this and other stations give the data from which the probable weather is predicted by the astronomers,
Tamar River, formed by the North and South Esk, flows North-west into Bass Strait ; is a fine wide river with splendid scenery.
Derwent River flows South-east into Storm Bay, through 3
hop district, and has fine scenery.
Huon River flows East into D’Entrecasteaux Channel; shipbuilding is carried on here, and has fine orchards.
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English Miles 9 10 2,0 30 40 50^
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Great Lake, on the plateau in Central Tasmania ; excellent trout fishing and shooting can be indulged in.
Hobart, on the Derwent, is the Capital; exports wool, fruit, galena ores, and is also a summer resort.
Launceston, on the Tamar ; is a very busy town, larger than the capital, and exports tin, wool and gold.
New Zealand has a long Coast Line, well indented with numerous small bays and harbours. On account of its configuration no part is far from the coast. Milford Sound is noted for its fine scenery and fall. •
The Southern Alps extend throughout the Southern Island, running North and South. They contain many high peaks and glaciers, and are noted for their grand scenery, enhanced by many fine lakes. The North Island has detached ranges and peaks, some of a volcanic nature. Mount Cook is the highest peak in Australasia.
The Rivers from the narrowness of the islands are not long. They flow from the highlands chiefly easterly and westerly, having short, full, rapid courses supplied by the melting ice, but too rapid for navigation as a rule.
The Lakes are both numerous and large, and are visited by tourists from all parts of the world to view their extreme
The Climate is colder and more humid than that of Victoria. It is very bleak and cold in the South, being almost Antarctic.
The Races inhabiting New Zealand are of European descent, being mostly British. The original inhabitants are called Maories, who tattoo themselves in a remarkable manner, are very clever and supposed to be of Malaysian descent.
Exports comprise large quantities of frozen sheep, copper, gold, building stone, best oats, flax, Kauri gum and timber. Manufactures of woollen goods, boots and clothing are engaged in.
Cape Farewell, North of South Island ; is the last land that was seen by Captain Cook when leaving New Zealand.
Hauraki Gulf is North-east of North Island, New Zealand, and has beautiful scenery.
Hawke Bay, East of North Island, New Zealand.
Bay of Plenty, North of North Island, New Zealand ; the natives supplied Captain Cook plentifully with provisions.
Cook Strait, separates North and South Island ; named after Captain Cook.
Stewart Island, South of South Island ; exports oysters
Southern Alps run North-east and South-west through South Island ; have numerous glaciers and fine lake scenery.
Mount Cook, not only highest peak in Southern Alps, but in Australasia. Given as 13,200 feet high.
Tongariro, in the North of Wanganui ; an active volcano, said to be 7.515 feet high.
Waikato River, drains Lake Taupo, and flows Northerly into
Thames River, flows North into Firth of Thames.
Clutha River, drains Lakes Wanaka and Wakatipu ; largest
river in the South island.
Taupo Lake, in centre of North Island; the largest lake in North Island, and has hot springs ; elevated.
Wakatipu. an elevated long lake in South Island; has magnificent scenery, and steamers plying on it.
Auckland, on Hauraki Gulf; the second city, fine port, and shipbuilding carried on; the mail steamers for America and London call here.
Wellington, on Tort Nicholson; is the Capital ; houses chiefly built of wood because subject to earthquakes.
Christchurch, on the Avon River, East of South Island ; is a well laid out city ; wool and oats exported.
Dunedin, on Otago Harbour; the busiest and largest city in New Zealand ; manufactures.
The South Eastern portion of New Guinea, which is North of Queensland, is a British possession, and the Government is in the hands of an administrator. The island has dense forests of tropical vegetation and is rich in orchids. Birds of Paradise are both numerous and gorgeous in colour
Owen Stanley Range runs South-east and North-west in the South-east, and is high, with some active volcanoes.
The Fly River takes its rLe m tue interior and flows South-east into Gulf of Papua ; it is navigable.
Port Moresby, on South Coast; has a fine landlocked harbour; exports cotton, sago, cedar, blackwood, pearl shell, trepang and india-rubber.
Climate, tropical, therefore very hot, and it is unhealthy on the coast.
Fiji Islands, East of New South Wales; are hot, but healthy, and have a luxuriant tropical vegetation ; it is a Crown colony, and its inhabitants arc chiefly engaged in growing cotton, maize, tobacco, coffee and sugar, while oranges, cocoa-nuts, bananas and bread fruit arc indigenous.
Suva, on South coast of Viti Levu. Capital. Good harbour Copra, coffee, mutton, sugar oranges.
Gibraltar is a rocky peninsula, 1,500 feet high, South of Spain ; taken from the Spaniards in 1704, and is garrisoned by 5000 men. It is the key to the Mediterranean, and so strongly fortified that it is considered impregnable, and is a coaling and depot station.
Malta is an island South of Sicily. The Capital, Valetta, is strongly fortified, and has a fine harbour. It is invaluable to England, as it has fine docks, and is a naval station for the Mediterranean fleet. Manufactures of lace and tobacco are carried on; olives, oranges and figs are grown abundantly.
MAP OF CHANNEL ISLANDS.
Channel Islands, North-west of France. The largest is Jersey, and its Capital is St. Helier; fortified. The climate is mild. Fruit and dairy produce are exported largely to England. The cattle of Alderney and Jersey are famous for their butter.
Cape Colony, including British South Africa, is
the scene of busy activity and progressive extension of British colonisation, induced by the rich diamond and gold fields.
Climate : Hotter than Victoria, but healthy. It has a rainy and hot season ; during the hot season it is subject to storms. Sub-tropical fruits and flowers grow, especially heaths.
The People are of Dutch extraction, or British; Kaffirs in Kaffirari Colony, Zulus in Zululand, Boers in 1 ransvaal and Orange Free State, and many other native tribes.
Government: Similar to Victoria.
Religion : Protestant.
Exports: Wool, ivory, wine, fruit, hides, copper, gold, diamonds, feathers, wild animals, tallow and sugar.
Table Mountain, near Cape Town ; flat like a table and the mist which often covers it is called the table cloth.
Kalahara Desert, in the South of Rhodesia. Gold mining.
Table Bay, South-west of Cape Colony, is a fine fortified harbour.
Delagoa Bay, East of Southern Africa; a fine bay.
Orange, rises in Prakenberg Mountains, flows West into South Atlantic Ocean.
Capetown, on Table Bay, Capital of Cape Colony, has a splendid fortified harbour. Exports wool, ostrich feathers and diamonds.
Pietermaritzburg, in Natal, Capital. Exports sugar, wool and coffee.
Kimberley, in Griqualand, is the centre of the diamond mines.
OTHER BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN AFRICA.
Natal, North-east of Cape Colony; exports sugar, coffee and gold.
Rhodesia, a large tract of country north of the Transvaal. The principal town is Bulawayo.
Sierra Leone, North-west of Liberia. Exports palm oil, Indiarubber and gums.
Mauritius Island, Capital, Port Louis, East of Madagascar. Sugar, tobacco, rice and indigo are cultivated. Subject to cyclones, which commit great damage.
The Climate, from its proximity to the Sahara and absence of high mountain ranges near, is the driest in the world, and hence the wonderful preservation of ancient Egyptian records, \<diich are both interesting and valuable. Rain seldom falls. It is intensely hot.
The Government is
nominally subject to Sultan of Turkey, but is almost independent, and is under British control.
The Religion is principally Mohammedan.
The Exports are: cotton,
silk, rice, ivory, sugar and dates.
Nile, formed by the White Nile from Central Africa, and the Blue Nile (Bahr-et-Azrak) from Abyssinia. The Nile has many cataracts, and is remarkable for its delta, and from its having for the last 1200 miles of its course no tributaries; also for its periodica! rise
and overflowing, which was a mystery to the Egyptians, and upon which the fertility of Lower Egypt depended, and still depends.
Alexandria, on a mouth of the Nile ; is a fortified naval station, having great commerce.
Cairo, at the head of the Nile delta, is the Capital; having a citadel, palace and many mosques.
Khartoum, at confluence of Blue and White Nile; where General Gordon was killed ; is a walled, fortified, commercial city.
Zambesi, rises in centre; flows easterly into Mozambique Channel; has falls higher than Niagara,called Victoria Falls.
Congo, rises in Central Tableland; flows West and South-west into Atlantic Ocean ; here are the Stanley Falls. Stanley explored the Congo.
Niger River, rises on the northern side of King Mountains, and flows thence round the eastern end into the Gulf of n~_ Guinea. These are all large long rivers.
Albert and Victoria Nyanza, are drained by the Nile.
Tanganyiki, is drained by the Congo.
Madagascar, East of South Africa; exports manioc sugar and rice. The Capital is Tananarivo, in centre; has a fine wooden palace. The port is Tamatave, on the East Coast. The natives are called Hovas. It now belongs to the French.
DOMINION OF CANADA.
Climate : The summers are very hot, and the winters extremely cold. One of the poles of cold being in the North oi Dominion of Canada. Fogs prevail over and around Newfoundland, causing navigation to be dangerous.
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The People are descendants of the British and French races. The native tribes consist of the Red Indians and the Esquimaux.
Government: Governor-General and two Houses; a Senate and House of Commons. A Constitutional Government.
Religion : Protestant and Roman Catholic.
Exports: Timber, pearl ashes, furs, kerosene, cod liver oil, grain, flour, agricultural implements, lumber and musical instruments.
Hudson Bay, North of Canada. Ice bound in winter, and where Hudson lost his life.
Gulf of" St, Lawrence, East of Dominion of Canada. Ice floes dangerous in winter.
Bay of Fundy, West of Nova Scotia, has a remarkably high tidal wave.
Nova Scotia Peninsula, East of New Brunswick ; exports timber and fish.
St. Lawrence, flows East through the Great Lakes over Niagara Falls into Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Columbia, rises in Rocky Mountains, flows South-west into North Pacific Ocean.
Yukon River, rises in Rocky Mountains, flows South-west into Sea of Kamschatka.
Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario
are inter-connected Canadian and American lakes, large, with fresh water. Ships trade on these lakes. Superior, tHe largest lake in the world.
Quebec, in the East; Ontario, North of Lake Ontario
Quebec, on the St. Lawrence ; is fortified ; exports timber, grain
and furs, and ship-building carried on.
Montreal, on the St. Lawrence ; exports timber and furs, has a fine bridge, and is the second city.
Ottawa, on the Ottawa; is the Capital, and the seat of legislature
Toronto, on Lake Ontario; exports grain, timber and furs.
OTHER BRITISH POSSESSIONS.
Newfoundland Island, Capital, St. John, East of
Canada ; exports timber, fish and fish oil.
British West Indies, between North and South America; exports lime juice, arrowroot, sugar and tobacco.
Jamaica Island, Capital, Kingston, South of Cuba; exports sugar, rum, arrowroot and ginger.
British Honduras, Capital, Belize, in Central America; exports rosewood, mahogany and dye woods.
British Guiana, Capital, Georgetown, on the Demerara
River ; exports sugar, pepper, cacao and india-rubber.
Vancouver Island, West of Dominion of Canada; Capital, Victoria; exports gold, silver, copper, timber and fish.
India is an irregular triangle situated about the centre of South coast line of Asia. It projects between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. On account of its proximity to these seas, and being bounded on the North by the Himalaya Ranges, it has a heavy rainfall, and its rivers are plentifully supplied with water from this source and the melting snows. Its varied temperature, combined with its abundant moisture, causes it to be very prolific and able to support a dense population.
The Coast Line is long, but has very few indentations, and is exceedingly destitute of good harbours.
The Mountains: The Himalaya Range runs East and West, forming the northern boundary for about 1,500 miles. It has many peaks of a great height; Mount Everest is the highest in the world, being 29,000 feet The Eastern and Western Ghats with the Vindhya Hills form a central plateau.
The Rivers drain the southern and northern side of the Himalaya. The Indus and the Brahmaputra rise on the North side, 15,000 feet above the level of the sea, and flow round the eastern and western extremity of the range. The Ganges drains the southern slope The Himalaya Range forms a remarkable watershed (see Map, next page).
The Climate is very hot in the lowlands, but in the highlands cool and even Arctic. The monsoons influence the climate, and are accompanied with rains and violent storms when changing, as much as 600 inches of rain falling in Poonah during the rainy seasons. The South-west monsoon bWvs from April to October, while the North-east monsoon blows from October to April.
The People are principally Hindoos, divided into a large number of castes. The other races represented are : Persians Afghans, Mongols and Europeans.
Government: A Governor-General, assisted by a Council; called a Crown Colony.
Religion : Brahminism predominates; but there are Fire-worshippers, Mohammedans and others.
Products and Exports : Tobacco, carved ivory, cottons, silks, muslin, indigo, jute goods, sugar, rice, opium, cochineal, spices, chincona bark, pearls, diamonds, coffee and tea.
Cape Comorin, south of India. The most southerly point _ of India.
Himalaya Mountains, run east and west, forming the northern boundary. Contain the highest peak in the world, Mt. Everest.
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Ganges River, rises in Himalaya Mountains, draining its southern side, and flows into Bay of Bengal; is a sacred river, with a delta.
Indus River, rises on North side of Himalaya, flows West and South into Arabian Sea; source 15,000 feet high.
Brahmaputra River, rises on North side of Himalaya, flows East and South into Bay of Bengal; source 15,000 feet high.
Bengal, in the East; Bombay, in the West; Madras, in
the South of India.
Calcutta, on the Ilooghly ; Capital ; has jute and cotton manufactures, also Sanskrit college and cathedral, and is strongly fortified.
Lucknow, on the Goomtee ; is strongly fortified ; was besieged during the mutiny of the Sepoys ; has fine palaces and an arsenal.
Delhi, on the Jumna ; is a beautiful sacred city containing many palaces and a mosque ; is fortified.
Bombay, on Salsett Island. Bombay means good bay, and has a large export trade in silk, muslin, tea, coffee; has docks.
Mad ras, on the Coromandel Coast ; has an open roadstead, and exports gold, diamonds and Indian goods.
Colombo, on West Coast of Ceylon; is a port, with a fine breakwater; exports pearls, sugar, coffee and chincona bark.
The Climate of this part is very hot, especially in the lowlands; it is a prolific region; the climate is not suitable to Europeans.
Religion • Buddhist and Mohammedan.
Productions and Exports: Sugar, cotton, iron, teak, tin, indigo, spices, rubies, cinnamon and rice.
The People in the South are chiefly Malays and Chinese.
MAT OF BURMAH.
Rangoon, is the Capital of Lower Burmah ; exports rice, sago and teak.
The Straits Settlements are called Crown colonies, and consist of Singapore, the seat of government; the town and province of Malacca, the island of Penang, and several other islands around Malacca. The climate, hot but healthy Inhabitant! chiefly Malays and Chinese
Singapore, town and island; has a hot but healthy climate,
and is strongly fortified, being an important British outpost, with docks for the navy. Productions and exports are tin, coffee, sago, tapioca, nutmegs, ginger, pepper. Rainfall, 102
Malacca Province, in the West of Malayan Peninsula; hot, but healthy. Productions and exports : teak, spices, gold and tin.
Penang Island, West of Malayan Peninsula; also hot, but healthy. Chief town, Georgetown; fortified; spices, nutmegs, ginger, cocoanuts, sugar and pepper.
OTHER BRITISH POSSESSIONS OF ASIA.
Cyprus Island, in the Levant; copper, wine, timber, tobacco, olives, carob bean, raisins and silks. Climate warm. Capital, Nicosia. Annexed 1878.
Aden, South-west of Arabia; fortified; coaling station; coffee Exceedingly hot, barren, rocky peninsula.
Ceylon, an island of India, often called the pearl drop of India. The Capital. Colombo; exports pearls, ebony, coffee, sugar. Its climate is very hot.
Hong Kong Island, in mouth of Canton River. Chief town, Victoria ; fortified ; coaling station ; is now made a first-class base of operation in case of war. Exports all kinds of Chinese goods; tea, preserved fruits, rice, sugar and cotton.
PRINCIPAL ISLANDS OF ASIA.
Sumatra Island, South of Malayan Peninsula; Capital. Palembang; exports pepper, rice, sugar, tobacco, guttapercha and coilee. Climate very hot, but tempered in the highlands by sea breezes. The population consists of Malays, Chinese, Arabs and native races. It belongs to the Dutch.
Java Island, East of Sumatra. Capital, Batavia. Exports coffee, sugar, tea, tin and chincona. Climate in the highlands very agreeable, though hot. Population Javanese, who are of the Malay race. It belongs to the Dutch.
Borneo has splendid supplies of timber, coal, guttapercha. camphor; while pearls and precious stones are also obtained. Edible birds1 nests are sent chiefly to China, but some to England and Prance.
Celebes Island, East of Borneo ; Capital, Macassar. Exports spices, such as pepper, cinnamon, also trepang Belongs to the Dutch. Climate hot.
Philippine Islands, South east of China; Capital, Manilla. Exports rope, cigars. Climate very unhealthy during the summer months to Europeans. It now belongs to United States of America.
Japan Islands, East of Corea; Capital, Tokio, on Yeddo Bay. Exports tea, coffee, porcelain and camphor. The climate is hot in summer and cold in winter. The people are called Japanese.
The Coast Line of England is long, and exceedingly broken with inlets, which are not only deep, but, in proportion to the country’s size, penetrate very far inland. These indentations lead into broad, deep rivers, which are all admirably adapted and situated, not only in regard to Europe, but to all the continents. By their means England is enabled to import all raw material for manufacturing purposes with extreme facility ; but, at the same time, she can also, with as much advantage, export the manufactured article. This advantage, together with the large natural deposits of coal, ores of all kinds, clay, kaolin, &c., pre-eminently points her out as a manufacturing nation. Her superior natural advantages in the above respects have been seized upon by her people, who, being industrious, progressive and intellectually alive to the importance of adopting new and better modes of manufacturing, have from time to time availed themselves of any mechanical improvements, which ingenious minds have invented and introduced. '1 he great natural advantages which have been enumerated above are shown below. Just notice the coal fields depicted, and also the estuaries on the following map. Manufactures cannot be carried on successfully unless cheap fuel is obtainable. You will notice how the chief manufacturing towns are clustered round the coal and iron deposits in England.
The Mountains of England, while not very high, are picturesque, and, in many instances, bold in character. They have a good rainfall, and many are covered with snow for several months in the year.
The Rivers are plentiful, and well supplied with water, and flow into the surrounding seas, opening into wide deep estuaries, and are thus eminently adapted for sea-going ships and commercial enterprise.
The Lakes are plentiful, but chiefly small, possessing beautiful scenery, much sought after by tourists.
Climate: England has a much warmer climate than its northern position entitles it to. The Gulf Stream, which is warm, flows against its western side and raises its temperature, while Telegraph Plateau lifts it out of the icy cold waters of the Atlantic It is much colder than Victoria, and in winter is subject to fogs
The People of the British Islands are of two stocks; Teutonic and Celtic. The Teutonic race occupy England and the Lowlands of Scotland; while those of Ireland, Highlands of Scotland and Wales, are chiefly of Celtic origin.
Government: A limited Monarchy. The Legislative power being vested in the Sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons.
Religion: Protestant; but all other sects are tolerated.
The Productions and exports are: Manufactured goods of all descriptions, as hardware, earthenware, glass, paper, machinery, firearms, jewellery and soft goods.
Land’s End, South-west of Cornwall; the most westerly point ; lighthouse.
Straits of“ Dover, between England and France; is about 22\ miles wide.
St. George's Channel, between Ireland and Wales; southern entrance to Irish Sea.
Bristol Channel, South of Wales ; has a tidal wave.
Isle of Wight, South of England ; a fertile and picturesque island with a fine climate.
Isle of Man, West of England ; has lead and zinc mines, and the peculiar tailess Manx cats.
Cheviot Hills, between England and Scotland, run North-east and South-west ; have lead mines and building stone quarries.
Snowdon, in the North-west of Wales; the highest peak in England or Wales ; snow-capped nearly all the year.
Tyne River, rises in Pennine Range, flows East into German Ocean ; passes through a famous coal district.
Humber River, formed by the Ouse, Trent, &c., flows East into German Ocean ; shipbuilding.
Thames River, rises in Cotswold Hills, flows East into German Ocean ; docks.
Severn River, rises in Welsh Mountains, flows South-west into Bristol Channel ; the largest river in England ; has a tidal wave.
Mersey River, flows South-west into Irish Sea; has a fine estuary and is a great shipping highway.
Shows the Towns, &c., their distance from and connection with Eondon by rail, and the triangular form of England.
Windermere Lake, in the South of Westmoreland; exceed itigly picturesque; called the poets’ country.
London, on the Thames, called the Metropolis of the world, as it is the largest city. Its population being about five millions. It has fine Cathedrals, a magnificent Parliament House, University, and extensive docks. The richest and most commercial city in the world.
Oxford, on the Thames; has a famous university and beautiful buildings.
MAP OF THAMES VALLEY.
Newcastle, on the Tyne ; exports coal and builds ships.
Hull, on the Humber; exports coal and imports European produce.
York, on the Ouse; is a walled city, and has a famous cathedral.
Leeds, on the Aire ; the chief seat of the woollen manufactures.
Sheffield, on the Don ; the chief seat of cutlery manufacture.
Cambridge, on the Cam ; has a famous university.
Portsmouth, on Portsmouth Harbour; is a naval station, and has an arsenal.
Plymouth, on Plymouth Sound ; has a fine breakwater, and is a naval station.
Bristol, on the Severn ; manufactures cocoa, and exports the manufactured articles to South America, whence the raw materials are imported.
Liverpool, on the Mersey ; largest port in the world ; exports to North America manufactured goods, and imports from North America cotton, tobacco and kerosene
SOUTHAMPTON DOCKS, WITH DRV DOCK AND SHIP UNDERGOING REPAIRS. From a Photograph by F. G. O. Stuart.
Manchester, on the Irwell; the chief seat of cotton industry ; has opened a canal for large ships connecting it with the Mersey.
Si ,ilc of Milc^. — 2/46 8 10
MAP OK MANCHESTER CANAL.
Birmingham, on the Rea; manufactures hardware of all kinds, such as steam-engines, fire-arms, tools, &c.
Dover, on the Straits of Dover ; a famous watering place. Cardiff, on Bristol Channel; port of Merthyr Tydvil. Merthyr Tydvil, inland from Cardiff; produces coal and iron. Swansea, on Swansea Bay; has large copper smelting works.
The Coast Line is much indented, and its inlets penetrate far inland, and being deep are well adapted for commerce. These inlets in many cases have important industries on or near them, either because they have large deposits of coal and iron, or are the nearest ports to which raw material is brought from distant lands. The people are industrious, thrifty, strong and well-educated, having grit, which causes them to be prosperous.
Mountains: Scotland is mountainous, bui none of the mountains are of great height.
Rivers: Plentiful, but small. They, however, open into wide, deep estuaries, and are admirably adapted for commerce.
Lakes: Small, but numerous and picturesque.
Climate : Much colder than England, and subject to mists and fogs.
People : Chiefly of the Celtic race.
Government: Same as England. Limited Monarchy
Religion : Presbyterian.
Productions and Exports : Machinery, ships, linen, woollens, silks, carpets, whisky, grain, marble and cattle.
Wrath Cape, North of Scotland ; is very rough and bleak
Shetland Islands, North of Scotland, export wool and horses
Orkney Islands, North of Scotland ; export feathers and seabirds' eggs.
Hebrides Islands, North-west of Scotland ; sky terriers are got from here.
Grampians run North-east and South-west; snow-clad for many months.
Ben Nevis, in the Grampians; the highest peak.
Lock Lomond, a South Highland L., 24 miles long. I ine scenery. ____
Tweed River, flows East into German Ocean; part boundary of Scotland and England.
Clyde River, flows North-west into Firth of Clyde; here first steamer was launched in 1811.
Forth River, flows east into Firth of Forth.
Edinburgh, near Firth of Forth, the Capital; has a fine castle and university.
Aberdeen, on the Dee; has a university, and jute manufactures.
Dundee, on the Firth of Tay ; manufactures linen; herring fishery engaged in.
Glasgow, on the Firth of Clyde ; has large deposits of coal and iron, hence ships built and machinery made. It is larger than the capital
Greenock, on the Clyde; shipbuilding and iron manufactures carried on.
The Coast Line has many indentations, but they do not cut deeply into the land, and are shallow in character; and the island being destitute of coal, its inhabitants are unable to become a large manufacturing or commercial nation. The people are chiefly engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits.
Scale of Miles 0 10 2u 3.) *1
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Mountains : Numerous, in detached peaks and small ranges.
Rivers: Plentiful, but are not adapted for commerce.
Lakes : Numerous and picturesque. The Gap of Dunloe, at the Lakes of Killarney, is famous for its wonderful echoes and scenery.
Climate: Warmer than that of England, and a plentiful rain which keeps the vegetation fresh and green—hence the title Emerald Isle.
People : Are mostly of Celtic origiq
Government: Incorporated with that of England. Religion : Roman Catholic and Protestant
Productions and Exports: Whisky, lace, butter, linen, leather, porter, and woollens.
Cape Clear, on Cape Clear Island, South of Ireland.
Liffey River, flows North-east into Dublin Bay; has fine scenery.
Shannon River, flows South-west into Atlantic Ocean; ihe largest River in Ireland.
Killarney Lakes, in South-West of Ireland ; have beautiful scenery and are famed for echoes.
Lough Neagh, in North-east of Ireland ; largest lake in Ireland.
Ireland is divided into four provinces:—Ulster, in the North, agriculture; Connaught, in the West, agricultural district; Leinster, in the East, agricultural and manufacturing district; Munster, in the South, agricultural district.
Belfast, on Belfast Lough; has linen and muslin manufactures.
Dublin, on the Liffey, Capital; a beautiful city, noted for its learning; has a university, and exports porter and whisky.
Cork, on Cork Harbour; exports dairy produce, and has a famous x ‘ • college <•
Limerick, on the Shannon River; manufactures lace ^nd linen.
SIXTH CLASS ONLY.
The Coast Line of Europe is numerously and deeply indented, affording excellent facilities for carrying on commercial enterprises of ail kinds. No part of Europe is more than about five hundred miles from the sea. The central portion of Europe is also easily reached by the intercommunication afforded by the rivers Rhine and Danube, while by the Volga and the Caspian Sea Central Asian trade is carried on with Russia. The indentations of Europe are opposite corresponding indentations in England, upon which are generally large and active towns, engaged in the importation and exportation of goods from and to all parts of Europe and the world. This fact, considered with the restless activity of commercial enterprise and dauntless vigour displayed by the inhabitants of Britain in colonising, continues and keeps in circulation the various productions of the world. The facilities for trade are also greatly aided by the Peninsula character of Europe.
The Mountains, although not on so grand a scale as those of the other continents, yet possess many similar characteristics and points of interest. They run principally East and West and culminate in Mount Blanc. The Swiss Alps contain many glaciers, and the scenery of this part is almost as grand and imposing as that of the longer chains and higher mountains of other continents. In many parts their sides are clothed with magnificent forests, while metals and minerals are found abundantly in all mountainous parts of Europe.
The Lakes in Europe are small, but numerous: those of Switzerland and Italy are beautiful from their situation in the Alps.
The Plains of Europe are small when compared with those in America. The great European plain extends from Belgium to the Ural Mountains, being only broken by the Valdai Hills. In Russia the plains receive the name of Steppes, and in Austria, Puzta.
The Rivers are numerous, many long, and generally opening into estuaries which eminently fit them for commerce, as ships of large size can enter them with extreme facility.
The Climate of Europe is chiefly warm temperate extending to Arctic, but little of it is in the colder region. In the South subtropical fruits and grains are grown. In the centre all the useful vegetable productions are cultivated. The metals and minerals of all kinds are abundant. The cool climate conduces to the development of industrial activity, which is helped so materially by the very great natural advantages above enumerated
North Cape, North of Mageroe Island. The most northerly
Matapan, South of Greece ; a rocky headland.
Finisterre (Land’s End), West of Spain; most westerly point.
Bay of Biscay, West of France ; generally very rough sea.
White Sea, North of Russia; covered with ice for about nine months yearly.
Baltic Sea, West of Russia ; amber found on its shores.
Gulf of Finland, West of Russia; often covered with ice.
Gulf of Bothnia, between Sweden and Russia ; shallow and frozen at times.
Gulf of Riga, West of Russia ; cold, bleak and shallow.
Black Sea, South of Russia ; a stormy sea, hence its name.
Sea of Azov, South of Russia ; shallow.
Caspian Sea, South-east of Russia; inland sea; under the sea level. *
Sea of Marmora, South of Turkey, in Europe ; separates European and Asiatic Turkey.
Adriatic Sea, East of Italy; once a highway of commerce.
Gulf of Venice, northern portion of Adriatic Sea.
Gulf of Genoa, North-west of Italy; commercial highway.
Gulf of Lyons, South of France; of commercial importance to France.
English Channel, South of England ; separates France and England.
Straits of Dover, between France and England—22J miles wide; shallow.
The Sound, between Sweden and Zealand Island; very narrow.
Bosphorus, connects Sea of Marmora and Black Sea ; scenery.
Dardanelles, connects Sea of Marmora and /Egean Sea
Strait of Gibraltar, connects Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea ; eight miles wide
British Islands, West of Europe; commerce, manufactures, learning, industry.
Channel Islands, North-west of France; fruit, dairy produce ; fortified.
Iceland, West of Norway; sulphur; eider-down.
Candía or Crete, South of Greece; exports cotton, olives and oil.
Sicily, South of Italy ; produces sulphur, fruits and wine.
Sardinia, West of Italy ; exports fish, fruits and cork.
Corsica, West of Italy ; produces fish and wine; the birthplace of Napoleon.
Crimea, South of Russia; where Crimean war took place. 8candinavia, consists of Norway and Sweden ; exports timber, iron, tar and copper.
The Coast Line of France is long, but no deep penetrating inlets cut up its continuity. It has only a few large ports and is not such a maritime nation as England.
The Mountains of France are situated chiefly on the eastern border, and run generally North and South. Their lower slopes are cultivated, being covered generally with extensive vineyards, which produce fine wines and champagne.
The Rivers are long and fine, but do not widen into fine, broad, deep estuaries like those of England. They flow in a northerly, westerly and southerly direction from the more elevated land of the centre and east.
Climate: France has one of the finest climates of Europe. Warm enough in the south, where the olive grows luxuriously ; while maize and vines are cultivated in the centre; and in the north grain is grown. It has a similar climate to Victoria, but opposite—Victoria being warm in North and getting cooler towards the South. France suffers from hot winds from Africa.
Government: A Republic.
Religion : Roman Catholic. Other religions tolerated
People : Are chiefly of the Celtic race, but with an intermixture of the Teutonic race
Productions and Exports : Woollens, linens, lace, carpets, porcelain, musical instruments, jewellery, brandy, champagne, dairy produce, grapes, wines, grains, olives, oil, madder, beet sugar, sardines and firearms.
Bay of Biscay, West of France ; very rough.
Gulf of Lyons, South of France.
Mount Blanc, in France ; snow ; highest peak of Alps, 15,744 feet. Often placed in Switzerland.
The Pyrenees, East and West, between France and Spain ; boundary between France and Spain.
Seine River, flow’s North-west from the Cevennes into English Channel.
BASIN OK THE SEINE.
Loire River, flow’s North and West from the Cevennes into Bay of Biscay.
Garonne River, flows North-west from Pyrenees into Bay of Biscay.
Rhone River, flows South, draining Lake Geneva, into Gulf of Lyons.
Geneva Lake, partly a French Lake, but considered more Swiss, in East of France; very picturesque.
Paris, on the Seine, Capital; is strongly fortified; has a fine cathedral ; considered the handsomest city in Europe with its fine gardens. Eiffel Tower.
Calais, on Straits of Dover; is strongly fortified, and is the last possession England had in France.
Havre, at the mouth of Seine ; the port of Paris ; imports raw wool and cotton to manufacture.
Orleans, on the Loire ; is famous for the Maid of Orleans, who
led the French army to victory.
Bordeaux, on the Garonne; exports wine and brandy, and is
Marseilles, on the Gulf of Lyons ; is a naval station, and a mail packet station ; does a large trade with Mediterranean ports. Lyons, on the Rhone ; is the chief seat of the silk manufactures in France; second city.
Rouen, on me beine; engaged in woollen and cotton manufacture. Cherbourg, on English Channel; is a naval station, strongly fortified.
St. Etienne, near source of Loire; has coal and iron, therefore manufactures machinery and firearms; Birmingham of France.
Lille, on the Deule; manufactures linen and woollen goods
The Coast Line of these countries is only broken up by the shallow inlet Zuider Zee, and is so low that it has to be embanked
The Climate of both places is similar, being damp and foggy* owing to the low character of the land and the numerous marshes and canals which intersect the land in all directions.
People : Are known under the distinctive names of Flemings and Walloons, and are extremely industrious.
Religion: Of Belgium, Roman Catholic ; of Holland, Cal-
vinistic ; other religions tolerated.
Government of Belgium and Holland: A limited hereditary Monarchy.
Productions and Exports: The people of both lands
are very industrious. Woollens, lace, linens, cotton, silk, carpets, cambrics, cutlery, firearms, leather, paper, gin, tobacco, seeds and dairy produce. -
Rhine River, flows westerly through Holland into North Sea.
Brussels, on the Senne, Capital; manufactures lace, woollen and cotton goods, and has a university.
Antwerp, on the Scheldt; a great commercial port. -
Liegf©, on the Meuse; is the Birmingham of Belgium, exports firearms and tools.
Ostend, on the coast; has a fine dock and a canal connecting it with Ghent.
Amsterdam, on the Amstel, Capital; is a very busy seaport, has many canals, with 300 bridges ; woollen manufactures.
Rotterdam, on the Maas ; is the chief seaport; imports cotton and wool, and has fine docks.
The Hague, near North-west coast; the seat of Government, and manufactures ordnance.
Denmark has a long Coast Line but the indentations are shallow, and are of little use for navigation. There are no mountains or rivers calling for special mention. The surface generally is only a few feet above the sea.
MAP OF DENMARK.
The Climate is moist and damp, though considered healthy. The People belong to the Gothic race and speak Danish. Religion : Protestants of the Lutheran sect. Government: A Constitutional Monarchy. Productions and Exports: Woollen and linen goods, dairy produce, leather, grain, eider-down, and sulphur from Iceland.
Iceland, with Heckla, a volcano, West of Norway ; sulphur.
The Sound, separates Sweden from Zealand.
Copenhagen, on Zealand Island ; is strongly fortified ; has a fine harbour; and where the Sound dues were collected.
Mountains: Switzerland is very mountainous, the mountains of Europe culminating in Switzerland. The Alps of Switzerland are known under various names, as: Pennine, Lepontine, Bernese Alps, &c. Numerous peaks rise much higher and are above the snow line, and contain many glaciers.
Rivers: Are the sources of the Rhine, Danube and Rhone, which are fed by the melting snow and ice.
Lakes: Very numerous and picturesque. Switzerland being visited by tourists for its fine, grand and picturesque views, and its bracing climate.
Climate: Is cold on the mountains, but healthy, and braces up the nervous system of those who are “ run down.”
The People : In the North are chiefly of the Teutonic race, while those in the South belong to the Graeco-Latin race.
Government: A Federal Republic, i.c., the States are joined together for purposes of defence and offence.
Religion : Is chiefly Calvinistic and Roman Catholic.
Manufacturesand Productions : Watches, jewellery, lace, condensed milk and toys.
Geneva, drained by the Rhone; fine scenery. Lucerne and Constance, drained by the Rhine.
Berne, on the Aar, the Capital; has a university, and is the seat of the Diet or Government.
Bale, on the Rhine ; manufactures toys, silk and ribbons. Geneva, on Lake Geneva ; manufactures watches and jewellery.
The Coast Line is not long, and has only two importanl indentations.
~ Mo untains : Germany in the North is part of the European plain, and in the South and South-west is mountainous. The mountains are rich in metals and minerals, and the peculiar phenomenon of the Spectre of Brocken is here seen—an enormous image of the spectator projected on the clouds under certain conditions.
The Rivers are numerous and long, chiefly flowing in a northerly direction.
Climate ! In the North, cool temperate, increasing to warm temperate in the South ; the eastern provinces are very cold.
7 *ie People are chiefly of the Teutonic race ; in the eastern provinces the SQl^\x>uian-race prevails.
Religion : Protestant and Roman Catholic.
Government : A Constitutional Monarchy, but dominated by the Emperor when he chooses.
Productions and Exports: Cottons, woollens, silks, chemicals, hardware, wine, seeds, paper and amber.
Vistula River, from Austria, flows North-west into Gulf of
Oder River, from Sudetic Range, flows North-west into Baltic
Elbe River, from Reisen Gebirge, North-west into German
Rhine River, from Switzerland, North-west into German
Ocean ; fine scenery.
Danzig, on Gulf of Danzig ; a port, exports timber and grain.
Berlin, on the Spree, Capital; has a university and palace; manufactures machinery ; fortified.
Hamburg, on the Elbe; greatest European port; manufactures tobacco, pianos and hardware.
Dresden, on the Elbe, Capital of Saxony; has fine galleries of beautiful paintings and sculptures; manufactures of porcelain and glass are conducted near, known as Dresden china and
COLOGNE CATHEDRAL AND BRIDGE OF BOATS. ?
Leipzig, on the White Elster; here the Allies defeated Napoleon in 1813 ; has a large book trade, and three fairs yearly.
Hanover, on the Leine River ; a manufacturing city. The House of Hanover, commencing with George the I., became and are, the present reigning rulers of Great Britain.
Bremen, on the Weser River, manufactures silk and cotton goods.
Frankfort, on the Main River; is a great banking city.
Munich, on the Isar ; has a university and fine public buildings.
Strasburg, on the 111; has a famous cathedral with a remarkable clock, and is strongly fortified.
The Coast Line is short, with few inlets; there is only one good port.
Mountains: Are chiefly on the border« Those in the West being off-shoots from the Alps, while the Carpathians are in the East.
Rivers: The Danube flows through Austria, and is very much increased in volume by the tributaries that it there receives.
Lakes : here are a few fairly large fresh water lakes.
Climate : In the North, warm temperate, graduating to hot temperate in the South.
The People of Austria consist of four races : in the North and North-west Teutonic; the Magyars, of Finnish descent, in the North-east ; Italians in the South-west; and Sclavonians in Hungary.
Government: is a Constitutional Monarchy.
Religion : Roman Catholic and Greek Church chiefly.
Productions and Exports: Woollens, cotton, silk, linen, glass, porcelain, quicksilver, and bent wood furniture.
Carpathians, North-east and South-west, in the East; rich in metals and timber.
Danube Rivpr, rises in Black Forest, Switzerland, flows East through Austria into Black Sea.
MAP OF THE DANUBE.
Vienna, on the Danube, Capital ; has a splendid cathedral and • university ; manufactures porcelain and firearms.
Buda-Pesth, on the Danube ; was two towns on opposite sides of the river, now joined together by a magnificent bridge; has a university ; Capital of Hungary.
Trieste, on the Gulf of Trieste, chief port of Austria.
The Coast Line long, with many inlets on the western side, noted for their grand and picturesque beauty ; much resorted to by tourists from Britain.
Mountains : A continuous long chain running from North to South under different names. This chain is covered with fine forests, from which deal is obtained. This chain gives direction to the land and rivers, and is also rich in copper and iron.
Rivers: Are numerous but small, flowing chiefly South-east.
Lakes: Numerous, but shallow and uninteresting.
Climate: Extending from cool temperate in the South to Arctic in the North.
The People are chiefly of the Teutonic race.
Government: A Limited Monarchy.
Religion : Lutheran sect of Protestants.
Productions and Exports : Copper, iron, steel, timber, tar, fish oil, matches, and milking machines.
MAP OF NORWAY OR SCANDINAVIA.
Stockholm, on Lake Maelar, Capital, and aport; manufactures glass, porcelain and matches.
Gothenburg, on the Gotha, a port; exports timber, tar and pitch.
Christiania, on Christiania Fiord, Capital of Norway has a palace.
Bergen, on South-west coast of Norway; exports cod liver oil and herrings.
Upsala, North-west of Stockholm ; has a university
The Coast Line is long, with a few indentations, but they do not penetrate far into the land.
The Mountains run in parallel chains East and West, the highest range being in the South, which has some peaks covered with snow.
The Rivers flow in the valleys between the mountain chains, chiefly westerly, to the Atlantic Ocean.
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The Climate is dry and warm, and near the coast equable. In the interior it is subject to extremes, a distressing hot wind blows from Africa.
The People are of the Graeco-Latin race, intermixed in the louthern parts with the Moorish.
The Government: A Constitutional Monarchy.
Religion : Roman Catholic.
Productions and Exports: Olive oil, cork, silk, wine, barilta, wool, raisins, and quicksilver.
MOUNTAIN OF SPAIN. Pyrenees, between Spain and France, East and West.
Pouro River, drains the Castillian Mountains, flows West through Spain and Portugal into Atlantic Ocean.
Tagus River, drains Castillian and Toledo Ranges, flows South-west into Atlantic Ocean.
Madrid, on the Manzanares, the Capital; is on a plain 2,000 feet high ; hot in summer and cold in winter; has a fine palace and cathedral.
ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.
Cadiz, on the Island of St. Leon ; exports wine and fruit, and is a fortified naval station.
Barcelona,on the North-east coast; is the largest city in Spain; manufactures machinery and glass ; is the chief port.
_. ♦ -__
(See Map of Spain.)
Mountains: Most of the Spanish Ranges extend into Portugal.
The Rivers Douro, Tagus and Guadiana rise in Spain, flow through Portugal into the Atlantic Ocean.
Lisbon, at the mouth of Tagus, Capital. It was once destroyed by an earthquake; has a fine harbour ; strongly fortified.
Oporto, on the Douro ; exports silk, wine, fruit; gives the name to port wine.
The Government is a Constitutional Monarchy.
The Religion is Roman Catholic, and the People belong
to the Graeco-I^atin race.
Productions and Exports: Leather, wine, oil, cork,
salt and wool.
The Coast Line is long, with a few fine harbours. The Gulf of Taranto is an extensive indentation in the South. The Bay of Naples is famous for its beauty.
Mountains: The Alps encircle the North of Italy, under different names, and entrance to northern countries was formerly over numerous high and difficult passes, but the Alps have been pierced by two tunnels, the Mont Cenis and St. Gothard, through which trains run. The Apennines run down near the eastern side of Italy. Near Naples is the celebrated Vesuvius, a volcano of ancient and modern fame. Etna, in Sicily, is an active volcano.
The Rivers are not large or long. The Bo, which drains, with its tributaries, the southern side of the Alps, being the largest.
The Lakes are fine, large and picturesque, and situated in North of Italy, in the Alps.
Climate : It is one of the finest in Europe, being warm in, summer, the winter very mild. Sub-tropical productions, as oranges, olives, grapes, rice, cotton, are grown. Malaria was prevalent, but the planting of blue gums in the marshes has almost entirely eradicated it.
The People of Italy are a very mixed race. The ancient Romans being conquered by the Goths; but previous to this the Greeks and Gauls had intermingled with the original inhabitants. They are now known as Italians
Government: A Constitutional Monarchy.
Religion : Roman Catholic. Other sects tolerated.
Productions and Exports : Woollens, silks, olives, olive oil, statuary marble, rice, pumice stone, lace and perfumery.
Sicily Island, South-west of Italy ; wine, oranges, oil, sulphur. Corsica Island, West of Italy ; birth-place of Napoleon I. Sardinia Island, West of Italy; exports cork, fruit, fish.
Apennines, run from Gulf of Genoa to extreme end of Italy.
Vesuvius, near Naples, an active volcano. In ancient times overwhelmed Pompeii.
Etna, in Sicily, is an active volcano; sulphur.
Po River, drains the Alps, flows East into the Adriatic Sea. Tiber River, risesin Apennines, flows South into Tyrrhenian Sea
Como, is in the Alps, in the North of Italy; beautiful and picturesque scenery.
Rome, on the Tiber, Capital ; is a very ancient city ; is noted for its cathedral, catacombs and colloseum.
Genoa., on the Gulf of Genoa ; was the birthplace of Columbus, and the rival of Venice for maritime supremacy.
Florence, on the Arno ; is a beautiful city, has fine galleries of paintings and statuary.
Naples, on the Bay of Naples; is the largest city in Italy. A port where mail steamers call; beautifully situated.
Brindisi, on the South-east coast; is a naval station, fortified, and a mail packet station.
Venice, on the Gulf of Venice ; is called a city of palaces, manufactures glass, and has a cathedral.
Milan, on the Oloira ; is a beautiful city, with a magnificent cathedral of white marble.
Turin, on the Po; has silk manufactures, is fortified, and contains a cathedral.
Palermo, on the North coast of Sicily; exports wine, fruit, and is finely situated.
The Coast Line is long and cut up by deep indentations, one almost severing Greece in two
Climate of Greece is a splendid one, being warm temperate, and grows olives, grapes, oranges, grain, and the mulberry, on which the silkworm feeds.
The People belong to the Graeco-Latin race.
The Government : An hereditary Constitutional Monarchy.
1 he Religion is the Greek Church, somewhat similar to
the Roman Catholic.
The Productions and Exports are: Wine, oil, silk, currants, cotton, sponges and tobacco.
Athens, near the Gulf of iEgina; noted in past times for its literature, arts and sculptures ; contains splendid ruins.
'file Coast Line is long, being cut up by many indentations which form good harbours. The scenerv alon r the Bosphorus being very fine, while the Golden Horn, five miles long, is extremely picturesque (see page 77).
The Mountains are numerous and rugged, and covered with snow in the winter. The Balkans have many passes of a rugged and difficult character
The Rivers are many and small, but the Danube, which passes from Hungary through the Carpathian Mountains—called the Iron Gate, a remarkable opening—is long.
The Climate is warm in the South, but the northern part is subject to extremes. The mountains are very cold in winter.
The People are descendants of the Sclavonians in the North ; Graeco-Latin North of Greece; and Turks in the South-east.
GovernF^nt: A Despotic Monarchy. The Sultan governing by his own will, sometifiws taking the advice of his vizier.
Religion : Turks, Mahomedan; Greeks and Sclavonian, Greek Church.
Exports: Carpets, olives, opium, silk, grain, Attar of roses, cotton and wool.
Balkan Range, East and West ; contains some rugged passes, through which trade is carried on inland.
Danube River, flows from Hungary East into Black Sea,
forming boundary of Roumania and Bulgaria.
Constantinople, on the Golden Horn, an inlet five miles long. Has many fine palaces, beautifully and strongly situated ; is a great and busy port between the East and West ; has a fine mosque.
THE GOLDEN HORN.
Bucharest, on the Dumbovitza, Capital of Roumania. Sofia, on the Isker, Capital of Bulgaria ; transit trade. Belgrade, on the Danube, Capital of Servia ; fortified.
The Cencrvt Line is extensive and has many large and long indentations, but they are usually shallow and frozen over in the winter. This interferes with their usefulness for commercial purposes. Russia is ever on the look out for deep, untrammelled ports.
The Mountains are chiefly on the Russian boundary. The whole of Russia is a vast plain, only broken by the Valdai Hills These plains are called steppes.
The Rivers of Russia are fine, long, and navigable in summer. Russian rivers are caused by the snow that falls in winter, which, melting slowly, supplies the necessary water.
The Lakes are numerous, shallow, and situated in flat, uninteresting country. Lake Ladoga is the largest in Europe.
The Climate extends from warm temperate in the South to Arctic in the North. Great extremes of climate exist, Moscow being very hot in summer and very cold in winter.
The People consist of the Sclavonian race in the centre ; the Poles, in the West; the Finns, in Finland ; the Lapps, in Lapland ; and the Tartars North of Black Sea.
The Government: An absolute hereditary Monarchy.
The Religion: Greek Church chiefly; Poles, Roman Catholics; Tartars, Mohammedans.
Exports : Grain, hemp, kerosene, copper, platinum, flax and timber.
Valdai Hills, South-east of Gulf of Finland; where the Volga ~—rises.
Ural Mountains, run Noith and South in East of Russia; platinum and copper.
Caucasus Mountains, run North-west and South-east, between Black and Caspian Seas.
Ural River, flows Southerly from Ural Mountains into Caspian Sea.
Volga River, flows East, South and South-east into Caspian Sea; 2000 miles long.
Ladoga Lake, East of Gulf of Finland; is the largest fresi} water lake in Europe.
St. Petersburg, on the Neva, is the Capital. Founded by Peter the Great; is built on piles, and is strongly fortified.
Archangel, on the White Sea. The harbour is frozen for nine months : the seaport of the North of Russia.
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Riga, 0% the Gulf of Riga : exports flax and hemp; is fortified. ^Warsaw, on the Vistula; is strongly fortified, and a station for the Russian army.
MOSCOW, on the Moskva. The former capital, and where the Czar must be crowned ; is a place ot great trade. Was
burnt to the ground in 1812 to prevent Napoleon wintering there.
Odessa, on the Black Sea; is a port where wheat is shipped from
TifllS, on the Kur, Capital of Trans Caucasia; transit trade. Kronstadt, on tne island ol Cronstadt; is a fortified naval ^ station, and the key to St. Petersburg. ,
Nijni Novgorod, on the Volga ; has a large annual fair. Tula, on the Oka; is the Birmingham of Russia; coal and iron.
Astrakhan, at the mouth of Volga; carries on g'reat trade with Persia, and manufactures Astrakhan cloth.
North America has an extensive Coast Line, with only a few deep indentations, but its want in this respect is compensated by (like South America) the internal communication afforded by its magnificent river system, which extends in all directions, from the trunk river Mississippi.
The Mountains are chiefly coast ranges, running parallel to West coast, and the Rocky Mountains, also parallel to West coast, but some distance inland. The Alleghanies run parallel to the East coast. 1 his arrangement causes the drainage to tend to the centre—hence the magnificent river Mississippi. ./
In the North-west are the extensive Plains, called prairies, upon which numerous herds of bison formerly roamed, few of which are now left, Lpon these plains large herds of cattle are pastured. These cattle runs are called ranches.
The Rivers are long, large and numerous, and in many instances drain a series of large lakes.
The Lakes are extensive, and in some cases in series, and drained by wide rivers. The largest fresh water lake of the world (Lake Superior) is in North America.
North America is rich in timber of a useful nature Oregon, pine and ornamental woods, as well as in woods of a tough nature, suitable for wheelwrights, and for tool handles.
Metals and minerals are plentiful, coal being found in large quantities, while all the useful metals are extremely abundant. Petroleum is also obtained in large quantities. Sub-tropical and temperate fruits, plants and grains are cultivated extensively
I he People are descendants of European nationalities, but the first settlers were English. The native races are called Red Indians. Many evidences of the former existence of a civilised race have been found.
Productions and Expo:ts : Woollen and cotton goods, hardware, agricultural implement^ machinery, glass, paper, firearms, kerosene, tobacco, rice, fish, fruit, oil, timber, coal, copper, quicksilver, lead, furs, pot and pearl ash.
„ The Climate graduates from tropical in South to arctic in North. New York and some other parts are subject to blizzards in winter (freezing storms) and to heat waves in summer, while cyclones of a destructive nature pass through some districts.
Gulf* of“ Mexico, south of United States. Is very hot ; the Gulf Stream flows through it.
Behring; Strait separates North America and Asia. Sometimes frozen over in winter.
Cuba, Capital, Havana, South of Florida; exports tobacco and sugar. Belongs to United States ; taken in 1898.
Hayti, East of Cuba; exports sugar, tobacco and cigars.
Sandwich Islands, West of North America, in Pacific Ocean ; exports sugar and tobacco ; has a splendid climate. Annexed by United States.
Florida, South-east of United States; exports cotton, tobacco and fruit.
Californian, South of Upper California; exports gold and silver.
Alaska, West of Alaska ; has seals and volcanoes.
Boston, on Boston Harbour, in Massachussetts ; has fine literary institutions.
New York, on Manhattan Island, in New York State; the largest and most populous city ; has extensive commerce.
Buffalo, on Lake Erie ; has a large timber and grain trade.
Philadelphia, on Delaware River, in Pennsylvania; is the second city, and was founded by William Penn.
Washington, on the Potomac River, in Columbia District, is the Capital ; contains the Senate House.
New Orleans, on Mississippi, in Louisiana; has cotton, tobacco, sugar and lead trade.
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Cincinnati, on the Ohio River; has river and canal trade
Chicago, South of Lake Michigan, in Illinois; has a great corn market.
St. Louis, on Mississippi River in Missouri ; is a military station.
San Francisco, on Golden Gate Bay, in California; exports gold and fruit; has extensive canneries, and is the terminus of overland railway.
Salt Lake City, on Great Salt Lake in Utah ; has a large trade in grain and fruit, also has irrigation works.
The following are a few of the thirty-eight States :—New York Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maine, Virginia, Kentucky Texas, California.
Rocky Mountains, run North and South in the West of the United States ; gold and silver.
Alleghany, runs North-east and South-west ?n the east of United States.
Hudson River, flows South, draining Lake Champlain, into Atlantic Ocean.
Potomac, flows South-east into Atlantic Ocean.
Mississippi, flows South into Gulf of Mexico; often flooded.
Its tributary on the East side is—
Ohio, drains the Alleghany Mountain.
The tributary which drains the Rocky Mountains is—
Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario, between Dominion of Canada and United States. Superior, largest fresh water lake in the world ; area, 32,000 square miles. Niagara Falls occur between Erie and Ontario.
Michigan, in North of United States; interconnected with the above.
Great Salt Lake, West of Rocky Mountains; is a large shallow lake.
Winds are caused chiefly by the heat of the sun. When any portion of the atmosphere becomes heated it expands ; it is therefore lighter and ascends ; the colder and heavier air from the surrounding parts rushes in to fill the partial vacuum. This colder surface current is called wind, and that portion which ascends forms an upper current in an opposite direction. As the equatorial regions receive the direct rays of the sun, the atmosphere there becomes heated, and the colder air from the poles flows as North and South winds to the torrid zone ; the rotation of the earth however, changes the direction of these winds.
A gentle wind travels at not more than seven miles an hour; a breeze travels at the rate of ten miles, and a hurricane at eighty miles an hour.
Winds have been divided into three kinds—Constant or Permanent, Periodical and Variable.
Trade Winds are constant, and blow from East to West about 300 on each side of the equator. They are caused by the heat of the sun and the earth’s rotation. They receive their name because they assist ships navigating those parts.
Periodical or Monsoons are season winds, blowing for a season in one direction and then in the opposite direction for the same term. When they change, storms of a violent and destructive character occur. Sea and land breezes are daily monsodn winds, caused by the rarefaction of the atmosphere by the sun’s heating power radiating differently from the land and the sea. The most remarkable monsoon winds are the South-west Monsoon, which blow over India from April to October, and then change to North-east from October to April, thus lasting for six months in each direction.
Variable Winds blow in all directions, and are caused by any sudden local disturbances which destroy the atmosphere’s equilibrium, such as excessive heat, electrical disturbances, cS:c.
In different parts of the world there are destructive local winds which have received distinctive names, such as the Typhoon of the China Sea, Cyclones of Mauritius, Simoon of the African and
Arabian deserts, Harmattan of Senegambia, Tornados of North America, and the cold Blizzards of New York, during which people are frozen to death in the streets.
Rain is chiefly caused by the heat of the sun. When the sun shines upon the seaor any place wherein moisture is contained, a large quantity of this moisture is dissipated into invisible vapour. This invisible vapour is lighter than the air near the surface of the earth as 3 : 5. When it has ascended to a stratum of air of its own weight it remains in suspension* Should the air become overcharged with this vapour, it becomes visible as clouds, which are wafted by the winds to all points of the compass. Whenever in its onward journey it comes across high mountains the air carrying it rises so that it may pass the mountain height. This ascension carries the clouds into a colder atmosphere, then the vapour further condenses and falls by gravitation in the form of rain. Sometimes the vapour meets a \ery cold stratum of air, when condensation rapidly takes place and rain is formed ; or should the air become over saturated with vapour, as it does in the tropics, it immediately condenses and falls as rain. There—in the tropics—rain falls nearly every day.
When rain in falling from a cloud passes through a stratum of air whose temperature is 320 or less, the rain is frozen and falls to the earth as Ha.il. During thunderstorms hail is often abundant, and it is then thought to be caused by electrical agency. Snow is frozen vapour which falls before it has had time to condense. Dew is caused by the earth rapidly cooling and condensing the vapour in contact with the earth. Frost is frozen dew.
Mists and Fofi^S are clouds in contact with the earth, and are produced by the earth cooling rapidly. This causes the vapour in the air which is in contact with the earth to condense and become visible. When the sun shines upon the earth it warms it, and this reflected warmth being imparted to the mists and fogs causes them to ascend into the higher regions.
Many places in the world are subjected to dense fogs, which interfere with and cause traffic of all kinds to be dangerous to pedestrians. London is subjected to them, and it is then extremely dangerous. Around Newfoundland navigation is rendered very dangerous from the same cause, collisions between ships having there taken place resulting in very great loss of life. Melbourne in winter is often enveloped in dense fogs.
All circles are divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees. The 360th part of a great circle has been found to be about 69^ English miles long. As all great circles are tlie same size, the length of their degrees are equal; therefore the length of a degree on the equator is equal to that on a meridian. The equator has been graduated, ami by taking the distance between any two places by a compass, or even by a piece of cotton, and then measuring it on the graduated equator, we can obtain their true distances in degrees. If this be multiplied by the length of a degree in miles we shall have the distance in miles.
To get the exact position of any place on the earth’s surface, we must know both its latitude and its longitude. To say that a place is 160 South latitude is very indefinite, because it will be situated on a parallel of latitude which is 160 from the equator, and as this parallel encircles the world it may be in any part of this parallel. To say that a place is 300 East longitude is also indefinite, this only tells us that the place is situated somewhere on a
meridian which is 300 East of the First Meridian, but does not definitely indicate in which part it is situated.
Latitude is distance from the equator, and is measured on a meridian. The length of the arc of its meridian between it and the equator gives its latitude.
Longitude is distance from the First Meridian, and is measured on a parallel of latitude. The length of the arc of its parallel, intercepted between it and the First Meridian, gives its longitude.
The exact position of a place is the coincidence of the arc of its parallel of latitude with that of the arc of its meridian. Where these two meet is the exact position of the given place.
The earth revolves once before the sun in twenty-four hours. Its circumference, like all circles, is divided into 360°. If 360° revolve in twenty-four hours, 360°, or 15°, must revolve in one
hour; therefore 150 of the earth’s circumference revolves in one hour’s time. In one hour 150 revolve, therefore 60, or four
minutes, are required for one degree to pass before the sun. \\ c can say four minutes = i°, or i° = four minutes; also, 15° = one hour, or one hour = 150.
If we know the difference in longitude between any two places we can convert it into time, or the difierence of time into degrees. Suppose one of two places to be 400 East longitude and the other 56^° East longitude, then their difference in longitude is 56^° —40° = i6$°, and as i° = 4 minutes of time, 16A0 x 4 = 64 minutes of time, or the difierence in time is 1 hour 4 minutes between the two places. If we know the difference in time we can find the difference in longitude. The time in minutes, divided by four, gives the degrees of longitude. This does not tell us if one place is east or west of a given place. To do so we must find if the
place sought for has its time earlier or later than the given place. If it has its time before the given place, it is east of it; but if later, it is west of the given place. It is io a.m. at Greenwich while ii a.m. at A; what is A’s longitude ? Difference in time i hour, difference in longitude 15°, because 1 hour = 150.
9 | a.m 150 W. 10 | a m. 150 E. 11 | a.m.
As the earth revolves from west to east, those places to the east have their time first, therefore A has had its 10 o’clock one hour previously, or earlier than Greenwich and consequently is 150 E. of Greenwich.
parts of 150 in width running North and South, have
been termed zones, and the whole of each zone is
considered to differ from the next one by one hour. The extreme east or west of one zone differs from the extreme east or west of the next by one hour. But the extreme west of one zone is the east of the next to the right, and the time is exactly the same ; but by zone time they are said (arbitrarily) to differ by an hour. Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania are in one zone. South Australia is in the next to the west, and West Australia is in one to the west of South Australia. When it is 12 noon in the first group, it is 11 a.m. in South Australia and 10 a.m. in West Australia. The Government of South Australia has reduced the zone time in that colony by half an hour, so that it is 11.30 a m. there when 12 noon in Victoria. We may say, speaking generally, that the earth has been divided into 24 zones north and south, each of which differs from the next by one hour, and that the whole of each zone has the same time.
(1) On the 22nd of September an observer noticed that the
sun was directly overhead. Give his latitude.
(2) Why are degrees of longitude measured on 26° of latitude
shorter than those measured on the equator ?
(3) Give the latitude and longitude of the South Pole.
(4) A captain at sea finds that it is noon and his chronometer
points to 10.40 a m., what is his longitude ?
(5) Position of a place whose latitude is o degrees and
longitude o degrees ?
(6) Why do degrees of longitude vary in their length ? and
why do not degrees of latitude vary ?
(7) What is latitude, and what is longitude, and what is a
(8) What places are marked o degrees ? What is a tropic ?
(9) Why is a degree of latitude longer near the Polar
(10) Two ships are at 65° west longitude, the latitude of one
being 1200 north and the other 46° north. \\ hat distance separates them ?
(11) What is the Circle of Illumination, and a Meridian ?
(12) Why do Melbourne and Sydney have the same time
(13) In what direction and to what degree of longitude must
a captain sail from 350 west in order that his time may be 10 a.m. when it is 9.30 a.m. at 350 west ?
(14) In which zones do they have one season ? and name any
that have more than one.
(15) What is the Equator, and why so called ?
(16) What determines the exact position of the Antarctic
Circle, and the Tropic of Cancer.
(17) In what direction, and to what degree of longitude, must
a captain sail from 350 west, in order that his time may be 10 a.m. when it is 8.20 a.m. at 350 west ?
(18) What is a Meridian, and a Parallel of Latitude, and why
so called ?
(iq) How is the Tropic of Capricorn fixed ? Why called Tropic ?
(20) If 12 noon at Greenwich, what time 7^° E. L.
(21) If 4J0 N of Tropic of Capricorn, what is your latitude?
(22) What is meant by winter solstice, also Zone Time ?
(23) What time is it at Greenwich when it is 11 am. at 500
(24) It is 9 a.m. Zone Time at Melbourne, what Zone Time
at Perth, which is 450 nearer the First Meridian ?
(25) The time at a certain place is 2 p m., at another 7.30 p.m.
The longitude of the former is 26° east. Find longitude of latter place.
(26) A ship is on the intersection of the First Meridian and
the equator. She sails due west 270 knots. What is her time when midnight at Greenwich ?
(27) Why are days and nights of unequal length ?
(28) What is a ship’s longitude on which it is 10.20 p.m.,
when it is 11 a.m. at Greenwich ?
(29) Name the Zones and give their width in degrees.
(30) What is the cause of Day and Night and the Seasons ?
(31) What is the difference in time of a place 36° W.L , and
another 120 E.L.
(32) Why does time vary with longitude.
(33) How are degrees of longitude measured, and why of
unequal length ?
(34) Why are nights of equal length at the equator ?
(35) When the sun is vertical at the Tropic of Cancer, what
pole is in darkness. Explain why ?
(36) From where are degrees of latitude and of longitude
(37) What is the greatest latitude and longitude one can
(38) What is the difference in time by the clock between
Adelaide and Sydney. Give reasons ?
(39) When the sun shines over a meridian it is the same time
all along that line, while a meridian E. or W. will have a different time. Explain this.
(40) When it is 12.15 p.m. at a place whose latitude is 150
north and longitude 120 east, what time is it at a place whose latitude is 38° south, and whose longitude is 28° west ? Show how you get your answer.
(41) Where are the days and nights equal, and why ?
(42) How many degrees from equator to the Arctic Circle ?
Give the longitude of a place at which the time is 5.20 p.m. when it is 4 p m. at Greenwich.
Vv hy do degrees of longitude diminish toward the poles?
"\\ here are the sun’s rays vertical on 21st of June ?
A place is 12J° east longitude and another is 150 west longitude ; find difference in time.
Vv hat is the longitude of a place whose time is 4 a m. while it is noon at Greenwich ?
A captain finds at 12 o’clock that his chronometer is thirty past seven ; what is his longitude ?
At A 15^" east longitude it is n a.m.; what is the time at B, which is 250 west longitude ?
If A be 350 east longitude, and B 67.$° east longitude, and it ir. 10 p.m. there, what time is it at A ?
If A is 8° W. L., and B 90 W. L., what is their difference in time, and what is their time respectively if it be 10 a.m. at Greenwich ?
What is the time of a place i?..\° west of, and when it is 9.40 a.m. at Greenwich.
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MAP or ENGLAND *
/ SHOWING THE
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RETREAT FROM MOSCOW. J
(From Cassell's S hool II¡story of England.)
ENGLISH DOMINIONS IN FRANCE IN THE TIME OF HENRY V. (From Cassell's School History of England.)
RAPI® WRITING SYSTEM.
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