Essentials of eoa rap Au



The matter in this book covert the Geography Course for Grade VII., and will be found useful both for teaching purposes and for revision.



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The matter in this book covers the Geography Course for Grade VII., and will be found useful both for teaching purposes and for revision.
Much care was exercised in order to insure accuracy of detail.
The Shape of the Earth :

The earth is an almost perfect sphere about 8,000 miles in diameter, the equatorial diameter being 26 miles longer than that through the Poles.

Proof* that the Earth is a Sphere:

!. SHIPS : When ships are approaching the observer, smoke is seen first, then funnels, then hull. As this happens in all parts of the earth, the earth must be curved all over.

2.    HORIZON : (a) Horizons are always oircular. (b) The higher the observer rises, the larger is his horizon. I hese two phenomena

could only occur on a sphere.

3.    ECLIPSE OF THE MOON : lhe shadow of the earth on the moon is always curved. The only object throwing a curved shadow from every position is a sphere.


aeroplanes can return to their starting point without altering the direction of



Three posts were erected in still water, three miles apart, and each I 3 feet 4 inches out of the water. The posts were in line. The middle one appeared nearly 3 feet above the level of the other two.


NIGHT : If the earth were flat, day would occur over the whole earth at the one time.


bodies in the sky, seen with telescope, are spherical. Hence we conclude that the earth is probably similar in shape.

8.    DIFFERENT GROUPS OF STARS APPEAR AS WE [ RAVEL NOR TH OR SOU I H : 1 he Southern Cross can be seen only from the southern part of the earth.

Movements of the Earth :

The earth rotates


on its axis from west to east once a dav.


(a)    FALLING STONES : A stone dropped from the eastern side of a tower will fall slightly to the east of the perpendicular. As the top of the tower is moving faster than the bottom towards the east, tne stone falls towards the east.


The sun, moon, etc., appear to travel across the sky from east to west.

(c)    OTHER HEAVENLY BODIES rotate on their axes ;

probably earth does also.

EFFECT OF EARTH’S ROTATION : Day and night are

the result of the earth’s rotation.

2.^THE EARTH’S ANNUAL REVOLUTION ROUND THE SUN : The earth moves round the sun once in 365 • days ; the axis is inclined r.t an angle of 661 deg. to the plane of the orbit, and any position of the axis is parallel to every other pos t on.


(a)    The Zones of the Earth.

(b)    The Seasons.

(c)    The vanation in time and place of sunrise and sunset.


On June 7.1st, the sun is vertical to a point 231 deg. ( )0 deg.-661 deg.) north of the Equator. The circle drawn through this point is the Tropic of Cancer.

As the sun’s rays extend 90 deg. in every direction from th point of verticality, they reach a point 651 deg. south of the Equator ; the circle through this point is the Antarctic Circle.

On December 21st, the sun is vertical to a point 23.V deg. south of the Equator ; the circle through this point is the 1 ropic of Capricorn. The circle marking the northern extremity of the sun’s light is the Arctic Circle.

The Torrid Zone is between the Tropics.

The South I emperate Zone is between the I ropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle ; while the North I emperate Zone is between the Tropic of Cancer and the ^Arctic Circle. Surrounded by the Arctic Circle is the North Frigid Zone, and by the Antarctic Circle is the South Frigid Zone.


In Torrid Zone, the average temperature is high, and there are generally two seasons—a wet and a dry.

In the Temperate Zones, the average temperature is medium ; there are four seasons, most rain generally in winter, and the prevailing wind is westerly.

In Frigid Zones, the climate ie cold, with a very long, cold winter, and a short, bright summer.


June 21st is the beginning of the northern summer and southern winter. September 22nd marks the beginning of autumn in north and spring in south.

December 21st begins northern winter and southern summer.

March 21 si brings m northern spring and southern autumn.

September 22nd and March 21st are called equinoxes (equal day

and night).

A Solstice (sun standing still) occurs on December 21st and on June 21 st.

Conditions Governing Climate:

I he AMO UN T of heat received by a place depends upon : -

(a)    Obliquity of the sun’s rays.

(b)    Duration of the sun’s rays ; the longer the day, the hotter.


1.    LATITUDE: generally near the Equator is hotter than farther away.

2.    AL TI 1 UDE : the higher above sea-level the colder.

3.    DAILY CHANGES : hottest part of day is about 3 p.m., and the coldest about 4 a.m.


1.    Continental ; extremes of heat and cold (both daily and annually).

2.    Insular ; small range of temperature.

CLIMA 1 E include* wind, rainfall, and temperature.


1.    LATITUDE c.f. Hobart and Cairns. <    ~

2.    AL TI 1 UDE c.f. Melbourne and Macedon.

3.    POSITION OF MOUNTAINS: c.f. East of Mts. in Queensland, with the West.

4.    PROXIMITY TO SEA: c.f. Liverpool and M oscow.

5.    PREVAILING WINDS: c.f. Chili, dry winds and Brazil, moist winds.

6.    OCEAN CURRENIS: c.f. Labrador and Ireland.

The Atmosphere:

I he atmosphere surrounding the earth is a mixture of nitrogen 78 per cent., oxygen 21 per cent., argon .8 per cent., carbon dioxide .03 per cent., and water vapour. It extends upwards about 300 miles.


EXPERIMENTS : 1. The petrol tin experiment.

2.    Glass of water and paper.

3.    Leather sucker

MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE is done by the barometer ;

the pressure is measured in inches of mercury.

Factors Producing :

1.    C LOUD : From the surface of all uncovered water tiny particles rise as vapour. When these collect up in the air, in large quantities, a cloud can be seen. If resting on the ground» a fog would be formed.

2.    RAIN: If the air containing the cloud becomes colder, or the cloud is blown into colder air, the tiny drops of water-dust join together and fall as drops of rain.

3 HAIL : If rain-drops are frozen» they fall as hail.

4.    SNOW : If the water-dust is frozen before rain-drops are formed, snow will fall.

5.    DEW : On a calm, clear night, small things soon become so cold that the vapour near them sticks on in the form of dew.

6.    FROS T : When the temperature of the leaves, etc., falls below freezing point, the vapour freezes as soon as it touches the leaf, and frost is formed by an accumulation of tiny frozen crystals.

Formation of Meanders and Billabongs :

A-bend in a nveT is gradually made more pronounced by the faster water on the outside bank wearing it away, Then, during a flood, the river cuts across the intervening neck of land, leaving the original bend to form a MEANDER. In time, the entrance and exit to the meander becomes silted up, forming a BILL A BONG-

Great Britain :


1 1 HE WESTERN MOUNTAINS: I he Pennine Range, Mts of the Lake District, Cambrian Mts. in Wales, and the Cornwall Heights. (Highest point is Mt. Snowden, 3,570 feet).

2- THE MIDLAND PLAIN is a fairly level plain sloping to the east ; part of Great European Plain.


Cheviot Hills separate England from Scotland-

1 HIGHLANDS, many ranges and glens, Grampians (Ben Nevis, 4,400 feet) is highest range.

2.    7 HE LOWLANDS in central Scotland.


LAKES : Windermere in N.W. of Englandin Scotland there are many lakes (or lochs), the most famous being Loch Lomond.

C LIMA7 E : Westerly winds bring a good rainfall, well distributed Rainfall is heavier in west than in east. Winters are cold, but tempered by winds blowing over Gulf-Stream Drift.

RIVERS: Thames, Ouse, Aire, Trent, Tyne, Tweed, Forth, Tay, Dee, and Spey flow easterly. Severn, Mersey, Clyde How westerly.

VEGETAIION : Forests (oak. ash, elm, pine, birch, beech), oats, wheat, barley, turnips, mangolds, potatoes.

PAS I ORAL : Cattle m the wetter, and sheep in the drier climates

FISHERIES : Fish abound in North Sea ; herring, haddock, cod, plaice, mackerel, hake, ling, pilchards are caught in great quantities

MINERALS: Coal, iron, limestone. Coal-fieids : South Wales, round Birmingham, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Tyne River, Clyde, and Forth Rivers.

MAN Ur ACTURES : Cottons, woollens, linen, hosiery, silks, laces are made chiefly in north of England. Iron and steel, tools, machinery, ironware, ships'

AREA of Great Britain is 90,000 sq. miles (c.f. Victoria). POPULA7 ION : 43,000,000 (Victoria 2,000,000).

1MPORIS : Wheat, meat, fish, sugar, dairy produce, tea, fruit, cotton, oils, wool, timber, rubber.

EXPOR TS : Iron and steel goods, woollens, linens, laces, hosiery,



London, on Thames, 7^ millions, capital, largest port, manufactures, university, greatest money market of the world.

Liverpool, cd east, port, trades with America.

Hull on Humber, port.

Southampton, Plymouth, ports on south.

Harwich, Grimsby, Yarmouth, fish ports on east.

Newcastle, port for coal, steel.

Swansea, Cardiff, seaports on south of Wales.

Bristol, seaport on Bristol Channel.

Birmingham, ironware.

Sheffield, cutlery.

Manchester, cottons.

Bradford, Leeds, Halifax, woollens.

Nottingham, lace.

Leicester, hosiery.

Cambridge, Oxford, famous for universities.

Devonport, Portsmouth, naval bases.


Edinburgh, university, books, trade.

Glasgow, (over 1 miflion), ship-building, port, cottons, chemicals, woollens, machinery.

Leith, port of Edinbnrgh.

Dundee, on Tay, linen, jute goods, port.

Aberdeen, on Dee, fish, granite, combs, textiles, port.

Paisley, cotton thread.

IRELAND :    .

Ireland is one-third size of Victoria, but the population is over twice that of Victoria.


1.    Highland Ring, a series of isolated ranges up to 3,000 feet high.

2.    Central Plain, rich pasture land, and bogs.

CLIMATE : Owing to Gulf Stream, warmer in winter and cooler in summer than in England.

Rainfall is very good, and well distributed throughout the year ; hence, the “Emerald Isle.“

Westerly winds bring the rain.

Wetter in west than in east.

RIVERS : Lee, Liffey, Boyne, Shannon.

LAKES : (a) V alleys dammed by glacial debris (Lakes of Killarney).

(b)    Hollows dissolved in limestone (Lough Erne).

(c)    Subsidences in lava flow (Lough Yeagh).

V EGE 1 A1 ION : Grass, oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, mangolds, flax, forests (oak, yew pine).

FISHING : Chiefly in lakes and rivers ; salmon, trout. PASTORAL: Cattle, sheep (in highlands), pigs, horses, goats* MINING : A little coal. (Peat is used as fuel). MANUFACTURES : Linen, ships, liquor.

EXPORTS : Cattle, linen, ships, liquor, eggs, butter, bacon, horses, sheep, pigs, wool, poultry.

IMPORTS: Wheat, coal, apparel, iron, tea, sugar, boots, textiles, timber.

TOWNS : Dublin, capital of the Irish Tree State, port, university, liquors, poplin.

Belfast, ship-building, linen, port.

Londonderry, port, ship-building, linen.

Cork (Queenstown, the outer port), butter, eggs, bacon.

Drogheda, port, farm produce, linen.

Limerick, port, farm produce, lace.

Waterford, Wexford, Dundalk, Rosslare are smaller seaports.

Canada :

Area : 3 i million sq. miles (Australia 3 millions). POPULAI ION : 9 millions (Australia 6*. millions).



is a very extensive plain of ancient rocks, the centre of which is occupied

by Hudson Bay.

2.    THE APPALACHAIN HIGHLANDS of the east consist

of old fold mountains.

3.    THE WESTERN FOLD MOUNTAINS are young rugged mountains, 400 miles wide. Rockies are the highest (Mt. Logan 19,830 feet), while Coast Range and Cascade Range are on the west.

4.    1 HE CEN I RAL PLAINS lie between the Laurentian Shield and the Rockies. 1 hese plains were formed by deposition of sediment oa the sea floor.

CLIMATE: Rainfall heavy m west ; light on east of Rockies, where winters are extremely cold. Eastern coast has wet, cold winters. In the north, the winter is long and intensely cold, and the summer short and warm.

RIVERS : St. Lawrence drams the Great Lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario). Between Erie and Ontario are the Niagara Falls, where electricity is generated. Mackenzie, Fraser, Yukon,

Saskatchewan, Nelson.

VEGETATION : On the Tundras, mosses, lichens grow’ in summer. South of the Tundras are large forests of pines, firs, spruce. In south-east, oak and ash are found. In south-west. Douglas Fir(tmber called Oregon). Prairies on east of Rockies are grass lands.

AGRICULTURE : Wheat, oats.

PASTORAL : Cattle (near Great Lakes and on Central Plains), (meat, butter, cheese), sheep (meat, wool).

F urs are obtained from bears, fox, sable, and beaver.

FISHERIES : Very valuable fisheries on both east and west coasts, and in the lakes. Cod, herrings, lob'ter are caught off east coast, while salmon and halibut are caught in the west.

MINERALS : Canada is rich in minerals : coal, gold, nickel, silver, lead, copper.

MANUFACTURES : Paper, ironware, motor cars, cod-liver oil, tinned fish.

EXPORTS: Wheat, flour, timber, paper, ironware, wood pulo, motor cars, cheese, bacon, fish, gold, sugar, oats.

IMPORTS: Iron, steel, coal, cotton wool, sugar, petroleum, fruits, chemicals, silks, spirits, jute, hemp, books tea.


Ottawa, capital (c.f. Canberra).

Montreal (620,000), largest city, port, trade, mauniactures, machinery.

Toronto, and Hamilton, ports on Lake Ontario, motor cars.

Quebec, port, historical.

Halifax, railway terminus, seaport.

St. John, seaport, timber.

Vancouver, railway terminus, seaport, timber, fish.

Prince Rupert, railway terminus, seaport, timber, fish.

Victoria, seaport on Vancouver Island, timber, fish.

Edmonton, wheat, cattle, railway junction.

Calgary, wheat, cattle, railway junction.

Winnipeg, railway centre, wheat

Regina, wheat, west of Winnipeg.

Hamilton, and London, in south, cattle, sheep.

Port Arthur, port on Lake Superior, wheat.


1.    Great Continental Railways.

2.    Great waterway by St. Lawrence, canals, and through the Great Lakes.

The Union of South Africa :

The Union consists of Cape of Good Hope, Orange free State, Transvaal, and Natal.

AREA : 472,347 sq’ miles (3 times Victoria).

POPULATION : 5,500,000 coloured people. 1,500,000 whites.


L NARROW COASTAL PLAIN, wider in north-east than in south. Low hot, damp.

2.    THE KARROOS : In the south, the coastal plain rises to the plateau in two steps, the Little Karroo and the Great Karroo. The southern edge of the Little Karroo is the Langeberb (Long Mts.), and the southern edge of the Great Karroo is Zwarteberg (Black Mts.).

3.    THE PLATEAU : 4000 to 8000 feet. The Drakensberg (12,000 ft.) forms the eastern edge and the Nieuwveld the southern edge. The east and south-eastern portion of the plateau is called the High Veldt, while the north-western is called the Low Veldt.

CLIMATE : The S.L. Trade Winds bring heavy rain to eastern coastal plain m summer.

The High Veldt has a fair rainfall.

In south-west, winter rains come from the west.

The western half of South Africa has a very dry climate, with warm, sunny days, and cold nights.

RIVERS : Orange, Vaal, Limpopo.

VEGETATION : In south-west and south-east, forests exist. The rest is grassland.

Maize in Cape of Good Hope, Transvaal, Natal.

Wheat in Cape of Good Hope.

In Natal, tea, bananas, pineapples, rice, sugar-cane, grapes.

ANIMALS : Sheep, cattle, Angora goats, ostriches.

MINERALS : South Africa is very rich in minerals. Gold, diamonds, coal, platinum, and copper.

EXPOR I S : Gold, wool, diamonds, maize, skins, coal, moharr, and wattle bark.

IMPORTS : Food, drink, cottons, woollens, clothing, hardware, machinery, oils, motor cars, timber, boots, books,


TOWNS : Cape Town, port of call, legislative capital of the Union, Port Elizabeth, East London, ports.

Durban, port of call, seaport of Natal.

Johannesberg, gold.

Kimberley, diamonds.

Pretoria, railway centre, administrative capita!.

Bloemfontein, capital or Orange Free State,

Pietermaritzburg, capital of Natal.

Newcastle, coal.

COMMUNICATIONS: !. No navigable rivers.

2.    Poor roads, and owing to scarps of plateaus it is difficult to build railways.

3.    Coastal trade (c.f. Austraha).


India consists of British Provinces, Native States under the British Crown, and Independent Native States.

AREA : 1,800,000 sq. miles, more than halt as large as Australia.



rugged mountain ranges of very great height.

Himalayas (Mt. Everest, 29,002ft.), .Hindu Kush. Sulaiman, and Burmese Mts. are the chief ranges. The Himalaya system is from 100 to 200 miles w'ide.

2.    THE SOUTHERN PLATEAU (The Deccan): This

plateau is composed of old hard roc ks,    1 he Western Ghats (703Jh.)

form the western, while the Eastern Ghats (4000ft.) form ihe eastern edge.

3.    THE INDO-GANGET1C VALLEY is a level valley, 2000 miles long, between the Himalayas and the Deccan.

4.    THE COASTAL PLAINS lie between the Ghats and

the sea ; narrow on west, and wider on east.

CLIMATE : India has three seasons :

1.    June to November, hot and wet ; the S.W. monsoon, heavily laden with moisture, deluges the Western Ghats (120 ins.) and carries moisture across India to Assam (500 inches).

2.    November to March, cool and dry.

3.    March to June, hot and dry.

The N.E. Monsoon is dry ; but, over the Bay of Bengal, it gathers vapour which is precipitated along the Coramandel Coast and over Ceylon. The Thar Desert along the lower Indus receives very little rain.

VEGETATION : F orests : (250,000 sq. miles) on the mountain slopes. Teak in south, deodar and pine in the north. Bamboos and

coconut palms along west coast. Indians are farmers with small farms. Rice along lower Ganges, Brahmaputra, in Burma, and along coast plains. Wheat m Indo-Gangetic Valiev where too dry for rice Millet is grown on the drier plains.

Tea on wet hill-slopes.

Jute on Ganges Delta.

Cotton on the Deccan and upper Indus.

Sugar-cane, tobacco, indigo, oil seeds, coffee, rubber.

PASTORAL : India has a quarter of the cattle and of the goats of the world, besides buffaloes, sheep, camels.

MINERALS : Coal, petroleum, gold, manganese, lead, silver, saltpetre, tin, graphite, iron, zinc.

RIVERS : Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irawadi, and Indus are the four largest with very large valuable deltas.

COMMUNICATIONS: In the north-west, the mountains are crossed on the famous Khyber Pass.

India’s long coastline has few good harbours.

Much inland communication is by means of river transport.

Railways and roads are being developed .

An airway from Kantara (Egypt) to Kurachi has been established. POPULATION : 320,000,000 divided into nearly a hundred races, speaking 150 languages, and adhering to many different forms of religion (Hinduism, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, Christianity).

EXPOR I S : Cotton, jute, rice, tea, oil seeds, hides, wheat, lac, opium.

IMPORTS: Machinery, sugar, railway stock, oils, silk, hardware,

TOWNS: Delhi, capital, wheat, sugar, cotton.

Bombay, seaport for cotton.

Calcutta, port for jute, rice.

Madras, port for eastern Deccan.

Rangoon, port for rice and teak.

Hyderabad, railway centre, wheat.

Lahore, railway centre, wheat, cotton.

Benares, oldest and most sacred city in India.

Allahabad, sacred city, wheat.

Cawnpore and Lucknow, historical.

Patna, opium, rice.

Peshawur, a military post, near Khyber Pass.

Quetta, military post, near Bolan Pass.

Poona, military post, near Bombay.

Simla, Darjeeling, and Poona are summer resorts for-Europeans. Mandalay, river port for teak, Buddhist shrines.

AUSTRALIA sends horses to India, and receives jute goods in return.    •

Forms of Government within the Empire:

The Government of Great Britain is a

LIMITED MONARCHY—a King, the House of Lords, and House of Commons.

THE DOMINIONS : Each has its own parliament, and Governor appointed by the King : Canada, Newfoundland, Austral a, New Zealand, South Africa. The Irish Free State is a dominion with a slightly different form of government.

CROWN COLONIES are ruled by the Imperial Parliament through a Governor appointed by the King : Ceylon, British West Indies, West Africa, Kenya Colony, British Guiana, hiji, and Hong Kong.

India is a DEPENDENCY, ruled partly by British Government and partly by local Government.

PRO FECTOR A TES are ruled directly by the British Government : Nigeria, Uganda, Sud an, British East Africa. •

MAN DATES are given by the League of Nations, to whom the governing power is responsible : e.g, Papua is an Australian Mandate. Great Britain has a mandate for Palestine. New Zealand has German Islands of Pacific under mandate.

Empire Trade Routes from Australia:

1.    To NEW ZEALAND: Hobart and Sydney to Wellington. Sydney to Auckland, to Fiji.

2.    To CANADA : From Fiji to Honolulu, to Vancouver.

3.    To INDIA: Melbourne, Adelaide, Fremantle, Colombo, Bombay or Madias and Calcutta.

4.    To SOUTH AFRICA : Melbourne, Albany or Fremantle, Durban, C ape 1 own.


AREA, 2\ times Victoria.

POPULATION, 20 times that of Victoria.


1.    CENTRAL PLATEAU : The Cevennes, the Auvergne Mountains.

2.    EASTERN MOUNTAINS : Jura, Alps.

3.    N.E. PLATEAU : Vosges Mountains.


5.    THE PLAIN which extends from south to the north, part of Great European Plain.

CLIMATE: South warmer than north. Good rain from west,

chiefly in winter, c.f., Victoria.

RIVERS : Rhone, Garonne, Loire, Seme (Marne and Somme, tributaries), Meuse.

VEGETATION : Forests. wheat, sugar-beet, potatoes, oats, mulberry (for silk worms), grapes (wine).

PASTORAL: Sheep in south, cattle m wet north-west.

FISHING: Sardines, herrings, mackerel.

MINERALS: Coal, iron.

MANUFACTURES: Cottons, w’oollens, linen, silk, soap, olive oil, wine, clothes, jewellery, perfumes.

Cities :

PARIS, on Seme (2V millions), capital, fashion centre, beautiful

streets, and buildings.

MARSEILLE, on south coast, port of call, soap, olive oil. LYON, on Rhone, silk.

BORDEAUX, port, wine.

NANTES, port, on Loire, fish.

CHERBOURG, port on English Channel.

HAVRE, port at mouth of Seine.

. BOULOGNE, chief fishing port.

DUNKIRK, seaport, on north-west.

TOULON, naval station.

ROUBAIX, woollens.

LILLE, linen, cottons.

CAM BRA I, linens.


ROUEN, cottons.

ST. ETIENNE, iron, .ilk ribbons.

EX FOR I S : Clothing, silks, cottons, pearis, motor cars, ironware, fancy good., perfumes.

IMPORTS : Raw cotton. co*J, wool, grain, fruits, raw silk, petroleum.


copra, zinc.

AUSTRALIA RECEIVES IN RETURN : Silks, motor cars, spirits, rubber good., stationery, fancy good., perfumes.

An enormous trade :s carried on between Great Britain and France.


AREA : 1 of Victoria.

POPULATION : 4 times that of Victoria.

BUILD* I. Low-lying coait plain.

2,    Central Plains, part of Great European Plain.

3.    1 he Ardennes Pi* teau in south-east.

CLIMA I E : Summer hot, winter very cold. Heavy rainfall, well distributed.

RIVERS : Scheldt, Meuse (or Maas). Belgtum is a land of rivers and canals.

VEGETATION : Forests on plateau ; wheat, rye, barley, beet, hemp on plains.

PASTORAL: Sheep on drier plateau (wool), cattle on wetter, plains (butter).

FISHERIES : Herring, cod.

MINERALS : Coal, iron, zinc, lead.

MANUFACTURES: Woollens, cottons, linens, plate glass, carpets, lace, rubber goods, steel goods.


BRUSSELS, capital, focus of canal, road, end rail routes, carpets, plate glass, lace.

ANTWERP, one of Europe’s great ports.

LIEGE, NAMUR, and MONS are steel manufacturing centra. GHENT, MECHLIN, BRUGES, LOUVAIN, cotton and

linen goods.

VERVIERS, woollens, metal goods.

IMPORTS : Wool, wheat, cotton, machinery, iron.

EXPORTS: Iron and steel goods, woollens, cottons, glassware, machinery.

AUSTRALIA SENDS BELGIUM: Wool, wheat, zinc. BELGIUM SENDS IN RETURN : Textiles, metal goods. Belgium trades extensively with Great Britain,


AREA : One-seventh of Victoria.

POPULATION : Over 3 times that of Victoria.

BUILD: Holland (equals Lowland) consists of part of European Plain. Much of Holland is below sea level.

CLIMATE: Summer warm, winter very coid. Heavy rainfall weli distributed.

RIVERS : The lower Rhine, Maas, Scheldt.

VEGETATION : Wheat, rye, barley, oats, beet, flowers. PASTORAL : Caule (butler and cheese).

FISHERIES : Herring, cod.

MANUFACTURES: i extiles, glassware, spirits, earthenware, machinery.

Cities :

AMSTERDAM, capita!, port, diamond cutting centre.

RO ITER DAM, port at Mouth of Rhine, dairy produce.

THE HAGUE, port on coast of North Sea.

HAARLEM, flowers, linen.

DELFT, pottery.

EX POR I S : Butter, cheese, diamonds, glassware, cream of tartar,


IMPORTS : Wheat, wool, cotton.

Great Britain carries on extensive trade with Holland.

AUSTRALIA SENDS HOLLAND: Wheat, wool, fruit,



cream of tartar, diamonds.


AREA : 1 j times Victoria.

POPULA 1 ION : 20 times that of Victoria.


1.    THE ALPS, a complicated system of young mountains round the north of Italy.

2.    THE LOMBARDY PLAIN stretches across the north ; very fertile

3.    THE APENNINES form the back bone of peninsular Italy.

( LIMATE : 1. Peninsular Italy basa sunny, warm summer, and a cloudy wet, winter.

2. I he Lombardy Plain is hotter in summer and colder in winter. Italy has a good rainfall which comes from west.

LAKES : Como, Garda, Maggiore, Lugano.

RIVERS : Po and tributaries, Tiber, Arno.

VEGETATION : Forests are being replanted largely with eucalypts, wheat (macaroni, straw-hats), maize, sugar-beet, potatoes, mulberry (silk w'orms), olives, grapes, citrus fruits.

PASTORAL: Cattle (dairying, beasts of burden).

Sheep, and goals in hills (meat, wool, skins, mohair, milk, cheese).

FISHERIES : Anchovies, sardines, pilchards, mackerel, the giant tunny.

Coral is obtained.

MINERALS : Marble, sulphur, iron, mercury, zinc, lead.

MANUFACTURES: Silk, olive oil. wine, cotton goods, coral articles, macaroni, lace, glass, motor cars, machinery, essences.

COMMUNICATIONS : Very little river carriage.

Well developed railway system.

Cities :

NAPLES, port, silk, olive oil, coral articles, macaroni, lace. (Pompeii and Herculaneum, two cities buried by Vesuvius, are nearby)

MILAN, railway centre, silk.

TURIN, railway centre, machinery, cotton goods, motor cars.

ROME, capital of Italy, headquarters of R.C. Church, wonderful buildings.

GENOA., port of north-west (Columbus).

VENICE, poit of north-east, glass, lace.

FLORENCE, art treasures.

TRIESTE and FIUME (former Austrian cities), seaports.

PALERMO, chief city and port of Sicily. Fruit, essences, olive oil, and sulphur are exported.    •

EXPORTS : Silk, olive oil, wine, cotton goods, marble, motor cars, sulphur.

IMPORTS: Coal, wool, cotton, petrol, wheat, steel, machinery, wood, paper, glass.


> Italy does extensive trade with Great Britain.


Federal Geographies, for Grades i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 James’ Junior Geography.

,, Intermediate Geography,

,, Special Topics.

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WELCOME HELPS IN THIS SUBJECT. Phillips’ Human Geography, Books I to VI. Nelson’s Highroads of Geography, Books I to VI

Lays’ Pupils’ Classbook of Geography—8 Books in Continents, etc.

Nelson’s Geography Practice Books, I to VI.

Nature Study Cabinets, Magnifying Glasses, Pictures, Charts, Natural History Charts, Outlines, etc.

Drawing Boards, Models and all Requisites

Drawing, Pastel and Art Papers. White and Colored Card.

Subscriptions are accepted to all School Periodicals, Magazines, etc.

School Papers are Supplied to Teachers at 1/- per doz, post free.

Scholastic Time Savers are Unrivalled for wse in

Victorian Schools.

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Teachers-— Usr These Helpful Lines

Geographical Globes.

Sun Quadrant.

Maps, Metric and Table Charts. \ Rain Gauges.

Capacity Pleasures.

Scales and Weights. [Avoirdupois and Metric.]    ;

Mariner’s Compasses.


Cabinet of Powers.

Aneroid [Clock Face] Barometer. With and Without Thermometer.

Mercurial Barometer. With and Without Thermometer.

Thermometers. Fab.    .

,,    Fah. & Cent.

,,    Max. and Min.

Wet & pry Bulb';

,,    Immersion.

All other Classes of Physics Glass ware, flasks, tubing, &c.

New Series Mental, Xests, Merit and Scholarship ...    .

Continuation of Standardised Questions, Grade VI.....

\    •    r • •

Victorian Classified Spelling Lists,

One each for Grades V., VI., VII. and VIII, with indicator, instruc- 1 tions at foot, to paste in Victorian Reader ...    *..... !/-• doz. |

Rural Work Book, large or indexed.

Town Work Book for Grades.

Rural and Grade Skeleton Time Table Forms.

Blackboard and Requisites.

Flags, Drawing Boards and Models. Kindergarten Furniture and Material Wraste Paper Baskets, Dusters.

Largest Range of Writing, Exercise, Pastel and Drawing Books.

Chalk, Ink Powder;

Bar. andTher. Charts.

Examination Report Forms,

Honor Cards, with special verse. Award Cards, for good work.

Reward Cards, for good attendance.^ Merit and Qualifying Lists.

Usual School Stationery.

Handbooks for all occupations.

Pastel Demonstration . Blackboard Chalk, 12 Shades, Pastel Erasers, Fixative, Boxes Pastels, Teachers’ Box, Boxes of Copies, Packets of Teachers’ College Pastel Studies, Packets of Pastel Paper.

Modulators, Tuning Forks, Pitch Pipes, Recitation and Dialogue Books, Concert, Drill. Games, Action Song Books, Botany Books.

Physiology, Cookery, Drawing, Lettefmg and Art Nature Charts, School Clocks, Yard and Table Bells.

Indentors, Publishers, Booksellers and Manufacturing Stationers

4th Floor, Rickard’s Buildings (Take Lift) 226 Little Collins Street, Melbourne

•\* ‘'".p; •    •>’/vi*4=*- u- > y    ■ :$■» *'4*’

Wholesale and Retail    Tel. Central 5152

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