N. S. W.



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Examination Papers




N. S.W.






Examination Papers 1954-1961 ★

Reprinted by permission of the Department of Education, N.S.W.

“The Copyright for these Examination Papers is vested in the Crown.”


Printed in Australia by WINN Sc CO. PTY. LTD.

53-55 Balfour Street SYDNEY






1.    A contour map is provided with this paper. The area shown

on the map includes a number of differently-shaped stream valleys. Construct a cross-section along the line XYZ. A\ ith the aid of this cross-section, and any other diagrams you may wish to draw, describe three different valley forms present.

2.    What is meant by the phrase “subsistance utilizations'’? Write

an essay on how various primitive peoples, with subsistance economies, obtain their food supply.

3.    Compare and contrast, with examples from regions you have

studied, livestock-and-crop farming and farming for a specialised crop such as sugar or cotton.

4.    Discuss livestock ranching in such a way as to bring out—

(a) the types of climate and natural vegetation commonly associated with the industry; and

(h) the methods by which these resources can be most efficiently used.

5.    Write an account of a region engaged in the mining and pro

cessing of minerals.

6.    Describe the characteristic activities associated with the manu

facture of textiles in either the Leeds-B rad ford region or in the Tweed Valley of Scotland.

7.    Select some port-city you have studied (e.g., Sydney, London,

or New York) and show on a map of the waterway the various activities associated with the functioning of the port. How do you account for the location of these activities?


If you have studied a city or town in New South Wales other than Sydney, write an account of its pattern and its functions.

8. The Hunter Valley, N.S.W., has been described as an “agricultural-industrial province.” Explain what is meant by this.

9. Why is the Manchester-Liverpool region such an important manufacturing region?

10. What precautions against soil erosion would you recommend for one of the following:—

(a) A dairy farm in hilly country.

(h) A wheat farm in central New South Wales.

(c) A sheep station where the rainfall is less than 10 inches per year?

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1.    A contour map is provided with this paper. It shows part of

the drainage system in a dissected upland area. With the help of such cross-sections, stream profiles, etc., as you may wish to draw, write an essay on the landforms present.

2.    Compare and contrast the manner of wet-rice growing in—

(a)    an area of hand tillage; and,

(b)    an area of mechanized tillage.

3.    Write an essay on the differences between nomadic herding and

livestock ranching.

4.    Describe one type of farming in which both crops and animals

are raised on the farm and explain the advantages of this combination.

5.    Write an essay on a region engaged in the mining and pro

cessing of minerals with special attention to the transport line which the materials concerned follow.

6.    What advantages has either the Leeds-B rad ford region or the

Tweed Valley of Scotland for the manufacture of textiles?

7.    Describe how some city you have studied obtains its food and

water supplies,


If you have studied the pattern and functions of an urban area in which you normally live, write an account of them.

8.    The Hunter Valley, N.S.W., has recently suffered disastrous

flooding. Explain why floods should be a menace in this region.

9.    Why does one find such a variety of industrial activities in the

Manchester-Liverpool region?

10. Describe and explain some scheme for the conservation and utilisation of water that you have studied.

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1.    Draw, on a scale of one inch to one mile and with a contour

interval of two hundred feet, a contour map of a dissected plateau area. Assume that the area is humid and is therefore undergoing normal erosion by running water. Describe, with the aid of such diagrams, cross-sections, etc., as you may require, the difference in form between a valley on a valley on the plateau surface and a valley dissecting the plateau.

2.    Write an essay on the area in which you live or go to school so

as to bring out its distinctive geographical features.

J. “Australia and Africa are hot, dry continents.” Discuss this statement by comparing the pattern of climatic regions in the two continents.

4.    Describe the distribution of population in the continent of

North America and account for this pattern.

5.    What are the common characteristics of the great ports of the

world ? Show how these appear in one port.

6.    Plantations are found on only a small proportion of the land

area between the tropics, they produce only a limited number of crops, and these are used by only a small proportion of the world’s population. How do you explain these features?

7.    Describe the land-forms that you would expect to find in an

area of high mountains in .temperate latitudes.

8. “Wheat is grown in many climates and in many ways.”

Elaborate this statement.

9.    How do you explain the low population densities found in most

areas of equatorial rain forest?

10.    “Japan is the Britain of the Far East.” To what extent is

this true?

11.    Compare and contrast any tivo of the following:—

(a)    “Mediterranean” farming in California.

(b)    Wheat-and-Sheep farming in eastern Australia.

(c)    Livestock farming on the Argentine Pampa.

(d)    Grain-farming on the North China Plain.

12.    What is meant by the word “under-development”? Discuss the

extent to which (a) Indonesia, or (b) India, or (c) one of the Latin American countries can be called underdeveloped;

13.    Write an essay on some industrial area in Eurasia that you have

studied, with particular attention to the sources of the raw materials used, the main types of manufacture carried on, and the destinations of the goods produced.

14.    Describe and explain the differences in economic development

between eastern and western Europe.

15.    Write an essay on one of the following Australian regions with

particular emphasis on problems and possibilities of economic development:—

(¿2) The “Channel Country” of south-west Queensland.

(b)    Gippsland.

(c)    The “trace element country” of south-eastern South Australia.

(d)    Wollongong-Port Kembla.




1.    Draw a contour map, 8 inches long by 6 inches wide, on a scale

of i inch to i mile and with a contour interval of 200 feet, to show an imaginary area containing the following features: plateau, scarp, waterfall, flood plain, estuary, lagoon. Show the drainage system clearly.

2.    You may have studied a small area of the world because it is

your school area, your home area, or an area covered on a field excursion. If so, what is there distinctive about it that makes it worth study by a student of Geography?

3.    “Because of their plateau character, the vegetation maps of

Africa and Australia show a pattern of simple latitudinal zones.” Discuss this statement.

4.    How do you account for the difference in degree of economic

development between North and South America?

5.    Great cities (i.e., those of more than one million inhabitants)

usually combine the functions of route centres, industrial centres, and trade centres. Discuss this statement with particular reference to some of the cities of Eurasia.

6.    What is a '‘monsoon climate”? What changes in the appearance

of the landscape (e.g., in the appearance of the natural vegetation, of the crops, of the rivers, and so on) would you expect to see during the course of a year in a region with this climate?

7.    'The Middle East has been much in the news in the past eighteen

months. Write an essay on the geography of the Middle East to show why this should be so.

8.    Write an essay on one of the following to bring out in par

ticular, the opportunities it offers for human settlement:—

(a)    An area of “Mediterranean” climate.

(b)    A hot desert.

(c)    A high-latitude coniferous forest.

(d)    A tropical island.

9.    Describe the landforms present in one of the following:—

(a)    A high-latitude glaciated area (e.g., Greenland or Antarctica).

(b)    A glaciated plateau in middle latitudes (e.g., the Scottish Highlands or the Kosciusko area).

10.    Show on a map, how you would divide North America into

geographical regions. Explain how your regions differ from each other.

11.    In what ways do the manufacturing industries or under-deve

loped lands (say, Indonesia) differ from those of industrially advanced countries (say the United States) ?

12.    Compare and contrast any tivo of the following regions in

regard to nature of land use and density of population:—

(«) The black soil (grain farming) lands of the U.S.S.R. {b) Any farming area in Western Europe.

(c)    Rural Japan.

(d)    A dairy-farming area in Australia.

(e)    An equatorial rain-forest area.

13.    Write an essay on the mineral resources of Australia.

14.    It has been said that the population of Australia is concentrated

on the k'fertile rim” of the continent. Discuss this statement.

15. Write an essay on one of the following:—

(a)    Pasture improvement in New South Wales.

(b)    Irrigation farming in the Murray Valley.

(c)    Industrial development in eastern Victoria.

(d)    Farming in south-eastern Queensland.


1.    On the squared paper provided, draw a contour map on a scale

of i inch = i mile, and measuring 6 inches by 4 inches, to show one of the following:—

(a)    A volcano.

(b)    A fiord coast.

(c)    a desert mesa landscape.

By conventional signs show the most likely places on your map for human settlement.

2.    Write a report on any field study you have done.

3.    Discuss the relationship between climate and population density

in either Africa or South America.

4.    ‘“The world’s tropical lands are mainly producers of raw

materials, not of manufactured goods.” Discuss this statement in relation to tropical regions you have studied.

5.    Discuss the relation between climate and land use in the United


6.    Write an essay on ports.

7.    Discuss, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the stages in

the dissection of a plateau area.

8.    Compare the opportunities for human settlement in three of the


(a)    The coniferous forests of Siberia.

(b)    The Amazon lowland.

(c)    East Africa.

(d)    Scandinavia.

(e)    New Guinea.

9.    Indonesia has been much in the news this year. How is the

geography of the archipelago concerned in recent events?

10.    “The tropical wet-and-dry climates, those associated with

savanna-woodlands and savannas, are among the most difficult of all climates for man to turn to his own benefit.” Describe these climates and discuss this statement.

11.    Show how you would make a regional subdivision of one of the

following areas and briefly describe your regions:—

(a)    India.

(b)    England.

(c)    France.-

(d)    The manufacturing belt of the United States from Chicago to Boston.

12.    “Over half of the world’s population is in Monsoon Asia.”

Why ?

13.    Write an essay on Australia’s overseas trade.

14.    To what extent do land-use regions coincide with regions of

natural vegetation in Australia?

15* Write an essay on one of the following:—

(a)    Tasmania.

(b)    Water in Australia.

(c)    The Kimberley region of Western Australia.

(d)    Sugar-growing in Queensland.



1.    Account for the distribution and density of population in cither

Africa or South America.

2.    What are the factors that determine the location of industry?

Illustrate your answer with examples from North America and Eurasia.

3.    Compare and contrast the beef cattle industry of Australia with

that of either Argentina or the U.S.A.

4.    Draw a full page map of the climatic regions of either Australia

or South America. Describe the climatic feature of each region and the factors that give each region its particular climatic characteristics.

5.    Name the location and describe the landscape of some area that

you have observed. What have been the reasons for the present appearance of that landscape?

6.    Discuss the significance of the St. Lawrence Seaway in North


7.    Select and name any area situated between the tropics outside

Australia. Write an essay on the prospects for the economic development.

8.    What is a “region”? Divide either the U.S.S.R. or Canada into

regions. Select two of the important regions and evaluate their contribution to the economy of that country.

9.    “Most people throughout the world live in towns and cities

and I see no reason to be alarmed at the present distribution of people in Australia.” Discuss this statement.

10.    Describe the features that you would see in either an arid or a

glacial landscape that you have studied.

11.    “The pattern of distribution, the amount and types of mineral

deposits have played and will continue to play a big part in the development of a country.” Select a country and discuss this statement.

12.    Write an essay on one of the following:—

(a) Swanland.

(h) The Atherton Tableland.

(c)    Newcastle-Cessnock.

(d)    The Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area.

everywhere, they have the same appearance and provide the same functions; the only change is the number of inhabitants/' Discuss this quotation, making specific references to cities you have studied.

14.    On the squared paper provided, draw a map, at a scale of one

inch equals one mile and with a contour interval of 50 feet, to illustrate the following description:

“The river, flowing from S.W. to N.E., fell from its narrow, steep sided valley on to a two miles wide alluvial plain by way of a spectacular waterfall, 250 feet high. On the plain, which occupied the floor of a U-shaped valley, the river meandered from side to side.

The town of Era was located on a terrace or bench 150 feet above the level of the river and on its eastern side. The .    waterfall, which was only 3 miles away from Era, could

be clearly seen from the town. Due west of Era was the highest point in the area — Mt. Tom, a conical hill 850 feet high.”

15.    Write an essay on human settlement in one of the following:—

(a)    North China Plain.

(b)    Mediterranean Land of Eurasia.

(c)    The Ganges Valley.

(d)    Paris Basin.



1.    Write a geographical essay on one of the following:—

(a)    An industrial area in the U.S.S.R.

(b)    The Alps.

(c)    The Ruhr.

(d)    The Yangtze-Kiang Valley.

(e)    L.S.S.R. agriculture.

2.    Compare and contrast glaciated land forms (both erosional and

depositional forms) with the land forms resulting from a hot, wet climate.

3.    “Most of the present unrest in Africa stems from the ethnic

(racial) composition of its population, both as regards numbers and distribution.” Discuss.


Write an essay on the geography of cither the Congo or Cuba.

4. Compare and contrast the dry landscapes (i.e., those receiving

less than 15 inches precipitation annually) of North America and Australia.

5.    Select one of the following and describe the factors that have influenced its development:—

(a)    The “sugar coast” of Eastern Australia.

(b)    The Illawarra Region from Wollongong to Nowra.

(c)    Broken Hill.

(d)    The Northern Territory.

(e)    Tasmania.



Write an essay on transport and its problems in either South America or Australia.


What factors influence the land use pattern of an area? Discuss their influence on land use in any local area of New South Wales you have studied by personal observation.

8.    Draw a map showing the distribution of population in North

America. Account for this distribution.

9.    “While the wheat industry of Australia has many similar

features to the wheat industry of North America, it has several important differences.” Discuss this statement.

10. On the map provided divide Eurasia into regions on the basis of either physical features or climatic data or economic development. Select any one region and describe its geographical features. (If Question 1 is attempted, the same region is not to be selected for this Question.)

11.    Volcanoes, earthquakes and tidal waves are the big three in

threats of disaster in the Pacific.” Discuss this, bringing out their mode of formation, pattern of distribution and resultant effects on human settlement.

12.    “Climate can be attributed to geographical position and land-

forms.” Select either South America or Africa and discuss this statement in relation to that continent.

13.    Select two areas (one from eastern Eurasia and one from

western Eurasia) and comment on the distribution of population between towns and country in those areas.

14.    “The future growth of Australia could be best served by

regional planning. This does not necessarily mean the decentralisation of industry, but rather the sound development of the resources of each region.” Discuss this.

15.    Write notes on the following and illustrate where possible by


(a)    Map projection.

(b)    Map scale.

(c)    Orientation of a map.

(d)    Conventional symbols.

(e)    Choropleth maps.

(/) Isopleth maps.

Or,    '

From the map provided—

(a)    draw cross-sections from A to B and B to C;

(b)    from the cross-section A-B calculate the average gradient from A to the river and from the river to B;

(c)    describe the landforms you would see on a journey from A to B and from B to C.


GEOGRAPHY (NOTE: To conserve space, maps of the continents, provided in the examination, have been omitted from these reprints.)

1.    On one of the outline maps of the world provided, locate and

name the climatic regions along the west coasts of the continents of South America, Africa and Australia. Account for the similarities and differences in the distribution of these regions.

2. Compare and contrast any two of the following regions in

regard to the nature of rural land use and the density of population:—

(a)    The Kwanto Plain of Japan.

(b)    The Humid Pampa of Argentina.

(c)    The Paris Basin of France.

(d)    T he Nile Valley in Egypt.

(e)    'The Deccan of India.

3.    Describe and account for the land forms characteristic of desert

regions. Illustrate your answer by reference to particular examples.

4.    ‘‘Cities do not grow very large unless they exercise important

functions. They usually have acquired a great regional dominance arising out of initial advantages of site and situation, and have developed as a result of intense human activity.” (Suggate: World Geography—Human). Amplify this statement with reference to two cities — one from eastern Eurasia and the other from western Eurasia.

5.    On one of the outline maps of the world provided, show the

distribution and name the regions of one of the following biotic environments:—

(a)    The Equatorial Rainforests.

(b)    The Hot Deserts.

(c)    The Western Maritime Warm Temperature Forests (“Mediterranean”).

Discuss the interrelationships between the natural elements of the biotic environment you have selected and rural land use. •

6.    “All of the underdeveloped regions of the world are located

within the tropics.”

(a)    What is the meaning of “under-development”?

(b)    Discuss this statement, and illustrate your answer with reference to particular regions.

7.    Draw a map of the land use pattern of your local area, or some

other area that you have observed. What geographical factors have influenced this land use pattern ?

8.    On the map of Eurasia provided show the distribution of the

areas of high population density. Account for this distribution.

9. Examine the section of the one inch to one mile ordnance survey map of Cairns, sheet number 52, Zone 7, then complete the following exercises:—

(a)    Draw a cross-section from map reference 616705 to map reference 740746 using a vertical exaggeration of 5.28.

(b)    What is the gradient of the steepest slope along this cross-section ?

(c)    Discuss the relationship between land forms, transport and settlement patterns.

(Note: Because of technical difficulties, this ordinance

survey map is not reproduced.)

10. How would a knowledge of geography lead to an understanding of one of the following that came into prominence in newspapers during 1961 :—

'    (a) The earthquake in South-east Australia;

* ( b ) Laos ,*

(c)    Apartheid in South Africa;

(d)    Algeria;    .

(e)    Kuwait?


Write an essay on the development of—

(a)    the iron and steel industry in New South Wales;


(b)    the industrialization of South Australia;


(c) the aluminium industry in Australia.

12. Describe one of the following projects, and evaluate its significance in the development of Australia:—

(a)    The Ord River Scheme.

(b)    1 he Channel Country Development Project.

(e) 1 he Snowy Mountains Scheme.

(d)    1 he Coonalpyn Downs Project (“The Ninety Mile Desert Project”).

*3* Write a geographical essay on one of the following regions:—-{a) The Fitzroy Region of Queensland.

(b) I he Barossa Valley of South Australia.

(e)    1 he Central Murray Valley.

(d) The South-west of Western Australia.

14- How do you account for the differences in the degree of development in Arid North Africa, Humid Central Africa, and Temperate South Africa?

15. Discuss the general principles of industrial location. Illustrate your answer by reference to any two of the following


(a)    The Sao Paula Region of Brazil.

(b)    The Ruhr Valley of Germany.

(c)    The Donbas of U.S.S.R.

(d)    The Damodar Valley of India.

(e)    The Great Lakes Region of U.S.A.



1.    Outline the chief reforms of the French National Assembly

(1789-1791). What was their significance?

2.    What domestic reforms were made by Napoleon.


Give a character sketch of Napoleon.

3.    Discuss the treaty settlements at the end of the Napoleonic

Wars. Why did they lead to trouble?

4.    Account for the rise to power of Napoleon III.

5.    What were the principal features of Bismarck’s domestic policies

after the unification of Germany?

Section B

6.    What were the main problems of Italy after unification was

completed? Why did united Italy turn to a policy of territorial expansion?

7.    What reforms were made by the Tsar Alexander II? What

were the results of the reforms?


Discuss the effects on Russia of the Russo-Japanese War and the World War of 1914-18.

8.    What, in your view, were the main causes of the World War

of 1914-18.

9.    Sum up the work of the League of Nations.

10.    Describe the domestic policies up to 1939 of either the Fascists

in Italy, or the Nazis in Germany.

Section C

11.    What were the main effects of improved means of transport

during the nineteenth century?


What were the principal ideas of two of the Socialist thinkers of the nineteenth century?

12.    Trace the overseas expansion of France between 1830 and 1900.


What industrial developments took place in Germany between about 1850 and 1914? What was their significance?

13.    What was the importance of Abraham Lincoln in American


14.    Account for the collapse of the Manchu Empire in China,

15.    'Fell what you know about the relationships of Japan and China

from 1915 to 1937.


Part A

1.    Why was the Estates-General summoned to meet in 1789? How

did the National Assembly emerge?


What, in your view, were the main causes of the French Revolution ?

2.    Lxplain how Napoleon Bonaparte achieved supreme power in



What was the '‘continental system”? Why was it adopted? Did it succeed ?

3.    What were the political ideas of Prince Metternich? Why did

his “system” collapse?

4.    Account for the establishment of the Third French Republic.


Discuss the internal problems of Austria-Hungary, 1867-1914.

5.    Bismarck made the following statement to Disraeli:—

“When the army has been brought to such a state as to command respect, then I will take the first opportunity to declare war with Austria, burst asunder the German Confederation, bring the middle and smaller states into subjection, and give Germany a national union under the leadership of Prussia.”

Discuss the problems facing Bismarck in his attempts to unify Germany and show how he solved them.

Part B

6.    What part was played by Cavour in the unification of Italy?

7.    “Alexander II freed the serfs, but otherwise his government was

little better than that of Nicholas I had been.” Comment.

8.    “The triumph of nationality in the nineteenth century.” Discuss

and explain the victories of nationalism in Greece and Belgium.


Sketch and account for the disintegration of Turkey, 1815-1878.


9. Discuss the drift to revolution in Russia, 1905-1917.


Why did Russia fight in the first World War? What were the effects of the war on Russia?

10. How and why did the Fascists come to power in Italy?


Discuss the revival of Turkey under the leadership of Mustapha Kemal Pasha.

Part C

11.    Discuss the principal features of the industrial revolution of the

nineteenth century as they appeared in either Germany or France.

12.    Discuss the rivalry among the colonial powers in Africa during

the last quarter of the nineteenth century.

13.    What, in your view, were the causes of the Civil War in the

United States?


Discuss the westward expansion of the United States of America before the Civil War. Did the expansion play any part in producing the Civil War?

14. Why did the United States of America enter the first World

War and what part did it play in the war and in the peace settlements ?


Trace and account for the expansive policies of Japan, 19151937

15. What were the main features of the modernisation of Japan before the first World War?


Part A

1.    (a) What, in your opinion, were the main causes of the French

Revolution ?


(b) Why is the French Revolution regarded as such a significant event in modern history?

2.    Why did the French Revolution lead to war in Europe?

3.    (a) “My real glory/’ said Napoleon Bonaparte at St. Helena,

“is not my having won forty battles. What will never be effaced, what will endure for ever is my Civil Code.” What was the Code Napoleon? Would you say that it preserved the ideas of the Revolution?


(b) “The Franco-Prussian War killed Bonapartism and established the T hird French Republic.” How far, if at all, do you agree with this statement? Why?

4.    Why did the Revolutions of 1848 take place? What were the

results? Refer in your answer to developments in at least two countries.

5.    (a) “His (Bismarck’s) claim to be one of the greatest figures

in European history rests equally on the wars he made before 1871 and on the wars he avoided after 1871”— (Ayerst). Discuss any aspect of this statement that interests you.


(b) What were the principal developments in German foreign policy between 1871 and 1914? What importance would you attach to the departure of Bismarck?

Part B

6.    What were the outstanding events in the history of Italy from

the acquisition of Rome in 1870, to the entry into the World War in 1915 ? Include both these events in your answer.

7.    Why was Alexander II called the “Tsar Emancipator”? How

far was the title justified? What were the effects of his reforms ?

8.    (a) Discuss the cause of the revolution that broke out in Russia

in 1917.


(b) How did the Communists consolidate their power in the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1936?

9.    (a) What is meant by the “Eastern Question’’ in European

politics during the nineteenth century? What were its principal development between 1815 and 1878?


(b) Why was the history of the Balkans so troubled between 1878 and 1914?

10.    Discuss the rise to power of the Nazis in Germany up to 1933-

Part C

11.    (a) Outline some of the ideas of one important socialist thinker

of the nineteenth century. Why did theories of socialism attract so much attention at that time?


(b) What do you understand by the “industrial revolution”? Illustrate your answer with examples from the histories of any two of the following countries: the United States of

America, France, Germany, Russia.

12.    (a) Why did the Manchu Empire collapse?

”    Or,

(b) Discuss the more important changes that took place in Japan approximately during the second half of the nineteenth century.

13.    Survey Japanese relations with China, either (a) between the

Korean War of 1894-5 and the Washington Conference (1921-22), or (b) between the Washington Conference and 1937*

14.    “In the eighteen-eighties the European state carries their rivalries

beyond their own continent and the whole world became for a time an extension of Europe.” Illustrate and comment on this statement, using especially your knowledge of the opening of Asia and the partition of Africa.

15.    (a) Discuss the character and achievements of Abraham Lin

coln. Why is he regarded as so important in American history?


(b)Write an essay on the history of the United States of America from the end of the Civil War to the American entry into the First World War.



Part A

1.    (a) Why did the French Revolution lead to war in Europe?


(b) What do you consider to be the most important achievements in France of the various revolutionary governments in power between 1789 and 1794?

2.    (a) Attempt to evaluate the character and achievements of

Napoleon Bonaparte,


(b) Account for the breakdown of the Napoleonic Empire.

3.    (a) ‘‘In Austria-Hungary the question of nationalism was more

complicated than it was in the rest of Germany.” Write an essav, either criticising, or defending this statement.

. 0r> . .

(b) Discuss the view that the fall of Metternich in 1848

marked the end of an epoch.

4.    Account for the formation of the Triple Alliance and the

Triple Entente. What were the most important effects of these alliances?

5.    Discuss what you would regard as the chief difficulties con

fronting the governments of the third French Republic between 1871 and 1914.

Part B

6.    What were some of the differences in the circumstances in

which Greece and Belgium became independent kingdoms?

7.    (a) Compare the contributions of Mazzini and Garibaldi to

wards the unification of Italy.


(b) Account for the growth of Italian Fascism, and describe its internal policies.


(a) Discuss the causes of the revolution in Russia in 1905.

Or,    *

(Z>) Why did the Russian government in power after 1905 fail to prevent the subsequent revolution?

(a)    What do you think were the most important causes of the decline of Turkey before 1914?


(b)    Write an essay on the Revival of Turkey since the end of World War I.

10.    (a) What were some of the principal aims of the founders of

the League of Nations? To what extent were they achieved ?


(b) Trace Hitler's steps in aggression before the Second World War and explain why he took them.

Part C

11.    Discuss the principal effects of the expansion of European influ

ence to either Asia or Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

12.    Consider the causes and effects of the westward expansion of

the United States of America in North America.

13.    (a) Account for the weaknesses of the Chinese Republic be

tween 1911 and 1931. In what ways were attempts made to remedy them?

'    Or,    ^

(b) What was the effect of World War I on Japan’s position in the Far East? How was this further altered between 1918 and 1931?

14.    (a) What have been some of the more important effects of the

spread of the factory system since about 1850?


(b) Consider some of the more important effects of the improvement in communications brought about in the 19th century.

15.    (a) Discuss the population and economic problems of Japan

since about 1900. What have been their effects on Japanese society and politics?


(b) Write an essay on American foreign policy between 1900 and 1939.


i. (a) Discuss the condition of France in 1789.


(b) What was the importance of Robespierre in the French Revolution ?


(a)    Explain how Napoleon Bonaparte achieved supreme power in France.


(b)    What were the domestic policies of Napoleon I in France?

3. What principles were followed in the treaty settlements made at the end of the Napoleonic Wars? Discuss how well the settlements worked, giving examples.

4-    (*) D iscuss the revolutions of 1848 in any two countries other

than France.

(b) Account for the establishment of the third republic in France.

5. Discuss the racial problems of Austria-Hungary in the nineteenth century.

Part B

6.    Discuss the emancipation of the serfs in Russia by Alexander II.

What were some of the results of the reform?

7.    Trace the fortunes of Turkey in Europe from the outbreak of

the Greek War of Independence to the Congress of Berlin (1878).

8.    How was the unification of Italy achieved ?

9.    (a) What were some important results of the defeat of Ger

many and her allies in the first world war?


(b) Compare and contrast the aims and policies of three of the powers at the peace conference of 1919.

IO. (a) Discuss the rise of power of the Nazis in Germany (to 1933).

(b) 'Trace leading events in the drift to the second World War, 1933-1939-

Part C

11.    (a) What was the “industrial revolution”? Illustrate your

answer by referring to events in at least two countries.

Or, ,

(b) “The industrial revolution brought in its wake a mass of social legislation passed mainly in the interests of wage-earners.” Comment, providing examples.

12.    (a) Why did the European powers succeed in extracting such

large concessions from China during the nineteenth century?

Mention some of the effects on China.


(b)    Why did the great powers of Europe wish to obtain colonies in Africa and Asia? Trace the growth to 1914 of the colonial empire of either Germany or France.


(c)    Write an essay on some of the political, social and economic changes that occurred in Japan during the halfcentury before the second World War.

13.    Outline the principal political developments in China, approxi

mately 1912-193 7.

14.    What was the significance of the Civil War in the history

of the United States of America? Why did the North prevail ?

15.    Discuss the growth of the United States of America as a

world power from the Spanish-American War of 1898 to her decision to enter the first World War.


Part A

1.    (a) What were the main events of the French Revolution

from the meeting of the Estates-General to the end of the National Assembly?


(b) How far were Louis XVI and his government responsible for the outbreak of the French Revolution? I race the fortunes of the king from 1789 to his death.

2.    (a) Why did the French Revolution lead to war in Europe?


(b) Why did the Napoleonic Empire collapse in 1814-15?

3.    What was the Metternich System. Why was it adopted?

Why did it collapse?

4.    (a) How was the German Empire established? Assess the

role of Bismarck in promoting German union.


(b) Give reasons for the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Why was France defeated and what terms were imposed upon her?

5.    Why is 1848 called “the year of revolutions“ ? What were

the main features of the revolutions of 1848 in either (a) France, or (b) Germany?

Part B

6.    What part was played by Alexander II in the modernisation of

Russia ?

7.    Discuss the internal and external history of Italy between 1870

and 1914.

8.    (a) How did Greece and Belgium attain their national inde

pendence in the nineteenth .century?


(b) Sketch the main developments in Russian policy towards 'Turkey in the nineteenth century up to the Congress of Berlin (1878).

9.    (a) Why were Germany and her allies defeated in the first

World War?


(b) Discuss the drift to revolution in Russia, 1905-1917.

(a)    How did the Fascists come to power in Italy? How’ did they consolidate their hold on the country up to the Lateran Agreements of 1929?

I O.



I 3-



(b)    Discuss the revival of Turkey after the first World War.

Part C

(a)    Write an essay on some of the improvements in communications that occurred in the nineteenth century.


(b)    “The industrial revolution brought in its wake a mass of social legislation passed mainly in the interests of wTage-earners.” Comment, choosing examples from the histories of any of the countries of Europe, Asia or North America.

(a)    Trace and account for Japanese aggression on the mainland of Asia, 1894-1919.

(b)    Discuss the policies of the great powders of Europe towards China from the Opium War to the Boxer Rebellion.

(a)    How^ were the institutions of Japan modernised between 1867 and about 1900?


(b)    Review political developments in China, 1912-1937.

“The development of the west is a major theme in the history of the United States of America.” Discuss this judgment with special reference to the period from 1789 to about i860. Why did w’estwrard expansion take place? What were some of its effects?

What were the main services to the United States of either (a) Abraham Lincoln, or (b) Franklin D. Roosevelt?


Part A


(a)    “Factory production, as it expanded during the nineteenth century, raised productivity and living standards and so enriched mankind.” Comment upon this statement, referring to the histories of two of the following countries:— Great Britain, France, Germany, the United States of America.


(b)    Account for any two of the following population changes that affected so many countries in the second half of the nineteenth century:—

(i)    Growth in numbers.

(ii)    Overseas migration; and

(iii)    The move to the cities.

Refer especially to the experience of Great Britain, or the United States of America, or Germany.



(a)    “The imperialism of late nineteenth century Europe was due to an increasing demand for raw materials and markets, the growth of world trade and the improvement of communications such as shipping.” Explain this statement, referring to any countries of Asia or Africa.


(b)    What was the impact of any one of the following on the Christian churches of the nineteenth century:—

(a)    The growth of scientific knowledge;

(b)    Increased contacts between Christian and nonChristian countries;

(c)    The growth of liberal democracy?

(a)    Show how one of the great inventions or scientific discoveries of the last hundred years was made. Why was it important ?


(b)    Have you found that you can improve your understanding of any period of a country’s history by studying the contemporary literature or music or other arts? In answering this question, refer to some relevant works and the people who created them.

(c) “At the end of the nineteenth century a far higher proportion than ever before of people in the industrialised countries was able to read and write; but the consequences of increased literacy were bad as well as good.” In the light of this statement discuss the results of increased literacy in two countries.

4.    Either

(a) Was slavery the main cause of the Civil War in the United States of America? Give your reasons.


(b)    “The Civil War opened the way to the emergence of modern industrial America by preserving the Union and by giving decisive political power in the United States to the North.” Explain this statement.

5.    Explain how the House of Lords lost power to the House of

Commons in the half century or so before 1914.

6.    Either

(a)    “It was the slowness of governments to pass laws to improve living and working conditions that led people to become socialists.” Do you agree with this explanation of the growth of socialism up to 1914?


(b)    “As the nineteenth century went on, governments in many countries found it increasingly necessary to regulate industry or even to own it.” Why? In your answer refer to examples of state control of industry and of state ownership of industry up to 1914.

7.    Either,

(a)    Why did China and Japan have such different reactions during the nineteenth century to their contacts with western nations?


(b)    Why was Japan successful in the war of 1894 against China and in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5?

Part B

8.    Either,

(a)    How far was imperial Germany guilty of having caused the first world war?


(b)    Explain why Great Britain and her allies were victorious in the first world war.

9.    Either,

(a) “A return to normal.” Is this a fair description of society and politics in the United States of America, 1919-1929?

(b) British servicemen were promised that after the first world war they would have a “land fit for heroes to live in.” Did social and economic conditions improve in the United Kingdom during the nineteen-twenties ?






{a) Why did the Labour Party remain out of power for so long in the United Kingdom after the formation of the National Government of 1931?


(b) “Despite all its faults and omissions, the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt saved many Americans from utter ruin during the great depression.” In the light of this statement give your assessment of the New Deal.


(a) “The main reason for the failure of the Weimar Republic was that most Germans did not like it.” What do you know about the Republic that would support or refute this statement?


(h) What was the importance of Lenin in Russian history, 1917-24?


(a) Was the League of Nations really a failure? Give reasons.


(h) Consider the record of the United Nations between 1945 and 1950. What were its strengths and weaknesses as an organisation designed to preserve “international peace and security” ?


(a)    Why did Nazi Germany attack the Soviet Union in 1941? In what ways did the involvement of Russia in the war contribute to the defeat of Hitler?


(b)    Account for the entry of Great Britain into the second world war.


(a)    What did Gandhi do for India?


(b)    “During the five years after the end of the second world war in 1945 no other event could match in importance the granting of independence to India.”

What considerations would le*id an observer to make this statement ?


1.    Why did so many people emigrate from Europe during the

nineteenth century? Discuss immigration from Europe as a factor in the history of the L nited States of America, approximately 1850-1914.

2.    Either,

(a) Why were there demands for the extension of the franchise in England during the second half of the nineteenth century? By what steps was the parliamentary franchise extended to all men and women in England?

Or,    .

(h) In what ways did the policies of the principal political parties in Britain differ during the second half of the nineteenth century?

3.    Either,

(a) Discuss some ways in which Christian Churches widened the range of their activities in the second half of the nineteenth century. Give examples from the histories of two countries.


(h) What were the outstanding developments during the second half of the nineteenth century in the literature or the arts of one of the countries whose history you have studied? What relationship, if any, do you find between these developments and other aspects of that country’s history?

4.    Either,

(1a) Show how trade unions developed in Great Britain up to about 1914. Why did wage-earners claim the right to combine ?


(h) Discuss the importance to the economic revolution in the nineteenth century of one or two scientific discoveries.

5.    “My paramount object in this struggle,” declared President

Lincoln in 1862, “is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery.” Show how the federal unity of the United States had been threatened by the events leading up to the Civil War.

6.    Either,

(a)    Show why the European powers obtained colonies in Africa and how the continent was divided among them between about 1870 and 1914.

Or,    ...

(b)    Review the part played by the British in Malaya up to 1940.

13.    Either,

(a)    W hat part was played by the Lnited States of America in the defeat of Nazi Germany, 1939“194-5?


(b)    Discuss the tendency of the states of the world to group themselves in blocs around the L nited States of America and the Soviet Union between the collapse of Germany and the outbreak of the Korean W ar.

14.    “Since the Second World War there has been a colonial

revolution that has involved the liquidation of most of the European empires in Asia. aking the example of any Asian country that has gained independence between 1945 and 1950, explain why the “colonial revolution" took place in its case and outline the main events by which it gained independence.

7.    Either,

(a)    Discuss the penetration of China by the great powers in the nineteenth century. Why did the Manchus fail to resist aggression effectively ?


(b)    Discuss the growth of Indian nationalism, approximately 1858-1914.

Part B

8.    How far was imperial Germany guilty of having caused the

first world war?

9.    Either,

(a)    Compare the policies adopted by Great Britain and by the United States of America in coping with the problems of the Great Depression.


(b)    Write an essay on some aspects of the political career of cither David Lloyd George or W^oodrow Wilson.

10.    What were the objectives inside Germany of the Nazis after

they had gained power in 1933? By what methods did they try to achieve them?

11.    Either,

(a)    To what causes do you attribute the revolutions of 1917

in    Russia?    Qr

(b)    What were the principal features of Stalin’s policies in the Soviet Union between the time that he gained supreme power and about 1939?

12.    Either,

(a)    Compare    the reactions of the League of Nations to

Japanese aggression in Manchuria and Italian aggression in Abyssinia. * Qr

(b)    Outline and account for Japanese foreign policy, 1931-194K


This booklet is one of a series of Examination Reprints, published by Shakespeare Head Press. The complete list of both Leaving Certificate and Intermediate papers is given below:—


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