Literal and    ENGLISH

Dictionary Meanings    POETRY—


ANALYSIS    Literary Appreciation

PARSING    Questions

Compiled by the



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Teachers’ Companion

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Grade VII. Reader


Compiled by the


of the


Wholly set up and printed in Australia by H. Pole & Co. Pty. LtdElizabeth Street, Brisbane

Registered at the General Post Office, Brisbane, for transmission through

the post as a book.


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Dedicated to the late


The late J. R. D. MAHONEY




The Syllabus for use in Queensland Schools regards English as predominant and basic " and demands from pupils an increasing precision in the use of words.

If the ideals of the framers of that Syllabus are to be achieved, then it is necessary to place before children such samples of literature as will give them patterns upon which they may advantageously mould their language.

The teacher’s task in speech training is by no means easy for. whilst he has the children with him for a few hours on an average of four days a week, outside influences are at work for a considerable portion of the remaining hours, and these do not second the efforts of the teachers. Inside the school careful choice of words, pronunciation, and grammatical arrangement are continually receiving attention ; outside many children hear restricted vocabulary, slipshod speech, and much slang. Indeed, one serious difficulty is the ridicule which is sometimes used by the ignorant towards the boy or girl who, jettisoning the rougher style of talk, seeks to enunciate clearly, and to speak correctly.

There can be no doubt but that the teaching of English has a distinct culture value, and the child who develops a love for good literature has within himself the power to enjoy life and to fill in his leisure hours in healthy and uplifting occupations. By the reading of good authors the child’s view is extended beyond the limits of his daily round and ordinary work, and he is given examples which are worthy of remembrance.

If we are to cultivate a taste for reading, then we must pay judicious attention to the way in which reading matter is arranged for presentation to our pupils. From the earliest stages we must see that boys and girls take a delight in what they read. By the time they reach Grade YU they should be capable of enjoying lessons of a more serious kind. Still, the old adage, “ A little nonsense now and then, etc.” must ever be kept in mind, and to force even children of thirteen . years of age to read books which are to them dull and uninteresting is not the way to develop a taste for reading.

It is with thoughts such as these that this Reader has been compiled, and the variation in style in the lessons—the inspiring “ Nation Builders," the informative " Pasteur’s Great Discovery," the descriptive “ Chariot Race," the historic " Eve of Anzac," the rousing “ Saxon and the Gael," the humorous " Dinner at the Inn," etc.— must surely suit all classes of mind.

The readers of these books also are brought into touch with a very wide range of the best poets of both ancient and modern times—

Shakespeare, Milton. Gray, Goldsmith. Scott. Coleridge, Byron. Shelley, Macaulay, Longfellow, Tennyson, Kendall. Evans. Masefield—and with prominent essayists such as Ilunyan, Addison. Hall. Lytton, Emerson, Bright, Dickens, and Readc.

Throughout the book are numerous illustrations which will be either carefully studied or else quickly brushed aside according to the ability of the teacher concerned. Long years of experience as an inspector have shown me what a wide variation there is in the interest shown towards good pictures. In one school every picture is full of interest, and compositions dealing with them produce most interesting results ; in others even the titles of the pictures are unknown. The study of the illustrations must be regarded as essential to the true understanding of the lessons.

Teachers taking these Reading Lessons must be determined to secure “ (a) Intelligent reading, that is, retaining the meaning of each passage clearly; (¿>) sympathetic reading, that is, causing children to convey to others the feelings and thoughts of the author ; and (c) musical reading, that is, the movement of the voice in accordance with the melody and harmony of what is read, be it prose or verse.”

Many passages suitable for recitation are scattered throughout the pages, these lending themselves to much artistic endeavour. Teachers should remember that children are peculiarly susceptible to early impressions and therefore should see that the first presentations of the poems create interest and show their beauty. The old idea of requiring mere verbal accuracy in connection with Recitation has passed away, and monotony, incorrect use of emphasis, bad phrasing and faulty utterances are steadily disappearing. Let us hope our new Readers will materially help in the sounding of the death knell of the old defects.

“ The foundation upon which every system of intellectual instruction must rest is the ability to read and recite with ease and intelligence, so as to evince a clear conception of the subject.” It is necessary, therefore, that meanings of words and phrases should be made clear, and then as the child becomes more familiar with his new words he will show his increased knowledge by speaking the passages more and more intelligently. The meanings given in dictionaries do not always suit the special use of words in sentences, and for this reason much care has been taken in the Notes to supply suitable synonyms. Appreciation now receives much more attention than formerly and herein lies the greatest difference between the traditional and the modern methods of handling lessons. Children are now helped to form opinions as to why one part of a poem produces a more striking impression on the mind than another ; why some passages are full of beauty whilst others do not appeal and why some pieces remain singing in the mind whilst others are soon forgotten. Dramatization of passages and Lecturettes based on information found in these Notes should be very helpful.

Closely connected with the comprehension of the reading lesson is the derivation of the words. The use of roots must be easily recog nised, and once the child knows a reasonable number the work becomes easier because of the repetition of these roots and the finding of words derived from them. Effort should be made l) to iind the derivative meaning, (2 to get the text meaning, 3i to show the connection between the first and second.

The selection of suitable passages should prove very useful to teachers of parsing and analysis, and consequently the mental training caused by attention to these subjects should receive an uplift.

Good reading and good spelling generally go hand in hand, for if the pupil visualises clearly the shapes of words these forms are impressed on the brain and the mental pictures are easy to recall. It is necessary, however, to deal with difficulties and the more important rules should be taught. A large number of spelling mistakes are the result more of carelessness than of ignorance, and slovenly pronunciation is bound to have its reflex in defective spelling. If teachers will insist upon the sounding of the parts of long words before attempting to spell them, they will have little difficulty with this branch of their work.

It should be clearly understood that this book is intended to be helpful and to save the time of teachers. In country districts it is difficult to obtain reference books. Others who have access to the latest and most up-to-date works have therefore sought out suitable information from them. It is not pretended that this book is complete in every respect and most teachers will be able to write up additional interesting notes. I am. however, quite sure that teachers generally will welcome the volume and be grateful to those who by such untiring efforts have compiled it.

Once again that old stalwart of the South Coast—J. R. 1). Mahoney—has been a tower of strength, and has given of his best. Teachers of my inspectoral district realize how constant have been his efforts and how willing his service. 1 know how they appreciate his help. The members of the Syllabus Notes Committee are unanimous in their wish to honour him by dedicating the book to him and placing his photograph in front. There it will be a constant reminder of one who never wearied of doing what he could for the Department, for the teachers, and for the pupils.






Page 1.


Now that you have reached the Seventh Grade, a better standard of composition is expected from you. Your reading lessons may be made to serve as models. Note, in this poem, what an important part punctuation plays, e.g., “ System, and order, and sequence, sun, and planet, and star . . . . ” Resolve to punctuate fully.

Subjects Suggested.

1.    Courage ;

2.    Our Bush Home ;

3.    Qualities most essential to making a successful pioneer or colonist ;

4.    My Country.


(¿/) In studying a poem there are two things that we should note :

(1)    That there is a swing or “ Rhythm ” in the lines.

This Rhythm is caused by a regular succession of accented and unaccented syllables. (Accent is stress or force laid on a particular syllable).

(2)    In most poems we have Rhyme or correspondence in sound occurring at the ends of lines. The Rhythm really makes tlie poetry, for there are many poems written without Rhyme, e.g., those written in Blank Verse. Read extracts from Shakespeare’s Plays for examples of such verse.

(1)) Mark the Rhythm in stanza f>, line 1. W'liat plan does the Rhyme follow in that stanza ?

(c)    What particular type of people is the poet eulogising in this poem ?

(d)    W’liat was their great work ?

(e)    Name some of the difficulties that these Nation Builders

had to face.

(/) Name the industries mentioned in verse 2.

(g)    What payment did these men and women give for their victory ?

(h)    W’liat does the poet say to the “ city workers ” in verse 4 ? (?) Does he consider the “ city worker ” a “ Nation Builder ” ? (j) To whom does he give the real credit of making this vast

continent into a Nation ?

Subject Matter.

1.    Name any other country in which the pioneers had similar difficulties to face ?

2.    How was our country first settled ?

3.    Were any of these other countries you have mentioned settled in the same way ?

4.    Using your map, mark the parts of Australia that answer to these descriptive phrases: —

northern jungles ; sun cracked plain ; where the pearl flotillas swim ; heart of the ranges; crash of the stampers ; coral reefs.    ^

5.    In verse 2, pick out another phrase used in place of “ northern jungles.”

0.    Explain the line commencing ” Where strong    men    fall . . .    . ”

7.    What does the poet mean by :—“ The soul    of    a man    is

warped ? ” ; '‘ The flash of the wire ? ”

8.    What is a Planet.

9.    Name some of them.    *

10.    Why is Australia, in the making, likened to a ”    giant asleep    ? ”

General Analysis.

On ! tho’ we grope and blunder, the trend of our aitn is true ! On ! there is death in dalliance, whilst yet there is work to do. Till the land Unit lies like a giant asleep may wake to the victory won.

And the eves of the Master Worker may see that the work is done.


Beginning with :—” A handful of workers ”—make a Complex Sentence containing an Adjective Clause, a Noun Clause and an Adverb Clause in that order.    .


Parse the words italicised in above passages for analysis.

Note the words “is ” and “ may” ; what group of Verbs do they belong to ? Name the others in that group.

Rule of Syntax.

The Verb agrees with its subject or nominative in number and person.    0

In vour passage for Analysis, pick out all the words that follow the above rule.

Derivation and Word Building.

(a) Intent—In, into ; tendo, I stretch.

Conquer —Con, with or together ; queero, I seek.

TropicTrap os, a turning ((»reek) ; ic, pertaining to. Monotone Monos, alone; tonos, tone or sound (Greek). Pause—Pausa, a stop.

Ravine—Rapio, I snatch.

Victory—Vinco, I conquer; y, state of being.

Commerce—Corn, for con, with ; merx, merchandise.

Machine—Machina, a contrivance, a machine.

Nation—Nascor, I am born ; ion, act of.

Cities—Civ is, a citizen.

ElectricElectron, amber (Greek) ; ic, pertaining to.

PlanetPlanetus, wandering (Greek >.

SequenceSequor, I follow ; nice, that which.

(b) Clive a verb, noun and adjective from the Greek Roots monos, electron, tones.

(r) By changing or dropping the prefix or suffix, give opposites of :—

pitiless, unstirred, disorder, settle, restful, undone, shapely, comfort, mortal, senseless.

Greek RootBios, life; biography, amphibious, autobiography, biograph, biographer, biology. Find from the dictionary the meaning of these common words.

Greek PrefixesAmpin, both; auto, self; compile from your dictionary lists of words beginning with amphi and out > respectively.

Greek Suffix—y. pertaining to.


1.    A handful of heroes:—referring to the tiny settlement from

which our nation sprang.

2.    Pearl flotillas :—fleets of small boats employed in the pearling

industry. (Thursday Island, Broome).

3.    Stampers:—machinery that crushes the quartz.

4.    Light-ship :—a ship anchored near some dangerous rock or

reef. The ship hoists a strong light at night and serves as a lighthouse.

à. Beching (pronounced bay-shing) :— employed in the bêche-de-mer (trepang) industry, which is carried on in the East Indies and parts of Northern Australia. The bêche-de-mer is a sea-slug, considered a great delicacy by the Chinese.

(j. Ravine :—a deep, narrow gorge in a mountain.

7. Dull routine :—a course of action, pursued so regularly that it becomes tiresome.

5.    Over soul :—the all containing soul.

0. Dalliance :—delay.

10. Master Worker:—God.

Spelling Common Words.

Heroes, drought, famine, ruin, skies, axe, routes, roots, beching. wheels, wharves, routine, weary, system, genius.

Page 5.
Com position.

Punctuation is one of the mechanical aids to produce good English. Paragraphing is an outstanding feature in Punctuation. Notice the paragraphs in this lesson and observe that one sentence does not constitute a paragraph.

Subjects Suggested.

1.    Prevention is better than cure ;

2.    The Story of a Snake-bite ;

3.    Enthusiasm ;

4.    Use of Examinations;

5.    A Dream that Came True    ;

6.    Eecturette on Keeping    Silkworms.

Subject Matter.

1.    Name other great men who have helped to prevent the spread of disease.

2.    Find on the map the town where Pasteur was educated, and also the town where lie became professor of chemistry.

3.    What do you understand by talent ? What talents had Pasteur ?

4.    Explain “ He might have been a great artist instead of a great scientist."

b. What opinion did his teachers express with reference to Pasteur's work ?

0. What amusing story is told of Pasteur ? What does this story show ?

7.    Tell the story of Pasteur and the silk worms.

8.    Why was the question so vital to France ?

9.    What are contagious diseases ?

10.    Name some that are common in Queensland.

11.    Explain “ He is not afraid to break new ground."

12.    What is a " Parasite ? "

13.    What word denotes the work of experimenting on live animals in the interests of science {seen, l cut ; vivo, I live).

14.    What do you understand by inoculation and vaccination?

1).    Name any diseases for which the above are used.

16.    How did Pasteur prove that his vaccination theory was

correct ?    %

17.    How is the anti-toxin for diphtheria procured ?

18.    What is the modern method of preventing that disease ?

19.    What word used in connection with food, reminds us of Pasteur’s work ?

20.    In what emergency would a boy or girl be forced to use an antidote ? From your dictionary find what the difference is between antidote and an anti-toxin.

General Analysis.

(a)    Louis Pasteur’s father used to conic home at night from h is hard day’s work in the tan yard and take his little son on his knee, and say : " Oh, Louis, if you could only become a professor in the college of Arbois, how happy I should be ! "

(b)    If they could have looked forward sixty years they would have seen on the door of the very house where they were living ’A plate with gold letters, announcing “ Here was born Louis Pasteur."

(c)    Now he began to make some of the wonderful discoveries that have saved thousands of lives all over the world.


Parse, fully, the words italicised.

Pick out all Nouns and Pronouns in the Possessive Case.


The Verb to be " and other copulative verbs take the same case after them as they do before them. Can you find an example of this rule in the foregoing passages for Analvsis ?

What is a Copulative Verb ?


Soldier—Solidus, firm; ier, one who.    *

Radiant—Radius, the spoke of a wheel ; ant, relating to. URGEDUrgeo, to press or force ; ed, finished.

I nivkrsity— l nus, one ; alone ; verto, I turn ; itv, state of. Microbes—Mikros, small (Greek).

EXPERIMENTS—Ex, out of ; peri or, I try ; went, act of.

\ accinaTED— Vacca, a cow ; ed, finished.

Laboratory—Labor, toil ; ory, place where.

Scientist—Scio, I know ; ist, one who.

Cholera—Chole, bile, anger (Greek).

Vision— Video, I see ; ion, act of.

Announcing—An, to; nuncio, I tell; ins, going on.

Artist—Ars, an art, skill ; ist, one who.

Contagious—Con, with or together ; tango, I touch ; ous, full of. Operation—Opus, work ; ion, act of.

Hydrophobia—Hudor, water ; phobos, fear (('.reek).

Applause—Ap, to; plaudo, I clap.

ParalysedPara, beside; luo, I loosen (Greek) ; ed, finished. GermGertnen, a bud.

Greek RootGrapho, I write; graphic, autograph, biography, paragraph, orthography, stenographer, telegraphist. Compile a list of meanings of these words, using the dictionary.

Suffix ic, pertaining to; ist, one who.

Vocabu lary.

(fl) Form sentences with words in spelling list.

(b) Make sentences, using: prey, pray ; check, cheque; week, weak ; their, there ; were, where ; place, plaice.

Language Test.

Give synonyms for : microbe, urged, remarkable, perform, astonished, obtained, malady, study, modern, industrious.

Give antonyms of the following by adding a prefix : believed, controlled, successful, satisfaction, merciful, interested, arrange, distinguished, vaccinated, perfect.

Mean ings.

1.    Arbois :—a small town in Eastern France.

2.    Apothecary :—one who dispenses medicine.

•k    Phosphorous:—a yellowish substance, inflammable and

luminous in the dark.

4. Strassburg a city in Alsace (France) noted for a remarkable clock.

a. Cocoons :—the silky tissue which the larvae of many insects spin as a covering for themselves while they are' in the chrysalis state.

tf. Cholera in its worst form comes from Asia. It is extremely infectious and thousands of lives are lost during an outbreak of cholera in Asiatic countries. Modern science is rendering it much less dreadful.

7.    Hydrophobia .'-—disease caused by the bite of animals in a rabid state, and especially characterised by a dread of water. Almost unknown in Australia.

8. Codified :—reduced to a code.

9.    Pasteur Institute:—founded by Pasteur in Paris, to carry on his experiments.

10. Modern treatment of illness: combating germs: when once the germ has been discovered modern science soon discovers a poison to kill it. Hence the Cancer Research Campaign ; when once the germ is discovered the cure will follow.

Spelling List.

College, easier, urging, fourteenth, quiet, kitchen, worms, business, praying, crawled, diseases, saliva, failure, later, lying, proof, hastily, health, poison, chemist.

l*se in sentences the words in the above list.

Page 11.

The prose account at the top of this lesson shows you how a precis or summary may be written, for it refers to hundreds of lines of the poem, and the poem itself shows how notes may be expanded, for it covers the ground mentioned in the last four sentences of the prose.

Subjects Suggested.

1.    Honour;

2.    The Captive’s Dream ;

3.    A Speech or Lecture which you have heard ;

4.    My Best Friend.


Every extract from Shakespeare’s Works is well worth studying. There is always much beauty of expression. Lines remain in the memory and are quoted to-day, over 300 years after the master poet’s death. In reading this poem, note how Mark Antony, though in actual words condoling the action, is, with every sentence, inciting the people to rise up against Caesar’s murderers.

Note how cautiously he begins, for feeling against Ca?sar is running high, then, when he has won the citizens by this incomparable oration, he shows his true feelings “ The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny.”

1.    What ironical remark punctuates Antony’s speech?

2.    Why is Julius Caesar interesting to us ?

3.    Find on your map the town where this took place.

4.    Put into your own words :—

The evil that men do lives after them ;

The good is oft interred with their bones.

(Shakespeare repeats this idea in another play. “ Men’s evil manners live in brass ; their virtues we write in water.”)

How does Antony describe a friend ?

G. Find an example of alliteration in the tirst part of Antony's speech.

7.    What supposed fault of Caesar’s inflamed the populace ?

8.    What was the unkindest cut of all ?

9.    How do you know that Antony’s Oration affected the people ?

10. How does Antony describe himself ?

1 1. There are many lines in this poem which form apt quotations. Pick out those that you consider worth memorising.

12.    This is one of Shakespeare’s tragedies. Notice the verse is without rhyme. Many great and stirring poems have been written in this measure. Do you know what it is called ?

13.    Mark the accent in lines two and three.

• Analysis.

1.    You all did see that on the Lupercal 1 thrice presented him a kingly crown, which he did thrice refuse.

2.    I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, but here I am to speak what I do know.

3.    O masters, if I were disposed to stir your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage I should do Brutus wrong and Cassius wrong, who, you all know, are honourable men.


Parse words italicised.

Notice the number of times “ do ” and “ did ” are used in the above. Why are they used so often ?

Make sentences with “ wrong ” as a verb, a noun, and an adjective.


Double comparatives and superlatives should not be used.

On page 1G of the Reader, find where this rule is broken.

The doubling of comparatives, superlatives, and negatives was a common practice in Shakespeare’s day.

“ The most boldest hearts in Rome.” (Julius Caesar).

“ After the most straitest sect.” Acts XXVI ,


OrationOro, I speak ; ion, act of.

Eulogy—(Greek) eu, well; logos, a discourse ; y, state of being. AMBITION—Amb, round or about; co (itus), I go; ion, act of. TestamentTestis, a witness; ment, act of.

PatiencePatior, I suffer ; ence, state of.

InflamedIn, into ; flamma, a flame ; ed, finished.

CorpseCorpus, the body.

IngratitudeIn, not; gratia, favour, grace ; hide, state of being. PrivatePrivus, one’s own ; ate, to make.

Greek RootLogos, a word; logic, chronology, etymology, geology, mineralogy, logician, meteorologist, physiology, catalogue, dialogue. Supply dictionary meanings.

Suffixan, one who.


Word Building.

Change meaning by adding a prefix : noble, gratitude, reverence, honourable, patience, kind, common, press, power, gracious.

Language Tests.

(V) Make nouns from the following : grateful, patieut, ambitious, explain, private, refuse, conclude, noble, consider, prove.

(b) (Mve opposites of : faithful, wrong, praise, remember, sacred, descend, beloved, base, private, strong.

Meani ngs.

1.    Caesar, Julius: (100-44 B.C.) Roman General who invaded Britain 55 B.C. Formed one of the first Roman triumvirate,

i.e., a coalition of three men in authority.

2.    Antony, Mark (83-80 B.C) Roman General. Friend of Caesar.

3.    Oration :—an eloquent speech, given in public.

4.    Ambition should be made of sterner stuff :—Antony means that the ambitious man should have neither heart nor pity ; but should go forward without any regard for those he might harm.

5.    Abide it :—suffer for it, or as we say, pay for it.

0. Parchment :—the will of Caesar. Parchment is the skin of a very young calf, sheep or goat dressed and rendered fit for writing upon.

7.    Napkins :—handkerchiefs.

8.    Mutiny :—a revolt against authority.

9.    Coffers :—chests for holding money.

10.    I have o’ershot myself—I have said more than I intended to say ; have gone too far and hurt my own cause in telling of it.

11.    The Nervii:—Caesar’s victory over the Nervii was his greatest military exploit. The Romans prided themselves upon their military virtue ; see how Antony attempts to gain their sympathy for Caesar by reminding them what a great soldier he was.

12. Angel :—here means his better and dearer self.

13.    O, what a fall was there . . :—a whole country suffers when treason is victorious over authority.

14.    Vesture :—garment.

15. Orator :—great speech maker.

15. Wit :—formerly meant understanding.

17.    Forum :—in ancient Rome was a public, out of doors meeting

place, where causes were tried and speeches delivered.

Common Words.

Praise, grievous, refuse, mourn, until, worse, choose, sacred, issue, patience, daggers, corpse, descend, leave, hearse, through, perceive, griefs, doubt, wounds.

Page 17.

Seventh Grade pupils are often required to write descriptions of contests. This lesson will suggest a style upon which to model your essays.

Notice the use made of the note of exclamation when the excitement becomes intense.

Subjects Suggested.

1.    A race for life ;

2.    A motor car. seeing a chariot in a museum court yard, passes an opinion upon it ;

3.    Kindness to animals ;

4.    Autobiography of an old horse.

Subject Matter.

1.    Where is Antioch ? Find it on the map.

2.    How many competitors were there in this race ?

3.    What other amusements had the Romans of this period ?

4.    Give another name for Israelite.

">.    Describe Messala’s character.

(j.    How did he feel about the race ?

7.    How do you know that Ben Hur hated Messala ?

8.    What is an arena ?

9 . Describe Ben Ilur’s clever move at the commencement of the race.

10.    Who, among the spectators, was particularly anxious for Ben Hur to win ?

11.    How did the spectators show their keen interest at a critical moment ?

1 2. What is audacity ?

13.    How did Messala attempt to spoil Ben Hur’s chance ?

14.    How had Ben Ilur’s team been trained ?

la. Why was Messala afraid to do any other underhand work ?

16.    How were the rounds marked ?

17.    How were the two chief competitors placed at the end of the third round ?

18.    And at the end of the sixth ?

19.    Which competitor held the sympathy of the crowd ?

20.    Why did they think that Messala’s team could not gallop any faster, whilst Ben Hur’s team still held their greatest speed in reserve ?

Detailed Analysis.

1.    Making this turn was considered in all respects the most telling test of a charioteer.

2.    Immediately, a man took down from the entablature at the west end of the division wall one of the conical wooden balls.

3.    The sixth round was entered upon without change of relative position.


Words italicised.

Make sentences with ‘ round ” used as a verb, an adjective, a preposition and an adverb.


1.    J oin the following simple sentences into one Complex Sentence: Ben Hur was a Jew. He was of noble birth. He drove in the chariot race. The race was held at Antioch. His opponent was Messala, a Roman.

2.    Eorm Complex Sentences containing a noun, adjective and adverb clause, commencing with :

(a) When half way across ....

(h) Ben Hur knew.....

Rule of Syntax.

The subject of a Verb is always in the Nominative Case.

From your passages for Analysis, pick out nouns and pronouns which follow the above rule.


ExtractEx, out of ; tralio, I draw.

DramaticDrama, a play (Greek) ; ic, belonging to.

TragedyTragos, a goat (Greek) ; y, state of being.

Incident—In, into ; ccedo, 1 fall out ; ent, relating to. ResponsibleRe, back ; spondeo, I promise ; ible, capable of. MyriadsMini os, ten thousand (Greek).

PositionPono, I place; ion, act of.

SympathySym, with ; pathos, feeling (Greek) ; v, state of being. CONTESTANTS—Con, together ; testis, a witness ; ant, one who. DesperateDe, down ; spero, I hope ; ate, state of being. HonourHonor, respect, regard.

CollisionCol, with ; Icedo, I strike ; ion, act of doing. OpponentsOp, against; pono, I place ; ent, one who. AudacityAudax, bold; ity, state of being.

PedestalPes (pedis), the foot ; al, belonging to. InvoluntaryIn, not ; volo, I will ; ary, belonging to. EntablatureEn, in ; tabula, a table ; ure, state of. CompetitorsCom, together; peto, I seek; or, one who. AntagonistAnt, against; agon, a contest (Greek) ; ist, one who. PractisedPraktos, done (Greek) ; ed, finished.

DeliberateDe, down; libra, a balance; ate, state of being.

Greek RootMetron, a measure ; meter, metre, barometer, chronometer, diameter, gasometer, geometry, thermometer. Construct meanings from dictionary.

PrefixDia, through. Compile from dictionary common words starting with " dia.”


Word Building.

Form adjectives from the following words, using the suffixes : less, without ; full, full of ; soul, purpose, doubt, mercy, change, beauty, form, voice, respect, motion.

Language Tests.

Substitute one word for the following:—

1.    A man who drives a chariot.

2.    One who writes a drama.

3.    A follower of Christ.

4.    One who contends with another.

5.    That which is needful.

(i.    A circular theatre.

7.    A column of stone.

8.    People watching.

9.    What you strive to reach.

10. Those who enter a competition.


1.    A tribune :—an officer of ancient Rome, who represented a tribe for a certain purpose. A tribune’s person was sacred.

2.    Myriads :—immense numbers.

3.    Ben Hur yielded the wall in time, /.<»., had Ben Hur attempted to take the inner side, Messala, in his wild rush, would have collided with him. causing serious damage to both.

4.    Appreciable :—able to be estimated. f>. Urgency : —pressure of necessity.

0. Involuntary :—independent of will or choice.

7. Amazement :—astonishment, wonder.

5.    Universal :—pervading the whole.

9. Placid :—quiet, undisturbed.

10.    Indignity :—insult, outrage.

11.    Vigorous:—strong, forcible, energetic.

12.    Crisis:—turning point.

13.    Ilderim quitted combing his beard:—Ilderim, Ben Hur's friend, and the Arab Chief to whom Ben Mur’s team belonged, had been nervously running his fingers through his beard.

14.    Jove :—Jupiter, chief god of the Romans.

Spelling Common Words.

Brassy, wagers, arena, course, racing, goal, breath, death, trifle, combing.

Make sentences, using each of the words in the spelling list, and also sentences illustrating the use of :—coarse, gaol, wages, dearth.



Page 21.


Notice, as the contest deepens and speed is all important, how the author suits the word to the action -short and sharp. Study from page 22 how to set out conversational and exclamatory passages.

Subjects Suggested.

1.    How he won.

2.    An accident that I witnessed.

3.    A conversation between an old Arab steed and a foal.

4.    Esther's story.

Subject Matter.

1.    How did Messala's followers show their joy when Ben Ilur seemed to lag ?

2.    Why did Messala stick so closely to the wall ?

3.    How do you know that Messala’s steeds were straining every effort ?

4.    Would you say that Messala was brave ? Why ?

•">. Why did Ben Hur’s friends think that he was about to change his tactics ?

fi. How did Ben Hur’s followers seek to encourage him ?

7. Did he hear them ?

K. What did the winning of the race mean to Messala ?

i). What methods did Ben Hur use to urge the horses to greater pace ?

10.    What breed of horses are considered the best in the world ?

11.    Have we any of that strain in Australia?

12.    What happened to Messala’s chariot ?

13.    To what does the writer liken the running of Ben Hur’s Arabs ?

14.    What do you understand bv : magnificent response ; murky cloud ; use these phrases in sentences.


1.    Then they heard a crash loud enough to send a thrill through the circus^ and quicker than thought, out over the course a spray of shining white and yellow flinders flew.

2.    Simonides, shrewder than Esther, said to Ilderim, the moment the rivals turned in the course, “ I am no judge, good sheik, if Ben Ilur be not about to execute some design. His face hath that look.”

3.    As they whirled by, Esther saw Ben Hur’s face again, and it was whiter than before.


(Vive case of every noun in the above passages. Pick out the Proper Nouns. (Vive Mood and Tense of each Verb. Give the part of speech of :—loud, than, out, shining, shrewder, no, if, design, his, that.

Give the degree of comparison of each adjective.


(a) The Possessive Case of a noun or pronoun is governed by the name of the thing possessed.

Pick out as many examples as you can find from the above passage.

(h) Change into the Possessive form :—The steeds of Ben Ilur ;

The head of the merchant ; The excitement of the people ;

The speed of the horses.

(r) Give the possessive forms of :—I, he, she, they, who.


Expansion—Ex, out of ; pando, 1 spread ; ion, act of. Enemy— Amicus, a friend ; y, state of being.

Entablature—En, into ; tabula, a table ; ure, result of. Injunction—In, into; jungo, I join; ion, act of.

Imploringly—Im, into; ploro, I weep; ing, going on ; iy, like. Portended—For, for ; pro, forward ; tendo, I stretch ; ed, finished. Menace—Mineo, I hang over.

Tr i BETr ibus, a tribe.

Received—Re, back ; capio, I take ; ed, finished.

Simple—Plico, I fold.

Increase—In, into ; cresco, I grow or increase.

Signal—Signutn, a mark ; al, belong to.

Magnificent—Magnus, great ; facia, 1 make ; cut, relating to. Transformation Trans, across; forma, form or shape; ion, act of doing.

ENERGY—Ergon, work (Greek) ; v, abounding in.

Greek RootM ikros, small; microscope, microbe, microphone, microgram, micrometer, microphotograph. Supply dictionary meanings and pronunciation.

Word Building.

Given noun, adjective and a verb from the roots:—pando, ploro,

niagnus, facia, forma.

Language Test.

(а) Supply appropriate adjectives :—. . . . cheer ; . . . . party ;

.... clasp ; . . . . rivals ; . . . . judge ; . . . . voices ; . . . . steeds ; .... triumph ; . . . . awakening ; . . . energy.

(б)    Put one word for the phrases italicised :—

1.    The act of spreading out of the railway lines caused the accident.

2.    The fire stretched out for many miles.

IP The boy was seekitig again his lesson.

4. In the good seasons the sheep will grow into very quickly. a. The man will take again all the money for the tickets.


1.    Messala faction:—the Romans who wished Messala to be victorious.

2.    Vague :—indefinite, uncertain.

3.    Shrewder :—of greater discernment.

4.    Sheik :—an Arab chieftain.

o.    Consul :—the title given to the two chief magistrates of the

ancient Roman Republic. (What is the modern significance of the word ?)

(i. Injunction : command.

7.    Goal :—the point set to bound a race.

5.    More than one altar was richer of his vows : in his heart he vowed gifts and sacrifices to his gods.

9.    Resistless :—unable to resist or stand against.

10.    Scourge :—the whip.

11.    I hear them singing :—Ben Hur spoke in a language which his team understood ; it was the language used by their master, it spoke of their free, happy home and spurred them to greater efforts.

12.    Sidonian :—a man of Sidon (modern Saida in Syria).

13.    Turmoil:—commotion.

14.    Corinthian:—a native of Corinth, an isthmus in Greece.

15.    Byzantine:—a native of Byzantium (the ancient name for Constantinople).

16.    Flinders:—a rare word meaning fragments, shreds, splinters.

Common Words.

Pillars, losing, whiter, beginning, genius, writhed, strategy, axle, horror, glimpses, circle, shining.

Use the words in above list in sentences.


Page 26.


Adjectives are most important in Composition. They help to make beautiful phrases. Notice the appropriate adjectives used by Sir Walter kScott : Young Uoehinvar, wide Border, best steed, good broad-sword, fair Ellen. Find other examples. Avoid the use of " nice ” ; it has too many shades of meaning.

Subject Suggested.

1.    Tell the story of Young Lochinvar in your own words.

2.    A clever ruse.

3.    Stop ! Stop !—continue the story suggested by those words.

4.    A visit to Scotland.

5.    Write a letter to a friend in Edinburgh, describing the town in which you live.


1.    What kind of a poem is this-—Descriptive or Narrative?

2. Name two other poems written by Sir Walter Scott.

3.    What type of novel did Scott introduce ? Name one.

4.    Where was Lochinvar going ?

5.    What sort of man was fair Ellen to marry ?

6.    How did the bride’s kinfolk greet Lochinvar ?

7.    What explanation did Lochinvar give for his unexpected arrival ?

8.    What impression did he make on the bridesmaids ?

9.    How did he manage to outwit Ellen’s people ?

10.    Were the eloping couple captured ?

11.    Name some of the clans who helped in the chase.

12.    What reason can you suggest for the refusal of Ellen’s parents to accept Lochinvar as a suitor for Ellen’s hand ?

13.    Do you like this poem ? Why ?

14. Mark the accent in verse 4. Notice that this poem is a different type from the two preceding ones. A brighter and more lilting rhyme.

la. How are the rhyming lines placed ?

Analysis in Detail.

1.    There never was knight like the Young Lochinvar.

2.    It were better by far to have matched ow fair cousin with Young Loch invar.

3.    She looked up to sigh, with a smile on her lips and a tear in her eye.


Add to the following an Adjective. Adverb, and Noun Clause in that order:—

(«) The bridegroom . .

(6) Combine into one sentence : Young Lochinvar was gallant. He rode to Netherby Hall. The Netherbys were his enemies. He loved their daughter. He rode away with her.


Parse the words italicised in General Analysis.


The Object of a Preposition is always in the Objective Case.

In the foregoing sentences for analysis pick out all the words that follow this rule.


•    UnarmKi)—Vn, not; anna, arms; cd, finished.

Faithful—Tides, faith ; fid, full of.

ConsentedCon, with ; sentio, I think or feel ; ed, finished.

PEACE—Pax, peace.

MeasureMetior, I measure; are, state of.

Stately-Sto, I stand ; ly, like.

FormForma, form, shape.

GraceGratia, favour, grace.

Fume— I:umus, smoke.

MountingMons, a mountain; ing, going on.

Greek Root Phos, light ; phosphorus, photograph, photography, photographer, phosphate, phosphorescence. Supply meanings of suffixes and of the complete words.


Word Building.

(rt) Notice in laggard and dastard the suffix and which signifies nature or habit ; laggard, one who has the habit of lagging ; dastard, one whose nature is to shrink or be frightened. Think of some other examples.

(b) What is the use or force of the prefix or suffix in the following : faithful, dauntless, knightly, among, denied, immeasurable, fleetness, insurmountable, westward, statement.

Language Tests.

Use the following in sentences : -knight, night ; break, brake ; rode, road ; stayed, staid ; peace, piece.    .


Bridal, wedding ; charger, steed ; consented, agreed ; craven, cowardly; dangling swinging: gallant, suitor; dauntless, fearless; daring, bold ; quaffed, drank ; matched, married to ; kinsmen, relatives ; goblet, cup ; whispered, hinted ; weapons, arms ; stately, dignified ; croupe, place behind the saddle ; scaur, cliff, steep bank ; measure, stately dance.


Learn the words in the above paragraph ; place them in sentences.

Page 29.
Com position.

Bulwer Lytton was a famous writer and his works live on. Study this lesson, not only for the story he has to tell, but also for his method oi telling it. Notice how the introduction of human characters gives interest to the story, and how their speeches and exclamations give variety to the composition.

Subjects Suggested.

1.    A volcanic eruption or an earthquake. (Hndeavour to use some of Lytton’s expressive phrases, such as scorching glare; horrible beauty).

2.    Devotion.

3.    A blind child’s wish.

4.    A Lucky Lscape.

Subject Matter.

1.    In your Map of Europe find the Bay of Naples and Vesuvius ; from these judge the position of Pompeii.

2.    What is a Volcano ?

3.    Name three of the world’s volcanoes ?

4.    Where are the volcanoes, which are nearest to Australia, situated ?

What do you call a volcano which still erupts ?

(>. And one that lies dormant.

7. Ivxplain : —varying and prodigal eyes ; livid and snake like green ; intolerable crimson. (See if you can find other descriptive phrases in the text).

■S. Find an example of alliteration in paragraph 1.

9. Name some of the things that cause havoc in an eruption.

10. What other natural phenomenon often accompanies ail eruption ?

1 I. What is meant by “ the steaming breath of the volcano ? ”

1- What type of illumination was used in the streets, and even the houses, in those days ?

13. What do you understand by: “The primal law of self preservation ? ’’    .

IP IIow was it that Oluucus relied upon the blind girl to guide them out of the city ?

lb. Why were Nydia’s cries unheard ?

10. Where did many of the fugitives hope to find safety ;

17. What did they discover when they reached the shore ?

IS. How did Blind Xydia show her devotion to Glaucus and lone ?

19.    1'rom your atlas find out how far the ashes from this eruption travelled.

20.    Xante any recent earthquakes or eruptions.

General Analysis.

1.    In some places immense fragments of rock, hurled upon the house roofs, b ; e do:< n ah ng the streets masses of confused ruin, which, yet more and more, with every hour, obstructed the way.

2.    At length it occurred to Xvdia that, as it had been resolved to seek the seashore for escape, her most probable chance of rejoining her companions would be to persevere in that direction.

3.    The sudden illumination, the bursts of the flood of lava, and the earthquake, which we have already described, chanced when she hud just gained the direct path lending from the city to the port ; and here she was arrested by an immense crowd, more than half the population of the city.


Parse words italicised. White down each verb in the above passages, then give present and past tense, present and past participle of each.

Give case of : chance, her. companions, illumination, population.

Who that night spared one thought to his neighbour ? Give case of “ night.”


After the verbs ” have ” and ” be ” the past participle, and not the past tense, must be used.

Pick out in the foregoing passages all verbs that conform to this


Remember that all other Auxiliary Verbs are followed by infinitives.


DestructionDe, down ; strun, I build ; ion, act of.

SELECTION—Se, aside; lego, I gather, ion, act of.

Eruption /:, out of ; runipo, I break ; ion, out of.

Devotion—De, down ; voveo, I vow ; ion, act of.

Prodigal—Pro, forward ; ago, I drive ; al, belonging to.

ChasmChaos, empty space (Greek).

MimicriesMimos, an imitator.

Unsubstantial—Cn, not; sub, under; sto, I stand; «/.belonging to.

Momentary—Moveo, I move ; ary, belonging to.

Antique—Antiquus, old, ancient.

Impenetrable- Ini, not; penctro, I pierce; able, capable of.

Tortured Torqueo, I twist ; cd, finished.

Audible—Audio, I hear; ble, capable of.

FragmentsT'rango, I break ; went, state of.

Turbulent—Turbo, a crowd ; lent, full of.

Scene —Skene, a tent; the stage '.(»reek PreserverPre, before ; servo, 1 keep ; L save ; cr, one who. Greek Root Phou a voice; phonics, euphony, euphonize, symphony, phonograph, telephoin- phonetics Search out meanings for these words.

Prefixeu, well.

Suffix ize, to make.

Word Building.

Give a Noun, Verb, Adjective and Adverb derived from the following roots: —

rumpo, servo, tnoveo, antiquus.

((b) Form abstract nouns from deep, dark, horrible, beautiful, wide, tortured, strong, partial, safe, weak.

Form adjectives from : mass, gloom, terror, ruin, dexterity.

Language Tests.

(a) Give single words for the following :—    •

1.    Able to be heard. <>;

2.    A bottomless gulf.    ,    •

3.    Sending out (smoke). ° " J ,

4.    Those who flee from danger. >w-

5.    Continuing without end.    4

{//) Give synonyms for: -peculiar, capricious, plaintive, incredible, peril.


1.    Pompeii :—W as, in the first century, the fashionable watering place for Rome ; it was full of the splendid villas of Roman aristocrats, but was destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius, 23rd August, A.I). 7!). Over sixteen hundred years afterwards, excavations were made and the city was found practically intact ; even some of the human remains had been preserved under the molten lava. From the excavations made at Pompeii we have acquired an excellent conception of the civilization in Rome during the first century of the Christian era.

2.    Vivid :—bright, easily perceived.

3.    Prodigal :—lavish, profuse.

4.    Mimicries :—-imitations.

5.    Abyss :—A bottomless gulf.

(>. Suffocating :—choking, stifling.

7.    Titter :— a carriage on poles, carried by slaves.

8.    Portico: -a kind of porch before the entrance of a building fronted with columns.

0. Ghastly : -deathlike.

10.    Haggard :—worn and pale.

11.    Supernatural:—exceeding the powers of nature. (The people of those days were very superstitious and such terrible happenings were usually imputed to demons or evil spirits).

12.    Complicated:—involved, intricate.

13.    Human current :—the mass of terrified people sweeping onward like a gigantic stream.

14.    Incredible :—unbelievable.

lo. Dexterity :—the root is dextci the right hand ; the meaning at first was. ability to use the right hand more readily than the left. The modern meaning is, skill with the hands.

10.    Fugitives:—those fleeing from danger.

17.    Lava:—rock matter, flowing in a molten state from the crater of a volcano. The well-known pumice stone is mixed in this stream).

18.    Molten :—melted.

19.    Swarthy :—dark complexioned.

20.    Poisonous vapours:—the suffocating, sulphurous gases coming from the mountain.

Spelling Common Words.

Solid, lightning, dying, ghost columns, forth, chasms, fancies, partial, leisure, clue, their friends, howling, throng, shrieks, despair, escape, group, borne, thought.

Make sentences, using the words in spelling list.

Page 34.

1.    This poem is addressed to the Ocean, as if that were a living thing. What do we call this figure of speech ? r

2.    Note the stately measure used to suit the subject of the poem. Which kind of vowel-sound predominates, long or short ? Why is this ?

3.    Note the unusual form of rhyming :    1, 3 ; 2, 4, 5, 7 ; (j, 8, 9 ;

and also note that the ninth line ha$ more syllables than all the others. This kind of stanza was first used by Spenser, the Elizabethan poet, and has since been copied by other poets.

4.    Quote examples of the poet’s use of repetition for effect.

5.    Find as many examples of alliteration as you can.

fi. Write the last line of the second stanza and mark accents.

7.    What is meant by “ the watery plain,” ” clay creator,” ” glasses itself in tempests,” and “ the Invisible” ?

8.    Why did the poet sav “ bubbling groan,” ” yeast of waves,” ” the image of Eternity ” ?

9.    Explain the line ” Time writes no wrinkles on thine azure brow.” What figure of speech is this ?


This lesson will bring before you the importance of punctuation. No composition is complete unless fully punctuated. Select one of the following subjects for composition and you may include a quotation from ” The Ocean ” to illustrate your ideas :—

1.    The Sea ;

2.    A Shipwreck ;

3.    A Storm at Sea :

4.    The Departure of an Ocean Liner ;

;» Conversation between a Soldier and a Saiior.


The armaments which thunderstrike the walls Of rock-built cities, bidding nations quake,

And Moiiarchs tremble in their capitals,

The oak leviathans, whose huge ribs make Their clay creator the vain title take Of lord of thee and arbiter of war—

These are thy toys, and. as the snowy flake,

They melt into thy yeast of waves, which mar Alike the Armada's pride or spoils of Trafalgar.


1.    “ Roll ” and “ Ocean ” in first line of poem.

2.    In second stanza, state case and relation of :—armaments, Moiiarchs, title, arbiter, toys, flake, pride.

3.    Parse which, bidding, quake, spoils.

Rule of Syntax.

“ When a noun or a pronoun stands for a person or thing spoken to it is said to be in the nominative case addressed.” Find examples of this rule in the poem.


Armaments— Anna, arms; merit, state of; s, plural ending. Arbiter—Arbiter, an umpire or judge.

Invisible—In, not ; video visus, I see; ible, able.

Ravage- Rapio rapt us, I snatch.

Creator Crco ncatus, I make out of nothing ; or, one who. Empires -Impero, 1 command; s, plural ending.

Savage—Silva, a wood.

Convulsed -Con, with or together ; vello vulsus, I pluck ; ed, finished.

TorridTorreo, I parch.

Monarchs-—Monos, alone ; archc, rule ; s, plural ending.

Greek Root Tele, far off; telegraph, television, telegram, telescope, telegraphy. Compile meanings, using dictionary.

Suffixist, one who.


Write for each of the following phrases a single word derived from either the Latin or ('.reek : —

1.    State of being without weapons ;

2.    The act of settling disputes by judgment ;

3.    Having no government ;

4.    A recitation spoken by one person alone ;

5.    State of being swift.

Language Tests.

1. IIow many ” coined ” words—i.c., words invented by the writer—can you find in the poem ? Write them down.

2.    Form adjectives from : -ocean, earth, moment, creation, arbiter, decay, tempest, pole, monster, tyrant, tremble, title, obey, breeze.

3.    Taking the words ” save.” ” even,” ” glass,” and ” time ” as examples, show, in sentences of your own construction, that the same word may be used as different parts of speech. State as what part of speech the set word is used in each case.


1.    Ravage :—destruction.

2.    Unknelled : without the sounding of a bell to mark his passing.

3.    Armaments :—forces of war.

4.    Leviathan : —a sea monster described in the Look of Job, hence used to denote a large ship.

5.    Mar :—soil, blemish.

b. Armada : —a huge Spanish fleet sent to invade England, and destroyed in 1588.

7.    Realms :—kingdoms.

8.    Convulsed :—agitated.

9.    Sublime :—noble ; exalted by nature.


Word-building and sentence making : Control, bubbling, groan, uncoffined, capitals, creator, title, Assyria, tyrant, realms, unchangeable, wrinkle, azure, Almighty’s, icing, torrid, eternity, fathomless.

Page 36.
Subject Matter.

1.    Find on your atlas: Suvla Ray, Gallipoli. Lemnos, Troy. Recall story of Gallipoli Campaign and heroic landing of Anzacs.

2.    What do you know of Troy ?

3.    What is meant by ” under rigs of old time ” ?

4.    Why would tugs be used in the Thames and Mersey ?

5.    What freight would be carried by the ships towed bv the tugs in these rivers ?

6.    Why does the writer use the phrase ” city of ships” ?

7.    Can you suggest why there would be blazing sun during the day and frost at night at Gallipoli ?

8.    What is meant by ” the unseen cross upon the breast ” ?

9.    Read the sentence commencing ” As each ship crammed with soldiers . . . . ” (page 39). Notice how the author works up to a climax here.

10.    Mention some of these ” old quarrels” with France.

11.    What is meant by ” the guard of the English heart ” ?

12.    Find as manv similes as vou can in this selection.


Spelling is an important part of composition. You should always read what you have written to detect errors Common words such as until, there were, their doctor too straight scholarship, fourth, seven, cause many errors.

1.    Courage ;

2.    Description of a Sunset ;

3.    Hip, Hip, Hooray !

4.    Spring in Queensland ;

.*>. Setting out on a Great Adventure.

Analyse in detail).

1.    In this crowd of shipping, strange, beautiful Greek vessels passed, under rigs of old time, with sheep and goats and fish for sale.

2.    Ship after ship, crammed with soldiers, moved slowly out of harbour in the lovely day.

3.    The most moving thing was the greatness of their generous hearts.


As tliev passed from moorings to tlie man-of-war anchorage on their way to the sea, the feeling that they had done with life and were going out to something new welled up in those battalions ; they cheered and cheered till the harbour rang with cheering.


Shipping, crammed, out, moving, greatness, their, man-of-war, that, welled, cheering.

Rule of Syntax.

Transitive verbs in the active voice (as well as their participles and gerunds) govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case. Find ten illustrations of this rule in the lesson.


PageantPagina, a stage.

Exultation lix, out of; salio sa/tus, I leap; ion, the act of.

CourageCor, the heart.

Imminent— Ini, over; mineo, I hang; ent, belonging to. Endukei>- Kn, to make; (hints, hard; ed, finished.

GenerousGenus, kind ; ous, full of.

Tumult— Turned, l swell.

PityPietas, pity; y, abounding in.

Transfigured Trims, across; /igitra, a shape; ed, finished.

Disappeared -/)/.*, asunder ; up, to ; pareo, 1 appear ; ed, finished.

Greek Root Ge, the earth ; geography, geology, geologist, geometry, geometric.

Suffixto, pertaining to.

Consult your dictionary, then repeat the meaning and pronunciation of each word.


Give a verb, an adjective, and a noun derived from each of the following Latin roots: moveo, sentio, porto, memor, sacer.

Language Tests.

1.    The following words are all used in the lesson. Find them, then make sentences, using them with a different meaning : transports, harbour, fleet, sap. rail.

2.    Use the following words correctly in sentences :—tiers, tears, imminent, eminent, disfigured, transfigured, vessels, vassals, weather, whether, wether.

3.    “ In a few hours, perhaps a tenth of them would have looked their last on the sun.”

In other words, ” The army would be . . . . ”

Fill in the blank space with one word and give its full derivation.

4.    Give the names for a collection of : -fish, ships, goats, sheep, men, soldiers, islands, books.


1.    Savagery:—wild appearance.

2.    Transfigured : changed in outward form and glorified.

3.    Transports :—ships, carrying troops.

4.    Tiers :—rows.

5.    Exultation :—triumph ; lively joy.

(>. Remote :—distant.

7.    Mangled :-■■■cut or torn.

8.    Imbecile:—weak in mind.

9.    Exult : rejoice.

U). Sap : —covered siege trench.

11.    Relaxation : -relief from strain.

12.    Pageant: splendid show.

13.    Imminent :—threatening ; close at hand.

14.    Battalion :—A body of infantry of from 500 to 1,000 men.

15.    Endured :—borne.

1C». Tumult: confused noise.

17. Unshaken: unstirred by emotion.


Haze, loveliness, Samothrace, marvellous, Lemnos, noisy, blotted, sweating, dodging, luxury, crammed, quarrels, generous, rejoicing, Tenedos.


Page 40.


The paragraph at the top of this lesson in your Reader will show how to write in your own words tlie words of a poem :—

1.    Continue the story ;

2.    A Walk along a River or Creek Bank ;

3.    Mercy.

4.    A Friendly Contest you have seen or taken part in.


1. How would you classify this poem—descriptive, dramatic, narrative, reflective ?

2.    There are two definite parts in this extract :—

(a)    The conversation leading up to the duel ;

(b)    The combat itself. Notice how quick action of the second part is denoted by the predominance of short vowel-sounds.

3.    Sir \V. Scott's poetry is very rhythmical. Note how pleasing the rhythm is in this piece. Write out the six lines commencing :—" Then each at once his falchion drew,' and mark accented syllables.

4.    How do the rhymes occur, alternately or consecutively ? The rhyming lines are in pairs, but there are three instances where three lines rhyme instead of two. Write these nine rhyming words.

Write out from this poem five pairs of words which are true rhymes and five pairs which are not true rhymes.

(>. Note in the fifth line the use of 41 ceaseless for ceaselessly.” This is called “ poetic license.” Find another example of this in the poem.

7.    W hy does Roderick Dhu refer to himself as ” This murderous Chief, this ruthless man, this head of a rebellious clan ” ?

8.    What is meant by ” flagging zeal,” ” carpet knight,” ” no stinted draught,” ” Of yore her eagle-wings unfurled,” ” erring blade ” ?

0.    Express in your own words the conversation between the Saxon and the Gael prior to the combat.

10, In the poem, we read that Roderick Dhu was stronger far.” Account for his defeat.


1.    Divide into clauses, stating kind and relation of each:— 111 fared it then with Roderick Dhu, That on the field his targe he threw, Whose brazen studs and tough bull-hide, Had death so often dashed aside ; For. trained abroad his arms to wield, Fitz-James’s blade was sword and shield.

2.    Analyse in detail:—

(i/) His clotted locks he backward threw.

(b)    Here his course the Chieftain stayed.

(c)    Bold Saxon ! to his promise just,

Vich-Alpine has discharged his trust.

3.    Parse in (1) :—

111, that, whose, had dashed, trained, wield, shield ; And in (2) :—

Clotted, backward, Saxon, just.

Rule of Syntax.

” Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, and adjectives should not be used as adverbs, nor adverbs as adjectives.” Refer to No. t> of ” Appreciation.”


CeaselessCedo, I go or I yield ; less, without.

RecreantRe, back ; credo, I believe ; out, one who. RepresentedRe, back or again ; pre, before ; ens nil is, being, ed, finished.

PursuedPm, through ; sequor, I follow ; ed, finished.

Hospitality—Hospes, a guest; able, able: tv, like.

REBELLIOUS—Re, back ; bellutu, war ; ous, full of.

Conquers—Con, with or together ; qucero, I seek. Invulnerable—hi, not ; vulnus, a wound ; able, able. Exhausted—Ex, out of; haw io, I draw ; ed, finished. Erring—Erro, I wander ; ing, going on.

Greek Root —Helios, the sun ; aphelion, perihelion, heliograph, heliotrope, helioid. helioscope, helium. These are hard words. Search out their meanings and pronunciations in the dictionary. Prefixes—pen, round ; ap, to.


“ Make out in tabular form the following columns : Root, Meaning, Noun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb. Write in the “ Root ” column the following:—caput, impero, curro, debeo, servo, solve, spero, premo, caveo, capio. Look through the lesson and pick a derivative from each root, and write in proper column. Then complete your table.

Language Tests.

Write the opposites of :—ruthless, courtesy, dubious, compressed, rebellious, presumption, valour, revenge, relaxing, recreant.


1.    Dhu:—black (Gaelic).

2.    Saxon :—inhabitant of the Lowlands, of English stock, as opposed to the Celtic Highlander (Gael), north of the Forth.

3.    Mouldering :—decaying.

4.    Discharged :—fulfilled.

5.    Ruthless :—pitiless.

(>. Watch :—place where guard is kept.

7.    Ward :—stronghold.

8. Vantageless :—without advantage.

1).    Brand :—sword.

10.    Meed :—reward.

11.    Feud:—deadly quarrel.

12.    Brake:—place overgrown with shrubs and brambles.

13.    Prophecy :—prediction.

14.    Plight:—pledge.

If). Presumption :—arrogance ; pride.

16.    Homage :—submission.

17.    Courteous:—obliging.

18.    Truce:—temporary cessation of fighting.

19. Copse:—a wood of small trees.

20.    Cairn :—heap of stones.

21.    Falchion :—sword.

22. Scabbard :—sheath of a sword.

23.    Dubious :—doubtful.

24.    Pass :—thrust.

25.    Ward :—guard.

2G.    Feint:—make a mock attack.

27.    Invulnerable :—unconquerable.

28.    I'oiled :—baffled.

29 . Recreant :—coward.

30.    Toil :—net or snare.

31.    Recked :—cared.

32.    Desperate :—violent.

33.    Gripe :—grasp.

34.    Compressed :—squeezed.

35.    Supplied :—compensated.

36.    Relaxing :—loosening.

Other Spellings.

Outstripped, territory, treacherously, pursued, challenged, enmity, Vennachar, yore, murderous, courtesy, steels, knight, fared, practised, tartans, dyed, borne, adder, received, triple, reeled.

Page 46.

Some people earn much money by writing articles for newspapers. Only those who write interestingly have their articles accepted. It will be to your advantage to secure this power in some degree before you leave the primary school. Therefore, study good models.

1.    The History of the Newspaper.

2.    An Essay on “ Advertisements.”

3.    Look in your own newspaper for an advertisement concerning :—

(a)    a position to be filled ;

(b)    a house to let ;

and answer each in proper form.

4.    Make out advertisements for a newspaper concerning :—

(a)    a lost dog ;

(b)    a motor car for sale.

Subject Matter.

Note.—Ancient Rome and China introduced the newspaper. As early as the first century, the Roman Government issued daily bulletins of official news called the acta diuvna. These were posted in public places, and circulated to the Generals in command of the different armies. In China, the Peking Gazette has been published regularly since 618 A.D. It was not, however, until the introduction of printing from movable type (about 1450) that anything resembling the modern news-sheet was issued. The Germans were the pioneers and their news-sheets were started in the early part of the 16th century. The newspaper industry began in England in 1622 when the Weekly News was issued by Nathaniel Butter.

1.    Who invented the printing press? How were books prepared before the advent of printing ? How was local news broadcast in villages before newspapers became common ?

2.    Can you suggest why the newspaper industry has been revolutionized within the last century ?

3.    What name is given to the man who prepares for publication all the work sent in ?

4.    It is recorded that when peace was signed at Versailles, the London evening newspapers announced the fact within three minutes after the signatures had been affixed. Look in your own newspapers for instances of rapid communication and publication of news.

o. Who invented :—

(a)    the electric telegraph ;

(b)    the telephone ;

(c)    the submarine cable.

0. What do you understand by the phrase, “ The Liberty of the Press ” ? Who was responsible for gaining that liberty :

(a)    in England ?

[b)    in Australia ?

7. What countries help to supply the world with wood-pulp for newspapers ?


(a)    Few readers stop to consider, as they open their daily paper, how much thought, skill and labour have gone to its making.

(b)    One is the doing of nature, and reveals anew to our careless eyes the streets or the fields amid which our daily lost is cast ; the other is the work of man ; and displays on a few printed pages the most notable things that have been said and done within the previous twenty-four hours, the world over.

(o) The advertisements, to which most readers give only a hurried glance, are the mainstay of a newspaper, for without them it could not pay its way.


Parse in (a) consider, have gone, making ; in (b) one, doing, anew, amid, is cast ; and in (c) which, mainstay, them.

Rule of Syntax.

“ When a noun or pronoun precedes a participle, and has no grammatical connection with any other word in the sentence, it is said to be in the nominative absolute.” Point out the word in the nominative absolute in this sentence :    ” The interests of every class

of reader being kept in mind, many subjects must be discussed.”


LITERATURE—Litera, a letter ; ure, state of being.

TelephoneTele, afar ; phone, sound.

CameraCamera, a vault.

PhotographPhos, light; Grapho, I write.

FinanceFinis, an end ; ance, state of being.

JournalistDies, a day ; al, belonging to ; ist, one who.

VerdictVerus, true ; dico dictum, I say.

CriticalKrites, a judge; ical, belonging to.

DeliverDe, down ; liber, free.

PoliticsPolls, a city ; ic, belonging to.

Greek RootBallo, I throw ; bolt, parable, emblem, problem, symbol, hyperbole, symbolism. Compile meanings from dictionary. Prefixespara, beside ; pro, forth ; sym, with ; hyper, over.


Taking the roots, levo, scribo, volvo, valeo, and verto, form from each a noun, an adjective, a verb and an adverb.

Language Tests.

I Form adjectives from :—miracle, experiment,volume, describe, telephone, ceremony, finance, art, fashion, metal, skill, labour.

2. Form nouns from :—solitary, modern, content, royal, weary, important, human, hungry.

Meani ngs.

1.    Experiment:—trial.

2.    Frontiers :—borders of countries.

3.    Medley :—mixture.

4.    Ferreting :—searching out.

5.    Shorthand:—a method of writing by means of symbols, quickly enough to keep pace with a speaker.

G.    Vied :—competed.

7.    Critical :—decisive ; fault finding.

8.    Ceremony :—formal observance.

9.    Verdict:—pronounced opinion.

10.    Politics :—the science and art of the government of a State.

11. Finance:—money matters.


Miracles, machinery, accepted, marvels, notable, operator, reveals, keyboard, practice, lever, volume, molten, solitary, metal, tour, mould, ancient, linotype, speech, columns, detail, purring, prevails, ceiling, mainstay, depths, discussed, whirling.

Page 51.

Since this is an extract from a novel which is regarded as one of the finest historical novels in the English language, its arrangement and style are worthy of study and imitation. Notice particularly how questions, exclamations, and direct speech relieve the narration of monotony of form.

1.    A Moonlight Scene ;

2.    “ A Narrow Escape.” Write an original story.

3.    “ Where there’s a will, there’s a way.”

Subject Matter.

1 What office in a Queensland city would correspond with that of burgomaster in this Dutch town ?

2.    Why was Gerard afraid to eat the food brought to him in prison ?

3.    Tinder-box—a box containing tinder (i.e., dry substance such as charred linen which readily takes fire), flint and steel.

Name other methods of producing fire employed by people before the introduction of matches.

W hen were matches introduced ? Find out what you can about their manufacture. Where are the matches made that are used in your home ?

4.    What gave Gerard the superhuman energy to lift the oak

chest ?    .

5. What part did Martin Wittenhaagen play in the rescue ? t>.    Explain in your own words how Gerard was supplied with

the means of escape.

7. Name the various emotions (or feelings experienced by Gerard from the time he was imprisoned till when he set foot upon the ground.


(a) He had no sooner begun to draw this up, than he found lie had now a heavy weight to deal with.

(b)    After the first start and misgivings this gave him, Gerard comprehended that the chest had not burst, but opened.

(c)    Combine the following into one well-balanced sentence : lie passed a rusty, slimy streak on the wall ; it was some ten feet long. The rope made his hands very hot. He stole another look up. The prison window was a good way off now. The rope made his hands sore.

Parsi ng.

Parse in (a) had, draw, this, than, had, with ; and in (b) first, start, him, but opened.

Rule of Syntax.

In the sentence, “ Martin Wittenhaagen, an archer, and the friend of Margaret, helped Gerard, the prisoner, to escape,” what is the case of “ archer,” “ friend,” and " prisoner ” ? Learn this rule :

” When two nouns or a noun and pronoun come together signifying the same person or thing, they are said to be in apposition and must agree in case.”


Despondency—De, down ; spondeo, 1 promise ; nicy, state of being.

MlSSiT.ES—Milto missus, 1 send.

Eccentricities He, out of; centrum, the centre ; ic, belonging to ; ity, state of being.

Indistinct—In, not; di, asunder; stinguo, I mark.

Vague— Vagus, wandering.

ImprisonedIm, into ; preliendo, 1 sei/.e ; cd, finished.

Manoeuvre Manus, the hand; opus, operis, a work.

Confidence—Con, with; fides, faith ; nice, state of being. Superhuman — Super, above; homo, a man.

Energy—Ergon, work ; y, abounding in.

Greek Root Kineo, I move; cinematograph, kinemato graph, kinetic, kinetophone, kinetoscope. Write out dictionary meanings and pronunciations.


Re-write the following sentences, substituting for each of the italicised words or phrases a single word of Latin origin. Give tbe ’ full derivation of each word.

1.    As the sun bent downward, Gerard’s heart sank.

2.    ” Draw up, Gerard, till you see freedom.”

3.    He seized the idea that the chest had not burst, but opened.

4.    He wriggled out step by step.

5.    He saw in the moonlight a sight that made him live again.

6.    lie sat for a moment to recover his breath and gather together his courage.

Language Tests.

1.    Make sentences, using the following words : first as nouns, then as verbs, and then as adjectives (15 sentences in all ; tower, flash, rope, sound, chill.

2.    Write lists of synonyms for:—energy, waning, attached, rapidly, comprehended.


1.    Embers:—dying sparks.

1. Despondency :—dejection ; loss of hope.

3.    Assassinate :—kill by treacherous violence.

E Eccentricities :—peculiarities of conduct.

5.    Vague :—not clear in meaning.

6.    Indistinct :—not clear in outline.    •

7.    Poised :—balanced.

8.    Misgiving :—doubt ; fear

9.    Comprehended :—understood.

10.    Power of resistance:—being able to withstand (Gerard’s weight).

11.    Reflected :—considered.

12.    Manoeuvre:—skilful movement.

13.    Ventured :—dared.


Hearth, superhuman, ally, upstretched, historical, heavier, attitude, breathing, neighbouring, whipcord, swimmer, embrace, imprisoned, puzzling, waist, faithful, Stadthouse, perspiration, anxiously, archer, exhausted, uttered, drooping, hauled, prayer, assassinate, succession, sill, thrilling, capable, wriggled, skein, poised, necessarily, devoured, scuttled, clenched, seized, resistance, slimy.

Page 55.

There is no subject in the school curriculum of greater importance than composition. At intervals prizes are offered for competition and some of    these prizes are of great    value. Many    positions in    life

are    available    only to those who can    compose well.    Therefore,    by

imitation and study, strive to improve constantly.

1.    Write an essay on the proverb : “ Pride goeth before a fall.”

2.    A composition on the picture    on page 57.

3.    Tell    the story of some other    great historical    character who

fell from grace as Wolsey did.

Appreciation and Subject Matter.

1. This extract was taken from Shakespeare’s historical play, Henry VII. Shakespeare very rarely makes his poetry rhyme. What is such a form of verse called ?

Notice the rhythm. Write out the first five lines of the lesson and mark the accented syllables.

3.    Shakespeare makes his writing very vivid by the use of many similes and métaphores. Find two examples of each.

4.    Who was Cromwell ?

ô. Read in your history book the story of Wolsey’s remarkable career and the circumstances that led to his downfall, fi. Wolsey was a great man and no man can be truly great without being generous. In his third speech in this extract, what shows his generosity ?

7.    What sin does Wolsey himself blame for his downfall ? Is this true in his case ?

8.    Tell in your own words the advice that Wolsey gave Cromwell.

9.    (a) Paraphrase :

" I have ventured,

Like little wanton boys that swim on bladders,

This many summers in a sea of glory :

But far beyond my depth.”

(b) Explain “ That sun I pray may never set ” ; ” But thou hast forced me, out of thy honest truth, to play the woman ’ ; ” sounded all the depths and shoals of honour.”

10.    “ Had I but served .... to mine enemies.” These are the

words the poet puts into Wolsey’s mouth. On the way from Yorkshire to London to meet his trial, Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey, with the words on his lips. ” Had I but served God as diligently as I have served the King, He would not have given me over in my gray hairs.” Look at the picture in your reading book. The words underneath it are uttered later on in the play. Whose words are they ? What is the meaning of ” broken with the storms of state ” ?


{a) (Eve a general analysis of :—

And when I am forgotten, as I shall be,

And sleep in dull, cold marble, where no mention Of me more must be heard of. say I taught thee ;

Say, Wolsey—that once trod the ways of glory,

And sounded all the depths and shoals of honour,— Found thee a way, out of his wreck, to rise in.

(/>) Analyse in detail :—

” O father abbot,

An old man, broken with the storms of state,

Is come to lay his weary bones among ye.”


(a)    Parse every word in the line :—

Mark but mv fall and that that ruined me.

(b)    Parse the following words in Analysis :—

am forgotten, shall be, sleep, mention, thee, Say, all, rise, abbot, lay, among.

Rule of Syntax.

I wo singular nominatives joined by ‘ or or ' nor take a verb in the singular. Construct a sentence about Wolsey illustrating this rule.


LuciferLux, lucis, light ; fero, I bear.

DignitiesDignus, worthy ; ity, state of being.

ConscienceCon, with or together ; scio, I know ; etice, state of being.

Humbly-—Humus, the ground; ly, like.

FortitudeLortis, strong; tude, state of being.

Endure—Ln, to make ; dm us, hard, lasting.

ServiceServio, I serve ; ice, state of.

Ambition—A tub, on both sides; eo, itus, I go; ion, the act of. Corruption—Cor, with ; rmnpo, ruptus, I break ; ion, the act of. Inventory—In, into; venio, ventus, I come; ory, state of.

Greek RootPolys, many ; Polynesia, polyanthus, polygon, polyscope, polytechnic. For pronunciation and meanings, see dictionary.


1. By using a prefix or a suffix, reverse the meaning of the following words:—honour, dignity, service, burden, noble, fear.

-• Build a noun, a verb, an adjective and an adverb from each of :—miser, inenior, imago, specio.

Language Tests.

1.    Make sentences, using the following words in such a way as to show that you fully understand their meanings forego, inventory, corruption, martyr, usher, fortitude, integrity.

2.    Give antonyms for:—integrity, earthly, miseries, neglect, future, forgotten.


1.    Ventured:—dared.

2.    Their ruin :—i.e., the ruin which they (princes) inflict.

3.    Dignities :—honours, ranks.

4.    Methinks :—it seems to me.

Fortitude :—firmness in meeting trouble.

6.    Esher:—show in.

7.    Gild :—cover with golden light.

8.    Use (for usance) :—interest or profit.

9.    Corruption :—wickedness.

10.    Martyr :—one who dies in a noble cause.

11.    Pr’ythee :—(1) pray thee.

12.    Inventory:—a detailed list.

13.    Integrity : uprightness.


Farewell, honours, wanton, pillars, miseries, enemies, shoals, prayers, wreck, angels, zeal, naked, pillows, reck, angles, enemy’s, enemies’.

Page 59.

The writing of English is the most important factor in education. Do not be satisfied with the production of a certain number of words. Take as vour motto : “ livery essay I am composing better and better.”

1.    Tell the story of ” The First Landing of the Anzacs.”

2.    Patriotism.

3.    The Celebration of Anzac Day.

Subject Matter.

1.    Find on your atlas: Gallipoli, Gaba Tepe, Cape Ilelles.

2.    What was the aim and purpose of the Gallipoli Campaign ?

3.    Which of the Allies had armies there besides Australia and New Zealand ?

4.    IIow long was the peninsula occupied by Allied armies, and what was the result of the Campaign ?

5.    Where were the surviving Anzacs sent ?

(>. How was it that the Turks were so well prepared ?

7.    What is meant by : —” independent rifle tire,” “ at short range,” ” point blank,” “ at the double,” ” concentrated fire ” ?

8.    Express in your own words : ” life went to the quicker finger ”; “ stalked the snipers from the flash,” ” the flower of this world’s manhood,” ” bear the laurels and the scars of victory.”

9.    Who does Masefield say were “ the unsung heroes of that landing ” ? Why ? Mention some of the things that would be in the boxes brought ashore.

10.    Explain the following military terms: -battalion, sap, counter-charge, snipers, machine-gun.

11.    What organization now in existence has as its chief aim the prevention of future wars ? How does it hope to bring this about ? What part does Australia play in this world-parliament ?


(a)    Divide into clauses, stating the nature and relation of each : On each anniversary, we are called upon solemnly to remember the terrific ordeal through which our newly-trained Australian forces passed, the indescribable sufferings which they endured, and to sympathize with those whose hearts and homes were suddenly darkened by the sacrifice of those who fell.


(b)    Combine the following facts in one well-balanced complex sentence :—The boats struck the shingle. The men waded ashore. These men belonged to the 3rd Brigade. The Brigade was part of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. The Turks were attacking them at close range.

Parsi ng.

Parse the following words in Analysis (a) :—each, are called, through, our, sufferings, endured, sympathize, suddenly.

Rule of Syntax.

Relative pronouns agree with their antecedents in number and gender.”

In the analysis, question >a , you will find four relative pronouns. Parse them fully.


Anniversary Annus, a year; verto, versus, I turn; ary, belonging to.

Explosive- -Ex, out of ; platuio, piaudus, 1 clap ; ive, belonging to. SympathizeSyrn, with ; pathos, feeling ; ize, to make.

Survey—Sur, above ; video, I see.

IsolatedInsula, an island ; ate, to make ; ed, finished. DifficultyDif, asunder or apart ; facilis, easy ; ty, state of being.

RealizeRes, a thing; ize, to make.

Munitions—Munio, I fortify ; ion, the act of.

IndependentIn, not ; de, down ; pendeo, I hang ; ent, belonging to.

ConcentratedCon, with ; centrum, the middle point ; ate, to make ; ed, finished.

Greek Root -Sftopeo, I see; scope, microscope, telescope, kaleidoscope, bishop. Write out meanings and pronunciations from diet ionary.


Reverse the meaning of the following words by adding a prefix to each :—owning, necessary, proper, appeared, sympathetic, honour, prepared, embarking, directed, organised.

Language Tests.

1.    Form abstract and common nouns from:—heroic, defend, realize, survive, succeed, represent, pursue.

2.    Write the past tense, past participle and present participle of the following verbs :—stir, creep, drop, dig, cease, burst.

3.    Show in sentences how the word ” near ” may be used as different parts of speech. State how the word is used in each case.


1.    Anniversary:—yearly celebration.

2.    Ordeal :—severe trial.

3. Concentrated :—focused ; brought to bear.

4.    Intercept :—stop on the way.

5.    Survivors : those who remained alive.

(i. Tows :—small boats which were to carry the men from the ships.

7.    Shingle :—water-worn rock coarser than gravel.

8.    Ambushed :—lay in wait for.

9.    Fissured :—containing clefts or chasms.

10. Survey : -particular view and examination.

1 1. Stalked :—approached warily under cover.

12. Howitzers:—short guns for high angle firing of shells at low velocities.

13.    Disembarking:—putting ashore.

14.    Shrapnel:—a shell which, on exploding, scatters missiles in all directions :—

15.    Artillery:—heavy guns.

16.    Overwhelming :—crushing.

17.    Disorganized :—disordered.

18.    Dug in:—entrenched.

19.    Their faith :—i.e., the Mohammedan faith.

20.    In travail of new age :—as if the night were labouring to bring forth a new age.


Solemnly, chorus, lull, terrific, fiercer, cruelly, indescribable, continually, doctors, sacrifice, intense, ghastly, oars, necessaries, surrender, scene, forty, warmth, duels, marvellous, defiance, bombs, hovel, shellsmitten, hurl, corpses, warmed. Corps.

Make sentences to illustrate the use of these words.

Pages 66-9.
Com position.

Notice that Mackenzie uses short sentences. The conjunction “and” which children use too often, is scarcely used at all. Avoid as much as possible the use of more than one “ and ” in a sentence. A full stop will avoid repetition.

{a) Story of the Founding of some other British Colonv.

(b)    A Sea Trip.

(c)    Describe the Adventures of a Ship-wrecked Party.

Subject Matter.

(a)    What family of Kings was reigning in England when this colony was founded ?

(b)    “ The ' Speedwell ’ brought them to Southampton.” From whence ? Why were they there ?

(c)    Who were the first discoverers of America ?

(d)    Who is given the credit of discovering it, and in what year ?

(r) Name some of the other colonies in America founded about the

same time.

(/) Give the name of a Frenchman who founded a colony farther north.

(g)    How long did it take the “ Mayflower ” to cross the Atlantic ?

(h)    How long would it take nowadays ? Why the difference ?

(i)    Name some of the difficulties and dangers faced by the Colonists.

O') Investigate the changes that have taken place since the arrival of the colonists.


(a)    Analyse :—They knew what despotism was, and they were very sure that democracy could, by no possibility, be so bad.

(b)    Pick out the subordinate clauses in the following and state the kind and relationship :

(1) It was not till the 1 1th of November that the “ Mayflower ” dropped her anchor in the waters of Cape Cod Bay.

2; They found that nineteen houses would contain then diminished numbers.

Pick out. from the lesson, ten adverbial clauses and state their relationship.    •


Parse fully the words italicised.

Rules of Syntax.

Write the rule of syntax exemplified in each of the italicised :—

i I / This little ship, the Speedwell, brought them to Southampton.

(2)    The “ Mayflower " was a ship of one hundred and sixty tons.

(3)    A spot was fixed upon.


Democracy—Dcm os, the people ; krai os, power.

Epidemic—Epi, upon ; demos, the people ; ic, pertaining to. Survivors—Sur, above ; vivo, I live ; or. one who ; s, plural ending. Descendants—De, down ; scando, I climb ; a>it, one who. Dismissed—D/s, asunder; mitto, I send; ed, finished. Unprosperouslv— l n, not; pro, forward; spero, 1 hope; ous, full of ; /v, like.

ExpeditionEx, out of ; pcs. a foot ; ion, the act of.

Pronounced — Eio, forth or forward ; nuncio, I tell ; ed, finished. Excessively—Ex, out of ; ccdo (cessus), 1 go ; ive, emphasis ; ly, like.

Inhabited—In, in ; habito, I dwell ; ed, finished.

Greek RootErgon, work ; energy, energetic, surgeon, energetically, energize.

Suffix—ize, to make.

Consult your dictionary for the meanings of the above words, then frame sentences to illustrate their use.

Language Tests.

(a)    Re-write the first paragraph to “ farewells,” changing the verbs from the present to the past tense.

(b)    Kind synonyms for :—margin, resolved, enfeebled, diminished, region, appointed, authority, deserted, supplies, wavered.


1.    Pastor:—a minister of religion, a clergyman.

2.    Granite:—a hard kind of igneous or eruptive rock.

3.    Eminence :—raised ground.

4.    Palisade :—fence of stakes.

r>.    Despotism:—the rule of a tyrant,

fi. Extinction : —being put out of existence.

7.    Straits : —difficulties or hardships.

8.    Counsels : —advice.

9.    Abandoned :—given up entirely.

10. Hostility:—enmity or antagonism.

Spelling, Word Building, Sentence Construction.

Prayers, armour, autumn, recurred, triumph, souls, severe, signed, weather, nineteen, burying, government, dutifully, laboured, cabin, incur, double, visitors, choose, locality, anxiety.

Pages 70-71.
Com position.

The best way to appreciate a poem is to read it through with sympathetic expression and visualise it as a whole. General explanations should follow and these should include any interesting biographical notes on the life of the author, and particularly any events that inspired the poem under discussion. Refer to Crossing of the Bar ” and see how this plan may be followed.


(<7) The Seasons.

(b) Nature in Spring.

(r) Imagine you are an English school-child and write a letter to an Australian friend describing an English Winter.

Subject Matter and Appreciation.

1.    Which stanza appeals to you most ? Why ?

2.    Why does the poet paint September as the month of many changes?

3.    What scheme of rhyming is followed ? Write out the rhyming words in the first two stanzas.

4.    Write down two examples in the poem in which the words are not true rhymes.

5.    The poem abounds in examples of alliteration. Write out ten lines in which it is used.

6.    Find and read the poem, “ Home Thoughts from Abroad,” by Browning. Which of the two poems has the greater appeal to you ? Why ?

7.    Write, in your own words, the changing pictures given by the poet in :—

High places that knew of the gold and the white On the forehead of Morning,

Now darken and quake, and the steps of the Night Are heavy with warning.

S. Explain :—“ Spring in her raiment,” “ shadows and shine,” “ Resplendent September,” “ with her blossomy traces,” “ Grey Winter hath gone, like a wearisome guest.”

9. Why does the poet use the words hath, goetli, leapeth ?

10. Mark the accents in the first lines of the third and fourth stanzas.


(a) Analyse :—

The West, when it blows at the full of the noon And beats on the beaches,

Is filled with a tender and tremulous tune That touches and teaches.

\b) Analyse in detail :—

We, having a secret to others unknown.

In the cool mountain-mosses,

May whisper together, September, alone,

Of our loves and our losses.


(а)    Parse the words italicised in the sentences for analysis.

(б)    Find, in the poem, as many examples of nouns in opposition, as you can.

Language Tests.

ia) Give the comparison of the following adjectives:—fierce, wearisome, old, tender, heavy, wild, bitter, high, lofty, loud!

(¿/ Give the present tense, past tense, past participle, and present participle of : stand, were, come, gone, hidden, knew, run, beats, made, sleep.

(c) Find as many words as you can which convey the same meaning as each of :—high, chief, loud, old, heavy.


I nus, duo, Ires, queittuor, quinqué, sex, septan, octo, novem, decern.

Find and learn the meanings of the Latin roots given and write two derivatives of each.

Greek RootTherme, heat; thermometer, thermal, isothermal, isotherm. After reference to your dictionary construct sentences to show the use of the above words.



Raiment :

—clothing or dress.

• >


:—strong attachment.


Resplendent :—shining very brightly.



—subj ects.


Tur retted

:—furnished with turrets or towers.


Middle-watch :—the watch from midnight to four



deep feeling.


Ployer : -

a wading bird with migratory habits.


Gorges :

-very narrow valleys.


Surges : —


Vocabu lary.

Spelling, Word-Building and Sentence Construction.

Guest, fashion, fierce, tremulous, stories, rhyme, whisper, beauty, echoing, ghost, complains, September, February, August, January October, December, November, Autumn, weather.


Pages 72 to 77.


We need a different vocabulary for each different subject. Here we have a science vocabulary which is rather difficult to acquire. 1 he lesson will give you a guide in writing about your own science lessons and remind you that good English is expected whatever the subject may be.


ur Tell the story of some other scientific discovery.

(6 What the Future Holds. (Write an essay forecasting the effect of scientific discoveries upon the life of the people of this earth).

:c Steel and the uses to which it is put.

Subject Matter.

1.    Why is Radium called the Magic Metal ?

2.    Give the names of all the metals you know. Classify them under these headings:—heaviest, lightest, cheapest, most useful, most costly.

3.    What names are associated with the discovery of Radium ?

4.    How is it obtained ? What quantities exist ?

5.    Where is pitchblende found ? Locate these places on map of world ?

0. To what use is Radium put ?

7.    Is there any Radium in Australia ? If so, where is it kept ?

8.    Who are the only persons allowed to handle it ? Why ?

9.    Is the knowledge of this metal complete ?

10. What are the places where scientists work called ? And what adjective is used to describe the work they do ?


Analyse :—(a) The marvel of it is that, while it gives off light and heat continuously, it does not seem to lose any weight.

(b)    The secret is that it is not the radium that is glowing, but the zinc sulphate, that has only a tiny trace of radium.

(c)    Two years later, Professor Curie and Madame Curie found that some of the pitchblende with which they were experimenting was much more powerful than any uranium that they had used.


(a)    Parse the words italicised in the sentences for analysis.

(b)    Write out ten sentences from the lesson, containing auxiliary verbs and give the use of each of those verbs.

Language Tests.

(a)    Find words in the lesson which convey the same meaning as :

(1)    Place where ore is turned into metal.

(2)    Death caused by contact with an electric current.

(2) One who performs operations at a hospital.

(4)    Having the quality of shining in the dark.

(5)    The sun and all other heavenly bodies.

(b)    Change each of the following from the active to the passive

voice :—

(1)    She chose science as her field of study.

(2)    To obtain one thimbleful of radium, the machinery must reduce a trainload of ore.

(3)    Scientists believe that this mysterious metal will bo a key to the unknown.


Photographic—Phos, light ; grapho, I write; ic, pertaining to. Scientist—Scio, I know ; ist, one who.

AbsorbedAh, from ; soroco, I suck up ; ed, finished. Concluded—■( on, with; ciando, I shut; ed, finished. Fascinating — Pascino, I charm or bewitch; ate, to make; tng, going on.

Vitality—Vita, life; at, belonging to; ity, state of being. UNIVERSE—(Hus, one; verto, I turn.

Indestructible —In, not ; de, down; struo, I build ; ible, capable of. Perpetuai. -Per, through ; peto, I seek ; at. belonging to. Educated -E, out of; (luco, I lead ; ed, finished.

Greek Root — .4 relie, rule. Search out the dictionary meaning of and form sentences illustrating : —anarchism, monarchy, hierarchy, anarchy.

Suffixes— v/ pertaining to; ism, pertaining to.


1.    Perpetual motion:—continual movement.

2.    Atom :—a minute particle of matter.

3.    Element : one of the simplest parts of which a body is composed .

4.    Oxide:—A compound of oxygen with some other element,

f).    Investigation:—thorough inquiry into.

(5.    Infinite capacities:—very great capabilities.

7.    Universe:—the whole system of creation.

8.    Indestructible vitality : —undestroyable life.

9.    Zinc sulphate :—a salt resulting from the action of sulphuric acid on zinc.

10. Baffling .'—perplexing.


Spelling, Word-Building and Sentence Construction.

Furnace, scientist, switches, dials, metals, separate, solar, realm, poison, fascinating, uranium, tremendous, properties, nucleus, experiment, threw, laboratory, surgeon, pitchblende, complete.


Pages 77-79.


Appreciation of Poetry is in many respects similar to the appreciation of music. The underlying principles exist in both cases. Accent, metre, combination and phrasing are common to both. By variation in tone-colour, rhythm, and the rise and fall of pitch, both poetry and music are capable of stirring the emotions.


(a) Birds.    *

(¿>) Conversation between two birds, one caged and the other


(c) Which is the better—Country Life or City Life ?

Subject Matter and Appreciation.

Note.—Notice the simplicity of the language of the poem. Again, as in “ September in Australia.” the poet uses alliteration with pleasing effect. This poem. ” Bell-Birds.” will have, in all probability, a greater appeal to you than did September in Australia because, although built on much the same plan, it paints pictures of familiar scenes, in smooth and musical lines.

1.    Where, according to the poem, is the bell-bird to be found ? Kind the parts of Australia it frequents.

2.    Where did the poet live in his early years ? Write out the line which tells you this.

3.    Compare the sounds heard in a city with those of the bush.

4.    What is the bird afraid of ? To whom is its voice welcome ? Why ?

b. Find a word in the poem which the poet has altered to suit his purpose and write it as he would have done in prose.

.    Why did he make the alteration ?

6.    What scheme of rhyming is followed ? Write out the rhyming words in the second stanza.

7.    Is there any break in the true rhyming ? If so, give the words that are not true rhymes.

8.    Write out ten lines in which alliteration is used.

9.    Mark the accents in the first two lines of the second stanza.


Analyse in deatil :—

(a)    Pent in the ridges for ever and ever

The bell-bird directs him to spring and to river.

(b)    So I keep in the city and alleys

The beauty and strength of the deep mountain valleys.

(r) Moss and the sedges

Touch with their beauty, the banks and the ledges.


Parse the words italicised below and in the sentences for analysis : (<-/) They start up like fairies.

(t>) Construct sentences, using the following words as different parts of speech :—light, foot, need, ring, back, beat.


Find words in the poem derived from :—mans, decern, curro, video, rcgo. Then form a noun, an adjective and a verb derived from each root.

Greek Root—Demos, the people ; democrat, democracy, epidemic, demagogue. Use your dictionary in framing sentences to illustrate these derivatives which are in common use.

Vocabulary and General Knowledge.

(a) Make out lists of all the Australian birds and trees you know. (/;) Make out a list of all the colours you know.


1.    Sedges : a kind of grass which grows in swamps or damp places.

2.    Hues:—colours.

3.    Interwoven :—blended or mixed together.



:—little brooks or creeks.


Pent :—

closely shut in.








Forest-rafters:—the spreading branches of the trees



—sentimental songs or poetry.


Tresses :


Spelling, Word-Building and Sentence Construction.

Gorges, beauty, cedar, fairies, fiery, fashion, sorest, glimpses, currents, pebbles, interwoven.

Language Tests.

r/) Give antonvins of:—wax, borrowed, welcome, laughter hide.    '

' ' Write words which are pronounced much the same as but spelled differently to :—hues, morning, alleys, break, gorges, currents.

Pages 80-83.
Com position.

I he careful study of good models is essential as a discipline in the craftsmanship of English.” Having studied this good model put it aside when writing the essay you select. It is an unpardonable error to attempt to pass off transcribed passages as original.


(a)    Write a brief story of the " Crusades.”

(b)    Your favourite character in History.

(r) Write an Imaginary Conversation that took place between the Crusader and the Saracen at the fountain.

Subject Matter.

During what years were the Wars of the Crusades fought ? Give also the name of the English King who played a prominent part.

What was the objective of the Crusades ?

Name the country in which the encounter took place. Give five words from the lesson which helped you to arrive at your answer.

How was the Crusader dressed, and what weapons did he carry ?

What device did the Crusader wear to indicate his mission ? W hat did the knight intend to convey by adopting the sign of the ” Crouching Leopard ” ?

Why were the two warriors mounted on different types of steeds?

Explain the proverb : ” In the desert no man meets a friend.” Why did the Crusader swear : “ By the cross of my sword ” ? By what means did the Crusaders travel to the Holy Land ? Trace the journey on a map and name the countries passed through.

1 .












The distant form separated itself from the trees, which partly hid its motions and advanced towards the knight with a speed which soon showed a mounted horseman, whom his turban, long spear and green caftan, floating in the wind, on his nearer approach, showed to be a Saracen cavalier. The latter had in the meanwhile recovered his mace, and the Eastern cavalier, who remembered the strength and dexterity with which his antagnoist had aimed it. seemed to keep cautiously out of reach of that weapon, of which he had so lately felt the force.


Parse the words italicised in the sentences for analysis.

Rules of Syntax.

Write three rules of syntax and select two examples of each from the lesson.

Language Tests.

(a) Give antonyms of :—terminate, separate, elevated, victor, retreat, frustrated, violence, incline, ashamed, assent.

(/;) Re-write the following passage, changing it from direct to indirect narration :—“ There is a truce betwixt our nations," he said, in the lingua franca commonly used for the purpose of communicating with the Crusaders, “ wherefore should there be war betwixt thee and me ? Let there be peace betwixt us.”


Antagonist—Ant, against; agon, a contest; ist, one who. Dexterity—Dexter, the right hand ; ity, state of being. Formidable— Form ¿do, fear ; able, capable of.

Inflection—In, into ; flecto, I bend ; ion, the act of. Confidence—Con, with ; fido, I trust ; cnee, state of being. Interpose—Inter, between ; pono, I place.

UNERRING—XI n, not; erro, I wander; ing, going on. Apprehensive—Ap, to; prehendo, I seize; ive, emphasis. Prostrate—Pro, forward ; sterno, I throw down ; ate, to make. Contributed—Con, with ; tribuo, I give ; ed, finihsed.

Greek RootChronos, time ; chronic, chronicle, chronology, chronometer. Refer to the dictionary for meanings, then frame sentences to illustrate how the words arc used.


1.    Turban :—head-dress worn by Eastern races.

2.    Inimitable dexterity:—very great skill.

3.    Frustrated :—defeated.

4.    Contributed :—assisted.

5.    Agility :—activity.

(i. Girdle :—belt.

7. Treason :—treachery.

8. Courteous assent:—polite agreement.

0. Truce :—a temporary peace.

10. Heron :—a large water fowl with long beak and long slender legs.

Vocabu lary.

Spelling, Word-Building and Sentence Construction.

Palm-trees, separated, knight, reins, reigns, unguarded, foeinan. cautiously, address, encounter, menacing, sensible, artifice, intelligence, security, ashamed, treachery, gesture, prophet, recourse.

Construct sentences containing the following phrases:—in a menacing attitude ; preferred the latter ; with calm self-confidence ; with great address ; bv his agility ; with such unerring skill ; with the intelligence of a human being ; without an angrv gesture ; on his nearer approach ; for the purpose of communication.


Page 84.


Eirst read the poem, page 80 in your Reader, then read this explanation, then study the beauties of the poem in detail, after which it may be memorised.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, poet laureate, made these lines in his 81st year, on an October day of the year 1889, as he crossed the Solent. When he repeated the poem in the evening, his son said : “ That is the crown of your life’s work.” Tennyson answered : “ It came in a moment." A few days before his death in October, 1892, he said to his son : “ Mind you put my ‘ Crossing the Bar’ at the end of all editions of my poems.” At the close of a life in which religious doubt and uncertainty had not been unknown, these lines breathe a spirit of peace and courage and hope and faith.

Prom his earliest years Tennyson had known the sea, and the sea has many voices in his poetry, none more serene perhaps than that which we hear in the second stanza of this little poem. As the poet crosses the Solent in the sunset of his life, he hears the clear call of death, and he begs that none may lament his passing with the moaning voice of the sea on the shingle bar at a harbour mouth. Rather does he wish to move silently out into the deep on a serene full tide with none of the hollow sound of dashing foam.

“ But such a tide as moving seems asleep,

Too full for sound and foam.”

Tennyson had often observed the slow movement of the tide at Lymington harbour mouth in Hampshire, and here he expresses its tranquility in exquisitely simple poetry.

“ When that which drew from out the boundless deep Turns again home.”

Poets often speak of the sea as the " boundless deep.” Tennysdn here uses the sea as a metaphor of the vast unknown from which the soul comes and unto which it returns. He thinks of himself as embarking in the harbour of life to pass on the outgoing tide into the boundless deep. This tide may bear him into realms unknown far from our known world of Time and Place, but when he has crossed the bar dividing the harbour of life from the boundless deep of eternity, he hopes to see face to face the Pilot whom hitherto he has known only by faith. Tennyson explained the “ Pilot ” as “ that Divine and I’nseen who is always guiding us.” The poet had often watched the pilots from Southampton Water boarding and leaving the great mail-ships off the Needles, Isle of Wight.

*’ Bourne ” : limit, boundary ; goal ; realm ; domain.

Pages 85-7.

A vivid composition is sometimes referred to as a pen-picture. The words appeal to 11s so strongly that we make a mental picture of the scene and of the events. To write in this manner you must see your object as a picture and set about describing the details aeeord-ingly.


(«) Art.

(6) Write a story suggested by ” The Gleaners.”

(c) Describe any great picture you have seen.

(tl) Write a biography of any great man.

Note.—Painting, sometimes called the ” Queen of Arts,” is older than writing. It was employed by primitive man when speech was too crude to express all he wished to say. Even the Australian aborigines, who had no written language, reproduced the scenes around them, on the walls of their caves. Throughout the ages men have felt the same urge.

In the following list appear the names of some of the Great Masters : da Vinci, Raphael,' Rembrandt, Reynolds, Landseer, Gainsborough, Millet, Whistler.

Endeavour to find out something of each and obtain, if possible, reproductions of their masterpieces.

Subject Matter.

1.    “ Millet was one of the greatest modern landscape painters.”

Explain ” modern ” and “ landscape.”

2.    lie was forced to fly from war on two occasions. Give the name and date of the war which caused him to fly on the second occasion.

3.    What change took place in the Government of France after the Revolution of 1848 ?

4.    State the position in France occupied by Normandy. Give also the historical connection between England and Normandy.

5.    Why did the picture ” The Gleaners” provoke so much discussion upon the condition of the French peasantry ?

6.    Would Millet find, in rural France to-day, scenes similar to those he painted ?

7.    Would he find them in Australia ? Why ?

8.    Give the reason why Millet excelled in painting scenes of peasant life.

9.    Why do the works of great artists attain such a high value ?

10. The names of some of the Great Masters are associated with

great pictures or with particular styles or subjects. Find the great artists associated with :—“ Mona Lisa,” “ Animal Studies,” ” Portraits,” “ Historical Scenes,” ” Cherubs.”


Analyse :—

(a) “ The Gleaners ” is another famous painting by Millet, illustrating a phase of field life in France where poor peasants, after the harvesters have passed, search the stubble for the grain that has been missed.

(b) His early years were spent on a farm and here he tried to draw the homely scenes about him, moved by that mysterious genius, which marked him out from his fellow peasant boys.


Parse fully the words italicised in the sentences for analysis.

Language Tests.

(a)    Construct sentences, using the following words in a sense other than the one in which they are used in the lesson :— spectacles, preserves, painter (boat), sphere, habit (dress), atmosphere, reared, Millet.

(b)    Form adjectives from : pathos, habit, value, distinction, humanity, study, shadow, colour, artist, illustrating.

(c)    Form nouns from :—modest, solitary, lovely, humble, chosen, peasant, brilliant, poor, indifferent, enormous, destined.


Impressed—Im, into ; premo, I squeeze ; ed, finished.

Devoted—De, down ; voveo, I vow.

Rustic—Rus, the country ; ic, pertaining to.

Atmosphere—Atmos, vapour; sphaira, a sphere.

Provoked—Pro, forward ; voco, I call.

Discussion—-Dis, asunder ; cutio, I shake ; ion, the act of.

Solitary—Solus, alone ; ary, pertaining to.

Assume—As, to; sumo, I take.

Destined—De, down ; sto, I stand.

DisturbedDis, asunder ; turbo, I trouble.

Greek Root.Pol is, a city ; policeman, policy, politics, metropolis, politic. Find the dictionary meaning of these words, then frame sentences to frame their everyday use.


1.    Homely :—commonplace.

2.    Pathos :—deep-feeling.

3.    Genius :—great natural ability.

4.    Interpreter :—one who explains.

5.    Estimation:—opinion.

(5. Provoked :—aroused.

7. Indifferent:—unconcerned.

8.    Phase :—condition.

9.    Destined :—doomed.

10. Assume:—to take on.


Spelling, Word-Building and Sentence Construction.

Denied, virtue, scenes, labourer, accomplished, sign-boards, effects, wealthy, bungalow, passionately, interpreter, humanity, sphere, Angelus, prayer, forty, estimation, instead, improvement, peace.


Pages 88-89.

Com position.

Make use of the simile in your Composition. Sim-il-e is a Latin word of three syllables meaning similar to. It is usually introduced by the words like, as, thus, or so. Simile may be freely used in the two essays given here and also in the answer to Subject Matter and Appreciation, Xo. 5.


1.    A Trip on a River.

2.    Imagine you are on a holiday, and write a letter home

expressing regret that the other members of the family are not sharing your delightful experiences. Describe the experiences.

Subject Matter and Appreciation.

Note. The Rhine is one of the most noteworthy rivers of the world, from the viewpoint of scenic beauty, commercial importance and history. Many of the old castles along its banks are now used as museums.

1.    I'ind the Rhine on the map of Europe. Name the important towns in its basin and find out the important industries carried on there.

2.    At Bingen is the famous " Mousetower ” associated with an old legend about Bishop Hatto. Your teacher may read this legend to you.

3.    Name a tributary of the Rhine, in whose basin is situated one of Germany’s greatest industrial centres. Write a brief historical note on this basin.

4.    The Rhine is mentioned in the Versailles Treaty. State, briefly, the clause of the Treaty regarding it.

5.    Name a river in New Zealand referred to as the “ Rhine of the South.” Write down all the points of comparison, between the two rivers, that you can.

6.    Mark the accents in the first four lines of the first stanza.

7.    Make a list of the different scenes, painted by the poet in the poem.

8.    Examine the rhyming, and then state what scheme is followed.


Analyse the following :—

Hills all rich with blossomed trees And fields which promise corn and wine And scattered cities crowning these,

Whose for white walls along them shine,

Have strewed a scene which I should see With double joy wert thou with me.


Parse the words italicised in the Analysis.


The poem is written in simple language. “ Reject ” is one of the few words used which is derived from the Latin. It conies from : jacio, I throw.

Build as many words as you can from this root.

Greek Root Monos, alone; Monarch, monk, monopoly, monastry, monotony.

Refer to your dictionary for the meanings of these words, then frame sentences to illustrate their use.


1.    Strewed:—spread.

2.    Feudal towers : - the castles of feudal lords.

;i. Vintage-bowers: -grape-vines.

4.    Cherished :—treated with care.

5.    Enchanted :—charmed.

(>. Varying : —changing.

7.    Haughtiest:—proudest.

8.    Frequent :—many.

9.    Paradise :.....a place of great beauty or happiness.

10. Disclose :—show or reveal.

Spelling and Sentence Construction.

Blossomed, scene, peasant, paradise, feudal lilies; withered, cherished, strewed, varying, haughtiest.


Pages 89-97.

Com position.

Seventh Grade pupils in the study of a classic are often asked to write a character sketch, and this lesson will suggest many ideals which may be of assistance.


(а)    A Science Experiment you have worked.

(б)    Write a story associated with any pet animal or bird.

(c) Good Temper.

Subject Matter.

1. What was Newton’s marked characteristic when he was young ?

2.    What qualities did he show by his construction of the model

windmill ?

3.    In what story did Captain Lemuel Gulliver appear? (»ive

the name of the author.

4.    What country is famous for its windmills ? To what uses

are they put ?

Newton was born in Lincolnshire. Locate this county on a map. Name a romantic figure in English story associated with this county.

6.    Here is Newton's Law of Gravitation. " livery mass of

matter attracts every other mass of matter, with a force which varies directly as the product of their masses and inversely, as the square of the distances between them " Get vour teacher to give you a simple explanation of the above law and then name the two great factors which influence gravitation.

7.    What movement on the earth’s surface is caused by gravitation ? Which of the heavenly bodies exerts the greatest force in this movement ? Why ?

8.    “ We must not say that the sundial has lasted longer than

its maker, for Isaac Newton will exist long after the dial-yea, and long after the sun itself—shall have crumbled to decay.” Comment on the above statement.

9. Find a statement in the lesson which is obviously wrong.

Synthesis and Analysis.

(a)    Combine the sentences below into a complex sentence, then analyse your sentence :—

(1)    Newton was born in Lincoln.

(2)    When young. Newton was very fond of making curious articles.

(3)    Neighbours admired these articles.

(4)    Neighbours fancied he would become a great woodworker.

(b)    Using the sentence given, construct a complex sentence by adding :—

(1)    An adjective clause qualifying ” Newton.”

(2)    An adverb clause of time.

.(3) An adjective clause qualifying “ King.”

Newton received the honour of knighthood from the King.


Parse the words italicised :—

As Isaac grew older, it ivas found that he had far more important matters in his mind than the manufacture of toys like the little windmill.


ConjectureCon, with ; jacio, I throw ; we, state of.

ElapsedE, out of ; labor, lapsus, I glide ; ed, finished. Philosophy—Philo, I love ; sophia, wisdom ; y, state of. Quadrupled Quattuor, four ; pcs, a foot.

Absorbed -Ah, from; sorbeo, I suck up; ed, finished. Presentment— Pre, before ; soilio, I feel ; ment, state of being. GravitationGravis, heavy ; ate, to make ; ion, the act of.

AnimatedAnima, life; ate, to make; ed. finished.

AcquiringAc, to; quaero, I seek; ing. going on. AnticipationsAnti, against; capio, 1 take; ate, to make; ion, the act of ; s, plural ending.


1.    Conjecture:—guess.

2.    Absorbed :—wholly engaged in.

3.    Ebony :—a hard black wood.

4.    Anecdotes:—short stories.

">. Reverential :—full of awe or veneration.

Ik Faculty :—power of mind.

7.    Deficiency :—short-coming.

8.    Miniature:—a representation of anything on a small scale, fi. Ingenuity:—skill or cleverness in making or contriving.

10. Orbits:—tracks or planets round the sun.

Spelling and Sentence Construction.

Isaac, neighbours, magnificently, breeze, existence, sundial, thorough, enchanted, courses, planets, universe, manuscript, author, immediate, acquired, knighthood, comparison, infinite, earnestly, animated.

Language Test.

Drive the antonyms of :—creation, purchase, famous, deficiency, miniature, destruction, renown, mortal, vastness, decay.


Page 97.

Com position.

1.    Compare the life of a Western woman of the time mentioned by the poet with that of a Western woman of to-day.

2.    Mother’s Day.

3.    An attack on a stage-coach by bushrangers.

It adds to the variety of your essay if you include an appropriate quotation. Try to memorise a few lines of the poem for inclusion in each of the above essays.


'l'lie author, George Essex Evans, a Londoner who was educated in Guernsey, arrived in Queensland in 1881, at the age of eighteen. He became a surveyor and farmer, and later entered the Public Service. He contributed verse to Australian newspapers and wrote several prize odes. Three volumes of poems were published by him : “ The Repentance of Magdalene Despar,” ” Loraine,” and " The Secret Key.” He died in 1909.

You will notice that the lines of this poem are longer than the lines of many other poems.

(a) What rhyming plan has the poet used ?

(h) How many feet are in each line? Write out the last four lines and mark the accented syllables.

(c) The poem is not divided into verses. How many verses do you think it contains ?

id} Explain : — slab-built, zinc-roofed, bankim-nt, creed, lately taken run.

(c) From where did the women of the poem come ?

f) Quote the line which gives the reason for their journeving West.

(g) What sacrilices did they make ?

(Ji) What song does the poet describe as “ the song all songs above " ?

{i In which line does the poet suggest the need of the company of other women ?

(/) Recent inventions have helped to overcome the loneliness of the West. Name some of them.

(/<■) Which town in Queensland is closely associated with Evans 0 {/) Read another poem by the same writer.

Detailed Analysis.

1.    Well have we held our father's creed.

2.    They have sung with silent lives the song all songs above.

3.    For love they faced the wilderness- the women of the West.


1.    In the poem is an example of an adjectival clause introduced by “ where.” Find it, then give an example of your own, also write an adjectival clause introduced by “ when."

2.    Men cannot say. To this add a noun clause, an adjectival clause and an adverbial clause to make a complex sentence.


Parse the italicised words in Detailed Analysis.


Mansion nianeo, 1 remain.

PLEASURES -placeo, I please ; me, state of ; s, plural ending. Selections- -Se, aside ; lego, I gather ; ion, the act of.

( tRACE—Gnit ia., favour.

Reverence Re, again ; vereor, I stand in awe of ; ence, state of. Dignity Dignus, worthy; ity, state of.

Sacrifice -Saccr, holy ; facio, I make.

Creed—Credo, 1 believe.

Fever—— l'ehr is, a fever.

Nation—A ’use or, natus, I am born.


I Cherished: kept in one’s heart; loved.

2.    Everlasting sameness: unchanging appearance or aspect.

3.    Zinc :—a bluish-white metal, like tin, used for covering roofs,

making baths, etc.

4.    Nameless grace :—charm and attractiveness that cannot be

defined, but which all women naturally possess.

5.    Reverence :- fear mingled with honour and respect ; religious


(i. Plies his arts : —lit., makes them the subject of his poems.

7.    Dignity : —worthiness ; excellence; honour.

8.    Camps of man’s unrest: where men gather in numbers—

mining camps, railway construction camps.

ff. Lurching coach-wheel : —the wheels of the stage-coaches encounter rough tracks and the coaches roll and sway with sudden shocks. (Cobb and Co.)

10. Frontiers:—outposts; farthest flung settlements.

Spelling, Word-Building, Sentence Construction.

Vine-wreathed, zinc-roofed, frontiers, soothe, sacrifice, holiness, weariness, reverence, altar, selections.

Language Tests.

1.    Note : “ woman’s face ” ; “ father’s creed ” ; use the possessive

form to denote :—

(a) the song of the bird ;

(/>)’ tile hats of the girls ;

(c:) the shouts of the men ;

(d)    the halters of the ponies ;

(e)    the beauty of it.

2.    Form verbs from :—faced, white, nation, friend, beauty ;

give the adjectives corresponding to—fever, face, dignity, sacrifice, woman.

3.    By using prefixes, make these words have an opposite mean

ing :—dignity, grace, gallant, pleasure, reverence.

4.    Write a word pronounced exactly the same as each of the

following, but spelt differently :—heart, new, hear, altar, steal, their, sent, o’er, pain, died, plains.

Frame sentences to show the different uses of each pair of words.


Page 99.


1.    You have heard of the League of Nations and its work. In

a page of foolscap tell what you can of the League and its objects.

2.    “ Yes,” replied the man who had accompanied many

exploring parties in his younger days, “ I can well remember that eventful journey.” Imagine you are the man, and tell the story.

3.    Goodwill Day.

Study the style of English adopted by John Bright. Notice his use of the question mark ; it gives variety to the form. Young writers frequently omit capital letters. This lesson abounds in them and will serve as a good illustration of their use.


1.    It is because I believe this that I appeal to you with confidence,

and that I have faith and hope in the future.

2.    Within the limits of this island alone on every Sabbath Day

twenty thousand temples are thrown open, in which devout men and women assemble to worship Him who is the ” Prince of Peace."

3. You make it your boast—though boasting is somewhat out of place in such questions—that you are a Chiistian people, and that you draw your rule of doctrine and practice from the direct revelation of the Omnipotent.


Parse the words italicised above.


Concentration—Con, with or together ; centrum, the middle point ; ion, the act of.

Crime—Crimen, a crime.

Profession—Pro, before; fessus, confessed; ion, the act of.

RevelationRe, back or again ; veto, 1 conceal ; ion, the act of.

OmnipotentOmnis, all ; potens, powerful.

DisseminationDis, asunder ; semen, seed ; ion, the act of

REMOTEST—Re, back or again ; moveo, I move ; est, superlative form.

Principles—Primus, first ; capio, I take.

Illuminating—11, into ; lumen, light; ing, going on.

ConfidenceCon, with or together ; J'ides, faith ; cnce, state of.

What words of Latin origin from the lesson mean :—to take ; pertaining to mail ; teaching ; thrown forward ; state of making great.

Subject Matter.

1.    With what two activities was John Bright connected?

2.    Who was his co-worker in these ?

3.    Christian people usually regard Sunday as the Sabbath Day.

What people observe Saturday as the Sabbath ?

4.    What parts of the world would be included in “ its remotest

and darkest recesses ” ?

5.    Name some famous men or women who carried Christianity

into heathen lands.

6.    Who is meant by the “ Prince of Peace” ? Give another

title by which lie is known.

7.    Why is the last sentence placed in inverted commas?

8.    A Ruler of England was known as the “ Peace Maker.”

Who was he, and why did he deserve the name ?

9.    Which two towns in Europe have been connected with

important conferences whose object has been the promoting of International Peace ?

Mean i ngs.

1.    Romance: -exaggeration or picturesque falsehood.

2.    Profession : declaration of religious faith.

3.    Atrocities: revolting deeds, e.g., The Massacre of Glencoe.

4.    Omnipotent :- All-powerful ; here it refers to God.

5.    Dissemination: -spreading, as sowing seed.

(>. Concentration : —the bringing all to one point ; cf., concentration camp.

7. Magnificent Project:—splendid plan.

8. Deemed :—considered.

!*. Undefiled :—unpolluted ; not dirty.

10. Revelation :—that which has been disclosed.

Spelling, Word Building and Sentence Construction.

Combination, principles, prophecy, fulfilment, practice, believe, earnestly, illuminating, conceived, Christianity.

Language Test.

1.    The words, practice, prophecy, and principles are found in

the lesson. Write three other words pronounced similarly, but spelt differently, and use each of the six in a separate sentence.

2.    Give words of opposite meaning to—devout, assemble, con

fidence, hope, future, justice, accept, remotest. (N B.— An antonym is the name given to the opposite of a word.

A synonym is a word of similar meaning to a given word).

3.    Form nouns from -capable, conceived, magnificent, economic,

glorious, believe, assemble, distant.


Page 100.


1.    Imagine you are an old sailor. Tell your life story.

2.    Man’s feathered friends.

3.    A birthday party.

" A composition may be free from definite mistakes, but so feeble in ideas and meagre in vocabulary as to be really worthless.” In other words, you must work towards the standard of composition set before you in these Readers.


T'he poem was planned while Wordsworth and Coleridge were holidaying together, but the former contributed only a few lines, which have been omitted from the lessons.

The story is a wierd one, highly imaginative, and describes the punishment following the killing of an innocent bird by the Ancient Mariner, who maintained it had brought the fog. His shipmates at first cried out against him for having killed the bird of good omen, but when the fog cleared they justified his action, and so became partners in the crime. His companions died and he was forced to endure a living death. Rater, while watching the water snakes he admired their beauty and happiness, and, in his heart, blessed them. This act of blessing some of God’s creatures broke the spell, and the mariner enjoyed some of the comforts of life. Eventually he was shriven by the hermit and his peace of mind was restored.

However, at certain times, a feeling of unrest came over him and he wandered abroad, not finding peace again till he told his talc to a person to whom he seemed destined to relate it, urging that person to love all the creatures of God. It was for this reason the young man was stopped and the adventures narrated.

[a) The verse is irregular. Some verses have four lines, some five and others six. Note how the rhyming plan differs. Take one verse of each length and state the plan followed. b) Mark the rhythm in the first and last verses on page 106. Note that the same number of feet occurs in each four-lined verse.

(r) The poet uses a number of similes, e.g., as green as emerald.

* Find as many other examples as you can. id) On page 106 are some examples of alliteration. Write them out.

(e)    Explain—kirk, prow, wist, wan, hoar, dice.

(f)    Which two verses sum up the lesson the mariner wished to teach ?

(g)    Note the beauty of the last verse on page 100.

(h)    Who were the " Lake Poets” ? Why were they so called ?

(i)    Give the title of one poem by each of the poets you named.

(j)    Name some other poems written of the sea.


(a)    I looked to heaven, and tried to pray ;

But or ever a prayer had gushed,

A wicked whisper came, and made My heart as dry as dust.

(b)    Beyond the shadow of the ship,

I watched the water-snakes :

They moved in tracks of shining white,

And when they reared, the elfish light Fell off in hoary flakes.

(r) I moved, and could not feel my limbs ;

I was so light—almost I thought that I had died in sleep,

And was a blessed ghost.


Parse the words italicised above.


Impatient—Ini, not ; patior, 1 suffer.

Averred—A, to; verus, true; ed, finished.

DECLARE—De, down ; clarus, clear.

Figure—Figura, a shape.

MarinerMare, the sea ; inc, belonging to ; er, one who. SpectralSpecio, I see ; at, pertaining to.

RECOGNISE—Re, back or again ; nosco, I know ; ise, to make. Spirit—Spiro, I breathe.

Penetrate—Penetro, I pierce.

Uncertain—Un, not; certus, sure.

Greek Root Arclos, a bear; Arctic, antarctic, arctoid. Compile meanings and pronunciations.


1.    Uncanny:—weird; mysterious.

2.    Ado :—fuss.

3.    Dismal sheen :—cheerless brightness.

4. Like noises (one hears) in a swound    refers to the confused

noises heard by persons when they swoon ; swound (for swoon), a fainting tit.

Albatross :—Sea-bird of the petrel type. The Great or Giant Albatross is the greatest of sea fowl.

(). Hailed :—welcomed ; wished health to.

7.    Hollo :—halloo ; call or summons.

8.    Spectral :—ghostlike ; unreal in appearance.

0.    Wist :—knew (present tense, wot).

10.    Sere:—withered; dried up.

11.    hire-flags :—the Aurora Borealis; sheen for shone.

1 — Sedge:—waterside plants resembling coarse grass growing together in a mass.

Spelling, Word-Building, Sentence Construction.

Piercing, plague, shining, ghost, recognised, ghastly, guest, drought, piercing, penetrate.

Language Test.

1.    Give the past tense, past participle, and present participle

of each of the following and state whether weak or strong : smite, split, fly, flow, shake, burst, swim, lie (to recline), shine, behold.

2.    Change to the passive voice :—

(a) I blessed them unaware.

(¿>) He could not feel his limbs.

(c)    To him my tale I teach.

(d)    The Lonesome Spirit moved the ship.

(e)    Presently I heard the splash of oars.

3.    Fill in the blanks in the following table :—

Noun    Adjective Verb    Adverb

beauty -----

- strong

- - please--

- - - breathlessly

4.    The ship sails. Give the negative, interrogative, and

emphatic forms of this sentence.



Page 112.

Com position.

1.    You have had lunch at a hotel or restaurant. Describe the


2.    The first day at school.

3.    Autobiography of an old stage coach.

Avoid the use of slang in your compositions. An expert writer like Charles Dickens may make his characters use their typical slang, but it is evident that it is their slang, and not his English. Dickens is one of the greatest of story-writers and his style is worthy of close study.

General Analysis.

E At length we drove into the inn-yard at Yarmouth, and as I alighted from the coach a lady looked out of a bow-window where some fowls and joints of meat were hanging up, and said, “ Is that the little gentleman from Blunderstone ? ”

2 I replied tliat he would much oblige me by drinking it if he thought he could do it safely.

3. I doubt if I could have felt much stranger if the maps had been real foreign countries and 1 cast away in the middle of them


Parse the words italicised above.


IncidentIn, in or upon ; cado, I fall.

OccurredOc, against ; curro, I run ; ed, finished.

Extremely- —Extern-us, outside ; ly, like.

Melancholy Mclas, black ; chole, bile or anger (Greek). AccidentAc, to; cado, I fall.

TimidTimeo, I fear.

LibertyLiber, free ; tv, state of.

DexterityDexter, the right hand ; ity, state of.

Offends Of, against; fendo, I strike.

Incorporated- In, into; corpus, the body; ate, to make; ed, finished.

Modesty Modus, manner.

SuburbSub, under ; urbs, a city.

Greek Root -Bapto, I dip ; Baptism. Baptist, baptize.

Suffixesism, a party or sect ; ist, one who; i:e, to make.

Subject Matter.

1.    For what reasou was David waiting at Yarmouth ?

2.    Why did he suggest his dinner might have been paid for under

the name of Murdstone ?

3.    Many hotels have a coffee-room and a dining-room. What

is the distinction ?

4.    What is meant by “ took the covers off ? ”

A How, according to William, was Topsawyer’s death caused ? (>. For what reason did David suggest he’d better have water instead of ale ?

7. Why did William say he, himself, should drink the glass of ale ?

5.    Point out on the map of England—Suffolk, London, Yarmouth,

and state facts regarding each.

9. Where was Dickens born ?

10.    Name three works of Dickens, and give the names of five

noted characters from any of his books.

11.    Why are the writings of Dickens popular even to-day?

12.    Who were some famous contemporary writers?


1.    incorporated:—united; formed into a body.

2.    Modesty :—absence of conceit.

3.    Affably:—courteously; in a pleasant manner.

4. Dexterity :—skill ; cleverness.

.">. Gaiters:—covering for the leg below the knee or for the ankle.

6.    Bashfully :—shyly.

7.    Melancholy accident:—sad mishap.

8.    Lamented :—mourned for ; departed.

9.    Taking a liberty :—exceeding one’s rights.

10.    Drawn :—obtained from a source ; e,g. to draw water, beer,


11.    Offence:—wounded feeling; any cause of displeasure.

12.    Inspired:—breathed feeling into; influenced.

Spelling, Sentence Construction, Word-Building.

Incorporated, parallels, distinction, orphan, incident, occurred, alighted, castors, vegetables, affably, extremely, breeches, gaiters, oughtn’t, melancholy, accident, oblige, contrary, relieved.

Make sentences containing :—taking a liberty ; with harshness and cruelty ; relieved my mind ; on the contrary ; with arms akimbo.

Language Tests.

1.    For each of the following, substitute a word of Latin origin

and give the full derivation of each :—placed against, hanging down, throw back, to make frightened, to try, scatter asunder, written after, climb down, carry in, full of water.

2.    Change to the indirect form of speech :—The waiter said,

“ Our people don’t like things being ordered and left. It offends them. But I’ll drink it if you like. I’m used to it, and use is everything. I don’t think it’ll hurt me if I throw my head back and take it off quick.”

3.    Give the feminine form of : -gentleman, sir, waiter, child,

man-servant, author, bachelor, widower, nephew, aviator ; and the masculine form of goose, hind, lass, witch, heroine, abbess, duchess, vixen, aunt, bride.



Page 115.

This lesson provides an excellent model for conversational essays. Notice the use made of the inverted commas and the note of interrogation. Observe how the conversation is made to suit each character.

1.    You are away from home. Write a letter to your family.

2.    “ We cordially thanked the driver for his very timely

assistance, without which we could have made no further progress. His reply was that he had only done what he hoped another would do for him, should he himself ever be in such a plight as ours. IIow much happier the world would be if each so put into practice the spirit of the Golden Rule.”

The above is to be the concluding paragraph in your story. Tell the story.

3. Write an imaginary conversation between a bright, new shilling and an old, worn one.


1.    I could not disguise from myself, or from the waiter, that

this was an uncomfortable coincidence, and inquired how it was done.

2.    I never saw anyone enjoy a pudding so much, I think ; and he

laughed, when it was all gone, as if his enjoyment of it lasted still.

3.    If I had any doubt of him I suppose this half awakened it ;

but I am inclined to believe that with the simple confidence of a child, I had no serious mistrust of him even then


Parse the words italicised above.


Agitated—Agito, I stir up; ed, finished.

Acceptance—Ac, to; capio, I take; ance, state of. Coincidence—Co, with or together ; cado, 1 fall ; nice, state of. Disturbed—Dis, asunder ; turba, a crowd ; ed, finished. Diversion—Di, away ; verto, I turn ; ion, the act of.

HumilityHumus, the ground ; ity, state of.

Veneration—Veneror, I venerate ; ion, the act of.

Victuals—Vivo, victus, I live.

UnfortunateUn, not; fors. fortis, chance; ate, state of. AdmirationAd, to; mirus, strange; ion, the act of. ConfusedCon, with or together ; fundo, fusus, I pour ; ed, finished.

Inclined—In, into ; clino, I bend ; ed, finished.

Greek RootZoon, an animal ; zoological, zoology, zodiac, Compile dictionary meanings and pronunciation.

Word-Bui Iding.

Form five nouns from capio ; three verbs from clino ; three adjectives from cado.

Subject Matter.

1.    Why did the waiter easily win the pudding race ?

2.    Who was Peggotty ?

3.    How did William explain the high charge for the letter paper ?

Name some articles that come to Australia, the prices of which are increased by a similar charge.

4.    David thought it was out of goodness that the waiter read

the letter as he wrote it. Why do you think he did so ?

5.    What prompted David to ask if there was anything to pay ?

6.    On receiving David’s shilling what was the first thing William

did ?

7.    Why was David stared at so curiously by the servants as he

mounted the coach ?

8.    What adjectives could be used in describing the waiter’s

character ?

9. In vour own words explain :—“ I live on broken victuals— and I sleep on the coals.”

10. \\ hat would be the duties of the guard on the coach ?


1.    Ruminate :—to chew the cud ; meditate, ponder.

2.    Dispatch :—rapidity ; speed.

3.    Coincidence :—agreement ; things happening together.

4.    Seasonable diversion :—timely turning aside ; lit., a welcome

change or interruption.

3. Diffidence :—lack of faith in one's self.

0.    Duty :—a tax on anything ; payment to public revenue levied

on an article.

7.    Agitated :—disturbed ; excited.

8.    \ ietuals :—food and drink ; provisions.

i). Recognition :—acknowledgment of service.

10.    Humility:—humbleness; meekness.

11.    Veneration:—profound respect.

12.    Disconcerting:—upsetting; embarrassing.

Spelling, Sentence Construction.

Potato, mouthful, disguise, hesitatingly, agitated, acceptance, victuals, recognition, disturbed, reliance, eventually, brutality.

Language Tests.

1.    Pill in the blanks in the following sentences, using who, whom,

whose, or which :—

(&)......do you think I met to-day ?

(¿>)......do you think called on me just now ?

(¿)    ......book do you think it is ?

- Show with an accent mark the stressed syllable in :— recognition, disconcerting, interesting, fatigue, subject, (verb), adult, robust.

3.    Supply one word for each of the following phrases :—at once ;

came out ; drew near ; drew out ; on purpose.

4.    Supply suitable prepositions to be used after the following

words:—disturbed, pleased, consisted, differ, contrary, opposite, conversant, centred, devoid, rely.

Page 118.

Many young writers find difficulties in using capital letters. Notice the beginning of each line and such words as Horatius, Sir Consul, Spurius Lartius, Herminius, Romans in Rome, Fathers, Tuscan, Seius, Picus, Umbrian’s, Astur, Lord of Luna, Mount Alvernus. transcribe these as a specimen of your penmanship.


1.    In a page of foolscap write the story of the lesson.

2.    A fight for life.

3.    \ on have ascended a hill or mountain. Give a description of

the ascent and the view obtained from the summit.


1.    How would you describe the poem—narrative, descriptive

or imaginative ?

2.    Note that, although most of the stanzas contain eight lines,

others differ in length. How many lines do other stanzas contain ?

3.    In each eight-lined stanza the lines 2 and 4, 0 and 8, rhyme.

Compare the rhyming plan followed in stanzas 2 and 8 on page 120.

4.    Most lines contain three feet, and the rest four. Scan stanza

2 on page 120.

5.    The poet relies on action to give the poem interest, and his

word pictures are very realistic. Read the stanza that describes the advance of the Tuscan army. Can’t you picture the scene ? Which lines describe what a Roman would do for his city ? Then quote those that tell of the welcome given to Horatius on his safe return.

0.    Who, in recent times, assumed the title of Consul ? Recall

the facts you have learnt regarding him.

7.    Explain :— Shakes the brand ; right deftly turned the blow ;

ere the ruin fall ; spent with changing blows ; one breathing space.

8.    In your own words describe the scene in the lonely cottage

as the story of Horatius is being re-told.

9.    Macaulay was historian, politician, essayist and poet. Bv

which of these names is he best remembered ? Why ? lu. With which British possession was the poet associated ? What position did he hold while there ?

Read “ The Revenge ” or “ The Armada ” by the same author.


1.    Analyse in detail

(a)* In yon straight path a thousand may well be stopped by three.

(/)) With shield and blade Horatius right deftly turned the blow.

(r) /lew down the bridge, Sir Consul.

2.    Analyse into clauses : -

. As they passed, beneath their feet They felt the timbers creak ;

Hut when they turned their faces

And on the further shore

Saw brave Horatius stand alone,

They would have crossed once more.


Construct a complex sentence containing, besides the principal clause, an adjectival clause, an adverbial clause of time and a noun clause.


Parse the words italicised in the portions to be Analysed.


Ex PET,USD—Ex, out of ; pello, I drive ; ed, finished.

Rksoi.ykd —Re, back or again ; solvo, I loosen.

Vauaxt—Valeo, I am strong.

ChampionCampus, a plain.

Defended—De, down ; fendo, I strike.

CaptainCaput, the head.

ArmyArma, arms.

Ensigns—Stgnum, a sign.

Ample— A mplus, large.

Lever—Levo, I raise.

Surges—Surgo, I rise.

Rapturous— Rapio, I snatch ; ure, state of ; ous, full of.

Circle—Circulus, a ring.

Form a verb, a noun, and an adjective from—stgnum, levo, caput, and solvo.

Spellings and Sentence Construction.

Horatius, ancient, literary, barrister, practised, vanguard, hand-breadth, augurs, loosened, athwart, deigning, rapturous, villain.


1.    The Captain of the Gate:—Horatius was in charge of the


2.    Titian : —Herininius was a Titian, Lartius a Ramnian, and

Horatius a Lucerian, each being a member of one of the three principal tribes of Rome.

3.    Fathers:—the senators, called Patres, because the Senate was

composed of the heads of the chief families (compare with patricians).

4.    Commons:—the lower orders of Rome who were sharply

distinguished from the patricians. In early days they enjoyed very few privileges.

5.    Crow :—a crow-bar ; i.e., an iron bar with a beak, used for


(i. Surges :—large waves.

7.    Serene :—composed ; calm.

8.    Athwart:—across; a “thwart” is a cross-piece; compare

to thwart —to cross, to hinder.

!). Father Tiber :—The Tiber, the river on which Rome stands, was worshipped as a river-god by the Romans.

10.    Rapturous :—showing extreme joy or pleasure.

11.    Sacked:—stormed and plundered.

12.    The spit: a pointed piece of iron on which meat is roasted.

13.    Deigning :—condescending.

14.    Loom:—a frame for weaving cloth.

Language Tests.

1.    Give the past tense, past participle, and present participle

of : -draw, behold, cleave, smite, shake, swell, lose, loose, rise, forbear.

2.    Using prefixes, reverse the meanings of the following :—

earthly, glorious, grace, flinching, fortune, regular, potent, attentive, claim, carry.

3.    Re-write in verse, inserting the necessary punctuation :

and sec he cried the welcome fair guests that waits you here what noble laicuiuo comes next to taste our roman cheer.

4.    Choose the pronoun to be used in the following sentences

from those in parenthesis —

He is much brighter than (she, her 1 can sing louder than him. he).

Did she come for you or I. me) ?



Pages 126-131.
Subject Matter.

1.    Who was Judge Jeffreys?

2.    In what historical incident have you heard of him ?

3.    Explain: “ llis Majesty’s bench.

4.    Xante the Chief Justice of

{a) Queensland ;

(/;) Australia.

а.    What is meant by cross questioning ?

б.    Why was John Ridd panting alter making his speech to the

J udge?

7.    Why was Spank so anxious to see John Ridd after the latter’s

first interview with the J udge ?

8.    Explain : “ The word ‘ approve’ stuck in my gorge.”

0.    What is meant by a Republic ?

In. Name any countries that are Republics.


1.    A Holiday on a Farm.

2.    A Country Lad’s First Visit to a Large City.

3.    HAnesty.

" Lorna l)oone ” is a most popular novel, and the style of its composition is worthy of imitation. Note particularly the arrangement of the direct narration in conversational passages. Beginners find difficulties here.


(a) Now, if my Lord cross question you,” the gentleman whispered to me, “ answer him straight out truth at once, jot he will have it out of thee " ;

(h) I thanked him for his good advice, as he moved the curtain and thrust me in, but, instead of entering, withdrew, and left me to bear the brunt of it ;

(c) At the further end were some raised seats, such as I have seen in churches, lined ivith velvet, and having broad elbows, and a canopy over the middle seat.


Parse the words italicised in the above complex sentences.


Complaint Coni, with or together ; plango, I complain. Approval—Ap, to ; probo, to prove or try ; a!, state or condition. Expenses—Ex, out of ; pendo pettsus). to weigh or pay. Disappoint—Dis, asunder or apart ; ap, to ; punctum. a point. Confidential C< h. with or together ; /ides, faith ; a!, pertaining to.

Detention -De. from ; tcneo, to hold ; tion, state of being. Abhorred—Ah. from or away; horreo, I shudder. Contradicted—Contra, against ; dico, I say ; ed. finished. Evidence—E, out of ; video. I see.

(Note difference between roots pendo and pendeo).

lTsing the above derivation, construct meanings of the words as they are used in the lesson.

Word Building.

Form a noun, an adjective and a verb from each of the following Latin roots : probo, pendo, fides, tcneo, horreo.


Business, presence, detention, writing, received, peace, justice, whether, Briton, countenance.

Make sentences containing the words peace, piece ; presence, presents ; whether, weather ; Briton, Britain.

Language Test.

Write, in the simplest words that you can :—

(a)    Is it your deliberate desire to be brought into the presence of the Lord Chief Justice ?

(b)    The others received the story with approval ;

(c)    This is a memorandum duly signed and attested by my land

lord ;

(d)    I met Mr. Spank waiting for me at the entrance and very desirous to see me ;

(¿?) He was one to be dreaded by gentle souls and to be abhorred by the noble.


1.    Under clerk :—one not so important as the head one.

2.    Frowned on me heavily :—looked very angry.

3.    Received with approval : seemed pleased with.

4.    Hall of Westminster:—next to Tower of London and West

minster Abbey, the most historic building in London. For many years Law Courts were held there.

5.    No fear of losing thee, John . . . Tower of London :—probably

referring to fact that John was very tall, therefore he was conspicuous.

0. Come sidling ... to me :—trying to win my favour.

7.    Gorge :—gullet or throat.

8.    Attested : -Certified correct.

9.    Using opportunity : using the chance given you.

10.    Rendered me up :—brought me to London.

11.    Thrive:—get on, succeed.



Pages 132-136.

Subject Matter.

1.    What is meant by “ well pleased with their imporl ” ?

2.    What did the Judge mean when he said, “ John, bv the look

of him, should be called Jack ” ?

3.    Notice the play on the words, “ thy sides are manifold.

4.    What other similar instances can you find in the lesson ?

5.    On a map of England find the places mentioned in the lesson ?

0.    Explain : “ to use thee as a tool.”

7.    What name do we give to this manner of speaking ?

8.    Give other examples.

Blackmore wrote many books, but ” Lorua Doone was his first distinct .success.

This lesson contains many types of punctuation. Study the examples carefully.


1.    Conversation between John and his mother on the formers return from London.

2.    Dangers of Travelling in Olden Times.

3.    Trial by Jury.

Concentration is necessary if we wish to produce our best compositions. We must like our subject, and to secure this end a choice is allowed. An atmosphere of peace should surround the writer.


Give the detailed analysis of :—

(a) " Now, Jack Whale, we will proceed to examine thee " ;

(b)1 am ready to answer, my Lord ” ;

(e) Then he closed his letters, well pleased with their import ;

(d)    Saying these words rather slowly he skewered his great eyes into mine ;

(e)    1 wished to set this matter right.

.    Parsing.

Parse italicised words in the above.


Give general analysis of :—

(a)    His Lordship was busy with some letters, and did not look up for a minute, although lie knew that I was there.

(b)    Then he closed his letters, well pleased with their import, and fixed his bold, broad stare on me, as if I were an oyster opened, and he would know how fresh I was.

.    Synthesis.

(«) “ Ye want me on the Western Circuit.” Add to this an adjectival clause qualifying the subject and an adverbial clause.

V “The idea was so new. To this add a noun clause in apposition with the subject and two different types of adverbial clauses.

(c) He said these words. Add to this a noun clause, ail adjective clause and an adverbial clause.

,i) “ Thou speakest plainly.” Extend this by the addition of two other clauses and state their kind and relationship.


Proverb—Pro, forth or forward ; verb urn, a word.

Pestilent—Pest is, a plague ; cut, pertaining to.

Remember—Re, back or again ; memor, mindful.

IntentionIn, into ; tendo, I stretch ; tion, act of.

PropertyProprius, one's own ; tv, state of.

J(STICKJus, right, law; ice, state of being. .

Virtue—Virtus, good quality.

DisaffectionDis, asunder or apart ; Jacio, I make ; ion, state of being.

DisputeDis, asunder or apart ; puto, I think.

Defending—De, away or from ; Jendo, 1 strike ; ing, going on.

Language Test.

Put a single word for each of the following phrases :—

(а)    too much of anything ;

(б)    to keep in mind ;

(c)    to meddle with ;

(d)    to be utterly careless ;

(e)    not to understand ;

(f)    to set right;

(g)    to keep short memory.

Construct sentences, using the following words with different meanings (three sentences for each word) : capital, present, sign.


Interview, jest, expenses, knowledge, heirship, beginning, wandering, thoroughly, sure, condemned. Frame sentences to show how you use these words.


1. Varlet :—rascal, scoundrel.

1. Short commons :—short allowances, not give you so much. Miscreants :—wicked fellows.

4.    You shall dance . . for you—you will not escape punishment

if ever you are brought before me.

5.    High Sheriff :—Chief Sheriff is responsible for the execution

of law and the keeping of peace in his district, h. Tithes :—a tax of one tenth of yearly revenue paid to support the clergy and the church.

7.    Pillory : frame of wood with holes through which head and

hands of criminals were put to expose them to public view.

8.    Tube for . . . pass through :—means by which news is spread.


Page 138.


Sometimes poets write of inanimate things as it they were beings with life. Milton, in this poem, pictures a gathering and personifies those present.

1.    Who attended the gathering ?

2.    Would you describe the majority of those attending as being

happy or serious ; young or old ?

3.    Give other examples of personification.

4.    Poems often depict the minds of the poet. In what mood

would you say Milton was when he wrote this poem ?

Mark where the accent occurs in each of the first six lines.

0.    Is there any alteration of the rhythmic beat ?

7.    Does the light tripping measure here used suit the subject

of the poem ?

8.    Find the descriptive words and phrases used by the poet.

1). Notice the number of references to Nature.


1.    Cheerfulness.

2.    An Outdoor Game.

3.    A Day in the Country.

The last subject is a favourite one with scholarship candidates, and it is often submitted for selection. But many draw on their imagination instead of relating their actual experiences. Black snakes are killed with such regularity that examiners feel no further interest in the stories. You are therefore advised to avoid snake stories, particularly black snakes, in future.

,    Analysis.

Divide into clauses and give kind and relation : -

(a) Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee Jest, and y out fill jollity,

Quips, and cranks, and wanton wiles,

Nods, and becks, and wreathed smiles Such*as hang on Hebe’s cheek,

And love to live in dimple sleek.

(h) And if 1 give thee honour due,

Mirth, admit me of thy crew,

To live with her, and live with thee In unreproved pleasures free.

(r) Come, and trip it as you go On the light fantastic toe.

{(l) These delights if thou caust give,

Mirth with thee I mean to live.


Parse the words italicised in the above.

Construct sentences with the words “ as” and ” that ” used as different parts of speech.


Expand the following phrases into sentences each containing no less than three clauses.

Analyse the sentences you make, stating kind and relation :—

(a Holding both his sides ;

(6) In spite of sorrow ;

(c) While the ploughman.


Derides—Rideo, I laugh.

Liberty—Liter, free ; tv, state of.

Pi.Eascre— Placeo, I please ; me, state of.

HillockOck. diminutive ending.

JKST—Gero (gesttts). to bear or carry.

Dki.ights—Delecto% I delight ; to delight.

Fantastic- ('.reek) Phuino, I appear or shine ; ic, belonging to. Nymph—(Greek) Nvmphc, a maiden.

Synonym—(Greek Syn, with or together; onoma. a name.

Language Test.

A synonym is a word having the same meaning as another word. An antonym is a word which is the opposite of another.

Find the synonyms and antonyms of these words:— liberty, pleasure, lively, delight, robed, mirth.

By means of a prefix or a suffix change the meaning of shepherd, care, robed, lead, mirth.


Jest, youthful, wrinkled, fantastic, pleasures, dappled, listening, slumbering, echoing, singeth.

Frame sentences to show how you would use these words.

Mean i ngs.

1.    Nymph :— A Goddess of the mountains, woods, or streams.

2.    Quips : —In olden times Kings and Lords kept jesters, whose

duty it was to amuse their masters by their witty sayings.

3.    Cranks :—whims, fancies.

4.    Sleek : smooth.

.'). Liveries referring to different colours clouds may assume.

0. Furrow’d land :—turned up by the plough.

7.    Whets :—sharpens.

8.    Dale :—valley.

Page 140.
Subject Matter.

1.    What led to the American Civil War?

2.    Which side triumphed ?

3.    On which side was Lincoln ?

4.    When was slavery abolished throughout the British Empire ? f>. What men worked hard to bring about this Reform ?

Ik Are there any countries where slavery still exists ?

Explain what is meant by : —

(«i Lincoln had prodigious faculty of performance ;

(b) this man was sound to the core.






W'lien Lincoln was a small boy his mother used to urge him to “ Learn all he could and be of some account in the World. How did Lincoln carry out her advice ?

Lincoln had a keen sense of humour. In what ways did this help him ?

Read very carefully Lincoln’s speech at Gettysburg. It is remarkable not only for its line literary style, but also for the lofty sentiment expressed.

What is meant by Democracy ? Your Reading Lesson gives a good definition.

Read the book ** From Log Cabin to White House.

Com position.

(a)    A Biography of Lincoln.

(b)    An Imaginary Conversation between two slaves who have just heard that slavery is to be abolished.

(c)    Abolition of Slavery (British Empire).

.    (d) My Ambition.

When Benjamin Franklin was thirteen years of age he noticed the style and matter of essays that appealed to him. A few days after the reading he reproduced what he could remember of the subjects, then compared his effort with the original. This excellent practice enabled him, in the end, to become a great author.


Give the general analysis of :—

(a)    Then it turned out that he was a great worker ;

(b)    In a host of young men that start together and promise so many brilliant leaders for the next age, each fails on trial ;

(c)    He is the author of a multitude of good savings, so disguised

as pleasantries that it is certain they had no reputation at &    first but as jests ;

(d)    It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.


I    Parse the words italicised in the above.

The news of Lincoln’s death brought great sadness to the American people.

Re-write this sentence, using: -

(a) A noun clause in apposition with the subject ;

(h) An adjectival clause qualifying “ people.”


Biography—(Greek) Hios, life; gvapho, I write.

PresidentPro, before ; sedco, I sit ; cut, one who. Aboriginal—Ah, from; orior, I rise; at, belonging to. InsularityInsula. an island ; tv, state of.

Legislature- Lex (legis), a law; are, state of.

Extraordinary Extra, beyond; ordo, order; ary, belonging to. Persistent—Per, through; sisto, I stop ; cut, belonging to.

Facility—Facilis, easy ; tv, state of.

Mythological Greek Mut'h <>\ a table; logos, a discourse; al, belonging to.

UNERRING—In, not; erro, 1 wander; mg, going on. ConsecraTK—C a. with or together; surer, holy; ate. to make. Magnanimity Magnus, great; animus, the mind; tv, state of.

Language Test.

1.    Express in your own words :—

(a)    Page 143, first sentence.

(b)    Here was place for no holiday magistrate, no fair-weather sailor ; the new pilot was hurried to the helm in a tornado.

(<;■) The pulse of twenty millions throbbing in his heart, the thought of their minds articulated by his tongue.

2.    Combine into one complex sentence :—

Lincoln was a plain man. As a boy lie had little opportunity for learning. Self-educated, he became a lawyer. Later he rose to the position of President.


1.    Xo aping of foreigners:—not trying to imitate the behaviour

of foreigners.

2.    Rural Legislature :—Country Parliament.

3.    lie came to his place:—rose to the position he was fitted to


4.    Lethargy :—inactivity or indifference.

si. This man grew according to the need :—as the needs of the country increased, Lincoln's ability and desire to help his people increased.

(>. Xo fair-weather sailor :—a man who would not shirk difficulties.

7.    Fertility of resource : -ability to think out and plan means

to help.

8.    Magnanimity :—greatness of mind ; nobility.

U. Pregnant definitions : —having great significance or importance. 10. Epoch :—period of time.


President, foreigners, frivolous, shining, decisions, performance, persistent, acceptance, occasion, ridicule, centre. Frame sentences to illustrate the meanings of these words.


Page 145.

Subject Matter.

Shelley, listening to the song of the lark’, is stirred to put into words the thoughts and feelings aroused in him.

1. Why does the poet say, “ Bird thou never wert ” ?

2. What is meant by, “ The blue deep thou wingest ” ?

3.    In order to make his ideas clear and vivid a poet often

describes a thing by saying it is like something which is well known. The form of comparison thus used is known as a simile. Read this poem through and notice the number of similes the poet uses.

4.    What examples of alliteration can you find in this poem ?

5.    Find the word pictures used.

(i. Rhyme depends on pronunciation, not spelling ; note springest—wingest ; now compare higher—fire ; sphere—-clear. Find other examples.

7.    Who are the heavy-winged thieves ?

8.    Why is the lark referred to as “ Scorner of the ground ?

9.    What poetic words (that is, words you would not use if you

were writing prose) can you find in the lesson ?

10. How does the poet express the thought : “ If I had the gladness of the lark I would be a famous poet M ?


1.    A Sunset.

2.    A Conversation between an English Skylark and an Aus

tralian Kookaburra.

3.    A Walk through the Bush.

Correct spelling is essential in good compositions. Seventh Grade pupils make errors in words which occur in First and Second Grade Readers. Some of these words are. there, their, until, seven, beach, wharf, coming, doctor, where, were, hear, here, Britain, limbs, taking, engine, too, clothes, paid, scent, thief, birthday, many, lose, drawer, losing. Each child should compile a list of common errors he or she makes.


1.    Give the general analysis of the last three stanzas.

2.    Give the detailed analysis of :—Bird thou never wert. What

objects are the fountains of thy happy strain ? Teach me half the gladness.


Parse the following words taken from the last two stanzas :— better, that, are found, were, scorner, half, thy, such, madness, am listening.


Unpremeditated■ — l'n, not; pre, before; meditor, 1 think. Profuse—Pro, before ; fundo (fusus), I pour.

Intense—In, in ; tendo, I stretch.

Sphere—(Greek) Sphaira, a globe.

Presence—Ens [entis), being.

Sympathy—(Greek) Sym, with ; pathos, feeling.

VERNAE—Ver, spring ; at, pertaining to.

Rapture—Rapio, 1 snatch ; ure, state of.

Ignorance—Ignoro, I know not ; cnice, state of.

Satiety—Satis, enough ; tv, state of.

Harmonious—(Greek) Harmonia, agreement ; ous, full of.

Word Building.

Give an adjective formed from delight, melody, sympathy ignorance, pain, hate, secret ; a noun from loud, harmonious, true glad ; a verb from intense, sympathy, annoyance, ignorance.

Language Test.

cl The stanza beginning ” We look before and after.' is one of the most famous of this famous poem. Write it in your own words. Also write in your own words the three lines beginning " From rainbow clouds there flow not.''

\b) Write sentences each containing one of the following as part of a simile :—

Ran like a......

Sank like a......

......like a star

......as clear as a bell

......as happy as......

Make for yourself some similes about the moon.


1. Embowered :—enclosed.

1. I'nbeholden:—unbidden; freely.

3.    Vernal showers :—spring showers.

4.    Surpass :—excel.

5.    What objects .... happy strain—what is the origin of this

light-hearted song ?

<>. Languor :—languidness ; weariness.

7. Satiety :—over-fulness ; too much of anything.

S. Deem :—think, imagine.

9. Harmonious madness:—beautiful poems.


Pourest, singest, sphere, scent, sympathy, ignorance, crystal, sincerest, fraught, presence.

Page 149.
Subject Matter.

Pilgrim’s Progress, from which book this lesson is taken is, next to the Bible, the most widely read book in the English language.

No book, except the Bible itself, has had greater influence for good on the minds of men. It is better than most allegories because the characters are so human that we are instantly interested in each for his own sake as well as anxious to know what happens to them all.

Before this chapter begins Christian and Hopeful had come to a stile leading to a meadow. Hopeful was rather afraid to cross the stile in case they lost their way, but Christian persuaded him to do so. After a time a storm came on and the two companions lost their way.

1.    What name do we give to a person who suffers for his beliefs ?

2.    Name any who have suffered in this way.

3.    Has the writer chosen simple language for his story ?

4.    What is meant by “ rating of them ” ?

“>. Explain “ they never gave him a word of distaste.”

(>. Why did Giant Despair sometimes fall into a fit in sunshiny weather ?

7. The companions were safe when they came to King’s highway because the Giant had no power or authority over it.


1.    Introduction of Christianity into Britain.

2.    Courage.

3.    You were lost in the bush or in a strange city. Relate your

adventures and how you found your way home.

A great aid to composition is the reading of good books. Even unconsciouslv we imbibe something of the style of each book. Our classic is prescribed with this end in view, as well as for the purpose of giving a taste for reading.

.    Analysis.

Give the general analysis of :—

1.    Now there was. not far from the place where they lay. a castle

called Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was Giant Despair.

2.    So when morning was come, he goes to them in a surly manner

as before, and perceiving them to be very sore with the stripes that he had given them the day before, he told them. that since they were never like to come out of that place, their only way would be to make an end of themselves.

2. Well, towards evening, the Giant goes down into the dungeon again to see if his prisoners had taken his counsel ; but when he came there he found them alive.

4. First sentence of the last paragraph, page 153.


Parse words italicised in the above passages.


Write complex sentences beginning with the following phrases :

1.    Towards evening......

2.    Getting up in the morning......

3.    Renew their discourse......

4.    With all speed......

5.    The Giant’s limbs failing him......

(1. With a cry of joy......


DiffidenceDif, asunder or apart ; fidcs, faith ; nice, state of. CondoleCon, with or together ; doleo, I grieve.

MiseryMiser, wretched ; y, state of being.

Perceiving :—Per, through ; capio, I take ; ing, going on. ContinuedCon, with or together ; teneo, to hold ; ed, finished. ConcerningCon, with or together ; cento, 1 perceive ; ing, going on.

DiscourseDis, asunder or apart : curro, I run.

Allegory—(Greek) Alios, another ; y, state of being.

Language Test.

Change into indirect speech -

1. “ Then,” said the Giant, “ you have this night trespassed on me, by lying on my grounds, and therefore you must go along with me.”

2.    ' These skulls,” he said, “ were pilgrims who once trespassed

on my grounds, as you have done ; and when I thought fit I tore them in pieces, and so, within ten days, I will do you. ”

3.    His wife replied, ” 1 fear that they live in hope that someone

will come to relieve them, or that they have pick-locks about them, by means of which they hope to escape.”

4.    ” What a fool,” quoth he, “ am I. thus to lie in a dungeon,

when I may as well walk at liberty.”


1.    Pilgrims:—travellers or wanderers.

O    #    ,    ,

2.    Trespassed gone where you have no right or permission.

3.    Counselled :—advised.

4.    Cudgel :—thick stick.

5.    Condole :—express sympathy or sorrow with.

li. Lamentations : -sorrow expressed in words or cries.

7.    Made an end of them :—killed them.

8.    Despatched :—done away with.

9.    Discourse :—conversation.


Christian, despair, dungeon, counselled, lamentations, forthwith, choose, breathe, received, wondered, persuaded, escape, creaking, pursue, chose, breath, wandered. Frame sentences to show how you would use these words.

Page 154.
Subject Matter.

The process of Nature which results in the formation and the dissolving of a cloud could be told in a few words, but Shelley in this poem shows us that these simple facts can be expressed in beautiful words. Note the descriptive words and phrases used to do this.

1.    The poet speaks of the different forms of Nature as if they

were living persons. What do we call this figure of speech ?

2.    Many examples are given in the poem. Find them.

3.    What is meant by the line (Stanza 1) ” She dances about the

Sun ” ?

4.    Why is “ hail ” called “ lashing ” and why is it compared to

a flail ?

5.    Why do the great pines groan aghast ?

(i. “ As on the jag . . . one moment may sit ” :—Here sunrise is compared to a restless eagle settling for a moment on a mountain crag.

7.    “ With wings folded . . . brooding dove”;—Sunset is com

pared to a brooding dove quietly folding her wings to rest.

8.    What is the ” sphere fire above” ? (referred to in Stanza 5).

9. Why does the cloud say, “ I change but I cannot die.”

10. “I arise and unbuild it again.”    The cloud is said to

“unbuild” her “cenotaph or tomb” when she reappears and covers the sky.

11.    Where do we usually look for the rhyming words in a poem ?

12.    In Stanza 1 notice that “ showers " rhymes with " flowers." What word rhymes with “ laid ” and what with “ waken “ ?

Study the poem and notice the continual chiming of the rhymes at short intervals.


1.    The Autobiography of a Cloud.

2.    A Thunderstorm.

3.    One night, after Betty had been put to bed, she heard a tiny • voice saying, “Betty, Betty, wake up! Would you like

to come for a trip to the moon ? "

The above is the beginning of an imaginary story. Complete it.

(a)    Keep each separate division of your subject in a separate paragraph.

(b)    Be careful to" form complete sentences expressed clearly.

(c)    Remember to use the same number—singular or plural ; and the same tense—present, past or future— throughout the same paragraph.

(d)    Do not use abbreviations in writing essays.

(e)    Take great pains with your handwriting and


•    (/) Read your essay through when you have finished—

to correct errors and detect omissions.


The same word does not always introduce the same kind of clause. Prove this by constructing an Adverbial Clause, an Adjectival Clause, and a Noun Clause, each beginning with the. word " where."

Construct Complex sentences, each containing one of the following :

1.    Noun Clause object of a Verb.

2.    Noun Clause in Apposition with the Subject in the Principal


3.    Noun Clause complement of a Verb.

4.    Adjectival Clause.

r>. Adverbial Clause of Result. The subordinate Clause in each case must begin with the word " that."

Detailed Analysis.

Give detailed anlaysis of:—

1.    Over eartli and ocean, with gentle motion,

This pilot is guiding me.

2.    The sanguine sunrise, with its meteor eyes,

And his burning plumes outspread,

Leaps on the back of my sailing rack.

3.    The mountains its columns be.


Parse italicised words in the above.


Dissolve—Dis, asunder or apart ; sclvo, I loosen.

Sublime—Sublimis, lofty.

Cavern—Cams, hollow

Sanguine—Sanguis, blood ; me, pertaining to.

Ardours—Ardeo, I burn.

Orbed—Orb is, a circle.

ZoneGreek; Zone, a girdle.

Con vEX —Co n vex us, arched.

Cenotaph—(Greek) Kenos, empty ; tapiios. a tomb.

Word Building.

Write a single word of either Latin or (»reek origin for :—directions a Doctor writes to a Chemist ; a writing on a tomb ; an account of a person's life ; a section of an Essay ; to speak in opposition to ; act of breaking out.

Language Test.

1.    Construct sentences containing the following words:—

lightning, lightening ; angels, angles ; residence, residents; quiet, quite ; envelop, envelope ; statue, statute.

2.    Complete the following stanza by tilling in the blank spaces : —

The air around was trembling bright And full of ... .

While butterflies were ....

Between the .... blue.


1.    Their Mother’s breast:—the Earth.

2.    Flail :—a thrashing instrument.

3.    Fettered :—chained or hindered from moving.

4.    Lured :—enticed, led on.

f>. Bask :—expose myself to its pleasant influence.

6.    Meteor :—flashing.

7.    Morning Star :—Planet Venus.

8.    Pall:—covering or shade.

9.    Rent :—tear or opening.

10. Nursling:—child.


Thirsting, breast, lightning, meteor, breathe, breezes, volcanoes, columns, moist, pavilion.    ,


Pages 157-163.


Notice the style of this essay, and the use made of paragraphs and punctuation marks, particularly of quotation marks and notes of interrogation. Most of the sentences are short and in many of them the subject is not put first. Take for your subject one of the following, keeping in mind what you have noticed :

1.    Freedom.

2.    Patriotism.

3.    How votes are cast in Queensland.

4.    Travelling on the Night Express.

General Analysis.

1.    They were the slogan of men who were prepared to give their

lives that the reproach of slavery might be wiped away ft ow their land.

2. As he saw the lines of soldiers lining the road he lifted his

head proudly and stepped, as though he were a conqueror, into the cart that was to carry him to the scaffold.

3.    Some men declared that he was crazy, while others denounced

him as a law breaker, but when every slave in America was free it was clearly seen that this death had completed the work of his life.


Parse as fully as you can the words italicised in the above.

Derivation and Word Building.

(Noun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb forms of the words).

Militiamen—Miles, a soldier.

Marines—Mare, the sea ; ine, pertaining to.

Civil—Civ is, a citizen.

Decision—De, down ; caedo, I cut ; ion, act of.

TERRORISED—Terreo, I frighten; ize, to make; ed, thing done. Continent—Con, together ; teneo, I hold, ent, state.

ARMOURY—Anna, arms; ory, a place.

CandidatesCandeo, I shine ; ate, state.

Resistance—Re, back ; sisto, I stand ; a nee, act of. Unconscious— I'n, not ; con, together ; scio, I know ; ous, full of.

Subject Matter.

. 1. Name other countries besides the United States in which the States have full control over internal affairs, but united with others for national purposes.

2.    Tell as many facts as you can about England’s part in the

Slave Trade.

3.    What historical facts do you know about the “ Mayflower ”

and its passengers ?

4.    Why was liberty to be found in Canada at this time ?

5.    What Queensland event is connected with the year 1859 ?

(i. Who was John Brown?

7.    How came his body to lie in the grave ?

8.    Why did his soul go marching on ?

9.    What traces of the Slave Trade remain in the United States ? ](). Point on the map : Kansas, Virginia, Washington, Charlestown, Shenandoah, Potomac.


1.    American Civil War:—Began 1861, eighty-six years after

the War of Independence.

2.    Slogan :—a battle or rallying cry.

3.    Great Lakes :—Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, Ontario.

4.    Partisans:—supporters of a party, colloquially called


.*>. Raid:—an invasion e.g., the Jameson Raid, a few years before the Second Boer War).

h Arsenal : —a place for the storage of arms and military stores (e.g., Rawal Pindi is the great arsenal of X W. India).

7.    Patrolled :—guarded by soldiers who march round.

8.    Barricaded :—hastily fortified with articles near at hand.

9.    Colonel Lee :—an American General, leader of the Southern

troops in the Civil War, “ a great soldier, wise in command, patient in preparation, swift in decision, terrible in onset, tenacious in hold, sullen in retreat."

Vocabu lary.

Their dying hours, divisions, cotton, believed, whether, border, scene, religious, enemy, break, chain, weapons, arsenal, business, examining, seizing, possession, relief, passengers, allowed, receive, lieutenant.

I'onti sentences which clearly show the meaning of each. Also form sentences with there, dyeing, whether, boarder, brake, aloud, ceasing.

Language Test.

Put a single word for each of the following :

1.    A question put to the vote of the people.

2.    Well-known in history.

8. Too eager.

4.    A bitter enemy.

5.    A terribly lawless condition.

(>. A price upon his head.

7.    The meeting place of the rivers.

8.    Every point of vantage.

9.    The Seat of Government.

10. Without a tremor.

Page 165.

The style of our Essays depends a great deal upon the adjectives we use, and this famous poem will prove helpful in enlarging your vocabulary in this respect, e.g., parting day, lowing herd, weary way, glimmering landscape, solemn stillness. Collect other examples for yourself. The following subjects are suggested for your selection

1.    Sunset in Queensland.

2.    Morning in Queensland.

3.    Ambition.

4.    Three famous men : Hampden, Cromwell, and Milton.


Notice that the alternate lines rhyme nearly always most agreeably, but in a few cases the rhyming is not exact. Can you find these places ? Scan the first verse and you will find that the accents fall

on each second syllable and that there are five strong accents, therefore five feet in a line. Compare the metre of other verses. Observe that common appearances are referred to in poetical language, thus '‘ sunset ” is parting day.

Find Gray's poetical allusion to cattle, twilight, calm, an owl’s hoot, nest, graves, the dead, barn, cock-crow, father’s home-coming. Look for many more examples of a similar nature, for you may spend hours exploring the beauties of expression.

What do we usually say instead of .    1. “ The inevitable hour.”

2.    Short and simple annals.”

3.    ” All that wealth e’er gave.”

4.    ” The pealing anthem.”

5.    *’ Animated bust.”

0. ” Is born to blush.”

7. “ Some Village Hampden.”

S. ” Wade through slaughter.”

9. ” 1'rail memorial.”

10. ‘‘ lloary-headed swain ? ”

T ransposition.

Transpose into your own simple language the chief thoughts that came into the mind of Thomas ('»rav as he pondered in the graveyard at Stoke Poges.

Detailed Analysis.

1.    Full many a gem of purest ray serene the dark unfathomed

caves of ocean bear.

2.    Can storied urn or animated bust back to its mansion call the

fleeting breath ?

3.    Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid some heart once pregnant

with celestial lire.

4.    Along the cool sequestered vale of life they kept the noiseless

tenor of their wav.


Parse the words italicised.


Quote the Rule followed by each word in the parsing.


Combine the following simple sentences into one complex sentence :

1.    The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.

2.    They sleep beneath those rugged elms.

3.    The elms shade the churchyard.

4.    In the churchyard the turf heaves in many a mouldering heap.

5.    Each heap marks the resting place of a departed villager.


EpitaphEpi, upon ; taphos, a tomb.

ElegyElegos, a song of mourning.

Circumscribed—C ircum, around; scribo, I write; ed. done.

Melancholy— Melas, black; chole, bile; y. state.

Senate—Senex, old ; ate, state.

Contemplation —Con, with ; templum, a temple ; tion, state.

Moralist—Ufos (moris), a manner ; ist, one who.

Celestial-—Cesium, heaven ; ial. belonging to.

AnimatedAnima, life; ed, done.

Neglected—Nec, not ; lego, I gather ; ed, done.


By using the above derivation and studying the context in the poem, supply the meanings of the above ten words.

Language Test.

Frame sentences to show the difference in meaning between lea and lee ; way, weigh, and whey ; sight, cite, and site ; tower and tour ; reign, rein, and rain ; yew, hue. ewe ; elm and helm ; cell and sell ; morn and mourn ; annals and annuals ; raise and rays ; heart and hart.


Page 171.


This famous passage on Mercy comes from Act IY, Scene I of “ The Merchant of Venice,” one of the plays of Shakespeare, greatest of all English dramatists.

William Shakespeare was born at Stratford-upon-Avon, in 15(54, and died there in 161(5. Of the events of his life we know little with certainty, but, before he was thirty years of age, he was already becoming known in London as a writer. During the next twenty years he wrote thirty-seven plays, as well as sonnets and other poems, and retired from the stage in 1611 when his powers were at their highest. The fame which Shakespeare won in the splendid Elizabethan age has not died ; his works remain as a permanent possession of our literature, a glorious part of our English heritage. As Ben Jonson, his contemporary, said of him :—

“lie was not of an age, but for all time.”

His dramatic works include historical plays, comedies of various types, tragedies and romantic plays. These dramas are a - world, peopled by varied characters, presented to us with unsurpassed dramatic power and skill, and with so keen an insight into human nature that they live to-day as truly as they did more than three hundred years ago.

Shakespeare wrote “ The Merchant of Venice ” quite early in his career, but it has some skilfully drawn characters and not a few passages of beautiful poetry. One of these we have here : Portia’s appeal to Shylock in the Court of Justice. Shylock, a wealthy Jew, had lent Antonio, the “ Merchant of Venice,” a large sum of money for a three months’ term. Shylock fiercely hated the Christian

merchants, who, indeed, treated him in an un-Christian manner. He proposed, seemingly in jest, that Antonio should sign a bond promising to allow Shylock to cut oft a pound of his flesh if the money were not repaid by the appointed day. Venice was at that time a great trading city and Antonio had many ships on voyages- to Tripoli, to the Indies, to Mexico, to England. He expected that, long before the bond fell due. these ships would have returned with the money gained by the sale of their cargoes. But disasters overtook them and Antonio found himself unable to meet the bond. In the Court of Justice Shylock insisted upon his pound of flesh according to the bond, but he was foiled by a young Doctor of Laws, who was really a noble lady, Portia, disguised in the gown of an Advocate. She pointed out that the bond allowed Shylock no drop of blood.

Her first appeal to the Jew.was to be merciful. “ On what compulsion must I ? " demanded Shylock. But Portia replied that mercy is not a matter of compulsion—“ The quality of mercy is not strain'd ”— it falls as freely as does the soft rain from heaven. Then in a series of beautiful descriptions she showed the divine qualities of mercy, which is above all the dread power of kings, because, by showing mercy in their justice, they can most nearly approach God. What a heart of flint must Shylock have had to resist this appeal !

The passage is in the form of verse which we call “ blank verse,” because it has no rhyme. Shakespeare found this measure the most suitable for his plays ; it is dignified and natural, and it admits of great variety of tone and effect.

You will notice that there are usually ten syllables in each line-five stressed and five unstressed, but Shakespeare avoids mere regularity, and you would spoil his lines by attempting to read them as an alternation of unstressed and stressed syllables. Can you tell which of the lines in this passage are “ run on ” lines ?


l-ortia : “ Then must the Jew be merciful.”

Shylock : ” On what compulsion must I ? Tell me that.”

Portia : “In the nature of mercy there is no compulsion ; it is bestowed as freely as the soft rain falls from heaven on the earth beneath ; it is twice blessed, for it blesses both him who gives and him who receives. It shows greatest in the most mighty and is more becoming to a monarch than his very crown. His sceptre is the emblem of the temporal power which belongs to dread majesty and inspires fear. But mercy is higher than this temporal power ; it is enthroned in the hearts of kings, and is a quality of God Himself, so that earthly power most resembles God’s when human justice is moderated by mercy.”

Greek Roots Aster. a star; asterisk; asteroid, astrology; astronomy, Aretes, a bear ; Arctic, Antarctic, Arctoid ; lirgon, work ; energy, energetic, surgeon, energetically, energize ; Zoon, an animal ; zoological, zoology, zodaic.

Consult your dictionary for the actual meaning of the above derivatives after you have construed the literal meanings by using prefixes, roots, and suffixes.

Page 172.

Joseph Addison is one of the greatest writers of Essays. Study his style carefully and try to imitate it. In this case he uses a style suitable to imaginative essays. Xotice how he introduces persons and their conversations to give interest to his ideas and variety to his composition. Select for your subjects: “The Autobiography of a Shepherd, or of “ a Musician, or of “ a Bridge." Observe how a scene is described in this lesson, then describe “ A Delightful Scene” you have actually gazed upon.

Subject Matter.

1.    Where is Bagdad, and why has it become of greater interest

to us during the 20th century ?

2.    What causes a mist ?

3.    What do the three score and ten arches of the bridge stand

as a symbol for ?

4.    What do the trapdoors stand for ?

5.    Why were the trapdoors less numerous in the middle ?

H.    What do you think the bubbles signified ?

7.    What passion was represented by the winged boys ?

8.    What name do we give to the “ mansions of good men after

death ? "

0. Did the visionary shepherd think life to be miserable or enjoyable ? Give reasons for your answer.

10. When the vision disappeared, what reality gave place to it ?

General Analysis.

I.    At length, said I: “ Show me now, I beeseech thee, the

secrets that lie hid under those dark clouds which cover the ocean on the other side of the rock of adamant."

2.    These are the mansions of good men after death, who, accord

ing to the degree and kinds of virtue in which they excelled. are distributed among these several islands, which abound with pleasures of different kinds of degrees, suitable to the relishes and perfections of those who are settled in them.

3.    I wished for the wings of an eagle that I might fly away to

those happy seats, but the genius told me there was no passage to them except through the Gates of Death that I saw opening every moment upon the bridge.


Parse the italicised words.

Rules of Syntax.

Quote the Rule of Syntax which applies to each word italicised.


SoliloquiesSolus, alone ; loquor, I speak ; ies, plural form of y, pertaining to.

SuperstitionSuper, above ; sfo, I stand ; tion, state. Apprehensionsap, to; prehendo, I seize; tion, state.

Multitudes Multus, many; tiuie, state.

Accommodated—Ac, to; com, together; modus, a manner; ed, done.

Consummation C >;/. together ; sunmui, a sum ; lion, state.

Perpetually—Per, through; peto, 1 seek; ai, belonging to; ly, manner.

Myriads—wurios, ten thousand.

AyariceA varus, greedy.

Innumerable—hi, not; numerus, a number; able, able.

Construct the literal meaning and. having regard to the context of the lesson, give the actual meaning.

Word Building.

Give an adjective derived from : custom, meditation, thought, melody, impressions ; a verb from pleasures, conversation, reverence, examination, perpetually ; an adverb from : exceeding, attention, ruinous, expect, immense ; and a noun from : -offered, sweet, musical, astonished, imagine.

Language Test.

Turn the following direct quotations into indirect :—

1.    “ The islands,” said he, ” that lie so fresh and green before

thee, and with which the whole face of the ocean appears spotted as far as thou can see, are more in number than the sands on the seashore.”

2.    “ Take thine eyes off the bridge,” said he, ” and tell me if

thou yet seest anything that thou dost not comprehend.”

3.    “I see a bridge,” said I, “ standing in the midst of the tide.”

” The bridge thou seest,” said he, ” is Human Life ; consider it attentively.”

Page 177.

Write in your own words Goldsmith’s idea of :—

1.    A Country Preacher.

2.    A Village Schoolmaster ; or

3.    Detail an imaginary conversation between the Schoolmaster

and the Preacher.

If you select the last, then, in keeping with the poem, make your characters argue, say, on the question whether the preacher was wise in making guests of beggars, spendthrifts, soldiers and wretched people generally.


1.    How many feet can you count in each line?

2.    Where do the accents fall ?

3.    What system of rhyming is followed ?

4. Find out two pairs of words that do not rhyme well.

5. Why are the two last words not grammatically correct ?

(j. Why did Goldsmith use them ?

7. Turn again to Gray's Elegy ami quote a line which also contains this poetical licence.

v Why did the poet write thund ring, e'en, both times lie used the words ?

9. Read the poem carefully, then write down ten descriptive adjectives that could be applied to the preacher, and

10. Ten descriptive adjectives that could be applied to the schoolmaster.

Detailed Analysis.

1.    A man he was to all the country dear.

2.    Remote from towns he ran his godlv race.

3.    Thus to relieve the wretched was his pride.

4.    The sen ice past, around the pious man, with steady zeal,

each honest rustic ran.

~>. Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace the day’s disasters in his morning face.


Starting with the following words, form complex sentences of your own which will contain three different kinds of subordinate clauses:—

1.    With unaffected grace.

2.    Beside the bed.

A. At church.

4. The villagers all declared.

“>. The grazing rustics.

Parsi ng.

Parse, fully, the words italicised. Do not abbreviate any word, but you may omit altogether obvious words such as person, number, gender, case, mood, tense.


(Refer to Sentences for analysis).

1.    What is the plural possessive of “ man ” ?

2.    What is the plural form of “ he ” ?

3.    Give the three chief parts of “ was.”

4.    Give the opposite preposition of “ to.”,

o. How would you classify “ all ” ?

h. What is the plural of “ country ” ?

7.    Compare the adjective “ dear.”

8.    What is the usual adverbial form of ” remote ” ?

9.    Form several nouns beginning with ” town.”

10. Give four forms of the verb ” ran.”


\ N PRACTISED—l n, not; Gr., prassein, to do; ed, finished. DoctrinesDoceo, I teach ; ine, pertaining to.

ChampionCampus, a plain ; ion, the act of.

VanquishedVinco, I conquer ; ish, like ; ed, finished.

AccentsAc, to; cano, I sing.

RUSTICS—Rus, the country ; ic, pertaining to.

CounterfeitedCounter, against ; facio, I make ; cd, finished. Anguish—Ango, I vex; ish, like.

MansionManeo, I stay ; ion, act of.

VagrantVagus, wandering ; ant, one who.


Assisted by the above derivation, supply the meanings of the ten words.

Spelling, Word Building and Sentence Making.

Village, forty, guest, duty, led. laid, raise, pray, double, wile, rolling, furze, whisper, circling, aught, cipher, gauge, forty-four, guessed, lead, rays, prey, while, furs, lought, gage.

Language Tests.

1. By using or omitting affixes reverse the meaning of the following words:—modest, godly, changed, unpractised, power, fashioned, descending, allowed, careless, guilt Note that an affix may be either a prefix or a suffix).

Write the words opposite in meaning to : parting, despair, anguish, adorned, warmth, gay, noisy, severe, dismal, frowned.


Page 180.


the vocabulary of this lesson is more advanced than most lessons throughout the book. It will serve to remind those who write their compositions in the style of the books used in the lower classes that a better vocabulary must be employed.



Play the Game.

League of Nations.

Subject Matter.

1.    Name some Federations you know of besides the Australian


2.    If it were 10.30 on the Kith January in Paris, give the approxi

mate time in Australia.

Mention some other steps in human progress besides the establishment of the League of Nations.

4. What years comprise the KHh Century ?

Mention some other “ articles ” you have read of in your history besides the “ articles of the Covenant.” fi. Show that the word " articles ” has different meanings.

7.    WHat is meant by ” pacific means ? ” Why was our great

ocean called Pacific ? Does it always deserve this name ?

8.    What is meant by ” play the game ” and ” topsy turvy ” ?

0.    (rive an instance when a nation broke a promise.

10. Give the opposite qualities to each of the following: -Suspicion, envy, greed, and hate.


Turn to the poem on page 21(>.

1.    What is meant by the poet laureate ?

2.    Who holds the position at present ?

,‘k Pick out the pairs of rhyming words and tell what scheme is adopted.

4.    Make some comments about the rhythm.

5.    Quote the line which, in your opinion, best expresses the idea

of peace.

6.    What words show the poem is a prophecy ?

7.    What fretful realms threatened the peace of the world in

1935 ?

8.    What meanings do you give to:—argosies, airy navies. Parlia

ment, common sense, universal law ?

9.    What emotion do you feel upon reading the poem ?


Turn to page 201. Write the meanings of as many words in the Spelling List as you can. Then open your dictionary to find a meaning that will fit each of the others. Next repeat all the the meanings of words in the given list without reference to your notes.


Memorable—Mcmor, mindful ; able. able.

AnarchyAn, without; arche, rule; v state.

Sectional—Seco, 1 cut ; a!, belonging to.

Transcend—Trans, across; scando, I climb.

CorporateCorpus, the body ; ate, state.

Comprehensive—Com, together ; prehendo, I seize ; ive, state. Pacific—Pax, peace ; ic, belonging to.

DistractedI)is, asunder ; traho, 1 draw ; ed, done. Philosophersl'hilos, loving; sophos, wise; ers, ones who. InternationalInter, between ; natus, to be born ; al, belonging to.

Arbitrators—Arbiter, a judge; ors, ones who.

Language Test.

1.    Re-write the following, changing as many words as possible

into the plural : —

(a)    A poet’s word.

(b)    Man’s Parliament.

(r) Senate’s President.

(d) League’s Council.

(r) Century’s triumph.

(/) Arbitrator’s decision.

(g)    Civilisation’s development.

(Ji) Fear of my teacher.

(i) The moral force of public opinion is a mighty weapon.

2.    Write a noun for each of the following, and give the feminine

form in each case :—

(a) The author of a poem.

(h)    A man of refined manners.

(r) Male children of a family (two answers).

(d) The writer of the lesson.

3.    The following are suitable answers to certain questions.

Suggest the question in each case :—

(a) T would choose world Government, not world anarchy.

{b) Wars do not just happen ; they are made.

(c)    In the League we have the necessary machinery for peace.

(d)    It is not only the fear of our teachers that makes us behave at school.

(e)    This principle is embodied in the twenty-six articles

of the Covenant.

4. Arrange the spelling list on page 201 in strict alphabetical order.

'). Give the names of the following :—

(a) A man elected to Parliament.

{b) A joining together of Nations.

ir) A written agreement between Nations.

{(1) Words changed from one language to another.

(e) One person taken separately.

(/) Men who decide a question in dispute.

(g) Those opposed to the Government.

(/<) A short statement of facts.

(?) The line that bounds our view.

{j) Giving no credit to the opinions of others.

Page 184.

To appreciate a poem to the full we must know something of the author and something of the surrounding circumstances.

Alfred Tennyson was born at Somersby, Lincolnshire, in 1809, and during his boyhood he often walked on the dunes at Mablethorpe watching the grey North Sea breakers.

This poignant little poem, full of regret for love lost in death, was probably written in 1833. when Tennyson was 24 years of age, though it was not published until 1842. Tennyson’s brilliant young friend, Arthur Henry Hallam, had died suddenly in Vienna, on loth September, 1833, at the early age of 22. The news reached Somersby on 1st October, and these lines, composed as Tennyson strode by night in the Lincolnshire lanes, are the first cry of his despairing sorrow at the cruel loss which produced such a crisis in his life.

Many of our poets have written splendid elegies to mourn the loss of friends. Such were Milton’s “ Lycidas ” to honour Edward King, drowned in the Irish Sea ; Shelley’s “ Adonais,” on the untimely death of Keats ; Arnold’s “ Thyrsis,” for his friend Clough. Tennyson wrote his “ In Memoriam " to the memory of Hallam, but this great poem was composed during many years and did not appear until 17 years after Hallam’s death. In it the emotion is more stilled : the deepest sense of loss is to be found in the shorter poems written during the dark winter months which followed the crushing blow. Such is the poem called 1 ‘ file Two Voices’’ with its meditation of hopelessness

“ A still small voice spake unto me,

‘ Thou art so full of misery,

Were it not better not to be ? ’ ”

“ Break, break, break ” is a perfect work of art, fully felt, simple and profound. Read it aloud : from the first one feels the utter desolation—

“ Break, break, break,

On thv cold gray stones, O sea.”

'1'he first line echoes the recurring crash of the wintry waves and the long, open vowels express a solemn grief. Skilfully the poet

interweaves Nature with passion, and links liis own deep personal emotion with universal feeling. This is the art of our greatest poets.

The bleak monotony of the North Sea waves breaking on a cold gray shore, is a symbol of the poet's unutterable grief. The fisherman’s bov may play happily with his sister, the sailor lad may sing, the stately ships may glide on as before. But for the poet a change has come over life—

" . . . O for the touch of a vanished hand.

And the sound of a voice that is still.”

Other things may go on unconscious of the tragedy, but upon Tennvson in the first flush of life and friendship has fallen a shattering blow ; from his young life something has passed beyond recall ”... the tender grace of a day that is dead Will never come back to me!”

Common Greek Roots Arranged as in the Syllabus:—Aster, Arche, Arctos, Hallo, Hapto, Bios, Chronos, Demos, lirgon, Ge, Grapho, Helios, Kineo, Logos, Metron, Mikvos, Monos, Phone, Phos, Polls, Polys, Skopeo, Tele, They me, Zoon.

Greek PrefixesAmphi, Anti, Arch, Auto, Lata, Dia, Ex Epi, Eu, Hyper, Hypo, Parq, Peri, Pro.

Greek Suffixes Ac, An, Ic, Isk. Ism, 1st, Ize, Y.

Test, by the above lists, whether you know the English meanings.


Page 185.


The misuse of the word ” good,” instead of well, as an adverb, is frequently noted, as in the expression, ” I was not feeling too good, or “ I can write as good as you.” Other common grammatical errors are, “ everyone were pleased ; ” everybody enjoyed themselves” ; ” evervone brought their bathing suits.” Correct these errors and avoid them.

Take for your subject one of the following : A Day’s Work in a School ; on a Farm ; in a Factory ; in a Forest ; at a Telegraph Station.


1.    Transcribe from the lesson:—

(«) a Simple Sentence ;

(h) a Compound Sentence ;

(c) a Complex Sentence.

Which type predominates in the lesson ?

2.    Analyse your selected sentences in the most suitable form.


Parse the four words “ My lady sweet, arise ! ”


The lesson abounds in words of Latin origin. If you have learnt your previous derivation lessons thoroughly you should now be proficient. As a test, give the derivation of all the words you know in the lesson.

Language Test.

What name would you give to the labourer who :—

Clears the forest • drains the morass; drives the plough ; scatters the seeds ; reaps the harvest ; tends the pastures ;

sweeps the waters ; gathers the cotton from the field ; gathers fleece from the flock ; weaves the fleece ; quarries the stone ; shapes the column ; rears a cottage ; smelts the iron ; moulds the iron ; shapes the timber ; guides the ship ; spans majestic rivers ; competes with lightning itself ; walks forth into a region uninhabitated ; makes the anvil ring ; makes the busy wheel whirl round ?

Vocabulary, Spelling and Sentence Making.

The answers to the above may be found hidden in the following : -Shepherd, sailor, fisherman, cabinet-maker, navigator, engineer, agriculturalist, picker, timbergetter. ploughman, reaper, artisan, manufacturer, stockman, factory-hand, architect, sawmiller, sower, shearer, weaver, quarryman, carpenter, farmer, pastoralist, stonemason, smelter, harvester, mariner, builder, ironworker, captain, wireless-operator, explorer, engine-driver, moulder, bridge-builder, telegraphist, woodman, telephonist, pioneer, blacksmith.

Page 187.
Com position.

Notice, in this poem, the use of the simile, e.g., “ As a feather is wafted downward from an eagle in its flight ” ; “ As the mist resembles rain ” ; “ like the strains of martial music ” ; “as showers from the clouds of summer ” ; “ like the benediction that follows prayer ” ; “ like the Arabs.”

The stvle of your composition will be improved by the use of comparisons.

Take one of the following for your subject :—

1.    Autobiography of an Eagle;

2.    How I use my Leisure Time ;

i    3. My Favourite Songs.


1.    What do you know about Longellow ?

2.    Read the poem through and then suggest other suitable names

for it.

i    3. To what does the poet compare “ night,” and to what does

he compare “darkness”?

4.    What emotions does the poet feel at nightfall ?

5.    Quote lines to show that he does not feel deep sorrow.

(>. What does the poet need to sooth his feelings ?

7.    How would you soothe your restless feelings ?

8.    What does he mean by grand old masters ?

9.    Give the names of “ some bards sublime.”

10.    Express “ corridors of time ” in other words.

11.    Have you ever heard strains of martial music? When?

Where ?

12.    With what words do “humbler poet” contrast?

13.    Name some songs that have melodies which please you.

14.    Give the meaning of “ benediction ” (the derivation will assist

you).    .

15.    What kind of poem did the poet actually want ?

16.    What name is given to the Arabs because they move from

place to place?

17.    Where are these Arabs found ?

18.    Write out the stanza that appeals to you most.

19.    Why do you appreciate this particular stanza ?

20 What power does the poet grant to a beautiful voice in song ?




Take one of the following for your subject :—

1.    Self Sacrifice ;

2.    A Narrow Escape ;

3.    “ O, it is excellent to have a giant’s strength, but it is

tyrannous to use it like a giant.”

If you use the words:—until, wharf, quiet, quite, lose, hear, sailor, chief, receive, their, piece, spell them correctly.

Spelling and Meanings.

1.    French Revolution:—began 1789.

2.    Bastille: -State prison.

3.    Self Sacrifice :—suffering for others.

4.    Aristocrat:—person of noble birth.

5.    La Force :—a prison.

6.    Apparition :—ghost.

7.    Apprehension:—fear.

8.    Emphatic entreaty :—strong request.

9.    Pathetic :—sorrowful.

10.    Supernatural: -above human power.

11.    Vapour:—powerful drug (choloroform).

12.    Faculties: -senses.

13.    Reproachful :—expressing blame.

14.    Restorative medicine having power to restore.

15.    Lottery:—a game of chance.

16.    Guillotine:- the machine for execution.

17.    Divined their meaning: knew what they meant.

18.    No vestige of colour :—no sign of colour.

19.    Seamstress: dressmaker.

20.    Republic :—Government by the people.


Give the derivation of as many words as possible from the above


Language Test.

1.    Change into indirect narration: “Are you dying for him ? ”

she whispered. “ And his wife and child. Hush ! Yes.” “ Oh, you will let me hold your brave hand, stranger ? ”

“ Hush ! Yes, my poor sister ; to the last.”

2.    What are the nouns corresponding to the following adjectives :

—emphatic, pathetic, reproachful, noble, intelligible, longer, conscious, bewildered, bitter, earnest, mis-doubted, real, different, thankful,?

3.    Write adjectives opposite in meaning to those given in (2).

Syllabus Notes Committee Publications


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