S V' T >• T    .

DOH-

THE AUSTRALIAN COPY BOOK.

( Wholly Engraved and Printed in Australia.)

Approved by the Departments of Public Instruction, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, by the Public Service Board of New South Wales, and by the Chief Inspector of Catholic Schools. Price, 2d. each.

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Approved by the N.S. W. Department of Public Instruction. In nine numbers. Id. each.

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HIS T O B Y

AUSTRALIA

AND

NEW ZEALAND

FOR

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS new and revised edition

SYDNEY

ANGUS & ROBERTSON

89 CASTLEREAGH STREET 1906

Mc-ltjou^ne:

P.I.nehan, 303 Lit Coliine St.

conoid \'Z‘ó

liv^sn -AfNfi NI*YS«


-


INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

he school histories of Australia which have

hitherto been published, though more or less meritorious from a secular standard, are wanting in one essential for Catholic children — they ignore religion. It is to supply this want that this little book has been prepared.

The portion dealing with the history of the Church in the colonies, her trials and triumphs, has been derived in the main from the elaborate “ History of the Church in Australasia,’’ by His Eminence Cardinal Moran, the “ Progress of Catholicity in Australia,” by the late Very Rev. Dean Kenny, and the Very Rev. Dr Byrne’s “History of the Catholic Church in South Australia.” The civil history includes a brief account of the early maritime discoveries, the chief inland explorations, and the principal political events of Australia and New Zealand.

V


J.C.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER.

PAGK.

1

Discoveries ...

.........

5

2

Colonisation of New South Wales ...

13

o

O

New South Wales-

(Continued) ...

19

4

New South Wales

under Responsible

Government ...

.........

40

5

Tasmania... ...

...... *•

59

G

Victoria ... ...

.........

67

7

South Australia

... ... ...

78

8

Queensland ...

... ... ...

88

9

West Australia ...

... ... ...

98

10

New Zealand ...

... ... ...

104

Appendix.—Australian Aborigines ...

113

HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA

FOR

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS.

CHAPTER I.

EARLY DISCOVERIES.

The date of the discovery of Australia is not known with any degree of certainty. Yague ideas of the existence of a Great South Land were held by Strabo, Pliny, Marco Polo, and others. Some writers maintain that Magellan’s followers sighted the western coast in 1522, and in a French manuscript chart, dated 1542, is figured, lying to the south of the Moluccas, an extensive territory (called Jave la grandei.e., Great Java) which agrees fairly well both as regards extent and position with the northern portion of Australia. This map is supposed to have been copied from a previously existing Portuguese chart, and on this account the Portuguese are now generally credited with the honour of being the first Europeans to set foot on Australian soil.

Cornelis Houtman, 1597. —In >1597 Cornells Houtman, a Portuguese pilot in the service of the Dutch East India Company, is said to have sighted and given the name of Houtman's Abrolhos to a group of rocky islets lying about 45 miles to the north-west of Champion Bay, in Western Australia. (The term Abrolhos is a contraction of a Portuguese expression meaning “ keep your eyes open.”)

De Quiros and Torres, 1606.—The first really trustworthy accounts of discoveries in Australian waters date from the early part of the 17th century. Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, a Spanish navigator, who had discovered some of the Polynesian islands in 1595, in his ambition to rival the great Spanish discoverers, Cortes and Pizarro, prevailed upon the King of Spain, Philip III., to supply him with means to undertake a search for the Great South Land. He procured a letter from the Pope, “ commanding all good Christians to help him,” and, in addition, His Holiness gave a special blessing to his undertaking. The expedition, which consisted of three ships, was fitted out by the Governor of Peru, acting under orders from Philip. De Quiros commanded the small squadron, and Torres, another Spanish navigator, was second in command. Sailing westward from Lima, Tahiti was discovered early in 1606, and soon after, “on the feast of Pentecost, 1606, he saluted from afar what appeared to him to be the Great Southern Continent of which he was in search, and gave it, in honour of the festival which was that day celebrated, the name “ Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo,” which has been justly translated ‘ Australia of the Holy Ghost.’ ” Further on in the work from which this extract is quoted, His Eminence Cardinal Moran submits evidence which shows very clearly that the territory in which De Quiros anchored was Port Curtis (on the east coast of Queensland), which he named the Harbour of Holy Cross. It appears, further, that De Quiros built a church on the mainland, where twenty Masses were celebrated and attended by all his men. Mutiny on board his ship, the Capitana, loss of some of his crew, and sickness of others, compelled De Quiros, it has been supposed, to return to America before ascertaining the extent of his discovery. All that is recorded of his hasty departure homewards is the following statement in

Torres’ account of the voyage : “ At one hour past midnight the Capitana departed without any notice given to us and without making any signal.” Torres, after waiting many days in vain for the return of De Quiros, set sail also, and passed safely through the strait dividing Australia from New Guinea which now bears his name. He reached Manila in 1607, but the records of his voyages lay unknown until 1762, when, after the capture of that city by the British, the Admiralty authorities had them translated and published. On reaching Acapulco, De Quiros sent a memorial to the King of Spain, with an account of his discoveries, praying to be entrusted with another expedition. His prayer was granted after some delay, but he died at Panama on his way to Lima.

The Dutch.—The D utcli in 1606 sent out from Bnntarn, in the East Indies, a small vessel, the Duyfhen (Dove), to explore the southern coast of New Guinea. The Gulf of Carpentaria, on the eastern side, was also explored as far as Cape Kcerweer (Turnagain), where some of the crew landed. Many of them were killed by the blacks, whereupon the captain was glad to turn his ship homewards. lor ten years no more discoveries were made, but in 1616 Dirk HartOg\ another Dutch navigator, visited the west coast of Australia in the Endracht (Concord), and landed on the island in Shark Bay, called after him He examined the coastline from 26|° to 23°    S.,

and gave it the name of Endracht Eand. Among other Dutch navigators of this period may be mem tioned Jan Carstens, who sailed along the northern shore of Australia in the Amheim, and had the misfortune to lose eight of his crew, who were murdered by the blacks. Captain Edel, in 1619, explored much of the western coast, and the Lceuwm (Lioness), in 1622, sailed around the southern coast from Cape

Leeuwin to King George’s Sound. Peter Nuyts, in the Guide Zeepard (Golden Sea Horse), in 1627, explored the Great Australian Bight as far as the archipelago bearing his name. His account of the land he sailed along was just as unfavourable as those furnished by his predecessors.

Proposed Settlement-—Nevertheless, the Dutch determined, in 1628, to form a settlement on the western shores of New Holland, as Australia was then called. For this purpose a fleet of eleven ships, under the command of Commodore Francis Pelsart, was despatched from Holland in that year. All went well with the colonising expedition until rounding the Cape of Good Hope, where contrary winds separated the ships. Soon after, Pelsart’s vessel was wrecked off Houtman’s Abrolhos, but these islands and the adjacent mainland having little or no water, he was obliged to proceed in an open boat to Batavia for assistance and provisions. During Pelsart’s absence, the supercargo (Jerome Cornells) and a portion of the shipwrecked crew formed a conspiracy to seize him on his return, take charge of the ship, and turn pirates. Many who refused to join this band of desperadoes were cruelly murdered, but a number who had taken refuge on another island close by valiantly defended themselves, and anxiously awaited the return of the Commodore. On his return, Pelsart’s suspicions were aroused by the unusual appearance of a boatload of his crew, who put off to meet him dressed up in rich costumes made from the silks and other fine stuffs that formed part of the cargo of the Batavia. The mutineers (with the exception of two who were marooned on the mainland near Champion Bay to become a prey to the blacks), were summarily punished by hanging, and the idea of making a permanent settlement was then abandoned.

Tasman, 1642.—Abel Jansen Tasman was sent out in 1642 by Antony Van Diemen, Governor of the Dutch possessions in the East, on a discovery expedition. He discovered Tasmania, which he named Van Diemen’s Land, and which he believed to be part of the mainland of Australia. He reported the country to be inhabited by giants, not knowing that the notches, live feet apart, cut in the trunks of the trees, were used by the aborigines in climbing after opossums. The same year Tasman discovered New Zealajid, which he believed to be one island. Afterwards he discovered the Friendly Islands, Fiji, and other small groups in the Pacific. *

In 1644 Tasman was sent out in the Lirnmen to determine, among other things, whether New Guinea was connected with the Great South Land. He surveyed the Gulf of Carpentaria, which he named after Governor-General Carpentier, of Batavia. Many of the bays and islands in the Gulf of Carpentaria still bear names significant of Tasman’s visit (e.rj., Livimen Biyht, named after his ship, and Maria Island, named after Maria Van Diemen, the daughter of Antony Van Diemen).

Vlaming, 1696. —The “ Swan River,” so called from the numerous black swans found there, was discovered by Vlaming in the Geelvink (Goldfinch), while in search of a Dutch cargo vessel that had been lost, it was thought, on the west coast of Australia. After carefully examining the coast from the Swan River to the North-west Cape he sailed for Batavia, taking with him two black swans, whicfr were at that time considered a prodigy.

William Dampier, 1688 and 1699.—The world is indebted to William Dampier, a buccaneering, roving Englishman, for the first genuine account of the north-western parts of Australia, written in a vivid narrative style. Tired of his piratical pursuits in the West Indies, he, in 1688, joined a vessel commanded by Captain Swan, a friend of his, and intended for trade on the South American coast. The crew, however, mutinied and became pirates. Eventually the vessel reached the Philippine Islands, where the captain and forty others were put on shore and left to their fate. Dampier remained on the ship, and, with the remainder of the crew, proceeded in quest of a quiet spot where his vessel could be cleaned and repaired without interruption. This he found in Cygnet Bay, an offshoot of King Sound, on the northwest coast of Australia, and near a group of islets which he called “Buccaneers’ Archipelago.” During his sojourn of over two months, Dampier, who ap pears to have avoided the society of the rough buccaneers as much as possible, made a careful examination of the surrounding country. He noted the land and sea breezes (which he quaintly describes), the habits and manners of the natives, the plants and animals peculiar to the country, and all of his remarks on these matters show a keen observation and a critical judgment. Dampier quitted the vessel at the Nicobar Islands, from which he reached Sumatra in a canoe, and, after many adventures, reached England. He afterwards published an account of his voyages, which the fertile imagination of Defoe made the ground work of his delightful novel, “ Robinson Crusoe.”

Moved by a restless spirit, and influenced by powerful patrons, Dampier, after a short retirement on his estate in England, undertook another voyage to New Holland, to decide whether it was a continent or only an archipelago. He sailed in the Roebuck under an Admiralty commission, and on 1st August, 1699, arrived at Shark Bay, where he spent eight days in a fruitless search for water. He explored the north-west coast for 1000 miles, and describes it as a barren and waterless desert, while the inhabitants appeared to him to be the most miserable and degraded on the face of the earth, disgusting and

repulsive both in appearance and habits. He described

the kangaroo as “ a strange creature like a racoon,

which used only its hind legs, and, instead of walking,

advanced by great bounds or leaps of twelve or iifteen

feet at a time.”

*

In 1705 Martin Van Delft conducted the last voyage of exploration undertaken by the Dutch. lie sailed along the north coast, but the results of the voyage were in no way important.

Captain James Cook, 1770,—The British Government, in 1768, sent out a small expedition for a double purpose—to observe the transit of Venus in the South Seas, and to explore New Zealand. The command was given to the admirable and intrepid navigator, Captain Cook, whom New South Wales has honoured with a statue in Sydney. A small vessel, the Endeavour, was supplied him. Accompanying him were two naturalists, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander, a pupil of the celebrated Linnaeus, besides Mr. Green, a well-known astronomer, Mr. Buchan, a draughtsman, and Mr. Parkinson, an artist. Arrived at Tahiti, the first part of his mission was admirab]y carried out, the observations of the transit having been very successful. That accomplished, he directed his course towards New Zealand, which he circumnavigated and mapped. Then, after passing through Cook’s Strait, he sailed west and sighted Australia near Cape Howe. Continuing his course northwards he gave to the chief headlands and inlets he passed names significant of their appearance or in honour of his friends and patrons, and on 28th April, 1770, he reached Botany Bay, where he remained ten days. The natives resisted his landing, and were quite hostile during his stay, notwithstanding the numerous efforts he made to be friendly with them. The names of t.he naturalists, Banks and Solander, were given to the two headlands of the bay. When he left Botany Bay he sailed north. He did not enter Port Jackson, thinking from the narrow entrance it was only a boat harbour, but in honour of his friend, Sir George Jackson, he gave it the name it has ever since borne. He continued his voyage, passing and naming several prominent features on the coast—e.g., Broken Bay, Smoky Cape, Point Danger, &c.—until he reached the Queensland coast. Still sailing northward, his vessel struck on the Great Barrier Reef, and only after strenuous efforts did he succeed in fretting her off. It was soon found, however, that she was leaking badly, and in this condition she was brought «vitk all possible haste to the shore at the mouth of a stream called by Cook the Endeavour. On beaching the vessel there it was found that a large lump of coral had pierced her timbers, and, remaining fast in the hole it had made, saved the vessel from foundering. Having effected the necessary repairs Cook sailed northward past Cape York, near which he took possession of the whole of the eastern coast of New Holland for George III., bestowing upon it the name of New South Wales.

CHAPTER II.

COLONISATION OP NEW SOUTH WALES.

The loss of the American colonies led to the colonisation of Australia. After the “ Declaration of Independence,” in 1776, English convicts could no longer be sent to Virginia, and the English Government had therefore to look out for a new penal settlement. Cook’s “Botany Bay ” occurred to them. From his account of the eastern seaboard it was a pleasant, fertile, promising land — in marked contrast with the gloomy western shores, as described by Dampier. It was, moreover, so distant from civilisation that there was no danger of convicts, once there, making their escape. All these considerations had weight with Viscount Sydney, who was at that time Secretary of State for the Colonies, and he determined to plant a convict colony in New South Wales. Captain Arthur Phillip (17881792) was selected to command the expedition and to be first Governor of the settlement.

First Fleet.— The “ first fleet ” consisted of the 20-ton frigate Sirius, its tender the Supply (under Captain John Hunter), with three storeships, and six transports for conveying the criminals (756 in number, of whom 192 were women), and a guard of 178 soldiers. The fleet sailed from England in May, 1787, and arrived at Botany Bay on the 18th, 19th, and 20th January, 1788.

Port Jackson.—After a day or two’s experience of Botany Bay, its shores were deemed unsuitable as a site for the future settlement. Its waters were shallow and afforded no safe anchorage, and the ships being unable to proceed very far up the bay, had to lie near the heads exposed to winds and waves. Phillip at once saw that it was unsuitable, and without delay set out in search of a better site. This he soon discovered in Port Jackson, with whose beauty and extent he was in raptures. He was at first undecided whether to settle on the north or south shore of the harbour, but the discovery of a small stream of fresh water running into an inlet which he called Sydney Cove decided his selection. On 26th January (known ever since as Anniversary Hay) the ships were brought round from Botany and anchored in the Cove The prisoners were landed, and at once set to work clearing the land. A flagstaff was erected, volleys were discharged by the marines, and the Governor read his commission. He also delivered a kindly address to the convicts, and advised them as to their future conduct. This done, little time was lost in providing for the shelter and other material wants of the little community.

Religion. — It is strange and unaccountable that Captain Phillip, who is credited with prudence, sagacity, and foresight, and who was most zealous in preparations for the expedition, made no provision for the spiritual wants of the men, women, and children committed to his charge. No minister of religion, schoolmaster, or teacher was appointed to instruct the ignorant. Was the oversight his fault, or that of the Government? Was it owing to thoughtlessness or indifference to religion ? Whatever the cause, it was a great mistake, a national calamity, and cost the Government dear. Religion is divine. To it we owe our civilisation, our good laws, our salutary institutions. Its influence is felt universally, where truth and virtue abound. Had Phillip had its ministers to instruct and console the convicts, he would not have been forced to govern with the lash and the hangman’s rope.” It was not for want of being reminded of their duty that the Government neglected theii obligation to the fallen colonists. The Rev. Father Thomas Walshe, an Irish priest, petitioned Lord Sydney to permit himself and a brother priest to go out to minister to the spiritual wants of their co-religionists. They volunteered their services without fee or reward, merely asking for their passage. Their truly Catholic and self-sacrificing appeal was not entertained, nay, it was not even acknowledged.1

This is Father Walshe’s letter :—

My Lord,

You have been apprised of the desire which two clergymen of the Catholic persuasion have to instruct the convicts, who are of their faith, and who are destined for Botany Bay. I beg leave to inform your Lordship of my sentiments concerning this request. There are not less, probably, than 300, ignorant, you may imagine, of every principle of duty to God and man. The number is great, and consequently constitutes an object of consequence to every man who has the happiness of his neighbour at heart. That the Catholics of this country are not only of inoffensive principles, but that they are zealously attached to the constitution of it, I may presume, is well known to your Lordship. For my part, who am one of those clergymen who wish to take care of the convicts of my persuasion, I beg to acquaint your Lordship that if I be so happy as to be permitted to go, I trust my endeavours to bring these unhappy people to a proper sense of their duty as subjects and citizens may be attended with some salutary consequence. They earnestly desire some Catholic clergyman may go with them, and I trust to the known humanity of the (Government that a request which seems to promise some hopes of their reformation will not be denied. It is well known that these people will not pay the attention to the other ministers which they will to their own. Perhaps, also, the presence of their priests may be of great use to make them readily obey every order of their Governor, and I have no doubt our conduct will meet the approbation of them.

I sincerely pity those poor people, not so much for the disagreeable situation into which they have brought themselves as for the misdemeanours which have made them deserving of it. Yet, I trust if their ignorance be removed, and their obligations as men and Christians be forcibly inculcated to them, that this may be a means, under Providence, of their becoming useful to themselves, and perhaps afterwards to their country.

At least this I sincerely wish. Nor do I think I can ever be as happy elsewhere as in the place of their destination, employed in using my endeavours to bring them out of the wretched state of depravity into which they have fallen. I entreat, therefore, most humbly, that this our request may be granted. These poor people will bless and thank you. I shall take care that they be not forgetful of their obligations to the Governor and Lord Sydney.

I have the honour of subscribing myself,

Your Lordship’s most humble servant,

Thomas Walsh e, Priest.

P S.—My Lord,—We are not so presumptuous as to wish support from the Government ; we offer our voluntary services. We hope, however, not to offend in entreating for

our passage

This petition breathes throughout the true spirit of the missionary priest.

One minister of religion only—the Rev. Richard Johnson—accompanied the fleet. At the eleventh hour he was appointed at the earnest request of a Protestant bishop.

Troubles and Suffering's of Early Colonists.

—The work of clearing the land for building purposes and cultivation was rapidly proceeded with-it was soon found that the bulk of the convicts were idle, lazy, and improvident, more inclined to pull down rather than build up—adepts at stealing, but useless as farm hands. None of them knew anything of farming. The only man in the settlement who had any knowledge of planting and sowing was one of the Governor’s servants. Under those circumstances but little food could be raised from the soil, though a supply was much needed, for the provisions that had been brought were running short. Starvation staring the young colony in the face, the Governor despatched the Supply to Batavia and the Sirius to Cape Colony for stores. They returned with only a few weeks’ stock, and soon the outlook was as gloomy as before. All the inhabitants, from the Governor downwards, were put on short rations and numbers died of starvation. The colony was relieved by sending 280 persons to Norfolk Island, where they were expected to support themselves by the cultivation of its fertile soil. The Sinus, which conveyed them thither, struck on a rock at the island, but fortunately there was no loss of life. The arrival of a second lot of convicts did not tend to lessen the prevailing trouble and distress. Disease, neglect, and sickness had left their marks upon the new arrivals. Few if any out of the 1500 were fit for anything but the infirmary or hospital. Hut the darkest hour had passed. Three store ships arrived most opportunely, bringing provisions sufficient to dispel all fears of famine, and never afterwards were the convicts exposed to such terrible privations as they had undergone.

The First Catholics.—In addition to their share of the corporeal sufferings that threatened destruction to the infant settlement, the Catholic portion of the community had to bear the cross of spiritual destitution. Other convicts had their clergymen—they had none; and, when the best-disposed of them met under a clump of gum trees or other shady retreat to recite the Rosary, read the litanies or prayers ¿it Mass, they were accused of plotting rebellion, and forbidden, under the severest pains and penalties, to meet together for any purpose.

When New South Wales was founded in 1788, the penal laws against Catholics were in full force throughout the British dominions. The toleration to teach their religion and to worship God in their own way, now happily prevailing under most governments, was then denied them. The golden rule, to do to others as we would have others do unto us, was little observed in those days ; and nowhere, perhaps, and possibly by no others was its non-observance so much felt as by the Catholic convicts of Sydney. Theirs was a hard lot. In spiritual matters they were worse off than the early Christians. The first Christians in Rome could fulfil and attend to the duties of public worship, under privations, difficulties, and dangers no doubt, but still they could do so. The first Catholics of Australia were bereaved of all spiritual comfort and consolations. They had no priest to celebrate Mass for them, to instruct them, or administer the sacraments to them. Further, they were the victims of intolerant prejudice. They were forced to attend the services of the Church of England for twelve years—1788 to 1800. Liberty of conscience was denied them. Their rulers assumed that their souls as well as their bodies were under bond to the State. The neglect of the spiritual interests of the Catholic portion of the convicts may have been owing, as Mr. G. B. Barton observes, to “ official indifference to religion.” The statesmen of that period certainly did not recognise its healing, reforming, strengthening, and guiding influence. The first governors took their tone from them. The attempts at proselytising the shepherdless Catholics reflect little credit on Governor Phillip or his successor, Governor Hunter.

La Perouse.—Two French discovery ships, under the command of La Perouse, put in at Botany Bay for repairs shortly after Phillip’s arrival. While there, the naturalist of the expedition, Père Receveur, died from wounds received at the Navigator’s Islands and was buried on the north side of the bay, a monument, afterwards destroyed by the aborigines, being erected over his grave. Governor Phillip, in a friendly spirit, had another erected, with the original inscription engraved on a copper plate, which he attached to an adjacent tree. The late Rev. Father Norbert Woolfrey, of Waverley, had a large slab placed over the grave of Père Receveur, with the inscription engraven in it, while at the same time he caused a substantial iron railing to be erected around it.

Explorations.—Phillip before his return to England, in 1792, had explored the coast north as far as Broken Bay and the Hawkesbury, and the district west as far as Richmond and Penrith, which he describes as “ good country.”

CHAPTER III.

new south wales—(Continued).

Governor Hunter, 1795-1800. —From the departure of Governor Phillip in December, 1792, till the arrival of Hunter in September, 1795, the colony was ruled by Major Grose, as Acting-Governor, for two years, and for the remainder of the period by Captain Paterson. During the three years of their rule, these two officers secured for themselves a monopoly of land, labour, and trade. The choicest blocks of land around the settlement they partitioned among themselves and their friends, the labours of the convicts they controlled and directed for their own benefit and that of their favourites. They bought up merchandise at their own price as it arrived (owners being prohibited from selling it to the beshadvantage), and retailed the goods often at a profit of 1200 per cent. Their Government was little better than a military despotism, and their principal aim was to make money by any means, good or bad. To Grose must be laid the charge of establishing the wholesale traffic in rum by the New South Wales Corps—a body of soldiers enlisted in England in 1790 for service in the colony. He had acted as recruiting agent in the organisation of this corps, which contained within its ranks men who had been a disgrace to every British regiment. Hunter, on his arrival, tried hard to put down the evil practices of the military, whose unscrupulous conduct tended to lower, rather than raise, the moral condition of the convicts, and in a short time the condition of the settlement improved. He brought out a number of farming men who received grants of land on the Hawkesbury. About sixty convicts of short sentence time also received grants of land, and most of them became successful farmers.

The colony was now short of nothing but live stock. The attempts to import cattle were not successful. The discovery in 1796 on the “ Cowpastures ” of a herd of 60 head—the offspring of those that had escaped during Phillip’s time through the carelessness of the keepers—was now a source of great joy to the community.

Lieutenant Shortland discovered the Hunter River in 1797, while in pursuit of escaped convicts. A coal mine was opened and worked by convict labour, and the town of Newcastle established.

Bass and Flinders.—George Bass, a surgoon, and Matthew Flinders, a midshipman, came out in the Reliance with Hunter. They were plucky, fearless young men. Soon after their arrival, they explored the coast from Sydney southwards as far as Illawarra, in a boat eight feet long, called the Tom Thumb. In 1797 Bass set out in a whaleboat with a crew of six men, and discovered the Shoal-haven River, Jervis and Twofold Bays, and passed through the strait which bears his name as far as Western Port (Victoria). In 1798 they sailed round Tasmania (which was up to that time believed to be part of Australia), Flinders making accurate charts of the coast. Bass’s fate is shrouded in mystery ; the general opinion appears to be that after leaving

Australia he was immured in the Brazilian silver mines, having been captured by the Spaniards while dealing in contraband goods on the South American coast. Flinders in 1800 carefully surveyed the coast from Sydney to Hervey Bay, and then proceeding to London, published his charts. They were highly praised, and he was appointed to make a complete survey of the Australian coast. This work he carried out in the Investigator. He commenced his examination of the coast at Cape Leeuwin, and, following the southern and eastern shores, reached Sydney, where he remained some time, while his vessel was undergoing some necessary repairs. Leaving Port Jackson, he made a careful survey of the remainder of the east coast, and then, passing through Torres Strait, was forced to sail to the island of Timor for further repairs to his vessel, which was now in a very leaky condition. A temporary overhaul having been effected, he sailed round the north and west coasts, and then back to Sydney. Flinders was thus the first man to circumnavigate the Australian continent. Having accomplished this, he set sail for England, but was obliged to put into the Mauritius to have his vessel repaired. Here he was imprisoned by De Caen, the governor, and robbed of his charts, which were sent to France, and there published as the work of a French navigator named Baudin, who had met with nothing but kindness from Flinders in Tasmania, and from the people of Sydney. Flinders was liberated after six years’ imprisonment, and, on Ills arrival in London, prepared another set of charts and log book for the press, but, worn out by the effects of his long imprisonment, he died, on the day of their publication. He will be ever remembered and respected as the most distinguished of the pioneers of Australian maritime exploration. It was, besides, at Flinders’ suggestion that the continent received, in 1814, the name of Australia, “ as being,” he said, “ more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth.”

Religious antisocial Condition.—Up to this time

there was but one clergyman in the colony—the Rev. Mr. Johnson—a Moravian Methodist. For a long time he preached in the open air, having no building for his congregation. The Government appeared to be utterly indifferent to the interests of religion. Commodious buildings were erected for dwellings, stores, &c., but they would contribute nothing towards building a house of prayer to God. How different it is in Catholic countries, as the chaplain of a Spanish exploring vessel which arrived in the port in 1793 observed. When a settlement is made by his nation, he said, “the first thought of colonists and of Government is to plant the cross and erect sacred edifices of religion.” On the arrival of Governor Hunter, Mr. Johnson plucked up courage to denounce the government of Grose and Paterson, and to complain of the official neglect of religion. As a result of Mr. Johnson’s bitter complaints and repeated appeals, a church was at length erected. It “was built of posts, wattle, cabbage-trees and mud plaster, and was covered with a thatch made of cabbage-tree leaves.” But a few months afterwards, as Governor Hunter wrote, “some wicked and disaffected person or persons took an opportunity of a windy and dark night, and set fire to the church.”

Governor King*, 1800-1806.—Philip Gidley King, who had been Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island since 1788, succeeded Hunter in 1800. He received instructions to stop the traffic in rum carried on by the New South Wales Corps. Most of the officers were mercenaries, who joined the corps to make money (which they did by pandering to the vices of the convicts), and then return to England. Rum and other goods were imported by those officers and sold to the convicts and settlers at enormous profit.

The Governor acted promptly, and confiscated large quantities of spirits, much of which was the product of illicit distillation, for, in consequence of the great demand for ardent spirits among the colonists, illicit stills were numerous, and farmers soon found that they could make about three times as much out of their wheat when distilled than they could by selling the grain. He regulated the selling price of rum, fixing it at 10s. per gallon. This action naturally gave grave offence to the gang of military rum dealers, two of whom, for instance, had in their establishment no less than 4000 gallons of rum, which they had been unwilling to part with at even £1 per gallon.

The First Priests, 1800.Fathers Dixon, Harold, and O’Neil, the first Catholic priests, arrived in 1800. They were transported for being suspected of taking part in the Irish rebellion of 1798, but they were innocent of the charges made against them. Father O’Neil having been pardoned, returned to Ireland in 1802. Father Harold was told off to Norfolk Island, and Father Dixon was appointed by the Colonial Government in 1803 to administer to the religious wants of the Catholics of Sydney and its outskirts. The three principal settlements of the colony then were Sydney, Parramatta, and the Hawkesbury, which he attended in rotation, under restrictive regulations published by the authorities. Governor King bore testimony to the “regular and exemplary conduct ” of Father Dixon, while his own flock testified to his zeal, charity, and devotedness to his sacred calling. Nevertheless this same Governor made the rising of convicts at Castle Hill in 1804 a pretext for depriving Father Dixon of the small allowance and rations he received from the Government. Of fomenting or favouring the outbreak at Castle Hill he was as innocent as the Governor himself ; hut having been sent out as a rebel he was considered a “ turbulent priest,” whom it was expedient to get rid of.

Wool-gTOWing*.—After several years’ service as a member of the New South Wales Corps, Captain Macarthur, perceiving the great facilities the colony presented for sheep-farming, gave up his commission and entered upon wool-growing. He received from King a large grant of land at Camden. "He tried two or three breeds of sheep which produced wool of inferior quality. After some failures and delay he succeeded, during a visit to England, in getting from King George III., who was greatly interested in farming affairs, some merino sheep, which proved to be suitable for the climate of New South Wales. The introduction of this little flock may be regarded as the commencement of the great staple industry of Australia.

Outbreak at Castle Hill.—A gang of convicts, 200 or 300 strong, working on the road at Castle Hill, near Parramatta, rose in 1804 against their guards, removed their irons, and marched with firearms towards the Hawkesbury, expecting to be joined by others in that district. They were overtaken near Windsor by Major Johnston and 25 soldiers. The ringleaders were executed. The rest, on promise of future good behaviour, were allowed to return to their work.

Persecution of Priests.—Immediately after the disturbance Father Dixon was obstructed in his duties, his allowance withdrawn, and his rations stopped, because the authorities pretended to believe that the Irish political prisoners instigated “the Castle Hill mutiny.” Mr. Holt, in his autobiography, asserts that among those who broke out were free men, Englishmen and assigned servants. Father Dixon left the colony in 1808, and Father Harold, who had been at Norfolk Island, came to Sydney and officiated in his place. But a regulation was issued and enforced, compelling all convicts, without distinction, to attend Divine service in the Church of England, the penalty for non-observance being from twenty-five to fifty lashes. This cruel and intolerant rule separated Father Harold from his flock. As he could no longer discharge his sacred duties, he left the colony in 1809, and for eight years, from 1809 to 1817, the Catholics were without a priest. They often begged to be excused from attending the Protestant service, but the curt reply of the clerical magistrate was—“Goto church, or be flogged.” It was evident that the Government was bent on allowing no other form of Divine worship but that of the Church of England Presbyterians and other dissenters were coerced like the Catholics. Many additions were made to the ranks of the Church of England clergy, and she was blossoming as the State Church of New South Wales

Governor Bligh (1806-180S).—Captain Bligh, the hero of the mutiny of the Bounty, and a na,val officer of distinction, succeeded Governor King in 1806 He came with instructions from the British Government to stamp out the traffic in rum-selling by the military officers. He spared no pains to effect this and other reforms of a social nature, but failed because a powerful and interested clique stood in his way at every step. His order prohibiting the barter of spirits for produce or goods of any kind was disregarded Then commenced the struggle which ended in his expulsion.

Captain John Macarthur was imprisoned for allowing a convict to escape from a small vessel, of which he was part owner. Bligh appointed a court to try him, consisting of Judge-Advocate Atkins, and six officers as a jury. Macarthur objected to being tried by Atkins, on the ground that he was prejudiced, and a bitter enemy of his. The military officers sided with Atkins, and the Governor threatened to imprison them for their action. He requested Major Johnston, the commandant, to wait on him for the purpose of discussing their conduct. The major declined to do so. But, on the petition of the principal residents of Sydney, he proceeded to Government House, in full military array, and overturned the Government of the colony by arresting Bligh.

Major Johnston had himself appointed Governor, Macarthur was made Colonial Secretary, while all the other important offices in the Government were bestowed upon their friends. He carried on the Government until superseded by Lieutenant-Colonel Foveaux, his senior officer, who in turn gave way to Colonel Paterson, then stationed in Tasmania. After about a year’s “ imprisonment ” in Government House, Bligh was liberated by Paterson, on condition that he would leave the colony for England. Instead of doing so, he endeavoured, in vain, to enlist the sympathies of the Hawkesbury settlers in his behalf. He then went over to Tasmania for the same purpose, and was kindly received by the people but news from Sydney having arrived of his solemn promise to leave the colony without raising any disturbance, he did not succeed. He escaped being re-arrested by sailing at last for England, where he was appointed to an important post in the navy. The home Government, as a matter of course, resented the high-handed action of those who had taken part against Bligh. Johnston was tried by court-martial in London for his part in the rebellion against Bligh, and was cashiered from the service. Macarthur having left the army some years before, was not amenable to military justice ; but he was summoned to England and afterwards interdicted from returning to the colony for eight years.

Catholic.—The Catholics were still without a priest or guide to attend to their spiritual wants, or to direct them in the way of salvation.

Governor Macquarie, 1810-1821. —Lachlan Macquarie had instructions from the home Government to reinstate Bligh for twenty-four hours, but he having left the colony such a course was impossible. All the officers dismissed on the arrest of Bligh were reinstated, and the New South Wales Corps was ordered to proceed to England Under the new Governor the morals of the community began visibly to improve. The temptations of the rum traffic were removed. He encouraged industry and temperance, and promoted education He has been described as a “ roads and building governor,” by reason of his activity in converting tracks into roads and frail structures into substantial edifices.

The forming of the road over the Blue Mountains in 1815 was the great event of his administration. Many attempts had been made to cross the Blue Mountains, but they ended in failure until Gregory Blaxland, Lieutenant Lawson, and William Charles H entwortli discovered a route in 1813. Convicts were at once set to work, and in two years completed the road from Penrith to Bathurst. The rich pasture lands of the west were then opened to flockowners on the coast, who gladly availed themselves of them, and soon settled on the plains of the Macquarie and Lachlan.

Macquarie’s favour and encouragement to the “ emancipist convicts, whose sentences had expired, brought upon him the resentment of a number of free settlers. Most of these convicts had been transported for offences which, at the present time, would render them liable only to a few weeks’ imprisonment. It was nothing but base envy on the part of the free settlers to oppose their redemption. After serving two terms of governorship Macquarie retired in 1821, regretted by the bulk of the colonists.

Arrival of Father Jeremiah Flynn.—Father

Flynn, with the authoi ity of Prefect Apostolic from the Holy father, arrived in Sydneyin 1817,to minister to the spiritual wants of Catholics, who had been without a priest since the departure of Father Dixon. He had authority from Pome to administer the Sacrament of Confirmation. Pious, zealous, and burning for the salvation of souls, he travelled to all the centres of population in the colony, baptising, hearing confessions, giving instructions, and celebrating Mass. His great zeal and edifying demeanour bred envy in the minds of a narrow-minded clique of anti-Catholics, who cried out for his expulsion Macquarie unfortunately listened to them, and although he had the reputation of being firm, humane, and liberal, yet in this instance he showed his weakness, prejudice, and despotism. He declined to entertain the petition of 400 respectable colonists of all denominations, praying that Father Flynn might be allowed to remain in the country for the good of the Catholic portion of the community. To prefer such a request, he said, was a piece of “presumption.” So the good priest had to leave the shores of Australia. Before leaving, it is said that he left the Blessed Sacrament in the house of Mr. William Davis, on Church Hill, Sydney, near where St. Patrick’s now stands. Around the Blessed Sacrament many of t he Catholics of Sydney prayed on Sundays and holidays, that their Saviour would take pity on them, and send them priests. Dr. Polding, in his report of the Mission for the Propagation of the Faith, attests that the Blessed Sacrament was found uncorrupt, and that the species was consumed on the arrival of Fathers Therry and Conolly.

Father Flynn lost no time, on returning to Ireland, in bringing his grievance before the Rev. Dr. England

(soon after appointed Bishop of Charleston), then on a visit to Cork. The latter brought the matter before Lord Donoghmore, M.P. for Cork, who had it discussed in the House of Commons. The arbitrary conduct of the Governor was severely censured, and it was generally acknowledged that great injustice had been done in depriving 10,000 poor Catholics of their esteemed spiritual adviser and pastor.

The Rev. Fathers Therry and Conolly.—

These two good priests arrived in the ship James on 2nd May, 1820. They brought with them powers from their ecclesiastical superiors and full civil authority from the Home Government. Each had a salary of £100 a year. They presented themselves without delay to General Macquarie, who acknowledged their credentials, but determined to fetter them as much as possible. On the 6th June, 1820, he issued instructions to them “ not to try to make converts from the members of the Church of England or Protestants in general, to confine their labours to those of their own flock, and warned them on their peril.” They were not to interfere with the Catholic children in the orphan schools, all of whom were being brought up in the faith and tenets of the Church of England. He further ordered that Mass should be celebrated only on Sundays and holidays of the Church of England. Though tolerating them, he appeared to be sorry he could not compel everybody in the colony to attend the services of the English Church under fines and pains. He could nQt drive them out of the colony as he had driven Father Flynn, but he did what he could to hamper them. He had, however, in Father Therry and Father Conolly' stern, devoted missionaries to deal with who were not to be daunted by decrees or threats, who were, like St. Paul, chosen vessels to bear the name of the Lord far and wide in spite of perils and dangers.

First Catholic Church.—The want of a church in which to oiler the Holy Sacrifice and to give instructions in the Word of God was at once felt by Fathers Therry and Conolly. They resolved to supply it without delay. Two months after their arrival a meeting was held in the Court House, Sydney, presided over by the Rev. Philip Conolly, at which it was resolved to build the first Catholic Church in Australia. The Government gave the site, and the foundation stone of Mary's was laid on 29th October, 1821, by Governor Macquarie, who, in reply to Father Therry’s address to him, said : “It was a great gratification to me to witness and assist at the ceremony now performed.” The Government Gazette reported the attendance at the ceremony as a “ vast assemblage of respectable persons.” The plans and designs for the sacred edifice were on a large scale. People thought it absurd for Father Therry to have what they believed visionary notions about the vastness of the future temple. “ It will never be completed,” they said ; “ there will never be a congregation large enough to fill it.” How mistaken were those views and how true the confidence of the reverend founder time and results have proved. He saw his designs completed and the cathedral filled to overflowing before his death. Father Conolly went to Tasmania in 1820, and until the arrival in 1826 of Father Power, Father Therry had no assistance. During these six years his missionary labours were incessant. His flock was scattered over a large area, which embraced Parramatta, Wollongong, Hawkes-bury, Penrith, and other places.

Governor Brisbane (1821-1825). —Sir Thomas Brisbane’s vice-royalty, which lasted only four years was remarkable for reforms and explorations. He gave freedom to the Press in 1821, trial by jury, and an instalment of self government by the appointment of an Executive Council of seven to advise him. The explorations of Surveyor-General Oxley in the

north led to the discovery of the Brisbane River, where a convict establishment was formed, and the city of Brisbane founded. Hume and Hovell, in 1824, led an exploring party from Lake George to Western Port, Victoria, discovering the Murrum-bidgee and the Murray on the way. Allan Cunningham, botanist, discovered a short and practicable route into the Liverpool Plains through Pandora’s Pass. Brisbane built an observatory at Parramatta and devoted himself to the study of astronomy, finding relief in the study of this and other pursuits from the wrangling of the two rival parties in the State, the “ Exclusives ” and the “Emancipists.” The former claimed to be alone entitled to grants of land and other favours from the Government; the latter (who were once convicts, but who had become free on the termination of their sentences) demanded equal rights with their rivals. It was impossible to please both parties, and the Governor was glad to be recalled, in 1825, before the end of his term of office.

Governor Darling* (1825-1831).—This Governor, through Ins blundering, was unpopular throughout lus administration. He drove the “ Emancipists ” appointed by Macquarie out of the public service He was at war with the Press. He had a bill passed through the Legislative Council wherein a second conviction for libel was punishable with banishment from Lew South Wales. It was aimed at William bharles Wentworth, one of the founders of The Australian, a newspaper which persistently attacked with great severity the acts of the Governor. He strove, also, to drive Father Therry from the colony and might have succeeded but for Wentworth, then the leading barrister and public man in Sydney, and the determined foe of bigotry and oppression.

Father Therry was deprived of his salary for no

fault of his or breach of regulations, but simply through a printer’s error. In a letter to the Sydney Gazette, recounting the many grievances of his flock, the zealous archpriest, referring to the clergy of the Church of England, said that “ they were entitled to and possessed his unqualified respect.” The word unqualified \eas printed qualified. The printer admitted the mistake was his, yet Father Therry was punished for “disrespect to the Establishment.” This was the poor plea used for depriving him of the small allowance from the State, but his real offence consisted in exposing the exclusiveness of the Government in respect of schools, burial grounds, &c. The Government offered Father Therry £300 to leave the colony, but such a good shepherd would not desert his flock, and he was encouraged to remain by Wentworth, who advised him that the Governor could not send him out of the colony. Prohibited by the Government, Father Therry was obstructed by the officials in the discharge of his duty in the hospitals and gaols. He was not, however, to be deterred by bans or bayonets from visiting the sick and comforting the dying. Neither soldier nor sentinel, pampered menial nor hireling, could resist his zeal and fortitude in the service of God. It is recorded that on going to one of the hospitals to visit a dying man he was stopped by the guard. Addressing him, he said : “ The salvation of this man depends upon my ministration. Which is your duty V’ Impressed by his earnestness, the sentinel lowered his arms and allowed him to pass. Many other instances are on record of Father Therry’s zeal in the cause of God overcoming all obstacles.

The principal explorations in Darling’s time were the discovery of the river Darling by Captain Charles Sturt in 1828, and of the Darling Downs in 1827 by Allan Cunningham. In 1829 Captain Sturt and George Macleay explored the Murrumbidgee, and Murray as far as Lake Alexandria. They suffered extreme hardship on their return, which might have proved fatal but for the kindness of the natives. Military outposts were established at Western Port (Victoria), King George’s Sound and Swan River (W.A.), to avert threatened occupation by the French in any part of Australia.

The political reforms effected were an increase in the members of the Legislative Council from seven to fifteen, and the “ Bushranging Act,” which had the effect of speedily suppressing crime and restoring order. The Governor was recalled in 1831, much to the satisfaction of his opponents.

Governor Sir Richard Bourke (1831-1837)

succeeded Darling. Liked from the start, his popularity never waned during his reign, which bore the character of justice, enlightenment, and liberality. He allowed the emancipists to sit as jurymen in* 1833. lie regulated the assignment of convicts in 1834. He esttled the land question by stopping free grants of land, and ordering that all land should be sold by public auction. He established religious equality by the Church Act of 1836.

Early in 1832 the Catholics held a public meeting in Sydney, at which a memorial was adopted on the motion of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Roger Therry, praying the Governor to grant aid for the education and religious instruction of the Catholic youth on lines similar to the liberal provision made for the youth of the Established Church, and to restore the Rev. John Joseph Therry to the position of Catholic Chaplain. Sir Richard gave the deputation which presented the memorial a very gracious reception, said that he was most anxious to secure for Catholics a suitable provision for their education and religious instruction, and that he would lay before the Secretary of State the matter of the re-instatement of Rev. J. J. Therry.

The Church and School Corporation, which was worked in the interests of the Church of England, having been dissolved, the Church Act became law on the 29th July, 1836. This Act put an end to all the schemes and designs for establishing a State Church in the colony. It provided aid for three denominations—the English Church, the Catholic, and Scottish Church—in proportion to the numbers of each denomination. The year before it was passed, the English Church received from the Treasury, for chaplains and schools, ¿£19,071, the Catholic Church ¿£800, and the Church of Scotland £600. It will be seen from this statement where the lion’s share for religion and education went.

Acquisition to the Catholic Body.—In 1832 the Catholics were filled with hope and rejoicing over the arrival of Rev. John McEncroe as Catholic Chaplain, John Hubert Plunkett as Solicitor-General, and the Very Rev. Dr. Ullathorne as Vicar-General. These gentlemen enriched the colony by their wisdom and many Christian virtues, and were truly pillars of the Church.

First Catholic Bishop.—Dr. John Bede Polding, the first Catholic Bishop of Australia, arrived in 1835 in the Oriental. He had with him Revs. J. Corcoran, A. Cotliam, J. B. Sumner, J. Spencer, H. Gregory, all of the Order of St. Benedict; and Messrs. Harding and John Kenny, ecclesiastical students. The Rev. Mr. Fisher died during the voyage, and was buried at sea. Favourable winds and fine weather attended the voyage. The ship called in at Hobart, where the Bishop was cordially received. He left the Rev. A. Cotham to act as assistant to Father Conolly, who had been there for many years, while John Kenny (afterwards Dean), was placed in charge of the Catholic school just established. The

Oriental arrived in Sydney 13th September, 1835; and on the 20th of the same month the Bishop was installed in St. Mary’s Cathedral, in the presence of a crowded congregation, many of whom were nonCatholics. The Catholic population, according to the census taken one year after the Bishop’s arrival, was 21,898 in New South Wales, and 7000 in Tasmania. The Catholics of the colony were spread over 800 miles of coast—from Cape Howe in the south to Brisbane in the north, and from Sydney to Bathurst in the west. Tasmania, too, was included in his jurisdiction. From this it will be seen what a vast diocese the Bishop had to attend to. In all his labours for the good of his flock he was unwearied. He took his turn like a simple priest in the confessional, in preaching, in visiting the hospitals and prisons, consoling the afflicted sinner, exhorting to good works, inspiring and encouraging all. The great moral improvement that was evident among the prisoners, the decrease of crime and of executions— all “beneficial results,” as the Governor observed— were the fruits of his labours, and the exercises introduced for the instruction of the prisoners before their assignment.

On St. Patrick’s Day, 1836, the Bishop blessed and laid the foundation-stone of St. Patrick’s Church, Parramatta. There wras a large assemblage, and all the Catholic clergy of the colony were present. In the address of Dr. Polding on the occasion he entreated his people “ to show forth the ,power and purity of their faith in the propriety of their conduct; to shun all excess and drunkenness, as most offensive to Almighty God, derogatory to the memory of a saint distinguished for his abstemiousness, and degrading to the descendants of those whose lives obtained for Ireland the title of the ‘ Island of Saints.’”

Exploration,—In Governor Bourke’s time Major (afterwards Sir) Thomas Mitchell discovered the rivers Gwydir, .Namoi, and Peel, in the west ; explored the rich land of Victoria, which he named Australia Felix, and surveyed the Darling for a considerable distance below Bourke.

On the 5th December, 1837, “ Good old Governor Bourke,” as he was affectionately called by the people, left the colony. At a public meeting, convened in Sydney, it was resolved, on the motion of W. C. Wentworth, to present him an address, and erect to his memory a statue, which now adorns the Inner Domain, Sydney. The Catholic Bishop and clergy also presented an address to him, expressive of their admiration and gratitude for the advantages derived by thè colony from the wise and impartial administration of that great and just Irish Governor.

Governor Gipps (1838-1848) arrived in February, 1838. He had a troubled reign. The colonists were poor and discontented. In most cases their sufferings were brought on by themselves through over-speculation in land, want of thrift, and living beyond their means. Unreasonably, they attributed most of their miseries to the Governor.

In 1843, the first election to the Legislature took place. The Council, under enlarged provisions, was increased to thirty-six members, twenty-four elected under a limited franchise, and twelve nominees of the Crown.

Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt, a German botanist, in 1844, started on his first journey and explored the coastal country between Moreton Bay and Port Essington. On the route he discovered some splendid country, well grassed and heavily timbered, and watered by numerous rivers, among which are the Fitzroy, Dawson, Mackenzie, Burdekin, Mitchell, Gilbert, Roper, and Alligator. In 1846 he made a second journey to

Northern Queensland, which was not successful. In 1847 he left Moreton Bay on his third expedition to cross the continent from east to west. He reached the Cogoon River, a tributary of the Condamine, five months after starting, and judging by the terms of a communication dated from there, and received from him in Sydney in April, 1848, he was hopeful of success. But that was the last heard of him, except some baseless stories about his wandering with blacks in the interior. Expeditions sent in search of him were fruitless in their main object, although they indirectly made known the character of much of the interior of the continent.

St. Mary’s Seminary.—In January, 1838, the first High School for Catholics was opened in St. Mary’s Seminary. It was conducted by the Rev. Charles Lovat, of Stonyhurst College in England, who came well equipped for the discharge of his important duties. A scholar of no ordinary abilities, a sound theologian, well versed besides in physical science and the higher mathematics, he brought with him a set of physical and chemical apparatus (the first, perhaps, introduced into the colony for teaching) to illustrate his lectures on Physical Science and Natural Philosophy. He was assisted by John Kenny (afterwards Dean), and a few others.

In the same ship which brought out the Governor were two priests—the Rev. John Brady and the Rev. James Goold, the latter of whom afterwards became Archbishop of .Melbourne and the former Bishop of Perth. They were the first fruits of Dr. Ulla-thorne’s journey to Europe for more missionaries for Australia. In a few months after (15th July, 1838) there followed the Rev. Francis Murphy (afterwards Bishop of Adelaide), the Revs. M. O’Reilly, John Fitzpatrick, E. Mahony, John Lynch, John Rigney, Michael Brennan, Thomas Slattery, and — Murphy. With the third party of priests secured by him, Dr. XJllathorne returned to the colony on 31st December, 1838. The priests were Revs. P. B. Geoghegan, Richard Marum, and Thomas Butler; ecclesiastical students, Messrs J. Dumphy, P. Maginnis, and J. Grant. He also on that occasion introduced the first Sisters of Charity to New South Wales. These were—Sisters Cahill, O’Brian, Callen, De Lacy, and Williams. These “ministering angels ” devoted themselves at once to the task of reforming the female convicts in the factory at Parramatta, advising, instructing, and consoling them daily. Their refining influence was soon felt in the better order and management of the establishment. In addition they opened a Magdalen Asylum, which, at a later period, was transferred to the control of the Good Samaritan Community, founded in Sydney in 1857. They visited the gaols also, and brought hope and consolation to many condemned prisoners.

Dr. Ullathorne, while in England, published a pamphlet on “The Catholic Mission in Australasia.” It excited much comment and criticism at the time; and the spiritual wants of the mission so earnestly put before the public doubtless induced many of the excellent young priests who then came out to volunteer for the mission. He pointed out the defects of the system of transportation. Of these the principal in his opinion was the unwise exclusion of the influences of religion as the chief factor in the reformation of the convicts.

He also wrote, in 1840, a very able pamphlet in reply to Judge Burton’s attacks on the Catholics of the colony, in his book, “ The State of Religion and Education in New South Wales.” One quotation will show the Doctor’s vigorous vindication of his co-religionists: “We Catholics have been wronged, grievously wronged, and by one whose appointed duty it is to protect us in our rights. That name and character of a British judge, which were given you by the hand of power for our use, have been turned against us to our abuse. You have

‘ Struck us with your tongue,

Most serpent-like, upon the very heart.’

You have for years industriously picked up the stories told against us, gleaned gross falsehoods from timeserving newspapers, which your length of public life should have taught you how to value; you have carried them in your bosom ; you have embalmed them in your dislikes ; you have gone to England, and you have scattered the devices of our enemies over the high places of influence and power, endorsed them with your name, and with the seal of your judicial character have stamped the falsehoods true.”

Progress of the Church.—After the passing of the Church Act, during Sir Richard Bourke’s term of office, the Catholic Church in Australia advanced rapidly. The Right Rev. Dr. Polding, aided by his active vicar-general and faithful clergy, eagerly took advantage of the provisions of the Act, and established churches and schools in the most populous parts of the colony. In rapid succession the good bishop laid the foundation stones of churches at McDonald River, Lower Hawkesbury, Wollombi, Campbell’s Hill, West Maitland, and Wollongong ; of a school at Campbell-town, a church at Liverpool, and St. Patrick’s, Sydney (1810), the site of which was given by Mr. Davis.

In 1840 Bishop Polding, accompanied by Dr. Ullathorne and the Rev. Father Gregory, left on a visit to Europe in the interests of the Church. Addresses were presented, and presentations made to all of them prior to their departure, the tribute of the meeting to the bishop alone being a Treasury Bill for £400.

On 10th April, 1842, His Holiness was pleased to appoint Dr. Polding Archbishop of Sydney, a Count of the Holy Roman Empire, and Bishop-Assistant to the Papal Throne. His Grace returned to Sydney early in 1843, bringing with him two Benedictine priests, four Passionist Fathers, two Secular priests, and three members of the Irish Christian Brothers for his schools, all of whom were received with the greatest joy on landing. Dr. Broughton, the Bishop of the Church of England, protested publicly against the title of His Grace the Archbishop of Sydney conferred on Dr. Polding. He wanted to raise the ghost of a State Church, and invoked “hatred, bigotry, and jealousy,” all to no purpose. His protest was treated as a dead letter. The Church Act of Governor Bourke giving perfect religious freedom to all denomi nations was in force. The people had accepted it, and they esteemed Dr. Polding too highly to take sides against him.

CHAPTER IV.

NEW SOUTH WALES UNDER RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT.

Governor Fitzroy (1846-1855) was successor to Sir George Gipps, in 1846, and though he troubled himself very little about the affairs of the colony, his term of office was remarkable for important events. These were:—The abolition of transportation, 1846 ; the explorations of Leichhardt and Kennedy in 1848 ; the separation of Port Phillip in 1851; and the discovery of gold in 1851.

Discovery Of Gold.—The existence of gold in the colony had been known many years before Edward Hargraves discovered the precious metal at Summer Hill Creek, in the Bathurst district, on 12th February, 1851. Convicts found some when making the Bathurst road, in 1814, but kept the knowledge to themselves. Count Strzelecki and the Rev. W. B. Clarke, eminent geologists, indicated several localities where gold would probably be found. But, for all practical purposes, Hargraves deserves the honour of being the first discoverer of gold in payable quantities. The discovery of gold turned the heads of the entire community. Everybody who could go rushed off to the west in search of fortune, which few found, while a great many met with nothing but disappointment. New diggings were soon discovered on the Turon River, at Ophir, Araluen, and other places. From these fields large quantities of gold were sent to Sydney, whence it was shipped to London, sometimes two tons weight at a time. The discovery of rich goldfields also in Victoria in 1851 made Australia as famous as California was in 1849, and attracted adventurers from all nations to its shores.

Responsible Government, or Home Rule—that is, government by ministers answerable to the people for the conduct of the internal affairs of the colony— was first provided for in a Bill introduced into the Legislative Council in 1851. It provided for the abolition of the almost absolute power previously possessed by the Governor. The present Constitution Act, which was an Imperial measure and under which the change at length took place, was prepared by William Charles Wentwrorth and Edward Deas-Thomson, who were afterwards sent t$ England to watch over and expedite the passing of the Bill in the Home Parliament. It became law, and in 1856 the first Parliament under its provisions was elected. In 1858, manhood suffrage, or the privilege of voting for the election of members of the Assembly, was given to every male person over twenty-one years of age who had not been less than six months a resident of the colony.

Governor Denison (1855-1861) succeeded Fitzroy. He built Fort Denison on an islet (formerly called Pinchgut), in the middle of Port Jackson, and erected batteries on points along the shore, to protect Sydney from any possible invasion of Russian cruisers which might result from the Crimean War. These petty defences have long since been replaced by the strong and powerful fortifications at the Heads.

The “Dunbar.” —In August, 1857, this vessel, containing many well-known colonists returning from a trip to Europe, was wrecked at The Gap, ofi Watson’s Bay. The disaster cast a gloom over Sydney, and led to the erection of the large lighthouse at South Head overlooking the ocean.

St. John’s College.—Archbishop Polding issued a pastoral on 21st June, 1857, exhorting the Catholic body to avail themselves of the liberal offer made by the Government for the erection of a Catholic college within the University. The offer comprised a grant of the land whereon St. John’s now stands, as well as a £ for £ contribution up to £20,000 towards the cost of erecting a college. A few days after the issue of the circular an aggregate meeting of Catholics was held in St. Mary’s Cathedral, to take steps for giving effect to the Government’s generous proposal. The Archbishop presided. Mr. J ustice Therry moved the first resolution, to the effect that the Catholics should avail themselves of the munificent provisions made by the Government for the promotion of a high order of education in the colony.

The result of that meeting was that in a few days b 11,000 was handed in or promised for the erection of the proposed college; and as soon as Mr. Warded had prepared plans the building of St. John’s was commeneed. It cost £40,000. The Rev. Dr. Forrest was the first rector. He was selected by the Yen

Archdeacon McEncroe, when on a visit to Ireland in 1859.

Dr. Gregory, who had for sixteen years discharged the arduous duties of Vicar-General, withdrew from the Australian mission, and returned to England in 1861.

Guild.—In June, 1845, the Catholic Guild of St. Mary and St. Joseph, an admirable benefit society, was established.

State Aid.—State aid was withdrawn from the Churches of all denominations in August, 1862, by the Legislature. '

Governor Young* (1861-1867).—In 1861 Sir John Young (afterwards Lord Lisgar) became Governor. The Robertson Land Act, by which a man might select an area of land and buy it from the Crown at ¿61 per acre, paying one-fourth of the purchase money on taking possession and the balance at any future time, caused some trouble between the Governor and the Upper House. The Ministry, finding the Upper House opposed to their Land Bill, “ swamped ” it by the appointment of twenty-one new members favourable to the measure, which soon afterwards became law, and resulted in the settlement of great numbers on the public lands.

St. Mary’s Cathedral.—A great calamity befel Catholics on 29th June, 1865 (feast of SS. Peter and Paul) in the destruction by fire of St. Mary’s Cathedral. All Sydney was sorry for it, and promptly sympathised with the Venerable Archbishop and his flock in the great loss they had sustained. The Catholics of St. Mary’s lost no time in vain regrets, but having resolved to re-build their cathedral, they at once held a private meeting, presided over by the Ven. Archdeacon McEncroe, at which £6000 were subscribed. The Mayor of Sydney convened a meeting of citizens to give practical help towards re-building St. Mary’s, at which liberal subscriptions were given by many non-Cathoiics. A great public meeting was held on the 6th July in the Prince of Wales Theatre to raise funds for the same purpose. His Grace the Archbishop presided, and on the stage were the Governor, Sir John Young, judges, and other distinguished officials. The principal speakers were His Grace, the Governor, the Hon. T. A. Murray, President of the Legislative Council, and the Hon. E. Deas-Thomson, M.L.C. A wooden building was erected to answer for a time as a pro-cathedral, which also was unfortunately burnt down in 1869. Plans for the new cathedral were soon prepared, however, the foundations were laid broad and deep and solid, and, at a cost of £13,000, were brought to the level of the ground. On the 8th December, 1868, the corner-stone was solemnly blessed by the Archbishop.

Governop Belmore (1868-1872).—It was during the time of Lord Belmore, in 1868, that Prince Alfred, the second son of the Queen, paid a visit to Sydney. There was great rejoicing on his arrival, and a sum of £25,000 of public money was spent on festivities in his honour. While attending a picnic at Clontarf on 12th March, 1868, the Prince’s life was attempted by a madman named O’Farrell, who was afterwards hanged for the crime. Bad men, for their own selfish ends, turned the lamentable occurrence to account by inventing all kinds of stories about “ Fenian plots.” The writer of this little handbook was at that time a member of the “ Volunteer” force in Sydney. The corps to which he belonged mounted guard on St. Patrick’s night, 1868, at Hyde Park Barracks. Other companies of volunteers were told off to protect Government House and Darlinghurst Gaol from “ the terrible Fenians.” Sydney and suburbs were almost mad with excitement and fear. It was a veritable reign of terror for Catholics. A portion of the Press and the political Titus Oateses of the day professed to believe in the rumoured plots. But, as it was afterwards proved by the evidence given before a Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly, there were not the slightest grounds for such belief. “ The evil that men do lives after them.” The bad passions fomented on that occasion for purely party purposes did immense harm to numbers of honest, industrious Irish colonists for nearly a generation.

Marist Brothers.—The four pioneer brothers of this teaching order arrived in 1872, in the Star of Peace, and opened their first school in St. Patrick’s parish, Sydney. It was at the request of Archdeacon McEncroe, made some years previously, that the Archbishop introduced them. Soon the brothers opened schools in other parts of the city and in the suburbs. They also extended the field of their labours to New Zealand, New Caledonia, Samoa, and other islands of the Pacific. Their college of St. Joseph at Hunter’s Hill has now a very large roll of students, and the excellent character of the instruction imparted there is proved by the high place taken by its pupils at the University Public Examinations.

Society of Jesus.—This distinguished society, whose religious zeal and devotion to Christian education are of world-wide reputation, established a branch of its order in New South Wales in 1877. The Very Rev. Joseph Dalton and Rev. James Kennedy were the pioneer Jesuits. A college for day students was soon opened at St. Kilda House, in W&olloomooloo, but soon a more commodious building - St. Aloysius’ College, in Surry Hills—took the place of St. Kilda. The brilliant Father William Kelly, one of the professors on its staff, made the college popular from the start. The Jesuits’ grand college —St. Ignatius —at Riverview, near Sydney, has an Australasian reputation for the excellence of its teaching, and of its general equipment. The fathers have charge of the parish of North Sydney and of the Jesuit Novitiate at Greenwich, the latter overlooking the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers.

Death of the Pioneer Catholic Chaplains.—

After his return from Tasmania the Yen. Archpriest Therry had charge of the suburb of Balmain, where he died in 1864, mourned by all classes.

A few years afterwards, in 1868, his friend and colleague, the Yen. Archdeacon McEncroe, passed to his reward. The universal esteem in which he was held was shown by the immense concourse that followed his remains to the Devonshire-street Cemetery, Sydney, where the body was laid side by side with Father Therry’s. Of these two founders of the Church in this country the Right Hon. W. B. Dailey, soon after their decease, at a large meeting of Catholics in Sydney, spoke of “ the privilege of having possessed two such pure, simple, heroic confessors as the two great priests whose memory we wish to perpetuate. They are endeared to us by lives as blameless as they were beautiful, and identified with everything of interest in our ecclesiastical history.”

Dr. Polding set out on 2'2nd November, 1865, on his fourth journey to Europe in the interests of the Church in Australia. He visited Rome, where he was received with the highest consideration by the Holy Father, while at the institutions of charity and education in England and Ireland he was the recipient of many marks of profound respect.

During his absence the Public Schools Act of 1866 was passed, which placed the control of denominational schools under the Council of Education. The Council examined, appointed, and paid the teachers, and directed the secular instruction, setting apart one hour every day for the teaching of religion. This state of affairs lasted up to the end of 1882, when all State assistance was withdrawn from the denominational schools by the Public Instruction Act of 1880, which is still in force.

In 1869 the Venerable Archbishop left Sydney to attend the Vatican Council. Though his strong spirit and ardent zeal were unabated, the heat of the tropics was too much for his physical frame, and he was compelled to halt at Suez. After a rest there he returned to Sydney and resumed his active duties. Mourned by all Sydney, he died at the Sacred Heart Presbytery in 1877, at the age of 83, and his remains were honoured with a public funeral.

Many years before the Archbishop’s death he recommended to the Holy See the appointment of the Ven. Archpriest Sheehy as his coadjutor and successor, but the latter declined the proffered dignity. The Most Rev. Dr. Vaughan was appointed coadjutor in 1873. His career, though short, was brilliant and successful. His commanding appearance and graceful eloquence, whether in the pulpit or on the platform, won for him golden opinions from all. Dr. Vaughan’s reputation as a scholar and divine had preceded him. His “ Life of St. Thomas of Aquiii ” shovred what he was capable of in literature, and his work as prior of the Benedictine Cathedral Monastery of St. Michael, near Hereford, for ten years, produced excellent results. He was received in Sydney in December, 1873, with every demonstration of joy and gladness. In l-Qply to the address from the clergy, he said he would apply himself especially to two works—finishing St. Mary’s Cathedral and safeguarding Catholic education. By His Grace’s devotion to the former £60,000 was added to the Cathedral fund, and his “ Pastorals and Speeches on Education ” abounded with exhortations and arguments that excited much controversy.

The most wudely-read of the Archbishop’s sermons were “ The Advent Conferences;” the most successful Dration was the discourse on the “ Centenary of O’Connelland his most celebrated lecture, “ Hidden Springs, ” was delivered at the opening of the Guild Hall in 1876.

During the ten years of the Archbishop’s administration nearly ¿6220,000 were expended in the erection of churches and schools.

It was on April 19th,    1883, that the great

Archbishop left Sydney on a visit to Rome and England. He was accompanied by the Rev. Dr. Gillett, his chaplain. Four months after, the sad news of his sudden death in England was cabled to Sydney. All classes lamented the loss the colony had sustained in the death of the gifted prelate.

First Cardinal.—Dr. Moran, Bishop of Ossory in Ireland, became Archbishop of Sydney in 1884, and was welcomed with great enthusiasm. Summoned to Rome in July, 1885, His Holiness, Leo XIII., made him a Cardinal, the first prelate of the Australian Church upon whom that dignity was conferred. In November, 1885, the" Cardinal convened the Plenary Synod of the Bishops of Australasia, for the discussion of matters of grave import to the welfare of the Church throughout the colonies. This was held in St. Mary’s Cathedral. There were fifteen bishops and fifty-two theologians present, and their deliberations extended over a fortnight.

During the sittings of the Synod the foundationstone of St. Patrick’s Ecclesiastical College at Manly was laid. It cost ¿665,000, and has now a large roll of young Australians studying for the priesthood.

Other works of the Cardinal are referred to in a speech made by the Right Hon. W. B. Dailey at a meeting held in St. Mary’s Cathedral in May, 1887, towards raising funds for completing the chancel and

a portion of the central tower of the Cathedral. They are the introduction of the Vincentian Fathers of St. Augustine at Balmain, the fathers of the Sacred Heart at Randwick and Botany, the Irish Christian Brothers at Balmain East, the Brothers of St. Patrick at Redfern, the Sisters of our Lady of the Sacred Heart at Botany, the Carmelite Nuns at Cook’s River, the Nursing Sisters at Petersham, and the Little Sisters of the Poor at Leichhardt. The expenditure for religious purposes during the first three years after the Cardinal’s arrival reached nearly £300,000. Scarcely a week passes that His Eminence does not preside at the founding or opening of some church, school, or other work of Christian charity, and, in all probability, he will be known to future generations of Australians as “the building prelate..” It may be said with truth that His Eminence Cardinal Moran has been making history ever since he came to the country. In defending Catholic doctrine and faith against the onslaughts of enemies, in dealing with intricate questions in English and Irish history, and in expounding with statesman-like grasp the objects and advantages of Australian Federation, he has no equal in Australia. The Cardinal’s great literary work in this country is the “ History of the Catholic Church in Australasia,” published in two volumes in 1895. The episcopal Silver Jubilee of His Eminence was celebrated with solemnity and splendour in St. Mary’s Cathedral in 1897.

llie Right Rev. Dr. Higgins acted as Auxiliary-Bishop to the Cardinal for over ten years prior to his appointment as Bishop of Rockhampton in 1899. Since 1901 the responsible duties of Coadjutor-Archbishop of Sydney have been discharged with eminent ability and tact by the Most Rev. Dr. Kelly, who, besides being a ripe scholar, has proved himself a fervent and eloquent preacher as well as an active and capable administrator.

Religious Orders.—This brief recital of the work and progress of the Church in the Archdiocese of Sydney would be incomplete if mention were not made of the labours of the different religious orders who have thus far worked with conspicuous success in the pursuit of their holy calling The education of the juvenile Catholic male population is carried on by (i.) the Marist Brothers (founded from St. Genis Laval, near Lyons, in France, in 1872), whose chief educational centres are at Hunter’s Hill and St. Mary’s Cathedral, Sydney ;    (ii.) the Christian

Brothers (founded from Dublin in 1887), with headquarters at St. Joseph’s, Lewisham, one of the suburbs of Sydney ; and (iii.) the well-known Jesuit Fathers previously referred to.

Numerous convent schools, well equipped and efficiently conducted, provide for the educational wants of the girls. The sisterhoods of the Archdiocese include the following:—(i.) the Sisters of Charity (founded from Dublin in 1838, and comprising nine communities) with headquarters at St. Vincent’s, Victoria-street, Sydney ; (ii.) the Benedictine Nuns of Subiaco, near Parramatta (long the only high school for Catholic young ladies throughout the colonies, having been founded from the congregation of the Anglo-Benedictines in 1848, in which year they accompanied Dr. Folding to Sydney) ; (iii ) the Sisters of the Good Samaritan of the Order of St. Benedict (founded in Sydney in 1857), with eighteen communities ; (iv.) the Sisters of Mercy (founded from Liverpool, England, in 1865) with seven communities, whose chief house is the Monte San Angelo Convent, North Sydney, well-known as a high-class educational establishment, as well as for the Mater Misericordice Home conducted under its auspices at Church Hill, Sydney (as a training school and safe refuge for female domestic servants when out of employment), and for the Foundling Hospital at Waitara, near Hornsby (founded 1898); (v.) the ¡Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart (founded from South Australia in 1880), consisting of 25 communities, with the mother house and Novitiate at North Sydney ; (vi.) the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (founded from Paris in 1882) with a fine convent school for higher education at Rose Bay, Sydney ; (vii.) the Sisters of Mercy (founded from Callan, Ireland, in 1888)—the latest foundation of the Sisters of Mercy in the Archdiocese—with their parent house at Parramatta and branches at St. Peters, Surry Hills, St. Kieran’s, Golden Grove, and St. Brigid’s Orphanage, Ryde ; (viii.) the Loretto Nuns (a branch of the institute which was founded at Ballarat in 1875 from the Irish parent house at Rathfarnham, Dublin), who came to Sydney in 1892, and at present conduct a high-class boarding school at Hornsby and a high school for day pupils at Rand wick ; and (ix.), the Sisters of St. Frigid (founded from Mountrath Ireland, in 1887), who conduct superior and primary schools at Cooma.

In addition to the above, branch foundations of the Dominican Nuns of Maitland conduct educational establishments at Strathfield and Moss Yale. Besides these distinctively teaching orders, there are (i.) the Nursing Sisters of the Little Company of Mary (founded from the Central House in Rome in 1885), whose mission is to nurse the sick in their hom^s, have their headquarters at Lewisham, where they have under their care a women and children’s hospital, an asylum for the blind, and a night refuge in the city, as also a home at Ryde for sufferers from mental disorders (ii.) the Poor Clares (Waverley); (iii.) Carmelite Nuns (Marrickville); (iv.) the Little Sisters of the Poor, who relieve at their home at Randwick about 70 old and infirm persons of all creeds, and (v.) the Sisters oj the

Sacred Heart (founded from Issoudun, France, in 1885) who conduct at Kensington, near Sydney, au institution where Sisters are trained for missionary service in the South Sea Islands.

Suffragan Dioceses.

The suffragan dioceses of New South Wales are Maitland, Goulburn, Bathurst, Armidale, Wilcannia, and Grafton.

Maitland, situated on the Hunter, was erected into an episcopal see in 1847, the Right Rev. Dr. Davis, O.S.B., being the first bishop. He arrived in Sydney in 1848, but through severe illness never took possession of his diocese, and died in 1854. Since 1840 the mission at Maitland had been under the charge of Dean (afterwards Monseignor) Lynch.

The Right Rev. James Murray was appointed Bishop of Maitland in 1866. He, with the Bishop of Bathurst, nine priests, and sixteen nuns, arrived in Sydney by the Empress on 22nd October of that year. The bishops and their religious companions were heartily welcomed by the Catholics of Sydney. Archdeacon McEncroe accompanied Dr. Murray to Maitland, and the Very Rev. Dr. Sheehy, V.G., accompanied the Bishop of Bathurst to his'diocese. The founding of the Sacred Heart College, one of the leading high-class educational institutions of the colony, the introduction of the Redemptorist Fathers, securing different communities of nuns for the higher and primary schools, the founding of the Deaf and Dumb Institution at Waratah, all testify to the great works of the bishop for the greater glory of God. Dr. Patrick Vincent Dwyer, the first Australian-born bishop, was appointed in 1897, coadjutor, with right of succession, to the aged prelate Dr. Murray. He was consecrated in June of that year, and since his appointment he has been a most energetic administrator. One of the most important and far-seeing innovations introduced since by his Lordship is the introduction of the Marist Brothers to take charge of the boys’ schools at Newcastle and Maitland.

The religious orders belonging to the Diocese of Maitland comprise the Dominican Nuns, the Sisters of Mercy, and the Sisters of St. Joseph. The Dominican Nuns (founded from Kingstown, Ireland, in 1867) consist of six communities, and have their priory at West Maitland, with branches at Newcastle, Waratah, Tamworth, Moss Vale, and Strathfield. At Waratah they have charge of a deaf and dumb institution, where the poor and afflicted are well cared for and instructed in the way of salvation. The character of the West Maitland Dominican Convent as a high-class educational establishment is recognised throughout the colony.

The Sisters of Mercy (founded from Ennis, County Clare, Ireland, in 1875) consist of ten communities, with Singleton as headquarters, and branches at the chief centres of population from Hamilton to Scone. In addition, they have established flourishing convents at Gunnedah, Narrabri, Inverell, and Broken Hill, as well as at Reefton and Dunedin, in New Zealand. In addition to numerous well-conducted primary and high schools, the Sisters of Mercy have under their care a well-appointed orphanage at Singleton. The great zeal and self-denial of the Sisters of Mercy are highly appreciated by the Catholic community of the Maitland diocese.

The Sisters of St. Joseph (founded from Bathurst in 1883), began with a community of four, and now their number is nearly 60, distributed throughout 10 communities, whose parent house is at Lochinvar. As the Venerable Dr. Murray says: “God only knows the immense good they are effecting in the remote districts by their lives of self-sacrifice and by the excellent education—both secular and religious— which they are giving to the children.”

Diocese of Goulburn.—Goulburn is situated on the Wollondilly, on the Southern Tableland, and besides being one of the leading sanatoriums in the colony, is the chief town on the Great Southern Railway. Fathers Fitzpatrick and Brennan were the first resident priests in this now populous district.

First Bishop.—The Right Rev. Dr Lanigan had been many years pastor at Berrima before being appointed Bishop of Goulburn. He was consecrated in the Cathedral at Goulburn in 1867. As bishop, Dr. Lanigan pursued the same active life that distinguished him as missionary priest. Churches, convenís, schools, presbyteries, grew up as if by magic under his watchful care. The inculcation of practices of piety to the Sacred Heart and of temperance among his flock, both old and young, was ever in his mind. His clergy faithfully co-operated with him, the best known of whom were Very Rev. Dr. McAlroy and Rev. Dr. Bermingham.    On Dr.

Lanigan’s death in 1900 the Right Rev. Dr. Gallagher succeeded to the see of Goulburn, and under his fostering care the cause of religion and education has considerably advanced. Dr. Gallagher’s activity in the establishment of Young Men’s Improvement Societies and in the inculcation of temperance is well known throughout Australia. The educational work of the diocese is in the able hands of (i.) the Sisters of Mercy (two separate foundations), whose headquarters are at Goulburn and Yass respectively, with branches in the chief population centres; (ii.) the Presentation Nuns at Wagga; (iii.) the Sisters of St Joseph (with seven branches), founded from Bathurst in 1882; while (iv.) the Brothers of St. Patrick (founded from Mountrath, Ireland, in 1884) conduct the boys’ schools at Goulburn, Wagga, and Albury ; and (v.) the Irish Christian Brothers have lately (1898) taken charge of the Diocesan College at Goulburn.

Diocese Of Bathurst. —Bathurst, often spoken of as the “ City of the Plains,” is situated on the Macquarie. The first place of worship was a bark hut, which soon gave place to the church of SS. Michael and John, blessed by Archbishop Polding in 1857, and which cost £17,000. The Very Rev. Dean Grant was at that time pastor of the district.

First Bishop.—The Right Rev. Dr. Matthew Quinn was first bishop, and came to the colony, as has been stated, with the Bishop of Maitland in 1866. The young priests who accompanied him were Rev. J. P. Byrne (now his successor), Rev. P. Ryan, Rev. T. J. Walsh, Rev. W. Nugent, and Rev. D. E. McGrath. There were also some Sisters of Mercy, novices, and postulants. During the nineteen years of Dr. Quinn’s episcopate, the large sum of £200,000 was contributed towards the various works of religion and education in his diocese. St. Stanislaus College (where a high-class education is provided by the Vincentian Fathers) and numerous convents, schools, churches, and orphanages are works which will hand down his name to posterity.

The Right Rev. Dr. Byrne was consecrated Bishop of Bathurst in 1885. Like his predecessor, he has been unwearied and self-sacrificing in promoting the cause of education and religion, in which work he is ably assisted by Monsignors Long and O’Donovan, Archdeacon D’Arcy, and Dean McAuliffe. Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Brigid, and Sisters of St. Joseph conduct superior and primary schools throughout the diocese, while the primary schools for boys at Bathurst and Orange are under the able management of the Brothers of St. Patrick.

Diocese Of Arniidale.—Armidale is situated on the New England Tableland, and is the chief centre of population on the Great Northern Line, beyond Maitland. Father (afterwards Dean) McCarthy was one of the first priests appointed to the district, and the Very Rev. Dean Lynch had charge up to 1870.

First Bishop.—The Right Rev. Dr. O’Mahony, the first bishop, arrived in 1871. He devoted himself at once to the erection of a cathedral, providing schools, and building a residence for himself. He resigned the see in 1878, and was appointed coadjutor to the Archbishop of Toronto.

The Right Rev. Dr. Torreggiani was appointed his successor in 1879. He spent his first year in a visitation through his extensive diocese to ascertain the spiritual wants of every district in it. On his death in January, 1904, the Right Rev. Dr. O’Connor succeeded to the see.

The religious orders engaged in the education of the youth of the diocese comprise the Christian Brothers, the Ursaiine and Dominican Nuns, the Sisters of Mercy (two foundations), and the Sisters of St. Joseph (founded from Adelaide and Sydney).

Diocese of Wilcannia.—Wilcannia is situated on the Darling, and embraces a wide region devoted to sheep-grazing and opal-mining.

First Bishop.—The Right Rev. John Dunne, for many years in charge of the Albury parish in the Goulburn diocese, was appointed its bishop in 1887. Religion has made great progress in the diocese. There are now over 120 nuns teaching in the schools, and 16 priests, all co-operating heartily with their zealous bishop. There are 25 schools throughout the diocese, under the charge of the Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Joseph, and the Presentation Nuns, with an enrolment of 3000 pupils.

Diocese of Lismore.—Grafton, the largest town in this thriving and important diocese, is situated on the Clarence, but the Bishop resides at Lismore, on the Richmond#

First Bishop.—The Right Rev. Dr. Doyle was appointed J>isllop in 1887, being consecrated in St. Mary’s, Sydney, by His Eminence Cardinal Moran. He had been connected with the Diocese of Armidale, which included his own diocese until it was made a separate see. As an earnest of the piety and attachment of his flock to their religion, it need but be mentioned that on the laying of° the foundation-stone of the Cathedral of St. Carthage at Lismore by the Cardinal-Archbishop in 1892^ the magnificent sum of £4050 was contributed. Throughout this rich diocese the educational wants of the rising generation are well provided for by the Presentation Nuns (Lismore, Ballina, Coraki, Murwillumbah), the ^ Sisters of Mercy (Casino, Cowper, Grafton, Maclean, and Kempsey), and the Sisters of the Sacred Heart (Bowraville).

Recent Events.

Exhibition.—Tn the International Exhibition (held in Sydney in 1879) of the products of all nations, the resources of the colony were shown to great advantage.

Soudan and Boer War Contingents.—The

Right Hon. William Bede Dalley, P.C., Acting-Premier, in 1885 despatched, with the consent of the Home Government, a regiment of soldiers nearly 1000 strong, to aid the British troops in the Soudan. The news of the death of the brave General Gordon by the treachery of the Soudanese kindled the fiercest rage against them in Australia, and our volunteers promptly offered their services in the spirit of patriotism. 4 he war was over before the Australians reached Africa, but the despatch of the contingent made it plain to the world that, if ever the mother country should be involved in serious difficulties through foreign aggression, the armed volunteers of her colonies would be found fighting shoulder to shoulder with the Imperial forces in defence of British interests.

During the Boer War (1900-1902) in South Africa no less than ten contingents of the best fighting material in Australia were despatched from New South Wales to assist the forces of Great Britain against the Boers. These contingents acted with great courage and resourcefulness on the battlefield and contributed in no small degree to the success of British arms in that long series of stubbornly contested campaigns. Not only did New South Wales, but all the States of Australia, as wTell as New Zealand, despatched contingents also.

Federation—the object of which was the creation of a separate legislature (in addition to the local parliaments meeting in Sydney, Melbourne, and the other capitals) for the purpose of dealing with matters, such as defence, <fec., which directly concern Australia as a whole—had been talked of for many years, but nothing practical was done for the union of the colonies till 1890. In that year a conference of delegates from each of the seven colonies was held in Melbourne, and resolutions expressive of the desirableness of union were passed. In 1891 the National Convention to decide upon a basis for the federation of the Australasian colonies was held in Sydney under the presidency of the late Sir Henry Parkes. The Convention agreed to a draft constitution by which the future commonwealth was to be governed.

Owing to fiscal strife federation was lost sight of for some years. The interest in it, however, was revived by a conference of the Premiers held in Hobart in 1895, and by the People’s Convention held in Bathurst in 1896, when Cardinal Moran delivered a statesmanlike address in favour of federation, which evoked praise from all parties.

In 1897 the question took practical shape. The colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia. West Australia, and Tasmania elected each ten representatives to draw up a federal constitution for submission to the whole of the electors of these colonies.

These delegates met in Adelaide in April, 1897, and afterwards in Sydney and Melbourne. A draft constitution was adopted for submission to the electors in the colonies named for either approval or disapproval. Upon Sir (then Mr.) Edmund Barton, Q.C., and Mr. R. E. O’Connor, Q.C. (now judges of the High Court of Australia), devolved the greater part of the work of drafting the constitution that was submitted to the Convention and approved of later on by the constituencies throughout Australia and Tasmania. The draft so agreed to was forwarded to the British Government and was passed by the Imperial Parliament in 1900 as The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act.

On the 1st of Januarv, 1901, at a great demonstration in Centennial Park, Sydney, this Act was proclaimed, and Lord Hopistoun, the first Governor-General of Federated Australia, took the prescribed oaths of office. Federal legislation is vested in a Governor-General (appointed by and representing the sovereign), a Senate (of 36 members, 6 from each State) and a House of Representatives (the number of members from each State being, roughly, in proportion to its population).

The Federal Legislature deals wHh Defence, Customs Duties, Postal and Telegraph services, Navigation and Quarantine laws, Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes, Marriage and Divorce, Copyrights and Patents, Coinage, External affairs generally, and lastly, such matters as may be taken over from any of the States, with the consent of the Parliament of the State concerned.

The first Federal Parliament was opened in Melbourne by the Prince of Wales (then Duke of York) in 1801, Sir Edmund Barton being the first Premier of the Australian Commonwealth. The permanent Federal capital is to be in New South Wales, and distant not less than 100 miles from Sydney. Until the Federal Territory has been chosen, and the Capital built, the Commonwealth Parliament is to sit in Melbourne.

As before, each of the States in the Commonwealth has its State Governor and its State Legislature, which deals with all matters not controlled by the Federal Parliament.

After holding office for a year and a half, Lord Hopetoun resigned his post, and returned to England. His resignation was due to the action of the House of Representatives in declining to vote the sum which he considered necessary in order to maintain the dignity of the position of Governor-General. He was succeeded by Lord Tennyson, who, in turn, was followed by Lord Northcote, who arrived in Australia in 1905.

Ecclesiastical.—In September, 1900, the first Australian Catholic Congress, was held in Sydney, under the presidency of his Eminence, Cardinal Moran. All the prelates of the Church in Australia and New Zealand attended, and at the Dedication of St. Mary’s Cathedral, which immediately preceded the opening of the Congress, the Governors of New South Wales, Queensland and British New Guinea were present, as well as high officials and representative citizens of every class and denomination. The addresses delivered at the Congress exhibited great learning and high literary merit, and set forth in the clearest and most authoritative manner the teaching of the Church, especially in regard to the leading social questions of the day.

In 1902, his Eminence Cardinal Moran, left Sydney on a visit to Rome and his native land. While in Ireland he was received with marked favour by all classes, and among the many public honours conferred on his Eminence, was that of the freedom of the City of Cork. In thanking his countrymen for this great honour, he strongly advocated the claims of Ireland for a Catholic University and for local self-government similar to that prevailing in Australia.

CHAPTER V.

TASMANIA.

Abel Jan Tasman discovered Tasmania in 1642, and gave it the name of Van Diemen’s Land, in honour of his patron, Van Diemen, at that time Governor of the Dutch islands in the East Indian Archipelago. Its present euphonious name was given to the island in 1856, in honour of its discoverer. It was visited by many English and French navigators from 1772 to 1777. George Bass, in 1798, explored the strait bearing his name, and proved that Tasmania was an island, and not part of the mainland, as had previously been believed. The same year, in company with Matthew Flinders, he sailed round the island, the latter making accurate charts of the coasts. The settlement of Tasmania goes nearly as far back as that of New South Wales. The worst convicts were sent thither from Sydney in the time of Governor King and for many years afterwards. Lieutenant Bowen formed the first convict settlement at Risdon, on the Derwent, in 1803, and a detachment of the New South Wales Corps was sent from Sydney with the expedition in the Lady Nelson. This subsidiary settlement was formed for the purpose of forestalling occupation by the French exploring expedition under Commodore Baudin, who was believed to be casting anxious eyes upon the island. In 1804 Colonel David Collins (who had come out to Sydney in the first fleet as Judge-Advocate), formed a settlement at Hobart—then called Hobart Town, after Lord Hobart, at that time Secretary of State for the Colonies. Collins’s expedition was despatched from England for Port Phillip. Collins, however, considered Port Phillip unsuitable for settlement, and transferred the convicts to Hobart. Colonel Paterson, in 1804, established a settlement on the north coast at Port Dalrymple. It consisted of a few convicts and a number of soldiers. After a few years, Launceston, on the Tamar, was chosen as a more suitable site for the new settlement.

For many years Tasmania was the theatre of strife, bloodshed, and unexampled cruelty ; and immorality stalked abroad in the land. The blacks were troublesome for 30 years dating from the first settlement. The first encounter with them in 1804 resulted in 50 being killed. Some of the worst of the convicts became bushrangers, and often attacked the settlers with savage ferocity. Distress, too, added to the hardships of the inhabitants, whose food supply often ran short. In 1807 famine prices prevailed for the barest necessities of life. Flour was sold at the rate of £200 per ton.

Governor Collins died in 1810, and for the next three years Lieutenant Lord, Captain Murray and Lieutenant-Colonel Gells were successively the acting commandants of the colony. During the administration of Captain Murray, Governor Macquarie went down from Sydney and laid out in part the present city of Hobart. Gells was succeeded by GovePIlOP Davey, who ruled from 1813 to 1817. At this period the prospects of the colony began to brighten. Farmers produced not only sufficient wheat for home

consumption, but had a surplus which found a ready market at payable prices in New South Wales. Whaling in the Derwent and oil' the coast also greatly stimulated commerce. In 1816 Macquarie Harbour and Port Davey were discovered by Captain Kelly. The coarse, but good-natured, Governor Davey relinquished his office in 1817, and engaged in farming in the colony for a few years, but finally returned to England.

Governor Sorrell succeeded Davey in 1817. Bushranging was the principal difficulty he had to contend with during his administration. Large rewards were offered for the capture of these marauders, but few were taken.

Merino sheep were introduced from Macarthur’s flocks in New South Wales in 1820, and soon after wards several manufacturing industries sprang into existence. The principal Christian denominations erected places of Divine worship, and courts of justice were established during Sorrell’s régime.

In 1824 Governor Arthur assumed the government of the colony. His administration was characterised by ability, energy, and order in all departments. The aborigines, however, gave considerable trouble. Arthur at length determined to put an end to the difficulty, and for that purpose organised a corps of settlers and soldiers, 2000 strong, to form a line across the island, and, advancing from north to soutn, drive the blacks like kangaroos to the extreme south of Tasman Peninsula. This aboriginal hunt lasted two months, and cost the Government £30,000, but the sole result of the whole sorry business was the capture of one blackfellow and a boy. The trouble with the blacks was at length got rid of by getting them to agree to be transported to Flinders Island in Bass Strait, where, after a few years, they nearly all died out. Arthur overcame the bushranging difficulty by offering free passages to England to all who gave themselves up. So many embraced the offer that in a short time Brady, the leader of the gang, was left almost alone, and when wandering in a secluded valley was surprised and captured by John Batman, who afterwards took part in the early settlement of Victoria.

In 1825, on the petition of its colonists to the Home Government, Tasmania became independent of New South Wales. Four years later a nominee legislative body was appointed to aid the Governor in framing laws.

In 1827 the Van Diemen’s Land Company received a grant of 350,000 acres, and, much of this being afterwards sold by auction, permanent settlement on the land was greatly increased.

In 1829 Mr. J. P. Fawkner, the founder of Melbourne, started the Launceston Advertiser. On the expiration of Governor Arthur’s term of office in 1836, the colonists testified their appreciation of his rule by a gift of ¿£1500.

In 1837 Sir John Franklin (afterwards lost while exploring in the Arctic regions) assumed office. The colony progressed under the new Governor, who, 36 years before, had served as a midshipman under. Flinders during the survey of the Australian coast in the Investigator. Lady Franklin, his wife, warmly seconded his efforts in all movements for the good of the people. She spent much of her private fortune in acts of benevolence. A few holding high positions, whose soaring ambition the Governor felt bound to check, lost no opportunity of thwarting him. One of them was dismissed for insubordination, and appealed to Lord Stanley, who, in ignorance of the facts of the case, sided with him. The Governor was superseded by Sir E. Wilmot, and left the colony amidst the regrets of the vast bulk of the people.

Sir Eardley Wilmot was Governor for three years (1843 to 1846). It is said he died of a broken heart in 1847 from the calumnies heaped upon him during his brief administration—his chief measures having given great offence to the majority of the inhabitants.

In 1847 Sir William Thomas Denison assumed the governorship of the colony. The great event during his rule vas the cessation of transportation (1853).

From 1840 to 1853 the island was flooded with convicts, transportation to New South Wales having-ceased in the former year, and there being no other penal settlement available. Convict labour came into competition with that of the free settlers, hence an agitation against transportation was started which, after many years’ delay, was crowned with success, in 1853.

The discovery of gold in Australia in 1851 had a bad eflect on Tasmania. People left the colony in great numbers to seek their fortunes on the goldfields, and for nearly 20 years the progress of Tasmania suffered from this cause.

In 1855 Sir Henry Young: came to the colony as Governor-in-Chief. During his term of office Responsible Government was introduced, municipal government established, and communication by railway and telegraph initiated. The succeeding Governors were Colonel Brown, Sir Charles Ducane, Sir F. A. Weld, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Sir G C. Strahan, Sir C. R. 'Hamilton, and Lord Gormanston.

First Priest.—The Rev. Philip Conolly, who arrived in Hobart from Sydney in 1821, was the first Catholic chaplain. Father Flynn, when connn^ out to New South Wales in 1817, was on shore in Hobart for a few days, and was received in a. friendly manner by Governor Sorrell. Father Flynn adinin-istered the sacraments to the Catholic convicts. Dean Kenny, who had been six months a teacher under Father Conolly, says that he was a “ man of no small ability and attainments, very witty, and full of dry humour.”

The Rev. Samuel Coote landed in 1824. With Father Coote came out Mr. Roderick O’Connor, his family, and some free settlers to enter upon farming in the colony. Mr. O’Connor was then a Protestant, but became a Catholic later in life, and made a gift of £10,000 towards the erection of St. Mary’s Cathedral, Hobart.

Dr. Ullathorne, on his voyage to Sydney in 1833, remained a few weeks in Tasmania. He found “religious matters in a very unsatisfactory condition”

The Right Rev. Dr. Polding, on his appointment as Bishop of New Holland and its islands, stopped in Tasmania for a few weeks before coming on to Sydney. During his sta}^ he collected £1000 for the erection of a church at Richmond (14 miles from Hobart). He left Father Cotham to assist Father Conolly, and Mr. John Kenny (afterwards Dean) in charge of a Catholic school then established.

Shortly after the arrival of Dr. Polding in Sydney» Father Therry was sent as Vicar-General to Tasmania, where he controlled Church affairs until the arrival of the first bishop. In Tasmania, as in New South Wales, Father Therry was the courageous champion of his faith. Zeal and earnestness for religion and education he showed without ceasing, and he fought the Government inch by inch to secure the right of Catholic orphans to be brought up in their own faith.

First Catholic Bishop of Tasmania.—The

Right R,ev. Dr. Willson, first Catholic Bishop of the colony, arrived at Hobart in 1841. He had come from Nottingham, England, where he was very popular with non-Catholics and revered by his own flock. H is right to style himself “ Catholic Bishop of Hobart Town ” was questioned by Dr Nixon, the Protestant Bishop, in an offensive letter. Dr. Willson replied “that he thought the vice and crime abroad in the colony called for different labour than quarrelling about titles.” The Launceston Examiner, referring to the conduct of the Protestant Bishop, said :—“ Every Protestant here feels scorn and indignation at seeing religion reduced to a sort of cockfight.”

Next to the moral welfare of the convicts, reform and improvement in the discipline under which they suffered engaged the attention of the Bishop. He found them locked up at night in wooden huts, each containing 20 or 50 men, herded together like Chinamen. In many of the gangs of convicts he found men carrying chains when at work weighing from 20 to 36 lbs. 'J he treatment of the convicts and the “ terrible punishments ” they underwent, horrified him. He brought this state of things under the notice of Sir Wm. Denison, the Governor of Tasmania, in a letter, in which he says :—“ Gloom, sullen despondency, despair of leaving the island seemed to be the general condition of the men’s minds.” It was through his representations, made to the Imperial Government, and supported by Governor Denison, that convicts were removed from Norfolk Island, where they were treated worse even than in Tasmania, and that the former island was abandoned as a penal settlement.

Dr. Willson’s heart also went out to all who were suffering from mental disease. He ha^l gained in England and on the continent of Europe much experience in the treatment of the insane, and he gave the benefit of it to the Governments of Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales for the cure of mental maladies.

Bishop Willson was singularly free from national prejudice, as was shown in 1850, when he petitioned the Holy See to appoint the Very Rev. Dean Butler, an Irish priest, of Launceston, as his coadjutor. “ The Church in Hobart,” he said, “ was almost entirely Irish, ‘ and it would be an act of folly to appoint other than Irish bishops for priests and people who were Irish.’ ”

The Most Rev. Daniel Murphy became coadjutor and afterwards successor to Dr. Willson, who returned stricken with paralysis to his old flock at Nottingham, where he died in 1866.

Dr. Murphy had been Bishop of Hyderabad, in India. He arrived in Hobart in 1866, and an enthusiastic welcome was extended to him. At the close of the same year several nuns of the Presentation Order arrived, under the charge of the Rev. Mother F. X. Murphy, the Bishop’s sister. They opened schools at Richmond, until their convent adjoining St. Mary’s Cathedral was built, and in 1873 they sent a branch to Launceston. The Sisters of St. Joseph in 1887 opened schools in other districts of the island, and in 1893 the Sisters of Mercy took possession of a new convent atLatrobe. In 1893 the Convent and Magdalene Home, under the care of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, was solemnly opened by His Eminence Cardinal Moran.

The Golden Jubilee of the Right Rev. Dr. Murphy’s priesthood was celebrated in June, 1888, amidst great rejoicing. His Holiness Pope Leo the XIII., to mark his appreciation, made him Archbishop of Hobart, and His Eminence Cardinal Moran in May, 1889, conferred the Pallium upon His Grace. In June, 1896, the Golden Jubilee of His Grace’s episcopate was celebrated, in the presence of the Cardinal, most of the hierarchy of Australia and the Catholic Governor of Tasmania, Lord Gormanston, who took a warm, generous and prominent part in connection with the proceedings. The Right Rev. Dr. Delany, a ripe scholar and zealous administrator, has for many years acted as Coadjutor to His Grace.

CHAPTER VI.

VICTORIA.

Victoria (previously known as the Port Phillip district of New South Wales) became a separate colony in 1851. In 1770 Captain Cook, from his ship the Endeavour, saw a small portion of its coast and named one of its headlands Point Hicks (now Cape Everard), situated between Cape Howe and the mouth of the Snowy River. Mr. Clarke, the supercargo of the Sydney Cove, which had been wrecked on the Furneaux Islands in 1797, while endeavouring along with some of his crew to reach Sydney, passed through a small portion of the south-eastern coastal district of Victoria, and are believed to be the first Europeans who ever trod Victorian soil.

In 1798 Dr. George Bass set out from Sydney in an open whaleboat, cruised along portion of the south coast of Victoria, and proved that Tasmania was not connected with the mainland, as had previously been the opinion. In 1800 Lieutenant James Grant, who sailed from England in the Lady Nelson for the purpose of making a survey of the southern shores of New Holland, was the first to ,pass through Bass Strait from the west. After a short stay in Port Jackson, Grant surveyed the coast of Victoria from Western Port to Wilson’s Promontory. Matthew Flinders, in the Investigator, sailed into Port Phillip in 1801 and explored its shores in an open boat, while Lieutenant Murray, who, had succeeded Lieutenant Grant in the command of the Lady Nelson, in a cruise through Bass Strait in 1802 also explored Port Phillip.

In 1803, in the Cumberland, Charles Grimes (then Surveyor-General of New South Wales) explored the coast of Port Phillip and ascended the Yarra for several miles. One of the party, in his report of this expedition, says that “ the most eligible place for a settlement that I have seen is on the Freshwater River ” (i.e., the Yarra) Grimes and his party on one occasion breakfasted on the site of the present Spencer-street Railway Station, and have, therefore, the honour of being the first white men to set foot on the site of the city of Melbourne. The Cumberland, in which Grimes sailed, was under the command of Lieut. Robbins, a naval officer, who had despatches warning off the French expedition under Commodore Baudin, who was believed to be contemplating the annexation of the south coast of New Holland on behalf of the French Government.

Early Settlement.—Lieut.-Colonel David Collins, formerly judge advocate in Sydney, was sent out from England in 1803 to found a convict settlement in Port Phillip. The expedition was fitted out in haste in England on account of the anticipated designs of Baudin, the French commodore. It consisted of a storeship, the Ocean, and the Calcutta, with 400 persons aboard, 300 of whom were convicts. A landing was made near the present town of Sorrento, and the country about there explored. This was found unsuitable for settlement. The land was sandy and barren, the water brackish, and there was no timber. The result was that Collins, who had heard glowing accounts of the beauty and fertility of the northern shores of Van Dieman’s Land, removed the settlement to the banks of the Derwent, stating at the same time in a despatch to Lord Hobart that “ when all the disadvantages attending this bay (Port Phillip) are publicly known, it cannot be supposed that commercial people will be very desirous of visiting Port Phillip.” During Collins's sojourn, William Buckley,

one of the convicts, deserted, and, having made friends with the natives, lived with them for 32 years-For 20 years after Collins’s short visit Port Phillip district was neglected, until in 1824 Hamilton Hume and William Hovell, in search of new pastures, travelled overland from Goulburn, in New South Wales, via Yass Plains and the Murray, Ovens, and Goulburn Rivers, and having explored the country as far as the present site of Geelong, reported favourably of its soil and pastoral capabilities.

Soon after the return of Hume and Hovell to Sydney rumours were again afloat that a French expedition was about to make a settlement on the south coast of the continent, and to prevent this the authorities in Sydney determined to despatch an expedition thither. Western Port was selected as its destination. A small party of prisoners, with soldiers to guard them, was landed there in 1826, under the command of Captain Wright, with whom went Hovell as guide. It was found, however, after a year's occupation, that the surrounding district was unsuitable for permanent occupation, and, at the instance of Governor Darling, the settlement was abandoned.

Permanent Settlement.—In 1834 two brothers, Edward and Francis Henty, who were carrying on an extensive whaling industry in Tasmania, crossed over to Victoria and established a branch station at Portland Bay. This undertaking proved successful, and to it they soon added sheep and cattle farming. The Hentys were thus the first real settlers of the colony, and they were soon followed by other stockowners from Tasmania. In the following year (1835) an association was formed in Tasmania to colonise Port Phillip. It consisted of fifteen persons, and John Batman was sent over with a party to report upon the grazing capabilities of the surrounding district.

After exploring much of the new country he had an interview near the present site of Northcote with several native chiefs, with whom he contracted for the purchase of 600,000 acres of land on the shores of Port Phillip and on the banks of the Yarra in return for a number of knives, tomahawks, blankets, looking-glasses, and other articles. Governor Bourke afterwards disallowed the bargain, but granted <£7000 to the Batman Association as compensation in regard to the transaction.

Fawkner. JohnPascoe Fawkner, with five others, settled on the shores of Port Phillip in 1835. The country was not unknown to him, having been there as a boy in 1803 with his father in the convict expedition of Governor Collins. Messrs. Henty, Batman, and Fawkner were settlers from Tasmania, who were attracted to Victoria by the glowing reports of the country given by Hume and Hovell.

Australia Felix.—In 1836 Major (afterwards Sir) Thomas Mitchell explored the country from the Murray to the ocean, and by reason of its fertility bestowed upon it the name of Australia Felix. From his description of its beauty, fertility, and suitableness for pastoral pursuits, many squatters from New South Wales and Tasmania rented large areas for grazing. At that time, too, immigrants began to arrive in great numbers from the United Kingdom.

Melbourne, the future capital of the colony, was named after Lord Melbourne, the British Premier of the period, by Sir Richard Bourke, when on a visit to the southern colony in 1837.

LatPObe.—In 1839 Charles J. Latrobe became superintendent of Port Phillip district, which, three years later became entitled to send six out of the twenty-four elected members of the newly-formed Legislative Council at Sydney. For some years after.

owing to over-speculation in land, property of all kinds suffered in value, and general stagnation of business prevailed. From about the year 1840 the people of Port Phillip became dissatisfied with the mode in which the settlement was governed. The agitation for iocal self-government was kept up until in 1851 it became an Independent colony, under the name of Victoria. Latrobe was then sworn in as Lieutenant-Governor, and the first parliament, consisting of ten nominated and twenty elected members, was opened at Melbourne, November, 1851.

Discovery Of Gold.—James Esmond, a Californian digger, received ¿61000 as a reward from the Victorian Government for the discovery of the first payable goldfield in Victoria in 1851, a few months after the great gold discoveries in New South Wales. Ballarat, Bendigo and Mount Alexander soon became famous goldfields, and attracted fortune-seekers in a short time from the other colonies, and from Europe, America and Asia, to the number of 100,000. Many of these were successful and made fortunes, but the great majority found considerable difficulty in making even a bare living. The gold-diggers had many grievances. They had to pay an excessively high license fee, amounting to thirty shillings a month, for the mere right to search for gold, and this was imposed upon all alike. They were also denied the franchise, and prevented from cultivating even the smallest portion of land around their encampments for the support of themselves and their families. Receiving no redress of their grievances, the Ballarat diggers revolted in 1854. They formed an entrenchment called the Eureka Stockade, which, after a short struggle, was carried by the soldiers and police, who had been brought in large numbers from Melbourne to quell the insurrection. Both sides suffered heavy losses, and 120 miners were taken prisoners, and although thirteen were put on their trial the Crown failed to get a conviction in any of the cases. The late Sir Peter Lalor, for many years Speaker of the Legislative Assembly in Victoria, was one of the ringleaders of the revolt. Many reforms and concessions to the miners resulted from the outbreak. For ten years, from 1851 to 1861, the value of the gold yield from Victorian mines averaged £10,000,000 a year.

Burke and Wills.—“ A Melbourne merchant (who was no other than Mr. Ambrose Kyte, a patriotic and modest Irishman) offered, in 1860, the sum of £1000 towards the fitting out of an expedition to cross the continent from Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Private contributions to the extent of £3000, and a Parliamentary grant of £6000, besides 26 camels, valued at £3000, were freely given to help on the praiseworthy undertaking. The leadership was given to Robert O’Hara Burke (an Irishman from the County of Galway), with whom was associated W. J. Wills as surveyor and astronomical observer. There were thirteen other persons in the party, which started from Melbourne in August, 1860, under the happiest and most favourable auspices. Arrived at Cooper’s Creek on 11th November, Burke formed a dépôt, with instructions to those in charge to remain there for three months. Burke then, with three companions— Wills, King, and Gray—plunged into the unknown country, and made a rapid journey to the Gulf of Carpentaria, where they arrived on 4th February, 1861. Spent and worn, they retraced their steps to Cooper’s Creek, to find the depot, alas, abandoned, Brahe, who had been left in charge, having left some hours before their arrival. Brahe, before leaving, took the precaution of burying some provisions at the foot of a tree, on which he cut the word “ Dig.” Food, of which they were so much in need, was now available, and they decided to rest and recruit themselves—a fatal mistake, for had they but pushed on only for a few hours they would have reached Brahe and his party, who travelled only a few miles the first day. Weak and disappointed, they turned towards South Australia in the hope of reaching some outlying squatter’s station. Disaster befel them on the way ; all perished but King, whose life was saved by the kindness of the blacks. The death of these heroic men was lamented over all the continent. A public funeral was accorded to their remains in Melbourne, where a splendid monument now stands to hand down to future generations the story of their successful exploration and its harrowing ending.

Catholic.—In 1839 the Rev. Father B. Geoghegan, of the Order of St. Francis, and a native of Dublin, was the lirst Catholic missionary to the infant settlement of Victoria. For a few months before going to Victoria he had charge of St. Benedict’s district, Sydney, where his zeal and piety were marked and productive of the happiest results. Like all pioneer priests, he had to endure many hai’dships—having no place for some time to sleep in but the bar of a public-house. His first Mass in Victoria was offered up in the open air. A short time after a little wooden chapel was built at the corner of Lonsdale and Elizabeth streets, where now stands the beautiful and popular church of St. Francis of Assisi. Father Richard Walshe (ordained in Sydney by Dr. Polding) was sent, towards the end of 1839, to assist in the mission. Father Geoghegan, with Mr. (afterwards Sir) John O’Shannassy, were treasurers of the “ Port Phillip Irish Relief Fund ” in 1846 and 1847. Both gentlemen exerted themselves to the utmost in raising money for the relief of their fellow-countrymen during the terrible times of the famine in Ireland in those years. The Rev. Dean Coffee was amongst the zealous priests who helped to build up the Church in Victoria. He remained there until it was erected into a bishopric, whereupon he returned to Sydney.

He was afterwards in charge of Parramatta parish, where he died in 1882, much regretted.

First Bishop.—Father J. A. Goold was the first Bishop of Victoria. In 1848 he was consecrated in St. Mary’s, Sydney, by Dr. Polding. For ten years previously he had laboured in various parts of New South Wales. The young bishop made the journey from Sydney to Melbourne (overland) in nineteen days—no small feat in those days of bad roads. His diocese extended from the Murray to the ocean. Zealous, active, and shrewd, Dr. Goold began at once to organise the Church for the great future he saw before her in the colony. He opened Catholic schools throughout the country, and introduced during his administration teaching and religious orders—the Jesuit Fathers, the Carmelite Order, the Christian Brothers, the Sisters of Mercy, the Nuns of the Good Shepherd, the Presentation Order, the Faithful Companions of Jesus, and the Little Sisters of the Poor. He was created Archbishop in 1874, and died in 1886, after governing the diocese for 38 years, leaving behind him a memory loved by his own people and honoured by all.

The Most Rev. Thomas Joseph Carr became successor to Dr. Goold in 1887. He had been Bishop of Galway, and it was at the Plenary Synod of Australasia, held in 1885, that the Holy See was requested to appoint him Archbishop of Melbourne. His Grace’s works speak for themselves. With voice and pen he has edified and instructed Catholics, and confounded the enemies of the Church. He has formed many new missions, added the Religious of the Sacred Heart, the Sisters of Charity, the Loretto Sisters, and the Sisters of St. Joseph to the religious and teaching orders, established additional superior and parochial schools, and 21 new churches, and the number of priests (increased largely by the introduction of the Vincentian Fathers in 1892) has been nearly doubled; while last, but not least, the noble Cathedral of St. Patrick has been completed by him. It was thirty-five years in building, and cost £200,000. The ceremony of its consecration took place on 31st October, 1897, and was the most magnificent religious function ever witnessed in Australia. The Archdiocese of Melbourne, it must not be forgotten, enjoys a high reputation for the number and completeness of its educational and charitable institutions. The former include the fine college of St. Francis Xavier at Kew, St. Patrick’s Colleges at Melbourne and East Melbourne, St. Patrick’s at Kilmore, as well as numerous popular and flourishing superior schools for girls ; while among the many noble monuments of Christian charity may be mentioned St. Vincent’s Orphanages at Melbourne, Our Lady’s Orphanage at Geelong, the Industrial School and Penitent Asylum at Abbotsford, the Magdalene Asylum at South Melbourne, Home for Aged and Infirm Poor at Northcote, Home for Neglected Children at Surrey Hills, St. Joseph’s Providence at Collingwood, and St. Vincent’s Hospital at Fitzroy.

Diocese Of Ballarat.—The city of Ballarat is situated about seventy miles from Melbourne, at a height above sea-level of 1500 feet. The Right Rev. Dr. O’Connor was its first bishop, and was installed by I)r. Goold in December, 1874. The good bishop devoted himself to the establishment of Catholic schools throughout the diocese, which we^e in charge of trained and efficient teachers—the Christian Brothers and Sisters of the Loretto Community. Numerous churches were also built, and an episcopal residence was erected at a cost of £10,000. Dr. O’Connor made a visit to Rome and Ireland in 1881. His flock presented him on his departure with £1080 as a mark of their reverence and esteem. A few months after his return in 1882 he was attacked with inflammation of the lungs, which caused his death on 14th February, 1883. He was mourned by all classes as a loving, tender, charitable churchman.

The Right Rev. James Moore, Vicar General under the late bishop, succeeded him in 1884, and carried on the work of the see till his death in 1904. In the following year the present accomplished bishop, the Right Rev. Joseph Higgins, was transferred from Rockhampton to control the important diocese of Ballarat. Under Dr. Moore, £85,500 were expended on schools, convents, churches, and presbyteries in the city of Ballarat alone during the first ten years of his administration. At the end of 1905 the diocese contained 130 churches numerous superior and primary schools, in addition to the splendid College of St. Patrick at Ballarat, conducted by the Christian Brothers. Among the high school for Catholic young ladies, the Loretto Abbey at Mary’s Mount, and the Loretto Convents at Dawson-street and Portland, enjoy great popularity, and in connection with the former a flourishing training college for teachers is carried on. The Brigidine Sisters conduct a large boarding school at Ararat, and the Poor Sisters of Nazareth labour zealously in the management of Nazareth House, at Hill-street, Ballarat, into which orphans, neglected children, and the aged poor of both sexes, without distinction of creed, are received and cared for.

Diocese of Sandhurst.—Sandhurst, formerly the celebrated goldfield called Bendigo, is 100 miles from Melbourne. The Rev. Dr. Backhaus was the first priest who followed the miners to Bendigo.

The Right Rev. Dr. Crane, of the Order of St. Augustine, was its first bishop. He took up the work of the diocese in 1875, and laboured with zeal and success for the next seven years. He paid his required visit to Rome in 1882, and received the thanks of the Holy Father, Pope Leo XII1., for his zealous labours. When passing through London he underwent an operation for cataract in the eyes, which, unfortunately, resulted in total blindness. In 1886 he returned to the diocese, where he remained till his death in 1901.

The Right Rev. Dr. Reville, O.S. A., administrator of the diocese during the absence of Dr Crane, was appointed his coadjutor in 1885, and discharged all the active duties of the see till 1901, when he succeeded to the full control. The diocese contains 105 churches and 40 priests, while its educational wants are supplied by the Hermits of Augustine, the Marist Brothers, the Sisters of Mercy, the Sisters of St. Brigid, and the Sisters of St. Joseph.

Diocese Of Sale.—Sale, the c. pital of Gippsland, has for its first Bishop the Right Rev. James F. Corbett, a native of Limerick, who held for several years the office of Secretary to Archbishop Goold, and was also pastor of St. Kilda. He was consecrated by the Most Rev. Dr. Carr, Archbishop of Melbourne, on 25th August, 1887. He had but one priest on taking charge of his diocese. At the end of 1905 there were 44 churches, 16 priests, 47 nuns (of the Notre Dame de Sion and the St. Joseph orders), and a Catholic population of about 14,000.

CHAPTER VII.

SOUTH AUSTKALIA.

Part of the coast of South Australia is said to have been discovered by Peter Nuyts in 1627.

In 1802 Matthew Flinders, during his survey of the Australian coast in the Investigator, explored the southern shores from Fowler’s Bay to Encounter Bay, giving names to thr chief bays and capes as he passed.

The report furnished by Captain Sturt, in 1829, of the capabilities of the Lower Murray basin, as a promising agricultural region, attracted the attention of many people in England. Among these was Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who proposed to found a colony in South Australia on somewhat Utopian lines. He published a pamphlet in London in which he drew an attractive picture of how a new colony might be founded and worked. A high price was to be set on the land, so as to exclude the poorer settlers, who were too prone, it was said, to purchase land and become their own masters as soon as possible. It was to be a colony for the middle and upper classes. Poor men coming to the colony would find it impossible to purchase land, and would therefore be forced to work for years for their employers. It was persistently stated by the advocates of this scheme that money invested in the proposed colony would return fully five times as much as a like amount invested in England. Many, therefore, believed in Wakefield’s theories, and took shares in the proposed colonisation company. The promoters wanted an immense area of country for nothing, but the British Government would not listen to such a request, and, in consequence of this refusal, the company was dissolved.

Another company, however, viz., The South Australian Association, was formed in 1833, and a charter granted to it three years later, provided, among other things, that the colony should be self-supporting. This meant, of course, that no convicts were to be sent out to aid by their labour in developing the lands of the settlement. In 1836 the first immigrants arrived and landed at Kangaroo Island. That being found unsuitable for a city, Colonel Light, who had been sent out by the Association as Surveyor-General, decided on another site, midway between St. Vincent’s Gulf and the foot of Mount Lofty Range, on the banks of the Torrens. The capital was called Adelaide, in honour of the wife of the reigning king, William IV. Later on in the year Governor Hindmarsh (1836-1838), who had been sent out by the Home Government to rule the new settlement, arrived, and soon quarrelled with Colonel Light over the site chosen for the infant capital. Being a sailor, the idea of building a city several miles from the sea appeared absurd, so he tried to induce Colonel Light and those acting with him to remove the settlement to Encounter Bay, but all to no purpose. After much wrangling on that matter, Hindmarsh A^as recalled by the British Government, and his adversaries were in turn cashiered by the Association.

Governor Gawler (1838-1841) succeeded Hindmarsh. He found things looking very bad. The young capital was little better than a rude camp ; its inhabitants without hope or energy. There was plenty of land, but nobody to till it. The rich settlers who had first arrived soon became disgusted with bush life, and did little else but speculate in town lots at Adelaide. Poor immigrants were arriving from time to time, but there was no work for them, as none could pay them, and to make matters worse, the high price fixed upon for land made it impossible for them to acquire holdings on their own account. Want and poverty became general. To relieve the widespread distress the Governor started a number of public works, improved the city, built wharves, and erected a Custom House at Port Adelaide. In this way he spent his private fortune, but even that was not enough to meet the claims for wages. He appealed to the Home Government for help, and drew on them to pay for goods sent out to the country. A few of the earlier drafts only were paid ; the others were dishonoured. The authorities in England reminded the Governor that, by the terms of the charter of the colony, it was to be self-supporting. The debts incurred amounted to £400,000, which made the colony practically insolvent, as no one was willing to pay this sum. Everyone was anxious to quit the colony. Owners of land were willing to sell it for sufficient to pay their passage to England. The British Government censured Governor Gawler, and he had to give place to Captain (afterwards Sir) George Grey. The debts of the colony were at length paid by the Imperial Government, but all political power was taken away from the South Australian Association, the Home authorities taking the control of the colony into their own hands.

Governor Grey (1841-1845) found the great majority of the workmen in the colony dependent on relief works or Government wages, and without enterprise enough to engage in any undertaking on their own account. The former he at once abolished, and at the same time reduced the wages for all Government work to almost starvation rates, thus forcing the workmen to seek employment on the farms and stations of the interior, and generally to trust rather to their own efforts than to Government assistance. He encouraged settlement on the land, recommended habits of thrift and industry, and brought the expenditure of the colony down to its income. Good fortune as well as good management characterised Grey’s period of administration, for in 1841 galena was found in Mount Lofty Ranges, and in the following year copper was discovered at Kapunda Station and also at Burra Burra, 90 miles from Adelaide. These discoveries helped greatly in making the colony prosperous. During the first three years of Governor Grey’s régime South Australia was lifted out of her financial difficulties, and instead of having to pay ruinous prices for imported wheat and flour, was able to export wheat to the other colonies. In addition, sheep-farming had been commenced, and the industry was assuming large proportions. During the four years of Grey’s rule settlement on the Crown lands had greatly extended, and this circumstance, added to the growing fame of her copper mines, caused population to stream into the colony from the eastern settlements. Thus the dangers that threatened the very existence of the colony were removed.

In 1844 Captain Charles Sturt, the discoverer of the Darling and the first explorer of the lower Murray, led an expedition from Adelaide to the centre of the continent. It was well fitted out, and included Messrs. Poole (surveyor), Browne (surgeon), and J. McDouall Stuart (draughtsnmn). Sturt discovered and named the Stanley and Grey Ranges in New South Whies. The former is now known as the Barrier Range, whose silver deposits are some of the richest in the world. A thriving and populous city now stands in the midst of the dreary plain passed over by the explorers. At a place which they named Rocky Glen, where there appeared to be plenty of water, the party formed a dépôt. The summer heat of 1844 was intense, and soon dried up most of the creeks in the neighbourhood. Their terrible sufferings then commenced, and for six months they were imprisoned in a furnace-like desert. They could not live above ground. They excavated an underground chamber to live in so as to escape the burning blasts that threatened to wither them up. Sturt made several attempts to find a means of escape for himself and his party. He found the region to the north barren and sandy, and called it Stony Desert. Short of provisions and without water, he determined to return. After encountering blinding sand billows and other hardships, he reached Adelaide blind and dispirited, believing that the centre of Australia was a desert. This opinion has been shown by later explorations to be quite erroneous.

Governor Robe succeeded Sir George Grey, who was appointed Governor of New Zealand—at that time in grave financial difficulties. Robe having proved unsuccessful as a governor, was recalled at the end of three years, and was succeeded by Sir Henry Young1during whose rule Captain Cadell, in the Lady Augusta, ascended the Murray a distance of 300 miles, thereby securing for her owners the bonus of £4000 offered for the successful navigation of the river.

In 1851 the steady progress of the colony was checked for a time by the rush to the goldfields of Victoria. Industries were at a standstill for want of workmen. The Governor established an escort between Adelaide and Bendigo. Many of the diggers sent their gold by that route instead of sending it to Melbourne, and the advantage which the Governor desired of turning part of the stream of Victorian gold towards South Australia was secured. After a time many of those who had been stricken with the gold fever returned to their former pursuits and occupations, finding them more satisfactory and profitable Rian the uncertainty of gold-digging.

In 1856 the Imperial Parliament conceded to the colony the full measure of Responsible Government which she now enjoys. Progressive legislation has in an especial manner been a marked feature of the colony’s later history. Possibly one of the most useful statutes ever passed by an}7' legislature was Sir Robert Torrens's Real Property Act, which simplified and cheapened the transfer of real estate. This measure was passed by the S.A. Parliament in 1858, and its provisions have since been adopted throughout the whole of the Australian colonies.

THE NORTHERN TERRITORY.

In 1824 the first British settlement in this region was established on Melville Island. In 1831 Port Essington was chosen as a military post and harbour of refuge, but was abandoned in 1850. In 1864 the Northern Territory, which lies within the tropics, was added to South Australia, the original northern boundary of which was the parallel of 26° S.

In 1862 Mr. John McDouall Stuart explored the interior of the continent from Adelaide to Adam Bay, in Van Diemen’s Gulf. He gave so favourable an account of the country which he passed over that the South Australian Government petitioned the Home Government for a grant of the whole Northern Territory, which was ceded to them, q,s already stated, in 1864. The Port Darwin Settlement was made the same year, and it has prospered. Tropical fruits and grain grow well there, and the surrounding country abounds in minerals.

Overland Telegraph.—This important national work was undertaken, in 1869, by the Government of South Australia and completed in three years. The line followed the route taken by Stuart in his journey across the continent in 1862. The distance was 2000 miles, more than half of which was through desert country. Sir Charles Todd supervised this great national work, and it was owing to his skill and courage under many difficulties that it was brought to a successful issue. The Eastern Telegraph Company laid a submarine cable from Banjowangie, in Java, to connect with the overland line at Port Darwin. Congratulatory messages passed between the Mayor of London and the Mayor of Adelaide in October, 1872. Since then, all Australia has shared in the advantages of international communication through the great enterprise.

Catholic.—Dr. Ullathorne was the first priest to visit Adelaide. On his arrival in 1840 he found about fifty Catholics there. The Government refused him the use of a common building for celebrating Mass. A Protestant, Mr. John Benthon Neals, was more liberal. He gave the use of his shop twice a week, where the Doctor said Mass, preached, and otherwise instructed his flock.

Mr. Leigh, of Woodchester (England), a convert, endowed a Catholic Bishopric at Adelaide, by giving four acres of land in North Adelaide, and 600 acres at Little Para, as well as a cash donation of ¿£2000. Father Benson was the first priest stationed on the mission (towards the end of 1841). He was simple in character, and so poor were his little flock, that he had to work at carpentering to earn a livelihood for himself. He returned to England in 1845, and was engaged in the missions in Wales.

First Bishop.—The Right Rev. Francis Murphy was first Bishop of Adelaide. He was consecrated by Archbishop Polding, in St. Mary’s Cathedral, Sydney, in 1844. He had laboured in Sydney since 1839, with the greatest zeal and devotion. On the 9th October, 1844, he arrived in Adelaide—then a desolate mission, without even one priest. Father

Edward Mahonv, of Maitland (N.S.W.), had been sent down to prepare the people to receive the Bishop. Father Michael Ryan, of Penrith, accompanied his Lordship to Adelaide, and was for many years his faithful and zealous Vicar-General. Amidst trials and hardships, Dr. Murphy laboured for 14 years and accomplished much. There were twenty-one Catholic churches and thirteen priests in the colony when he died. His death, like his life, was edifyin^ and holy.

The Right Rev. P. B. Geoghegan succeeded Dr. Murphy. His early missionary life in Victoria is referred to in Chapter VI. He was consecrated Bishop of Adelaide in 1859. and {luring his episcopate efforts were made to complete the Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier. He died in Dublin in 1864.

The Right Rev. Lawrence B. Shiel was third Bishop of Adelaide. He was consecrated by Dr. Goold, in St. Francis Church, Melbourne, m 1866. In leOT he visited Rome and Ireland, and brought back with him from Ireland some priests and a community of Dominican nuns. He assisted at the Vatican Council in 1869. During his absence, the Rev. Dr. Smith, the A icar-General of the diocese, died. Loved and revered by all classes, his death was regarded as a public loss.

In 1868 the Sisters of St. Joseph were established in Adelaide, chiefly through the zeal of the accomplished geologist, the late Rev. J. E. Tegison-Woods. Branches of this Australian sisterhood have since spread over the other colonies, while the Dominican Nuns (founded from Cabra, Dublin, in the same year), the Sisters of Mercy (founded from Buenos Ayres in 1881), and the Christian and Marist Brothers are engaged in the holy work of training the youth of the Adelaide Archdiocese in religious and secular knowledge. The Christian Brothers’ College in Wakefield street, Adelaide, is held in high esteem throughout the whole colony. Dr. Shiel took part, in 1871, in the dedication of St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Ballarat, after which he returned to his diocese, and resumed his sacred duties. But his health was failing. He went to Willungra to recruit, but he was past recovery, and passed away there on 1st March, 1872.

The Right Rev. Christopher Augustine Reynolds was next Bishop of Adelaide. The progress of religion after 1873, when he became bishop, was very marked. In 1885 he was made Archbishop of Adelaide, and in the administration of his diocese His Grace was ably assisted by the Venerable Archdeacon Russell and the Very Rev. Dr. Byrne up to the time of his death, which occurred on the 12th June, 1893.

The Right Rev. Dr. O’Reily, Bishop of Port Augusta, was appointed by Papal Brief dated 5 th January, 1895, to till the vacant See. Since his appointment His Grace has continued to display the same zeal and untiring energy in promoting the interests of religion that marked his administration of Port Augusta.

Diocese of Port Augusta.—The Right Rev. John O’Reily was appointed first bishop in 1888. His Lordship found his diocese heavily in debt, and at once devoted his best energies to reducing it, while the growing demands for new churches, convents, and schools were not overlooked. The death of the Archbishop of Adelaide led to His Lordship’s translation to that See, and the vacancy thus caused was happily tilled in 1896 by the Right Rev. Dr. Maher, who had been Administrator of the diocese. Dr. Maher laboured for eight years with zeal and success till his death in 1905. The Sisters of St. Joseph and the Sisters of the Good Samaritan conduct schools in the chief centres of population. This important diocese contains 35 churches, and a Catholic popu-

lation of about 12,000, whose spiritual wants are attended to by 16 priests.

Diocese of Port Victoria and Palmerston —

The attempts to establish a mission in the capital of the Northern Territory met with many difficulties. The Right Rev. Dr. Serra, O.S.B., who was appointed, in 1846, first bishop of the diocese, was transferred to Perth, in Western Australia, before he took possession of the former see. In 1847, the Rev. R. Salvado, O.S.B., was consecrated bishop to succeed him in the see of Port Victoria. The place was abandoned before his arrival, and he took charge of the monastery of New Norcia, in Western Australia. His Lordship in 1888 resigned the see of Port Augusta, which is now administered by the Right Rev. Dr. Kelly, Bishop of Geraldton. Dr. Salvado died at Rome in 1900. The Rev. Duncan McNab, who had for years laboured hard among the Queensland blacks, interested himself while at Rome in 1881 in the movement for establishing a mission in the Northern Territory, whither in 1883 three Jesuit Fathers, with one lay brother, left Adelaide for the purpose of civilising and converting the aborigines. They established a station at Rapid Creek on an aboriginal reserve, about seven miles northeast from Palmerston. In 1886 a second mission was established on a Government grant on the Daly River, about 200 miles distant from the former, and three years later a thircl^ mission was begun, about 18 miles away, on the same reserve. In 1891 these three stations were abandoned—the first, because of its being too close to the Chinese and white settlements ; the two on the Daly River in favour of a better site on another part of the same stream, where, through the kindness of the South Australian Government, better land was secured.

CHAPTER VIII.

QUEENSLAND.

As stated in Chapter I., the northern part of this colony was among one of the first places on the continent on which Europeans landed. The east coast was visited, it is believed, by Dutch and Portuguese navigators early in the seventeenth century. Captain Cook, in his voyage northwards in 1770, named Moreton Bay after the Earl of Moreton, President of the Royal Society. He also gave names to the inlets and headlands on the coast as far as Cape York, and at Possession Island he took possession of the eastern coast in the name of King George III.

Matthew Flinders, in 1799, surveyed Moreton and Hervey Bays in the Norfolk, a cutter of 24 tons, supplied by Governor Hunter. In 1801 the English Admiralty sent him out in the Investigator to survey the entire coast of Australia. Leaving Spithead in July, he began his work at Cape Leeuwin, and made charts of the southern coast. Stopping a month in Sydney for supplies and repairs, he proceeded northwards as far as Cape York, carefully mapping out the coast, and making a correct chart of the Great Barrier Reef. He next made a chart of Torres Strait, and of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Finding his vessel in need of overhauling, he went to Timor for repairs and supplies. He then surveyed the west coast, after which he returned to Sydney, being the first to sail round Australia. Lieutenant Philip King, in the Mermaid made a chart of all the eastern shores of Queensland, in 1817.

John Oxley, in 1823, discovered the Brisbane River, and made a hurried survey of it for fifty miles, besides discovering and naming the Bremer, one of its tributaries. The existence of the Brisbane River was known some time before, to two runaway convicts, named Finnegan and Pamphlett, who had been wrecked on the coast. These men Oxley found living among the blacks at the time of his visit, and it is said that Pamphlett guided Oxley up the Brisbane River. He was much struck with the fertility of the country, and on his return to Sydney recommended it as suitable for a convict station. One was formed at Eagle Farm, near Brisbane, in 1824, under Captain Miller, of the 40th Regiment, and he was succeeded next year by Captain Bishop. Captain Logan was commandant of the settlement for the next five years, and his rule was marked by savage cruelty. He was murdered near Ipswich by the blacks in 1830, and some writers have expressed the opinion that some of the convicts were implicated in the murder. In 1839 the convict settlement at Brisbane was broken up.

Allan Cunning-ham, a botanist, discovered the Darling Downs in 1827. These fine pasture lands were soon taken up by squatters, and from that time to the present they have been noted as some of the finest grazing districts of Australia. In 1840, owing to the discovery of a practicable route across the Dividing Range, below Toowoomba, the Darling Downs residents secured a ready outlet for their produce, while, for the same reason, the commercial importance of the settlement at Moreton Bay was also greatly increased.    .

The city of Brisbane was laid out by Governor Gipps in 1841. Two years later the Moreton Bay district became entitled to send elected representatives to the Legislative Council in Sydney, and Captain Wickham was appointed Government Resident in 1853. He held that position till 1859, when the district was separated from New South Wales, and erected into an independent colony, under the name of Queensland. The success of the separation movement was in a great measure due to the exertions of the late Dr. Lang. The first Governor of Queensland was Sir George Bowen.

With the progress of settlement came deadly encounters between the pioneer settlers and the blacks. The story is a sorrowful one, and goes to prove that the Christian white man is sometimes as savage as the heathen black. Stealing sheep and other property was the principal crime of the blacks. They were driven to this, perhaps, by hunger. How were they punished 1 Like dogs—shot or poisoned. Native troopers, who took joy in slaughtering their countrymen, pursued them without mercy. Qn one occasion a tribe, suspected of the murder of a white man, was fired upon while holding a corroboree at night. Those who were not shot were clubbed to death. On another occasion twenty-two were shot by a party of squatters. Again, it was not uncommon to poison the aborigines wholesale when it was desired to rid a run of their presence. Flour mixed with arsenic was once given as a present to the blacks of an out station. All who ate of it died after suffering frightful agonies. It was against such inhuman acts that the Hon. John Hubert Plunkett courageously set the law in motion, and, in spite of much opposition on the part of the friends of the murderers, seven of the latter were hanged.

Explorations.—Ludwig Leichhardt and Kennedy are probably the greatest heroes of Queensland exploration. The former’s expeditions from More ton Bay to Port Essington have already been described. Edmund Kennedy, in 1848, was sent to explore Cape York Peninsula. The party left Sydney in April, and reached Rockingham Bay without mishap.

They found the country most difficult to penetrate— -a dense, tall scrub, matted together with lawyer vines, which blocked them at every step, proving a galling scourge to the explorers. Through this they had to cut their way with saws and hatchets. Provisions running short, eight of his men were left at Weymouth Bay. Kennedy then pushed on with three men and Jacky Jacky, an aboriginal belonging to the Patrick’s Plains tribe, on the Hunter River. Owing to a gun accident one of the men was left behind at Shelburne Bay, in charge of the other two white men. Kennedy and Jacky started for Cape York to get assistance from a schooner which had been sent thither to await the arrival of the explorers. On the way they were attacked by the blacks. The intrepid leader fell from a spear wound. The faithful Jacky mournfully buried his master, secured the journals, and made the best of his way to Cape York, which he reached in a most forlorn state after thirteen days of unheard-of hardships. After attending to the wants of poor Jacky, the captain of the schooner proceeded in all haste to the rescue of the men left at Shelburne Bay, and to the aid of those left at Weymouth Bay. No trace of the former could be found, and only two out of the eight of the latter were living.

Mr. A. C. Gregory, in 1856, started from Cambridge Gulf to explore the centr^ of Australia. Well-watered, good country was first met with, but this was followed by sand ridges, which stopped his advance southwards. He traced the Nicholson and Albert Rivers, and reached within about 150 miles of the tropic of Capricorn. Two years later he went in search of the lost explorer, Leichhardt, but found no certain traces

of him. Messrs. Landsborough, Dalrymple, Favene, Crawford, Lindsay, and the Rev. J. E.

Tenison-Woods have also done good service in the exploration of Central Queensland.

Discovery of Gold.—Gold was discovered on the banks of the Fitzroy in 1858. The new field attracted thousands of diggers, but the precious metal being confined to a small area, the majority of the gold-seekers were disappointed. Having spent their all to reach the field, they had no money to buy provisions or to pay their passage home. There was so much distress that at length the Governments of New South Wales and Victoria sent vessels to convey the unfortunate men back to their homes in the southern colonies. A few remained and settled on the flats of the river, where the town of Rockhampton afterwards sprang up.

The Gympie goldfield, 130 miles from Brisbane, was discovered in 1867 by a man named Nash, who was paid the ¿£1000 Government reward. The Palmer River field, far to the north, attracted gold diggers from all parts of Australia.

Mount Morgan mine, near Rockhampton, has eclipsed all the goldfields of Australia in richness. It originally formed part of a selection 640 acres in extent, belonging to a man named Gordon, who disposed of it to the Morgans (two brothers) for ¿£1 per acre. Soon after this transaction, mining operations were set on foot. It has paid nearly ¿£3,000,000 in dividends, and, as the deposit is of unknown depth, and yields the richest native gold yet found, it is impossible to estimate the value of the mine.

Cotton and Sugar.—The cultivation of the cotton plant was commenced in 1861, but for many years the pursuit was not profitable, owing to the high price of labour. The planters at length determined to employ Polynesian labourers (kanakas or South Sea Islanders) who were imported, and worked for a mere pittance. Soon the industry became more profitable, but abuses, such as kidnapping, grew rife with the island traffic in labour, until it was regulated by Acts of Parliament. Then the scandals in

connection with it were to a great extent done away with. The islanders were satisfied, and often voluntarily re-engaged after having served the first term. Sugargrowing is also a thriving industry in Queensland, and coloured labour principally is employed in its production. The value of the cane grown in 1894 was £611,415.

Catholic .—Father Therry was the first priest who visited Moreton Bay district (1838). Archbishop Polding and the Rev. Dr. Gregory landed in Brisbane in 1843, and celebrated Mass to 130 Catholics. Darling Downs and other districts were visited. The special purpose of His Grace’s visit was to found a settlement for the aborigines in the Moreton Bay district. Tn 1858, the Archbishop, with Archdeacon Rigney, made a tour of seven weeks through the inland districts of the colony, ministering to the few Catholics that were scattered thirty or forty miles apart.

Dean Hanly and Father McGinnety were sent from Sydney, in 1843, to minister to the spiritual wants of Queensland. The former was in charge of Brisbane, the latter of Ipswich. Dean Hanly was the Father Therry of the north. His name is still fondly remembered throughout the district. Many were the difficulties he met with in attending to the duties of his sacred calling. On one occasion he had to swim the river Brisbane, on a sick call.v Afterwards, with the aid of a few settlers, he made a plank bridge across it. With similar help he built a weatherboard dwelling for a poor widow who had lost her husband while clearing their little selection.

First Bishop.—The Rev. James O’Quinn, D.D., was the first Bishop of Queensland. Dr. O’Quinn had previously filled many high positions. As President of the St. Lawrence O’Toole Seminary, Dublin, he had secured for that institution great success.

The bishop, with five priests and six Sisters of Mercy, arrived in Brisbane in 1861. There was little or no accommodation for them, and all had to sufi'er for a time many trials and inconveniences. Hard work in long and laborious visitations, sick calls, preaching, &c., was the portion of the bishop the greater part of his life. His first visitation included Maryborough, the Burnett and Condamine districts, returning to Brisbane via Dalby, Toowoomba, and Ipswich—more than 1000 miles on horseback. In his visits to the various goldfields, he had often to live on damper and sardines.

Dr. O’Quinn’s immigration scheme to Queensland was very successful, and has proved a lasting benefit to the colony. After the famine of of 1847, the Irish were fleeing from their country year by year. His Lordship determined to divert a portion of the stream of emigration from Ireland to Queensland. “ The Queensland Immigration Society” received favourably his proposal to assist industrious and respectable emigrants from Ireland. The first ship, the Erin-go-Bragh (christened Erin-go-Slow by the passengers before the end of their five months’ voyage), contained 400 Irish passengers, selected by the Rev. Patrick Dunne (now Vicar-General at Albury, New South Wales). After leaving the Cape of Good Hope, where they put in for water and fresh provisions, the ship was in danger of foundering, through the action of some wicked person boring an auger hole in her bottom. It was believed to be the work of a bigoted anti-Catholic, because the Orangemen of Liverpool were heard to say that she would never reach the shores of Australia. In three years the brave Father Dunne made six voyages between Queensland and Ireland. He suffered many privations during those voyages, shipwreck on one occasion, but they weie borne cheerfully for faith and fatherland. Six thousand Irish came out under his protection.

Dr. O’Quinn attended the Vatican Council in * 1869, and took an active part in its proceedings, being appointed on two special committees. On his return, in 1871, he was accompanied by Archdeacon Rigney, two priests, and ten Sisters of Mercy for his own diocese.

On two remarkable occasions His Lordship’s coolness and courage were displayed in Brisbane. When the navvies of the Ipswich railway rose and marched to Government House demanding bread or work, he calmed them by a short speech, which induced them to try other means than overawing the authorities for obtaining redress of their grievances. The other occasion was when he became an Orangeman for the time being. On the 9th November, 1874, the Orangemen assembled at Oxley Pocket, near Brisbane, breathing fire and thunder against “ the Pope and Popery.” Dr. O’Quinn joined them, to their great surprise. Mounting a cart, he spoke to them so kindly, charitably, and with such tact that the hisses with which he was at first received were soon turned to cheers.

In 1874 Dr. Vaughan, Coadjutor Archbishop of Sydney, with the Bishops of Bathurst, Maitland, Goulburn, and Armidale, visited Brisbane, to take part in the dedication of St. Stephen’s Cathedral. They were received in a princely manner, and non-Catholics—from the Governor downwards—showed them every mark of respect.

Dr. O’Quinn, like most of the bishops and priests of Australia, had always an eye to the future in the selection of sites for churches and for other church property In no other colony, perhaps, has there been so much valuable church property accumulated as in Queensland. The good Bishop spent every pound he could spare in acquiring it, and by his will he left all to his successor. The Prime Minister of Queensland, a Protestant, gave expression to the

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general feeling of colonists on the death of the great Bishop, in 1881, when he said:—“The Bishop’s death is not only a Roman Catholic loss, but a grievous loss to the whole colony ; there was not in this or any of the colonies a more enlightened or cultured scholar or a more perfect gentleman.”

The Right Rev. Robert Dunne, who had been stationed at Toowoomba for many years, was consecrated by Archbishop Vaughan in St. Stephen’s Cathedral in 1882, and was made Archbishop of Brisbane in 1887. He is a worthy successor of Dr. O’Quinn, and has done much since his appointment in advancing religion and education. The Catholic population of the Archdiocese is fully 60,000, whose spiritual wants are attended to by a staff of zealous priests to the number of 50, while 25 Christian Brothers and 186 Sisters of Mercy provide superior and primary education for the Catholic youth. In regard to charitable institutions, Brisbane occupies a prominent place among the Australian capitals. Among these the chief are (i.) St. Vincent's Orphanage, IS udgee, erected at a cost of ¿022,000. (The site of this noble institution was the gift of the late Bishop Dr. O’Quinn, and is under the management of the Sisters of Mercy, who, to the number of 22 are constantly employed in superintending, teaching, and otherwise caring for their 500 little charges); (n.) the Magdalen Asylum, conducted by the Sisters of Mercy at Lutwyche, about three miles from Brisbane ; (ill.) the Home of Mercy, where young girls are received and trained for domestic service; (iv.) the Night Refuge or Servants’ Home, where young women, temporarily out of employment, may find a safe retreat; and (v.) St. Francis de Sales Printing Office, where boys from the St. Vincent’s Orphanage are taught the printing trade. (Several of the largest printing firms in Queensland are now employing lads who served their anprenticeship at this establishment)

Diocese of Rockhampton.— The Rev. John Cani, an Italian, was consecrated first Bishop of Rockhampton in 1882. This worthy prelate, after about 16 years’ service in the north, succumbed to an attack of dengue fever in 1898, and was succeeded in 1899 by the Right Rev. Dr. Higgins, who laboured with eminent success for six years till he was chosen to fill the vacant bishopric of Ballarat. In December, 1905, the present bishop, the Right Rev. James Duhig, was consecrated in Rockhampton Cathedral. Twenty-seven priests labour at present on the mission, and 152 nuns conduct superior and primary schools, attended by 5000 children in the chief centres of population.

The Right Rev. Dr. Hutchinson was for about ten years Bishop of North Queensland diocese, which has Cooktown for its centre. He was consecrated in Sydney by the Cardinal Archbishop in 1887. His death, which took place about the end of 1897, was deeply mourned. Thirteen fathers were labouring with him. At the time of his death churches and schools had been erected in all the centres of population, and there were convents of the Sisters of Mercy, with well-filled schools, in Cooktown and Cairns. Dr. Murray was chosen by the Holy See to succeed the Right Rev. Dr. Hutchinson. His Lordship is a native of Meath, and was educated at Navan,vin Ireland. Some years ago he came to Australia and officiated at Cooktown and Echuca (in Victoria). He was prior of St. Mary’s Monastery at the latter place when chosen for the Vicariate Apostolic of Cooktown. The diocese contains 15 churches, and over 30 stations; while 10 priests and 18 nuns minister to the religious and educational wants of the 5000 Catholics that now reside in the diocese.

CHAPTER IX.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

The early discoveries on the coasts of Western Australia are given in Chapter I.

In 1825 it was rumoured at Sydney that the French threatened to occupy some part of the western coast of Australia. To prevent this and thereby avoid possible complications in the future, Major Lockyer, with a gang of soldiers and prisoners from Sydney, was sent in 1826 to forestall them. He landed his company of 75 at Albany, on King George’s Sound. Here they engaged in whaling, until five years later tie settlement was transferred to Rockingham Bay, 14 miles south of Fremantle.

In 1828, Captain Stirling, an English commander was sent in the Success to examine the western coast. He spoke so favourably of it, that the Home Government decided to found a colony there. The new settlement was to be conducted without assistance from the Government except in the matter of grants of land. In 1829 Captain Fremantle, who was despatched in the Challenger_ with a few men to do the pioneering work, hoisted the British flag near the mouth of the Swan River, at a spot where the town of Fremantle, called after him, now stands. The same year the colonising expedition arrived from England, and Western Australia was proclaimed a British colony, Captain Stirling* being first governor. Captain Fremantle had made a careful examination of the district near the mouth of the Swan River and found it altogether unfit for the permanent site of the new settlement. But the settlers, under the control of

Captain Stirling, having arrived immediately afterwards, a landing was made on Garden Island, where many hardships were endured for several months, until the present site of the capital, Perth, was at last chosen further up the river.

The Governor and all the chief officials received, in lieu of their salary, grants of land. Every settler who arrived obtained from the Government 40 acres of land for every £3 worth of goods brought him into the colony. As a result, costly and unsuitable articles (eg., valuable jewellery and costly furniture, carriages, pianos, »fee.), were brought to the settlement, and were left, in many cases, on the sea shore to rot owing to the great difficulty experienced in getting goods conveyed to the town. All the settlers became owners of land, but made little use of it. A Mr Peel was an exception. He spent £50,000 in farming and sheepbreeding, but unfortunately his praiseworthy enterprise was not successful, owing to the inferior character of most of the land, and he was reduced to the position of a small settler. Many others fared worse ; they had nothing. The outlook of the little colony was gloomy. Those who could raise sufficient money to pay their passage to Europe did so ; others left for the eastern settlements. Among the latter were the Hentys, who engaged in whaling at Portland Bay. Immigration was stopped, and it was rumoured that the place was to be abandoned ; but instead of taking that extreme step Wesfhrn Australia was, at the urgent request of the inhabitants, turned into a penal settlement by the British Government, and as such it continued from 1849 to 1868. The money spent in maintaining the convicts gave some stimulus to the commerce of the settlement the farming industry especially being benefited thereby.

On the cessation of transportation—which was put a stop to much against the wishes of a large section of the people—depression and discontent again pre-

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vailed, but Governor Weld at length roused the colonists to action and energy by inducing them to depend more upon themselves. Shortly after his arrival, in 1869, he travelled through the settled districts of the colony, and made himself personally acquainted with the requirements of the people. He also entrusted them with a large share in the management of matters of purely local concern, and in this way prepared the colonists for responsible government, extended to them in 1890. During his rule much knowledge of the physical character of the interior and its resources was acquired.

Explorations.—The geographical knowledge of the interior was extended by the labours of Colonel War-burton, and Messrs. Cosse, Giles, and Ross, who are honourably mentioned in the despatches of Governor Weld. Sir (then Captain) George Grey, afterwards Governor of New Zealand, explored the country on the north-west (1837 to 1840). He discovered the Glenelg, flowing into Collier Bay, and Gascoigne, flowing into Shark Bay. In 1840, Edward John Eyre completed a trying journey from Fowler Bay to King George’s Sound, along the Great Australian Bight, and in 1858 Frank Gregory discovered valuable pastoral country in the Gascoigne and Murchison districts.

Mr. (now Sir) John Forrest was sent out to look for some traces of the lost Leichhardt. The search was fruitless.    In 1870 he led an

expedition from Shark Bay to Adelaide, which he succeeded in reaching in five months after starting. None of the difficulties experienced by Eyre, in his memorable journey to King George’s Sound, along the Australian Bight, thirty years previously, were met with. The party kept more inland than Eyre, and thus avoided his desolate and barren route. They crossed many grassy plains, found water at long distances and in .‘(mad quantities. Their description

of the country traversed, was far more hopeful than that given by Eyre of his journey.

In 1871 Mr. Alexander Forrest discovered a con siderable tract of good country eastward of Perth, which was soon taken up for grazing.

The brothers Forrest, in 1874, led an expedition to the north-eastern part of the colony, and explored the Murchison and Gascoigne, which flow into the Indian Ocean. They found the country from Champion Bay to the head of the Murchison well suited for pastoral purposes. Peake, on the overland telegraph line, was reached in less than seven months after leaving Perth.

The transportation of convicts to Western Australia ceased in 1878, and responsible government was introduced in 1890, while Sir W. C. F. Robinson was Governor.

The rich goldfields of Coolgardie, Kalgoorlie, and other places worked since 1894, have turned the eyes of the world on Western Australia, and her prosperity since has advanced by leaps and bounds. Railway communication is being extended into the heart of the colony, and other public works are receiving the attention of the Government. From present appearances the colony bids fair to take the first place in mineral wealth, and at no distant date to equal any of the other colonies in trade and commerce.    v

Catholic.—The Rev. John Brady was appointed to the charge of the mission in Western Australia in 1843, by Archbishop Polding, with the title of Vicar-General. The Rev. John Joostens and an Irish catechist named Patrick O’Rielly accompanied him to Perth. There the missionaries were cordially welcomed by Governor Hutt, who granted them three allotments of land whereon to erect a church, school, and presbytery. The erection of a church, capable

of accommodating 150 persons, was at once commenced. A school was opened which Father Brady himself taught for some time. In 1844 he visited Rome in the interests of his mission. He wanted more priests. He gave a hopeful account of the prospects of the place, andsuggested thatDr. Ullathorne should be appointed bishop, and that there should be a separate mission for the aborigines, whom he described as far superior to those of New South Wales.

Dr. Ullathorne having declined the dignity offered to him of Bishop of Perth, Father Brady was consecrated Bishop on 18th May, 1845, in the Collegiate Church of the Propaganda. The new Bishop visited France and Ireland for missionaries, and succeeded in securing several priests, catechists, and nuns, who arrived in January, 1846, and were welcomed by all classes. Father Powell was the only English-speaking priest among the new arrivals, and he was placed in charge of the cathedral, where his sermons and instructions were very popular. Illness soon compelled him to leave Western Australia, and he became the pioneer priest of North Sydney in 1855. He died in Belgium in 1872.

The central mission to the aborigines, called New Norcia, was entrusted to the Spanish Fathers, Dom Serra as superior and Dom Salvado as his assistant. They had much up-hill work in the mission for many years. They got into debt. Dom Serra went to Europe to collect funds for the carrying on of the great work, and was very successful. While there he was consecrated Bishop of Port Victoria, Northern Territory. It was feared that the sums collected by him for Western Australia might now be applied to the new diocese. Dr. Brady became alarmed as to how the debts on the diocese, amounting to £10,000, were to be paid. After mature consideration, he commissioned Dom Salvado to proceed to Europe to collect funds to pay them.

In the meantime the monetary troubles which beset him were too much for the Bishop. His health gave way. He petitioned the Holy See for a cn adjutor. Dr. Serra was translated from Port Victoria to Perth ; and Dom Salvado was consecrated Bishop of Port Victoria in 1849. Dr. Serra continued bishop until 1859, when he quitted the colony, leaving the Rev. Martin Griver as administrator. The latter was appointed Bishop of Perth in 1869, Bishop Serra having withdrawn to his native land, Spain, where he died in 1886.

Dr. Griver’s character, sketched by one familiar with his daily life, is described as “ patient, pious, and inspired with a most ardent zeal.” In 1881, when he visited Rome, there were 8500 Catholics in his diocese and 1300 children in the Catholic schools, three convents with twenty-five nuns, and two orphanages with 100 children. In New Norcia there were 100 aborigines “ settled in their own homes and buildings, cultivating the land and taking part with the lay brothers in all the details of farm work.” The saintly Bishop died in 1886.

Dr. Matthew Gibney, who had as a priest in Victoria displayed singular bravery during a notorious bushranging disturbance and capture, succeeded Dr. Griver as Bishop of Perth. Under this heroic bishop the building of churches, convents, and schools has been pushed on with great zeal and energy. In 1889 the Bishop, with two Vincentian Fathers, gave a mission throughout every part of the diocese, which occupied ten months, and was attended with the happiest results. In 1890 he established a new native settlement at Beagle Bay under the care of the Trappist Fathers.

Owing to the marvellous growth of the colony’s population consequent upon the gold discoveries, a new episcopal see was established in 1898at Geraldton. This extensive diocese which embraces the Murchison

goldfields has been placed under the charge of the Right Rev. Dr. Kelly, who for many years was an active priest at the Cathedral church at Perth. Dr. Kelly is the second Australian-born priest raised to the Episcopate and the first appointed to any Australian See. The Vicariate of Kimberley is under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Gerald ton, as also, since 1899, is the vacant diocese of Port Victoria, in the Northern Territory.

CHAPTER X.

NEW ZEALAND.

New Zealand, as stated in Chapter I., was discovered and named by Tasman in 1642. He anchored in what he then named Massacre Bay (now known as Golden Bay), where three of his crew were killed by the Maoris in a most treacherous manner. The latter then attempted to attack the ship, but a discharge of cannon frightened them, and they returned to the shore. After this collision with the natives, Tasman coasted along the western shores of the North Island, giving to some of the more prominent headlands the names they still bear.

Captain Cook surveyed the islands in 1770, and sailed through the strait bearing his name, which Tasman believed to be a bay. He also displayed the British colours and took formal possession of the islands at Mercury Bay in the North Island, and at Queen Charlotte Sound in the South Island for his Majesty George III. Cook first landed at Poverty Bay, where unfortunately he came into conflict with the natives. They took the ship to be a gigantic bird, the sails as its wings and the small boats as its unfledged little ones. Cook had more than one conflict with the Maoris, forced upon him by their murderous attacks upon his men at different times during his

stay on the coast. All his efforts to gain their . friendship were without avail. To the last, they were aggressive and bloodthirsty. Some European domestic animals were let loose in the bush by Cook. These multiplied largely, especially the pig. Many vegetable and root seeds were also left with some of

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the tribes, by whom they were carefully cultivated for a time, but at length allowed to degenerate.

French Expedition.—In December 1769 soon after Cook’s visit, the French navigator De Surville in his ship St. Jean Baptiste, anchored at Monganui in the North Island, and held friendly relations with the natives till on their stealing a boat he burnt one of their villages and carried off one of the chiefs. In 1772, two French ships, under the command of Captain Du Fresne, sailed along the coast of the North Island, and anchored in the Bay of Islands. He made friends with the Maoris, and the most kindly feelings were maintained for a month between the visitors and the natives. On one occasion the captain and sixteen of his oflicers went on a fishing excursion with the Maoris, but they were never seen afterwards. The boat’s crew sent ashore to look for them were all massacred but one. Captain Crozet, the second in command, landed a force to attack the natives, numbers of whom were killed. He also burnt two Maori villages.

Cook’s visits to New Zealand in 1773 and 1774 were marked by more bloodshed b&tween his men and the Maoris, who were surprised on one occasion feasting upon some of the sailors they had killed. The great navigator visited New Zealand in 1777 during his third voyage, which had for its object the finding of a passage around the north of the American continent. On the whole Cook spent 327 days on the New Zealand coasts.

Whaling-, Sealing-, and Native Rising’s.—After the settlement of Port Jackson, in 1788, whaling and

sealing by American and English vessels became established industries on the coast of New Zealand. Friendly Maoris bartered pork and potatoes for knives and blankets, tobacco, rum, and other articles. This mutual trade begot better and more friendly relations between the natives and their visitors for many years. But this good understanding was not of long duration. Hostilities were soon renewed, and kept up till 1871. [Summarised, these were—The Boyd Massacre in 1809, when about seventy men, women, and children were put to death in revenge for flogging a Maori sailor ; the tribal wars of 1820 ; the Wuiru Massacres of 1843, caused by Colonel Wakefield (brother of Edward G. Wakefield), of South Australian settlement notoriety, “ jumping ” the land of Rauparaka ; the rising of Honi Held in 1844, through a quarrel with a whaler; the Taranaki War in 1859, arising out of land taken from the Maoris; the Maori Wars of 1860 to 1863; the outbreak of Hau ITau in 1865, inspired by fanaticism ; Te Kooti in 1868 to 1870 ]

First Mission.—The Rev. Samuel Marsden, a Church of England clergyman, of Sydney, formed a mission in 1814 in the northern part of the North Island. He was accompanied by three other clergymen—Messrs. Kendall, King, and Hall—their wives and children, and some mechanics. For 12 axes they bought 200 acres of land on the shore of the Bay of Islands, where they set up a “white flag with a cross and dove.” Adjacent thereto they purchased 13,000 acres for 48 axes, and in a few years they were in possesion of 27 square miles of land at Hokianga and the Bay of Isles. The Rev. Dr. Lang, writing of the mission, describes it as “the most morally worthless” on record.

In 1817, mainly through the representations of Mr. Marsden, four magistrates (one Englishman and three Maori chiefs) were appointed by Governor Macquarie to exercise authority over British subjects in New Zealand, but in connection with this matter the Home Authorities were careful not to allow these magistrates to interfere with the native inhabitants or their territory.

In 1833 Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident at Russell, in the Bay of Islands, where a settlement had grown up from the visits of whaling vessels, and where disturbances had been of frequent occurrence.

In 1839 the New Zealand Land Company, formed in England by Edward Gibbon Wakefield (the originator of the South Australian colonising experiment), sent out an expedition under his brother, Colonel William Wakefield, to purchase land from the Maoris and establish a settlement in New Zealand. A site was chosen at Port Nicholson, and here the British colours were hoisted only two days before Baron de Therry, a Frenchman, arrived for the purpose of taking possession of the land for France. In connection with his land purchases, Colonel Wakefield got into trouble with the Maoris. Captain Hobson arrived from Sydney in 1840 with a proclamation declaring New Zealand a dependency of New South Wales and a commission appointing him LieutenantGovernor of the islands. In this capacity he concluded with the Maori chiefs the Treaty of Waitangi (February 6th, 1840), whereby the whole territory was transferred to the British Crown. Without delay Hobson put a stop to all traffic in land with the natives, and the New Zealand Land Company fouftd themselves in a dilemma. Thousands of people were arriving as fast as ships could bring them to take up the land which they had paid a pound an acre for in England to the company But the company had no lawful title to any land. The difficulty was referred by Governor Hobson to Governor Gipps, in S}rdney, who declared the transaction of Wakefield with the Maoris irregular, but said that if the latter were properly compensated for their land, and twenty acres i-eserved for government purposes, he would allow the company to occupy the land they purchased at Port Nicholson. This offer was gratefully accepted.

In 1841 New Zealand was established a separate Colony quite apart from New South Wales, and Hobson now became Governor of the territory (instead of Lieutenant-Governor as heretofore). Under Governors Fitzroy and Sir George Grey the colony advanced. The latter employed numbers of Maoris, at fair wages, in making roads into the interior, and otherwise dealt fairly with the natives generally. He paid them for their lands, opened schools for the education of their children, and supplied them with farming implements to cultivate the land. He did more. He hanged the white men who murdered them wantonly.

In 1849 Wakefield established settlements in Dunedin, in connection with the Free Church of Scotland, and in 1857 he formed a settlement in Canterbury, under the auspices of the Church of England.

In 1853 a first instalment of constitutional government was conferred on New Zealand, and in 1856 full responsible government was introduced and Wellington was established as the capital of the islands in 1865.

Catholic-—Mr. Thomas Poynton, an Irishman, was the first Catholic settler in New Zealand. He arrived in Sydney in 1822, and went to Hokianga in 1828. His wife made two voyages to Sydney, to have her two children baptised by Father Therry. In 1835 Mr. Poynton himself made a voyage to Sydney, in the hope of securing a priest for New Zealand ; Dr. Polding had too few clergy in Sydney to spare one. The good bishop gave Poynton some books of instruction and devotion, to be distributed amongst the Catholics, with a letter exhorting them to be steadfast in the faith. Poynton made a second voyage for the same purpose, but had to return without the wished-for clergyman. On a third visit he was cheered by the news told him by Dr. Polding, that missionaries were on their way, and might soon be with him.

First Bishop.—Dr. Pompallier, the first Catholic Bishop, arrived at Hokianga in 1838. He had letters from Dr. Polding and Archdeacon McEncroe to the principal Catholic settlers there. The Wesleyan and Church of England missionaries spared no pains to destroy the Catholic mission. They excited the natives by calumnies and misrepresentations, taken from Fox’s “ Book of Martyrs,” to rise against the bishop. The missionaries told the natives that, if the bishop remained, he would take their land from them. A chief, with a number of Maoris in war paint, came up to the Bishop’s house one mornin<r. They demanded of Mr. Poynton to deliver him up to them ; otherwise there would be a general massacre. Poynton pointed out to them that they were the dupes of bad men, who were afraid or ashamed to come themselves. After much parleying, the Maori chief withdrew, on condition that Poynton would accompany him to the headquarters of the Wesleyan missionaries. He did so, and time was gained. The bishop, by his kindness and manly bearing, won over to his side the unfriendly Maoris. The Right Rev. Dr. Polding, with Dr. Gregory, paid a short visit to the mission at Kararika, in the Bay of Islands, in 1840. They were received with joy by the Fathers of the Marist congregation. They mixed freely with the natives in order to show them that the calumny that the Catholic religion wasnotthereligion of Englishmen, was unfounded. Up to 1850, when the Marist Fathers left the diocese of Auckland, ten Maori stations and missions had been established, having over 5000 converts.

In 1848 New Zealand was divided into two dioceses—Auckland and Wellington. Bishop Pompallier remained in charge of Auckland and Bishop Viard of Wellington, which became the political capital of New Zealand in 1865.

In 1850, on his return from a visit to Europe, Bishop Pompallier brought with him from the Convent of Mercy, Carlow, Mother Cecilia Maher and seven sisters of that order. They were received with great joy in Auckland, where their teaching was highly appreciated. In the first year the attendance it their schools increased from 60 to 240 children.

The wars in which the Maoris were engaged in 1860 and for some years after brought ruin to their missions about Auckland, which was a great blow to the aged Bishop. The burden of governing the diocese he at length felt was too much for him. In 1868 he sailed for France, and shortly after resigned. He died in 1870.

The Bight Rev. Thomas William Croke succeeded Dr. Pompallier in 1870. During the four years of his episcopate he freed the church from debt, infused new life and courage into the faithful, added zealous priests to the ranks of the clergy, and opened new schools for the nuns. He resigned the see of Auckland in 1874, and was appointed Archbishop of Cashel on his arrival in Ireland.

In 1879 the Most Rev. Dr. Steins, of the Society of Jesus, with four Benedictine fathers and one Jesuit lay-brother arrived in Auckland. Coming from Calcutta he was delighted with the climate of Auckland, pleased with the flourishing condition of religion and education, and edified by the devotedness of the Irish missionary, the Very Rev. Father McDonald, who had given the best part of his life to the conversion of the Maoris. In 1881 Dr. Stein’s health gave way from over-exertion. He resigned the see and sailed for Sydney, where he was received bv the Jesuit Fathers with the utmost kindness. He died 9th September that year, and was buried at North Sydney, where a suitable monument lias been built over his grave.

The Right Rev. Dr. Luck arrived in Auckland in 188*2 as successor to Dr. Steins. He died there in 1896 and was succeeded by the Right Rev. Dr. Lenihan, the present bishop of Auckland.

Archdiocese of Wellington.—Dr. Viard was first Bishop of Wellington, and coadjutor of Auckland till 1860. He was a man of prayer all his lifelifetime ; but he was a man of action also. In 1866 the good prelate had the joy of dedicating St. Mary’s Cathedral (then completed), which is situated on a hill overlooking the city. In 1868 Bishop Viard visited Rome, and was present at the Vatican Council. He returned to Wellington in 1871, but it was observed that he did not enjoy his usual health. In May, 1872, he was stricken with dropsy of the heart, and he passed away early in the following month. The “general deep sorrow that hung over the people,” as the Wellington Independent said, betokened real grief.

In 1874 the Most Rev. Francis Redwood was appointed to the see of Wellington, which in 1885 was raised to an archbishopric. The special works of His Grace in Wellington have been the building of St. Patrick’s College, for the higher education of young men, and of St. Mary’s Conveniof Mercy, while his fame as a preacher has spread over the whole of Australasia.

Diocese of Christchurch.—The Right Rev. John J. Grimes, of the Society of Mary, was the first bishop of the new diocese, which embraces Westland, and Canterbury, and has a population of about 25,000 Catholics.

Diocese of Dunedin.—In 1840 Bishop Pompallier celebrated Mass in Otago, and remained ten days instructing the natives. TheRightRev. PatrickMoran was appointed first Bishop of Dunedin in 1871. Accompanying him were ten nuns of the Dominican Order, and the Rev. William Coleman. The Bishop was much discouraged on finding the “diocese almost destitute of the necessaries of divine worship, such as altars, vestments, chalice, and other suitable altar ornaments, &c.” Dr. Moran at once issued a pastoral letter, appealing to the people to raise money for three objects, viz. :—“ 1st, to establish a nuns’ school in Dunedin; 2nd, to pay the travelling expenses from Europe of a sufficient number of missionaries; 3rd, to provide decent and suitable requisites for the due celebration of the adorable sacrifice of the Mass.” The people promptly responded to this appeal, and provided the necessary funds for the needs of the diocese. In the course of sixteen years the Cathedra] of St. Joseph was finished, twenty-five new churches erected, seventeen schools established, one college founded, besides which residences were provided for the clergy and for the religious of four convents, and the number of priests was increased ninefold. The amount expended in these works was over ¿£80,000.

The Rev. Monsignor Coleman, who had been Vicar-General of the diocese for a long time, and “ the bishop’s stay and faithful counsellor for many years,” died in 1890. Many tributes were paid to his memory by Dr. Moran and the press of Dunedin. The Right Rev. Dr. Moran died in June, 1895. During his career in Dunedin he wrought a great change in the spiritual life of the diocese, which was realised by his own flock and admitted by the public generally. The Right Rev. Dr. Verdon was chosen by the Holy See as second Bishop of Dunedin, and was consecrated in his own beautiful cathedral by the Cardinal Archbishop of Sydney, in May, 1896

Since then his Lordship has taken up the administration of the diocese with an earnestness that gives promise of the happiest results as far as religion is concerned.

The Catholic population of New Zealand in 1891 was 87,272.

THE AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES.

Like the indigenous lower animals and vegetable productions of Australia, the native man is fast disappearing. The aboriginal population of New South A\ ales at the time of its settlement in 1788 was about one million. In the census of 1871 it was 503,981—a decrease of about 51 per cent. In 1891 the numbers had fallen to 8280, an enormous decrease. The black population of the continent in 1848 was estimated at

3.000. 000. Official statistics set it down in 1891 at

200.000.    At this rate of decrease it is only a question of time when the aborigines of the mainland of Australia will become extinct like those of Tasmania.

Whence Australia was first peopled and by what race of mankind is still matter for doubt or conjecture. Ethnologists are divided in opinion as to whether the aborigines of Australia belong to the Negrito or Papuan family. The evidence in support of their Negrito origin, however, appears to be the stronger.

The blacks of Australia have been underrated, according to Mr. Gideon S. Lang and others whose ample opportunities for studying their character qualify them to speak, and add weight to their opinions. Governors Phillip and Hunter formed a high opinion of them, which was shared by many explorers, from Eyre to Burke, who have often borne testimony to their many good qualities of head and heart. To rank them little better than brutes, and somewhat above the gorilla, as some writers and travellers have done, savours of ignorance or prejudice. They are a conquered race, despised and disparaged—contemned and calumniated by those who wished to justify or palliate the inhumanity shown in the early days towards them. They possess intelligence and other qualities which go to show that they are not so low in the scale of humanity as they are represented. Fifty or sixty years ago numbers of them were employed in the whaling and sealing vessels sent out from Sydney, and they proved themselves good sailors. Many gentlemen about that time manned their yachts with blacks—and capital hands they were. They are good troopers, and in hunting criminals they are unequalled. “ No one,” says Mr. Lang, “ seeing the natives merely as idle, wandering vagabonds among the white men can judge as to what they are in their natural state. In their subtlety as diplomatists, and their skill and activity in war and in the chase, I consider them quite equal to the American Indians. The great weir for catching fish on the Upper Darling, and another described by Morrill, the shipwrecked mariner, who passed so many years amongst them, prove that they are capable of constructing works upon a iarge scale and requiring combined action. Everything they have to do they do in the very best manner, and for every contingency that arises they devise a simple remedy.”

They have the same laws throughout the whole continent, and the government is administered by elderly men. Every tribe is confined to its own district, the boundary of which must not be crossed except at the risk of death.

Some who have written on the subject of their religion are of opinion that the aborigines know nothing of God—indeed, that they are atheists. Others declare that they are strongly impressed with

the idea of a Maker and Ruler of the world, who

made the sun, the trees, and the kangaroo. Bishop Salvado, the Rev. W. Ridley, Canon Gunther, and other clergymen, as well as Count Strzlecki, all assert that the blacks believe in two religious principles— the author of good and the author of evil. There is . no doubt of their belief in imaginary beings, to some of whom they attribute good, and to an evil spirit called Wondon” they attribute all their misfortunes, as well as storms, floods, lightning, whirlwinds, and hail. They believe in the transmigration of souls, and that white people are their dead ancestors returned to life.

What has been done to compensate the aborigines for the loss of their country, for the deprivation of their hunting field and fishing grounds ? Alas, very little. A few camps dedicated to them, and an annual dole of clothing. Under the convenient but pharasaical plea of the “ rights of conquest,” the wrong-doing is attempted to be condoned, and the atrocities inflicted sought to be justified. The laws of morality and religion demanded more Christian treatment in their behalf. Governor Phillip was as kind to them as circumstances permitted, but there was no organisation to succour them when their means of procuring a livelihood were taken from them, or to protect them against the violence of the whites. Governor Macquarie established a settlement at Blacktown (near Richmond, N.S.W.) for those living in that district, and a branch settlement was established at Castle Hill, near Parramatta. Both were under Messrs. Tyerman and Bennett, of the London Missionary Society. After the departure of the Governor, the institutions were closed. Lord John Russell, when Secretary for the Colonies, in 1841, urged upon Governor Gippa to set apart fifteen per cent, of the “ land fund ” for the civilisation and protection of the aborigines. The reply given to the

despatch was, that it would be vain to attempt to change the habits and customs of those savages. Governor Gipps was further urged by Lord Stanley, in 1845, by a despatch, to enlist co-operation amongst the colonists for the civil and religious advancement of the aborigines. A society was formed in Sydney to consider Lord Stanley’s despatch. The members of it came to the conclusion “ that no plans, no systems, availed to ameliorate the condition of the Australians.”

The Churches, including the Catholic, Church of England, Presbyterian, and Wesleyan, made many efforts in the different colonies to instruct and civilise the blacks. Archdeacon Broughton, afterwards Bishop of Sydney, established a mission at Wellington, which was for a time successful. The London Missionary Society formed missions at Lake Macquarie, near Newcastle. The settlements at Blacktown and Castle Hill, already referred to, were in charge of members of the same society.

In 1843 Archbishop Polding, on his return from Europe, brought with him four priests of the Passionist Order, who established a mission for the blacks at Stradbroke Island, Moreton Bay, where they laboured for three years.

In 1866 a community of Benedictine Monks, under the Bight Rev. Dr. Salvado, O.S.B., founded a settlement for the aborigines in New Norcia, Western Australia, where some of the men are taught to cultivate the soil, and others instructed in various trades. The females are taught to knit and cook Miss Nightingale, of Crimean fame, after her voyage to Australia, said of the institution :—“ In no part of this world have they succeeded in educating and civilising the savage races except in the Benedictine Monastery of New Norcia,” while Sir F. Napier Broome, Governor of Western Australia, expressed himself as “ filled with admiration at the good work of

the mission among the Aborigines collected on the station, and at the industry and success displayed on the extensive farms.” The members of the Society of Jesus, under Father A. Strele, began a mission in 1882 at the wish of His Holiness Leo XIII. to the blacks of the Northern Territory. The settlement is on the Daly River, where a large grant of land was given by the Government of South Australia for the missions. Father Strele speaks hopefully of the missionary stations established by him, and says “ that the blacks in the northern parts of Australia are well suited for learning agriculture and the various mechanical arts.”

The Rev. Dr. McNab instructed and baptised many of the blacks in Port Mackay, in Queensland.

The Burragorang Mission, founded by the late Father Dillon, formerly of Balmain (N.S.W.), is still fulfilling all the objects of its founder.

Dr. Lang established missions at Moreton Bay, which were dissolved after some years.

I he Wesleyan Church established a mission in the Port Phillip district (now Victoria) which had well-devised plans for its success, yet failed.

In 1890 His Lordship Dr. Gibney secured a large tract of land from the Government at Beagle Bay, V estern Australia, for a native settlement It is under the Order of La Trappe, whose self-denying labours are producing the happiest results among the aborigines. The Mission is now (1898) in a flourishing condition, and Father Ambroso, the Abbott, says they are beginning to reap in joy what they sowed in tears.

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1

See Barton’s History of New S ,utb Wales, from the Records, Vol. I., p. 61.