Victorian Children’s Aid Society
Sold to Aid Funds for the Victorian Children’s
Aid Society Home
THE VICTORIAN HOME, LEONARD STREET, PARKVILLE
The object of the Society is to assist neglected or destitute children. Over 3,000 have passed through the 1 ionic, many of whom have been adopted or settled in foster-homes in the country. The central position of our Home enables us to take urgent cases from the Courts, City and Central Missions and other authorities, and the police often bring us children who have strayed or who have been found with a drunken mother or in otherwise undesirable circumstances. We also take care of families of children temporarily during a mother’s illness.
The Society is undenominational, and has no Government grant, and depends on voluntary donations and subscriptions for its support. The children often come to us very weak and badly nourished, but with careful diet and Matron’s skilled and personal care they soon become rosy and strong. A high standard of health is attained in the Home, where special attention is given to physical defects. From the beginning the Society rmphasised the value of home influence and personal interest, and this has always been a notable feature of its work. The experts of the Psychiatric Department at the University, who highly appreciate this factor, frequently send us difficult children whose home conditions are detrimental to nervous stability, and Matron has great success with them. The Repatriation Department on occasion sends us children who have no homes.
We have our own school and kindergarten, for which the Education Department supplies teachers. The children attend Church and Sunday School. To widen the children’s interests and afford them scope for normal social life, they are encouraged to join the Brownies and Girl Guides, whilst the elder girls attend Domestic Science Classes.
Recreation plays a great part in training of these children, and they share in many parties, picnics and outings arranged by members of the Committee. Some friends kindly gave us a cottage at Frankston, where we take the children and staff for the Summer holidays.
BY A P POI NT M ENT
PHONE M 3461
TO LATE KING GEORGE V
üWanufactnnnq 3J citi dl era & JsHItoeremitlie
3 3 8 COLLINS STREET mElbou RNE C. 1
CINCE the proper course when a serious accident occurs is to send . for a doctor, the folio wring section does not deal with those situations which, obviously, call for skilled medical attention. It does, however, tell you what to do when time permits, and where the wound or hurt is not of a particularly serious nature.
Similarly, the serious ailments and diseases to which man is heir have not been discussed. But lesser, troublesome, little worries of life are dealt with in detail. If you are in doubt as to whether to send for a doctor or not, read what this section has to tell you. and then decide for yourself.
Read, first, the advice given under the headings of Poisons. An antidote is a substance used to neutralise or counteract the effects ®f a poison. It may act by converting the poison into a harmless substance, as, when chalk is given as an antidote for oil of vitriol, it forms with the latter insoluble sulphate of lime. The tannic acid in strong tea has the same effect on morphine and other alkaloids. Coffee acts as an antidote in opium poisoning by combating the narcotic action of the latter.
The principal poisons and their antidotes are: Sulphuric acid foil of vitriol), hydrochloric acid (spirits of salts), nitric acid (aqua fortis), and oxalic acid (salt of sorrel or lemon). Use magnesia, chalk, whiting, or plaster from the wall or ceiling—one or two tablespoonfuls ground and mixed with water. For all the foregoing except oxalic acid, bicarbonate of soda, or weak washing soda solution, or weak ammonia is effective.
Washing soda, caustic soda, caustic potash (pearl ash), ammonia (spirits of hartshorn): Use any acids, such as vinegar, lemon or lime juice in water—two or three tablespoonfuls to a small glass.
For carbolic acid and creosote, use Epsom salts.
Corrosive sublimate (perchloride of mercury): Use the white of an egg.
Phosphorus (match heads, rat or rabbit poison): Oil of turpentine, copper sulphate (bluestone).
Iodine: A weak solution of washing soda or starch.
Arsenic (rat poison, weed-killer, fruit tree sprays): Dialysed-iron, two tablespoonfuls in half a glass of water, or calcined magnesia freely mixed with water.
Antimony (tartar emetic, antimonial wine): Strong, warm tea
Sugar of lead: Epsom salts.
Copper (bluestone, copper sulphate, Bordeaux mixture, verdigris): White of egg.
Poisonous fungi: Atropine, given by a doctor.
Hydrocyanic or prussic acid, cherry laurel water, oil of bitter-almonds, cyanide of potassium: If unconscious, inhalation of ammonia: otherwise, spirits of sal volatile freely.
Opium (laudanum, morphia, paregoric, chlorodyne, Dover’s powder, soothing syrups): A small pinch of permanganate of potash (Condy's crystals), thoroughly dissolved, in half a tumbler of
warm water. Strong coiiee, by the mouth; or half a pint given as an enema. Strong, warm tea.
Deadly nightshade, belladonna (atropine, liniment of belladonna), hyoscyamus (henbane), black nightshade, woody nightshade (bittersweet): Strong, warm tea.
Alcohol: Hot, strong coffee; sal volatile.
Cocaine, ether, chloroform, chloral, nitrobenzene (spirit of mirbane), phenacetin, antipyrine, exalgen, antifebrin, headache powders: Stimulants, whisky or brandy; hot, strong coffee, sal volatile.
Strychnine (nux vomica, Easton's syrup): btrong, warm tea.
Digitalis (foxglove), aconite (monkshood, wolfsbane), tobacco: Sal volatile; strong, warm tea.
If the animal is obviously healthy, wash the wound with warm water or an antiseptic lotion and apply an antiseptic dressing. Ii the animal is likely to have rabies, arrest the circulation. If the bite is in a limb, apply a tourniquet to the upper arm or thigh, as the case may be. If a finger, grasp at once round the base. A tourniquet is made by loosely placing a folded handkerchief, bandage or piece of cloth round the limb, thrusting a small stick through the loop, and twisting till circulation is stopped. If there is need to stop bleeding, obtain a small stone, about as big as a pigeon egg, or some similar hard object, place it in the centre of a folded hand-age or piece of cloth and put in position over the main artery. Then proceed as for tourniquet, seeing that the stone is in the desired position as the twitch pulls the bandage into the flesh.
In the case of a suspected rabid animal, it might be necessary to suck the wound to encourage bleeding. Then wash with warm water or antiseptic lotion. There is no danger in sucking the wound unless there is a sore or broken surface in the mouth. Keep the patient warm, and give stimulants if necessary. Send for a doctor as soon as possible.
Antiseptics are necessary in rendering first-aid and in dealing with suppurating or dirty wounds. Much is accomplished if the person who handles the wound cleanses his hands thoroughly with soap and water, washes the wround with clean water which has been boiled and covers the wound with a clean bit of linen; but the use of an antiseptic is necessary as well to prevent the entry of microbes, which would produce putrefaction. Care must be taken to distinguish between an antiseptic and a disinfectant—the former kills germs, and a disinfectant covers or destroys disagreeable smells. For instance, carbolic acid, if used in sufficient
strength and for a sufficient length of time, will disinfect, but when used as an antiseptic it must be used as a much weaker solution or it will injure or destroy the body tissues. Some of the commonest antiseptics are:—
Perchloride of mercury (corrosive sublimate) and biniodide of mercury: Solutions, in water, at a strength of one in 2,000 for
wounds, or one in 10,000 as an eye lotion. These preparations
are extremely poisonous, and are coloured by chemists to prevent them being taken in mistake for water. Corrosive sublimate should not be brou^M into contact with metal instruments, as it destroys them.
Carbolic acid (phenol): In water, one part to 20, 40 or 60. In mixing, the water should be hot.
Tincture of iodine: This can be painted on in undilated form, the sharp smarting, when applied to broken skin, quickly passing off.
Potassium permanganate: Dissolve sufficient crystals in water to produce a light, port wine tint. When wounds or ulcers are foul-smelling, this is very effective.
Hydrogen peroxide solution: Diluted with five parts of water, this makes a good mouth-wash, and is used for pyorrhoea.
Boracic acid: Dissolve as much in hot water as the latter will take up. Pour off the clear liquid after cooling. This will serve as a lotion, gargle or mouth wash. For an eye wash, dilute with five parts of water. Boracic powder may also be dusted over wounds.
Iodoform: A yellow powder with a somewhat disagreeable smell. As a dusting powder it may be mixed with four parts of boracic acid powder.
There are also inany reliable proprietary antiseptics.
Pugatives of a mild nature are known as aperients or laxatives. Generally their effect is to produce one or two soft motions. The most commonly used aperients and the doses are:—
Aromatic syrup of cascara, J to 2 drachms. This form of cascara will appeal to children. A half-teaspoonful is sufficient for a child 8-10 years of age.
Liquid extract of cascara sagrada: i to 1 drachm.
Dry extract of cascara sagrada: 2 to 8 grains, in pills or tablets.
Castor oil: 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls. This is the best aperient during pregnancy. It should be taken in doses of one teaspoonful. Repeat if necessary. The taste may be concealed by adding an equa) quantity of glycerine and some lemon juice.
Compound liquorice powder: 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls.
Syrup of figs: 1 teaspoonful for children.
Liquid paraffin: 1 teaspoonful to 1 tablespoonful.
Olive oil: 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls.
Tamar indien lozenges: One, less or more, as required. These are an excellent aperient for old people.
The more active purgatives—senna, rhubarb, aloes, Epsom salts, etc.—act as aperients if taken in small doses.
The ankle joint is continually being subjected to considerable or sudden strain, and is frequently sprained. This is a tearing of the ligaments. Bleeding results, and is responsible for the discoloration which ensues, while the ankle swells and becomes hot and painful. Elevate the injured foot on a pillow, while cloths, wrung out in cold water, should be applied in the first instance. This will limit bleeding and afford ea- 9. Later on, hot fomentation or bran poultices may be used if they are preferred to a flannel bandage, applied firmly and evenly over the naked foot.
When the patient is able to get about again and the pain has lessened, the part should be massaged, and, as the swelling subsides, gentle movements should be undertaken. These should be begun without putting the foot to the ground. After-treatment of this kind is necessary if stiffness of the joint is to be avoided. In a serious sprain some of the bones may be displaced, and then the injury calls for the use of splints and the advice of a doctor.
This is necessary in the case of semi-drowning or electric shock. Ascertain that the nose and mouth are clear—watch for artificial teeth—and loosen tight clothing about the neck and chest. Remove water from lungs by placing arms under stomach with patient facing the ground, and lift up and down, shaking vigorously. Then lay face downwards, head to one side and arms forward/ Kneel alongside, patient with arms straight; count slowly 1, 2, 3. keeping hands in level with the hips, and hands on lower ribs. The thumbs should be parallel and near the spine. Stoop forward, pressing dow n on the position. Then spring back to release pressure. Count slowly 1. 2. Repeat till natural breathing is established. Then, but not before, coffee or weak spirits may be given, the limbs chafed and hot-water bottles applied to the feet and body.
Thinning hair may be due to several causes. The baldness of old age is due to wasting of the hair bulbs, just as other parts of the body waste with advancing years. Little can be done to check or prevent this type of baldness, but anything that increases the flow of blood through the scalp helps the nutrition of the hair. Thus vigorous massage, brushing and the application of a mild irritant, such as lotions containing ammonia, alcohol or cantharidin, are helpful to a degree.
Premature baldness is far more common among men than women. Usually this is caused by a bacterial disease of the hair roots known as seborr (scurf), which may appear at 14 or 15 years of age. If the hair falls at an early age and no disease can be detected, it will invariably be found that the trouble is hereditary.
Temporary loss of hair is exceedingly common. Many people lose a considerable quantity during the Summer, but it soon returns. Occasionally anxiety or shock may cause the hair to fall for a time, but in most cases it returns when the nervous system has recovered.
When baldness is due to dandruff, it is necessary to first attack and cure that condition. (See Dandruff.) Then, to encourage the growth of hair after the scalp has been cleansed, apply the following stimulating lotion: Strong solution of ammonia, \ oz.; chloroform, £ oz.; oil of sesame, J oz.; oil of lemon, \ oz.; spirit of rosemary, 2 ozs.
This lotion should be rubbed into the hair night and morning, remembering that the massage of the scalp which accompanies its application is an important part of the cure. Sometimes an iron tonic is helpful in promoting the growth of hair. Two Blaud’s pills thrice daily or a liquid preparation of iron might be tried.
The treatment of bee stings and wasp stings is identical. The reason why the sting is painful is that the insect injects into the skin a small quantity of formic acid. There are on record a number of cases where bee or wasp stings have caused death in less than half an hour. Why is by no means clearly understood. It is believed, however, that such cases of serious stinging are due to peculiarities, either of the insect—such a» .Tie production of a special poison due to disease—or the person bitten. Shock may be a greater contributing cause than the bite.
The first thing to do is get rid of the sting. Scrape it out or manipulate it so that the poison bag on the base is not squeezed and more poison injected into the patient’s body. Then apply t weak solution of ammonia or soda in order to neutralise the acid in the poison injected.
When the sting is near the eye, mouth or ear passage, ammonia must not be used. Afterwards some antiseptic lotion containing carbolic acid or any other convenient antiseptic should be applied, or the part may be painted with tincture of iodine. This last precaution is taken to minimise the risk of infection by germs, such as frequently does occur as a secondary consequence of being stung by a wasp or a bee. For the same reason bleeding should be encouraged rather than the reverse, as poison may be got rid of in this way. Deliberate stinging with bees is a form of treatment which appears to have been successful in giving relief from chronic rheumatism.
Blisters on the feet caused by continuous walking may often be prevented if the boots chosen are well-fitting. They should be roomy enough not to pinch the feet, but not too big, or the movement of the foot inside the boot may cause blistering. Care should be taken that the socks are not creased, and it will be an advantage if the insides of these are dry-rubbed with soap or dusted with boracic acid or some other smooth powder. The skin may be hardened by bathing the feet with a weak solution of permanganate ol potash or methylated spirit.
When blisters of any size form, either from pressure or from burns, the contents should be let out. The best way to do this is to thread a long needle with a white thread and boil it for 10 minutes. The needle should then be passed through the top layers of skin a short distance from the blister and carried on through it, a short length of thread being left at either side. This will enable the blister to drain, and will not leave the raw surface which results if th5? blister bursts. A needle can be sterilised for pricking a small blister by passing it two or three times through a spirit-lamp flame.
A boil is a local inflammation of the skin due to attacks by certain microbes. In general, microbes will not cause a boil unless the power of resistance of the skin has been weakened. The causes of such weakening may be general. Thus, boils frequently occur in the course of chronic disease—for example, diabetes and Bright’s disease—and during convalescence from various fevers. The cause may also be local, the resistance of the skin being weakened by continual irritation or friction. The commonest site of boils in healthy people is the nape of the neck, which, as a rule, has been irritated by a rough collar.
Small boils are usually allowed to follow their course, though boils about the nose or the ear should at once be shown to a doctor. Large boils on any part of the body may be exceedingly painful, and they require surgical treatment. In every case it is desirable to apply some antiseptic ointment—one, for instance, containing 60 grains of boracic acid in one ounce of vaseline—to the skin around the boil, otherwise this is almost certain to become infected, and so one crop of boils will succeed another. Another method is to apply a piece of adhesive plaster with a circular opening over the point of the boil.
The occurrence of boils over the whole body demands tonic treatment and change of air, and must not be regarded as merely a disease of the skin. Children may be benefited by chemical food.
Carefulty remove clothing from the injured part, unless it sticks to the skin, when it must be cut around with scissors. Do not break any blisters present. Immediately exclude the air by placing the injured part in a solution of warm water and baking soda. A dessertspoonful of baking soda to a pint of water will make a soothing lotion and will serve to soak off any adherent clothing. It should
always^ be used as a first step in the treatment if it is available. Keep the part in this solution, or treat it by applying strips of lint or cloths soaked in the baking soda solution until a doctor can be obtained, if the seriousness of the injury justifies medical aid being summoned. If only home treatment is called for, bicarbonate of soda is a good remedy when made into a thick paste with a little water and spread on thickly. Another good home remedy is to place the part in a solution of strong tea or to cover with "a thick layer of tea leaves. The tannic acid in the tea has a most soothing effect.
A blow anywhere on the surface of the body may cause extensive haemorrhage beneath the skin without breaking it—a ‘‘black e>e being an example. The injury is accompanied by discolouration and swelling. The changes in colour which a bruise undergoes are due to the changes in the red-colouring matter of the blood as it is gradually absorbed and removed. The blue-black becomes brown and then green and yellow. Treatment consists in the application of cold and pressure at first and massage afterwards. The cold and pressure are of value only at the very first, before the bleeding inside the bruised tissues has stopped. If quickly applied they will often arrest the bleeding and thus limit the extent and duration of the bruise.
Pressure may be made through cloths wrung out in cold—possibly iced—water and changed frequently. In the case of a black eye, care should be taken not to press on the eyeball, but on the skin around it which has bone immediately beneath. Afterwards gentle but firm massage is useful, aiding in the removal of the blood and the waste products produced by the injury. Vaseline will facilitate rubbing. At this stage bathing in hot water may relieve pain and reduce swelling. When the swelling has gone down, the disappearance of the discoloration may be hastened by applying compresses wrung out of a lotion composed of one part surgical spirit to four parts of water. Then cover with gutta-percha tissue. Tincture of arnica has long enjoyed an undeserved reputation in the treatment of bruises. Any value it has is due to the alcohol it contains. Moreover, it is a dangerous remedy if the skin is broken.
A foul breath may be due to decaying teeth, constipation, indigestion, alcoholism or enlarged tonsils, with decaying matter in ¿he small cavities or crypts on their surfaces. In a form of chronic catarrh of the nose, known as ozonea, the breath has a very offensive odour, though the patient is himself quite unconscious of it. Mouth washes and scented pastilles may cover a bad breath, but will not cure it. The cause should be determined, and a remedy found, if possible.
Young people and children with poorly-developed chests should be subjected to a thorough and prolonged course of breathing exercises. If the opportunity is lost the ribs become rigid and much less improvement can be hoped for. When there is definite blocking of the nose from adenoids or from any other cause, the obstruction should be removed by operation before beginning the exercises.
All breathing exercises should be done either in the open air or before an open window. Another important thing is that the breathing should be done through the nose and not the mouth. In performing the exercises, after a deep inward breath it is an advantage to hold the breath for about ten seconds before breathing out. If the exercises are done standing, the body should be held erect, though not in a stiff, strained attitude, and the shoul-
exercises. Each may be done five to ten times or more if desired:
(1) While standing erect, with the arms hanging by the sides, breathe in deeply, hold the breath, and then breathe out.
(2) This time, while breathing in, raise the arms from the sides above the head, and lower while breathing out.
(3) Repeat No. 2, but raise the arms in front.
(4) As in No. 1, but with the hands pressing on the lower parts of the ribs at the sides. After a few days the exercise is done with the hands about the middle of the side of the chest, and a few days later on the upper ribs.
(5) Stand erect, with the arms above the head; take a long breath, stoop forward slowly as far as possible, and breathe out while doing so. Rise again slowly, at the same time breathing in deeply.
(6) Assume a sitting posture, with the legs stretched out in front and the knees slightly bent and turned outwards. With the arms held above the head and the fingers clasped, take a deep inspiration, then stoop forward, slowly, as far as possible between the legs, bringing the hands to the lap, breathing out while doing so. Again, while breathing in, raise the body, with the arms above the head. This exercise can be varied in the following way: While stooping forward take a deep breath, but so that the abdominal wall is pushed forward as far as possible—this means that the ribs are moved as little as possible—then breathe out slowly, and repeat several times.
Breathing exercises are of value not only to the lungs—they improve the work of the heart and the viscera.
A carbuncle is a very painful and often dangerous affection, which really is a compound or multiple boil. (See Boils.) They usually occur in more elderly people than those most likely to be afflicted with boils. The treatment of a carbuncle must be prompt and energetic. It must be freely lanced to expose the core, which may then be treated with pure carbolic acid (phenol) or some other strong antiseptic. Afterwards, antiseptic fomentations may be used to assist the separation of the core.
In addition to these measures, the strength of the patient must be maintained by a generous diet and tonics, such as Easton’s syrup, m teaspoonful doses thrice daily. The bowels must be freely opened. Flowers of sulphur—20 grains, given with marmalade—or sulphur lozenges may be given three times daily, as sulphur seems to be beneficial.
When the skin becomes red and painful, perhaps red, through the rubbing together of two skin surfaces, it is said to be chafed. This may also be caused by tight clothing. Common sites are the armpits and the inside of the top of the thigh. In both these instances the decomposition of sweat is, doubtless, somewhat to blame. Scrupulous cleanliness will do much to prevent and cure this condition. The parts should be washed daily with soap and water, while dusting powders, zinc ointment or cold cream may be helpful.
Chapping is due to a lack of healthy elasticity of the skin, induced bv its exposure to cold. The effect of cold is to prevent
much blood circulating through the skin, and so the skin becomes ary. Then stretching causes it to crack. It should be remembered mat the worst thing for chapped hands is to leave them improperly dry after washing. This is by far the commonest cause oi c.iaps. moi e particularly when the hands are dried at the fire.
hv /¿l aYoid hard ™?ter if P°ssit»le; if not, soften it
by the addition of a little washing soda or borax. The towels
should be perfectly dry, and it may be found advantageous to nave a small bowl of bran on the washstand, in which the hands may be rubbed to dry them off. Some people find that rubbing lanoiine into the hands is useful in cold weather. Others use glycerine and rose water. Should chaps form, they should be protected from contamination the same as any other wound to prevent them becoming septic. They may be painted over with collodion or “ new skin, or anointed with boracic ointment and covered with clean cotton bandages or clean cotton gloves.
Chapped lips may be prevented by using a lip salve or rubbing on lanolme, cold cream or a little vaseline before going out into the cold. When they form, often they are aggravated bv frequent moistening of the lips or by biting the lips or picking at them. They should be treated with an application of boracic ointment at night. Deep sores on the lips should not be allowed to peisist they may lead to ugly scarring or worse.
^ ^ Chilblains aie due to injured tissue owing to excessive cold. Chilblains may be prevented by wearing warm clothes and stockings, by taking regular exercises of a vigorous kind, such as brisk walking or skating, and by daily rubbing of the parts likely to be affected. Boots and gloves should be perfectly easy. It is better not to use a hot-water bottle in bed at night; but if one is used, it should not be brought near to the feet. People who are prone to develop chilblains may derive benefit from taking cod-liver oil or cod-liver oil and malt during the cold weather.
When the first symptoms of chilblains are noticed, the part should be painted with strong tincture of iodine, and lactate of calcium may be taken in doses of 15 grains (five grains for a child) three times daily. The taste of this drug may be covered by taking with it as many drops of liquid extract of liquorice. Should the parts still remain hot and irritable, zinc ointment, or an ointment of ichthyol—30 per cent., in soft paraffin—may be applied on lint. If the chilblains break, the ichthyol ointment may be continued, or the following may be used: Birch tar, 1 drachm; zinc oxide powder, 2£ drachms: soft paraffin, 5 drachms. A lotion composed of equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and warm water makes an excellent wash for the sores, especially if they are suppurating.
Should an obstruction lodge in the throat while eating, it is possible than the blockage will result in the collapse of the patient. Pass the finger or the handle of a spoon along the inside of the cheek to the back of the throat and hook the foreign body forward. If the teeth are clenched, place the handle of a spoon between the back teeth and turn on its edge. Slap smartly between the shoulders. When the obstruction has been removed, should breathing have ceased, employ artificial respiration. (See Artificial Respiration.)
Constipation is due to failure of the bowels to open regularly, and, usually, is due to lack of exercise or a wrong diet. It follows, then, that the rational means of treating constipation is by
ci change in the diet so that it includes those indigestible substances which are contained in the diet of natural man. For instance, the substitution of wholemeal bread for ordinary white bread may make the desired difference, owing to the presence of bran in the former.
Other desirable foods include fruit in general—notably, figs, raw apples and prunes—vegetables, especially those that have a large residue, such as cabbage and tomatoes; honey and marmalade, treacle and porridge. Many people might, with advantage, undertake a course of vegetarianism.
Equally important is it that an attempt should be made to form a regular daily habit at a constant hour. Abdominal massage is undoubtedly helpful in restoring the tone of the bowel. A useful aid in improving the abdominal muscles is to bend the thighs up and down for a few minutes every morning in bed before getting up.
It should be remembered that drugs are a last resource, and full reliance should never be placed in them alone. Many drugs tend to make the bowels lazy after a time, and so constipation becomes habitual. Drugs taken should constitute a tonic for the muscular wall of the bowel, so that, by improving its health, it is able to do its own work without artificial assistance.
Aloes has long been popular, and is more widely used than is generally known, since it is present in many patent medicines. The same may be said of nux vomica, which contains a valuable tonic in a percentage of strychnine. Better than either of these, however, in the majority of cases, is cascara sagrada. It can conveniently be taken in the form of capsules, tablets or pills. The liquid preparations have an intensely bitter taste, although they may be disguised by flavouring agents. Properly used and accompanied by other measures, cascara is a means of curing—as distinguished from removing—the symptoms of chronic constipation. It may be given in small doses three or four times a day, or in a single dose at bedtime.
Usually excessively large doses are taken, and the best results are not obtained. They should be just sufficient to produce one natural movement of the bowels a day. An adult might begin with two grains of the dry drug in pills or tablets, or 20 drops of the liquid extract thrice daily; or four grains or half a dram respectively may be taken of either one at bedtime. It may be necessary to either increase or diminish the dose until the correct quantity has been discovered. This should be continued for about a fortnight, and then should gradually be reduced until, in about two months' time, it may be discontinued altogether.
The habitual use of Epsom salts is decidedly not good treatment, while it seems that pregnant women do best on a teaspoonful of castor oil at bedtime. In the case of children, regular training is again the best remedy. Constipation in infants often is due to a deficiency of sugar or fat in their diet, and an increased allowance of either of these might be tried. Fat may be given in the form of fresh cream, a teaspoonful once or twice a day. If a child strain very much, a small enema of soap and water or a glvcerine or soap suppository is better than opening medicine When constipation becomes habitual, however, cascara is again the best remedy. The initial dose might be five drops of the liquid extract in simple syrup, or twice this quantity of the aromatic syrup of cascara, once or twice daily. Olive oil, £ to 2 teaspoonfuls. according to age, and given last thing at night, is often successful in children.
A corn is a thickened layer of skin, due to overgrowth brought about bv pressure. The thickened skin in itself is quite insensitive. and the pain of a corn is due to the increased pressure which
the thickened outer skin transmits to the sensitive tissues beneath. This pressure, in addition to causing pain, brings an increased supply of blood to the tissues, thus causing them to produce more of the thick outer skin than ever. This means that a corn will grow more quickly the less frequently it is pared. The paring of a corn has in itself no action tending to make the corn grow, provided it be done carefully and is not carried out too deeply.
The obvious means to prevent corns is to have the footwear sufficiently roomy, but not so much so that the foot can move about inside and cause rubbing. If there are ridges, creases or lumps in boots or shoes, they should be removed by a skoemaker. The proper way in which to dispose of a corn is. first of all, to pare it down and then paint it night and morning with some such substance as salicylic collodium or collodium collosum. Afterwards, in addition to wearing proper boots, pressure may be taken off the site of the corn by means of a corn plaster, which is a pad with a hole in the middle. If this is done the whole corn will disappear and remain away as long as the cause which originally produced it is not allowed to arise again.
There are so many causes of coughs that no general treatment can be recommended. A cough may indicate tuberculosis of the lungs, or it may be caused simply because excessive wax is exerting pressure in the ear. Coughs usually associated with colds and sore throats, however, may be relieved. Very often a cough will cease if the air that the patient breathes is made warmer and moister than usual. A cough associated with an inflammation of the larynx may be treated by the inhalation of steam. Hot water, near to boiling point, may be used to produce the steam, and Friar’s balsam should be added. A cough ma^ yield to glycerine or liquorice pastilles or lozenges which contain menthol. Again, it may be relieved by gargling with a pinch of common salt or alum in half a glass of water. Coughing often is due to excessive cigarette smoking, and ceases when cigarettes are given up or much reduced.
A cough in elderly people may be due to a slight defect in the circulation through the lungs, caused by weakness of the heart. It will fail to respond to a host of remedies so long as attention is not directed to the cause of the trouble. As soon as a heart tonic is administered the cough will disappear. The application of poultices, mustard plasters or other counter-irritants to the lungs is another method of relieving cough due to chest affections.
There are hosts of cough mixtures in existence—everyone knows something that will prove beneficial. It is always necessary to know the cause of a cough before taking a cough mixture. A Winter cough, however, may be treated with a tablespoonful of the following every four hours, in a wineglass of water: Ammonium chloride, 120 grains; compound tincture of camphor, 4 drachms; liquid extract of liquorice, 2 drachms; glycerine. 4 drachms; chloroform water, to six ounces.
Cramp is an involuntary contraction of spasm of a muscular tissue in any part of the body. The commonest form of cramp is that which occurs in the calf of the leg, particularly when one is asleep in bed. The pain can almost always be relieved very quickly if the proper measures are taken. As a general rule, the muscle will relax if the part of the body is so bent that the muscle has not to be on the stretch, for it is the stretched muscle that is the most irritated muscle. Therefore, the first thing to do when assailed with cramp in the calf of the leg is to forcibly bend the knee up to its utmost, so the the muscles are relaxed as far as possible. When this has been done, rub the part vigorously, more
in an upward than a downward direction. Cramp in the foot will, more than likely, cease to hurt if the toes arc bent down as much as possible. Cramp sometimes occurs in muscles that are not sufficiently nourished with blood. They are very common in the legs of bloodless girls at night. In this case treatment should aim at increasing the quantity of blood going to the limbs. This can be done by getting out of bed and standing up, not forgetting to keep the feet warm. Should someone be at hand to obtain it, a flat iron or cold plate, applied to the sole of the foot, will relieve pain or cramp in leg or foot. Then massage.
Dandruff or scurf consists of an accumulation of dead matter, once living cells, which has been cast off from the surface of the scalp. It is a symptom of a defect in the health of the scalp, and, when continued over a period of years, the hair gradually becomes thinner and thinner. The best remedy appears to be sulphur. This can be applied in several ways. It may be used in a sulphur soap, made by a reputable maker, and the scalp may be washed with it two or three times a week. Instead, an ointment may be used: the following being a good example: Precipitated sulphur, 30 grains; salicylic acid, 10 grains; soft paraffin, 1 ounce. This must be rubbed into the roots of the hair as thoroughly as possible with the tips of the fingers. In order to thoroughly cover the scalp it has been suggested that a quarter of the area should be effectively covered each day, and the head washed on the fifth day. The ointment is then resumed and the routine followed for as long as is necessary. Those who object to a greasy preparation should ask their chemist for one of the collodial preparations of sulphur which are sold for the purpose.
' Another excellent hair tonic, particularly suitable for people With dry, brittle hair, is made from ordinary liquid paraffin (not paraffin oil or kerosene used in lamps), 70 per cent; pure methylated spirits, 25 per cent.; cantharides, 2 per cent.; eau de Cologne or any other suitable perfumed preparation, 3 per cent. If this is rubbed into the scalp once a fortnight dandruff is never likely to appear. (See Baldness.)
When diarrhoea is due to something indigestible having been taken, it is best treated by giving about an ounce of castor oil, to which have been added a few drops of tincture of opium or laudanum The castor oil removes the irritating substance and the opium soothes the angry bowel. Warmth of the stomach not only eases any pain but tends to diminish the diarrhoea. Another means of doing this is to rest in bed, or lie down as much as possible. If looseness of the bowels persists, after the irritating sub* stance has been cleared away, doses of salicylate of bismuth, 10 grains: of chalk mixture, h to 1 ounce; or of vegetable astringents, like catechu cr kino, may be given every three hours. After an attack of diarrhoea the diet should be light for a few days. Milk ~V.'?rn<rid whhe fish, sweetbreads or chicken jelly are all suitable foedsturí¿ Stringy meat or vegetables and fruit skins must be avoided.
Pain in the ear may be due to the pressure of foreign bodies (see Wax in Ear) or to inflammation. Children with earache should have medical attention, as prompt treatment might check what otherwise might be a serious matter. Earache is due sometimes to the presence of decay in the back teeth. Treatment depends on the cause, but hot applications—a hot-water bag or hot bread poultice wrapped in cloth—are useful in affording temporary
reiiei Roast some common salt on a shovel, put it in a small flannel bag and apply to the ear.
An emetic is a substance which causes vomiting. One must be used to empty the stomach as quickly as possible when poison has been taken—corrosive poisons excepted (see Poisons)—or when first symptoms of food poisoning appear. The handiest emetics aie common salt, two tablespoonfuls in sufficient water to dissolve it, and mustard, a tablespoonful in half a tumbler of water. If these tail, :t probably will be found that the tickling of the back of the throat with a feather or thrusting the finger down the thioat will have the desired effect. When vomiting begins it should be encouraged by giving large draughts of tepid water. This will prove a further benefit by washing out the stomach.
A severe electric shock causes the person to cry out. Usually he falls to the ground and may stop breathing. If still in contact with a live wire, the current should be turned off. If it is not possible to do this at once, contact must be broken, but great care is necessary in accomplishing this. The rescuer should stand on a rubber surface, use rubber gloves (tobacco pouches, motor tubes, bath mat or hot-water bottle) or dry woollen clothing. A dry stick, if at hand, may be used to push the wire off the body. It must be dry though, as wet material conducts electricity very readily.
If the patient has stopped breathing artificial respiration should be carried out. Possibly the patient has been killed, but a decision of this nature should be left to a doctor, who should be summoned with all speed.
If a foreign body—an insect or speck of dirt, cinder, etc.— gets into the eye the worst possible thing to do is rub it. The eye should be kept closed while the nostril on the same side is blown briskly. This promotes a rapid flow of tears into the inner corner of the eye, and possibly the foreign body will be washed out with them. If this is not successful, the eyelid should be lifted by grasping the lashes at their roots, together with the loose skin in which they are embedded. If this reveals the object, lift it off with the corner of a piece of blotting paper or handkerchief. Do not rub it off, as the eye may be injured in the process. Try, also, placing the face in a basin of cold water and opening and shutting the eye frequently. A drop of castor oil is very soothing to the eye after the removal of any foreign substance.
The immediate cause of fainting is a momentary failure of the blood supply to the brain. Usually the things that bring this about are pain, fright or other mental shocks, a close, oppressive atmosphere, cold or hunger. These operate by depressing the heart’s action.
In view of the cause, an obvious essential treatment is to keep the head low. It may suffice to press down the head between the knees, but it is better that the patient should be lying down. On no account should an attempt be made to bring him to a sitting posture. A free supply of air should be obtained by keeping the crowd back—in a hot meeting place the coolest air is at the floor. Tight clothing about the neck or chest should be loosened. If smelling salts are available the patient should be given the opportunity of inhaling them. A sip of water might be given if the patient is able to swallow, or, better still, weak spirits or sal volatile.
Summon a doctor at once. Meanwhile, place the child or patient in a warm bath and apply cold cloths to head. If the patient is an adult keep him lying down, with the head raised slightly. Make no attempt to restrain movement, unless very violent. Place a stick or handle of tooth-brush between the back teeth to prevent the tongue being severely bitten. Loosen tight clothing about the neck and chest, and, on return to normal, allow to sleep for two or three hours.
A disagreeable amount of air or other gas in the stomach is known as flatulence. Usually the air is swallowed with food, through gulping the latter down hastily. Sips of hot water may relieve flatulence, but most drugs which are used for the purpose owe their efficiency to a fungent, volatile oil they contain. Peppermint, ginger, dill, anise and others belong to this class. Intestinal flatulence is apt to follow certain foods—beans, for example.
A fomentation is applied to relieve pain and inflammation. The fabric used is generally flannel, and it should be large enough to cover the area to be treated after having been folded double. The flannel should be placed in a basin of boiling water, and, when it has been thoroughly soaked, it is taken out and wrung almost dry. The best way to accomplish this is to put the material between the iolds of a towel which has had the two ends knotted. A couple of sticks may then be thrust through, one on each side of the hot flannel, and the two twisted in opposite directions. The fomentation is then taken out, covered with a piece of thin waterproof material, and applied. The fomentation should be as hot as can be borne, but care should be taken not to scald the patient. If continued heat is necessary, a new fomentation may be needed every 20 minutes, or a poultice may be substituted. (See Poultice.)
Food poisoning, often incorrectly called ptomaine poisoning, may be due to metallic poisons—copper, tin or lead—from containers or cooking utensils. Most cases, however, are due to the activities of bacilli. The poisons produced by the bacilli may remain active after the food has been raised to* boiling point, and may be present in either fresh or canned food. Symptoms manifest themselves suddenly, and shortly after food has been eaten. There is vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, cramps in the limbs and some fever. When the living bacilli have been swallowed, however, symptoms do not begin until about twelve hours or longer after the infected food has been eaten.
Vomiting and diarrhoea are usually sufficiently severe to clear the bowel, but it will be helpful to aid the cleansing by giving largo draughts of tepid water, and, if the bowels are not acting freely, a dose of salts or castor oil. The patient must be kept Ivjng down and be kept warm. Stimulants, also, may be needed. Pain and cramps should be treated by hot applications.
It must be borne in mind that food capable of causing poisoning is rarely offensive or tainted.
Gout is caused by uric acid accumulating in the blood and tissues. The tendency to gout is often inherited, and may be transmitted through females who show no signs of the disease themselves. Other causes are an excessive consumption of rich food*, wines, liquors, etc. Prior to an attack there may be irritate
bility of temper and dyspepsia. Then, suddenly, in the small hours of the morning a joint—usually the ball of the right big toe in a first attack—is seized with excruciating pain and becomes swollen and hot. It may ease off after a few hours, but recurs on succeeding nights, and then may disappear for a year. When it returns attacks will be more frequent. The painful joint should be treated by heat in some form—cold applications are uangerous. Water or gruel containing potassium bicarbonate should be drunk freely. On the night of the attack it is a good idea 10 take, say, three or four grains of calomel, and follow this with a dose of Epsom salts in the morning. The diet should be restricted to milk and barley water for the next few meals. Thereafter, only simple food should be taken, and excesses of all kinds should be avoided.
A gumboil is nothing more or less than an abscess caused by a faulty tooth. It should be opened as soon as possible or an ugly scar may be left on the surface of the cheek by the pus or matter burrowing through. While the abscess is discharging the mouth should be kept clean by the frequent use of a mouth-wash. 'See Mouth-Wash.) Hydrogen peroxide solution—a dessertspoonful to two tablespoonfuls of warm water—or warm water in which a spoonful or two of table salt has been dissolved, are as good as anything. After the gumboil has subsided a dentist should be instructed to attend to the offending tooth.
Headache is merely a symptom of something wrong with some part of the body. It cannot be treated properly unless its cause or causes can be determined. It may denote change of life, eye-s+rnin. fever, indigestion, sick headache (migrane), neuralgia, or teeth troubles. Immediate relief may be obtained by putting cold cloths on the forehead, or by putting a mustard plaster on the nape of the neck. These are only temporary measures, however, and if the headache persists a doctor should be consulted. If there is indigestion or constipation a simple purge may remedy the trouble.
Hiccoughs can usually be cured by such simple expedients as holding the breath as long as possible, drinking from the far side of a glass while leaning forward and holding the breath: holding the arms above the head until tired, putting a pinch of salt on the back of the tongue, or by a dose of bicarbonate of soda. If these remedies do not have the desired effect a doctor should be consulted, as persistent hiccough is sometimes a symptom of Encephalitis letharargica.
The acute form is indicated by a hot, reddened and painful swelling, the pain being increased by movement of the joint. Treatment consists of rest and hot fomentations. If the joint becomes distended with fluid the part should be painted with strong tincture of iodine and an elastic bandage used. If the fluid persists, it may be necessary to withdraw it. This calls for the services of a medical practitioner.
When discomfort follows a meal of any kind it is natural that the trouble should be ascribed to indigestion or dyspepsia. Indigestion, however, is a sympton, not a disease, and may be due to causes outside the stomach. It may be said, however, that if a person has too few teeth—bad teeth—chews his food insufficiently, is in the tabit of taking too much food, or food that is too rich; if he takes too much condiment or alcohol, uses too much tobacco, suffers from chronic constipation or takes too little exercise, it is possible that by correcting these faults he will cure his indigestion.
The form of indigestion commonly called dyspepsia or heartburn may be relieved by taking a quarter-teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) in half a glass of water before meals. If the first symptoms become apparent after a meal, try a level teaspoo'nful in half a glass of water.
The first essential in influenza is that the patient be got to bed. There should be just a sufficiency of bedclothes, and the room should be well ventilated. For this purpose it is best to have a window always open. Remember, the more widely it is opened the less draught. If the draught plays on the bed, place a screen to break it.
Diet should be light, the main item being milk. This may be diluted with hot water, barley water or soda water. Two pints or more of milk should be taken in twenty-four hours. One or two of the meals may be replaced by beef tea or meat extract. Water should be taken freely. Aspirin, in 10-grain doses, is useful for relieving muscular pains and headache. This, or quinine, may be given at intervals to combat the toxaemia of the disease. The patient ceases to be infectious after the temperature has become normal.
To avoid contracting the disease, keep in the open air as much as possible, avoid closed rooms, trams or trains. It may help to lessen the risk if the throat is gargled and the nose sprayed with a weak solution of permanganate of potash twice daily. In addition, take ammoniated tincture of quinine, three-quarters of <i drachm (a small teaspoonful), three or four times daily. If this does not ward off the disease it will, more than likely, lessen its severity.
Often intense pain may be caused by an insect entering the ear passage. Before attempting to use a syringe, try filling the ear with water and holding the head on one side. The insect will, naturally, try to force its way upwards—that is. toward the surface of the water. A little warm olive oil mav be used instead of water.
Sleeplessness or insomnia may be caused by bodily disorders, and the trouble should be ascertained and treated. It may also be due to a close or overheated bedroom, too many or too few bedclothes, cold feet, an overloaded stomach, too little food, taking tea or coffee too near bedtime, excitement, or—most common of all causes—worry. The removal or avoidance of any such influence will probably be effective. In any case, a single bad night is not of much consequence, and usually is followed by particularly sound slumber the following night.. If worry is to blame, a frank discussion of the trouble with a friend may help, or it might be possible to move to some place where fresh interests will occupy the mind. When mental trouble is not apparent, help rrvay be found in psycho-therapy. A hot bath before retiring often ensures sleep, while taking a brisk walk before bedtime and keeping the bowels open are also helpful
itcnmg may be due to many skin diseases—eczema, gout, chronic constipation, jaundice, etc.—or may be caused by an insect bite or the wearing of wool or flannel. As itching is often worse at night, it may be due to excessive heat. Stokers and cooks are prone to it for this reason. First, endeavour to determine the cause and remove it. General itching may be relieved by dissolving six ounces of washing soda or eight to twelve ounces of bicarbonate of sodium in a baTh of about thirty gallons, or the body may be sponged with a lotion of bicarbonate of sodium, a heaped teaspoonful to a quart of water; or carbolic acid lotion, one part in eighty, may be obtained at the chemist’s and used with good results.
There are lotions for various purposes. An evaporating lotion is used for cooling certain parts of the body. For a headache it may be used on the brow, or it may be comforting for a sprained joint. A tablespoonful of vinegar in half a pint of water, or one part of eau de Cologne to two parts of water makes a lotion suitable for this purpose. An eye lotion, for bathing any kind of sore or inflamed eyes, may be made by dissolving as much bor-acic acid as can be taken up by a small quantity of hot water, and then adding as much water again.
It is customary to use spoons and other domestic utensils as measures for drugs when they are being given to a patient. The capacity of those most commonly used is as follows:—
One teaspoonful .................... 1 drachm
One dessertspoonful ................ 2 drachms
One tablespoonful .................. h ounce
One wineglassful ................... 2 ounces
One teacupful ...................... 5 ounces
One breakfastcupful ................ 10 ouncts
One tumblerful .................... 10 ounces
It should be borne in mind, however, that the capacity of such things varies considerably, so when accuracy is needed a nroper graduated glass must be used to measure out a dose.
Moles are a variety of birth-mark. Sometimes they are covered with hair. Actually a mole is nothing more than a tumour formation in the skin, consisting of cells containing pigment. A mole may take on a malignant character in later life, particularly if it has been irritated by much rubbing. When feasible, it may be desirable to get rid of moles, but this should be done by a doctor. Unskilled treatment might precipitate malignancy.
Bites and stings of insects may produce itching, pain and swelling, and there is always the added danger of septic poisoning. The latter, together with infection of disease, however, is more liable to occur in the tropics. The best treatment for bites is the application of ammonia, or, failing this, of solutions of permanganate of potash, bicarbonate of soda or common salt. Pain may be relieved by rubbing with a menthol cone or by an evaporating lotion. (See Lotions.) Insect bites may be preventec oy smearing the skin with ointments or lotions containing carbolic acid, kerosene, cinnamon oil, clove oil, etc., or with a bitter infusion, such as an infusion of quassia.
, ■Ihc cleanliness of the mouth depends, ordinarily, on the teeth and the use of food requiring thorough mastication, crisp fruit, such as apples, being especially valuable for the purpose. The use of a tooth-brush, also, is necessary.
Nevertheless, it may sometimes be necessary to use a mouthwash of some kind. When it is desired merely to relieve a dry, sticky feeling, a pinch of common salt, sodium bicarbonate or borax, or a combination of each, in half a glass of water will suf-lice. When the breath is foul, a solution of permanganate of potash, enough of the latter to make the solution red, is useful. It may be necessary to gargle with this also. Hydrogen peroxide, diluted with three parts of water to one of peroxide, makes a good wash.
Mustard is much used as a counter irritant, but the effect sought from it should be restricted to reddening of the skin as the blisters and subsequent ulcers are difficult to heal. The way of applying it is as a mustard paper or mustard plaster. This is done by taking a tablespoonful of mustard or more, according to the surface to be covered, and making it into a thin paste with cold water. This is spread thinly on a piece of brown paper and covered with a layer of muslin or other thin fabric. It is left on for ten to twenty minutes, or until it has reddened the skin as desired. For children the mustard should be mixed with as much or more flour. When the plaster has been removed the skin should be washed and dried gently. If this is not done severe effects of the application may result.
When making a mustard poultice a paste should be made as above, and then mixed with the poultice formed by adding boiling water to linseed.
A hot bath, containing an ounce of mustard to the gallon, is a common remedy for checking a cold or relieving painful menstruation.
The immediate treatment of neuralgia consists of hot or cold applications, and, if necessary, giving aspirin or some similar drug. Counter irritation by a mustard plaster may be tried (see Mustard Plaster), but the application should not be made over the painful part, but at some little distance from it. There may, however, be a local or constitutional cause. The extraction of a bad tooth, for example, or the provision of spectacles may work a cure, or, on the other hand, a course of iron in anaemia may be beneficial.
In adults the dream described as a nightmare is usually due to a heavy meal taken late at night, especially if indigestible foods, such as lobster, cucumber, or something of the sort have been included. Those who have suffered from any terrifying
experience may have such dreams, however, apart from any exciting cause.
Similar causes may operate in the case of children, but in them adenoids, intestinal worms or febrile disorders are frequently try are especially liable to such dreams. In such children overfound to be responsible. Children who have a neurotic ances-pressure at school may be sufficient to cause nightmares.
Place the patient in a sitting position in a current of air before an open window, with the head thrown slightly back and the hands raised above the head. Undo all tight clothing around the neck and chest. Apply a cold cloth or piece of ice wrapped in cloth over the nose, and also on the spine at the level of the collar. Place the feet in hot water. Cause the patient to keep the mouth open, and so avoid breathing through the nose. On no account blow the nose. If the bleeding continues the nostril from which it comes may be plugged with a long, narrow strip of lint or gauze.
Excessive stoutness may run in families, or even in races. Jews, Hindus and negroes are especially prone to obesity. It may result, however, from the consumption of too much food, particularly of carbohydrates, the more so when an insufficiency of open-air exercises is taken to help burn up the carbohydrates.
Ordinarily, the treatment of obesity consists of a controlled diet and more exercise. The changes required are for the carbohydrates—particularly sugars and starches—to be cut down to a minimum, to avoid very fat flesh foods, and to restrict the total quantity by food consumed. An example of a strict diet is that recommended by William Banting—a man so stout that he had to go downstairs backwards. Banting was advised to eliminate from his diet bread, milk, butter, potatoes and sugar, all of which he previously had taken in liberal quantities. In their place he was advised to take lean meat and fish, any vegetable but potatoes. tea without milk or sugar, a little fruit and a little wine. Banting is said to have lost more than forty pounds in a few months, and to have improved remarkably in health. At the same time, the diet has been criticised on the ground that it throws too severe a strain on the kidneys, most of the food taken being very rich in protein. Below is the diet found successful by Banting. and regarded as typical of most other successful systems:—
Breakfast: Four ounces of beef, mutton, kidneys, boiled fish or any cold meat, except pork; a large cup of plain tea, and a little biscuit or an ounce of toast.
Dinner: Five to six ounces of any lean meat, fish, poultry or game; any vegetable, except potatoes; an ounce of dry toast, some fruit out of a pudding, and two glasses of sherry, claret or Madeira.
Tea: Two to three ounces of fruit, a rusk or two and a cup of plain tea.
Supper: Three to four ounces of meat or fish, as at dinner, and a glass or two of claret.
Probably the only improvement that can be suggested on this diet to-day is the substitution of some other drink for the wine. It. must be stressed, however, that a diet of this kind should be undertaken only under medical observance. (See Exercises.)
Pimples and blackheads are common ailments of the skin and usually arise from the same cause. They are most common in young people between the ages of 15 and 25. Their association with the age of puberty is due to the fact that at this time there is an increase in the development and activity of the glands. The oil glands of the skin share in this, and, as a result, the skin may become greasy and of sallow tint. Later on firm plugs form in orifices of these glands and the result is blackheads. Then inflammation takes place round the blocked pores end pimples Hnnear . •
People with dark., greasy skins should be very thorough in their ablutions. Night and morning the face should be washed with very hot water and a superfatted soap. Plenty of lather should be produced and rubbed vigorously into the skin all over. In drying, the skin should be rubbed briskly with the towel. If blackheads are present, cover the face after washing with a hot towel, wrung out in water as hot as can be borne. An attempt then should be made to squeeze out as many blackheads as possible. General fitness should be aimed at by a sufficiency of sleep and open-air exercise. If little abscesses form on the face, the matter should be let out, but care should be taken to use only a sterilised needle or other instrument. If the eruptions are serious, a doctor should be consulted.
Some poisons destroy tissues with which they come in contact and are known as corrosives. Such poisons cause an immediate burning pain in the mouth, throat and stomach; also vomiting and, perhaps, purging. Among the corrosive poisons are oil of vitriol, strong ammonia, corrosive sublimate, formalin, oxalic acid, spirits of salts, etc. If the poison is a corrosive, ON NO ACCOUNT SHOULD AN EMETIC BE GIVEN, as vomiting might cause perforation of the stomach.
In all other cases, if the patient can swallow, an effort should be made to empty the stomach. To this end, use an emetic. (See Emetics.) In the case of corrosive poisons, a suitable remedy is given under the heading Antidotes. A strong infusion of tea is usually a good thing to give, as, not only does it stimulate, but the tannic acid which it contains is an antidote for alkaloids, the active principle of most vegetable poisons and for some metals.
A prolonged application of moist heat is best obtained by the use of a poultice. This is generally made with linseed. The materials required are one or two pounds of linseed, a large bowl, a blunt-edged knife, boiling water, a piece of calico, and a piece of thin mackintosh (waterproof or lunch wrapper or even brown paper, will do at a pinch).
The bowl is warmed and a sufficient quantity of boiling water for the size of the poultice is poured in. An adult will require about three-quarters of a pint. Linseed is then added slowly, being stirred constantly with the knife, previously dipped in boiling water, until the mass has the consistency of thick porridge. The poultice is then emptied out on to the calico and quickly spread, leaving a margin of an inch, which is then turned over the poultice. Test against the cheek or forearm to prevent scalding. then apply and cover with the mackintosh. Sometimes a layer of cotton wool is put over this. Such a poultice should retain its heat for many hours.
Hot weather rash is known as prickly heat. Heavy food, especially in large meals, alcohol and iced drinks are prone to provoke an outbreak. Flannel underwear may also be a provoking factor. If a rash appears the flannel should be changed for cellular cotton. Soothing lotions, details of which are given under the heading, Itching, will prove beneficial. Rubbing the body over after the morning bath with soft paraffin is a useful preventative for those who are subject to this annoying complaint.
When a sea journey is contemplated an attempt should be made to correct any dyspepsia or constipation that exists. A tight binder over the whole abdomen is helpful. A person who >m>-
prehen^ive of being sick should sit in a low deck chair, either facing, cr with the back to, the bow of the ship. For preference the chair should be on the deck, but in a sheltered position. In cold weather the body should be kept warm wdth wraps, although it may be an advantage to have the breeze playing upon the face. A safer position still is to lie down, preferably on the right side, with the knees brought well up towards the body. If sickness ensues ice may be sucked, or, if there is much depression, relief may be obtained by sipping iced champagne.
If going on only a short trip do not over-eat before setting out It is a good idea to go aboard with the stomach fairly empty. On no account should lollies, cakes, soft drinks, ’ etc., be taken* either just before or after the boat leaves. Some people find fatty foods especially liable to bring on sea sickness. A safe rule is to eat only plain, wholesome food. Often the richness or strangeness of the meals eaten is a much bigger factor in causing sea sickness than is commonly realised. It has been claimed by some who have tried it that a little dry toast, dipped in Worcestershire sauce and eaten when the first symptoms are experienced, will stave off an attack.
A good shampoo for healthy hair consists of the yolk of an egg beaten up with a breakfastcupful of tepid water. This is thoroughly rubbed into the hair and scalp. The head is then douched repeatedly with warm water.
Snoring in children is generally due to adenoids, which prevent sleeping with the mouth shut. A doctor is necessary to correct this trouble. The more usual kind of snoring can generally be relieved by turning the patient on his side or by pushing forward the lower jaw, and with it the base of the tongue.
Sleep walking may be described as an enacted dream. It occurs most frequently in children. A person who is subject to sleep walking should have someone sleeping in the same room. If this is not possible, the door should be locked or fastened with a chain, and the window should be protected. A simple expedient that sometimes succeeds is to have a piece of linoleum by the bedside. Contact with its cold surface may be sufficient to awaken the sleeper when he steps on it.
For local sweating—in the armpits, hands or feet—the best thing to do is to wash the parts frequently, bathe with weak solutions of permanganate of potassium and dust over with a powder containing zinc oxide and salicylic acid, or the following: Boracic acid, 60 grains; zinc oxide, 120 grains; powdered starch, to 1 ounce.
Should inflammation from sunburn be pronounced, calamine lotion or zinc ointment may be applied. A simple home remedy is to cover the parts with a paste made of bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) and water. Immediately upon application a cooling sensation will be experienced. When the moisture from the paste has been absorbed the fire of the burn will have disappeared, and the danger of blistering will have been lessened. Application of the paste as soon after burning as possible is advisable.
The immediate treatment for sunstroke is to take the patient into'the shade or the coolest spot available. The clothing should be stripped from the trunk, and the body and head should be soused with cold water. As soon as possible he should be taken home or to a doctor, where an effort will be made to lower the temperature by rubbing him over with ice, or giving an iced pack, or, possibly, an iced enema. As a stimulant in heat prostration, a teaspoonful of sal volatile in a wineglass of water, hot tea or coffee, or diluted spirits may be given.
When a finger or thumb-nail has been struck a violent blow cr been jambed, it becomes dark purple or black. This is due to the effusion of blood beneath the nail, and it is possible that the latter will be detached from its bed. If there is severe pain • doctor may be called to allow the escape of blood. In his absence a safety razor blade may be employed to cut a nick through the nail and permit the blood to escape. This will do much to relieve the throbbing. Afterwards use an antiseptic dressing.
Splinters, thorns, or other sharp objects run under the nail, may necessitate the nail being split. When the object has been removed apply an antiseptic to prevent germ infection.
The nail of the great toe is most often affected. An overtight boot is the most common cause, as this forces the edge of the nail into the adjoining skin. This causes inflammation, the unhealthy part sometimes becoming covered with proud flesh. A square-toed boot should be worn to give the toes more room. The corner of the ingrowing nail should not be snipped off, as this leaves a sharp corner behind. Instead, a small piece of cotton wool, covered with boracic acid powder may be pressed up under the nail along the offending edge. It will be possible to push this up further every day, and thus the edge of the nail will be raised up. It may be necessary, however, to cut away half, or even the whole, of the nail, and possibly diseased skin also.
A curious overgrowth, forming what is called a claw or ram’s horn nail, sometimes occurs, almost always on the great toenail. The nail may be softened by prolonged soaking and the projections trimmed off, but to effect a cure the nail must be removed and the nail bed and matrix cauterised. This, of course, calls for the services of a surgeon.
It must be pointed out that once a tooth has ached it should be submitted to a dentist for filling or removal. It is almost certain to be decayed, and a decayed tooth in the mouth is a menace to the health, the poison secreted by it often entering the system and provoking serious consequences. Until a dentist can be visited the cavity may be plugged with a small piece of cotton wool soaked in oil of cloves. Then warmth should be applied to the jaw. A dose of opening medicine may be given with advantage.
The treatment of vomiting depends on the cause. In many cases this will have to be directed at something entirely different from the vomiting itself, which is purely incidental and relatively unimportant. When the cause is irritating food or something of the kind, it is desirable to give large draughts of tepid water. This washes out the stomach and makes the act of vomiting less distressing.
Sips of hot water may check vomiting, though sometimes sips of iced soda water are more successful. In persistent vomiting sips of iced champagne often prove beneficial when other remedies have failed. Counter irritation over the pit of the stomach by applying a mustard plaster is another useful measure in some instances. A convenient remedy may be found in a single drop of iodine in a tablespoonful of water, the dose to be repeated every fifteen minutes, for five or six doses.
The common wart occurs most frequently in children, the favourite sites being the back of the hand and the fold between the fingers and the knuckles, but warts may also be found on the face, the sole of the foot and elsewhere. Naturally, warts are yellowish in colour, but frequently they are black or brown from ingrained dirt. This happens when the surface of the wart is roughened.
The common wart is contagious, and warts on the hand may infect other parts of the body. A recent wart may be treated with ordinary corn plaster or by painting on collodium callosum daily for some time. Older warts are best treated by applying glacial acetic acid daily for a short time. This can be done with the end of a match. If the skin surrounding the wart becomes inflamed, the treatment should be interrupted for a day or two. Some warts are easily got rid of by painting every night for three weeks with either castor oil or the juice of a lemon. Stick to either one or the other and do not neglect to carry out the treatment daily.
An accumulation of wax in the ear may cause itching, irritation, cough, dizziness or deafness. Sometimes, when the water has entered and caused the plug to swell, the symptoms may come on very suddenly. Do not attempt to dig out the wax with a hairpin for fear of injuring the drum. First, drop in some warm almond or olive oil, and, after waiting half an hour or so, a cautious attempt may be made to dislodge the wax by syringing. If this fails, it is safer to put in more oil, and, after some hours, syringe again.
Septic inflammation of a finger or thumb—caused by a prick from a thorn or something similar—is described as a whitlow. Prompt and skilful treatment is required. Frequently a whitlow is poulticed with the idea of causing the swelling to break, but it must be remembered that serious injury to the joints may follow unskilful treatment. There is always the danger of septicaemia occurring, qnd this may easily prove fatal. Therefore, it is dangerous to Continue poulticing a whitlow for some days without consulting a doctor.
As a clot of blood is Nature’s method of stopping bleeding, it should never be disturbed when it forms over the wound. A blood clot serves the double purpose of keeping the blood in and germs out. It is very easy to introduce germs into a wound unless the hands are perfectly clean. If they cannot be sterilised by rubbing them with methylated spirits or other disinfectant, they should at least be thoroughly cleaned with soap and water. Germs may also be introduced by washing the part with water, and thus washing dirt into the wound, or by the application of sticking plaster or ointment.
If the wound is obviously dirty, and surgical aid cannot be obtained at once, wash away as much dirt as possible by gently
pouring sterilised water over it freely, notwithstanding that wounds heal best if kem dry. Never wash the surrounding parts towards a wound.
Apply tincture of iodine all over the wound and the surrounding skin, and cover with a clean, dry, soft and absorbent dressing, such as sterile lint or gauze, a perfectly clean handkerchief or piece of linen. Clean, unprinted paper, such as the inside of an envelope, may be used in an emergency. Cover the dressing with a pad of wool or lint, and apply a bandage firmly over the pad. If it is suspected that glass, steel or other foreign bodies are still in the wound, bandage very lightly and obtain medical aid.
There are various kinds of worms with which humans become infected. The threadworm is most commonly found in children, and may cause restlessness, loss of appetite and colicky pains. The children affected may suffer from night terrors and sometimes from convulsions. The worms may readily be seen by inspecting the motions. They resemble tiny pieces of wriggling white thread.
To get rid of them an enema may be given twice a week for a few weeks. It may consist of a solution of common salt, a tablespoonful to the half-pint. A young child should receive about six ounces, and older ones up to three-quarters of a pint. The anus should be washed on rising from bed and after the bowels have moved, and should be smeared with an ointment consisting of equal parts soft paraffin and white precipitate ointment. The bowels should be kept moving regularly, and, to ensure this, doses of liquid paraffin may be given if necessary.
Nowadays cars and other means of travelling are frequently so conveniently close at hand that walking, which has been rightly considered an art, has, unfortunately, almost become a lost art.
The most natural exercise, not only to the legs, but to practically the whole body, is given by walking. The muscles of the body serve two purposes. They enable us to move about, and thev have the most important function of regulating the so-called metabolism, on the one hand converting the food into flesh and blood, and on the other the excretion of waste material and poisons. They also regulate our temperature, and may indeed be called the engines of our body.
When walking, the muscles of the back and of the abdomen, which play a most important part in our digestive system, are used as well as the legs. Also the activity of the heart and lungs is powerfully stimulated. Walking clears the body and brain by absorbing superfluous fat and the reserves of food stored in the liver and elsewhere. The blood courses more quickly through the body and brain, and the body draws on its reserves. The appetite is healthily increased by walking, and as the digestion is improved the skin is made clear and healthy.
All exercises for reducing purposes should be performed, if possible, under the supervision of an expert, to guard against over-strain or the incorrect use of muscles. The following exercises, however., are simple and straightforward enough to be performed carefully at home: (1) Lie flat on the back, with the hands clasped under the back of the head. Raise the legs to a vertical position, and then, keeping the knees straight, lower them as slowly as possible to the floor. This exercise strengthens the abdominal muscles. If it is found difficult to perform this exercise, begin by raising and lowering one leg at a time. (2) Stand upright, with feet comfortably placed a little distance apart, and raise the hands straight above the head. Without bending the knees, bend the body forward and touch the ground with the hands if possible, or bring the tips of the fingers as near to the ground as possible. (3) Stand upright, with hands or. hips. Rise on the toes and then bend the knees slowly. Remain for a few seconds with the knees bent, keeping the body as straight as possible, then rise on the toes again, and finally complete the exercise by lowering the heels to the ground.
The following exercises should reduce the figure above the waistline: (a) Stand erect, bring the arm up sideways smartly above the head, with the palms outwards. Bring the arm down behind, at the same time twisting the body sideways as far as it will go without moving the legs, (b) Kneel on one knee, bend backwards as far as possible. While still kneeling, clasp the hands behind the head and describe a circle with the body from the waist.
The following old-fashioned toilet water is excellent for whitening hands and arms: One drachm of camphor, five drachms of milk of sulphur, six ounces of rosewater. The camphor must be added to the rosewater, then the milk of sulphur added, and the preparation be well shaken. Let it stand for four days, with occasional shaking, and before using it the bottle must always be shaken, too, as the ingredients are insoluble. The lotion should not be used on the complexion.
A skin whitener can be made as follows: Into a pint-sized bottle or jar, which has a tight screw top, dissolve in water half a cup of ordinary rolled oats. After the water has become a thick milky colour, add the juice of a lemon and stir it well in. Leave the lotion stand for 24 hours, with the cap or cork of the bottle firmly in place. Use by dabbing it liberally over the face with a pad of cotton wool. Leave the oatmeal milk to dry naturally, and then wipe it off with a skin tonic. A simple skin tonic is made from equal quantities of witch hazel and rosewater.
Po get rid of a double chin, place backs of the fingers under the chin, one hand under the other. Press up firmly, drawing the hands apart, following the lines of the jaw with a strong pressure, until the tips of the fingers reach the ears. An exercise which is helpful is this: With neck free, bring the head backwards as far as you can without strain, and go through the action of chewing ten to fifteen times. Then open the mouth wide and pull the chin upwards end forwards as far as it will go. repeating the chewing acMon aemn ten times. Bring head upwards and backwards until the eyes gaze at the ceiling, then blow as though a\ an imaginary thistle, puffing the cheeks oyt and making the muscles under the chin as firm as possible. Blow vigorously five to ten times, first upwards, then five times to the left and five times to the right. These exercises help to tighten the slackening muscles Sleeping without a pillow and wearing a chin-strap are helpful measures also.
An oily skin with enlarged pores and blackheads is often due to wrong diet and lack of exercise. Include as much fresh fruit and vegetables in your diet as possible, and drink at least eight glasses of cold water each day between meals. Try taking only the very simplest meals until the skin improves. All rich and greasy foods should be avoided. Eat no chocolates, pork, bacon, fried foods of all kinds, pastry, and starchy foods. Take plenty of lettuce, celery, and other green vegetables, preferably steamed. During the treatment eat meat only once daily, and that in the form of lean grills For external treatment, steam the face over a basin of boiling water, and then, while the skin is moist, scrub it with a loofah soaped with a good superfatted soap. When the soap has been washed off and the skin dried, massage the open pores with a piece of ice wrapped in soft, washed linen. A good astringent lotion might be used for the same purpose. Do not use soap on the face at all during the day, apart from this one treatment. Try to take as much exercise in fresh air as possible each day. (See also “Blackheads” and “Pimples” in medical
section of this book.)
A good carriage of the shoulders and back is essential to a slender figure. It is doubly so to women of stouter build.
To put on weight get as much rest as possible. Stay out of doors between meals, walking or taking light exercises to build up the appetite. Take a quart of fresh milk in some form or other every day. The last half-pint should be sipped hot before retiring. Such dishes as creamed soups, creamed vegetables, and meat dishes, tapioca, rice, and Spanish creams, cornflour, and custard puddings introduce milk into the diet. Nourishing drinks, containing malted milk, egg, whole milk, and cream, are good, and should be taken in liberal quantities. If able to take cod-liver oil, a little, either alone or with malt extract, after each meal is beneficial. Eat an abundance of fruit and vegetables, and get from eight to ten hours’ sleep if possible each night.
An excellent soap for whitening the skin of the hands and arms may be made in this way. Take a breakfastcupful of toilet soap scraps, pour over two tablespoonfuls of strained lemon juice, and set in a warm oven, stirring occasionally until it melts to a jedy. Add a tablespoonful of fine oatmeal, beat up well, then mould the whole into a ball.
The hands will never be coarse and red if a mixture of equal parts of lemon and milk is rubbed in and left to dry. The nails will remain beautifully white if the fingers are pushed into a cut lemon each time after washing.
Stains on the hands will disappear if rubbed with a paste of olive oil and white sugar.
A shampoo of warm olive oil every fourth night will work wonders, if your “ perm.” becomes frizzy. Add a tablespoonful of vinegar to the last rinse but one.
Grease can be removed from the hair by washing it in warm water to which a teaspoonful of borax has been added.
Mix one drachm of gum acacia with an ounce of borax. Dissolve a teaspoon of this in a pint ot warm water and pour it over the head while it is still damp irom the shampoo. Now comb the hair smoothly and put ihe waves into place as you have seen the hairdresser do. by p*essing the wave fiat to the head with the fingers, while you como the hair in the opposite direction. Then press the setting combs into the waves (urn up the ends quite wet and pin them with fine pins Cover the whole oead with a net and dry—in the sun. if possible
Hair that is going grey prematurely requires everv care Brush it regularly and massage a little macassar oil into the ioou every week. The following lotion is excellent for greying nan Menthol, 15 grains; resorcin, 15 grains; tincture of jaborandi, r drachms; bay rum, 1 oz.; rosewater, up to 4 ozs.; 1 drachm of castor oil. Rinsing with strong cold tea after each shampooing helps to disguise silver threads.
Darker powder should be used to tone with a sun-tanned complexion, for there is nothing so unsightly as a white mask against a bronzed skin.
Never add fresh lipstick and powder before removing what is on the face, for with perspiration added to the powder the pores will become clogged.
To get rid of open pores, give the skin plenty of friction with a fairly coarse Turkish face glove, good mild soap, and warm water. Open pores should be rubbed daily with a piece of ice wrapped in washed butter muslin. It it is impossible to pro
cure ice, dash the affected parts of the skin with very cold water, to which a few drops of simple tincture of benzoin have been added. The friction with the bath glove may cause tenderness at first, in which case a little warm, sweet almond oil may be rubbed into the skin.
Gentle massage with a lump of ice (in a piece of muslin) after any pack or skin treatment is soothing, arid makes the cheeks beautifully pink.
Sour milk has wonderful whitening properties, if it has soured naturally, and not by lemon juice or other artificial means. Rub it into the face, neck and hands, as cold cream. It counteracts sunburn, makes the skin milky, and lightens freckles.
If you can obtain buttermilk easily, you will find it useful for the complexion. It can be used internally and externally.
Drink as much as you can. It has no rival as a cooling and refreshing thirst-quencher.
For external use, apply to face, neck and arms, using the nands and not a sponge or flannel. Massage the milk gently but firmly into the skin for two minutes or so. Then leave it to dry.
It is invaluable after over-exposure to sun and wind, and will make the skin smooth, fresh and soft, and free from freckles and sunburn. . . .
The following is a complexion bleaching cream that will help to nourish the skin: Half a ripe cucumber, one ounce of almond oil, quarter ounce white beeswax, quarter teaspoon of witch hazel, a pinch of powdered starch, five drops of lemon essence, and ten drops of eau de Cologne. Peel and chop up the cucumber, pound it in a basin and strain the juice through muslin. Add the eau de Cologne and the witch hazel to the cucumber juice and dissolve in it a pinch of starch. Heat all these and add them to the wax and almond oil, which should be previously melted and heated in a jar standing in boiling water. Add lemon essence. Now beat all together until the mixture is smooth and creamy and cold. The cream should be tapped into the face and neck before going to bed, and wiped off when the skin has absorbed as much as possible.
It is unwise to tamper with superfluous hairs on the upper lip. They can, however, be made less noticeable with a solution of equal parts of peroxide and ammonia (not cloudy ammonia, but a preparation obtainable at any chemist). Guard your face as much as possible from extreme heat of the sun. as this encourages the growth. Be very careful in your choice of face creams, and use as little cream as possible on the skin.
Hot water and soap should never be used on a dry skin. Instead, the skin should be freshened by bathing the face with lukewarm water. A vitamin, nourishing or cold cream should be patted into the skin each night before retiring. If this treatment is adopted it will greatly improve the complexion.
surface blemishes brought out by strong sunlight, they may be faded to a certain extent with the following lotion: Sulphocar-bonate of zinc, 15 grains; glycerine, 2 drachms; spirit of wine, £ oz.; orange flower water, up to 4 ozs. Apply freely with a piece of soft linen after washing. Tomato juice is said to be very good for removing freckles, as is a mixture of equal parts of strained lemon juice, glycerine, and olive oil.
Attach the key from a discarded sardine tin to your tube of tooth paste. It is excellent for winding up the tube as you use the paste, and there is no waste.
Before redness of the nose can be remedied, first ascertain the cause. If the digestion is at fault it will be necessary to carefully study the diet, avoiding highly spiced and rich foods, and taking exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles. If the condition is due to faulty circulation, bathe the nose each night alternately with hot and cold water, then massage with the fingers, using hazeline snow, continuing treatment till the nose glows.
Massage with cocoa butter will help remedy a thin neck. Bathe the neck first in hot water, dry well, then apply cocoa butter to the finger tips and massage with firm strokes from the base of the neck upwards. Breathing deeply before an open window in the early morning before dressing (wear a warm, loose gown) will also improve a thin neck. This treatment must be persevered with before any improvement will be noticeable.
Onions for relieving stomach disorders, for nerves and inNever use a very stiff or coarse brush for the nails. It spoils the surface underneath, and a roufS&fcjied nail quickly becomes dirty.
It is much better to fill the nails with soap before tackling a grimy job, so that the dirt can be washed out afterwards without any need for a brush. It will help to get the nails into good condition if you dig them deeply, once a day at least, into a half lemon. One lemon will last a long time.
If the nails seem brittle and break easily, rub them every night with a little vaseline or olive oil.
Dissolve a heaped tablespoonful each of Epsom salts, common salt and bicarbonate soda in a bowl of hot water—as hot as you can stand it. Soak your feet and rest with them in the water. Do this for 20 minutes, then dry with a rough towel and massage the feet. Finish with a rubbing of eau de Cologne or some spirit, powder your feet and go to bed.
An excellent way to relieve stiffness or fatigue from exercise or overwork is to add a cup of vinegar to a warm bath. A rub-down with a hard towel should follow, after which take a complete rest for at least an hour.
TTHERE have been many books published dealing with cookery, but usually many of the recipes given require time and expense that the average housewife cannot afford to give. We have, therefore, omitted recipes calling for expensive ingredients and concentrated on economical dishes which can be prepared with a minimum of trouble and at little cosh
A study of diet and food chemistry reveals the fact that some foods more than others possess the natural organic chemicals necessary for the prevention and treatment of disease.
Here is an alphabet of foods possessing a definite medicinal value:
Apples for remedying indigestion and cleansing the system and teeth.
Barley for reducing temperatures and purifying the kidneys.
Carrots for anaemia and the nerves.
Dates for gaining weight.
Eggs for iron and for bone and muscle-building.
Figs for remedying constipation.
Grapefruit for liver trouble and for slimming.
Honey for supplying energy and Vitamin B: for throat and catarrh.
Ice cream for relieving sore and inflamed throat.
Jam for its fruit and sugar value.
Kale for blood purification.
Lemons for rheumatism and weight reducing.
Milk for calcium, strong teeth and bones, and musclebuilding.
Nuts for flesh-building, and in some instances for calcium, deficiency.
Quinces for stimulating gastric juice secretion.
Raisins for remedying anaemia and for providing energy.
Spinach for its strong iron content and blood purifying qualities.
Tomatoes for Vitamin C and sluggish liver.
Unpolished rice for Vitamin B.
Vermicelli for increasing weight.
Watercress for complexion and blood.
X, Y. Z—for health spend eight hours nightly on good,
Here is yoin' shopping list to save you time and trouble. Run your eye down it every week and keep your cupboards stocked with the necessary household requirements. It is most annoying to be halfway through a recipe and find one of the essentials is missing, or, like Mother Hubbard, to go in search of something that should be there but isn’t.
Let’s begin with the kitchen caddies:
Flour (Self-Raising) Sago
Nutmeg (Ground) Kitchen Supplies.
Cream of Tartar
Bathroom and Laundry.
Tinned Meat or
3 teaspoons equal 1 tablespoon.
1 tablespoon equals 1 oz
4 tablespoons equal I gill or k pint.
2 breakfast cups equal 1 pint.
1 pint liquid equals 1£ lbs.
1 level dessertspoon gelatine equals Jt oz. (will set one cup
2 tablespoons (level) flour equal 1 oz.
2 tablespoons (level) castor sugar equal 1 oz.
1 tablespoon butter, dripping or lard equals 1 oz.
1 rounded tablespoon sugar equals 1 oz.
4 level tablespoons soft breadcrumbs equal 1 oz.
1 large egg equals 2 ozs.
1 level breakfast cup sugar equals h lb.
3 level breakfast cups of flour equal 1 lb.
1 tea cup equals i breakfast cup.
1 cup flour (breakfast cup) equals 4 ozs.
1 cup butter (breakfast cup) equals 8 ozs.
1 cup sugar (breakfast cup) equals 8 ozs.
1 cup cornflour (breakfast cup) equals 5 ozs.
1 cup coconut (breakfast cup) equals 4 ozs.
1 cup currants equals 6 ozs.
1 cup seeded dates (breakfast cup) equals 6 ozs.
1 cup treacle (breakfast cup) equals 10 ozs.
1 cup chopped nuts (breakfast cup) equals 4 ozs.
KNOW WHAT YOU BUY.
When purchasing meat, housewives should know the best cuts and not be misled by prices. Cheap meat usually means disappointment and waste, so study well the following cuts and their characteristics before you buy:—
Cuts of Beef.
Ox Cheek. Can be braised or stewed. Should be well cooked. Neck: Suitable only for beef tea, soups or stews.
Chuck: Pot roast, free from fat.
Back Ribs: Cheap roasting joints.
Prime Ribs: Excellent roasting joints. Rolled or supplied with bone.
Wing Rib: Prime roasting joint.
Middle Loin: Prime roasting joint.
First Cut Sirloin: Prime roasting joint, with undercut.
Rump: Prime steak meat. Selvedge fat.
Shoulder: Tender beef steak for stewing or puddings. When cut off the blade it can be roasted.
Bolar: Good boiling joint.
Brisket: Corned beef. Usually rolled.
Brisket: Middle cut, corned with bone. Has streaky fat.
Thin Flank: Corned and rolled. Extra quantity of fat.
Thick Flank and Topside: Prime beef steak. Also roasts well. Silverside: Corned round. Prime corned joint, free from fat. Shin: For soups and potted meats.
Leg: For soups and potted meats.
Thick Skirt: Suitable for stewing.
Ox Tail: Served as stew or haricot, or flavouring for soup. Ox Kidney: Breakfast dish and entree. Also a flavouring for soup.
Ox Tongue: Corned, for boiling and pressing.
Ox Heart: Should be stuffed, parboiled, and then roasted. Cowheel: For thickening soups and gravies, and a popular entree.
Tripe: Served with or without onions. Easily digested, and suitable for invalids.
Leg: Usuaby roasted, may be boiled, also leg chops.
Loin: To be roasted or cut into chops for stewing or grilling; also cutlets.
Loin: Chump end for roasting or stewing, and chops.
Neck: Best end for boiling or roasting. Cut into chops and cutlets.
Neck: Scrag end for soups, stews, curries, etc.
Shoulder: Roasting and boiling.
Breast: Stewing, or is corned and boiled.
Head: For soups or boiling.
Shank: For soups and broths.
Trotters: For broth or boiling.
Brains: Delicate entree. Suitable for invalids. Fried or boiled.
Kidneys: Good breakfast dish. Often sold with loin.
Liver and Heart: Generally fried or stewed.
Tongue: Stewed and served hot or cold.
Cuts of Veal.
Short Loin: Roasting joint and chops.
Leg: Roasting joint.
Fillet: For roasting or cutlets. One of the finest pieces. Is highly priced, but there is little waste.
Hind Knuckle: Soup or broth. Much used in making white stock. With pig’s cheek makes excellent brawn.
Fore Knuckle: More tender than the hind knuckle. Often stewed and served with sauce. Makes good brawn.
Shoulder: Roasting or stewing.
Breast: Braising or stewing. If boned, stuffed and rolled, makes a nice small joint for roasting.
Sweetbread: Considered a great delicacy. Much used for entrees, and a good dish for invalids. The throat sweetbread, which is the thymus gland of the calf, is considered inferior in quality to the heart sweetbread or pancreas.
Kidney: Generally sold with a piece of the loin and roasted. Can be used separately.
Liver and Heart: Can be used in the same way as sheep’s liver and heart.
Cuts of Pork.
Cushion: Bone, stuff and bake.
Shoulder or Hand: Pickle and boil.
Spring or Belly: Pickle, roll and boil.
Fore Loin: Chops and roasting.
. Short Loin: Chops and roasting.
Leg: Ham. Pickling, boiling, roasting.
Head; Usually salted. Can be made into brawn, boiled and Feet (Pettitoes or Trotters): Can be cooked in various ways. Usually boiled or stewed.
Tongue: Should be pickled and then served in the same way as sheep’s.
Heart: Stuffed and baked.
Sweetbreads: Fried or stewed.
Many people do not realise that when certain vegetables are
being served with meat there are some fruits that should be avoided in the dessert. Never use acid fruits and coarse vegetables at the same meal. The non-acid fruits may be used in conjunction with the finer vegetables, though, strictly speaking, fruit and vegetables should not be served at the same meal at all. This means that meat and vegetable dishes should be followed by puddings, custards, etc., containing no fruit, while stewed fruits, fruit puddings, etc., should constitute the dessert when no vegetables have been included in the first course.
Watermelon Cantaloupe Egg Plant Squash
The following may be eaten freely with fruits or vegetables by the average person:
Beans (green or ripe). Not pods Nuts
Macaroni, Spaghetti, etc.
Spinach and Other Greens Onions Salsify Celery
The following are meal:—
Cabbage Cauliflower Parsnips Swede Turnips
the least harmful when used at the same
Non-Acid or Sub-Acid Fruits.
Sweet Apples Prunes
Gooseberries Plums C rim berries Apricots Loganberries
Pineapple Blackberries Oranges Sour Apples Grapefruit
Sweet and Irish Potatoes. Asparagus Lettuce
Cucumbers Brussels Sprouts Peas
Musk Melon Cassabas Pumpkin
Corn (green or ripe)
Tomatoes (best with fruits)
Any of the Grains Noodles
On account of its excess of acid, rhubarb is best used with fruits, if used at all. Cucumbers are best used with vegetables.
“ Waste Not, Want Not.”
Many “ left-overs ” can be turned to good account if 3'ou make use of the following recipes. Often a quantity of meat is left over from the joint, and in cool weather quite a tasty meal 'can be made in the following way:—
Cut the cold meat into small dice. Prepare a batter (as for pancakes). Dip the meat dice into batter and drop spoonfuls into hot fat. Fry till brown on both sides.
To the “ left-overs” of turkey, fowl, duck, etc., allow one egg, 4 ozs. flour, and half-pint of milk. Make a smooth batter with the flour, egg and milk. Beat well and season with pepper and salt.
Pour half the batter into a well-greased baking dish. Put in a layer of cut-up cold duck and cover with the remaining batter. Bake in a hot oven until crisp and brown, and serve piping hot with a good, thick gravy.
Mince half a pound of cold “ left-over ” chicken or fowl with ‘Aree ounces of cooked ham, tongue or bacon, then add a table-^onful of Worcester or similar sauce and season with salt, pepper and a dash of cayenne. Boil one pound of potatoes, mash smoothly with butter and add a well-beaten egg.
Roll out, cut into rounds, put a little of the mixture on top of
each, cover with another round of potato, press the edges together fii m 1 >, biush over with milk, roll in fine breadcrumbs and fry in boiling fat.
Drain well, then sprinkle with chopped parsley and a dash of spiced herbs and serve at once. A few grated nuts may be used in place ol the spiced herbs by way of variation, as preferred.
Cut the “ left-overs ” of puddings into thin slices, dip in a good batter, and fry in hot fat. Cut some apples into slices, dip them in batter, and fry in the same way.
Drain on blotting paper, then arrange the apples in the centre of a hot dish, with the pudding fritters ranged around. Sprinkle with castor sugar and serve piping hot.
Raspberry vinegar is a splendid accompaniment to this dish, but ordinary sauce or custard can be used if preferred.
Stale mince pies may be used up with baked apples. They are delicious, too. First remove the cores from the fruit, taking care not to break the apples, then fill up the space with the broken-up mince pies — crust and inside — cover the apple with boiled rice and cream after the apples are baked in a good hot oven until quite soft but not mushy.
Custard may be used to cover the baked apples in place of boiled rice and cream, of course.
Stale cake can be used up in many ways. Here are one or two suggestions: Use as a foundation for stewed fruit. A trifle is always welcome in hot weather. Baked in custard (instead of bread and butter).
Some people turn away from the “ left-overs ” in the bread tin and use them only for re-baking for crumbs, but there are other housewives who convert them into appetising dishes. Here are a few of the recipes:—
2 cups fresh bread- 2 beaten eggs taste
crumbs 1 cup milk Flour
2 cups chopped cold J teaspoon soda
meat Salt and pepper to
Mix the ingredients well together with flour to make a batter that can be dropped from a spoon. Drop by tablespoonfuls into hot fat and fry a delicate brown. Serve hot.
1 cup breadcrumbs 1 cup milk Salt and pepper
2 cups chopped cold 1 beaten egg to taste
Fill a buttered baking dish with alternate layers of chopped, cold, cooked meat and breadcrumbs, seasoning well with salt,’ pepper and dots of butter. Continue until dish is filled, having the last layer of crumbs. Moisten with a mixture of milk and beaten egg. Bake one half-hour.
Ti cups dried breadcrumbs 1 teaspoon powdered sage
1£ lbs. sausage meat 1 tablespoon lemon juice
Salt and pepper to taste Hot water to moisten
Mix ingredients thoroughly, using enough hot water to moisten the whole. This is an excellent stuffing for either roast fowl or veal.
Bread Stuffing for Poultry.
2 cups dried breadcrumbs h cup melted butter
h cup hot water Salt and pepper to taste
1 teaspoon mixed herbs 1 beaten egg
Melt the butter in hot water and mix with all other ingredients. Use as stuffing for chicken, duck or turkey, also for lamb or veal.
1 cup breadcrumbs 1 tablespoon butter
6 medium-sized tomatoes Salt and pepper to taste
^ Butter a baking dish and cover the bottom with breadcrumbs. Cover this with a layer of sliced tomatoes and season with salt and pepper. Continue until dish is filled. Cover the top with buttered breadcrumbs. Bake in hot oven until crumbs are brown.
i cup breadcrumbs J teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons grated
i cup milk 1 tablespoon butter cheese.
4 eggs Pepper
Soak breadcrumbs 15 minutes in milk, add salt, pepper, wellbeaten eggs and grated cheese. Have a frying pan^ heated, and melt one tablespoon of butter in it. Into this pour the egg mixture and place on range, where it will cook evenly. When deliciously browned underneath, place pan in oven to finish cooking on top. Remove from oven, fold and turn on a hot platter. This makes an excellent luncheon dish.
For Mock Mince Pies.
1 cup fresh bread- 1 cup currants
1 cup hot water £ cup butter \ cup vinegar H cups sugar
1 cup sultana raisins 1 cup chopped apples h teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon powdered cloves
Mix all the ingredients together and keep This mince meat is excellent for pies with uppei
1 teaspoon powdered cinamon
■> teaspoon mixed spice
§ teaspoon powdered ginger
in a coveted jar. and lower crusts.
4 cups fresh bread- Sugar to taste 4 tab1 spoons butter
crumbs 2 lbs. raspberries Cream
Pick, wash and dry raspberries. Butter a pudding dish, sprinkle in layer of breadcrumbs, then put in layer of raspberries and sprinkle over with sugar. Repeat till dish is full, ending with breadcrumbs. Sprinkle salt over the top and dot with the butter; cover and bake for 3o mirutes. Remove cover and brown. Serve with cream.
For breakfast or luncheon—bacon and bread fritters. Very stale bread can be used and bacon placed between the slices. Press together, dip in batter made with egg and milk and a little flour to thicken, and fry for 10 minutes. Serve very hot.
Three-decker sandwiches are good, too, and all kinds of oddments may be used as fillings.
Dip the slices in grated cheese and fry a golden brown in hot off the crust. Soak in the beaten egg. season with salt and pepper Something nice and tasty from stale bread, one egg and some dripping or bacon fat.
Those with a sweet tooth will like this pudding built up on stale bread. One wnth dates is made by soaking some bread, then squeezing it dry. Add sugar to sweeten and % lb. dates, stoned and cut into small pieces.
Grease a pie-dish with butter, put in the bread and dates, then beat up one egg with a gill of milk. Sweeten with sugar and pour over the bread and bake for 30 minutes.
Cinnamon £ cup butter 1 or 2 eggs
2 cups breadcrumbs apples 4 tablespoons sugar
1 cup sugar 2 cups thinly sliced i teaspoon salt
Put a layer of apples in buttered baking dish, sprinkle with
sugar, add a layer of breadcrumbs, season with bits of butter and cinnamon. Repeat until dish is filled, then pour over one halfcup water, cover and bake slowly for one hour, then uncover and brown. Serve with white sauce, cream or custard.
li cups fresh bread- 1 teaspoon vanilla crumbs extract
Some slices bread 2 cups milk 1 cup sultana raisins
Take a plain pudding mould or basin and butter it thoroughly. Clean and dry the raisins, and form a star at the bottom of the mould by laying the raisins one over the other, carrying the star up the sides of the mould. Cut some strips of bread and fill in the strips between the raisins. Beat the eggs, add sugar, boil milk and pour over the eggs, beating all the time. Add to this custard, breadcrumbs, salt, vanilla and raisins; pour into prepared mould, cover with buttered paper and steam for one and a half hours. Turn out and serve with sauce.
3 slices buttered 3 eggs Few preserved fruit
bread Vanilla extract or raisins
1 quart milk Candied peel
Beat the eggs and sugar slightly, then add milk and vanilla. Pour into a buttered baking dish and set bread on top, with buttered side up. Bake in a moderate oven till firm. Decorate nicely in top with cherries and candied peel, and serve cold.
cups breadcrumbs \ lb. finely chopped 2 eggs \ cup chopped beef figs \ cup sugar or syrup
suet 1 cup milk \ teaspoon salt
Work the suet with a wooden spoon until of a creamy consistency, then add the figs. Soak breadcrumbs in milk, add wellbeaten eggs, sugar and salt. Combine mixtures, turn into a buttered mould, steam three hours. Serve with treacle sauce, made by boiling two cups treacle and two tablespoons butter for three minutes. Remove from fire, add two tablespoons lemon juice. Serve hot.
teaspoons baking powder
1£ cups stale breadcrumbs 2 eggs
1J cups scalded milk Pour milk grated cheese.
2 tablespoons melted butter J cup flour £ teaspoon salt
over breadcrumbs, add butter, and soak for 15 Cut the bread in round or neat shapes, trimming
Mix and drop by spoonsful on a hot, greased pan; cook on one side. When puffed full of bubbles and cooked on edges, turn and cook the other side. Serve with butter and golden syrup or honey.
1 cup chopped nut
3 or 4 eggs 3 tablespoons grape juice 1 lemon
cup chopped walnut
1 cup fresh breadcrumbs 1 cup sugar
Filling: 1 egg, J
1£ teaspoons baking powder
cup sugar, £ lemon, £
Soak breadcrumbs with grape juice and strained juice of lemon. Beat yolks and sugar together until light, then add nuts, baking powder, breadcrumbs and beaten whites of eggs.
Divide into two buttered and floured layer tins and bake in moderate oven 20 minutes. Put together with filling. Beat up egg, add sugar, lemon juice and walnuts. Cover with frosting if liked.
1 lb. stale bread 1 tablespoon sugar 1 cup milk slices Powdered cinnamon Preserves
1 ezz ... ,
Cut slices if stale bread into large squares, cutting bread rather thickly and removing crusts. Beat the egg in a small saucepan, add sugar, milk and cmnamen to taste, and stir over fire until it thickens. Do not jet it b«&L Dip each slice of bread into this custard. When well soaked, lift out and fry in hot fat till light brown colour. Serve at once. Preserves placed on each slice will add a delightful flavour.
If you keep a supply of tinned goods on hand, then the following dishes can be concocted at a moment’s notice:—
Large tin pineapple slices Gelatine
£ pint cream, sweetened and A plain sponge sandwich, unwhipped filled.
Drain the juice from the pineapple, measure it, and allow gelatine in the proportion of 1 dessertspoon to each cupful juice. Heat the juice and dissolve the gelatine in it. Pour into a shallow basin and allow almost to set, then whip it till light and frothy. Take half the sandwich, place in a large bowl, and pour half the whipped jelly over. Place a layer of pineapple on this, then a layer of cream. Put the other portion of the sandwich on top, add the rest of the jelly, and cover all with blobs of cream. Cut the remaining pineapple rings into quarters and place them upright in the cream. Chill before serving.
£ lb. short crust Small tin sweet corn Salt and pepper to
2 beaten eggs
Roll out the pastry and stamp out rounds to fit small, deep patty pans. Line the tins, prick the bottoms with a fork, and bake in a good oven till crisp. Mix the eggs and a seasoning of salt and pepper with the sweet corn. Pour some into each case and bake in a moderate oven till thoroughly heated through.
Large tin vegetable 2 good dessertspoons 2 cups stock or soup gelatine water
Pour the water over the vegetables and heat. Dissolve the gelatine in this, pour into a wet mould and allow to -Ret. Garnish with lettuce.
1 doz. savoury boat
2 tablespoons may
Tin asparagus tips
Into the boats put
a teaspoon mayonnaise
Whipped cream and three or four
tips of asparagus, then
finish each with cream
2 tins luncheon silds
4 heaped table
£ cup warm water
1 tablespoon melted
Siit flour with pinch of salt, add yolk of egg and stir in centre, gradually mixing in the flour. Add melted butter, then warm water, stirring well. Beat thoroughly, and stand for £ to j hour. Before using, whip white of egg stiffly and stir into the batter. After draining oil from fish, dip them into the batter and fry in plenty of fat till golden brown. Drain on kitchen paper.
1 small tin pilchards 2 cups mashed Egg, breadcrumbs
Mash potato and fish so that it can be rolled but is not sticky Roll into balls, dip in beaten egg, then in the breadcrumbs and fry on both sides.
1 small tin apricots Whipped cream Gelatine
Heat the juice of apricots and allow 1 dessertspoon gelatine to each cup of juice. Allow to become cold. Have moulds or cups rinsed out with cold water, and pour a little of the juice into them, then let them set. Place apricots (one or two) into each vessel, round side down, and add the rest of the juice and allow to set. To unmould, dip the cups in and out of warm water. Pipe with a little cream.
1 tin peaches (halved)
i pint cream 2 eggs
(whipped) 2 tablespoons sugai
1£ cups milk
Beat eggs and sugar together. Heat the milk, stir into the eggs and sugar. Return all to the saucepan, and stir over a gentle heat till custard begins to thicken. Remove, and allow to become cold in a large, flat dish. Strain the juice from the peaches. Count the number of peach halves, and for each place a good blob of cream on the custard a little distance apart. Place a peach, round side down, on each blob and a small spoon of cream in each peach.
1 cup milk Pepper, salt Hot, buttered toast Remove from stove
1 tin crabmeat 1 oz. butter 1 hard-boiled egg
1 small teaspoon French mustard
__ 1 oz. flour
Melt butter, add flour and blend well, and add the milk by degrees, stirring continuously. Return to the fire and boil for two minutes. Mash the egg. Drain any
liquid off the crabmeat and remove any sinews. Add to the sauce with the egg, mix, and beat thoroughly through. Serve on not, buttered toast.
1 tin whitebait
2 tablespoons flour 2 ozs. butter
1 small onion
Salt, lemon juice 2 teaspoons curry
2 cups milk and powder liquid from whitebait mixed
Peel and chop onion finely. Melt butter in saucepan, and try onion till lightly browned and cooked. Remove from fire.
Sprinkle in flour and curry powder. Blend well, add a squeeze of lemon juice and salt to taste. Stir in the milk and liquid gradually. Return to fire and boil for two minutes. Add the whitebait. Bring to boil, and allow to stand at the side of stove for 30 minutes. Serve with cooked rice and garnish with lemon quarters.
t lb. tin salmon
For the dressing:— 1 raw egg yolk
3 teaspoons sugar
\ teaspoon mustard
6 small new potatoes (cooked in jackets)
Tablespoon butter (melted)
1 tablespoon vinegar
1 teaspoon salt Shake of pepper i cup of milk
Put the egg yolk into bowl and add salt, pepper, sugar and mustard. Blend well together. Add butter and beat well in. Stir in vinegar gradually, adding milk last of all. Place lettuce to soak. Peel and slice the potatoes thickly. Slice tomato firmly. Free salmon from liquid. Slice the eggs. Dry lettuce and shred finely. Place on a dish as a base for the other ingredients. Flake the fish, not too finely, and place on lettuce. Surround with slices of tomato and potato and pour on dressing. Garnish with the sliced egg.
Tinned Pork and Beans.
J lb. cooked ham 1 large tin of pork and beans
Heat the pork and beans according to directions on tin. Serve a slice of cold ham on each plate, then cover with hot pork and beans
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