﻿ moore1882outlinesaustralian | Outlines of Australian and general geography for the use of junior classes in schools and for private tuition;

<=\\0

xr\oo j OcA

Deakin

University

Library

This book is part of the

Sidney Myer Collection

C . í\ . 1Y >6-*'

o •

con 033/2.3^/

___-_. *

~—    - - _

OUTLINES

Oc'

# AUSTRALIAN

AND

GENERAL GEOGRAPHY

FOR THE

USE Oi JUNIOR CLASSES IN SCHOOLS ANI) FOE PRIVATE TUITION.

SYDNEY :

J. J. MOORE AND CO., GEORGE STREET,

1SS2.

SYDNKY !

F. CUNNINGHAMK AND CO., PRINTERS, 14Ö PITT STRKKT.

INTRODUCTION.

Geographical Definitions.

Geography is a description of the earth and its productions; it is usually divided into Mathematical, Physical, and Political Geography.

The word Geoaraphy is compounded of two Greek words signifying a description of the earth.

The figure of the earth is nearly that of a globe or sphere.

Tlie diameter1 of the earth, or its measure through the centre, is about 7,912 miles.

The circumference of the earth, or its measure round on its surface, is nearly 25,000 miles.

The axis of the earth is an imaginary line passing through its centre from north to south, the extreme points of which are called the poles.

Meridians are great circles passing through the poles ; any one of these circles divides the earth into two equal parts, called hemispheres.

The equator] is a great circle which divides the globe into the northei'n and southern hemispheres.

The ecliptic is a great circle, which corresponds with the path in which the sun appears to pass in the heavens.

Parallels of Latitude are less circles, drawn round the globe parallel to the equator ; four of them-— the two tropics and the two polar circles—mark the boundaries of the zones.

There are fi\e zones ; one to-rrid, two temperate, and tvs o frigid *

A climate is a portion of the earth’s surface bounded by two parallels of latitude, and of such breadth, that the longest day in the parallel nearest the pole exceeds that in the other by half an hour, from the equator to the polar circles.

A map is the representation of the whole earth, or of any part of it, on a flat surface. The top of the map is usually the north, the bottom the south, the right hand side the east, and the left hand side the west f

Latitude is the distance of a place north or south from the equator. Longitude is the distance of a place east or west from the first meridian. +

The earth has two motions; one round its own axis in 24 hours, the other round the sun in a year ; the former produces the succession of dag and night, the latter the changes of the seasoiis.

*    The torrid or hot zone is between the tropics ; the temperate zones are between the tropics anti the polar circles ; and the J'ritjid or cold zones are between the i>olar circles and the poles. Hemisphere means half a sphere or globe.

t The four cardinal points of the horizon are the north, south, east, and west. In order to know these points of the horizon, let the pupil turn toward« the sun at noon. He is then facing the north, his back is towards the'south, the east is on his right hand, and the west on his left. baud. __

♦    -The.tfi'.sf ih 'ru.h'an is that which passes through the royal observatory or Greenwich, near London. Ferro, the most westerly of the fWiary Islands, is thatjji rough which the first meridian was formerly drawn, and thence the.reason of the Old and New Worlds being called &he Eastern and Western continents.

### THE WORLD.

Natural Divisions of the Earth's Surface.

The surface of the earth is estimated at 107 millions of square miles, and is naturally divided into land and water; the land occupying about one-fourth and the water three-fourths of the whole.

LAND.

A continent is a very large portion of land containing many countries and kingdoms, and not divided by the sea; as the Continent of Europe, the Continent of America.

An island is a tract of land entirely surrounded by water ; as Ireland, Tasmania.

A peninsula is a tract of country surrounded by water cn all sides, except where it is joined to a continent by a narrow neck of land, called an isthmus ; thus the Morea is a peninsula joined to the continent of Europe by the Isthmus of Corinth. Spain and Portugal are frequently called the Peninsula, because of their forming the most important tract of land in Europe of that form.

A cape, promontory, or head is a point of land stretching out into the sea; as the Cape of Good Hope, sometimes called the Cape> the southern extremity of Africa ; Cape York, the northernmost point of Australia.

When the land rises above the level country, it is called a hill or mountain, as Mount Blanc, in

G

Switzerland ; and when this high land runs continuously through a country or a number of countries, it is called a chain or ridge of mountains ; thus the chain of the Apennines traverses the whole of Italy from north to south. Hie height of mountains is reckoned from the level of the sea.

A volcano is a burning mountain, which from time to time casts forth flames, or throws out a fiery stream of melted earth and metals, called lava. The period of these eruptions and outbreaks is quite uncertain ; they sometimes cease for years, and then are suddenly renewed. The most celebrated volcanoes are Mount Etna in ¡Sicily: Mount Vesuvius, near Naples; and Mount Ilecla, in Iceland.

The name of table-land is given to any flat country at a considerable height above the sea. The table land of Mexico is between 6000 and 9000 feet high ; that of Quito, in South America is more than 9000.

A plain is a flat low-lying country, or gently undulating land.

A desert is a tract of country without rivers and of course not inhabited

A shore or coast is land bordering upon the sea.

WATER.

The ocean is the wide open part of the body of water surrounding the land on all sides, and extending from one pole to the other. For the convenience of description, it is usually divided into five parts; the Arctic Ocean, round the North Pole; the Antarctic, round the South Pole ; the Atlantic between the western coasts of Europe and Africa and the eastern coast of America ; the Indian, to the south of Asia; the Pacific, between the eastern coast of Asia and the western qoast of America.

A sea is a smaller extent of water; as the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea.

A strait is a narrow passage of water connecting two seas; as the Strait of Dover, connecting the North Sea and the English Channel ; the Strait of Gibraltar, uniting the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean ; Cook Strait, Bass's Strait.

A channel is a wider passage than a strait ; as the British Channel, the St. George’s Channel.

A gulf or bay is a large arm of the sea stretching into the land ; as the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of Venice, the Gulf of Carpentaria, the Bay of Biscay, Baffin’s Bay.

A creek is a small arm of the sea stretching into the land.

A harbour or haven is a small portion of the sea so surrounded by land as to afford a shelter for ships in stormy weather ; as Portsmouth Harbour, Milford Haven, Port Jackson.

A road or roadstead is a part of the sea not so well sheltered as a harbour, but affording protection to vessels against certain winds.

A river is a large stream of water collected from various springs and fountains, and running into the sea or into a larger river. The longest river in the world, the Mississippi, runs above 4,400 miles ; the longest river in Australia, the Murray, 2,400 miles. The right bank of a river is that which is on your right hand as you go down the stream towards the sea; the left bank is that which lies to your left. The junction of a river with the sea is called its mouth ; if this opening be very wide so as to form a large sheet of water, it is named a firth or estuary ; as the Firth of Forth, the Solway Firth.

A stream or river which flows into a larger river is called a trihutary or affluent of that river. The basin of a river is the whole tract of country which is drained by that river and its tributaries.

A lake, or loch, or mere, is a great body of water surrounded on all sides by land, and frequently communicating with the sea by a river; as the Lake of Gennesaret, in Galilee ; Loch Lomond, in Scotland; Windermere, in Cumberland. The largest in the world is Lake Superior, which is 380 miles long, and 160 broad. The waters of some lakes are salt, in which case they are generally distinguished as inland seas; as the Caspian Sea, the Lead Sea.

Boundaries.—The top of a map is commonly the north, the bottom the south, the side to your right hand is the east, that to your left hand the west. Half-way between north and east is called northeast ; between north and west, north-west; between south and east, south-east; between south and west, south-west. In giving the boundaries of any country or continent, you say that it is bounded on the north by whatever land or water lies beyond it on that side ; on the south, by any land or water to the south ; and you say the same with the east and west. Thus—England is bounded on the north by Scotland; on the south by the English Channel; on the east by the German Ocean; and on the west by the Irish Sea and the St. George’s Channel.

N.W.

NORTH.

X.E.

ISLANDS

BAY

## lÄl

Gulf

peninstih

( oast

Continent

Sea

S.W.    SOUTH.    S.E.

GENERAL view of the earth

There are two vast continents; the eastern and the western.

The eastern continent comprises Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, and is called the Old World.

The western continent is divided into North and South America, and is called the New World.

Polynesia comprises the numerous groups of islands scattered over the great ocean which extends from the south-eastern shores of Asia to the western coast of America.

There are six great divisions of the globe, viz.: Europe, Asia, Africa, America, Australasia, and Polynesia.

There are five great oceans ; the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Northern (or, Arctic) and Southern (or, Antarctic).

The Pacific lies between Asia and America, and is about 12,000 miles in one direction, and 9,000 in another.

The Atlantic is bounded by Europe and Africa on one side, and by North and South America on the other, and is about 4500 miles across.

The Indian Ocean lies south of Asia, and east of Africa, and is about 5000 miles broad.

The Northern Ocean lies round the nortli pole, and the Southern Ocean round the south pole. 2

The population of the earth is estimated to be not less than 1450 millions.*

### AUSTRALASIA.

Australasia lies to the south-east of Asia, and comprises the large island or continent of Australia (with the island of Tasmania immediately to the south), and the belt of islands surrounding it on the north, north-east, east, and south-east. The chief islands forming this belt are—Papua (or New Guinea), Louisiade Archipelago. New Britain, New Ireland, Admiralty Islands, the Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz Islands, New Hebrides, the Fiji Islands, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Chatham Islands, and Auckland Islands.

#### AUSTRALIA.

History of Discovery—Australia is the largest island in the world, equalling in extent more than

two-thirds of the continent of Europe. It is difficult to determine at what time this land was first discovered, or to which of the European nations the merit of the discovery is due. The earliest authentic information is that of its discovery by Luis Vase de Torres, a Spaniard, in 1606, who made the land in the vicinity of Torres Straits. It was afterwards visited by several Dutch navigators, from whom it received the name of New Holland. Dampier was the first English navigator who visited the coast of Australia, but Cook was the first to give accurate information, and dispel many illusions regarding this expansive region ; during his first voyage in 1770, he explored the eastern coast from Cape Howe to Cape York, a distance of 2,100 miles. The land from Cape York to the N.W. Cape, comprising a coast of 2,200 miles, was discovered by the Dutch navigator De Witt, in 1627 and 1628. The land from the N.W. Cape to Cape Lleeuwin on the S.W., a distance of 900 miles, wras first discovered by the navigators, Edel and Hartog, who visited this country in 1616 and 1619. Cape Lleeuwin was first seen and named in 1622, by the commander of a Dutch vessel, called the Lioness. The coast from Cape Lleeuwin to Wilson’s Promontory, a distance of 2,300 miles, w’as first seen in 1672 by Peter Nuyts, a Dutchman ; great acquisitions were made towards a knowledge of this part of the coast in 1800 and 1802 by the navigators, Grant, Bawdin, and Flinders. Mr. Bass, surgeon of the discovery ship, Eeliance, explored that part of the coast from Wilson’s Promontory to Cape Howe, a distance of 250 miles; this completes the circumference of

Australia, which may be said to measure nearly

8,000 miles round.

Situation, Extent —Australia is bounded on the north by the Indian Ocean and Torres Strait; on the south by the Southern Ocean and Bass's Strait; on the east by the Pacific Ocean ; and on the west by the Indian Ocean. It is situated between the parallells of 10U 42 min., and 39° 9 min., south latitude ; and between 113° 5 min., and 153° 47 min. east longitude; the greatest extent from north to south is about 2,000 miles, and from east to west, 2,500.

Diyisioxs.—Australia, including the neighbouring island of Tasmania, contains six colonies, as follows : —

 Colonies. Extent in sq. miles. PZt\ ChU'f rmms- Popula tion. 1. New South Wales ... 323,437 750,000 Sydney ... 200,000 2. Victoria ... ... 86.S31 S50,000 Melbourne ... 235,000 3. Queensland... ... 670,<00 222,000 Brisbane ... 35,000 4. South Australia ... 900,000 277,000 Adelaide ... S5,000 5. Western Australia ... 1,000,000 29,000 Perth .. 7,000 6. Tasmania ... .. 26,000 114,000 Hobart Town 25,000

Face of the Country.—A chain of mountains stretches along the whole eastern coast from Cape York, the most northern point, to Bass’s Strait, in the south. The country lying between these ranges and the sea are undulating and watered regions, and for the most part fertile. On the western or inland side are extensive upland plains having an average elevation of from 900 to 2,000 feet above the sea. From these the land gradually slopes towards the interior, and forms immense low-lying plains, well adapted for pastoral purposes. The country lying to the west and southwest of the Warragong Mountains (or Australian

Alps)_the southern portion of the eastern chain

_is generally hilly and well watered. In the

neighbourhood of St. Vincent and Spencer Gulfs, in "South Australia, are some ranges of high ground, lying in a direction north and south. The western coast is backed by high grounds of moderate elevation. Similar tracts of high ground lie along the north-west and northern coast. From the inland base of the coast ranges vast plains extend towards the distant interior; in many parts these plains are almost perfectly level, while in others the country is more diversified; tracts of undulating ground, in many cases grassy and well watered, being of frequent occurrence. The interior of the country (formerly supposed to consist almost entirely of desert plains) was in 1861-2 crossed by Burke and Wills and by McDouall Stuart, and since, in 1873-4 by Warburton, Giles and Forrest, and found to contain many fine tracts of good grazing country. Much, however, still remains unexplored.

Climate, Soil, &c.—The climate of Australia is for the most part dry and healthy ; the northern parts within the torrid zone are of course hot; but the southern and south-eastern portions—where the principal settlements have been made—have an average temperature not greater than that experienced in the south of Europe. Long droughts sometimes occur, while at certain seasons rain falls with great violence. Australia for the most part may be considered a pastoral country, supporting vast herds of sheep, cattle, and horses. The greater part of the country lying to the southeast produces wheat, maize, oats, barley, potatoes, and all the fruits and vegetables known in Great Britain; while the country lying to the northeast produces vines, oranges, pine apples, sugar cane, bananas, tobacco, cotton, and all the tropical fruits and plants. The woods of Australia, particularly the ornamental, are numerous and valuable.

Islands.—Tasmania, Furneaux Island and King’s Group, in Bass’s Strait ; Kangaroo Island, near St. Vincent Gulf; on the northern coast, Melville, Bathurst, Wessel Islands; with Groote, Wellesley, and Pellew Islands, in the Gulf of Carpentaria; Sandy Island, on the east ; and Dirk Hartog Island, on the west coast.

Peninsulas.—Cape York and Coburg Peninsulas in the north ; Perón Peninsula in Western, and Yorke Peninsula, in South Australia.

Capes.—On the north-east, Sandy Cape, Cape Cleveland, and Cape Melville ; on the north, Cape York (the most northern point), Cape Arnhem, and Cape Wilberforce; also Cape Van Diemen in Melville Island ; on the north-west, Cape Leveque, and North-west Cape ; on the west, Steep Point ; on the south-west, Cape Lleeuwin ; on the south, Cape Catastrophe, Cape Spencer, Cape Otwa}r, and Wilson’s Promontory ; on the south-east, Cape Howe ; and on the east, Cape Byron and Point Danger.

Gulfs and Bays.—Gulf of Carpentaria, and the Gulf of Van Diemen, on the north ; Cambridge

Gulf, Admiralty Gulf, and King Sound on the north-west : Exmouth Gulf and Shark Bay, on the west ; Great Australian Bight, Spencer and St. Vincent Gulfs, Encounter Bay, Port Phillip and Western Port, on the south; Twofold Bay, Jervis Bay, Botany Bay, Port Jackson, Broken Bay, Port Stephens, Moreton Bay, Wide Bay, Hervev Bay, Iveppel Bay, Port Curtis, Broad Sound, Halifax Bay, and Princess Charlotte Bay on the east coast.

Straits. — Bass’s Strait (190 miles wide) between Victoria and Tasmania; Investigator’s Strait between Kangaroo Island and Yorke Peninsula; Clarence Strait between Melville Island and Arnhem Land ; Dundas Strait between Melville Island and Coburg Peninsula ; and Torres Strait (90 miles wide) between Cape York and New Guinea.

Mountains.—The principal mountains in Australia are—The Great Dividing Chain stretching from Cape York to Bass's Strait, portions of which are known as the New England Range, the Liverpool Range, the Blue Mountains, and the Warra-gong Mountains or Australian Alps; the Australian Pyrenees and Australian Grampians in Victoria; Flinders Range and Gawler’s Range in South Australia; and the Darling, Herschel and Victoria Ranges on the west coast of Western Australia,

Rivers.—The principal rivers of Australia are the Murray, flowing into Encounter Bay, the largest river in Australia; the Murrumbidgee (with its tributary the Lachlan), and the Darling flowing into the Murray; draining the eastern slope of the Great Dividing Chain, are—the

Shoalhaven, Hawkesbury, Hunter, Hastings, Macleay and Clarence, in New South Wales ; and the Brisbane, Burnett, Fitzroy, and Burdekin, in Queensland; the Mitchell, Flinders, Albert, and Roper, flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria ; the Alligator, Adelaide, and Victoria rivers flowing into the sea on the north coast; and Swan River, in Western Australia.

Zoology of Australia.—The Animals peculiar to Australia are the kangaroo (of which there are several kinds), many species of opossum, sloth, wombat, dingo, or native dog, bandicoot, kangaroo rat, flying squirrel, flying fox, native bear, and native tiger The platypus, known as the duckbill, and the echidna as the hedgehog, are peculiar to Australia.

The Birds are numerous, and remarkable for the great beauty of their plumage ; the principal are the emu, black swan, native companion, brown eagle, bronze-winged eagle, hawk, falcon, laughing jackass, lyre bird, brown bird, widgeon, wild duck, teal, owl, crow, magpie, petrel, quail, pigeon, plover, snipe, black and white cockatoo, many coloured parrakeets, and parrots in endless variety ; with several descriptions of smaller birds.

Fish.—Of Salt-water fish the principal are—The shark, sword fish, schnapper, rock-cod, flat-head, jew-nsh, mullet, mackerel, sole, bream, and gar-fish ; of fresh-water—the Murray cod and eels ; of Crustaceans—lobsters, crabs, crayfish and prawns ; of Molluscs—oysters, mussels, cockles, periwinkles, &c. Seals and whales are found in the neighbouring seas, and the dugong abounds in the bays and harbours of tropical Australia.

Reptiles—are alligators and crocodiles, found in the northern bays and rivers; iguanas, lizards, snakes, and frogs.

Insects—consist of butterflies, moths, beetles, locusts, mosquitos, centipedes, scorpions, flies, ants, and bees,

IS

NEW SOUTH WALES.

Boundaries.—New South Wales is bounded on the north by Queensland \ east by the Pacific Ocean: south, by Victoria; west by South Australia. Area, 323,437 square miles.

Face of the Country.—The surface of New South Wales consists of three distinct portions 1. The Coast District, a narrow strip of undulating and well watered country, having an average breadth of not more than 30 miles. '2. The Table Lands, consisting of high plains, intersected by the Great Dividing Chain, and divided by the valley of the river Hunter into two distinct portions, one of which is called the Northern and the other the Southern Table Land. 3. The Great Plains, an immense tract of low-lying country with a gradual slope towards the interior.

Climate, Soil, &c.—The climate of New South Wales may be described as warm, dry, and healthy, the country occupying similar latitudes to those of the south of Spain, the north of Africa, and the Southern States of North America. Falls of rain are frequent along the coast district. The country, however, is occasionally subject to periods of drought, the evils resulting from which might be greatly obviated by artificial means—as by the making of reservoirs, &c.—and thus preserving the waters which fall in such large quantities in the rainy season. The soil on the banks of the rivers flowing into the sea is exceedingly fertile. The table-lands lying along the Great Dividing Chain are well adapted to the cultivation of wheat and maize, together with fruits and vegetables, similar

to those of Great Britain. The average amount of crops per acre is much greater than that of most countries.

Capes.—Point Danger, on the borders of Queensland ; Cape Byron, the most easterly point of Australia ; Smoky Cape, near Trial Bay; Crowdy Head, near the mouth of the Manning River ; Cape Hawke, near the entrance to Wallis Lake ; Sugarloaf Point; Point Bass, near Lake Illawarra; Point Perpendicular, at the entrance to Jervis Bay ; Cape George, between Jervis Bay and Sussex Haven ; and Cape Howe, on the borders of Victoria.

Bays axd Harbours.—Shoal Bay, the estuary of the Clarence River ; Trial Bay, at the mouth of the Macleay River ; Port Macquarie, at the mouth of the Hastings ; Port Stephens, an excellent harbour ; Port Hunter, into which the river Hunter flows ; Broken Bay ; Port Jackson, the finest harbour in the world; Botany Bay, a few miles south of Port Jackson; Port Hacking; Jervis Bay, an extensive sheet of water ; Sussex Haven ; Bateman’s Bay; and Twofold Bay, near the southern extremity of the colony.

Lagoons—are Camden Haven, south of Port Macquarie ; Wallis Lake and Myall Lakes, between the Manning and Hunter Rivers; Lake Macquarie and Tuggerah Lakes, between the Hunter and Hawkesbury Rivers ; and Lake Illawarra, in the district of Illawarra.

Mountains.—1. The Great Dividing Chain— the different portions of which are termed—the New England Range, the Liverpool Range, the Blue Mountain Range, Cullarin Range, Gourock

Range, Manaro Range, and Muniong Range.

2. The Coast Ranges—situated to the east oi the Great Dividing Chain, to which they run parallel at an average distance of about 35 miles from the coast: thev consist of—the Northern Coast Range, the Illawarra Range, the Currocbilly Range and the South Coast Range. 3. The Interior Ranges—at the western extremity of the colony, and—4. Isolated Mountains—distributed along the coast, the chief of which are Mounts Doubleduke, Whoman, Yarrahappini, Kibbora, Talawah, Dromedary, Mumbulla, and Imlay.

Rivers.—Draining the eastern slope of the Great Dividing Chain, are—1. The Richmond. 2. The Clarence, which is navigable for about 70 miles, falling into Shoal Bay. 3. The Macleay, flowing into Trial Bay. 4. The Hastings, into Port Macquarie. 5. The Manning, which forms a delta at its mouth. 6. The Hunter, one of the most important rivers on the east coast, and which is navigable for about 30 miles from its mouth, flowing into Port Hunter. 7. The Hawkesbury, flowing into Broken Bay. 8. The Shoalhaven, into Shoal-liaven Bay. 9. The Clyde, into Bateman’s Ba}r.

10. The Moruya, and—11. The Tuross.

Draining the western slope are—1. The Darling with its tributaries—The Macintyre, the Gwydir, the Peel (or Namoi), the Castlereagh, the Macquarie, and the Bogan. 2. The Murrumbidgee with its tributary—the Lachlan. 3. The Murray, the largest river in Australia, rising in the Muniong Range near Mount Koskiusko and flowing westerly and north-westerly through the entire breadth of the colony which it divides from the colony of Yic-toria. During its course the Murray receives, besides several smaller streams from both sides of its banks, the waters of the Murrumbidgee and Darling with all their numerous tributaries, and so drains nearly one-half of Eastern Australia. The Murray is about 2,400 miles long, and is navigable for small steamers for 2,000 miles from its mouth. The Darling also is navigable for several hundred miles above its confluence with the Murray.

Territorial Divisions.—New South Wales is divided into 144 counties. Of these 19 are generally known as the—counties originally proclaimed or as—the old settled districts. These 19 counties may be divided into 5 Coast and 14 Inland counties. The Coast counties, proceeding from north to south are—Gloucester, Northumberland, Cumberland, Camden, and St. Vincent. The Inland counties, alsb proceeding from north to south are—Durham, Brisbane, Hunter, Phillip, Bligh, Cook, Westmoreland, Roxburgh, Bathurst, Wellington, Georgiana, Argyle, King and Murray. The positions and even the names of the other 125 counties are so very little known, and they are so seldom referred to by the inhabitants, as to make them for .geographical purposes of very little practical value. In general terms, the colony may be said to be divided into the Coast District, and the Northern, Southern, and Western Districts. Other sub-divisions of the Coast District consisting of the tracts of country forming the basins of particular rivers, are frequently named after such rivers—such are the Richmond River District, the Clarence River

District, &c. Independently of its division into counties, the whole colony, with the exception of the 19 counties originally proclaimed, is divided into 13 Pastoral Districts, named respectively— the Gwydir, New England, Clarence, Macleay, Liverpool Plains, Bligh, Wellington, Warrego, Albert, Darling, Lachlan, Murrumbidgee, and Monaro Districts.

Chief Towns—The following is a list of the chief towns of New South Wales, classified according to their location on the Coast District, the Table Lands and the Interior Plains.

IN THE COAST DISTRICT.

Richmond River District.Casino, on the main stream of the Pichmond Piver—population, 590. LismorCj on the north arm of the Pichmond—population, 473.    Coraki, at the junction of its two

principal brandies, and JBallina at its mouth.

Clarence River District. — Grafton, an important town, and a place of considerable trade which is chiefly carried on with Sydney, the means of communication being supplied by steamers and sailing craft—population, 4,000. Other small towns in the district are—Copmanhurst about 20, and TJlmarra about 9 miles from Grafton, Lawrence on the north bank of the Clarence, and Maclean at the junction of the north and south arms of the river, 25 miles from the Heads, population, 500.

Macleay River DistrictKempsey, the chief town in the district—population, 1,321 ; Fredericklon, a small village lower down the river ; and Gladstone at the confluence of the Belmore river with the Macleay.

Hastings River District.—The only town of any importance is Port Macquarie, remarkable for its genial climate—a favourite resort of invalids— population, 750.

Manning River District.— Wing ham, Taree, and Cundletown on the north bank, and Tinonee on the south bank of the river. About half-way between the Manning and Hunter Rivers in the county of Gloucester, is Stroud, on a tributary of the Karuah River—population, 344

Hunter River District.Newcastle, situated at the entrance of the river Hunter, is next to Sydney, the most important sea-port in the colony. Besides coal, which is exported in immense quantities, all the agricultural products of the district, together with the wool and tallow of the northwestern interior, are shipped from Newcastle— population, 14,000. The other towns in the district, following the course of the river Hunter from its sources in the Liverpool Range are—Murrurundi, on the river Page at the foot of the mountains—population, 652. Scone, a Railway Station, on another tributary of the Hunter—population, 600. Aberdeen, 7 miles south of Scone. Muswellbrook, on the left bank of the Hunter. Merriwa, on a tributary of the Goulburn River—population, 342. Cassilis, on the Munmurra Brook. Denman, on the Hunter—population, 557. Wollombi and Broke, on the Wollombi River. Singleton, on the right bank of the Hunter—population, 1,951. West Maitland, the most important inland town in the district, and a place of considerable trade, which is principally carried on with the northern and western interior—population, 6,000. Hast

Maitland, adjoining "West Maitland, from which it is separated by Wallis Creek—population, 2,300. Morpeth, the head of the navigation of the Hunter —population, 1,372. Hinton, at the junction of the Hunter and Paterson—population, 475. Paterson, on the Paterson River. Dungog and Clarence Town, on the Williams River. Raymond Terrace at the junction of the Hunter and Williams—population, 694; and Stockton, at the mouth of the Hunter, opposite Newcastle—population, 666.

Inthe County of Cumberland.Sydney, the capital, situated on the southern shore of Port Jackson, about five miles from the entrance—population, 200,000. Parramatta, on the Parramatta River, a continuation of Port Jackson, about 15 miles from Sydney—population, 10,500. Liverpool, on George’s River—population, 1,760. C ampbelltotcn, on the line of the Great Southern Railway, 34 miles from Sydney—population, 688. Penrith, on the Nepean River—population, 1,467 ; Richmond, lower down the same river, which here assumes the name of the Hawkesbury—population, 1,239; and Windsor, on the Hawkesbury—population, 1,990.

County of Camden.Camden, on the Nepean— population, 505 ; and Picton, on the line of the Great Southern Railway—population, 667 ; Bulli, on the coast, a coal mining township, population, 1187 ; Wollongong, also on the coast, the centre of a considerable coal mining district—population, 1635; and Kiama to the south of Wollongong— population, 1161.

Shoalhaven District—Chief towns are Broughton Creek—population, 1288 ; Numba—population, 639 ; Terrara and Noicra, all on the Shoalhaven Biver.

Southern Coast District—Chief towns in the Southern Coast District are Ulladulla, 50 miles south of the Shoalhaven. ISelligen, at the mouth of Clyde Biver, population, 413. Moruya, on the Moruya Biver—population,    829. Bega, on a small

stream of the same name, about 50 miles south of Moruya—population, 1634. Mertmhula, Panhula, and Eden, are small towns further to the south.

ON THE NORTHERN TABLE LAND

The most important town is Armidale, situated on one of the head waters of the Macleay Biver at an elevation of 3,278 feet above the sea—population, 2,200. Tenterfield, near the northern boundary of the colony—population, 1,816. Glen Lines, midway between Armidale and Tenterfield—population, 1,327.    Inver ell, on the Macintyre, the

centre of a rich tin mining district—population, 1,936. Tingha, on a small tributary of the Bun-darra Biver, in the centre of a tin producing district—population, 2,424.    Bundarra, on the Bun-

darra Biver, a tributary of the Gwydir, and Walcha on the Apsley, near the 31st parallel of latitude.

ON TnE SOUTHERN TABLE LAND

The chief towns are—Goulburn, on the Mulwarree Creek (an affluent of the Wollondilly), the most important town in the Southern District. Distance from Sydney, 134 miles—population, 5,880. Berrima, on the Wingecarribee Biver, a tributary of the Wollondilly—population, 444. MittagongBovjrcil, and Moss Vale, rising townships on the

142,000,000

Southern Railway Line. Braid wood, on a tributary of the Shoalhaven River, is the centre of an important mining, agricultural, and pastoral district —height above the sea, 2,550 feet — population, 1,066. Bathurst, a flourishing town and the capital of the Western District of the colon}’, situated on the left bank of the Macquarie River—height above the sea, 2,300 feet—population, 7,200. Kelso, on the opposite bank of the river—population, 546. Sof ala, on the Turon River, a tributary of the Macquarie, the centre of an extensive gold-mining district. Orange, about 30 miles north-west of Bathurst, at a little distance from the left bank of the Macquarie, is a rising town in the centre of one of the richest agricultural and mineral districts in the colony—population, 2,700. Lithgow, population, 2,112, and Wallerawang, population, 2,307, are important mining townships on the Great Western Railway Line.    Mudgee, an important

town on the Cudgegong River, a tributary of the Macquarie—population, 2,500.    Gulgong, a min

ing township about 20 miles to the north-west of Mudgee—population, 1,200.    Wellington, at the

junction of the Bell River with the Macquarie— population, 1,340. Dubbo, lower down the Macquarie in a good pastoral country—population, 3,200. In the basin of the Lachlan River the chief towns are Gunning, a small village near the head waters of the river—population, 409. Carcoar, on the Belubula River—population, 540. Blayney, on the Western Railway Line—population, 720. Young, on the Burrangong Creek—population, 1,500. Temora, a gold-mining township 35 miles north of Cootamundra—population, 3000. Cowra,

on the Lachlan—population, 628. Forbes, lower down the Lachlan—population, 2,191. Parkes, on the Goobang Creek, in the centre of a productive gold mining and agricultural district—population, about 2000 ; and Grenfell, nearly midway between Forbes and Young—population, 1600. Condobolin, on the north bank of the Lachlan River, about 65 miles west of Forbes—population, 500. In the basin of the Murrumbidgee are—Yass, on the River Yass—population, 1,800.    Queanbeyan, on the

Queanbeyan River—population, 1,000. Cooma, on a small tributary of the Murrumbidgee, the chief town of the Monaro district—population, 1,012. Gundagai, on the right bank of the Murrumbidgee —population, 600. Murrumburrah, on a tributary of the Jugiong River, 20 miles from Young— population, 1,620. Cootamundra, an important town on the Muttama Creek and the Great Southern Railway, 40 miles north from Gundagai —population, 1,000. Tumut, on the Tumut River —population, 787 ; and Adelong, on the Adelong Creek, in a rich gold-mining district—population, 750. In the basin of the Snowy River, and not far from the southern extremity of the colony, is Bombala—population, 1,000.

ON THE INTERIOR PLAINS.

The chief towns are Tamworth, on the Peel River, an important town—population, 3,700. Gunnedah, on the Namoi River, near its junction with the Mooki—population, 1,400.    Coonamble,

on the Castlereagh—population, 800. Coona-barabran, near the Warrumbungle Mountains— population, 400. Cobar, between the Lachlan and

Darling Rivers, famed for its highly productive copper mines—population, 2,000. Warren, on the Macquarie River—population, 429 ; and Cannon-bar, on the Bogan—population, 472. Wagga Wagga, an important town on the Murrumbidgee—population, 4,000.    Narandera, lower down the river—

population, 1,200. Hay, on the same river—population, 2,100 ; and Balranald, at the junction of the Murrumbidgee and Murray—population, 646,

In the basin of the River Murray.—The chief towns are—Albury on the Upper Murray, a flourishing town in the centre of a, large wine producing district.    Timberumba, higher

up the river, population, 700, and Howlong and Coroiva, lower down the stream, all flourishing towns. Deniliquin, on the Wakool River, in the centre of an extensive pastoral countr}7 — population 2,500. Moama, on the Murray, opposite Echuca, population 1,200, and Wentworth, at the junction of the Darling and Murray, population 689. In the basin of the River Darling srs—Walgett, on the Barwon, population, 375. Brewarrina, on the upper course of the Darling, population, 344—BourJce, on the left bank of the Darling—population, 1,138 ; and JFilcannia, population, 1,424, and Menindie, a small township, both lower down the river.

Minerals are gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, antimony, zinc,manganese, nickel, quicksilver, kerosene shale and coal; slate, limestone, sandstone, granite, quartz, and freestone, are found in almost every locality. Iron abounds in various parts of the colony ; copper is plentiful and tin abundant, the yield of the latter amounting in 1880 to the value of half a million of pounds sterling. The gold-fields of this colony are very extensive.

Imports and Exports of ^ew South '»Vales are rapidly increasing. The chief articles of export are gold, wool, tallow, coal, tin, copper, grain, timber, leather, hides, salt and preserved meats, butter and cheese, live stock, &c.

Manufactures.—The principal manufactures are flour, sugar, wine, beer, woollen cloths, soap and candles, tobacco, leather, tallow, butter and cheese.

Religion.—The Christian religion is professed by the great majority of the people. The Episcopalians are by far the most numerous. The Catholics form nearly one-third of the entire colony. The Presbyterians, Wesleyans, and Congregationalists are also numerous. There are also Baptists and other sects of Protestants, with Jews, Mohammedans, Pagans, &c.

Population—750,000.

VICTORIA.

Boundaries.—The colony of Victoria is bounded on the south and south-east by the Southern Ocean and Bass’s Strait; on the north by a line running from Cape Howe, on the east coast, to the River Murray, thence along that river to the boundary of South Australia; on the west by South Australia.

Extent.—It extends 500 miles in length from east to west; and 250 in breadth from north to south ; superficial area about 86,831 square miles.

Face of tiie Country—The face of the country is agreeably diversified with hill and dale, having large tracts of well-grassed, open, undulating country. The country to the east and north-east is broken and irregular, principally by the Warra-gong Mountains (the Australian Alps), and their branches. The Australian Alps separate the district of Gipps Land from the Murray and Western Port Districts.

. Climate, Soil, &c.—The climate is temperate, and rather colder than that of New South Wales. The soil is generally fertile. Its productions are similar to those of the more southern parts of New South Wales.

Capes. —Cape Howe, Wilson’s Promontory, Capes Liptrap, Patterson, and Schanck; Points Nepean and Lonsdale (called also Port Phillip Heads); Cape Otway, and Cape Bridgewater.

Bays and Harbours. —Corner Inlet, Western Port, Port Phillip (the northern corner of which is called Hobson’s Bay, the harbour of Melbourne ; an 1 the western corner, Corio Bay, the harbour of Geelong), Port Fairy, Portland Bay, and Discovery Bay.

Mountains. —The Warragong Mountains, or Australian Alps, in the north-east; the Grampian and Victoria Banges in the west; Bogong Bange in the Murray District; Baw Baw Mountains in Gipps Land; and the Coast Bange near Cape Otway.

Bivers.—The principal rivers are—the Mitta Mitta, Ovens, Goulburn, Campaspe, and the Lod-don flowing northward into the Murray; the Snowy, Tambo, Mitchell, La Trobe, with its tributary the M‘Allister, all in Gipps Land, flowing into the Pacific Ocean; the Yarra Yarra into Port Phillip; and the Hopkins and the Glenelg in the Portland Bay District, flowing into the Southern Ocean.

Territorial Divisions.—Victoria is divided into six Districts. These are Gipps Land District, in

the south-east; the Murray District, in the northeast; the Western Port District, in the centre; Portland Bay District in the south-west; the Loddon District, in the north ; and the Wimmera District, in the north-west.

The Principal Towns in Gipps Land District are—Sale, Stratford, Bair ns dale. Port Albert, and Walhalla, In the Murray District—Beechworth, the chief town of the Ovens diggings; Wodonga (the terminus of the north-eastern railway), Wahgunyah, Chiltern, Wangaratta, and Benalla. In Western Port District are—Melbourne, on the Yarra River, the capital of the Colony—population, 235,000 ; Willi am stolen, at the mouth of the Yarra; Geelong, on Oorio Bav—population, 20,000; Ballarat, 96 miles to the north-east of Melbourne, the centre of an important gold-mining district—population,

30,000 ; Castlemaine, an important town about 72 miles north-west of Melbourne ; other towns are Kilmore, Kyneton, and JEchuca, the terminus of the Murray River Railway. In the Portland Bay District are—Belfast, Warrnambool and Portland, all carrying on a considerable coasting trade; Hamilton, the most important town in the southwest, and the centre of a rich agricultural district; and Ararat, on a gold-field towards the south of the district. In the Loddon and Wimmera Districts —the most important town is Sandhurst, the centre of the Bendigo gold-fields—population, 16,000. Other towns are Maldon, Inglewood, and Dunolly, all of which are situated on gold-fields.

Minerals—Gold has been found in groat abundance.

Population—850,000.

QUEENSLAND.

Boundakies.—This colon}’, formerly the Moreton Bay District of New South Wales, lies to the north of that colony, and includes the eastern seaboard of the continent, from Point Danger northward, occupying a superficial area of 670,000 square miles.

Face of the Country.—The physical features of Queensland are exactly similar to those of New South Wales. First: there is a Coast District, backed at a moderate distance inland by ranges of high ground, beyond which are vast plains stretching into the interior ; these plains are mostly well grassed and watered, and supply good feeding grounds for sheep and cattle.

Climate, Soil, &c.—The climate of Queensland is warmer than that of New South Wales. Both soil and climate are favourable to the growth of the sugar cane and cotton plant, both of which have been introduced with considerable success. All the fruits and grains of the warmer latitudes of the globe display the most luxuriant growth. Sheep-farming here, as in other parts of Australia, is extensively pursued.

Islands.—The jirincipal islands belonging to Queensland are—Stradbroke, Moreton, Great Sandy, and Curtis Islands, all on the east coast.

Capes.— On the north-east coast are—Cape Moreton, the northern extremity of Moreton Island; Sandy Cape, the northern extremity of Great Sandy Island : Cape Capricorn, Cape Palmerston, Cape Bowling Green, Cape Grafton, Cape Flattery, Cape Melville, and Cape York the most northerly point of Australia.

Bays and Gulfs.—Moreton Bay, Wide Bay, Hervey Bay, Port Curtis, Keppel Bay, Shoalwater Ba}7, Broad Sound, Cleveland Bay, Rockingham Bay, Trinity Bay and Princess Charlotte Bay, all on the east coast; and the Gulf of Carpentaria on the north coast.

Mountains.—The Great Dividing Chain running throughout the entire length of the colony, at a short distance from the sea.

Rivers.—Draining the eastern slope of the Great Dividing Chain are—the Brisbane, flov'ing into Moreton Bay ; the Burnett, into the sea to the north of Hervey Bay; the Fitzroy, with its affluents the Dawson, Mackenzie, and Isaacs, into Keppel Bay; and the Burdekin, into Cleveland Bay. Draining the western slope, the principal rivers are—the Barcoo, Paroo, and Warrego. Draining the northern slope are—the Mitchell, with its tributary the Lynd ; the Gilbert, Norman, Flinders, and Albert, all flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Chief Towns.—Brisbane, the capital, on the River Brisbane, 22 miles from its mouth—■ population, 33,000 ; Ipswich on the Bremer, a tributary of the Brisbane, 24 miles from Brisbane ; Toowoomba, Drayton, and Daily, all centres of large squatting districts, and ail to the west of Brisbane; Warwick, the centre of a rich tin-mining district, near the boundary of New South Wales ; Stan-thorpe, a tin-mining township, 37 miles south of Warwick ; Maryborough, on the Mary River, near Great Sandy Island ; Gympie, on the Upper Mary River, 54 miles south of Maryborough, a Nourishing gold-mining township; Gay?idah, on the Burnett, west of Maryborough ; Bundaberg, 10 miles from the‘mouth of the Burnett; Gladstone, on Port Curtis; Rockhampton, a thriving town, on the Fitzroy River—population, 10,000; Jlackay, on the Pioneer Eiver, in the midst of sugar plantations; Bowen, on Port Uenison ; Townsville, on Cleveland Bay ; Cardwell, on Bockingham Bay; Cooktown, on the Endeavour Eiver; and Burketoum, near the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Minerals.—Rich gold-fields have been discovered. Coal, copper, and tin are also found.

Exports are—wool, tallow, hides, preserved meat, gold, copper, tin, sugar, cotton, maize, and rum.

Population—222,000.

SOUTH AUSTEALIA.

Boundaries.—Bounded on the north by 26th parallel ; on the east, New South Wales and Victoria ; on the west, Western Australia ; on the south, by the Southern Ocean.3 It occupies the central southern coast of Australia, and, including the Northern Territory (temporarily annexed to South Australia), forms an area of 900,000 square miles.

Face of the Country.—The western parts of this colony are but little known ; the only part occupied being that lying between the Eiver Murray and Spencer Gulf. The greater part of the country consists of low-lying plains, suitable for pastoral purposes; the only mountains being in the neighbourhood of St. Vincent and Spencer Gulfs. A large portion of the country through which these mountains pass is exceedingly fertile, producing abundant crops of corn, fruits rich in flavour, and every description of vegetables. The hilly country receives a larger supply of rain and enjoys a cooler atmosphere than the lower parts of the colony, having a temperature similar to that of Sydney. The hot winds prevail here to a much greater extent than in the other colonies. The climate resembles that of South Africa.

Capes.—Cape Northumberland, Cape Bernoulli, Cape Jervis, the south-eastern extremity of St, Vincent’s Gulf; Cape Spencer, the extremity of Yorke Peninsula; Cape Catastrophe, the southeastern, and Widley Point, the western extremity of Eyria Peninsula.

Bays and Gulfs.—Encounter Bay, connected with Lake Alexandrina, by the Goolwa Channel; St. Vincent Gulf, Spencer Gulf, Coffin Bay, Anxious Bay, Streaky Bay, and Fowler Bay.

Mountains.—From Cape Jervis, the southeastern extremity of St. Vincent Gulf, a range of hills extend northwards past the head of Spencer Gulf, up to which point they are known as the Mount Barker Pange ; thence under the name of Flinders Iiange they continue their course northwards towards the interior. To the westward of this range are two other ranges extending in a north-west direction, which are known as Gawler and Stuart Panges.

Lakes.—Lake Alexandrina, Lake Torrens, Lake Gairdner, Lake Eyre, and Lake Frorne.

Rivers.—The Murray, which has a course of nearly 300 miles within the province.

Chief Towns.—Adelaide, the capital, on the River Torrens—population, 85,000; Port Adelaide, on St. Vincent Gulf, the chief port; Glenelg, on Holdfast Bay, south of Port Adelaide; Kapunda and Kooringa, the principal towns in the copper mining districts; Goolwa, at the mouth of the Murray ; and Port Lincoln in the south-west of Spencer Gulf.

Mines.—The Copper Mines of Burra Burra are perhaps the richest in the world; lead, slates, iron, &c.

Pop illation*—277,000.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

Extent.—The colony of Western Australia includes all that part of Australia comprised between the Indian Ocean and 129° of east longitude. Its greatest length from north to south is 1,080 miles ; breadth from west to east 800 miles. Its superficial contents are about 1,000,000 square miles or about 640,000,000 acres.

Climate and Soil.—The climate of Western Australia is nearly the same as that of New South Wales ; the soil in the vicinity of Perth and Fremantle is sandy and barren. Several districts of country, to the north-west, of rich alluvial soil, well adapted for purposes of cultivation, were discovered by Governor Grey in his expeditions through Western Australia, particularly the districts of Victoria and Babbage.

Face of the Country.—The mountain ranges of Western Australia, like those of Xew South AVales in their main ridges, generally tend in a north and south direction. The Darling range has its base a few miles from Perth, and runs southward, throwing off several branches, which give the surface of the country an irregular and disagreeable aspect ; the country to the north and north-west is intersected by mountain ranges running nearly parallel to one another ; the ravines or valleys between them are extremely rich, but subject to heavy inundations in wet weather from the mountain torrents.

Rivers.—The Swan, with its tributary, the Avon ; the Blackwood, flowing into the sea, near Cape Lleeuwin; the Murchison, Gascoyne, Ashburton, and Fortescue.

Chief Towns.—Perth, on Swan Eiver—population, 6,000; Freemantle, at its mouth; Guildford and York) and Albany on King George’s Sound.

Productions—are wheat, wine, sandal-wood, jarrah (or Western Australian Mahogany). Wool is the chief export.

History, Pojmlation, &c.—That part of the Swan River settlement, from North-West Cape to Cape Lleeuwin on the south-west, was discovered by the navigators Edeland Hartog, in 1616, and was proclaimed a British territory on the 1st June, 1829, by Governor Stirling, the first Governor of the colony; the southern part of Western Australia, King George’s Sound was discovered by Vancouver in 1791, and was occupied by a detachment of troops and prisoners from Sydney in 1826, but was subsequently abandoned by the Government of New South Wales, and attached to Western Australia; Perth, the capital and seat of government, is nearly due west from Sydney. Vlaming, a Dutch navigator, in 1697, gave it the name of Zwancen Riviere. In the year 1848 things had reached so general a depression, that entire ruin threatened the colonists ; to save themselves they consented that the Dome Government should make it a penal colony. Convicts were accordingly sent till ISoS, when transportation altogether ceased.

Popu la t ion—29,000

TASMANIA.

Boundaries.—Tasmania is bounded on the north by Bass’s Strait, and on the east, south, and west by the South Pacific Ocean ; superficial area, 26,400 square miles.

Pace of tiie Country.—The surface of the country presents a highly diversified aspect, high ranges of hills and isolated peaks, alternating with deep and fertile valleys, or with extensive plains. The scenery of the southern and western portions of the island is especially beautiful.

Climate, Soil, and Productions.—The climate of Tasmania is cooler and moister than that of the Australian continent, and may be considered a mild modification of that of the south and southwestern parts of England. Prom the similarity of its climate to that of England, all the English grasses, grains and bulbs succeed well; wheat, barley, oats, peas, turnips and potatoes grow to great perfection.

Islands.—The principal are—King’s Island, Plinders and Barren Islands in Bass’s Strait; Schouten Island and Maria Island off the east coast; and Bruni Island off the south coast.

Capes.—On the north coast are—Cape Grim, Circular Head, Eocky Cape, Table Cape, and Cape Portland ; on the east coast are Eddystone Point, St. Helen’s Point, St. Patrick’s Head, Cape Lodi, and Cape Pillar; on the south coast are Cape Raoul, Tasman's Head, Cape Bruni, South Cape, Southwest Cape ; on the west coast Rocky Point, Point Ilibbs, Cape Sorrell, and West Point.

Bays and Gulfs.—Port Dalrymple on the north coast; Oyster and Storm Bay on the east coast ; Port Davey on the south coast; and Macquarie Harbour on the west coast.

Mountains.—The mountains of Tasmania are a continuation of the Great Dividing Chain which traverses the whole eastern coast of Australia. Their general direction is north-east and southwest, and their average height about 3,500 feet. The highest peak is Ben Lomond 5,000 feet above the level of the sea.

Rivers.—The Derwent, with its tributaries, the Ouse, Clyde, Jordan, and Florentine, flowing into Storm Bay ; the Tamar, with its tributaries, the North and South Esk, into Port Dalrymple ; the Don, Forth, and Leven, into Bass’s Strait; the Iluen, into D’Entrecasteaux Channel; the Gordon, into Macquarie Harbour; and the Arthur into the Southern Ocean.

Chief Towns are—Hobart Town, the capital, on the river Derwent, 20 miles from its mouth— population, 25,000; Launceston, on the Tamar, 121 miles from Ilobart Town—population, 13,000; George Town, at the mouth of the Tamar ; PerthCampbelltoivn, Loss, Oatlands,    Brighton, and

Bridgewater, on the road between Launceston and Hobart Town; Longford, a few miles south of Launceston; New Norfolk, and Hamilton, northwest of Ilobart Town ; and Swansea, on Oyster

Bay ; Port Davey and Port Arthur, on the west coast.

Tasmania is divided into eighteen counties.

Minerals.—Coal, iron, copper, lead, tin (in abundance); limestone, and marble.

Zoology.—The animals peculiar to Tasmania are the kangaroo, wombat, opossum, native tiger, native cat, and an animal called the native devil ; the native dog of New South Wales is not found here. There are snakes, guanas, centipedes, scorpions, and ants in abundance. Amongst the feathered tribe are emus, black and white cockatoos, parrots, magpies, laughing jackasses, hawks, eagles, teal, widgeon, snipe, and pigeons.

Population.—114,000.

NEW ZEALAND.

Situation, &c.—New Zealand is situated to the south-east of Australia, lying between the latitudes of 34° 2d' and 47° 17'south, and longitudes of 166° o and 178° 35' east ; it is about 1,200 miles from Sydney, and consists of three islands, known as the North, the South, and Stewart Islands.

The North Island is separated from the Soutli Island by Cook Strait, and is about 500 miles in length, and 249 in its greatest breadth. It is irregular in figure, and contains 44,100 square miles.

Tiie South Island is separated from Stewart Island by Foveaux Strait, and measures 500 miles in length, and 200 in its greatest breadth; its area being about 55,000 square miles.

Stewart Island is much smaller than either of the others, being only 40 miles long and 25 broad, and containing about 1,000 square miles. Total area of New Zealand—100,000 square miles.

Face of the Country.—Very mountainous; the main ranges running generally in a direction from north-east to south-west.

Climate, Soil, &c.—The climate is genial and healthy, but exceedingly variable—calms and gales, rain and sunshine, heat aud cold, succeeding each other with great rapidity. The soil is generally fertile.

Islands and Lands adjacent to New Zealand. —Islands belonging to New Zealand are—the Chatham Islands, Bounty Islands, Antipodes Islands, xVuckland Islands, and Campbell Island. The nearest lands to the westward are—Tasmania and Australia ; to the eastward, Chili in South America; to the northward, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, the Friendly and Fiji Islands, and the Polynesian Archipelago; to the south lie the unexplored waters of the Southern Ocean.

Capes.—The principal capes in the North Island are—Cape Maria Van Diemen and North Cape on the north ; Capes Brett and Colville, East Cape, Table Cape, and Kidnapper s Cape on the east; Cape Palliser and Cape Terawhiti on the south ; and Cape Egmont and Beef Point on the west. In the South Island are—Cape Farewell, Francis Head, and Cape J ackson on the north ; Cape Campbell, East Head, and Cape Saunders on the east; the Bluif and Windsor Point on the south ; and West Cape, Cascade Point, Cape Foul-wind, and Rocks Point on the west. In Stewart Island—the principal cape is South Cape, the southern extremity of the island.

Bays and Gulfs.—In the North Island are— Hauraki Gulf, Bay of Plenty, and Hawke Bay on the east coast; Palliser Bay on the south ; and South Taranaki Bight, and North Taranaki Bight on the west coast. In the South Island are— Golden Bay, and Tasman Bay on the north ; Cloudy Bay on the north-east; Pegasus Bay, Canterbury Bight, and Molyneux Bay on the east; Tewaewae Bay on the south ; and Karamea Bay on the north-west.

Harbours.—In the North Island are—Bay of Islands on the north-east; Waitemata or Auckland Harbour in the Hauraki Gulf; Napier Harbour, in Hawke Bay ; Wellington Harbour (or Port Nicholson), on Cook Strait; and Hoki-anga, Kaipara, Manukau, Waikato, and Kawhia Harbours on the north-west. In the South Island are—Nelson Haven, in Tasman Bay; Queen Charlotte Sound and Picton Harbour, in Cook Strait; Port Lyttelton in Pegasus Bay ; Dunedin Harbour, with Port Chalmers, on the south-east; and Bluff Harbour, Invercargill Harbour, Chalky Bay and Dusky Bay, on the south. In Stewart Island, are Port Pegasus and Paterson Inlet.

Straits. — The principal Straits are — Cook Strait, between the North and South Islands, and Poveaux Strait, between the South and Stewart Islands.

Mountains.—In the North Island are- -the Coromandel Range, the Kai Manawha, Rualiine, and

Tararua Banges. To the west of the Buahine Bange, in about the centre of the island, are two very high volcanic peaks, Tongariro and Buapehu, and on the west coast is another called Mount Egmont. In the South Island are the Tasman Mountains, the Kaikoura Range, and the principal range known as the Southern Alps, which extends for about 200 miles parallel to the coast. Its highest point is Mount Cook, 13,200 feet in height.

Rivers.—The principal rivers in the North Island are—the Waikato, flowiug into the sea on the west coast; the Waiho or Thames, flowing into Hauraki Gulf; the Wanganui and the Manawatu into the South Taranaki Bight; and the Bangitaika into the Bay of Plenty. In the South Island are —the Waitaki falling into the sea on the east coast ; the Clutlia, the largest river in the South Island flowing into Molyneux Bay; and the Mataura into Foveaux Strait.

Lakes.—Lake Taupo, Lakes Tarawera, Rotorua, and Botoiti in the North Island; and Lakes Wakatipu, Wan aka, Hawea, Anau, and Manipori in the South Island.

Territorial Divisions.—New Zealand isdivided into nine districts, which are sub-divided into sixty-three counties. The general government of the country is carried on at Wellington by a Governor and two Blouses, the one elective, and the other nominated for life. The

DISTRICTS IN THE NORTH ISLAND ARE—

Auckland, occupying the northern portion of the island ; chief towns—Aucklandpopulation,

39,000 ; Parnell—population, 3,600 ; Newton, 4,000; Shortland, 3,600 ; and Grahamstown, 2,254.

Wellington—on the south; chief towns— Wellington, the capital of New Zealand—population, 21,000; and Wanganui, population, 2,500.

Hawke’s Bay—on the east; chief town—Napier —2,200 ; and

Taranaki—on the west ; chief town—New Plymouth— population, 1,850.

DISTRICTS IN THE SOUTH ISLAND, ARE—

Nelson—on the north-west; chief towns— Nelson—population, 5,600; and Charleston — population, 1,400.

Marlborough—on the north-east; chief town— Blenheim—population, 741.

Canterbury—on the east; chief towns—Christ-church—population, 29,000 ; Lyttelton— population, 2,600 ; and Timaru on the east coast, ninety miles south-west of Christchurch.

Otago—on the south, includes the district of Southland and Stewart Island ; chief towns— Dunedin—population, 35,000 ; Port Chalmers— population, 1,400; Oamaru—population, 1,657; and Invercargill—population, 2,000; and

Westland —on the west coast; chief townsIlohitika—population, 3,600; and Greymouth— population, 2,200.

Population—The total amount of European population in New Zealand is about 475,000, while the native population has decreased to about

35,000. The great majority of the latter reside on the North Island.

Natural Features,—The larger islands are traversed the greater part of their length by a chain of mountains, several points of which attain the height of from 8 to 13 thousand, feet, and are perpetually covered with snow; these mountains slope gradually down to the level of the sea. The harbours of the islands are numerous, and the surface of the country presents an endless variety of rivers, lakes, forests of valuable timber, swampy plains and open country, well watered from the innumerable streams descending from both sides of the mountain ranges, and collecting in the valleys into deep and rapid rivers.

Zoology and Mineralogy.—Of mammals, New Zealand is almost entirely destitute, but there is a great variety of birds; the singing birds are much admired, also the tui, generally called the mocking bird, from the great versatility ot its talents for imitation ; there are wild ducks, pigeons, petrels, cormorants, curlews, albatrosses, penguins, &c. The principal minerals are gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and coal; also many quarries of granite, quartz, lime, marble, slate, and freestone.

Climate and Soil.—The temperature of the islands differs considerably; that of the North Island assimilates much to the temperature of England, wThilst the climate of Stewart Island is colder and moister. The land is fertile in the valleys, and very productive. The New Zealand flax, which grows to the height generally of six or seven feet is to be found in nearly every part of the islands. European grains, fruits, and vegetables thrive well; the lakes and rivers abound with a variety of fish of excellent quality. The principal exports are potatoes, "wheat, flax, timber, bark, hams, seal-skins, gum, oil, and whalebone.

History.—New Zealand was discovered in 1612 by Abel Jansen Tasman, and visited in 1769 by Captain Cook, "who took possession of it in the name of his sovereign. In 1814 the Governor of New South Wales issued a proclamation declaring New Zealand to be a dependenc3r of the British Crown ; several subsequent attempts were n ade in England by private companies to colonize it, all of which failed until the year 1839, when the New Zealand Company was formed for the ostensible objects of purchasing land irom the natives and promoting immigration. The Imperial

Parliament, however, in the year 1841, took steps for erecting it into an independent colony, which was accomplished (after much opposition from the New Zealand Company) by sending out Governor Hobson in 1841, who proclaimed it thenceforward a British colony, independent of the Government of New South Wales. A new Constitution was granted to the colony in 1852.

Norfolk Island is situated in the latitude of 29    2' south, and longitude of 168    13' east,

and is about 21 miles in circumference ; it is nearly 1,200 miles east of Sydney, and 400 north of New Zealand, Area, about 14 square miles. The air is pure, and the soil uncommonly fertile.

This island belongs to the Government of New South Wales, and was formerly a place of secondary punishment for convicts from that and the neighbouring colony of Tasmania. It is now inhabited by the descendants of the mutineers of the ship “ Bounty.”

Papua (or New Guinea) is an extensive island to the north of Australia, from which it is separated by Torres Straits. It is 1,200 miles from east to west, and about 300 from north to south.

The soil is rich and fertile. Gold is known to exist in many parts of New Guinea. Its inhabitants are barbarians and semi-negroes.

The Louisiade Archipelago, to the southeastward of New Guinea, includes an extensive group of islands—about eighty in number—which are thinly inhabited.

New Britain consists of two considerable islands tying to the north-eastward of New Guinea.

New Ireland—an island of long, narrow form, lies further north.

The Solomon Islands are a long chain which extends in a north-west and south-east direction.

The Santa Cruz Islands.—These islands were the scene of the shipwreck of La Perouse.

New Hebrides comprise Erromanga, Tanxa, and others.

New Caledonia is of considerable magnitude— 250 miles long, with an average breadth of 25 miles. The French have made a permanent settlement upon this island. The population amounts to about 25,000. The capital is Noumea, cn the west coast.

The Fiji Islands.—The group of Fijis comprises two principal islands, with a great number of small ones: The two larger islands are called Viti-Levu (Great Fiji), and Vanua-Levu (Great Land). The soil is fertile, and fruits are abundant. Cotton of a fine quality is grown. A settlement was made in these islands by colonists from Australia, and a Constitutional Government was formed, but having been ceded by the King and Chiefs to Great Britain, they now form a British colony. The capital is Suva, on the island of Viti-Levu ; Levuka, on the island of Ovalaiq is the centre of a considerable trade.

The island of Kotumati, recently (1880) ceded to Great Britain, now forms a dependenc}' of the colony of Fiji.

### POLYNESIA.

By Polynesia we understand (as the name implies) the many islands of the Pacific Ocean. It comprises all the islands which cannot be conveniently classed under the divisions of Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australasia. These are inhabited by two distinct races—one a seminegro race, similar to the natives of Australia and Papua, very barbarous and averse to intercourse with strangers; and the other of Malayan race, generally friendly to Europeans, and ready to adopt civilisation. Population, about 300,000.

The greater number of the Polynesian Islands are comprehended within the ten following groups — three of which lie to the north, and seven to the south of the equator : —

Islands North of the Equator.

1.    Sandwich ok Hawaiian Islands ; These islands are

favourably situated for trade, their position being midway between the old and new worlds. The inhabitants are civilised, and possess an hereditary and constitutional monarchy. In Hawaii or Owyhee, the largest of this group, Captain Cook was killed, a.d. 1778. The chief town is Honolulu on the island of Oahu.

2.    Caroline Islands, forming a very numerous group.

3.    Ladrone Islands, so called from the thievish disposition

of the natives.

Islands South of the Equator.

4.    Friendly, or Tonga, Islands, so called by Captain

Cook, from the friendly disposition shown to him by the natives.

5.    Samoa, or Navigators' Isles, comprising four principal

islands and several smaller ones.

6.    Cook Islands.—The principal are Rarotonga and

Mangaia.

7.    Austral Islands.

8.    Society Islands, of which the largest is Tahiti, now

in the possession of the French.

9.    The Low Archipelago, among which are found large

quantities of mother-of-pearl.

10.    The Marquesas, belonging to the French ; the women

of these islands are said to be remarkably beautiful.

Note (1). Some of the Polynesian Islands are of volcanic origin, and rise like mountains out of the sea, presenting the most beautiful and variegated scenery that ever the eye beheld; others are coral islands, rising only a few feet from the level of the sea, very beautifully wooded and fertile. Most of the islands are protected from the violence of the ocean by coral reefs, which act as natural break-waters, and form safe anchorages for boats, &c. The climate of these islands is generally warm but healthy, All the productions of tropical climates flourish, as the sugar-cane, cotton-plant, coffee, oranges, &c. The principal native plants are the bread fruit, plantain, banana, coeoanut, yam, and sweet potatoe. Much arrowroot is manufactured by the natives, and large quantities of coeoanut oil are collected. The only animals existing, when discovered by Europeans, were the hog and the dog ; but a few European domestic animals have been introduced. The languages of the Malay races are found to be from one common origin, and are now reduced to grammatical rule, and have been enriched by translations of the Scriptures. &c.

Noto (2). These islands derive an additional importance from their position in the Pacific Ocean, which is every year becoming more and more the great highway of intercourse between Australia, Asia, and the vast continent of America. It is highly probable that the principal islands will in due time become naval stations and coal depots for the steamers of America and Australia ; and should the native population continue to decrease, there will be ample room for the settlement of European colonists.

Note (3). The trade of these islands is mainly in the hands of the British, American, Germans, and Chinese. There are also regular Australian trading establishments, and a few American, on the principal islands. Beche-de-mer, sandal wood, cocoanut oil, cobra, pearlshell, pearls, sponges, cotton, and fruits, are the principal exports. Honolulu, the capital of the Sandwich Islands, may be regarded as the commercial capital of the Polynesian Islands.

SOLITARY ISLANDS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN, &c.

A few solitary islands remain to be noticed, which could not be conveniently classed under the head of any divisions of the globe.

1.    Kerguelan’s Land, in 50 deg. S. latitude (100 miles long and 60 miles broad), on the confines of the Indian and Antarctic Oceans; it is also called the Isle of Desolation, It is’without a tree or shrub, or living land animal ; but fossil w’ood and coal are found in abundance. Its position is almost midway between South Africa and Australia, though about 700 miles to the south of the direct course which ships usually take on their way from Europe or the Cape to Australia.

2.    St. Paul’s and Amsterdam Islands are of small extent GO miles apart, in the Indian Ocean, to the north of Kerguelan’s Island, and exactly midwTiy between Africa and Australia, and almost in the direct course w'hich sailing vessels take.

3.    Tristan D’Acunha Islands and Gouga’s Island are south-west of the Cape of Good Hope, in the Atlantic Ocean.

4.    Thompson's Island and Bouvet’s Islands, are small rocks, direct south of the Capo of Good Hope, in latitude 5Se.

5.    Prince Edward and Penguin Islands, with Crozet and Marion Islands, are of volcanic origin, and are situated in the Indian Ocean, between Kenruelan’s Land and the coast of South Africa, and serve as places of resort for persons engaged in seal-catching.

6.    Pitcairn’s Island, south-east of the Uangerous Archipelago, remarkable for the settlement formed there by the mutinous crew of the ship “ Bounty,4a.d. 1790.

7.    Easter Island, east of Pitcairn’s Island, inhabited by a Malayan race, and remarkable for traces of early civilisation, and for monuments of an extinct and superior race of inhabitants.

### THE SOUTHERN CONTINENT.

Land has been discovered near the South Pole by the English and American exploring expeditions, but it is utterly useless and uninhabitable.

### EUROPE.

1. Situation, Extent, &c.—Europe lias Asia to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans to the west and north. It is about 3,000 miles broad from east to west, and 2,500 long from north to south.

2. Face of the Country,—The north of Europe is mountainous; for instance Norway and Sweden ; the centre, comprehending the north of France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, the north of Germany, Prussia, Hungary, and Russia, is for the most part a plain ; the southern countries, Spain, Portugal, the south of France, Switzerland, Italy, Turkey, and Greece are generally mountainous.

3. Climate, Soil, &c.—Europe is distinguished by the peculiar mildness of its climate compared with Asia or America in similar latitudes; this is owing to its vicinity to the Atlantic Ocean, and the influence of the various inland seas and gulfs by which it is intersected. Its soil is generally fertile ; it contains no arid plains or sandy deserts, and its natural advantages have been long improved by the laborious diligence of an industrious and intelligent population.

4    Denmark

5    Norway

6    Sweden

7    Russia

15,218

122,869

170,979

2,074,6S6

2,100,000

1,800,000

4,500,000

73,000,000

Copenhagen

Christiania

Stockholm

Petersburg

193.000

116.000

173.000

665.000

Comparative View of the Principal Countries of Europe.

 Countries. Extent in \$<]. miles. Population. Chief Towns Population. 1    England 2    Ireland 3    Scotland 58,320 31,874 30,6S5 Vestern Count? 26,000 000 5.160.000 3.360.000 'ies. London Dublin Edinburgh 3,750,000 320.000 225.000

Northern Countries.

Countries. ^xtVl{j\4 Population. Chief Town4. Population

J 84J4

Countries in the Middle.

8    Austria

9    Germany

10    Holland

11    Belgium

12    France

13    Switzerland

14    Spain

15    Portugal

16    Italy

17    Turkey IS Greece

19    Montenegro

20    Servia

21    Roumania

240,943    38,000,000 Vienna    1,020,000

20S,744    43,000,000 Berlin    967,000

12,6S0    4,000,000    Amsterdam 300,000

11,373    5,537,000 Brussels    376,000

204,096    37,000.000 Paris    2,000,000

15,991!    2,776,000 Berne    36,000

Southern Countries.

475.000

280.000

250.000

700.000

52.000 1,400

28.000

221.000

17,000,000

4.800.000 28,000,000

9,000,000

1.680.000 308,000

1,670,000

5,300,000

195,775 35, SI 2 114,406 130,571 19,353 3, yoO 20,850 48,307

Lisbon

Home

Constantinople

Athens

Cettinje

Bucharest

Islands.—Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, and the Azores, in the Atlantic; Zealand, Funen, and Laaland, in the Cattegat; Oland, Gothland, and Oesel, in the Baltic; Majorca, Minorca, Ivica, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta (maid-), Candia, and the Ionian Isles, in the Mediterranean ; and Nova Zembla and Spitzbergen, in the Arctic Ocean.

Peninsulas. —Sweden and Norway (or, the Scandinavian Peninsula) ; Spain and Portugal; Jutland in Denmark; Italy; the Morea, in Greece ; and the Crimea, in the south of Russia.

Ithmuses.—Corinth, joining the Morea to Greece; and Perekop, joining the Crimea to Russia.

Capes.—The North Cape, in Lapland ; Naze, in Norway ; Skawe, in Denmark ; Land’s End, in England ; Cape Clear, in Ireland : Cape La Ilogue, in France; Capes Ortegal and Finisterre, in Spain; Cape St. Vincent, in Portugal: Cape Spartivento, in Italy; and Cape Matapan, in Greece.

Mountains.—The Dovrefield Mountains, in Norway; Pyrenees, between France and Spain ; Alps, on the north of Italy; Apennines, in Italy; Carpathian Mountains, in Hungary ; Hmmus or Balkan Mountains, in Turkey; and the Ural Mountains, between Europe and Asia.

Seas.—The White Sea, Baltic Sea, and German Ocean, in the north; the Irish Sea, and English Channel, on the west; and the Mediterranean, Archipelago, Black Sea, and the Sea of Azov, on the south.

Lakes.—Ladoga, and Onega, in Pussia ; Wener, and Wetter in Sweden ; Windermere, in England ; Lough Neagh, in Ireland; and Geneva and Constance in Switzerland.

Gulfs and Bays.—The Gulfs of Bothnia, Finland, and Piga, in the west of Pussia ; the Bay of Biscay, west of France; the Gulf of Lions, south of France ; the Gulf of Genoa, south of Sardinia ; and the Gulf of Venice, between Italy and Turkey.

Straits.—The Strait of Waigatz, between Pussia and Nova Zembla; the Sound, between Sweden and Zealand ; the Strait of Dover, between France and England ; the Strait of Gibraltar, between Spain and Africa; the Strait of Bonifacio (-fatckio), between Corsica and Sardinia; the Strait of Messina, between Italy and Sicily; and the Dardanelles, joining the Archipelago to the Sea of Marmora.

Rivers.—The Darina, Dniester, Dnieper, Don, and Volga, in Russia ; the Vistula, in Poland and Prussia; the Oder, in Prussia; the Elbe and Rhine in Germany ; the Thames, in England ; the ¡Shannon, in Ireland ; the Seine, Loire, and Rhone, in France ; the Douro, Tagus, and Guadiana, in Spain and Portugal; the Guadalquiver, and Ebro, in Spain; the Po and Tiber, in Italy; and the Danube, in Austria and Turkey.

Natural Features, &c.—In proportion to its size Europe presents a much greater extent of coast than any other of the great divisions of the globe ; the length of the coastline would nearly reach round the earth. About two-thirds of its surface consist of an immense plain ; the remainder is occupied by mountains, which principally extend along its western and southern shores. The climate in the north is very severe; but in the middle and southern provinces is extremely mild and pleasant.

The minerals are chiefly gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, coal, salt, and precious stones. The wild animals in Europe are few, compared with those in Asia or Africa. The only formidable beasts of prey now found within the limits of this continent are the bear, wolf, and lynx.

Belit/ion.—Christianity prevails throughout Europe, not excepting Turkey, where, though the established religion is Mohammedanism, two-thirds of the people are Christians of the Greek church. The number of Catholics in Europe is computed at 150 millions; of the Greek church, 80 millions ; Protestants of all denominations, 75 millions ; Jews, 2 millions ; Mohammedans, 8 millions ; and Idolaters, about 300,000.

Governments.—A largo amount of civil liberty is enjoyed in Europe, tho government of several of the most important states being limited monarchies.

Races.—The Celtic races, remnants of whom are found in the Highlands of Scotland ; the native Irish and Welsh ; the Blanks, in the Isle of Man; the Bretons, in France; and the Asturians, Basques, &c., in the provinces of Spain, bordering upon the Bay of Biscay; the languages of these fragments of people are dialects of the ancient languages of Europe, spoken by its earliest inhabitants. The pure Teutonic or Gothic races, which form the major part of the population of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, England, and the Lowlands of Scotland, with the North of Ireland : the native languages of all these countries consist of dialects of the ancient Teutonic or Gothic. The Mixed Romish or Latin races, composed of the descendants of the ancient inhabitants, partially civilized by their connection with Rome, but mixed up with a large number of the barbarous races which, in the fifth century, destroyed the Roman Empire and occupied its Western provinces. Among these the Latin language had obtained such an ascendency that their conquerors, comparatively few in number, could not supersede it with their less polished dialects, so that at the present day the languages of Spain, Portugal, France, and Italy, are mere modifications and corruptions of the ancient Latin tongue. The Sclavonic races (mixed up with a few Tartar or Hunnish tribes), which form the major portion of the population of Russia, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, the north-east of Germany, and the northern provinces of Turkey. The Laplanders, inhabiting the extreme north of Europe, and the Finns, occupying the country between the Gulfs of Finland and Bothnia, speak dialects of this extensively spoken and most copious language. In Turkey, the Turkish language (a Tartar dialect) is spoken ; and the Modern Greek, slightly changed from the ancient language, is spoken by the Greek population, not only in Greece, but in various provinces of the Turkish Empire.

The Teutonic races are the most energetic and enterprising of all the inhabitants of Europe. The Mixed Romish races possess most taste for the fine arts, as statuary, architecture, and painting. The Sclavonic races are remarkable for their imitative powers; while the Celtic races are generally averse to innovation and modern improvements, preferring the customs of their ancestors. To the mixture of theee races, and to the beneficial influence of their mental rivalry upon each other,) Europe owes its peculiar intellectual activity.

Divisions, &c.—Europe contains the following countries :—

1.    Great Britain and Ireland.

2.    France.

3.    Belgium.

4.    Holland (or the Netherlands).

o. Switzerland.

6.    The German Empire consisting of—

1.    The Kingdom of Prussia, including the Province of Prussia Proper, and Posen (formerly part of Poland).

2.    The Kingdom of Bavaria.

3.    ,,    „ Saxony.

4.    „    ,,    Wurtemburg.

5.    The Grand-Duchy of Baden, with twenty other Duchies, Principalities, and Free Cities, and the Province of Alsace-Lorraine, recently recovered from France.

7.    The Austro-Hungarian Empire, consisting

of—

1.    Austria Proper, Bohemia, Moravia, the Tyrol, Carinthia, Carniola, and four other German States.

2.    The Kingdom of Hungary.

3.    Transylvania.

4.    Dalmatia, Croatia, and Sclavonia.

5.    Galicia and Bukowina, formerly part of Poland.

6.    Bosnia and Herzegovina (formerly belonging to Turkey).

8.    Denmark.

9.    Sweden and Norway.

10.    The Russian Empire, including—

1.    Great Russia, or Muscovy, in the centre and north.

2.    East Russia (comprising the former Kingdoms of Kasan and Astrakhan.)

3.    South, or New Russia.

4.    West, or Polish Russia.

5.    Little Russia, in the south-west.

6.    Baltic Provinces, including Finland,conquered from Sweden.

11.    Turkey.

12.    Montenegro.

13.    Servia.

14.    Roumania.

15.    Greece.

16.    Italy.

17.    Spain.

18.    Portugal.

#### ENGLAND.*

Boundaries.—N., Scotland* W., the Irish Sea and St. George’s Channel; S., the English Channel ; and E., the German Ocean.

Extent.—The length of England, from Berwick to the Isle of Wight, is 360 miles ; and its breadth from St. David’s Head to the East of Essex, 280 miles. Population, 26,000,000.

■ The Ancient name of England was Britannia or Britain, supposed to be derived from its early inhabitants, the Brets. The modern name, England, has been derived from a German tribe called Angles who settled in the northern part of the country about the middle of the sixth century.

Divisions.—England is divided into "fifty-two counties, twelve of which form the Principality of Wales.    '

Northern Counties.—Northumberland,5 Durham,f York, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancaster.

Counties hordering on Wales.—Chester, Shropshire (shere), Hereford, and Monmouth.

Pastern Counties.—Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex.

North Midland Counties.—Derby, Nottingham, Stafford, Leicester, and Rutland.

South Midland Counties.—Worcester, Warwick, Northampton, Huntingdon, Cambridge (kame)Gloucester, Oxford, Buckingham, Bedford, Hertford, and Middlesex.

Counties South of the Thames.—Kent, Surrej5, Sussex, Berks, Hants, Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall.    .

North 1 Vales.—Anglesea, Caernarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Merioneth, and Montgomery.

South Wales.—Radnor, Cardigan, Pemdroke, Caermarthen, Brecknock, and Glamorgan.

Islands.—The Isles of Man and Anglesea in the Irish Sea; the Scilly Isles, south-west of Cornwall; the Isles of Wight, Jersey, and Guernsey, in the English Channel; and Holy Island, east of Northumberland.

Capes.—Holy Head, in Anglesea; St. David’s Head, in Pembrokeshire ; Land’s End and Lizard Point, in Cornwall; Start Point, in Devonshire ; Portland Point, in Dorsetshire ; Beachy Head, in Sussex ; Dungeness, N. Foreland, and S. Foreland, in Kent; and Spurn Head and Flamborough Head, in Yorkshire.

Mountains.—The Cheviot Hills, between Northumberland and Scotland; the Skiddaw and Scafell, in Cumberland ; the Peak, in Derbyshire ; and Snowdon and Plinlimmon, in Wales.

Bays.—Solway Frith, Morecambe Bay, Cardigan Bay, Milford Haven, and Bristol Channel, on the western coast; Torbay and Spithead Bay, on the southern coast; and the Wash, Humber Mouth, and Bridlington Bay, on the eastern coast.

Lakes.—The Derwent Water and Keswick, in Cumberland ; and Ulls-Water, between Cumber^ land and Westmoreland; and Windermere, between Westmoreland and Lancashire.

Piveks.—The Eden, flowing into Solway Frith; the Kibble, Mersey, and Dee, into the Irish Sea ; the Wye, Severn, and Avon, into the Bristol

Channel; the Exe, Lower Avon, and Itchen, into the English Channel; and the Medway, Thames, Great Ouse, Humber, Trent, Yorkshire Ouse, Tees, Wear, and Tyne, into the German Ocean.

Chief Towns—London, the capital, on the Eiver Thames—population, 3,814,000; Liverpool —population, 552,000, and Manchester—population, 517,000, both in the County of Lancashire ; Birmingham, in Warwickshire—population, 408,000; Leeds—population, 309,000, and Sheffield—population, 284,000, both in Yorkshire; Bristol in Somersetshire; Newcastle, in Northumberland ; Plymouth, in Devonshire; and Portsmouth, in Hampshire.

Natural Features.—Excepting the western parts, the surface of England is either generally level, or composed of gentle slopes. In some of the eastern counties there are extensive fens or marshes. Such regard has been paid to agriculture, that in no part of the world can the cultivated portions of this country he surpassed for beautiful scenes. The climate is extremely variable, and the seasons uncertain.

Soil and Productions.—The soil of the level districts is generally fertile, producing luxuriant herbage and green crops, besides hops and apples. The chief minerals are coal, iron, copper, tin, and lead. The domestic animals particularly the horses, sheep and oxen, are not, perhaps to be surpassed in any other country. Cotton, silks, and woollen cloths, hardware, and pottery, are the principal manufactures.

jRclitjion.—Christianity was introduced early into Britain. At the request of Lucius, the King, in 183, Pope Eleutherius sent thither St. Fugatius and St. Damianus, who baptised the king and queen. England had thus the honour of being the first European nation governed by a Christian monarch. On the arrival of the Saxons, in 449, paganism was restored, and continued to exist throughout the island, witli the exception of Wales and Cornwall, until 594, when by the zeal and labours of St. Augustine and his companions, the country was once more rescued from idolatry. At the time of the Reformation, Protestantism of the Episcopal form of worship was established, which lias continued to be professed by the majority of the people. Catholics and Dissenters are now numerous.

Character, tic.—In their persons the English are of good stature, with regular features, and clear ilorid complexions. In their manners they are frank, even to bluntness, and more disposed to gravity than to gaiety. They are extremely tenacious tof their liberties; yet no people ever bowed with more servility to the will of a tyrant than they did to that of Henry VIII. The jormof Government is a limited monarchy; the supreme power being vested in the ¿Sovereign, the Lords, and the Commons.

#### SCOTLAND.6

Boundaries.—N., the Atlantic Ocean; W., the Atlantic Ocean and the North Channel; S., the Solway Frith and England; and E., the German Ocean.

Extent.—The length of Scotland, from Cape Wrath to the Mull of Galloway, is about 280 miles; and its breadth, from Buchan-Ness to the most westerly point in Ross-shire, 150 miles. Population, 3,360,000.

Divisions.—Scotland is divided into thirty-three counties, namely :—

Northern.—Orkney and Shetland, Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, Cromarty, Inverness, Nairn, Elgin or Murray, Banff, Aberdeen, and Kincardine.

Middle.—Forfar or Angus, Perth, Fife, Kinross, Clackmannan, Stirling, Dumbarton, Argyle and Bute.

Southern.—Haddington or East-Lothian, Edinburgh or Mid-Lothian, Linlithgow or AYest-Lothian, Berwick, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles, Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, Dumfries, Kircudbright, and AVigton.

Islands.—The Orkney and Shetland Isles, on the north; and the Hebrides, on the west.

Capes.—Dunnet-Head, and Duncansby-Head, in Caithness; Cape Wrath, in Sutherland ; Butt of Lewis, in the Isle of Lewis; Mull of Cantyre, in Argyle ; Mull of Galloway and Burrow-Head, in AVigton ; Fifeness, in Fife ; Kinnaird Head, in Aberdeen.

Mountains.—Ben AAr}Tvis, west of Cromarty Frith; Cairngorm, on the borders of Inverness; the Gramjhans, on the borders of Aberdeen ; Ben-Nevis, in Inverness, the loftiest in Great Britain ; Ben-Lomond, in Stirling; and the Lammermoor-Hills, between Haddington and Berwick.

Bays and Friths.- Pentland Frith, between Caithness and the Orkneys; Loch Linnhe (leen) in the north-west of Argyle ; Frith of Clyde, west of Ayr and Renfrew; Solway Frith, between Dumfries and Cumberland; and the Frith of Forth, between Fife and Haddington.

Lakes.—Loch-Xess, in Inverness ; Loeli-Tay in Perth; Loch-Awe, in Argyle; and Loch-Lomond, between Stirling and Dumbarton.

Rivers.—The Clyde, flowing into the Frith of Clyde; and the Tweed, Forth, Tay, Tee, Don, and Spey, into the German Ocean.

Chief Towns—Edinburgh, the capital—population 388,000; Glasgow—population, 511,000; Dundee—population, 140,000; Aberdeen, Paisley, and Greenock.

Natural Features, \$c.—Rugged mountains, expansive lakes, rapid rivers, vast fens and marshes, interspersed with fertile vales and level tracts, are the chief natural features of Scotland. The climate is variable, and is colder than that of England.

Soil and Productions.—In the low lands the soil is generally fertile, and in the highest state of cultivation. The agricultural jiroductions are nearly the same as those of England. Iron, lead, and coal are the most valuable of the minerals. In Scotland are reared sheep and cattle in great numbers, which are much valued for the delicacy of their flesh. The chief manufactures are cotton, damasks, linen, and iron-ware.

Religion. — In 431, Pope Celestine sent St. Palladius, a Roman, to preach to the Scots, both in North Britain and Ireland. The Scots eagerly received the faith, became strict observers of its divine maxims, and for centuries the church of Scotland was distinguished for the number of its holy men. Calvinism was introduced into Scotland under the Presbyterian form of church government, soon after the rise of Protestantism, but did not become the state religion until the revolution of 16S8, since which time it has continued the established religion of the country. Catholics are now' numerous.

Character, \$c.—The Scots are a brave, hardy, prudent and an industrious people. The crowns of England and Scotland were united in 1603, when James VI. of Scotland ascended the English throne; the legislative union followed in 1707.

#### IRELAND.7

Boundaries.—N.,W. andS., the Atlantic Ocean; and E., St. George’s Channel and the Irish Sea.

Extent.—The length of Ireland from Fair-Head in Antrim, to Mizzen-Head, in Cork, is 306 miles, and its breadth, from Urris-Head in Mayo, to Carnsore-Point, in Wexford, about 210 miles. Population, 5,400,000.

Divisions,—Ireland is divided into four provinces, which are subdivided into thirty-two counties, namely: —

Lister,—Donegal, Derry, Antrim, Tyrone, Down, Armagh, Monaghan, Fermanagh, and Cavan.

Leinster.—Longford, Westmeath, Eastmeath, Louth, Dublin, Kildare, King’s County, Queen’s County, Wicklow, Wexford, Carlow, and Kilkenny.

Munster.—Tipperary, Waterford, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, and Clare.

Connaught.—Galway, Koscommon, Mayo, Sligo, and Leitrim.

Islands.—Pathlin, north of Antrim ; North Isles of Arran, west of Donegal; Achil, west of Mayo; Clare Island, at the mouth of Clew Bay ; South Isles of Arran, in Galway Bay; and Yalentia, west of Kerry.

Mountains.—The Mourne-Pange, in Down ; the Slieve-Bloom, or Ard-na-h’ Erin Mountains, in which the Suir, Nore, and Barrow, take their rise; the Wicklow Mountains, in Wicklow; Magillicuddy's Peeks, and Mangerton, in Kerry ; the Galtees, in Tipperary; and Mephin, and Croagb-Patrick, in Mayo.

Bays.—Lough Swilly and Lough Foyle, in the north of Ulster ; Carrickfergus Bay, between Antrim and Down; Strangford Bay, in Down ; Carlingford Bay, between Down and Louth; Dundalk Bay, in Louth; Dublin Bay, east of Dublin ; Bantry Bay, south-west of Cork ; Dingle and Tralee Bays in Kerry ; Galway Bay, between Clare and Galway; Clew Bay' and Killala Bay, in Mayo; Sligo Bay, north of Sligo ; and Donegal Bay, south of Donegal.

Lakes.—Lough Neagh, between Antrim and Tyrone; Lough Erne, in Fermanagh; Loughs

Allan, Ree, and Derg, through which the Shannon flows ; Lough Conn, in Mayo ; Lough Mask, between Ma}7o and Galway; Lough Corrib, in Galway ; and the Lakes of KiHarney in Kerry.

Rivers.—The Foyle, flowing into Lough Foyle ; the Bann, into Lough Neagh; the Lagan, into Carrickfergus Bay ; the Boyne, into Drogheda Bay ; the LifFey, into Dublin Bay; the Slaney, into Wexford Harbour; the Suir, Barrow, and Nore, into Waterford Harbour; the Blackwater, into Youghal Harbour ; the Lee, into Cork Harbour ; and the Shannon, the largest river in the British Isles, into the Atlantic Ocean.

Chief Towns.—Dublin, the capital, on the River LifFey—population,    320,000 ; Belfast

population, 207,000 ; Cork,    Limerick, and

Londonderry.

Natural Features, (0c.—Ireland is advantageously situated for commerce between the eastern and western continents, and abounds in safe and capacious harbours, majestic rivers, and picturesque lakes. Although it contains several extensive ranges of mountains, and immense tracts of boo: occupy the sites of its ancient forests, yet its more general aspect is that of verdant plains, watered by numerous streams, and enlivened by flocks and herds ; ample valleys of the greatest fertility, or gently swelling eminences waving with corn, or exhibiting a rich and perpetual verdure. The climate is, perhaps, milder than that of any other country of equal extent, in the same latitude.

Soil and Product ions.—The soil of Ireland is, in general, exceedingly fertile, and capable of producing all the necessities of life for treble its population. Though rocky, k is perpetually green owing to the humidity of the atmosphere ; and hence the appellation of the “Emerald Isle.” The pastures are luxuriant, and the corn, flax, and potatoe crops, in general abundant. The minerals are copper, iron, lead, and marble ; silver, and even gold, have been found, but in no considerable quantities. The animals peculiar to Ireland are, the large red deer of the Killarnev mountains, and the Irish wolf-dog, now almost extinct. The exemption of the country from all venomous reptiles is proverbial Silks, tabinets, cottons, and linens of the finest texture are the principal manufactures.

History, <£c.—This island was known to the Greeks by the name of Juverna. about two centuries before the Christian era, and to the Romans by that of Hibernia, in the time of Caesar. It was originally governed by a number of indepenc ent native princes, subject however, to one supreme monarch, who held his court and council at Tarah, in East Meath.

The first invasion of the English took place in 1169, and was followed in 1172 by the arrival of Henry II., who took the title of Lord of Ireland. The English monarchs did not assume the title of King of Ireland, until the reign of Henry "V111. After that period Ireland continued annexed to the crown of England, but possessed a distinct parliament until 1800, when the legislatures of both countries were incorporated by the act of Union. The executive power in Ireland is in the hands of a Lord Lieutenant.

Religion.—In the year of our Lord, 431, Rt. Celestine, Pope, raised Palladius to the episcopal dignity, and sent him with several companions, to preach the gospel in this island. His success was partial, and he died as he was returning to Rome in the following year. He was succeeded in his mission by the illustrious Rt. Patrick, whose extraoidinary success in the conversion of the country, has justly obtained tor him the title of Apostle of Ireland, He died at Saul in Ulster, in 4o5.

The Protestant or Episcopalian form of worship, the same as in England, was, until recently, the established religion of the country. This was, however, felt to be such a great injustice, considering that the Catholics form about four-fifths of the entire population, that an act was passed by the Legislature disestablishing the Irish Episcopal Church, and so placing all religions upon an equal footing. Presbyterian aDd other Dissenters are numerous, particularly in the Provinces of Ulster and Leinster.

Character.—The Irish are generally above the middle size, athletic, and well-formed. They are quick of comprehension, generous, and warm-hearted ; brave almost to rashness, and courteous and hospitable to strangers. Of the Irish it may be truly said that their virtues are their own, while many of their faults may be traced to the wayward circumstances under which they have been placed.

BRITISH COLONIES.

EuRorE.—Heligoland, a small island in the German Ocean, about twenty-six miles from the mouths of the Elbe and Weser; Gibraltar, an important fortress in the south of Spain ; Malta, a celebrated island in the Mediterranean,

In Asia.—The greater part of Hindostan or India; Ceylon, a large island south of Hindostan ; Aracan, Martaban, TenasseHm, and Malacca, provinces along the western side of the Eastern Peninsula; Pulo Penang, an island near the western coast of Malacca; and Singaj>ore, an island south of the same peninsula ; Labuan, in Borneo ; Hong Kong, in China; Aden, in Arabia; and Cyprus in the Levant.

In Australasia.—The whole of the vast island continent of Australia; Tasmania, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, and the Fiji Islands.

In Africa.Sierra Leone, which was made a British settlement in 1787 ; the River Gambia and the Gold CoastCape Colony and its dependencies; Natal, a colony to the north-east of Cape Colon}* ; St. Helena, an island in the South Atlantic, famous as the abode of Napoleon Bonaparte, from October 16tb, 1815, until his death, May oth, 1821; the island of Ascension in the South Atlautic Ocean ; and the Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean, taken by the British from the French in 1810.

Is North America.—Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland; the Bermudas in the Atlantic Ocean, and Honduras, in Central America.

Is South America.—British Guiana, and the Falkland Islands.

Is the West Indies.—The Bahamas, Jamaica, Tortola, Anguilla, St, Christopher’s, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica, Barbuda, St. Lucia, St, Vincent, GrenadaBarbadoes, Tobago, and Trinidad.

SUMMARY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

Sq. Miles, Population.

Great Britain ............................................ S9,005    29,360,000

Ireland ...................................................... 31,S74    5,000,000

British dependencies in Europe.................... 120    1 60,000

Do    in    Asia ....................... 1,588,254    244,200,000

Do.    in    Africa ..................... 270,000    1,500.000

Do,    in    America ............ 3,733.207    5,340,000

Do.    in    Australasia, &c.......... 3,173,310    3,000,000

Various other Settlements........................... 96,171    200,000

Total................................... 8,9S1,941    2S8,760.00

From the above summary it appears that Great Britain rules an extent of territory one hundred times as large as herself, and over a population ten times as numerous as her own.

#### FRANCE.

1. Situation, Extent.—Bounded on the north by Belgium and the English Channel; on the east by Germany, Switzerland, and Italy ; on the south by Spain, and the Mediterranean Sea ; on the west by the Bay of Biscay; 600 miles long and 500 broad.

2. Face ofiiie Country.—Generally level ; but there are elevated districts in the east and south.

Climate, Soil.—The finest in the world; rather warm in the south; winter severe in the north, but mild near the Mediterranean Sea. The soil is rich, and produces corn, wine, oil, and all the comforts of life. One-eighth of the country is yet covered with forests, which supply fuel in the absence of coal.

4.    Population.—About 37 millions, chiefly Catholics, with about 2 millions of Protestants. The French language is one of the most polished in Europe, and is generally spoken by the higher classes in every country in Europe.

5.    Fivers.—The Seine, Loire, Garonne, and Phone.

6.    Mountains.—Jura, (a branch of the Alps) between France and Switzerland; the Pyrenees, between France and Spain ; the Cevennes and the Mountains of Auvergne in Central France.

7.    Islands.—Ushant, Belle Isle, Phu, and Oleron, on the west coast; the Hieres, with Corsica, in the Mediterranean; Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark, (in the English Channel), belong to England.

_ b. Chief Towns.—Paris, the capital, population, 2,000,000 ; Marseilles, Bordeaux, (o), Havre de Grace, Boulogne, Brest, Dunkirk, and Toulon, are sea ports; Lyons is a large manufacturing town on the Phone ; Rouen, JVa?ites, and Nismes, are inland towns of great importance; Cherbourg, on the coast of the English channel, and Toulon, on the Mediterranean, are the chief naval stations.

Note.—France is divided into 8fi departments. Its foreign possessions are Guadaloupe and Martinique in the West Indies; Cayenne or Guiana, in ¡South America; Senegal, SL Louis, G oree, in Western Africa; The Isle of Bourbon (now called Reunion) in the Indian Ocean ; Pondicherry, in Hindostán ; New Caledonia, the Marquesas, the Loyalty Islands, the Low Archipelago, with Tahiti, and others of the Society Islands in the Pacific Ocean; Algiers and Tunis, in North Africa. France exports wine, brand}', silk, and oil. Manufactures are rapidly increasing. The military tastes and valour of the French people are well known. On the surrender of ex-Emperor Napoleon III, to the King of Prussia, at Sedan, on the 2nd September, 1S7 ) his dynasty was deposed, and a Republic proclaimed.

#### BELGIUM.

1.    Situation, Extent.—Belgium is bounded on the north by Holland ; on the west by the German Ocean; south, by France; on the east by Germany ; about 160 miles long and 120 broad.

2.    Face of the Country.—Generally level, intersected by canals and rivers, and covered with fortified towns.

3.    Climate, Soil, &c.—Climate, temperate; the soil, though naturally sandy and barren, has through the industry of the inhabitants been made remarkably fertile, producing grain, fruit, &c., in such abundance as to earn for Belgium the name of the “ Garden of Europe.”

4.    Population.—5,537,000 ; chiefly Catholics, and speaking a dialect of the Teutonic; the French language is generally spoken by the educated classes.

5. Rivers.—The Maese or Meuse, the Scheldt, and the Sambre.

Chief Towns.—Brussels, the capital, population, 376,000; Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges, and Osteyid.

Note.—The government is a limited monarchy. The manufacture of woollen, linen, lace, cotton and silk goods, is largely carried on. Ironworks are numerous. The soil is highly cultivated, the chief products being corn, flax, hemp, madder, and tobacco. Belgium, considering its size, may be reckoned one of the most prosperous countries in Europe ; smce it threw oil' the yoke of Holland it has progressed in every branch of industry ; railways are one of the distinguishing features of Belgium. Belgium was formerly the Commercial Emporium of Europe.

#### HOLLAND.

1.    Situation, Extent.—Bounded on the east by Germany, south by Belgium and on the west and north by the German Ocean ; about 150 miles long, and 100 broad.

2.    Face of the Country.—Level (like a marsh which has been drained.) Near the sea the land is several feet below the level of the ocean, and large banks called dykes, are raised to prevent the inroads of the sea; the country is intersected by canals.

3.    Climate, Soil, &c.Cold and damp ; soil very fertile, and well adapted for cultivation or grazing.

4.    Population.—4,000,000 speaking the Dutch language (which is a dialect of the Teutonic).

There is no established religion in Holland, but the great majority are Protestants of the Calvinistic form of worship. The Dutch are remarkable for their economy, industr}7, and commercial spirit. Their fisheries are a source of great wealth.

5.    Rr. ERs.—ThePihine, Meuse, and the Scheldt.

6.    Lakes.—The Zuyder Zee, and Haerlem Mere.

7.    Islands. — Walcheren, North and South Beveland, Texel, &c.

8.    Chief Towns.Amsterdam, the capital— population, 300,000 ; Rotterdam, Utrecht, famous for its University ; The Hague, the residence of the king.

Note.—The government is a limited Monarchy. The foreign possessions of Holland are: (1) Java, and various settlements in the islands between Java and Australia.

(2) Surinam, in South America. (3) Curagoa, St. Eustatius, and three other islands in the West Indies. (4) A few forts on the Coast of Guinea, in Africa.

#### SWITZERLAND.

1. Situation, Extent.—Between France, Germany, and Italy; 156 miles long, and 208 broad. It consists of 22 Republics or Cantons, which are confederated together for mutual protection and defence.

2.    Face of the Country.—Mountainous and highly romantic. It is celebrated for its scenery, and its sublime mounrains covered with snow, its deep valleys, and its beautiful lakes.

3.    Climate and »Soil.—The winter is severe, the summer sultry ; the valleys are fertile.

4.    Population.—2,776,000, one half of which are Catholics, the other Protestants. The French, Italian, and German languages are generally spoken.

5.    Fivers.—The Rhine, the Phone, and the Aar.

6.    Lakes.—Constance, Lucerne, Neufchatel and Geneva.

7.    Mountains.—The vast chain of the Alps, the chief of which are Mont Blanc (the highest in Europe), Mount St. Bernard, Posa, Simplon, and St. Gothard; glaciers (which are large masses of ice and snow) sometimes fall and overwhelm whole valleys.

8.    Chief Towns, Berne.—population, 36,000 Basle, Geneva, Lucerne, and Zurich.

Note. —The inhabitants of Switzerland are distinguished for their love of liberty. In the towns, various manufactures of small wares, such as watches, arc carried on, which are generally dispersed through Europe. The cotton and silk manufactures have flourished of late years ; domestic manufactures are now very common among the peasantry. Many of the young Swiss travel as pedlars, or engage as servants in foreign countries, in order to obtain the means of settling at home.

THE AUSTRO HUNGARIAN EMPIRESituation, &c.—The Austrian Empire consists of—

(1)    Austria Proper, Bohemia, Moravia, the Tyrol» Carinthia, Camiola, and four other Provinces in Germany.

(2)    The Kingdom of Hungary.

(3)    Transylvania.

(4)    Dalmatia, Croatia, and Sclavonia.

(5)    Gallicia and Bukowina, formerly part of Poland.

(6)    Bosnia and Herzegovina, formerly belonging to Turkey, recently (1878) annexed to Austria.

These dominions are bounded on the north by the Prussian and Russian territories ; on the east by Russia and Roumania ; on the south by Servia, Montenegro, Italy, and the Adriatic Sea ; and on the west by Switzerland and Bavaria. The empire includes an extent of country 800 miles long and 500 broad.

2.    Face of the Country.—Generally mountainous, though it contains the rich fertile plains of Hungary.

3.    Climate, Soil, &c.—Temperate and agreeable ; the soil is generally rich, producing all the comforts and many of the luxuries of life, namely, corn, wine, minerals, &c.

4.    Population.—About 38 millions, chiefly of the Catholic religion. Various languages are spoken as the German, the Bohemian, and Hungarian, which latter aro dialects of the Sclavonian.

5.    Rivers.—The Danube, with it tributaries, the Inn, the Drave, the Save, and the Theiss ; and the Moldau in Bohemia.

6.    Mountains.—The Alps, the Carpathian and the Erz Mountains.

7.    Chief Towns.—Vienna, the capitalpopulation, 1,020,000; Prague, in Bohemia ; Brunn, and Ohnutz, in Moravia ; Pesth, Buda, and Presburg, in Hungary; Trieste, at the head of the Gulf of Venice ; Cracow, and Lembnrg, in Austrian Poland ; Bosna Serai, in Bosnia.

Note.—The administration is dual in form. The German provinces, with Gallicia and Dalmatia, are under the Hungarian crown. Both divisions of the monarchy now enjoy representative institutions.

#### THE GERMAN EMPIRE.

1. Situation, &c.—The German Empire consists

of—

(1)    The Kingdom of Prussia, including tho provinces of Prussia Proper, and Posen8 (formerly part of Poland).

(2)    The Kingdom of Bavaria.

(3)    „    „    Saxony.

(4)    „    ,,    Wurtemburg.

(o) The Grand-Duchy of Baden with twenty other Duchies, Principalities and Free Cities, and the Province of Alsace-Lorraine, recentty recovered from France.

It is bounded on the north by the North Sea or German Ocean, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; on the west by Holland, Belgium, and France; on the south by Switzerland; and on the east by Poland, and by some of the German States belonging to Austria.

2.    Face of tiie Country.—Hilly in the centre. In the north a large plain extends to the North and Baltic Seas. The southern portion is a table-land.

3.    Climate, Soil, &c.—Healthy ; on the northern plain the climate is somewhat cold and damp, but is warmer in the centre and less elevated portions of the south. The soil is poor and sandy near the Baltic, but fertile in the interior and south, producing corn, wine, wool, timber, flax, &c.

4.    Population.—About 43 millions. Somewhat more than one half are Protestants ; the rest are Catholics.

o. Bivers.—The Phine, Weser, and Elbe, flowing into the German Ocean; the Danube and its tributaries in the south ; the Oder in the west flowing into the Baltic Sea; and the Vistula in Posen and Prussia Proper, falling into the Gulf of Dantzig.

G. Chief Towns.—Berlin, the capital—population, 1,000,000; Magdeburg, Stettin, Breslau, Posen, Königsberg,    Dantzig, Munster, Cologne,

Hanover, Altona, and Franhfort-on-theMain, all within the Kingdom of Prussia; Munich and Kuremburgin Bavaria; Stuttgart in Wurtemburg ; Dresden and Leipzig, in Saxony ; Strasbourg and Metz in Alsace-Lorraine; and the Free Cities of Hamburg, Lubeclc, and Bremen.

Note.—The chief result of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, was, that the various states of Germany with the exception of those belonging to Austria, were erected into a hereditary empire, with the King of Prussia as Emperor. Prussia, of all the states, is by far the most important; so much so, that the other states are almost as much subject to her as her own provinces. The direction and command of the immense military resources of the confederation are in the hands of Prussia. The chief exports of Germany are wool and timber. The manufactures are linen, cotton, woollen goods, hardware, and beer. In Prussia education is enforced by law. The Germans are distinguished for the toleration and liberty of sentiment which the various religious sects display towards each other.

#### DENMARK.

1.    Situation, Extent.—Denmark is bounded on the north by the Skager-rack ; on the west by the German Ocean ; on the south by Germany; and on the east by the Baltic Sea and the Cattegat. It comprises the peninsula of Jutland, on the continent; and the islands, Zealand, Funen, Laaland, Falster, etc., in the Cattegat and Baltic.

2.    Face of the Country.— Almost one uniform level, with many moors and marshes, but with much rich pasture land.

3.    Climate, &c.—The climate is very temperate, compared with that of Sweden and Norway. The soil is fertile, and produces grain and flax, besides fattening cattle for exportation.

4.    Population.—Two millions speaking the Danish language, a dialect of the Teutonic, and professing the Lutheran form of Protestantism. The government is a limited monarchy. The education of the people is well attended to—every child between the ages of seven and fourteen years being compelled to attend some public or approved private school.

5.    Rivehs.—None of any importance.

6.    Straits.—(i).The Sound, between Zealand and Sweden. (2). The Great Belt, between Zealand and Funen. (3.) The Little Belt, between Funen and Jutland.

7.    Islands.—Zealand, Funen, Laaland, Langland and Falster, all in the Baltic Sea.

8.    Chief Towns.—Copenhagen, the capital, in the island of Zealand, population, 193,000 ; Elsinore, at the entrance of the Sound; Roskilde, the ancient capital.

Note.—The island of Iceland, near the coast of Greenland, belongs to Denmark. It is a cold barren country, and is famous for its burning mountain, Hecla, for its fountains of boiling water called “ Geysersand for the intelligence of its inhabitants, who are generally well educated. The Faroe Islands, midway between Scotland and Iceland, also belong to Denmark. There are also Danish settlements in Greenland. The islands of Santa Cruz, St. Thomas, ami St. John in the West Indies belong to Denmark.

#### SWEDEN AND NORWAY-

1. Situation, Extent.—A peninsula in the north-west of Europe, between the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia and the Atlantic Ocean ; north of Denmark and Germany, and west of Russia—1150 miles long and 250 broad.

2.    Face of the Country.—Norway is very mountainous. Sweden is remarkable for its lakes, forests and morasses ; it has numerous rivers, but few are navigable.

3.    Climate, Soil, &c.—Very severe ; the country being generally covered with snow, except during the brief period of summer, which does not last more than three or four months ; the soil is not fertile, and barely produces enough grain for the consumption of its inhabitants. Sweden has mines of iron and copper of great value.

4.    Population.—Upwards of six millions, who speak in Norway the Norse, and in Sweden the Swedish tongue, both of which are dialects of the Teutonic.

5.    Fivers.—In Norway, the Glommen; in Sweden, the Dahl, Gotha, and Tornea.

6.    Lakes.—Wener and Wetter, in Sweden.

7.    Mountains.—The Dovrefieid Mountains in Norway, and the Kiolen Pange between Norway and Sweden.

8.    Islands.—The Loffoden on the coast of Norway; among these in the famous whirlpool called the Maelstrom; (2) Gothland, and (3) Oland in the Baltic Sea.

9.    Chief Towns.Stockholm is the capital— population, 173,000; Gottenburg is the principal seaport ; TJpsal is famous for its University. In Norway are Bergen, Christiania (population, 116,000) and Drontheim

[1] The Government is a limited monarchy. Norway and Sweden have each their separate independent legislatures, and their own peculiar laws and usages. The religion is the Lutheran form of Protestantism, The chief exports ore iron, timber, pitch and tar. Fisheries are the main support of the people of Norway. The island of St. Bartholomew, in the West Indies, which recently belonged to Sweden, has been sold to France.

(2). The Laplanders are a semi-barbarous people, inhabiting the most northerly part of Europe, dependent mainly on fish and their reindeer for support. In the extreme north of Lapland there is day in the summer and night in the winter for tw’o months.

#### THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

1.    Situation, Extent.—It occupies all the east of Europe; is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean ; on the south by the Black Sea and Mount Caucasus; on the east by Asia; and on the west by the Gulf of Bothnia, which separates it from Sweden, by the Baltic Sea, and by the dominions of Prussia, Austria and Roumania. Its European dominions are about 1800 miles long and 1400 broad, and are divided into—

(1)    Great Russia, or Muscovy, in the centre and north.

(2)    East Russia (comprising the former kingdoms of Ivasan and Astrakhan).

(3)    South, or New Russia.

(4)    West, or Polish Russia.

(o) Little Russia in the south-west.

(6) Baltic Provinces, including Finland, conquered from Sweden.

2.    Face of tiie Country.—Generally level; intersected by numerous navigable rivers, and covered with forests. In the south there are immense plains, free from trees, and covered with high grass; these are called Steppes.

3.    Climate, Soil, &c.—In the north similar to chat of Sweden ; in the south, mild and temperate ; producing all the necessaries of life. It has mines of gold, silver, copper and iron.

4.    Population.—About 73 millions; speaking various dialects of the Sclavonic tongue.

5.    Rivers.—The Northern Dwina flowing into the White Sea ; the Neva and the Western Dwina into the Baltic ; the Dniester, Dnieper, and Kuban into the Black Sea ; the Don into the Sea of Azov; and the Volga and Ural into the Caspian Sea.

6.    Lakes.—Ladoga and Onega, the two largest in Europe.

7.    Mountains.—The Ural Mountains, which contain rich mines of gold ; and Mount Caucasus extending from the Black to the Caspian Sea.

8.    Islands.—Nova Zembla and Spitsbergen, in the Arctic Ocean ; the Aland Isles, in the Gulf of Bothnia; Oesel aud Dago, in the Baltic.

9.    Chief Towns.—St. Petersburg, the capital, population 668,000; 1foscoic, the ancient capital; Warsaw, the capital of Russian Poland ; Archangel, on tiie White Sea; Riga and Revel, on the Baltic Sea ; Odessa and JOierson, on the Black Sea; with Toula, Tver, Kiev (Kioo) and Novogorod, in the interior ; Cronstadt is the nearest seaport town to St. Petersburg.

Note (1) Russia is an absolute Monarchy, governed by an Emperor, who is called the Czar. In addition to its European dominions, all the north of Asia (called Siberia), belongs to Russia. The religion of Russia is that of the Greek Church, which gives the Russian Emperor, tno temporal Head of that Church, great influence over the

Greek population of Turkey. A variety of barbarous tribes, among others the Cossacks, are included in Russia. The Russian armies number about one million of men.

Note (2)— Russia exports timber, hemp, flax, pitch, tar, hides, tallow, seed and grain of all sorts, the latter chiefly, from the southern provinces on the Black Sea.

Note (3)—Poland, once an independent kingdom, was, about the close of the last century, divided among Prussia, Austria, and Russia; the latter power receiving the largest share.

#### TURKEY.

1.    Situation, Extent.—Turkey in Europe is bounded on the north by Austria, Servia, and Roumania; on the west by the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas ; on the south by Greece, the waters of the Archipelago, and the sea of Marmora; and on the east by the Black Sea. Area, 128,000 square miles, or more than twice the size of England and Wales.

2.    Divisions.—Turkey in Europe comprises (1.) Turkey Proper, comprising the provinces still

under the direct rule oi the Sultan.

(2.) The Principality of Bulgaria, virtually m-dependent, under an elected prince but paying an annual tribute to the Sultan.

(3.) Eastern Roumelia, governed by a Prince appointed by the Sultan, in whose hands is the supreme military and political authority.

3.    Eace of the Country.—Near the Danube, extensive plains. In the centre and south, occupied by ranges of mountains.

4.    Climate, Soil, &c.—Warm but temperate and healthy. Soil, fertile if properly cultivated, producing grain, wine, olives, oil, fruits, silks, &c.

of which are Greeks and other Christians, yet residing in the Turkish provinces. The rest chiefl}r Mohammedans.

6.    Rivers.—The Danube is the chief river.

7.    Straits.—The Dardanelles (the ancient Hellespont), which connects the Archipelago with the Sea of Marmora. The Bosphorus which joins the Sea of Marmora to the Black Sea (sometimes called the Euxine Sea).

8.    Gules.—Those of Contessa ; Saloniki; Yolo and Arta.

9.    Mountains.—Hsemus, or Balkan, Rhodope, Mount Athos, Olympus, Ossa, Pindus. The Yale of Tempe is between Olympus and Ossa.

10.    Islands —Most of the islands in the Archipelago belong to Greece; Candia (the ancient Crete) belongs to Turkey.

11.    CniEF Towns.—Constantinople, the capital —population, 700,000; Adrianople, Saloniki, and Gallipoli, in Turkey Proper; Sophia and Varna in Bulgaria ; and Phillipolis in Eastern Roumelia.

Note. — (1) Turkey is governed by a Sultan or Grand Seigneur, whose power is absolute. The population and power of the Turks are rapidly declining, and very probably the present generation will witness their expulsion from Europe, as the purely Turkish part of the population is diminishing in number, while the Christian part is steadily increasing. It is only the jealousy and cupidity of the leading European powers which permits this country to exist as a European power.

(2) Moldavia and Wallachia (or as they are now termed, Rotjmania), provinces on the Danube, were formerly under the influence of Russia, but are now possessed of a constitutional government, under a prince chosen by themselves. Servia, formerly included within the limits of European Turkey has been independent

SG

since 1878. Bosnia and Herzegovina were, at the close of the last Russo-Turkish war (187S) annexed to Austria. That portion of Bessarabia to the east and north of the River Truth, formerly ceded to Moldavia, has bden annexed to Russia. Bulgaria is subject to Turkey.

(3) . Turkey in Asia, with Egypt, and Tripoli in Africa, are nominally subject to the Sultan of Turkey.

(4) . Turkey in Europe includes the ancient countries of Moesia and Thracia; with Macedonia, Epirus, and Thessaly, which constitute the northern portions of ancient Greece. It was the European seat of the Eastern Roman Empire until a.d. 1453, when Constantinople was taken by the Turks.

#### MONTENEGRO-

1.    Situation, Extent.—This small state lies to the north-west of Turkey Proper, and lias an area of 3,500 square miles.

2.    Population, 300,000.

#### SERYIA.

1.    Situation, Extent—Bounded on the north by the rivers Save and Danube ; on the east by Bulgaria; on the south by Turkey Proper ; and on the west by Bosnia. Area, 20,000 square miles.

2.    Face of the Country.—Very mountainous, being traversed by spurs of the Dinaric Alps and Balkans; it is well watered by the numerous tributaries of the Danube.

3.    Climate.—Subject to extremes of heat and cold. Soil fertile but ill cultivated.

4.    Population, &c.—About 1,700,000, nearly all Servians or Sclavs. Servia is an independent

principality, governed by a Prince, and a Senate and National Assembly.

5.    Divisions and Towns.—Servia is divided into 18 districts. The chief town is Belgrade on the Danube, population, 28,000.

6.    Productions.—Pigs, grain, tobacco, silk, wine, and timber.

#### ROUMANIA.

1.    Situation, Extent.—Boumania occupies the plain between the Danube and the Carpathian Mountains. Area 50,000 square miles, nearly equal to that of England,

2.    Face of the Country.— Mostly level, but hilly towards the west; well watered by tributaries of the Danube.

3.    Climate, Soil —The climate is variable, being subject to extremes of heat and cold. The soil of the plains is well adapted for pastoral and agricultural purposes. The productions are chiefly grain, and herds of sheep and cattle ; wheat, wool, and timber are the chief exports.

4.    Population, &c.—The population is about

5,300,000 ; the government is a limited monarchy.

5.    Chief Towns.—Bucharest the capital and seat of government, population, 221,000; Jassy, the chief town of Moldavia, and Galatz, the principal port; Braila and Ismail on the Danube.

#### GREECE.

1. Situation, Extent.—Modern Greece comprises the southern part of Turkey, formed into a petty kingdom by the European powers in 1827. It has Turkey on the north, the Archipelago on the east, with the Mediterranean on the south and west, and is about 200 miles long and 180 miles broad.

2.    Face of the Country.—Very mountainous; with rich valleys between the ranges.

3. Climate, Soil.—Warm, but temperate; fertile soil, producing oil, wine, currants, figs, grain, &c.

4.    Population.—1,680,000; Christians of the Greek Church, and speaking Romaic or Modern Greek.

5.    Rivers.—These are but small streams, as Aspro, Asopo, Roufia.

6.    Gulfs and Bays.—Gulfs of Lepanto, Patras, ZEgina, Nauplia, Koron, Arcadia, and Colorythia.

7.    Mountains.—Zagara (the ancient Helicon), Parnassus.

8.    Islands.—The Ionian Islands, Negropont (the ancient Eubcea), with the Cyclades and Hydra.

9.    Chief Towns.—Athens, the capital, population, 45,000 ; Livadia, Tripolitza, Nauplia, or Napoli di Romania, Navarino, Patras, Missolonghi (Thebes, Corinth and Sparta, once so famous, are now only villages.)

Notf,(1). G-reece is remarkable for its ancient celebrity, and for its architectural ruins, sculptures, &c., which delight and instruct travellers of taste and educati )n from every portion of the civilized world.

(2.1 The seven Ionian Islands, formerly a republic under the protection of Great Britain, were ceded to Greece in 1864, and now form part of that kingdom.

(3). Greece has not made that progress since its independence which was anticipated, owing to the lawless cha-acter of the mountain population ; and the low intriguing, corrupt character of society in general—th e result of long oppression under the Turks. The government is a limited monarchy.

The Roman Territory.

ITALY.

1. Situation, Extent.—Italy is a peninsula; bounded on the north by the Alps, which separate it from Austria and Switzerland; on the west by France and the Mediterranean ; on the east by the Adriatic Sea; and on the south by the Mediterranean ; about 700 miles long and 350 broad. It includes the following divisions :—

The Marches.

Umbria.

The Neapolitan Provinces. The Island of Sardinia, and The Island of Sicily.

Tuscany.

Piedmont and Liguria.

Lombardy

Yenetia.

Emilia.

2.    Population, Eeligion.—Nearly 28 millions, professing the Catholic religion.

3.    Climate, Soil, &c.—Italy is for the most part a mountainous country, although it contains, level plains of great extent; the soil is most fertile producing grain, silk, oil, fruit, &c. The air very salubrious; climate very warm, but temperate. The low lands near the sea are generally unhealthy ; and vast tracts near home and Leghorn, termed the “ Maremma,” are uninhabited, owing to the marshy exhalations called malaria.

4.    Eiyeks.—The Po, Adige, Yar, Arno, and Tiber.

5.    Straits.—Strait of Messina, between Sicily and Naples; Strait of Bonifacio, between Corsica and Sardinia.

6.    Gulfs, and Bays.—Adriatic Sea, or Gulf of Venice; Bay- of Naples; Gulfs of Genoa, Gaeta, Salerno, and Tarento.

7.    Capes.—Di Leuca, Spartivento, Gaeta, and Piombino ; and Cape Passaro in Sicily.

8.    Lakes.—Maggiore, Como, Garda, Perugia, Celano.

9.    Mountains.—The Alps to the north; the Apennines, which run through the whole of Italy.

10.    CniEF Towns.—The chief city of Italy is Pome, formerly tiie mistress of the world, population, 250,000. Pome stands on the banks of the Tiber, and is rich in monuments of art—ancient and modern; it possesses the magnificent cathedral church of St. Peter, which is the wonder of all beholders. Florence and Leghorn, in Tuscany; Turin, in Piedmont; Milan, in Lombardy ; Genoa, at the head of the Gulf of that name ; Bologna (onya) in Emilia; Venice, Verona, Padua, in Yene-tia ; Naples, the largest city in Italy, population,

450,000 ; and Palermo and Messina, in Sicily.

Trior to 1860 Italy was divided into several small kingdoms or states ; the principal of these were—the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the States of the Church, the Grand-Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchies of Parma and Modena, and the Lombardo-Yenetian territory, which last was forcibly held by Austria. In consequence of the success of the French and Sardinian armies in the war against Austria in 1859-60. the whole of these, with the exception of Yenetia and the States of the Church were united into one kingdom. In 1866 Yenetia was, with the aid of Prussia, wrested from Austria, and at the close of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, and the consequent withdrawal of French troops from Home, the States of the Church were annexed; so that now the Kingdom of Italy comprises the whole of the peninsula, together with the islands of Sardinia and Sicily. The government is a constitutional monarchy.

The Island of Malta lying to the south of Sicily, and containing a population of 140,000, belongs to Great Britain.

The Italians are remarkable for their skill and taste in the fine arts, in statuary, music, and painting. The rest of Europe is indebted chiefly to Italy for the revival of literature, science, and the arts, in the 14th and loth centuries. The architectural remains of Rome and other Italian cities yield only to those of Greece in grandeur and beauty. As the site of ancient Etruscan civilization, and as the stronghold of Roman power, whence originated the Fourth Great Empire—namely, that of Rome—and as the seat of the Papacy or Popedom, Italy will ever be an interesting country to historical inquirers.

#### SPAIN.

1.    Situation, Extent.—Bounded on the north by the Bay of Biscay and France ; on the east and south by the Mediterranean; on the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. It is a vast peninsula, 540 miles long and 650 broad.

2.    Face of the Country.—It is traversed by mountain ranges, which generally run from east to west; the valleys between are fertile and well watered ; the centre consists of elevated table-land.

3.    Climate, Soil, &c.— The climate is dry and generally resembles that of New South Wales; the soil is fertile, especially in the south and south-east, and produces wine, oil, fruits, &c. This country is also peculiarly adapted for the production of fine wool, for which it was recently famous. It formerly contained silver mines.

4.    Population, Beligion.—17,000,000; all of the Catholic religion, and speaking the Spanish language.

6.    Mountains,—The Pyrenees in the north ; the Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada in the south.

7.    Islands.—Majorca, Minorca, and Ivica, in the Mediterranean Sea.

8. Chief Towns.—Madrid, the capital—population, 475,000; Barcelona,    Seville,    Valencia,

Malaga, and Granada ; CWl; is the chief seaport.

Note (1). Spain is divided into 49 provinces, including the Balearic and Canary Islands. The Government is, at present (1882), a monarchy.

Note (2). The inhabitants of Biscay (or the Basques) have peculiar laws of their own, called “ Fueros,” to which they attach a high value.

Note (3). Gibraltar (the southern point of Spain) belongs to England.

Note (4). The foreign possessions of Spain are—(1) Cuba and Forto Rico in the West Indies. (2). Ceuta on the north coast of Africa, opposite Gibraltar. (3). The Philippine and Ladrone Islands on the coast of Asia.

#### PORTUGAL.

1.    Situation, Extent.—Portugal is bounded on the north and east by Spain ; south and west by the Atlantic Ocean ; 365 miles long and 145 broad

2.    Face of the Country.—Generally mountainous like Spain.

3.    Climate and Soil. —Similar to those of Spain.

4.    Population, Religion.—Nearly five millions, all of the Catholic religion ; their language is a dialect of the Spanish.

5.    Rivers,—The Minho, Douro, Tagus, and Guadiana.

6.    Chief Towns.—Lisbon, the capitalpopulation 280,000 ; Oporto, Coimbra, Setubal, Cintra, and Faro.

Note.—The Government is a limited monarchy. The foreign possessions are : (1). The Cape de Verde Islands on the coast of Africa. (2.) Angola, and Benguela, in Southwest Africa, with St. Thomas and Princess Island in the

Gulf of Guinea. (3). Mozambique and Sofa la, in Southeast Africa. (4). Goa, in Hindostan. (5). Macao, in China, (6). And part of the island of Timor in the East Indies.

#### ASIA.

General View.

Boundaries.—N., the Arctic Ocean; W., Europe, the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, the Archipelago, the Levant, the Red Sea; S., the Indian Ocean ; and E., the Pacific Ocean.

Extent.—The length of Asia, from the Dardanelles to the Isles of Japan, is 6,000 miles; and its breadth, from Cape Severo in Siberia, to the soutli of Malacca, 5,400.

Comparative View of the principal Countries of Asia.

 Countries. Extent in sq. Miles. Popula tion. Chief Towns. Popula tion. 1 Turkey in Asia 700,000 16" Sin yrna 150,000 2 Arabia .. .. 1,000,000 12 Mecca 30,000 3 Persia .. .. 650,000 5 Teheran 50,000 4 Afghanistan and Beloochistan.. 350,000 7 ce G Cabul 60,000 5 India .. .. 1,500,000 250 Calcutta 895,000 6 Eastern Peninsula 870,000 37 Bankok 500,000 7 Chinese Empire 4,000,000 360 Pekin 1,500,000 8 Turkestan .. 1,500,000 7 Bokhara 70,(00 0 Asiatic Russia .. 6,150,000 11 Till is SO,000 10 Japan .. .. ! 160,000 34 J J Tokio 1,000,000

The total area of Asia is 17,500,000 square miles, or more than four times that of Europe. The population is variously stated, from 500 to 800 millions.

Islands.—Cyprus, in the Levant; Ceylon, south of India; Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, and the Moluccas or Spice Islands, between the Eastern Peninsula and Australia ; Hainan, in the Chinese Sea; the Philippine Islands; Formosa, east of China ; and the Japan Islands, east of Manchooria and Corea.

Peninsulas.—Malacca, the most southerly part of the continent of Asia ; Corea, south of Chinese Tartary ; and Kamschatka, east of Siberia.

Capes —Cape Severo, north of Siberia ; East Cape, at Bhering’s Strait; Cape Lopatka, south of Kamschatka; Capes Cambodia and Romania, in the Eastern Peninsula; and Cape Comorin, south of India.

Mountains.—The Altaian Mountains, in Siberia; Mount Caucasus, between the Black and Caspian Seas; Mount Taurus, and Mount Lebanon, in Turkey; and the Himalaya Mountains north of India.

Seas. — The Levant, or eastern part of the Mediterranean ; the Red Sea, between Arabia and Africa; the Arabian Sea, between Arabia and India; the Chinese Sea, south of China; the Yellow Sea, between China and Corea; the Sea of Japan, between Chinese Tartary and Japan; and the Sea of Ocliotsk, between Siberia and Kamschatka.

Lakes. — The Caspian Sea, on the north of Persia ; the Sea of Aral, in Western Siberia ; and Lake Baikal, in the south of Eastern Siberia.

Gulfs and Bays.—The Persian Gulf, between Arabia and Persia ; the Bay of Bengal, between India and the Eastern Peninsula; the Gulf of

Siam, between Malacca and Cambodia ; the Gulf of Tonquin, between China and the Eastern Peninsula ; and the Bay of Nankin, on the East ol China.

Straits.—The Strait of Babelmandeb, between Arabia and Africa ; the Strait of Ormuz, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf; Palk’s Strait, between India and Ceylon; the Strait of Malacca, between the Eastern Peninsula and Sumatra; and Bliering’s Strait, between Asia and North America.

Rivers.—The Euphrates and Tigris, in Turkey ; the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmapootra, in India ; the Irrawaddy and May-Iveang, in the Eastern Peninsula ; the Yang-tsze-kiang and Ilo-ang-ho, in China ; the Amoor, in Manchooria and Eastern Siberia; the Lena, Yenesei and Obi, in Siberia ; and the Oxus, or Amoo, in Turkestan.

Natural Features, §c.—Asia exhibits the greatest contrasts on the surface of the globe. The central region consists of stupendous mountains and immense tablelands, considered to be the highest in the world ; and from these the surface descends, in gradual slopes and terraces, intersected by majestic rivers, which appear like seas as they approach the ocean. In a country of such vast extent the climate must vary considerably ; the south or India, is exceedingly hot; while the north, or Siberia, is the very reverse.

Soil and Productions.—The soil of Asia is, in general, far superior to that of Europe, producing the most delicious fruit, with the most fragrant and balsamic plants, spices and gums. There are in the world, 1346 species of quadrupeds ; of this number, 422 are found in Asia, though only 228 are peculiar to this continent.

jReligion.—This division of the globe has been tho scene of the most important events recorded in Scripture history. Here man was created, the patriarchs lived, the law was given to Moses, and the redemption of the human race accomplished. The Religions now professed in Asia are various. The following are theprincipal. The Mohammedan in Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, and Arabia; there are many Mohammedans in the south of Russia, and the north of India, also in Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, Sec. Christians of the Latin and Greek Churches, Armenians, and Xes-torians, are found in various parts of Asiatic Turkey and Persia. The Greek Church is the established religion of Asiatia Russia. Many Catholics and Protestants are found in India, Ceylon, and China. The ancient Syrian Churches are also found in the south of India. The Hindoo or Brah-minical System prevails in India, with that distinction of Caste, which is so opposed to the progressive improvement of nations. The burning of widows, the self-immolation at the shrine of Juggernaut, and infanticide, have been forbidden by the British Government; and several hundred missionaries are now endeavouring to introduce Christianity into India. The Buddhist religion prevails in Ceylon and the peninsula of India, beyond the Ganges ; this appears to have been the most ancient religion, and to have formerly prevailed in India until superseded by the Brahminical.

The governments of Asia are almost universally despotic.

Inhabitants, Languages d'c. —The Indian, perhaps the most pure and unmixed race, originally settled probably in the Vale of Cashmere, and from thence peopled India and Persia. It is supposed from affinity of language that the Celtic, the Teutonic, and the ¡Sclavonic races, which have successively colonised Europe, are separate offshoots from this branch of the human family. The languages of ancient Greece and Rome, in their grammatical construction, so strikingly resemble the sacred and standard language of the Indian race—viz., the Sanscrit—that we must trace their original formation to colonists, or the posterity of colonists from India. The Zend (the sacred language of Persia) and the Pali (the sacred language of Burmah and Ceylon) are branches or sister dialects of the Sanscrit ; andmost of the dialects of modern Indiaaretraceableto this source. The Shemitic races, speaking languages similar to the ancient Hebrew, viz., the Syrians, Koords (the ancient Assyrians), the Chaldeans, and the Arabs. The Turkish races, sometimes confounded with the Tartars, speaking the Turkish language, viz.: the Osmanli in Turkey, the Turks in Bokhara and Turkestan, and sundry other tribes in various provinces of the Russian Empire in Europe and

Asia. The Mongolian or Tartar races, comprising the Mongols, the Buriats (Siberia), the Calmucks (Russia), the Tangusians, the Manchóos (the present masters of China), the Thibetians, with the people of Armenia and the tribes of Caucasus (between the Black and Caspian Seas) speak languages not yet sufficiently known to be properly classified. The Chinese race (nearly allied to the Mongolian) in China (and probably Japan), whose language is now well understood by Europeans, and is found to possess no extraordinary difficulties, as was supposed. The Malay races, found in the peninsula of Malacca, and in all the Islands of the Indian and Pacific Ocean, from Madagascar to the coast of South America. These are the principal Asiatic races and families of lan. guages; but our information is yet very imperfect, and we ’know little of the Indian languages not derived from the Sanscrit or the languages of the Burman Empire, Siam, &c. There are also traces in Thibet, in India, and in the Asiatic islands of an aboriginal black and semi-negro population. In some islands, as in New Guinea, and other islands of Australasia, this race has maintained its ground ; but in most of the islands it has been supplanted and almost destroyed by the Malay races.

It will be seen by the above list of races that the population of Asia is much more varied than that of Europe. The central regions of that continent from the Black and Caspian Seas to Kamschatka, are chiefly occupied by wandering Turkish and Mongolian (Tartar) tribes, dependent on their cattle, horses, &c., for subsistence. Even in the more settled countries Turkey in Asia, Persia, &c., the Nomad or wandering tribes occupy the open country, as in the days of tho Jewish patriarchs. A compact settled population, such as exists in Europe, in the midst of a highly cultivated country, is unknown in Asia, except in portions of China, India, and Japan. In fact, the central table-land and the desert portions of Arabia, Turkey in Asia, and Persia are only suited to the wants of the Nomad or Shepherd tribes, and will never be adapted to the support of an agricultural population. It is this singular predominance of wandering warlike tribes in Asia which has ever rendered a stable and efficient government almost impossible, as such communities are difficult to be controlled. By these tribes the ancient caravan trade of Asia and Africa was carried on, from the borders of China and India, through Persia, to the ancient Babylon, Palmyra, Damascus, and Tyre ; and again in Africa, from Ethiopia and Central Africa to Alexandria. Ships also from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf visited India, and perhaps the Spice Islands.

DIVISIONS OF ASIA.

Asia comprises the following countries :—

I. Asiatic Russia—population, eleven millions —containing :

The Caucasus    Chief Towns, Tiflis, Erivan

Siberia, comprising—

Western Siberia    ,,    Tobolsk

Eastern Siberia    ,,    Irkutz

Russian Central Asia    ,,    Ivokan, Tashkend, Kho

jend, Samarkand

II. Turkey in Asia—population, sixteen mil lions—containing :

Asia Minor    Chief Towns, Smyrna

Aleppo, Damascus, Jaffa, Acre, Jerusalem, Beyroot

twelve millions—con-

Mecca. Medina, Jidda

Tor, Akaba

Koweit

Muscat

Makallah

Sana, Mocha; Aden (subject to England).

Hail

Syria (including Pales-    ,,

tine, the ancient Judea)

Countries on the Eu-    ,,

phrates

III. Arabia—population taining:

Hedjaz    Chief Towns,

Sinai Region    ,,

El Hassa    „

Nedjed    „

Oman    „

Yemen    „

Jebel Shomer    ,,

IV. Persia—population, five millions—con-

 taining : Azerbijan Chief Towns, Tabriz Ghilan Reshd Mazanderan n Saree Khorassan M Mushed Irak-Ajemi n Teheran, Ispahan Khusistan >> Shuster Farz Shiraz, Bushire Laristan y • Lar Luristan yy Khorramabad Kerman y y Gombroon Seistan yy Sekuha

V.    Afghanistan and Beloochistan—population, seven millions—containing :

Herat    Chief    Towns,    Herat

Cabul    „    Cabul, Ghizni

Candahar    ,,    Candahar

Beloochistan    „    Kelat

VI.    Turkestan—population, seven millions— containing :

Eastern Turkestan, Chief Towns, Kashgar, Yarkand, (belonging to China) Khotan Western Turkestan, comprising—

1.    Russian Turkestan

2. Khiva    ,,    Khiva

3. Bokhara    ,,    Bokhara

Note.—Khiva is nominally independentbut is virtually a dependency of Russia. Khokan has been annexed by Russia. Samarcand to the eastward of Bokhara is within Russian territory.

VII.    Chinese Empire—population upwards of three hundred and sixty millions, comprising—

1.    China    Chief Towns, Pf.kin, Nankin, Shanghai,

Canton

2.    Tibet    ,,    Lassa

Moukden

King-ki-tao

3.    Mongolia

4.    Manchooria

5.    Corea

Vm. The Eastern or Indo-Ciiixese Peninsula (India beyond the Ganges)—population about thirty-seven millions, containing—

1.    Burman Empire—Chief Towns, Mandelay, Amarapoora*

2. Siam—    „    Bangkok    [Ava.

3.    Anam, or Cochin-

China—

4.    Cambodia—

5.    French Cochin-China

6.    British Provinces-

Hue

Oodong, Kampot Saigon

¡forming British Burmah.

-(1) Aracan

(2)    Pegu

(3)    Tenasserim

or, the Straits Settlements.

(4)    Penang

(5)    Malacca

(6)    Singapore 7. Malaya—occupied by various Petty States.

IX. Hindostán, os India—population, two hundred and fifty millions, comprises—

The Britisli possessions, consisting of—

 1. Bengal Chief Town Calcutta o. North-west Pro- ) Allahabad vinces and Oude ( Lucknow 3. Punjaub if Lahore 4. Central Provinces ♦» Nagpore 5. British Burmah a Rangoon 6. Assam a Go what ty 7. Bombay a Bombay 8. Madras a Madras

The Native States, consisting of—

1.    States, subject to Britain, but governed by

various Rajahs. The chief are, Rajpootana, Central India, Hyderabad, and Mysore

2.    Independent States. The chief are, Nepaul and

Bhotan

Foreign possessions.—These are :    (1) Pondicherry,

Mahe, and Chandernagore, belonging to the French (2) Goa, Damaun, and Diu, belonging to Portugal

X. Tiie Empire of Japan—population upwards of thirty-four millions—the principal islands are :

1.    Xiphon. Chief Towns, Tokio, formerly called Jeddo—

population, 1,000,000;

Meako, and Yokohama.

2.    Kiusiu. ,,    ,, Nagasaki.

3. Jesso.    „    „    Matsmai, Hakodadi.

4. Sikokf.    „    „    Tosa.

Asiatic Russia, Turkestan or Independent Tartary, and Chinese or Eastern Tartary, are chiefly occupied by wandering tribes of shepherds or hunters, viz., the Kalmucks, Kirghis, Usbecks, Moguls, Manchoos, &c., whose warlike and predatory habits in past ages rendered them the conquerors of Europe and Asia. From these vast plains, called the steppes, came the p* cient Scythians, Huns, Seljuks, and Ottoman Turks and Tartars (under Ghengis Khan and Tamerlane) The Russian Government sends its criminals to Siberia. Circassia is celebrated for the beauty of its women.

Turkey in Asia, naturally a most fertile country, is now for tbe most part desolate, owing to the tyranny and insecurity of the Turkish Government, administered by the various Pashas. Judea, Syria, Phoenicia, Assyria, Babylonia, with Pontus, Cappadocia, Syria, Pergamus, Troy, &c., so celebrated in ancient history, are now provinces of Turkey in Asia. The ruins of Baalbeck, Palmyra, Petra, Nineveh, and Babylon, with the remains of the Greek Cities of Asia Minor are proofs of ancient splendour and prosperity. Arabia is for the most part desert, but the southern part is fertile. It is chiefly occupied by wandering Arab tribes, who are also found in the southern provinces of Asiatic Turkey. Mecca, the birth-place of Mohammed, is the sacred city of the Mohammedans, to which pilgrimages are regularly made, at least once in the lifetime of each true Mohammedan. Persia and Afghanistan are almost deserts, and are occupied by wandering tribes of Arabs, Turcomans, Afghans, Beloochees, &c., &c. The ruins of the ancient Persepolis are yet existing, and are visited by travellers.

China and Japan are remarkable for their civilization and the manufacturing and agricultural industry of their populations, and for the jealous restrictive spirit of their Governments. The Chinese were the inventors of printing, and also of gunpowder, and were ages ago far advanced in the arts of civilized life. Formerly, intercourse with China was only permitted at the port of Canton, but in 1842 the ports ot Canton, Amoy, Shanghai, Fuh-chow, and Ningpo, were, and more recently nine other ports have been, opened to foreign trade. China is intersected by canals and roads, its great wall, 1500 miles long, was built to protect its northern provinces from the Tartars, who are now the Sovereigns ot China. In Japan the Dutch alcne were permitted to trade at Nagasaki, but of late years the right of trading at various ports has been granted to England, France, the I nited States of America, and other countries. Tibet is a vast table-land in the heart of Asia, celebrated as the residence of the Grand Lama, who is supposed to be immortal and who is worshipped as a deity by a large number of Tartar tribes.

India was the seat of the famous Mogul Empire, but is now subject to British rule. It contains a great variety of population, and numerous large and populous cities.

There is considerable trade between Great Britain and India, and China. China sends chiefly tea and silks to England. Indiasends cotton, tea, indigo,sugar, rice; Ceylon, coflee, and cinnamon. The Dutch possess parts of Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, with Java and the Moluccas or Spice Islands; their chief town is Batavia, in the island of Java, and their exports from these possessions, are coffee, sugar, and spices. The Philippine Islands belong to Spain ; Manilla is the chief town ; the principal exports are sugar and cigars. Labuan (an island near Borneo); Sarawak in Borneo ; Singapore and Penang (Malacca); Hong Kong (China), are the chief depots of British trade.

#### AFRICA-

General View :

Boundaries.—N., tlie Mediterranean ; W., the Atlantic Ocean; S., the Southern Ocean ; and E., the Indian Ocean and theBed Sea.

Extent.—The length of Africa from the Mediterranean to the Cape of Good Hope is 6,000 miles, and its breadth, from Cape Verde to Cape Guardafili, 4,500 miles.

Principal Divisions of Africa with their Chief Towns.

Divisions.)

Population.j Chief Towns.

Population.

1.    Northern Africa ..

2.    North-Eastern Africa

3.    Eastern Africa ..

4.    Southern Africa ..

5.    Western Africa ..

6.    Central Africa ..

50.000

300.000

10.000

25.000

40.000

100.000

12,500,000 Morocco

10.000. 000 Grand Cairo

15.000. 000 Mozambique 1,500,000 Cape Town

60.000. 000 Timbuctoo

The total area of Africa is estimated at 12 million square miles. The population is variously stated from 100 to 200 millions.

Islands.—The Madeiras, Canaries, Cape Verde Islands, Fernando Po, St. Thomas, St. Matthew’s, Ascension, and St. Helena, in the Atlantic; Madagascar, Bourbon, Mauritius, Comoro Isles, and Socotra, in the Indian Ocean.

Isthmus.—Suez, about 60 miles broad, connecting Africa with Asia, and separating the Mediterranean from the Red Sea.

Capes.—Cape Bon and Cape Spartel, on the north; Capes Blanco and Verde, on the west; Cape of Good Hope,9 on the south ; and Cape Guardafui, on the east.

Mountains.—Mount Atlas, in the west of Barbary ; the Mountains of Kong, in the south of Nigritia ;f the Camaroons, opposite Fernando Po ;

the Mountains of Abyssinia, on the eastern side of Africa; the Mountains of Lupata, west of Sofala ; the Nieuveldt Mountains, in Cape Colony ; and the Peak of Teneriffe, in the Canaries

Lakes.—Lake Tchad, in Nigritia ; Lake Dem-bea, in Abyssinia; Victoria Nyanza and Albert Nyanza, lying along the equator; and Tanjanyika, Shirwa, and Nyassa, south of the equator.

Gulfs and Bays.—The Gulf of Sidra, and the Gulf of Cabes, on the north ; the Gulf of Guinea, on the west; Table and Algoa Bays, on the south; Delagoa and Sofala Bays on the east.

Straits, &c.—The Strait of Gibraltar, on the north; the Strait of Babelmandeb, and the Channel of Mozambique, on the east.

Piters.—The Nile flowing through Central Africa, Nubia, and Egypt: the Senegal, Gambia, and Pio Grande, in Senegambia; the Niger, in N igritia; the Congo, or Zaire, in Congo; the Orange, or Gareep (great river), in the country of the Hottentots ; and the Zambezi, in Sofala.

Natural Features, \$c.—Immense deserts of sand, great ranges of mountains, and forests of vast extent, are the characteristic features of Africa. As more than three fourths of Africa are in tho torrid zone, the climate is, in general, excessively hot.

Soil and Productions.—The soil, where there is sufficient moisture, is very fertile, and vegetation luxuriant. The chief 'productions are palm oils, "dye-woods, drugs, indigo, gums, grapes, figs, rice, and wheat. Gold is the principal mineral. Africa is remarkable both for the number and ferocity of its wild animals. The chief manufactures are silk, cotton, and leather.

Religion.—The Christian religion, once so flourishing in Africa is now but just recovering something of its ancient splendour. Christians, though numerous, constitute but a small minority of the entire population, the great mass being involved in Paganism, or in the superstitions of Mohammedanism.

The Governments of Africa are in general despotic.

Inhabitants, \$c.—The Coptic races, the inhabitants of ancient Egypt, now the degraded Fellahs, or cultivators of modern Egypt. The Negro races found in Nubia and all Central and \Vestera Africa—a race unhappily degraded by and associated with the idea of slavery, but yet susceptible of no small degree both of moral and intellectual culture. The Mixed Arab and Negro races, found from Abyssinia to the eastern border of the Cape Colony, and also in Congo, Angola, &c., including the Kaffir and Bechuana tribes, probably from affinity of language, a kindred race to the inhabitants of Ancient Egypt. The Hottentot races, including the Korrannas, Namacquas, Bushmen, &c., originally inhabiting the Cape Colony, whose peculiar language and physiognomy point to their derivation from Mongolian ancestors ; probably some Mongolian Tartars were at a remote period, cast upon the shores of Africa while voyaging in the Arabian vessels from India. The Berbers or Kabyles — probably the descendants of the ancient Numidians. Carthaginians, &c., chiefly dwelling near Mount Atlas. The Moors, who are the descendants of the Mohammedan Arabs, who conquered the North of Africa in the 7th century, and who constitute the principal population of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. Many Arab tribes are also found in Egypt, Barbary, &c. Arabic is chiefly spoken in North Africa. In Abyssinia, the languages of the Tigre and Amharra are dialects of the ancient Ethiopic, which is allied to Hebrew and Arabic.

DIVISIONS OF AFEICA.

Africa comprises the following countries : —

1. Barbary—population fourteen millions—

consisting of — 1. Morocco

Algeria

Tunis

Tripoli

2.

3.

4.

Chief Towns, Morocco, Fez, Mequirez, Mogadore, and Tangier ,, Algiers, Constantine and Oran ,,    Tunis, aud Cairwan

,,    Tripoli.

Morocco is under its own Emperor. Algeria and Tunis are subject to France ; the Ruler of Tripoli bears the title of Pasha. Tripoli is nominally subject to Turkey. These states were lormerly notorious for their piracies, from which they are now compelled to refrain by the superior power of England, America, France, Ac. Carthage, the ancient rival of Rome, was situated near the present Tunis. Ruins of ancient wealth and magnificence abound in North Africa.

II.    Egypt.—Chief Towns, Cairo, Alexandria, Suez, Damietta. Population, 5 millions.

This country consists of one rich valley and delta watered by the Nile, and is remarkable for its fertility and for its remains of antiquity viz., the Pyramids, the ruins of Thebes, Denderah, &c., &c. Rain falls but seldom, but the regular overflowing of the Nile supplies its want. Egypt produces large quantities of grain, flax, and cotton. It is the high road to India from Europe, and is governed by a Pasha, nominally tributary to the Sultan of Turkey, but in reality independent of him.

III.    Nubia, consisting of Dongola and Sennaar —Chief Towns, Khartoom, New Dongola, Sennaar. Population, half a million.

This is a miserable country, chiefly desert, inhabited by barbarous tribes; interesting only on account of the remains of antiquity. It was the ancient Ethiopia..

Abyssinia.—Chief Towns, Gondar, Debra-Tabor, Magdala, Massowah. Population, 5millions. This fertile country is nominally Christian, but has now degenerated into barbarism, owing to the invasion of the barbarous Galla tribes. Besides the Galla tribes it contains several kingdoms, the principal of which are Amharra, Tigre, and Shoa.

Ajan

Zanzibar

Mozambique

Sofala

V. Eastern Africa, population, 15 millions, containing—

Zanzibar, Mombaz Mozambique Sena, Sofala

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Chief Towns,

We know little of these countries, except that they are generally fertile, but very unhealthy for Europeans, Zanzibar was until recently under the Government of the lmaum of Muscat (in Arabia); but is now governed by a Sultan of Arab race. From Mozambique to Delagoa Bay the country on the coast (including the River Zambezi in the interior), is subject to the Portuguese. Gold, ivory, and slaves, are the principal articles of commerce.

VI. Western Africa.—Population, 25 millions containing—

1.    Sahara or the Great Desert

2.    Seuegambia (watered by the Senegal, Gambia, and Pio Grande).

3.    Upper Guinea, consisting of—

Chief Town, Free Town

(1). Sierra Leone, an'

(2).

Liberia, on Grain Coast, an American colony of free blacks Ivory Coast Gold Coast Ashantee Dahomey Yarriba Benin

Old Calabar Biafra

English Colony

Monrovia

(3).

G).

(5) .

(6) . (7). (S). (9).

(10;.

4.

(1).

(2).

(3).

W-

Cape Coast Castle

Coomassie

Abomey

Abbeokouta

Benin

Bonny

Biafra.

Lower Guinea, consisting of—

Loan go    Chief Town, Loan go

Angola    „    St. Paul or Loanda

Benguela    „    Benguela.

The great desert of Sahara is a vast plain of sand, 1500 miles long and 800 broad, with here and there fertile spots (called Oates), as Fezzan, Agades, and Angilla. In Sene-gambia the French have settled at Gorec, near Cape Verde and at St. Louis, on the Senegal, chiefly valuable for the gum trade; and the English at St. Mary’s on the Gambia.

Sierra Leone is an English colony of liberated slaves. Liberia, an American colony of free blacks, is an indepen-pendent republic. The English, Dutch, and Portuguese possess also small settlements on the Coast of Upper Guinea. Ashantee, Dahomey, and Benin are powerful Negro States, remarkable for the degradation and ferocity of their population and governments. Lower Guinea is subject to the Portuguese, and is little known beyond the sea coast. The whole of the West Coast of Africa, from Senegambia to Benguela, is remarkably fertile, but unhealthy and has been for the last three centuries the principal seat of the slave trade with the West Indian Islands and America. Gold, ivory, and palm oil are the principal articles of commerce, besides slaves.

VII.    Central Africa, which forms perhaps the most improved and cultivated portion of Africa, containing, along the Niger and near Lake Tchad, a number of Native States (some with Negro Governments, and others under Moorish rulers), of which we know little more than the names. The population is estimated at about 60 millions.

The principal are Timbuctoo, Youri, Borgoo, Houssa Bournou, Begharmi, Darfur, Kordofan, &c., &c. The populations of these petty states are chiefly agricultural, but have a few simple manufactures, and seem to possess a taste for trade A very extensive internal slave trade is carried on with Egypt and Barbary.

VIII.    Southern Africa comprehends—

1.    Cape Colony : population, 7d0,000. Chief Towns—Cape

Town, population, 28,000; Port Elizabeth, Graham’s Town, King William’s Town.

2.    Natal. Chiei Towns, Peter Maritzburg, D’Urban.

3.    Orange River Free State. Chief Town, Bloem-fontein.

4.    The Transvaal, annexed by the British in 1877,but since

restored to the Boers, who have re-established the republican form of government.

5.    Zululand, governed by native chiefs, under the control

of a British Resident.

6.    The Bechuana Country (beyond the Orange River).

Cape Colony and Natal belong to Britain. Cape Colony is inhabited chiefly by Europeans of British and Dutch extraction, and a numerous Hottentot and Caftre population. Of the European population by far the largest number consists of British settlers, who form the most enterprising and wealthy class of the population. Natal contains a large body of Dutch and English settlers, and also a warlike tribe of Kafflrs called Zulus. The Bechuana country contains many Dutch farmers (or squatters) together with numerous pastoral tribes of Bechuanas, Ivorannas, Namacquas, Damaras, Basuto, Mantatee, &c.. &c., most of whom profess to submit to the Cape Colonial Government. The Cape Colony produces wheat, wine, fruit, wool, tallow, hides, diamonds, &c. In Natal cotton is likely to become an important article of commerce. The population of Southern Africa, including Kaffir-land, the Hottentots, and the settlers in Cape Colony and Natal, cannot be less than one and a half millions.

#### AMERICA.

General View.

Boundaries.—N., the Northern Ocean ;W., the Pacific Ocean; S., the Southern Ocean ; and E., the Atlantic Ocean.

Extent.—The length of America, from north to south is 10,000 miles ; and its average breadth about 2,600 miles; area, 15,600,000 square miles.

Divisions.—This vast continent consists of two great portions called North and South America, which are connected by the Isthmus of Panama, 360 miles long, and in its narrowest part less than 30 miles wide.

#### NORTH AMERICA.

Boundaries.—N., the Northern Ocean ; W., the Pacific Ocean; S., the Isthmus of Panama and Gulf of Mexico ; and E., the Atlantic Ocean.

Extent.—The length of North America, from north to south is, 5,600 miles ; and its breadth from east to west, 3,000 miles; area, 8,600,000, square miles.

Comparative View of the Principal Divisions of North America.

 Divisions. Extent in sq. miles. Popula tion. Chief Towns. Popula tion, 1.    British America 2.    United States 3.    Mexico 4.    Central America 5.    West Indies 3.600.000 3.827.000 744.000 186.000 95.000! 4.600.000 50,000,000 9,000,000 2.500.000 3.500.000 Ottawa Washington Mexico New Guatemala Havannah 25.000 147.000 230.000 69.000 200.000

Islands.—On the north are—Greenland, Cumberland Island, Southampton, [Cockburn, North Devon, and the Parry Islands, Grinnell Land, Banks Land, Victoria Land, and several others, all of which are comprehended under the name of the Arctic Archipelago ; on the east are—Newfoundland, Anticosti, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and the Bermudas; on the southeast are—the West Indian Islands, the principal of which are Cuba, Hayti, and Jamaica; and on the west are—Vancouver’s Island, and the Queen Charlotte Islands.    *

Peninsulas.—Labrador, Nova Scotia, Florida, and Yucatan, on the east side; and Lower California, and Alaska, on the west side.

Capes.—Cape Barrow, and Cape Bathurst on the north; Cape Farewell in Greenland; Cape Charles in Labrador; Cape Pace in Newfoundland ; Cape Breton in Cape Breton Island ; Cape Sable in Nova Scotia; Capes Cod and Hatteras in the United States ; Cape Sable in Florida; and Cape Catoche in Yucatan all on the east coast; and Cape St. Lucas inLower California on the westcoast.

Ill

Mountains.—The Bocky Mountains on the western side extending through almost the whole length of the Continent; the Alleghany Mountains on the eastern side; and the Sierra Nevada in California. The average height of the Bochy Mountains is about 8,000 feet and that of the Alleghany Mountains about 2,500 feet above the level of the sea.

Lakes.—Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario, lying between Canada and the United States are the largest fresh water lakes in the world. Other large lakes are—Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca, and Lake Winnipeg, all in British America; and Lake Nicaragua in Central America.

Gulfs and Bays.—Baffin’s Bay, north-west of Greenland ; Hudson’s Ba}', in British America; Gulf of St. Lawrence, between Newfoundland and the Continent; the Bay of Fundy between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick ; the Gulf of Mexico, to the south of the United States ; the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Central America ; and the Gulf of California, to the west of Mexico.

Bivers.—The principal rivers of North America are—the Mississippi, with its great tributary the Missouri which joins it on the right bank, and the Ohio and Tennessee which join it on the left bank—length about 4,000 miles; the St. Lawrence flowing into the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; the Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, Potomac, Boanoke, and others, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean ; the Bio del Norte, into the Gulf of Mexico ; the Colorado, into the Gulf of California; the Sacramento and

Columbia, into the Pacific Ocean; and the Mackenzie, Coppermine, and Great Pish River, into the Arctic Ocean.

Straits. —Davis Strait, between Greenland and Baffin Land; Lancaster Sound, Barrow Strait, Melville Sound, Banks Strait, and Behring Strait (which last is between the north-western coast of America and the north-eastern coast of Asia.) These straits form the communication between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans which is known as the “north-west passage.” This passage is, however, too much blocked up by ice, to be of any use for the purposes of navigation. Other straits are— Hudson Strait, north of Labrador; the Strait of Belle-isle felej, between Newfoundland and Labrador; and the Strait of Florida between Florida and the islands known as the Bahamas.

Face of tiie Country.—The northern portion of this vast continent consists of extensive swamps and flats covered with lakes and forests and intersected by numerous streams, few of which are navigable. The vast fresh water lakes between Canada and the United States, and the large rivers of St. Lawrence, Mississippi, Missouri, &c., are also characteristic of this portion of the globe. A range of mountains runs parallel with the Pacific Ocean, and separates the west coast from the extensive arid plains which extend from the Mississippi westward. The southern part of the territory of the United States, west of the Mississippi, consists mainly of rich flat meadows called prairies. Mexico and Guatemala form a vast table-land rising gradually from the sea, which washes its eastern and western borders.

Climate, Soil, &c.—The Canadas and British Colonies generally, with the United States, Mexico, &c., are remarkable for their fertility, producing everything requisite for comfort and luxury usually found in temperate and tropical climates. The climate of the eastern countries is characterized by extremes and rapid transitions, and is much colder than the climate of Europe in the same latitude. On the north-west coast between the sea and the Bocky Mountains, the climate is milder than even similar latitudes in Europe or Asia.

Population.—About 68 millions, three fourths of whom are of European origin.

Races.—The principal races are the British found in British America : also in the United States, many of which were formerly British Colonies. The French, found principally in Lower Canada. The Spanish, found in Mexico and Guatemala. The Negro races, imported originally from Africa, found principally in the Southern provinces of the United States ; also in the West Indian Islands in a state of slavery (except in the British West Indies, where they are free). The Indian tribes found in the western and central portions of North America (these are gradually decreasing), existing as hunters; also in Mexico, ¿¿c., where they are agriculturists, and form a large proportion of the population. The Esquimaux and Greenlanders inhabiting the extreme north, in Labrador, Greenland &c., resembling in their habits certain Asiatic tribes of which they are descendants. The Creoles are the descendants of the Spanish and French Colonists. Many Germans, Dutch, Swedes, &c., are also found in North America. From recent discoveries it is highly probable that America was known to the Egyptians and Phoenicians, and was anciently the seat of some powerful and civilized people previous to its occupation by the Indian tribes, who are probably of Tartar

DIVISIONS OF NORTH AMERICA.

I.    Danish America : Greenland, a barren icy country, in which are a few settlements. The shores of Greenland and Davis Strait are famous for their whale fisheries.

II.    British America, population, four and a half millions, consisting of—

1. The Dominion of Canada, including—

Ontario (or Upper Canada)—Chief Towns, Ottawa,

New Brunswick Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island Manitobah (or the Red River Settlement) Prince Edward Island British Columbia and Vancouver Island North-west Territory 2. Newfoundland

}

}

Toronto, and Kingston. Quebec and Montreal. St. John. Halifax Sydney

Winnipeg

Charlotte Town New Westminster Victoria

St. John’s

These colonies are chiefly valuable for their timber and fisheries, and as settlements for immigrants, chiefly of the poorer classes cf society, from Great Britain and Ireland. Extensive lines of railway now connect Canada with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

III. The United States of America consist of 38 independent States confederated together for mutual protection and defence, besides nine large territories not yet sufficiently populous to be admitted into the Union. Population—50,000,000.

Six North-Eastern or New England States.—Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Chief Towns— Boston—population, 363,000; Lowell, Providence, New Haven, and Portland.

Five Middle States.—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, with the District of Columbia, which has been set apart for the use of the Federal Government. Chief Towns—New York—population^ nearly 2,000,000 ; Philadelphia—population, S47,OX); Albany, Buffalo, Newark, Jersey City, Pittsburg, Baltimore, and Washington. Washington is the capital of the Union.

Six Southern States.—Virginia, Western Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Chief Towns—Richmond, Charlestown, and Savannah.

Ten North Western States.—Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Chief Towns—Cincinatti— population, 256,000 ; Chicago—population, 503,000 ; Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukie.

Eight South-Western States—Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. Chief Towns—St. Louis,—population, 350,000 ; New Orleans—population, 216,000 ; Louisville, Memphis, and Mobile.

Three Facific States.—California, Oregon and Nevada, Chief Towns—San Francisco—population, 234,000 ; Sacramento and Virginia City.

Territories not yet admittod to the Union:—Dacotah, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, Montano, Idaho, Washington, and Alaska (formerly Russian America).

The inhabitants of the United States are brave, industrious and enlightened, and are likely to become the most powerful and influential people in the world. About four millions of free Negroes are employed in the cultivation of cotton, rice, and sugar. Great attention is paid to education, and the Government is the most democratic in the world, the President of the Union being chosen every four years by universal suffrage. Each State has its separate legislature and Governor, Courts of Justice, &c, and there is a Congress (consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate) for the whole Union. There is no established Religion ; each sect maintains its own Minister, being entirely disconnected from the State.

On the outbreak of the civil war—1S61-65-—the military and naval power of the United States was wonderfullv increased, their army and navy being amongst the largest in the world. Since its conclusion, however, the army has been gradually reduced, and the present standing force is only about 25,000 men. Their merchant ships are found in every part of the globe, and almost monopolize the whale fisheries of the Pacific ; their manufactures in New England and in Pennsylvania bid fair to rival and even excel those of Great Britain; the natural advantages of their territory are unequalled ; a fertile soil, happy climate, navigable rivers, an inexhaustible supply of coal, copper, iron, and even the precious metals, leave nothing wanting for the welfare of any community. Numerous canals and railroads give additional facility to transit Cotton, grain, flour, and provisions are the chief raw exports of the United States. They also export the produce of their manufactories to a large extent.

IV.    The Republic of Mexico has been recently divided in 50 departments, named in most cases after the towns which they include. Population,

9,000,000, one half of whom are Indians ; the remainder consists of the descendants of the Spaniards, and the Mestizos, or Mixed Races.

Chief Towns.—Mexico—population, 230,000 Vera Cruz (the principal port), Puebla, Durango, Acapulco, Tampico, &c.

V.    Central America consists of five independent states and one British colony, as follows :— Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua (including the Mosquito coast), Costa Rica, and British Honduras. Population, 2,500,000. Chief Towns—New Guatemala, San Salvador, Leon, Granada, and Nicaragua.

VI.    The West Indian Islands are situated in the Atlantic Ocean between the Gulf of Mexico and the Northern coast of South America, and are

nearly one thousand in number. Population, three and a-half millions. The principal are Cuba and Port Pico belonging to Spain, Jamaica to England and Hayti which is divided into two independent republics.

Mexico and Guatemala possess every variety of climate according to their elevation above the level of the sea ; they abound in mineral riches, especially silver and copper, and would produce every necessary and luxury, but the inhabitants are not industrious, and the continual civil wars destroy all security, and thus prevent the increase of agriculture and trade. A large portion of the population is yet Indian, the descendants of the ancient Mexicans conquered by the Spaniards in the 16th century.

The magnificent remains of ancient cities, and recent discoveries of caves containing mummies, <ic., seem to intimate the existence of a powerful, wealthy, and civilized people, probably connected at a remote period—long before the Christian era—with India, Egypt, and Phoenicia.

Tho British provinces of Honduras (chief town Belize) is on the Eastern Coast, and is chiefly valuable for the trade in mahogany wood, used for the manufacture of furniture; and logwood, used for dyeing purposes.

The religion professed in North America is chiefly Christian ; most of the native Indians yet remain Pagans.

The Catholic religion is the established one in Mexico and Guatemala ; also in Lower Canada. Many Catholics are also found in the United States, especially in Louisiana. Presbyterians, Protestant Episcopalians, Baptists, Congre-gationalists, and Wesleyan Methodists, are the principal religious bodies of the United ¿States. The Greenlanders have long been converted to Christianity by the Danish missionaries. Many Christian missions are established among the Indian tribes; also among the black population of the West Indies, most of whom are now professedly Christian. Cuba, Porto Kico, Hayti, and Martinique, are Catholic ; the rest of the West Indies are chiefly Protestant.

#### SOUTH AMERICA.

Boundaries.—North, the Caribbean Sea and the Isthmus of Darien; West, the Pacific Ocean; South, the Southern Ocean ; and East, the Atlantic Ocean.

Comparative viete of th-principal divisions of South America.

 Division#. Extent i'l sq: miles: Popula tion. Chief Towns. Population, I. Brazil 10 3,000,000 12,000,000 Rio Janeiro 300,000 2. Guiana 142,000 400,000 Georgetown 36,000 3. Venezuela 427,000 1,500,000 Caracas 50,000 4. Colombia 522,000 2,750,000 Bogota 43,000 5. Eucador 285,000 1,000,000 Quito 80,000 6. Peru 500,000 3,000,000 Lima 150,000 7. Boliviat 473,000 2,000,000 Sucre 24,000 8. Chili 170,000 2,000,000 Santiago 180,000 9. La Plata 726,000 2,500,000 Buenos Ayres 180,000 10. Paraguay 57,000 250,000 Assumption 15,000 11. 12. Uruguay Patagonia J 71,000 380,000 438.000 120.000 .Monte Video 105,000

Extent.—The length of South America, from north to south, is 4,600 miles; and its breadth, from east to west, 3,160 miles.

Islands—Tierra del Fuego,j south, and the Falkland Islands, east of Patagonia; Juan Fernandez, west of Chili; and the Galapagos, west of Colombia.

Isthmus.—The Isthmus of Panama or Darien, about thirty miles broad in the narrowest part.

Capes.—Cape St. Boque (:voice), in the east of Brazil; and Cape Horn, in the south of Tierra del Fuego.

Mountains.—The Andes, extending along the whole western coast.

Lakes.—Lakes Maracaibo, in Colombia; and Lake Titicaca, in Peru.

Golfs and Bays.—The Gulf of Darien, to the north of Colombia; the Gulf of Maracaibo, to the north of Venezuela ; the Bay of Para, to the north, and the Bay of All Saints to the east of Brazil; the Gulf of Guayaquil, to the west of Ecuador ; and the Bay of Panama, west of Colombia.

Straits.—The Strait of Magellan, between Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego ; and the Strait of Le Maire, between Tierra del Fuego and Staten Island.

Eivers.—The Magdalena, in Colombia; the Orinoco, in Venezuela; the Essequibo, in Guiana; the Amazon, with its numerous tributaries, and the Francisco, in Brazil; and the Pio de La Plata, in La Plata.'11

Face of tiie Country.—A vast chain of mountains (the Andes) runs from north to south along the coast of the Pacific; from these flow across the vast extensive plains of the interior, the mighty rivers Orinoco, Amazon, La Plata, &c., which, although now comparatively useless to civilized man, will eventually be the high roads of commerce and civilisation to powerful communities. The southern plains of South America, commonly called the Pampas, are covered with long grass, and are

entirely free from forests ; on these plains millions of wild cattle and horses range, which are hunted down for their hides and tallow. The northern plains in Venezuela are called Llanos.

Climate and ¡¿oil.—Every variety of climate is found in South America. The north and eastern portions of the continent have tropical climates, and heavy rains. The western provinces, between the Andes and the Pacific, have but little rain, heavy dews supplying that want. The soil is generally fertile, and its mineral treasures abundant.

Population.—Nearly 30 millions, composed almost entirely of Spanish descent, mixed up with the Indian races, with the exception of Brazil, which was colonised by the Portuguese. There are also a few English, Dutch, and French, in Guiana —besides a large number of Indians and Negroes, the latter principal^ in Guiana and Brazil. There are also Mulattos and other mixed races.

DIVISIONS OF SOUTH AMERICA.

I. Tiie Empire of Brazil.—The northern and western portions of this vast country consist of immense plains, watered by the rivers Amazon, Parana, and their tributaries. The eastern district is traversed from north to south by parallel mountain ranges of great height. Vegetation is extremely luxuriant. Immense forests lie along the banks of the Amazon. Diamonds and other precious stones are found in great abundance; gold, silver, and copper, are also found. Brazil possesses some very good harbours, that of Rio Janeiro being one of the finest in the world—

population, 12 millions. Chief towns—Rio Janeiro, population, 300,000; Bahia, Pernambuco, &c.

II.    Guiana is divided into French Guiana or Cayenne, belonging to France, and now a place of banishment for political offenders—population,

32.000.    Chief Town—Cayenne, population, 5,000.

Dutch Guiana, or Surinam—population, 70,000;

capital, Paramaribo—population, 20,000.

British Guiana—population, 250,000 ; capital, Georgetown—population, 36,000.

III.    Venezuela consists of vast grassy plains (called Savannahs or Llanos), and tracts of forests of surprising richness. The chief productions are — sugar, cocoa, tobacco, indigo, cochineal, and Jesuit’s bark—population, 1,500,000. Chief Towns—Caracas, Cumana, and Barcelona.

IV.    Colombia or, New Grenada, comprises the mountainous region of the Andes, the plain along their western base, and the valley of the Magdalena River. The productions are similar to those oi Venezuela; population, 2,750,000. Chief Town— Santa Fe de Bogota, population, 43,000.

V.    Ecuador consists of the mountainous region of the Andes, with the adjoining plains. The productions are cocoa, coffee, tobacco, Jesuit’s bark, &c. ; population, 1 million. Chief Town— Quito—situated nearly under the line of the equator—the highest city in the world, population,

80.000.

VI.    Peru.—Peru is a largo country, embracing three distinct regions,—the mountains; the narrow plains between the Andes and the ocean ; and the great plains which stretch from the Andes

into the interior, and are watered by the Amazon. The Andes, the highest mountains in South America, traverse the whole country along the western coast. Peru is celebrated for its mines. Population, 3 millions. Chief Towns—Lima, the capital—population, 150,000; Cuzco, Pasco, and Callao, the port of Lima.

VII.    Bolivia.—This country presents every variety of climate and soil; the higher ridges of the Andes are extremely cold and barren, while the country to the east of these mountains consists of extensive and fertile plains, watered by the tributaries of the rivers Amazon and Parana. The natural productions and industrial pursuits are similar to those of Peru. The silver mines of Potosi were formerly the most productive in the world. Population, two millions. Chief Town— Sucre—population, 24,000.

VIII.    Chili.—This country enjoys a large trade. Agricultural and mining pursuits are extensively carried on. The inhabitants are remarkable for their active intelligence as compared with those of the other States in South America. Earthquakes are very frequent. The climate is mild and healthy; the northern parts are remarkable for the absence of rain. Population, two millions. Chief Towns—Santiago, population, 180,000 ; Valparaiso, population, 97,000.

IX.    La Plata or the Abgentine Confedera-tion.—The greater part of this country forms two vast plains—the Pampas, a treeless level, in the south ; and in the north, an extensive and fertile tract of grassy plains, called the Gran Chaco. The interior of this country consists of a desert tract,

known as Las Salinas ; the rivers in this part have no outlet, being lost in the salt marshes. The Pampas afford pasturage for vast herds of cattle and horses. ^Manufactures are few, and commerce is limited ; La Plata exports large quantities of cattle, tallow, and hides. Population, millions. Chief Town—Buenos Ayres—population, 180,000.

X.    Paraguay—This country was formerly connected with the Argentine Republic, but refused to acknowledge the authority of the central government ; it is now an independent state—population,

250.000.

XI.    Uruguay, or Banda Oriental—This State has a compact territory, and was formerly one of the States of the Argentine Republic—population,

438.000.    Chief Town—Montevideo, 105.000.

XII.    Patagonia—A cold barren, moist country. The inhabitants are for the most part in a savage state, leading a wild wandering life. The Argentine Republic claims sovereignty over the whole of Patagonia, with the exception of the western coast which is claimed by Chili.

Note 1.—Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, and Chili, are celebrated for their mineral riches of gold, silver, and copper. Brazil is remarkable for its diamond mines, and for its sugar and coffee. New Granada and Venezuela are also rich in minerals, and export sugar, coffee, cocoa, &c. The European colonies in Guiana produce and export the usual products of the West Indies—sugar, rum, and coffee.

Note 2.—Until lately, most of the South American republics were continually distracted by civil wars ; though nominally freet most of them were really military governments, in which some ono individual was Dictator for a brief period, until deposed by some new adventurer. Brazil is governed by an Emperor, of the Royal family of Portugal. Slavery exists in Brazil, but is being gradually

abolished, the children of all the slaves bom since 1871 are considered to be free, but have to serve an apprenticeship of 21 years.

Religion.—The Catholic religion is universal in South America, with the exception of English and Dutch Guiana, which are Protestant. Many of the Indian tribes are yet pagans. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Missions in Paraguay converted a large number of Indian tribes, but these were sacrificed to the jealousy of the Spanish and Portuguese Governments.

PROBLEMS ON MAPS.

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS.

Latitude on maps is expressed by figures on their sides. If the figures increase upwards, the latitude is north; if downwards, the latitude is south.

Longitude on the maps is expressed by figures placed at the top and bottom. If the figures increase from left to right, the longitude is east; if lroin right to left, the longitude is west. On a map of the World the longitude is marked on the equator.

The greatest latitude a place can have is 90 degrees; and the greatest longitude, 180 degrees12 All places on the equator have no latitude; all places on the first meridian have no longitude.

1.—To find the latitude of any given place.

Rule,—Trace a parallel of latitude through the given place, and the point where that parallel cuts either side of the map, marks the degree of latitude.

Exercise.—What is the latitude of Dublin ? Answer, 53° 21' N. Of London? Answer 51j° N. What is the latitude of the other chief towns in Europe? Of Asia, Australia, &c. What places have the same latitude as Naples, Canton, New York, Sydney, Melbourne, &c.

2.—To find the longitude of any given place.

Rule.—Trace a meridian through the given place, and the point where it cuts the top or bottom of the map shows the longitude. On a map of the World, the point where the meridian crosses the equator, marks the longitude.

Exercise.—What is the longitude of Dublin ? Answer, 6° 18' W. What is the longitude of the other chief towns of Europe ? of Asia ? &c. What places have the same longitude as Mexico, Lima, Moscow, Hobart Town ? &c.

3. —The latitude and longitude of a place being given, to find

hat place.

Rule.—Draw a parallel of latitude cutting the opposite sides of the map at the given latitude ; and a meridian cutting the top and bottom of the map at the given longitude, the point where these lines cross each other, is the place required.

Exercise.—What place lies in 55° 57' N. lat. and 30° 10' W. long. ? Ans., Edinburgh. In 34° 22' S. lat. and 18° 23' E. long. ? Ans., The Cape of Good Hope. In 31° 46' N. lat. and 35° 20' E. long. ? Ans., Jerusalem.

4. —To find the difference of latitude between any tivo given

places.

Rule.—Find the latitude of both places; if both be north or both south, their difference will be the answer; but if one be north and the other south, their sum will be the answer.

Exercise.—What is the difference of latitude between Philadelphia and St. Petersburg P    Ans., 20° Between

Madras and Waterford? Ans., 39° 13'. Between St. Helena and Sydney? Ans., 17° 55'. Between Rome and the Cape of Good Hope? Ans., 76° 16'.

5. — To find the difference of longitude between any two given

places.

Rule.—Find the longitude of both places ; if both be east or both be west, their difference will be the answer ; but if one be east and the other wost, their sum will be the answer.

Xote.—Should the sum exceed ISO subtract it from 360, and the difference will be the answer.

Exercise.—What is the difference of longitude between Constantinople and Calcutta? Ans, 59° 23'. Between Mexico and Xankin? Ans., 141°. Between Cork and Quebec? Ans., 62° 47'. Between Preston and Pekin? Ans., 119° 20'.

6. —The hour at any place being given, to find what hour it is

at any other place.

Rule.—Multiply the difference of longitude between the two places by 4, and the product is the difference of time in minutes; which added to the given hour is the answer, if the place at which the hour is required be eastward but if westward it must be subtracted.

Exercise.—When it is 12 o’clock in London, what time is it in St. Petersburg ? Ans., 2 o clock. At Constantinople ? Ans., 56 min. past 1. At Rome, Sydney ?&c. When it is 10 o’clock in the moruing at Leghorn, what time is it at Limerick? Ans., 44 min. past 8. How many degrees of longitude cause a difference of 12 hours? Ans., ISO0.

7. — To find at what rate per hour the inhabitants of any place

are carried round by the revolution of the earth on its axis.

Rule.—Find by the table the number of miles in a degree of longitude in the 1 ititude of the [dace ; and that number multiplied by 11 will give the answer.

Exercise.—At what rate per hour are the inhabitants of London curried round from west to east ? Ans., 645 English miles. The inhabitants of Dublin A>*s., 622 miles. Of Quito? Ans., 1036 miles. What places are carried round the quickest from west to east? Ans., All places on the equator. What places are not affected by the daily motions of the earth? Ans., The Poles.

*fc

/

In this word the a is sounded like a in aw. f In this word the a is sounded like a in day.

Estimated extent of the land and water on the globe.

Sq. miles

Old World, or Eastern Continent, contains ......... 31,000,000

New World, or Western Continent ...     17,000,000

Maritime World, or Oceanica ............... 8,000,000

Total land area of the globe............... 56,000,000

S<j. miles.

Pacific Ocean ..................... 50,000,000

Southern Ocean ........ 30,000,000

Atlantic Ocean......... 25,000,000

Indian Ocean ..................... 17,000,000

Northern Ocean .................. 5,600,000

The Inland Seas .....................14,400,000

Total extent of water on the globe

Of this number Europe contains 320 millions ; Asia, 830 millions ; Africa, 200 millions; America, 9(3 millions; and Australasia and Polynesia, 4 millions. Nearly 2<0 millions profess the Catholic Religion : about 70 millions belong to the Greek Church ; and there are about 75 millions of different sects of Protestants; 160 millions Mohammedans and five millions Jews. The remainder are Pagans. There arc five principal races of the great family of mankind, which are here arranged according to their progress in civilization; namely, the European or White; the Asiatic or Yellow; the American or Red; the Malay or Broun ; and the African or Black.

In 1S63 the whole of the territory stretching to the opposite shore of the continent, and lying between the meridians 129 and 138, was temporarily annexed to South Australia.

The population of Europe is estimated at 320 millions. The total area of Europe is 3,700,000 square miles.

Northumberland means the “land north of the Humber.” The kingdom of Northumberland during the Heptarchy, extended from the Humber to the Frith of Forth.

t Durham derives its name from the Saxon word home, a dwelling, which contracted into ham, was also used to express a number of dwellings, or towns; hence hamlet, a small town or village.

Scotland derived its name from an Irish colon)6 called Scotia, who passed over into North Britain in the third century. The Romans called it Caledonia, an appellation said to be derived from a Cimric word, which signifies a mountainous country.

Ireland appears to be a Gothic adaptation of the Native term Erin, which by some etymologists, is interpreted, The Sacred Isleby others The Western Isle, <fcc.

Prussia Proper, and Posen, though included within the newly eon-tituted German Empire, are beyond the geographical limits of Germany.

The Cape of Good Hope was discovered by the Portuguese in 1403 and received its name from the hope they entertained of finding beyond it a passage to India, which hope was realized by their doubling the Cape in 1497, and arriving at Calicut.

t Nigritia is so called from the river Niger, which flows through it. The Arabs called it Soudan, a word of similar import to the European term Negro land, which signifies the Country of the Blacks

Brazil is supposed to have derived its name from the abundance of Brazil ivood found there. The extent of Brazil may be conceived from the fact that it is fifteen times as large as the republic of France.

t Bolivia. The republic of Upper Peru is now called Bolivia in honour of Bolivar, who effected its independence. lie died in 1S30.

1 Tierra del Fuego signifies land of fire. and is so called from the number of volcanoes observed in it by the first navigators who explored its coast. The Andes derive their name from the Peruvian word anti, signifying copper.

La Plata received its name from Sebastian Cabot, an English navigator, who, having visited this region in 1536, and obtained a great quantity of silver from the natives, concluded there were rieh mines of silver in the neighbourhood (though in fact they had brought it from Peru) ; he, therefore, called the place La Plata, and the river he had sailed up Rio de La Plata, or River of Silver.

If the circumference of a circle be divided into 360 equal parts, each part is termed a degree (°) : if a degree be divided into 60 equal parts, each is called a minute('); and if a minute be divided into 60 equal parts, each is called a second (").