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Advanced military formations mainly depend on the proficiency of officers in command ; but a private soldier thoroughly acquainted withand proficient in, the sections contained in this publication, would (with instruction in the use of the rifle and some few particular duties) be able to serve in most positions in which he might happen to be placed. If it is intended that the schools are to be the training grounds in which the youths of the colony are to receive their first instruction in discipline and arms, it cannot be too earnestly impressed on the minds of instructors to thoroughly ground their pupils in the rudiments of drill, on which all other movements entirely hinge, and, by frequent practice and repetition, to create such an impression on their minds that the knowledge acquired may be lasting.

I he sections in the Field Exercise” relating to arms have, in this manual, been preserved, in case rifles should subsequently be issued to the schools.

.The terms u Captain, &c., in the more advanced sections, have also been retained, persons showing zeal and ability can easily be told off, when on parade, to temporarily fill these offices.



A 2

br I





Definitions ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    9





I. Instruction of the Recruit ... ...

• ••



II. Duration of Drills, &c. ... ...




III. Mutual Instruction ... ... ...




IY. Words of Command ... ... ...




RECRUIT OR SQUAD DRILL, WITH INTERVALS. Formation of Squads ... ... ... ... ...



1. Position of the Soldier... ... ...




2. Standing at Ease ... ... ...




3. Dressing a Squad with Intervals ...




4. Turnings ... ... ... ...




5. Extension Motions ... ... ...




6. Saluting ... ... ... ...





7. Length of Pace ... ... ...

• ••



8. Cadence ... ... ... ...




9. The Drum, Plummet, and Pace Stick ...




10. Position in Marching ... ... ...




11. The Quick March ... ... ...



12. The Halt ... ••• ... ...



13. Stepping out ... ... ... ...



14. Stepping Short ... ... ...



15. Marking Time... ... ... ...














26 26


28 28





32 32

16.    Stepping Back    ...

17.    Changing Feet    ...

18.    The Double March    ...

19.    The Side or Closing    Step

20.    Turning when on the March


21.    Directing and Reverse Flanks    ...    ...    ..

22.    Formation of the Squad in Single Rank...    ..

23.    Dressing when Halted ...    ...    ...    ..

24.    Turnings ...    ...    ...    ...    ..

25.    Marching to the Front and Rear    ...    ..

26.    A Single Rank, at the Halt, changing Front ..

27.    A Single Rank, on the March, changing Direction

28.    The Diagonal March ...    ...    ...    ..

29.    Marching as in File    ...    ...    ...    ..

30.    Wheeling as in File    ...    ...    ...    ..

31.    Men marching as in File forming Squad ...    ..

32.    The Side or Closing Step    ...    ...    ..

33.    Rifle Exercises    ...    ...    ...    ..

34.    Marching with Arms    ...    ...    ...    ..


35.    Formation of Squad in Two Ranks    ...    ...    ...    32

36.    Dressing ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    •••    33

37.    Marching to the Front and Rear    ...    ...    ...    33

38.    Taking Open Order    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    33

39.    Rifle Exercises    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    33

40.    Changing Front by Wheeling, or File Formation ...    ...    34

41.    The Diagonal March    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    34

42.    File Marching, Wheeling in Files, and Files forming Squad...    34

43.    The Formation of Fours    ...    ...    ...    ...    35

44.    Fours Wheeling and Forming Squad    ...    ...    ...    37

45.    A Squad formed in Fours closing on a Flank, or on the

Centre, and Re-forming Two Deep    ...    ...    ...    37

46.    Breaking o££ Files    ...    ...    ...    ...    •••    38



47. Dismissing a Squad ...








40 40 40 40


41 41



42 42 42 42










I. Soldiers to be formed in a Company ...    ...    ...

II. Sizing a Company ...    ...    ...    ...    •••

III. Soldiers to know their Places    ...    ...    ...

IY. Formation and Telling-off of a Company    ...    ...

Y. Supernumerary Rank    ...    ...    ...    ...

YI. Officers, &c., of a Company    ...    ...    ...    • ••

YII. Relative Proportion of Paces to Files...    ...    ...

VIII. Application of Squad Drill    ...    ...    ...    ...

IX. Companies to be Drilled as if with the Battalion    ...

X. Companies to be exercised by their own Officers    ...

XI. Companies to be exercised on Rough Ground, and with the Ranks changed ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

XII. Derangements to be quickly remedied...    ...    ...

XIII. Assembling on Markers    ...    ...    ...    ...

XIY. Marching on Points and judging Distance    ...    ...

XY.    Markers giving Points    ...    ...    ...    ...

XVI. The Captain    ......... ......



1.    Formation of a Company    ...    ...    ...    ...

2.    A Company in Line taking Open    Order    ...    ...    ...

3.    Marching to the Front and Rear    ...    ...    ...


4.    A Company Wheeling, or Forming, from the Halt, from

Column into Line ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

5.    A Company Wheeling, from the Halt, from Line into Column

6.    A company changing Front as the base Company of a Line

Formation ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...


7.    Wheeling, or Forming, from Column into Line ; and Wheel

ing from Line into Column ...    ...    ...    ...

8.    A Company in Column changing    Direction    ...    ...




9. Marching Past    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

10.    The Diagonal March ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

11.    File Marching and Wheeling    in    File    ...    ...    ...

12.    The Formation of Fours    ...    ...    ...    ...

13.    A Company marching in Files or Fours, forming to the

Front (or Rear) ; to the Right (or Left) ; or to the Right or Left about    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

14.    A Company formed in Fours closing on a Flank, or on the

Centre, and re-forming Two Deep    ...    ...    ...

15.    The Side or Closing Step    ...    ...    ...    ...

16.    Counter-marching ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

17.    Diminishing and increasing Front, by breaking off Files,

and bringing them again to the Front...    ...    ...

18.    Diminishing and increasing Front by breaking into Files, or

Fours, and re-forming Company    ...    ...    ...

19.    Forming Company Square    ...    ...    ...    ...


50 50 50






53 53


20.    Formation of Half-Companies and Sections. ...    ...    54


21. Inspecting and Proving a Company    ...    ...    ...    55

22.    Dismissing a Company...    ...    ...    ...    ...    57


Rules to be observed in Practice    ...    ...    ...    58


0~ ®”

Captain ..

"Right, Guide Left Guide.

Marker ............................£5


Private (Front"Rank)........ . B

Private (Rear Rank) ......... a


Drummer or Bugler    .

Original Formation

i Front Bank Ik ear Bank

Intermediate Formation

front Rank

Rear Bank zz

Final Formation

IF r U nt Bunk

(Bear Bank c-—-:—3

Direction of Movements



General Definitions.

An imaginary straight line lying between two points, or the prolongation of that line, upon which troops are to form, or march.

Appui, Point of.

French, appui, “ a support.” The point of formation.

Base Company, or Battalion.

The company, or battalion, from which a format tion is regulated.

Base Points.

The points given by markers as a base for forming line in prolongation of that base.


A succession of companies (or parts of companies), from front to rear, parallel to each other.


A certain number of files, under the command of a captain, divided into half-companies and sections.



A march by which troops move to a flank at an angle of 45° with their front.


The depth between men or corps, from front to rear


From the French dresser, “ to straighten.” The word given to men to correct their alignment.


From an obsolete French word drille, “ a soldier.” The instruction and practice of military exercises.


A movement by which troops change their position for attack or defence.


Two men ; a front-rank man, and his rear-rank man.

Flank, Inner.    That nearest to the point of appui.

„    Directing.    That by which companies march.

„    Outer.    That opposite to the Inner Flank.

„    Reverse.    That opposite to the Directing Flank.


The front, with reference to an alignment, is the direction of the supposed enemy. Used as a general term, the word signifies the direction in which soldiers face when occupying the same relative positions as when last told off.

Front,change of.

Taking up a new alignment on a base at an angle to, and either touching or intersecting, the former alignment.


The lateral space between men or corps.


A battalion is said to be in line when its companies are deployed on the same alignment to their full extent, i.e., in two ranks.

Mancev ere.

See Evolution.


The flank man on whom, or the point on which, a wheel is made.


A line of men side by side.


The fourth part of a company.


A division of a company for purposes of interior economy. Also, a small number of men formed for drill, or for work.



The officers, and non-commissioned officers, composing the third rank.





Instruction of the Recruit.—1. The Instructors must be clear, firm, and concise in giving their directions. They must allow for the different capacities of the recruits, and be patient where endeavour and good-will are apparent.

2. Recruits should fully comprehend one part of their drill before they proceed to another. When first taught their positions, they should be properly placed by the instructor ; when more advanced, they should not be touched, but taught to correct themselves when admonished. They should not be kept too long at any one part of their exercise. Marching without arms should be intermixed with the rifle instruction.


Duration of Drills, fyc.—Short and frequent drills are preferable to long lessons, which exhaust the attention both of the instructor and recruit. The recruits should be moved on progressively from squad to squad according to their merit, so that the quick, intelligent soldier may not be kept back by men of inferior capacity. To arrive at the first squad should be made an object of ambition to the young soldier.


Mutual Instruction.—A system of mutual instruction will be practised amongst recruits; it gives the young soldier additional interest in his drill, and prepares him for the duties of a non-commissioned officer. Recruits should, in turn, be called out to put their squad through the exercises which have been practised, and encouraged to correct any error they may observe. Lists of those who show talent for imparting instruction should be kept, for reference.


Words of Command.— 1. Every command must be loud, and distinctly pronounced, so as to be heard by all concerned.

2. Every command that consists of one word must be preceded by a caution ; the caution, or cautionary part of a command must be given slowly and distinctly; the last, or executive part, which, in general, should consist of only one word or syllable, must be given sharply and quickly; as CompanyHalt: Half RightTurn. A pause of slow time will invariably be made between the caution, or cautionary part of a command, and the executive word.

3.    The words given in the Extension Motions (S. 5) must be given sharply, or slowly and smoothly, as the nature of the motion may require.

4.    When the last word of a caution is the signal for any preparatory movement, it will be given as an executive word, and separated from the rest of the command by a pause of slow time; thus,

RightForm.    QuickMarch, as though there were two separate

commands, each with its caution and executive word.

5.    When the men are in motion, executive words must be completed as they are commencing the pace which will bring them to the spot on which the command has to be executed. The cautionary part of the word must, therefore, be commenced accordingly.

6.    Officers, and non-commissioned officers, should frequentlybe practised in giving words of command. It will be found a good plan to practise several officers, or non-commissioned officers, together in giving words of command, first in succession, then simultaneously ; the time and pitch being first given by the instructor.

Recruit or Squad Drill, with Intervals.

1. A few men will be placed in line (that is, side by side) at arm’s length apart; while so formed, they will be termed a “ Squad with Intervals.”

2 If necessary, the squad may consist of two such lines of men ; in which case the men in the second line will cover the intervals between the men in the first, so that in marching they may take their own points, as directed in S. 10.

3. Recruits should in the first instance be placed by the instructor without any dressing; when they have learned to dress, as directed in S. 3, they should be taught to fall in as above described, and then to dress and to correct their intervals ; after they have been instructed as far as S. 20, they may fall in in single rank, and then, if required to drill with intervals, be moved as directed in S. 22.

Recruits will, if possible, be instructed singly as far as S. 20.

S. 1. Position of the Soldier.

The exact squareness of the shoulders and body to the front is the first and great principle of the position of a soldier. The heels must be in line and closed ; the knees straight; the toes turned out, so that the feet may form an angle of 45 degrees; the arms hanging easily from the shoulder, the hand open, the thumb to the front and close to the forefinger, fingers lightly touching the thigh; the hips rather drawn back, and the breast advanced, but without constraint; the body straight and inclining forward, so that the weight of it may bear principally on the fore part of the feet; the head erect, but not thrown back, the chin slightly drawn in, and the eyes looking straight to the front.

When the soldier falls in for instruction, he will be taught to place himself in the position above described.

N.B.—The words in the margin printed in italics are the commands to be given by the instructor.

S. 2. Standing at Ease.

Soldiers will first be taught the motions of standing at ease by Numbers, then judging the Time.

1. By Numbers.

Caution,— Stand at Ease, by Numbers.

On the word One, raise the arms from the elbows, left hand in front of the centre of the body, as high as the waist, palm upwards; the right hand as high as the right breast, palm to the left front; both thumbs separated from the fingers, and the elbows close to the sides.

!On the word Two, strike the palm of the right hand on that of the left, drop the arms to their full extent, keeping the hands together, and passing the right hand over the back of the left as they fall; at the same time draw back the right foot six inches, and slightly bend the left knee.

When the motions are completed, the arms must hang loosely and easily, the fingers pointing towards the ground, the right thumb lightly held between the thumb and palm of the left hand ; the body must incline forward, the weight being on the right leg, and the whole attitude without constraint.

Squad-Atten-    j    On    the word Attention, spring up to the position

tion. (described in S. 1.    .

2. Judging the Time.

Caution,— Stand at Ease, Judging the Time.

{On the word Ease, go through the motions described in the standing at ease by Numbers, distinctly but smartly, and without any pause betwen them.

Squad-Atten-    (    A    . p

.•    <    As    before.

tion.    (

If the command Stand-at-Ease is followed by the word Stand Easy, the men will be permitted to move their limbs, but without quitting their ground, so that on coming to Attention no one shall have materially lost his dressing in line. If men are required to keep their dressing accurately, they should be cautioned not to move their left feet.

On the word Squad being given to men standing easy, every soldier will at once assume the position of standing at ease.

S. 3. Dressing a Squad with Intervals.


f On the words Eyes-Right, the eyes will be directed < to the right, the head being slightly turned in that ( direction.


f On the word Dress, each soldier, except the right-hand man, will extend his right arm, palm of the hand upwards, nails touching the shoulder of the man on his right; at the same time he will take up his dressing in line by moving, with short quick steps,

' till he is just able to distinguish the lower part of the face of the second man beyond him; care must be taken that he carries his body backward or forward with the feet, keeping his shoulders perfectly square _in their original position.


( On the words Eyes-Front, the head and eyes will } be turned to the front, the arm dropped, and the posi-( tion of the soldier, as described in S. 1, resumed. Dressing by the left will be practised in like manner.

S. 4. Turnings.—Plate I.

In going through the turnings, the left heel must never quit the ground ; but the soldier must turn on it as on a pivot, the right foot

being drawn back to turn the body to the right, and carried forward to turn it to the left; the body must incline forward, the knees being kept straight.

In the first of all the following motions, the foot is to be carried back, or brought forward, without a jerk, the movement being from the hip; so that the body may be kept perfectly steady until it commences to turn.

Hight- Turn.





about—Turn. Two. Three.


about-Turn. Two. Three.

Half-night (or Left')—Turn. Two.

f On the word Turn, place the hollow of the right \ foot smartly against the left heel, keeping the J shoulders square to the front.

] On the word Two, raise the toes, and turn a quarter circle to the right on both heels, which

V    must be pressed together.

( On the word Turn, place the right heel against the \ hollow of the left foot, keeping the shoulders square ) to the front.

j On the word Two, raise the toes, and turn a quarter circle to the left on both heels, which must

V    be pressed together.

^ On the word Turn, place the ball of the right toe against the left heel, keeping the shoulders square to the front.

On the word Two, raise the toes and turn to the right about on both heels.

On the word Three, bring the right foot smartly ^back in a line with the left.

" On the word Turn, place the right heel against the ball of the left toe, keeping the shoulders square to the front.    .

On the word Two, raise the toes, and turn to the left about on both heels.

On the word Three, bring up the right foot smartly ^in a line with the left.

)On the word Turn, draw back (or advance) the right foot one inch.

On the word Two, raise the toes, and turn half right (or left) on both heels.

Three-quarters-night (or Left) about- Turn. Two. Three.

Make a three-quarters turn in the given direction in the same manner as in turning about.

After any of the foregoing turnings, the word Front may be given, on which the whole will turn, as accurately as possible, to their former front. Squad-Front.    When the soldier has previously turned about, he

will always front by the right about. But if he has turned to the three-quarters right about, he will front by the three-quarters left about; and vice versa. At squad drill with intervals, the turnings will always be done by Numbers, except when the word Front is given, in which case the soldier will judge the time, which must be a pause of slow time after each motion.

S. 5. Extension Motions.

In order to open his chest, and give freedom to his muscles, the soldier will be practised in the following extension motions.

Men formed in squads with intervals will be turned a half turn to the right, before commencing these practices.

Caution,—First Practice.


On the word One, bring the hands, at the full extent of the arms, to the front, close to the body, knuckles downwards, till the fingers meet at the points ; then raise them in a circular direction over the head, the ends of the fingers still touching and pointing downwards so as to touch the forage cap, thumbs pointing to the rear, elbows pressed back, ^shoulders kept down.


On the word Two, throw the hands up, extending the arms smartly upwards, palms of the hands inwards ; then force them obliquely back, and gradually let them fall to the position of attention, elevating the neck and chest as much as possible.

On the word Three, raise the arms outwards from the sides without bending the elbow, pressing the Three. <( shoulders back, until the hands meet above the head, palms to the front, fingers pointing upwards, thumbs locked, left thumb in front.

On the word Four, bend over until the hands touch the feet, keeping the arms and knees straight; Four. •< after a slight pause, raise the body gradually, bring the arms to the sides, and resume the position of attention.

N.B.—The foregoing motions are to be done slowly, so that the muscles may be exerted throughout.

Caution,—Second Practice.






!0n the word One, raise the hands in front of the body, at the full extent of the arms, and in line with the mouth, palms meeting but without noise, thumbs close to the forefingers.

{On the word Two, separate the hands smartly, throwing them well back, slanting downwards ; at the same time raise the body on the fore part of the feet.

J On the word One, bring the arms forward to the ( position above described, and so on. j On the word Three, smartly resume the position ( of attention.

In this practice, the second motion may be continued without repeating the words One, Two, by giving the order Continue the Motion; the squad will then take the time from the right-hand man : on the word Steady, the men will remain at the second position, and on the word Three they will resume the position of attention.

Caution,— Third Practice.

The squad will make a second half turn to the right before commencing the third practice.






¡On the word One, raise the hands, with the fists clenched, in front of the body, at the full extent of the arms, and in line with the mouth, thumbs upwards, fingers touching.

{On the word Two, separate the hands smartly, throwing the arms back in line with the shoulders, back of the hand downwards.

j On the word Three, swing the arms round as ( quickly as possible from front to rear.

{ On the word Steady, resume the second position.

( On the word Four, let the arms fall smartly to | the position of attention.

This practice should also be performed with clubs.

S. 6. Saluting.Plate II.

Soldiers will be practised in saluting, first by Numbers, then judging the Time ; being turned to the right for the right-hand salute, to the left for the left-hand salute.


Caution,—Right-hand Salute, hy Numbers.

SOn the word One, bring the right hand smartly, but with a circular motion, to the head, palm to the front, point of the forefinger one inch above the right eye, thumb close to the forefinger ; elbow in line, and nearly square, with the shoulder ; at the same time, slightly turn the head to the left.

Two    i On wor(^ Two, let the arm fall to the side, and

| turn the head to the front.

Caution,—Right-hand Salute, judging the Time.

Right-hand- l On the word Salute, go through the two motions Salute. ( described in One and Two.

Soldiers will be taught to salute with the left hand in like manner. Soldiers, if standing still when an officer passes, will turn towards him, come to attention, and salute ; if sitting, they will rise, stand at attention, and salute. When a soldier addresses an officer he will salute, and halt two paces from him. When walking, soldiers will salute an officer as they pass him, commencing their salute four paces before they come up to him ; they should therefore be practised in marching, two or three together, round the drill ground, saluting points placed on either side of them, care being taken that they always salute with the hand furthest from the point saluted : when several men are together, the man nearest to that point will give the time.

Soldiers will invariably salute anybody they know to be an officer, whether he is in uniform or not.


S. 7. Length oj Race.

In quick time the length of a pace is 30 inches, except in “ stepping out,” when it is 33 inches, and in “stepping short,” when it is 21.

In “ double time” the length of a pace is 33 inches.

The length of the side step is 12 inches.

N.B.—When a soldier takes a side pace to clear or cover another, as in forming four deep, which will be hereafter described, the pace will be 24 inches.

S. 8. Cadence.

In quick time, 116 paces, making 96 yards 2 feet in a minute, and 3 miles 520 yards in an hour. In double time, 165 paces, making 151 yards 9 inches in a minute, and 5 miles 275 yards in an hour.

S aluting.

S. 9. The Drum, Plummet, and Pace Stick.

No recruit, or squad of recruits, must be taught to march without the constant use of the drum and pace stick.

The drum will first beat the time in which the men are to march, when the squad is halted ; then, from time to time, when it is in motion. While the drum is beating at the halt, the men will give their whole attention to the cadence ; when it ceases, the instructor will at once put the squads in motion.

In order to ascertain whether the time is beaten correctly, a pendulum or a “plummet” must be used. A variety of pendulums have been constructed for this purpose. When no pendulum is at hand, a plummet can readily be made by suspending a spherical ball of metal by a string, the length of which, measured from the point of suspension to the centre of the ball, must be as follows for the different degreees of march :—

Inches. Hundredths.

Quick......10    15

Double ------    5    18

Thus arranged, the plummet will swing the exact time required. String being liable to stretch, the correctness of the plummet should frequently be tested by reference to a watch.

The length of the pace in marching will be corrected with the pace stick, the accuracy of which should occasionally be tested by measurement.

S. 10. Position in Marching.

In marching, the soldier must maintain the position of the head and body as directed in S. 1. He must be well balanced on his limbs. His arms and hands must be kept steady by his sides ; care being taken that the hand does not partake of the movement of the leg. The movement of the leg must spring from the haunch, and be free and natural.

Both knees must be kept straight, except while the leg is being carried from the rear to the front, when the knee must necessarily be a little bent, to enable the foot to clear the ground. The foot must be carried straight to the front, and, without being drawn back, placed softly on the ground, so as not to jerk or shake the body ; the toes turned out at the same angle as when halted.

Although several men may be drilled together in a squad with intervals, they must act independently and precisely as if they were being

B 2

instructed singly. Each soldier must be taught to march in a straight line, and to take a correct pace, both as regards length and cadence, without reference to the other men of the squad.

Before the squad is put in motion, the instructor will take care that the men are square individually and in correct line with each other. Each soldier must be taught to take up a straight line to his front, by first looking down the centre of his body between his feet, then fixing his eyes upon some object on the ground straight to his front at a distance of about 100 yards; he will then observe some nearer point in the same straight line, such as a stone, tuft of grass, or other casual object about 50 yards distant.

S. 11. The Quick March.

The three most important objects in this part of the drill are cadence, length of pace, and direction.

(The time having been given on the drum, on the word March, the left foot will be carried 30 inches to the front, as directed in S. 10; the right foot will then be carried forward in like manner, and so on, alternately.

The soldier must be thoroughly instructed in this step before being practised in double time.

S. 12. The Halt.

¡On the word Halt, the moving foot will complete its pace, and the rear foot be brought up in line with it.

It is a general rule that after the word Halt, the men, whatever their position, will stand perfectly steady, unless ordered to Dress.

S. 13. Stepping Out.


When marching in quick time, on the words StepOut, the soldier will lengthen his pace to 33 inches by leaning forward a little, but without altering the cadence.

This step is used when a slight increase of speed, without an alteration of cadence, is required; on the words Quick-Step, the pace of 30 inches will be resumed.

S. 14. Stepping Short.

Step-Short. This step is

¡On the words Step-Short, the foot advancing will finish its pace, and afterwards each soldier will take paces of 21 inches until the word Forward is given, when the usual pace of 30 inches will be resumed, used when a slight check is required.

S. 15. Marking Time.


On the words Mark-Time, the foot then advancing will complete its pace, after which the cadence will be continued, without advancing, by raising each foot alternately about three inches from the ground, keeping the body steady ; on the word Forward, the usual pace of 30 inches will be resumed.

From the halt, the word of command will be Quick. Mark-Time.

S. 16. Stepping Back.

Step Back. Quick-March.


I In stepping back, the pace will be 30 inches* \ Soldiers must be taught to move straight to the rear» preserving their shoulders square to the front and I their bodies erect. On the word Halt, the foot in ( front will be brought back square with the other.

A few paces only of the step back can be necessary at a time.

S. 17. Changiyig Feet.


To change feet in marching, the advancing foot will complete its pace, and the ball of the rear foot will be brought up quickly to the heel of the advanced one, which will instantly make another step forward, so that the cadence will not be lost, in fact, two successive steps will be taken with the same foot.

This may be required when any part of a battalion, or a single soldier, is stepping with a different foot from the rest.

S. 18. The Double March.


The time having been given on the drum, on the word March, the men will step off together with the left foot ; at the same time raising their hands as high as the waist, carrying back the elbows and clenching the fists, the flat part of the arm to the side ; the head to be kept erect, and the shoulders square to the front ; the knees being more bent, and the body more advanced, than in the other marches. The instructor will be careful to habituate the soldier to the pace of 33 inches.

Squad-Halt. As in S. 12, at the same time dropping the hands and extending the fingers.

The soldier will be taught to mark time in the double cadence in the same manner as in the slow and quick.

S. 19. The side or Closing Step.

Soldiers will first be taught the side step by Numbers, then judging the Time.

1. By Numbers.

Caution,—Right Close, by Numbers.





!On the word One, the right foot will be carried 12 inches to the right, the shoulders and face being kept perfectly square to the front, and the knees straight.

( On the word Two, the left foot will be closed ( smartly to the right foot, heels touching.

( The word One being repeated, the right foot will } be carried on 12 inches as before described, and so ( on.

j When the word Halt is given, the left foot will be { closed to the right as on the word Two.

2. Judging the Time.

Caution,—Right Close, judging the Time.

Right Close, Quick-March.

On the word March, each man will carry his right foot 12 inches direct to the right, and instantly close his left foot to it, thus completing the pace ; he will proceed to take the next pace in the same manner : shoulders to be kept square, knees not bent, unless on rough or broken ground. The direction must be kept in a straight line to the flank, neither inclining to the front nor rear.


On the word Halt, the men will complete the pace | they are taking, and remain steady.

Soldiers will be practised in closing to the left by Numbers, and judging the Time, in like manner.

Soldiers will also be practised in taking any given number of paces to either flank, and then halting without word of command ; the command to be given thus, Three paces Right Close, Quick-March.

S. 20. Turning when on the March.

Soldiers will be practised in turning to the right or left, in making a half turn to the right or left, and in turning to the right or left about, on the march.

1.    Turning to the Right, and then to the Front.— On the word Turn, which should be given as the

Right-Turn. / left foot is coming to the ground, each*soldier will turn in the named direction, and move on at once, without checking his pace.


On the word Turn, which should be given as the right foot is coming to the ground, each soldier will turn again to the front, and move on without checking his pace.


2.    Turning to the Left, and then to the Front.— Soldiers will turn to the left in like manner, the

word Turn being given as the right foot is coming to the ground ; after which they will turn to the Front-Turn. / front, the word Turn being given as the left foot is coming to the ground.

A soldier will always turn to the right on the left foot ; and to the left on the right foot. If the word Turn is not given as the proper foot

is coming to the ground, the soldier will move on one pace more and then turn.

3.    Making a Half Turn to the Right, or Left.—Soldiers will also be practised in making a half turn to the right or left, and then moving on (without checking their pace) in a diagonal direction, taking up fresh points, at once, to march on.

4. Turning to the Right, or Left, about.—Soldiers will also be taught to turn about on the march, which must be done by each man on his own ground, in three paces, without losiug the cadence. Having completed the turn about, the soldier will at once move forward, the fourth pace being a full pace as before.

Squad Drill, in Single Rank. äS. 21. Directing and Reverse Flanks.

The Inner Flank is that flank nearest to the point of appui (point of formation).

The Directing Flank, that by which companies march.

The Outer Flank, that opposite to the Inner Flank.

The Reverse Flank, that opposite to the Directing Flank.—(See Definitions.)

S. 22. Formation of the Squad in Single Rank.

At this stkge of the drill, a few soldiers will be formed in single rank without intervals, that is, nearly touching each other. Each man is allowed a space of 24 inches.

The right-hand or left-hand man being first placed, the remainder will fall in in line one after the other, closing lightly towards him, turning the elbow slightly outwards. Soldiers must be carefully instructed in “The Touch,” as, in this formation, it is the principal guide when marching. Each man when properly in line, should be able to feel his right or left hand man at the elbow ; the body must be preserved in the position described in S. 1.

When a squad in single rank is required to drill with intervals, the instructor will direct the odd numbers to take one pace forward, the even numbers to step back one pace.

S. 23. Dressing when Halted.

Soldiers will first be taught to dress man by man, then together.

In dressing, each soldier will glance towards the flank to which he is ordered to dress, with a slight turn of the head, as directed in S. 3 : he must carry his body backward or forward with the feet, moving to his dressing with short quick steps ; bending backward or forward must be avoided ; his shoulders must be kept perfectly square, and the position of the soldier, as described in the preceding Section, retained throughout.

Two Men on the right and one on the left, a pace and a half to the < Front.


1. Dressing Man by Man.—Preparatory to teaching a squad to dress by the right, the instructor will order the two men on the right, and one on the left, to take a pace and a half to the front ; having completed his pace and a half, the right-hand man will take four side paces to his right ; and the three points thus placed will raise their right arms from _the elbow, at right angles to their bodies.

Man by Man the Right-Dress up.


The instructor, having ascertained that the points are in line, will order his squad to dress up man by man. The third man from the right will take one pace to his front with the left foot, and shuffle up into line in the manner already described : as soon as he is steady, the next man will proceed in like manner, and so on to the left. The faces of the men, not their breasts or feet, are the line of dressing. Each man is to be able just to distinguish the lower ^part of the face of the second man beyond him.

¡When the instructor is satisfied that the line is correct, he will give the words Eyes—Front, on which the men will turn their heads and eyes to the front, the three points will drop their hands, and the right-hand man will close on the squad.

In like manner the squad must be taught to dress up, man by man, by the left ; also to dress back, man by man, by the right and left.

2. Dressing together.—The men must next be taught to dress forward and backward, taking the pace together, but shuffling up or back in succession, the same points being given as in dressing man by man. The words of command will be Squad, By the Right (or Left)—Dress Up, or By the Right (or Left)—Dress Back.

3. Dressing without Points.—When soldiers are on the alignment they have to occupy, and their dressing is simply to be corrected, the words Right (or Left)Dress, or after the word Halt, the word Dress only, will be given, on which they will shuffle up or back to their places successively, commencing from the man on the flank from which they are dressed.

When no man is placed for that purpose, the instructor should invariably fix upon some casual object on which to dress his line.

It will be found most useful to accustom men to dress on an alignment not parallel or perpendicular, but oblique, to any well-defined adjacent line, such as the side of a square parade ground.

S. 24. Turnings.

The soldier will next practise in single rank, judging the Time, the turnings he has been taught by numbers.

Men are never unnecessarily to stand turned to the rear.

S. 25. Marching to the Front and Fear.

The soldier will next practise in single rank the different marches and varieties of step which he has learned singly, or in squad with intervals ; the same general rules being observed.

Before a squad is ordered to march, the directing flank must be indicated by the caution, By the Right, or By the Left.

During the march care must be taken that neither the head nor the eyes are ever turned towards either flank ; that the dressing is kept by the touch ; and that the shoulders are kept perfectly square and the body steady.

The squad will first be taught to march straight to the front, both by the right and left, in quick time; it will then be practised in all the varieties of step, and in marking time ; after which it will be exercised in the double time.

The soldier will be practised in changing the pace, without halting, from quick to double, and from double to quick. Before the executive word Quick, or Double, the caution Break into Quick (or Double)-Time should be given. In breaking from double time into quick, on the word Quick, the arms will be dropped and the fingers extended.

The instructor should occasionally remain halted in rear of the man on the directing flank ; and, by fixing his eyes on some distant object, ascertain if the squad is marching straight to its front.

When a soldier finds himself a little behind, or before, the other men of his squad, he must be taught to recover his place iu. the rank gradually, and not to jump or rush to it, which would make him unsteady and spoil the marching of the rest of the squad.

S. 26. A Single Rank at the Halt, changing Front.

Right- Wheel. Quick-March.



1. By Wheeling.—On the word March, the right-hand man, called the pivot man, will mark time, turning gradually with the squad, to the new front ; the remainder will step off, the whole turning their eyes to the left (the wheeling flank), except the left-hand man, who will look inwards, and step the usual J pace of 30 inches, the other men regulating their ' length of pace according to their distance from the pivot flank. During the wheel, each man must touch lightly, as explained in S. 25, towards the pivot flank, keeping his shoulders square in line ; crowding must be carefully avoided ; each man must yield to any pressure that may come from the pivot flank, v and resist all pressure coming from the outer flank.

On the word Halt, which may be given at any period of the wheel, the men will halt and turn their eyes to the front; on the word Dress, they will take | up their dressing by the right, as described in S. 23, LNo. 3.


| On the word Front, the men will turn their heads

and eyes to the front.

A squad will wheel to the left in like manner.

Nothing will sooner tend to enable the recruit to acquire the length of step proportioned to his distance from the pivot, than continuing the wheel without halting for several revolutions of the circle.

When men are required to wheel to the rear of the alignment they occupy, they will be turned about, and then wheeled as above directed, receiving the words, Halt, Front-Dress, followed by Eyes-Front, when in position.

After wheeling has been taught in quick time, it will be practised in double time.

"    2. By File formation.—On the word Form, the



right-hand man will turn to the right ; the remainder will make a half-turn to the right. On the word March, all, except the right-hand man, will step off; each man, glancing to the right, will move, at the usual length of pace, by the shortest line, to his place in the new front, and take up his dressing by ^the right.

On the word Front, the men will turn their heads and eyes to the front.


A squad will form to the left in like manner.

This formation will be practised in double as well as in quick time.

S. 27. A Single Rank, on the March, changing Direction.

{On the word Wheel, the men will wheel to the right as explained in S. 26, No. 1 ; the pivot man turning gradually with the squad.

jr a \ On    word Forward, the whole will turn their

{ eyes to the front and step off at a full pace.

The Instructor will give his word Forward when he sees that the men are commencing the pace that will bring the front of the squad perpendicular to the direction in which he intends it to move : this may be done at any degree of the circle.

In like manner, the squad will be taught to change direction to the left.

S. 28. The Diagonal March.—Plate III., Fig. 1.

This march will first be taught commencing from the halt, after

soldiers when marching in line will be practised in moving to either flank, by making a half turn in the direction

which the diagonally required.

Half Right-Turn.


Squad, Halt-Front.

’    1. From the Halt.—On the word Turn, the men

will make a half turn to the right, and on the word March, each man will step off and move correctly in the diagonal direction, no longer keeping the touch. The right-hand man will direct and must therefore pay particular attention to his direction and pace. Each of the other men will glance towards the right, and will retain his relative position, keeping his right shoulder behind the left shoulder of the next man on that side.

On the word Halt, the squad will halt ; and on the word Front, it will turn to its original front.

If the diagonal march has been properly performed, the squad when halted and fronted will be found to be in a line parallel to its original position.


FIC. |.

TTie Diagonal March.

Half Right—Turn. Quick-March.    Half-Front.

Files Forming Squad.

fig.2. On the March.. Front Form-Squad.

fic. 3. Right-About. Form Squad.

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"    2. On the March.—When the squad is marching

to the front, and is required to move in a diagonal direction to the right, the word Half Right-Turn Half Right-    will be given, upon which the men will turn half

Turn.    right and move diagonally in that direction, as de

scribed from the halt ; when it is intended to resume Front-Turn. the original direction, the word Front-Turn will be given, on which every man will turn to his front and move forward without checking his pace.

In like manner, the diagonal march will be practised to the left, from the halt and on the march.

The diagonal march will also be practised in double time.

8. 29. Marching as in File.

Soldiers will first be taught to commence marching as in file, from the halt; after which they must be taught, when marching in line, to turn to either flank as in file.

Right (or Left)-Turn.


Squad, Halt-Front.

Right- Turn.


^    1. From the Halt.—Soldiers, when standing as

in file, must be instructed how to cover each other exactly. The head of the man immediately before each soldier, when he is correctly covered, will conceal the heads of all the others in his front.

The strictest observance of all the rules for march-_ing is particularly necessary when marching as in file.

On the word March, the whole will step off together, at a full pace, and will so continue to step without increasing or diminishing the distance between each other. No looking down or leaning back is to be allowed. The leader is to be directed to march straight forward on some distant objects, the remainder of the men covering correctly during the march.

!On the words Halt-Front, the soldiers will halt and turn to their original front, and if the marching has been properly performed, their dressing will be found correct.

(    2. On the March.—On the word Turn, the soldier

} will turn to the right, and move on as in file.

IThe original direction is resumed by giving the word Front-Turn, on which the soldier will turn to the front, and then move on steadily in line.

In like manner soldiers will be taught to turn to the left from line and march as in file, and when marching as in file, to turn again to the front.

The rules laid down in S. 20, No. 2, regarding the foot on which the soldier is to turn, must be strictly observed in a squad in single rank.

Marching as in file will never be practised in double time.

S. 30. Wheeling as in File.

Fight (or Left)-Wheel, or

Right-about (or Left-about) - W heel.

The squad, when marching as in file, will be taught to change its direction, by wheeling to the right or to the left, or to the right (or left) about. The leading man will move round a quarter, or half, of the circumference of a circle having a radius of four feet ; the other men following on his footsteps in succession, without increasing or diminishing their distances from each other or altering the cadence, but lengthening the pace a little with the outer foot, as they wheel.

S. 31. Men marching as in File forming Squad. Plate III., Figs. 2, 3, and 4.

At the Halt, Front Form-Squad.


Front Form-Squad.


(    1. Forming to the Front, at the Halt.—When the

\ squad, marching as in file to the right, is ordered to < form to the front at the halt, the leading man will at once halt; the remainder will make a half turn to the ( left, and form upon him as directed in S. 26, No. 2.

{ Heads and eyes will be turned to the front.

(    2. Forming to the Front, in Quick Time.—When

\ a squad, marching as in file to the right, is ordered J to form to the front, the leading man will mark time; \ the remainder will make a half turn to the left, and form upon him, marking time, and taking up the V dressing, as they arrive at their places, j As soon as the squad is formed, the word Forward ( will be given.

On the March. Front Form-Squad.

Fear Form-Squad. Forward. or

On the March, Rear Form-Squad.

'    3. Forming to the Front, in Double Time—When

a squad, marching as in file to the right, is ordered to form to the front on the march, the leading man will continue moving on ; the remainder will make a half turn to the left, double up to their places, and take up the quick time as they successively arrive in line with the leading man.

4. Forming to the Rear, in Quick, or Double, Time.—The movement will proceed as described in No. 2 or No. 3 ; except that the men will make a half turn to the right, and form on the right of the leading man.

5. Forming to the Right.—When marching as in file to the right, and ordered to form to the right, the leading man will wheel to the right, take two paces to his front, and halt ; the remainder will form in succession on his left, and be dressed as they get into their places. The word Eyes-Front will be given when the squad is formed.

”    6. Forming to the Right-about.—When a squad,

marching as in file to the right, is ordered to form to the right-about, the leading man will wheel to the right-about, take two paces to his front, and halt ; the remainder will march on as in file, wheeling to the right on the spot where the leading man has wheeled, and forming successively on his left, looking to the flank of formation for their dressing. The words Eyes-Front will be given when the squad is formed.

as in file to the left, a squad will be formed to the front, or rear, or to the left, or left about, on the same principle as it is formed to the front, or rear, or to the right, or right about, when the right is leading.

A squad marching as in file will resume its original front by the words Halt-Front or Front-Turn.

Right Form-Squad.


Right-about Form-Squad.


Eyes-Front. When marching

S. 32. The Side or Closing Step.

The side or closing step will now be practised, the men judging the time, as laid down in S. 19, No. 2. Care must be taken that the

shoulders are kept square, and the paces made in a direct line to the flank.

& 33. Rifle Exercises.

Recruits having been thoroughly instructed in the preliminary drills explained in the foregoing Sections, will next be taught the rifle drill as detailed in the Rifle Exercises. A part of each drill with arms will he devoted to the practice of marching, as directed in the following Section.

S. 34. Marching with Arms.

Squads with arms will be practised in the different marches, and variations of step, described in the foregoing Sections ; when marching in double time at “ The Trail,” the arm that does not carry the rifle will not be raised as directed in S. 18. During these practices, great attention must be paid to the position of the recruit.

When men parade with arms, they will invariably fall in at “ The Order.”

All the instructions relating to the position and movements of the rifle when marching, will be found in the Rifle Exercises.

Squad Drill, in Two Ranks.

S. 35. Formation of Squad in Two Ranks.

The squad will now be formed for drill in two ranks, sized as explained in Part II., Gen. Rule II. The men will take their places in succession, commencing from the flank on which they are ordered to form ; each rear-rank man will be placed one pace of 30 inches from his front-rank man, measuring from heel to heel, and will cover him correctly, the two men thus placed forming “a File.” When the squad consists of an uneven number of men, the third man from the left of the front rank will be a “ Blank” (or incomplete) “File.” The file on the left of the right half squad will always be the centre of the squad.

The squad should be drilled, at first, without arms.

S. 36. Dressing.

The front rank will dress as described in S. 23. The rear-rank men will continue looking to their front, and will cover and correct their distances as the front-rank men take up their dressing.

S. 37. Marching to the Front and Rear.

A squad in two ranks will be practised in the marches, and variations of step, which have been taught in single rank.

1.    Touch.—The front rank will touch as directed in S. 22.

2.    Covering and Distance.—While marching in line, the men of the rank in rear must accurately preserve their covering and distances.

3.    Blank File while retiring.—When the squad turns to the rear, a blank file, after turning about, will step up and occupy the vacant space in the rear rank. On turning to the front, he will resume his original place.

S. 38. Taking Open Order.



Rear RankDress.




( On the word Order, the flank men of the rear < rank will step back two paces, and turn to the ( right.

iOn the word March, the flank men will front and raise the disengaged arm horizontally from the elbow, and the rear rank will step back two paces.

{On the word Dress, the rear rank will dress by the right. Care must be taken not to move the flank men when dressing the rear rank.

{On the word Front, the rear-rank men will turn their eyes to the front, and the flank men will drop their arms.

( On the word March, the rear rank will take two ( paces to the front.

The squad, if drilling with arms, will always be ordered to shoulder before taking open order.

S. 39. Rifle Exercises. These exercises will now be practised.


S. 40. Changing Front hy Wheeling, or File formation.

The front rank of the squad will wheel, or form (forward), from the halt, or wheel on the march, according to the instructions laid down in S. 26 or S. 27. The rear rank men, in wheeling, will follow their frontrank men, keeping their proper distances, and covering ; in forming, they will preserve their diagonal position.

S. 41. The Diagonal March.

The diagonal march will be practised in two ranks, in the manner described in S. 28. In addition to the instructions there given, the rear-rank men must be cautioned to preserve their relative positions with their front-rank men, in order that they may be found to cover correctly when they are halted and fronted.

S. 42. File Marching, Wheeling in Files, and Files forming Squad.

1.    File Marching—File marching will be practised as laid down in S. 29, care being taken that the rear-rank men dress correctly by their respective front-rank men.

2.    Wheeling in Files.—Wheeling in files will be performed as laid down in S. 30 ; the outer rank must step rather longer during the wheel, especially with the outer foot.

If a squad is halted, or ordered to mark time, when only some of the files have wheeled into the new direction, the remainder should be taught to cover off, if required, by the diagonal march on the words Rear files, Cover ; if the word Front is to follow the word Halt, the rear files need not be ordered to cover, but will move to their places on the word Dress.

3.    Files forming to the Front or Rear.—The front-rank men of a squad marching in files will form to the front, or rear, as laid down in S. 31. When forming to the front, the rear-rank man of the leading file will move into his place as soon as there is room for him ; the other rear-rank men will preserve their relative positions with their front-rank men.

4.    Files forming to the Right, or Left, or to the Right or Left about. —In these formations, the rear rank will form as described in S. 31 ; the front-rank men will move round their respective rear-rank men, and form successively in front of them.

A squad marching in files will resume its original front by the word Halt-Front or Front-Turn.

T ormation of Fours .

FIG. I — Squad with, an Odd File

Telling off.    Tours-Deep.

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F I C. 2 .

Squad witli a IB lank Odd Tile.

Telling off.






















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Squad with a Blank Tile .

Telling off.    Tours-Deep.













































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Breaking off Files

FI C . 4 .

Two Tiles on kh.e left Bight-Turn, Left-Wheel.

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Tiles to the-Front



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S. 43. The Formation of Fours.—Plate IY.

Figs. 1, 2, and 3.

The squad should now be made up to eight or nine files, aud numbered from right to left ; and it must be explained to the men that odd numbers are right files, and even numbers left files. But in order that the left four may always be complete, when there happens to be an odd number on the left of the squad, the left file but one, although an even number, will be a right file, and the left file of the squad, though an odd number, will act as a left file ; in this case the third file from the left, being a right file without a left file, will be called an “Odd File,” whether it is complete or blank.

The four men composing a right and left file will be considered as comrades in the field, and will act together, not only in forming fours, but on other occasions ; they should therefore take notice of each other when they are told off.

Fours    i 1* ^ ^ie    —On the word Fours, the rear

(rank will step back one pace of 18 inches.

{On the word Deep, the left files will take a pace of 24 inches to the rear with their left feet, and a pace of 24 inches to the right with their right feet.

On the word Front, the left files will move up in line with the right files, by taking apace of 24 inches to the left with their left feet, and a pace of 24 inches Squad-Front. to the front with their right feet ; the rear-rank men will then close up to their proper distances from the front rank, by taking a pace of 18 inches to the front with their left feet.






As already described.

On the word About, the squad will turn to the right about, and the left files will form on the right files, by taking a pace of 24 inches forward with their right feet, and a pace of 24 inches to the left with their left feet.

On the word front, the squad will turn to the right about, and re-form two deep as already described.

As already described.

On the word Right, the squad will turn to the right, and the left files will form on the right of the right files, by taking one pace of 24 inches to the right with their right feet, and one pace of 24 inches to the front with their left feet, c 2 ( On the word Front, the squad will turn to the left ( and re-form two deep as already described.





As already described.

iOn the word Left, the squad will turn to the left, and the left files will form on the left of the right files, by taking one pace of 24 inches to the left with their left feet, and one pace of 24 inches to the rear with their right feet.

j On the word Front, the squad will turn to the right* ( and re-form two deep as already described.

2. On the March.—A squad on the march will be taught to form fours on the words Fours-Deep, Fours-Right, and Fours-Left; in these formations the left files will move precisely as when forming from the halt, the right files marking time two paces to enable them to do so.

On the word Fours, the rank in rear will step short two paces ; if the word Deep follows, the right files will mark time two paces, while the left files move to their places in fours ; if the word Right, or Left, follows, the squad will first turn in the direction ordered, after which the right files will mark time two paces while the left files move to their places.

When moving to a flank in fours, on the words Half-Right (or T^eft) 'turn, each man will make a half turn to the ordered flank, as in the diagonal march. When moving, diagonally or direct, to a flank in fours, on the words Front (or Rear)—Turn, the men will turn as ordered, and then form two deep without further word of command, by the right files marking time two paces, while the left files get into their places, and the rank in rear regains its distance.

A squad moving to the front or rear, or to a flank in fours, may be ordered to Form Two-deep, on which the left files will fall back, or step up, into their places in file, and the rear rank will close on the front rank, the right files marking time two paces.

A squad moving to a flank in file may be ordered to form Fours-deep. On the word Fours, the rear rank will incline from the front rank by a lengthened step in the diagonal direction, and on the word Deep, the left'files will move to their places in fours, the right files marking time two paces.

A squad moving to a flank by the diagonal march may be ordered to form fours to that flank ; the men will at once turn into file, and then proceed as above described.

On the order to form fours while marking time, the rank in rear will step back a pace of 18 inches, on the word Fours.

S. 44. Fours Wheeling, and Forming Squad.

1.    Wheeling.—A squad moving to a flank in fours will wheel to the right or left, or to the right (or left) about, in the same manner as it wheels in files ; each four wheeling successively round the same point. When the word Forward is given during a wheel, the leading four will march straight forward in the direction in which it is then turned ; the remainder following. If the squad is halted, or ordered to mark time, when only some of the fours have wheeled, the remainder will move as directed in S. 42, on the words Rear Fours, Cover.

2.    Forming to the Front or Rear, to the Right (or Left'), or to the Right (or Left) about.—When a squad moving in fours to a flank is ordered to form to the front or rear, to the right (or left), or to the right (or left) about, it will at once form two deep, and then proceed as described in Ss. 42 and 31.

»S'. 4o. A Squad formed in Fours closing on a Flank, or on the Centre,

and Re-forming Two Deep.

For the following practices 10 or 12 files are required.

On the Right ( A squad having formed four deep, will be taught {Left, or ) to close on the right, left, or centre; the four men on

Centre), Close, j the named flank, or in the centre, standing fast, the

Quick-March. ( remainder closing on them by the side step.

From the Right {Left, or Centre), Re-form Two Deep.



In re-forming two deep, on the word March, the four men on the named flank, or in the centre, will stand fast, the remainder will open out from them by the side step, and the left files will move up to their places in line in succession as the intervals are opened for them ; the rear-rank men will step up to their proper distances at the same time.

These formations will also be practised on the march. On the words On the Right {Left, or Centre) Close, the files on the named flank, or in the centre, will move steadily forward at the stepping short pace, the remainder will close on them by the diagonal march ; when all are closed, on the word Forward, the squad will move on with a full pace.

On the words From the Right {Left, or Centre), Re-form Two Deep, the file on the named flank, or in the centre, will move steadily forward at the stepping short pace; the remainder will incline outwards by the diagonal march, and the left tiles will move up into the intervals, in succession, as they are opened for them, the rear-rank men regaining their proper distances at the same time : when completely formed in two deep, on the word Forward, the squad will move on with a full pace.


Formation and Telling-off of a Company.—The company will fall in in two ranks at close order, files nearly touching, and be numbered from right to left; it will then be told off into two half-companies and four sections. When the number of files is odd, the right half-company will be the stronger. When a half-company is divided into sections of unequal strength, the outer section will be the stronger. The left file of the right half-company will always be considered the centre of the company.


Supernumerary Rank.—The subaltern officers and sergeants will be formed in a third or supernumerary rank, as will hereafter be described. Their duties are to control the expenditure of ammunition, correct any mistakes that may occur while manoeuvring, and take note of awkward men. Too much attention cannot be paid to these points.


Officers, Sj-c. of a Company.—The commander of the company will be termed “the captain,” the senior subaltern “the right guide,” and the junior subaltern “the left guide.” Two sergeants will be told off as “ right” and “left” markers, and will give points as required, each for his own flank of the company. In the absence of an officer, his place will be taken by the next in rank, whether officer or sergeant; when required, corporals from the ranks will in like manner supply the places of sergeants. Non-commissioned olficers do not move out in front of the line at open order.


Relative Proportion of Paces to Files.—Each man occupies a space of about 24 inches ; therefore, to ascertain the number of paces of 30 inches required for a given number of files, multiply the number of files by 8, and divide by 10, the latter operation being accomplished by cutting off the last figure, which multiplied by 3 will give the odd inches. It will be useful to remember, that 10 files require 8 paces, 20 files 16, and so on—100 files 80 paces, 1,000 files 800.


Application of Squad Drill.—All the rules laid down for the instruction of a squad in two ranks are equally applicable to the movements of a company ; it will, therefore, only be necessary in this Part to describe the positions and duties of the officers and sergeants during these movements, and to add the different formations and movements of half-companies and sections that may be used when moving in column of route.


Companies to be drilled as if with the Battalion.—When a company falls in alone, it will first be formed as a company in line, but in order to teach officers and non-commissioned officers the different positions it will occupy in battalion drill, it will be drilled both as a company in line and column, as though it were with the battalion. The instructor must state before each movement the supposed battalion formation, upon which the officers and sergeants will move at once to their proper places.


Companies to be exercised by their own Officers.—Every company of a battalion should be frequently exercised by its own officers, the captain acting as instructor, and one of the subalterns taking his place.


Companies to be exercised on Rough Ground, and with the Ranks changed.—A company should be exercised on rough and broken ground, as well as on smooth and level ground ; and the rank which is in front during one drill should be in rear during the next, in order that every man may be equally well drilled. Companies should also be exercised with the ranks changed during the drill. On the words Change Ranks, the company will turn about, and the supernumeraries will turn outwards and double round to the new rear, the captain moving round at the same time ; the men will be told off afresh if intended to remain in that formation.


Derangements to be quickly remedied —Great pains should be taken to accustom the men to remedy quickly, of their own accord, any derangement that may take place in the telling off of the company. For example, the captain will order certain files, or men, to fall out, and will then continue to drill the company without re-telling off. Soldiers thus trained are not liable to fall into confusion, whatever casualties may occur on service. It is especially necessary that companies should be so exercised as to ensure, under all circumstances, the ready formation of fours, upon which nearly all movements depend.


Assembling on Markers.—Men should frequently be practised in assembling, and rapidly forming company ; for this purpose, the men will be dispersed, and on the bugle-sound The Assemble, or the word Assemble, they will run in and form company on the left marker or the left-hand man, who will previously be placed for that purpose ; as they form, they will order arms and remain at attention.


Marching on Points, and judging Distance.—In order that officers and sergeants may be thoroughly trained in these important parts of their duty, they should frequently be practised separately, in marching on points, and judging distances. In the former exercise, the instructor must remain standing in rear of the officer or sergeant, to see that he marches perfectly straight to his front, just clear of the point on which he is moving ; in the latter exercise, the instructor must practically prove the distances, which may be taken by a number of officers or sergeants, on the same alignment one beyond another, the number of files for which the distance is to be taken being previously named.


Markers giving Points.—1. A marker giving a point for his company to dress upon, in a line formation, will stand with recovered arms, turned towards the point of formation, at arm’s length in front of the alignment ; when the men approach, he will hold out his inner arm at right angles to his body, with the fist clenched, on which the line will dress. Thus all lines will be dressed at arm’s length in rear of the line of markers. A marker giving a point will drop his arm as soon as the man opposite to his fist has dressed up to it.

2. A marker, when giving a point for his company to form on in column, will recover arms while being covered, coming to “ Ihe Shoulder” when correctly covered, or when covered simultaneously with other markers, as when points are given for companies to form on parade, on the word Steady. When the guide comes up to take his place, the marker will fall to the rear.


The Captain.—The captain, though his usual post will, as hereafter stated, be in rear of the centre of his company, will, when the company is in motion, take up such a position as will best enable him to superintend its movement; he should, in column, take care not to obstruct the covering. Captains, previously to giving a. word of command, should call out the number of their companies, thus, No. 1—Halt. In giving their words, they should carefully observe the rules laid down in Part I., Gen. Rules IV.

The rule laid down in Part I., S. 2, for a squad is equally applicable to the company ; on the cautionary word No.—, the men if standing easy, will at once assume the position of standing at ease.

N.B.—In this Part, words given by the instructor of the drill are in capital letters, those given by the captain or guides in italics.

A Company in Line and Column.—Plate V.

Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4.

S. 1. Formation of a Company.

The company will fall in in two rauks, sized as directed in Gen. Rules II. The captain will be three paces in rear of the centre : the guides and sergeants will form a third or supernumerary rank, two paces from the rear rank—the right and left guides in rear of their flank files, the markers in rear of the second file from their guides : the remaining supernumeraries will take post alternately in rear of the right and left half-companies, dividing the space. The drummers and pioneer (if present) will be in the supernumerary rank, the former in rear of the second section, the latter in rear of the third.

1.    Formation in Line.—On the caution as a company in line, the right guide will place himself on the right of the front rank, and his marker will cover him.

2.    Formation in Column.On the caution as a company in column, by the left (or right), the guide of the flank named to direct will align himself with the front rank, his marker placing himself in rear of the flank file.

S. 2. A Company in Line taking Open Order.

Arms will be shouldered before taking open order.

r 1. Taking Open Order.On the word order, the officers will recover their swords ; the guides will place themselves one pace from the front rank, the left guide in front of the second file from the left, the right guide in front of the centre ; the captain passing round the right of the company, will place himself one pace in front of the second file from the open-order. right. Should only one guide be present, he will take the place assigned to the left guide, passing by the front. The supernumerary rank will step back two paces ; the flank men of the rear rank will step back two paces, and turn to the right ; and the right marker will take one pace of 24 inches to his left, into the space vacated by the right-hand man of the rear rank.


Rear RankDress. Eyes-Front.



r On the word march, the officers will take two paces to the front, look to their right and dress ; the right marker will take one side pace to his right, and one pace to his front with his left foot, into the place vacated by his guide ; and the rear rank will step back two paces, the flank men of the rear rank fronting at the same time, and raising their arms.

iThe sergeant on the right of the supernumerary rank will dress the rear rank, and give the words Eyes-Front, on which the flank men will drop their arms; the supernumerary rank will take up its dressing by the right.

{The instructor will dress the officers from the right, and give the word steady, on which they will carry swords and look to their front.

¡2. Taking Close Order.—On the word order, the officers will recover their swords ; the captain and right guide turning to the right, the left guide to the left.

On the word march, the rear and supernumerary ranks will take two paces to their front, and the left guide will take his place in rear of the left file ; the captain will move to his place in rear, passing round the right flank of the company, the right marker taking two paces to his rear and one to his march. <( left, to make room for him to pass ; the right guide will then resume his place on the right of the front rank, and the right marker will move up to his place on the right of the rear rank : the officers will carry their swords as they take post. If only one guide is present, he will pass to the right of the company by the rear.

Arms will then be ordered.

When a company without an officer present takes open order, the non-commissioned officer acting as right guide will stand fast, bis marker will move with the rear rank ; the left guide and marker will move with, the senior non-commissioned officer as, the supernumerary rank.

S. 3. Marching to the Front and Fear.

1. Marching to the Front.—The instructor, having stated the supposed order of the battalion, will proceed as follows :

the line (or )    .    .

column) will


(or double)-


' On the word advance, the guide will select points

to march on.

As described in Part I., S. 37.

2. Marching to the Rear.—When the company is to retire, the caution the line (or column) will—retire will be given, and the men will be turned about. The directing guide, if the company is in line, will fall to the rear of the centre to superintend the movement; if the company is in column, he will step up in line with the rear rank and select points to march on.

Wheeling, or Forming, from the Halt.

A company will wheel, or form, from column into line, and wheel from line into column, as directed in Part I., S. 40. The officers and markers will move as follows :

S. 4. A Company Wheeling, or Forming from the Halt, from

Column into Line.

Caution,—as a company in column, by the left.

f On the word line the left guide will fall to the rear, and the right guide move up : the right marker will run out, and give a point as directed in Gen.

(or left form) <! RuleS XV’’ No* ,J wliere the outer flailk of the com-v INT0_LINE ^ pany will rest when the movement is completed,

’    1 turning to the rear of the column ; the left marker

will give a point on the left of the company in like


( The instructor will cover the points, and give the ] word steady.

!On the word march, the left guide will move to the left of the company ready to dress it on the captain’s word Dress, or as the files come up into line.

In the case of a wheel, the captain will give his word Halt, when the wheeling flank of the company is two paces from the marker, and immediately follow it by the word Dress.

The left guide, having completed the dressing, will give Eyes-Front, and fall into his place in rear.

On this word from the instructor, the markers will take post.

A company in column, by the right, will be taught to wheel, or form, into line to the right in a similar manner (except that the left guide will not move on the caution), on the words right wheel {or form) intoline, &c. ; on the word march, the rear-rank man of the pivot file will step up to keep the right guide’s place.

In these movements, the company is considered the leading company of a column wheeling, or forming, into line. When several companies are practised together, both markers of the leading company will give points as above described ; each of the remaining companies will have only its inner flanks marked.









S. 5. A Company Wheeling, from the Halt, from Line into Column.


break into (    1. Breaking into Column, to the Right.On the

column, to -j word right the left guide will stand fast ; the the-right. (_ remainder will turn to the right about.

• * .


Degrees of Wheel.

Divisions of the Quarter Circles ,and the Cautions.

ÎOn the word march, the left guide will place himself on the left of the company, turning to the front of the column.

IThe captain having given the words Halt, frontDress, on the completion of the wheel, the right guide and the markers will take post in column. Having taken up their own dressing by the left, the men will look to the front.

2. Breaking into Column, to the Left.A company in line will be taught to wheel into column to the left in like manner; dressing, when in column, by the right. On the word left, the right guide will stand fast, the remainder turning about: on the word march, the right guide will place himself on the right of the company, turning to the front of the column.

3. Wheeling forward into Column.—A company in line, halted, may also wheel forward into column; the caution and command being, company, RIGHT (or LEFT)-WHEEL.    QUICK—MARCH; the word FORWARD,

by the left (or right), or halt, dress, will be giveu when the company has wheeled square. When the wheel is to the right, the right guide and his marker will fall to the rear, the left guide moving up, as the company commences its wheel; when the wheel is to the left, the right marker will hill to the rear.

S. 6. A Company changing Front as the base Company of a Line formation.—Plate YI.


(or left)




On the instructor’s caution, the markers will move out to give base points, as directed in Gen. Rules

XV., No. 1. If the change of front is towards that flank of the line on which the base company stands (i.e., if front is changed to the right on the right j company, or to the left on the left compauy), the >base points will turn towards the flank on which the company is to wheel; if the change of front is to the left on the right company, or to the right on the left company, and in a change of front on a central

company, they will turn to where the wheeling flank of the company will rest. The instructor will cover them in the required direction.

•QUARTERS, LEFT (or right), or TO THE LEFT

(or right), on


STEADY, CompanyRight (or LeftWheel,

Quick-March. Halt-Dress. Eyes-Front.


^ On the instructor’s word steady, the captain will give the executive words. The word Halt must be given two paces before the wheeling flank of the company comes up to the marker. The guide of the ^ flank on which the wheel was made will dress the company, and give the word Eyes-Front, falling in on the right if the right guide, falling to the rear if the left.

( The instructor will then give a second word 1 steady, on which the markers will take post.

Wheeling, or Forming, on the March.

S. 7. Wheeling, or Forming, from Column into TAne; and Wheeling

from Line into Column.

1.    From Column into Line.—While on the march, a company in column may wheel, or form, into line on the words right (or left) wheel, or form, into—line. Before wheeling, or forming, to the reverse flank, the column will be ordered to march by that flank. In the case of a wheel, the word forward, or halt, will be given, on its completion.

2.    From Line into Column.—A company in line may wheel, while on the march, into column, on the principle laid down in S. 5, No 3, by the words company, right (or left)-wheel. forward, by the left, or right (or halt, dress): the left will direct if the wheel was to the right, the right if it was to the left.

S. 8. A Company in Column changing Direction.

A company in column, on the caution change direction to the right-(or left) from the instructor, will wheel iuto the named direction, by command of the captain. The word forward will be given by the instructor, at the required angle. W hen two or more companies

are practised together, each company in rear will be ordered by its captain to wheel at the same point as the leading company, and will receive from him the word Forward as its front becomes perpendicular to the new direction.

Miscellaneous Movements and Formations.

S. 9. Marching Past.Plate VII.

For this practice, the company will be formed as a company in column, by the left.

Four points will be placed marking the angles of an oblong, of which the long sides will be 80 paces in length, and the short sides 30, or more if the company is strong. The left of the company will rest on the centre of one ot the long sides of the oblong, the opposite side will be called the saluting base; a fifth point, called the saluting point, will be placed four paces outside of the centre of the saluting base, and turned towards the flank of the company. The men marking the angles will turn in the same direction as the company. If more convenient, the points may be marked with camp colours.

The company will step off as usual, by command of the instructor, and will wheel to the left by command of the captain at the four corners of the oblong. It will wheel round the 1st point, and will again wheel at wheeling distance from the 2nd, the right guide moving up, and the captain moving towards the right of the company.


Left- Wheel.

Forward. Left- Wheel.

Forward, by the Right.

As the wheel is completed, the captain will give the word Forward, hy the Right, on which the men will come to “The Shoulder;” the captain and guides will run out three paces in front of the company, the captain moving round the right flank, and place themselves as when at open order in line, each officer taking up the quick time as he arrives at his place; the right marker will move up to the place vacated by his guide, to lead the company. When at ten paces from the saluting point, the officers will salute as follows, taking the time from the right:—As the left foot comes to the ground, the sword will be brought smartly to the recover, the next time that foot comes to the ground, it will be lowered to the salute (the point of the sword to be 12 inches from the ground, in the direction of the right foot; the


arm to be straight, hand just behind the thigh, the thumb flat on the handle of the sword; the left arm to remain steady): the head to be slightly turned to the saluting point while passing it. When at six paces beyond the saluting poiut, as the left foot comes to the ground, the officers will recover swords, make a pause of one pace, and on the following pace come to the carry; when at 20 paces, they will resume their places with the company, in double time, the captain passing by the right; the right ^marker will take post at the same time.

Left- Wheel. Forwardby the Left. Left- Wheel. Forward. COMPANY-HALT.

On the word Forward, after the third wheel, the men will trail arms.

On the word Forward being given after a wheel, the leader of the company must at once observe some object in the straight line between himself and the next point, to guide him in marching.

S. 10. The Diagonal March.

As in part I., Ss. 28 and 41.

In column, the guide of the leading flank will move up, if not already there, and lead the company.

S. 11. File Marching and Wheeling in File.

As in Part I., Ss. 29, 30, and 42.

For the positions of the officers, see the next Section.

S. 12. The Formation of Fours.

In forming fours, the men will move as explained in Part I., S. 43. Both in tile marching and the flank march by fours, the guide of the


FIG. I .

Right Form-Company


O [>    ©■*■ '• Q-





F I G. 2 .

Counter-March. Ranks. Right and Left-Turn. Quick-March.



leading flank will lead the company, being placed next to the pivot man of the leading file or four, with his marker in front of that man. The guide not leading the company will be on the reverse flank of the rear file or four; his marker on the reverse flank of the next tile but one, or the next four. The supernumerary rank will close to the files they cover, as the company turns, or forms fours, to a flank.

«S'. 13. A Company marching in Files, or Fours, forming to the Front (or Rear); to the Right (or Left); or to the Right (or Left)about.Plate VIII., Fig. 1.

These formations will be made as described in Part I., Ss. 42 and 44, the word cOMrANY being substituted for the word Squad, in the command. On the words at the halt, front form-company, and in forming company to the right or the left, or to the right or left about, the markers will mark the flanks of the company, turning towards the flank of formation ; and will be covered by the instructor. The guide of the flank of formation will dress the men file by file as they come up ; and when the company is formed will give the words Eyes-Front, and take post in line ; the markers will take post on the word steady from the instructor. The supernumerary rank will form with the company.

«S'. 14. A Company formed in Fours closing on a Flank, or on the Centre, and reforming Two Deep.

A company having formed four deep will be practised in closing on the flanks and centre, and re-forming two deep, both at the halt and on the march, as described in Part I., S. 45. The directing guide and the supernumerary rank will close, and open out with the company.

S 15. The Side or Closing Step.

A company will be practised in the side step, as it is explained in Part I., S. 32.

S. 16. Counter-marching.Plate VIII., Fig. 2.

A company in column will counter-march as follows :—



1. From the Halt.—On the word counter-march, the directing guide will turn about, and take a pace to his front; the guide of the reverse flank will place himself one pace from that flank, and turn inwards.


On the word turn, the front rank will turn to the right, the rear rank to the left.

iOn the word march, the company will step off together, each rank wheeling close round to its right, till the leading man of the front rank comes up to the guide.

company- i The instructor will then order the company to halt, halt-front, l front, and dress; and the guides will change flanks dress. { and take post.

Each man must be careful to move up to the guide on the flank at which he wheels, and to lengthen his pace with the outer foot during the wheel, in order not to check the rest of the company.

The captain and the supernumerary rank will turn towards the reverse flank, and will countermarch round that flank, marking time successively as they arrive at their places, and halting and fronting with the company.




(or right) or


2. On the March.—On the word turn, the directing guide will turn to the right-about, take a pace to ) his front, and mark time. The other guide will also f move as in No. 1, but marking time.

As the company advances, or halts and fronts, the guides will change flanks and take their proper places in column.

S. 17. Diminishing and increasing Front, by breaking off Files and bringing them again to the Front.

Files will be broken off, and brought again to the front, as described in Part I., S. 46. The guide on the flank whence the files break off will touch in to the remainder of his front rank, as the files drop to the rear ; his marker will move up and remain covering him as long as there is a file in rear. The instructor will give the caution break off —files ; the captain will give the executive words.

S. 18. Diminishing and increasing Front, by breaking into Files, or Fours, and re forming Company.

A company in column may advance from either flank in files or fours, on the words right (or left)-turn, or fours-right (or lkft), left (or right)-wheel, quick-march. These movements may also be done when the column is on the march. If the instructor gives the caution ADVANCE (or RETIRE) BY FOURS (or FILES) FROM THE RIGHT (or LEFT), as when companies in battalion move off in succession from quarter column, the captain will give the foregoing executive words of command.

The company will increase its front as explained in Part I., Ss. 42 and 44 ; the directing guide taking his place on the word forward.

S. 19. Forming Company Square.

The instructor will give the caution—form company square.

Fours—Deep. On the CentreClose.


Prepare for — Cavalry. Ready.


S'    On the caution, the captain will order the company

to form fours deep, and close on the centre. When the closing is completed, the men will fix swords : the flank fours, after fixing, will turn outwards. The officers and sergeants will form in rear of the company.

If the instructor gives the caution to prepare for cavalry, the captain will give the words Prepare for Cavalry. Ready, &(•., on which the men will move as described in the Rifle Exercises, S. 5. The officers and sergeants may, if necessary, move in between the fours, and the two rear ranks be turned about, the outer rank kneeling1.

f As the men come to “ The Order,’’ the flank fours Order-Arms, j will front, and the officers and sergeants, if in the ( square, will move out.

COMPANY. TJnfix-Swords. From the Centre, Re-form-Two-deep. Quick-March.


On this caution from the instructor, the men, if they have prepared for cavalry, will be ordered to unfix swords, and the captain will then re-form the company two-deep.

Formation of Half-companies and Sections.

S. 20. Formation of Half-companies and Sections.

The company will be practised in wheeling outwards a quarter circle on the march, by half-companies and sections, and halting, as a central company in the formation of a battalion square, and in re-forming column ; by the following words of command :—Form Square, QuickMarch, Half-compa?iies-Outwards ; or Four-deep, Form Square, Quick-March.    SectionsOutwards.    Unfix Swords. Re-form

Column. Quick-March. Halt, Front-Dress. Stand at-Ease.

In forming four-deep square, the two inner sections will close on the outer on completing their wheel. On the caution Re-form-Column, if the square is two deep, the half-companies will turn about ; if four deep, the sections will turn about, and the two inner sections will then move off to section distance from the outer. On the word March, the half-companies, or sections, will wheel into company, receiving the words Halt, Front-Dress when square.

Although formations of half-companies and sections are not used in battalion manœuvres, except in the above formations of square, they are required on the line of march, where columns always move with as large a front as the ground will admit.

An increase of front from fours to sections, or half-companies, may be effected on the principles laid down in Part I., S. 44, Para. 2. When it is required to increase the front from sections to half-companies, the rear sections may be moved into line with the leading sections by the diagonal march : a formation of companies from half-companies may be made in like manner.

To diminish its front, a company may advance from a flank in column of half-companies, or sections; the half-companies or sections will move into column in files. A diminution of front may also be effected by turning to the right (or left), and then wheeling to the left (or right).

These movements are always to be done on the march.

A company may also move to a flank by half-companies, or sections, on the principle laid down in S. 5, No. 3, or S. 7.

Posts of Officers, fyc., in Column of Half-companies and Sections.—• The captain will be in his usual place. The guides, markers, t&c. will be posted as follows :—In column of half-companies, each guide will be on the directing flank of his half-company, his marker two paces in rear of the flank file ; in column of sections, each guide will be on the directing flank of the outer section of his half-company, his marker on the same flank of the inner section ; the remaining supernumeraries will retain their places.

Inspecting, Proving, and Dismissing.

S. 21. Inspecting and Proving a Company.

1. A company on parade will be inspected as follows :—

Fix-Swords. ) The inspecting officer will pass down the ranks to Open Order— > see that the appointments, clothing, &c., are clean, March. ) and in good order.

Unfix-Swords. Shoulder-Arms. For Inspection, Port-Arms. Close Order— March. ___

Examine—    |

Arms. i

As detailed in the Rifle Exercises, S. 11.

As detailed in the Rifle Exercises, S. 11.

2. If the company be armed with muzzle loading rifles, it will be inspected as follows:—

Fix Swords. )

Open Order— > As in No. 1.

March. j

Ur fix Swords. 1

Shoulder Arms. (    .    ,    .

For Inspection, f As Per regulation.

Port Arms. j

Place the thumb of the right hand on the comb of the cock, and the fingers behind the trigger-guard ; then draw back the cock until the sear catches in the half-bent of tumbler, and remove the snap-cap h from the nipple ; afterwards resume the hold of the small of the butt.

Half-cock Arms.

The inspecting officer will now pass down the ranks to ascertain that the locks and sights are serviceable and perfectly clean, and that the nipples are free from rust.

Ease Springs.

Shoulder Arms. Order Arms.

Examine Arms.

\ On the word Springs, each soldier will replace ( his snap-cap and let the hammer down thereon.

As per regulation.

As per regulation.

On the word Arms, pass the rifle smartly to the left hand, which must grasp it at the nose cap, and place the butt quietly on the ground between the feet, the toe of it to be in line with the toes of the boots, barrel to the front, and perpendicular, the left arm close to the body ; then withdraw the muzzle stopper, pass it to the left hand, and carry the right hand to the pouch or other place assigned, taking therefrom a piece of clean rag, place it in the jag or slit in the head of the ramrod, and seize the rod ^between the forefinger and thumb.

( As per regulation, placing the head of the ramrod Rod.    ] in the muzzle, with the rag between it and the

( breech.

¡As per regulation, except that in performing the fourth motion, raise the ramrod about six inches instead of one ; and when completed drop the right hand to the right side.

The officer will now proceed to ascertain if the insides of the barrels are clean or otherwise. Each soldier, as the officer approaches within two files of him, will draw the ramrod from the barrel as in the “ Return ” of the platoon exercise, and, holding the ramrod in the middle, place it under the right arm, and on the upper brass or nose cap to the left of the barrel, with the head of it to the left front, arm close to the side, knuckles of the right hand towards the ground. If the inside of the rifle is clean no dirt should appear on the rag.

As per regulation, removing the rag from the jag, and returning it to the place whence taken, and replace the muzzle stopper ; then pass the rifle to the right side with the left hand, dropping the right arm to the proper extent, quit the left hand and resume the position of “ Order Arms.”


Close Order, March.

As per regulation.

The company will then be told off and proved, as follows :—

Number.—The men having numbered, No. —, Lejt of the Right Half Company, Nos. —, —, —, —, left of Sections.

Right Half Company, Trail-Arms.

Left Half Company, Trail-Arms.

Outer Sections, Order-Arms.

Inner Sections, Order-Arms.

Fours-Deep, Front.

Fours-Right, Front.

Fours-Left, Front.

Fours-About, Front.

The above method of proving should generally suffice. The com pany may further be proved, if considered expedient, in any particular movement in which it may be deficient.

S. 22. Dismissing a Company.

A company will be dismissed as described in Part I., S. 47.


Running Drill is to be practised in conjunction with the ordinary drills, and the following rules are to be observed in carrying out the practice :—

(a.) The same men are only to run once in each day. Weakly men (if considered unfit by the medical officers) are to be excused.

(5.) During the first fortnight the distance run is not to exceed 300 yards. For the second fortnight the distance may be increased to 600, and for the third fortnight to 900, at the end of which time the practice is to be carried on daily at 1,000 yards, the men running, on alternate days, with arms and accoutrements.

(c.) The pace is not to exceed six miles an hour.

(d.) Care must be taken that the men are not exercised at the full distance of 1,000 yards, until they shall have gone through the six weeks’ preliminary practice at the shorter distances.

(e.) Where the ground will admit of it, the men are to run fifteen or twenty abreast, in single rank; otherwise by companies in fours.”

(/*.) When the men are sufficiently trained in the running practice, a certain number of movements are to be performed at each drill at the double.”

(g.) During very hot weather these rules may be modified as regards time and extent.

By Authority : John Ferres, Government Printer, Melbourne.

The following additions and alterations have appeared in the Field Exercise” of 1874, received from London since this publication was printed :—


Squad Drill, in two Ranks.

Section 43.—2.

Read paragraph commencing 5th line from bottom of page 36 thus :— “ A squad moving to a flank by the diagonal march may be  ordered to form fours to that flank. On the word Right (or Left) “ the men will turn into file ; they will then form four deep without  word of command.”


( Company Drill.

Section 1.

Above 5th line from bottom of page 43 read—

“ Officers on all duties under arms are to have their swords drawn without word of command.”

Section 2.

Dele from margin, pane 44, words in italics

Rear RankDress. EyesFront”

Section 8.

After 4th line from top of page 49 read—

“ If the wheel is to the reverse flank, the guide (or guides) of “ that flank will move up and lead during the change of direction.”

Section 9.

After 11th line from top of page 50 read—

On the command to wheel at the 3rd point, the left guide will “move up, the right guide falling to the rear. On the, &c., &c.”

Section 16.—1. (Page 52.)

Opposite the words in the margin company—halt—front, dress— read—

“ The instructor will then order the company to halt, front, and “dress. On the word front the guides will change flanks and “take posts as before the counter-march.”

Section 17.

From full stop, occurring in 3rd line from top of page 53, read thus :—

“ The instructor will give the caution break off-files.

from the-; the captain will give the executive words. If

“ files break off successively till they amount to a half company “they will form fours (by word of command).”

Section 19.

Above the words “ Order-Arms ” at bottom of margin, page 53, insert “ Order—Arms.”

First line, page 54, dele “ if they have prepared for cavalry ”

Section 20.

All words of command in this section (relating to forming square) to be printed in capitals, i.e., to be given by the instructor.

After the word “march” in 6th line irom bottom of page 54, read “ (as when files are brought to the front) on the words Rear Sections to the Front: a formation, &c.”