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HYDROPATHY

—BY—

A HYDROPATHIC PRACTITIONER.

The world at large has now fairly awakened to the fact that the simple remedies prescribed by Hydropathic Practitioners are fn Tuently more useful, and almost always cheaper, than those pie. bribed by Allopathic Doctors. -

CHAPTER 1.

Theory.

This short chapter will be devoted to explaining the why and wherefore of the Hydropathic practice, and may serve to show readers the direction in which they have to walk in order to modify treatment to the constitution undergoing it.

We act upon the skin in a direct manner, and at once. Purgatives also act upon the skin, upon the mucous membrane of the body. We have this advantage: we can suspend operations at any given moment, but the medicine, once swallowed, is out of reach of doctor and patient, and must, for good or evil, run its course.

In its healthy state, and without any excitement, the skin carries off a great amount of waste material; excite it, make it perspire, and the waste-carrying action of the skin is at least doubled. The skin has other duties—it absorbs and breathes to a small extent. It is well known that thirst can be, to some small extent, modified by the use of water to the skin.

Pure water, properly applied to the skin, extracts dirt from it, and purifies the blood by this means. It does not weaken the body, as some suppose. Poisons of various kinds, alcohol, nicotine, and powerful drugs, can all be brought through the skin by the proper use of water. The bath attendant frequently gains his first knowledge of drugs having been taken, by the smell of them when eliminated in the bathing processes. The smell, for instance, of stale tobacco is sometimes so strong as to sicken the bathman. Put a bladder, containing salt water, into a quantity of fresh, and before long the; salt will be gone and fresh water fills the bladder, the salt having gone through the skin. The action of pure water on the skin is somewhat similar: it removes irritating substances and soothes the nervous system.

Hydropathic Treatment has to have a direct action upon the body, according to the nature of the diseased condition, It can be made heating, cooling, soothing, tonic or derivative, Iju can

be applied in such ways that the whole body shall appear as if it had been in a mustard plaster. It can be made to bring out boils and eruptions, in many forms, to relieve the body; water, its agent, is certainly one of the most powerful ones under the sun.

The internal use of water cannot be too highly praised, but it must be taken in sips and in small quantities, as, if poured into the stomach in large quantities, its derivative action is very great; it has to be warmed, and in the warming too much heat is abstracted from the stomach. A little will clear the stomach and stimulate the bowels, especially if half a tumbler is taken in the morning fasting. Much drinking at meals is decidedly injurious. A tumbler about half-an-hour before dinner will often be found beneficial.

Dr. Johnstone says that the advantages of Hydropathic Treatment are: ‘‘First, its superior efficacy in all those cases to which it is applicable. Secondly, when judiciously practised, it never fails to leave the constitution and general health better and stronger than it found it, although it may fail to cure the particular disease for which it is administered: whereas the durg treatment, even in judicious hands, when it does not cure the disease for which it is applied, will seldom fail to leave the constitution and general health weaker and worse than it found it. Thirdly, when the disease has been cured by the Hydropathic method, the convalescence is extremely rapid, and the strength quickly recovered; whereas, when the disease has been cured by drugs, the convalescence is almost always protracted, and frequently the strength is not fully restored for several months. Fourthly, the drug treatment, however skilfully applied, frequently leaves behind it certain ill effects, certain injury, which can never afterwards be eradicated. The Hydropathic Treatment, practised with propriety, never does this.

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CHAPTER 2.

Baths.

No. L—THE DRIPPING SHEET BATH.

Let the patient, stand in an ordinary shallow bath, sitz bath, or big tub; dip a sheet in a bucket of cold water, and. after putting a. little water on head and chest, throw the wet sheet, over the back; both patient and attendant rub back and front of body for , some time, say three minutes; then dry back and front of body for using plenty of friction. Dress, and exercise. This bath is a very mild one, and may be taken by the most delicate persons, with safety. It is the best one for use after a very hard day's work, or exposure to cold or wet.

No. II.—THE HOT DRIPPING SHEET.

Place the patient as before, and have two buckets and two sheets, one in water of about 100° Fahr., perceptibly warm to the hand, and the other in cold. Throw the hot one on 'he first, and rub with it for about five minutes, then throw on '* cold, and preceed as in the last bath. If the person is very /te, partly wring both the sheets before throwing them on.

No. III.—THE SPONGE BATH.

This is a rapid sponging of the body. Use a tub of any kind, if broad enough; kneel and wash face, head, and chest; then sit in the water and wash back and abdomen, after which stand in it and wash feet and legs, and give the body a general rubbing down with the sponge, flannel, or towel; then rub every part of the body down with coarse towels until dry, and finish by rubbing with hands, until glowing with exercise and friction. The bath-room ought to be light and airy, and if the morning sun shines directly upon the body while it is being rubbed, it will be all the more effective.

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No. IV.—THE COLD SHOWER BATH.

This is a well-known, bath, and may be used in place of the sponge bath. It is_ a stronger bath, however, and scarcely fit for weak subjects. It is highly tonic and electric in its effects. Many of those who use it let the water fall right upon the head; this is not a good practice. Let it fall upon the face and chest, and then merely passing the head under it, let about the same quantit fall upon the back. Use towels and friction as in the sponge ba

No. V.—THE PAIL DOUGH.

This bath cannot easily be taken in ordinary houses It 'may be used for very robust persons, but the shock is very great, and the reaction so strong that there is sometimes a reaction upon the reaction a feeling of weakness arising from its use. Tt is only valuable as a tonic for the last stages of Hydropathic Treatment.

No. VI —THE COLD SITZ BATH Can be made to serve three purposes. Tt acts as. a tonic, a stimulant. or a derivative, by being used ten, twenty, or thirty minutes at once. It ought never to be used more than ten minutes, unless specially ordered by a competent physician. In fact, five minutes of sitting in cold water, with a blanket thrown over the shoulders, and the hands at liberty to rub stomach and chest, will generally serve every purpose. Where this bath is frequently used, a hole ought to be cut about twelve inches from the centre of one of the selvages of the blanket, to let the head through. This will not spoil a blanket for ordinary use, if the hole is neatly bound. The Sitz Bath is one of the most useful to have in a house, as it will serve many other purposes.

No. VII.—THE WARM SITZ BATH.

This bath is like the last, except for the water being warm. Tt must not be more than 100° to 105°, just warm to the hand. After the patient has been in it for five minutes a little more cold must be introduced, and five more minutes spent. The patient can rub stomach, liver, and in fact the whole of the trunk with the wet. hands. The most suitable time for these baths is from 10 til! 11 a.m. There is no need to strip the whole body for this bath.

No. V III.—THE PLUNGE OR SWIMMING BATH.

. This is only fit for strong, healthy subjects, and even those ought not to remain in water longer than is necessary for their purpose. Healthy boys and girls ought to learn to swim, but must not remain in water more than about ten or fifteen minutes at once; ought not to go into it until two hours after a full meal, and ought to rub the body dry before dressing, and to take exercise after. Naturally the most suitable season is the warmest one.

No. IX.—THE TEPID BATH.

This bath is very soothing and refreshing, and will send a per-spn to sleep_when other means fail. It is from 85° to 90°. Ten tdktwelve minutes is quite enough to spend in it \    4

No. X.—THE WARM BATH.

This may be taken by any one who has perspired freely during the day. It is very soothing in its effects, and. like the tepid one, which it very much resembles, it will induce sweet refreshing sleep. Its heat is 90° to 100°.

No. XL—THE HOT BATH.

This will stimulate; will determine the blood to the skin and to the cortical surface of the brain. It will, therefore, prevent sleep, while the tepid and warm baths bring it on. Its heat is from 100° to 120°. Its effect is to relieve congestion or to reduce inflammation. Nothing acts more rapidly than this bath in such cases, blit, as it is a very powerful bath, its influence ought to be reserved for extreme cases, such as croup, inflammation and congestion. Notice the difference in the degrees of these three baths and take care, in giving a soothing bath, that the water is not too hot, as the hot bath will keep a patient awake all night in spite of every effort to sleep.

No. XII.—THE WET SHEET PACK.

Strip off the bed. leaving only, the mattress; spread upon it a surveyor's sheet and two large blankets (the surveyor’s sheet may be omitted if not at hand); wring a sheet out of could water, tightly if the patient be delicate, loosely if generally strong; spread it on the top of the blankets; then lay the patient, undressed, flat upon his back, with arms overhead. Next draw one end of the sheet over the body and tuck it in under the opposite side. Bring down the arms and lay them loosely on the chest, and draw other end of sheet, over them, and carefully tuck the end under. The blankets one end at a time, are next treated in a similar manner, especial care being taken to draw all tight about the neck and feet, so that not a particle of air can find its way in. 'Throw over more clothing, or a light bed; prop up the head with a pillow, put a wet cloth on the forehead, and let the patient lie for about forty minutes. Most persons, after having had one pack properly administered, desire another. Give a cold dripping sheet on taking the patient- out, and help him to rub dry and dress; give a drink of cold water and send out for brisk exercise for thirty ■ minutes. Instead of the dripping sheet, a wash in tepid and cold water may be taken.

No. XIII.—THE HALF PACK.    a

In case-s of extreme weakness, where it would not be safe t<$ use the full wet sheet -pack, a sheet may be doubled and wrung*out tightly and s/yiffyj upon the blankets, which have been prepared

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as before. Tt is wrapped from the armpits to the thighs. The after treatment should be the same as in the full pack, except the patient is too weak to go out, in which case it is best to have a tepid wash down quickly, and go to bed for an hour.

No. XTV.—THE SWEATING BLANKET.

This pack is like the others, except for the wet sheet. Watch the face for perspiration, and take the time; from its appearance in the face. It is very relaxing in its effect and ought to be used with caution. A wash down with tepid water and just a rinse with cold, and the whole followed by rubbing and moderate exercise, will help to bring out the best possible effects from its use. Thirty minutes is generally enough, from time of appearance of perspiration on the face.

No. XV.—'THE SHALLOW BATH.

This bath is very much used in Hydropathic Establishments. It, of course, requires a slipper bath to take it properly, but it may be taken in a sitz bath, by just wetting head and face, and then sitting in the water, and washing back and front with a sponge, and rubbing the whole body with rvet hands, and laving the cold water over the limbs.

It ought not to take two minutes from first to last, whether taken in slipper or sitz. If plenty of friction is taken while in it, there will be no harm done by remaining in for ten minutes. It will make the skin as red as a boiled lobster, and it is highly electric. Exercise should be taken after this bath; to bathe in this way, and then go to breakfast, or to bustwfss, Wiir.imt. s, brisk reaction, is suicidal. Of course this is only a bath for healthy sons, especially if it lasts ten minutes. '

No. XVL—THE COLD FOOT BATH.

1 Lis bath will warm cold feet and draw blood from the head. Persons who are not accustomed to water treatment ought to have water one inch deep and bathe the feet in it for five minutes, rubbing them one against the other all the time. More robust persons, and those who have used themselves to Hydropathic Measures, may have water four or five inches deep, and the time from five to ten minutes. After this bath rub thoroughly dry with rough towels. This bath tends to equalise the circulation of the blood.

No. XVII.—THE VAPOUR BATH C ay be taken in the best manner; of course, m a properly-fitted steam box. Still a very good imitation may be managed by seating the ,patient on a cane-bottomed chair and putting a, vessel

round, so that, it will exclude outer air. Hot stones, a hot heater, or half a brick made hot, ought to be carefully introduced by just lifting the brick part of the blanket and placing it! in the water every fifth minute. Time irom twenty to thirty minutes.

It is much better to have a small spirit lamp, and to let. it boil about a pint of water under the patient, thus constantly generating steam. The above directions are for those who have not such a thing at hand. 1 he object of this book being to show how the simplest things may be made to serve. After coming out of this bath, the dripping sheet, or No. 3, must be promptly applied. Either of these will close the pores at once, and also remove the decayed matter which the Vapour Bath always brings out of them. I he influence of this bath in relieving the skin of a load of impurities is something wonderful.

No. XVIII.—'THE LOCAL VAPOUR BATII Can be taken by putting the portion to be steamed in a box, and directing a jet of steam, say from a kettle spout, into the box. It may sometimes be used with advantage in arm and leg cases; still, as a rule, general is much better than local treatment.

No. XIX.—THE INDIAN BATH Is but rarely used now, being superseded by the vapour bath. It is simply the use of burning spirit, in a saucer or spirit lamp, under a high chair, while the patient, enfolded in blankets, as in the vapour bath, perspires for about twenty minutes. When used it ought to be followed by Nos. 1 or 3.

No.. XX.—HOT FOMENTATION.

Phis is a very powerful bath. It is weakening in its effects, and ought, therefore, to be used sparingly. It is, however, very simple, and by its proper use many otherwise fatal diseases may be arrested, and certainly the relief it affords is instantaneous.

It is invaluable in cases of violent inflammation or irritation of the great internal organs. I have applied water in these cases up to lbO° Fahr. Lay the patient on a bed, and cover the part which has to be fomented with dry flannel, else the pads, when applied, may prove too hot to be easily borne. Wring a flannel, about three_ or four folds thick, out of water as hot as thq hands can bear it, and apply at once, renewing every ten minutes until relief is experienced, keeping the body comfortably covered. When this ? ^ end is served, discontinue, then wrap the patient up warmly and be adopted immediately, and the family physician sent for at the same time. The water treatment will not in any way interfere^ with the ordinary drug practice, and the majority of doctors will

own that you have done well in making use of this powerful counter-irritant. In severe attacks it may be said that the man who is his own doctor has a fool for his patient. Still, persons who have a little physiological knowledge, and can apply Hydropathic Treatment, have no need to be continually sending for him for every little ailment; and. when they do reaally need advice, they containing hot water under it, and wrapping a large blanket tightly round the neck of the patient, and letting it drape on the floor ail will call to their aid men who are known to view simple remedies in a favourable light.

No. XXL—THE HEAD BATH.

Lay the patient down on the floor, with the shoulders supported by a pillow or cushion, and place the back of the head in a shallow basin of cold water. This ought, to last about fifteen or twenty minutes, occasionally moving the head a little and laving sortie up to the temples and forehead.

No. XXII —THE SULPHUR BATH Is like the Indian (No. 19) one, only sulphur is burnt instead of spirit. It ought not to be taken without the advice of a physician, except for itch, which disease it will cure by killing the insects that burrow under the skin.

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CHAPTER 3.

Treatment of Diseases.

INDIGESTION.

This disease is a temporary form of the preceding one, and is, therefore, treated in a similar manner. Taking pills will clear the stomach, by exciting it and increasing, for a time, the action of the bowels, blit every time this is done the organs acted upon arc weaker, and the liability to confirmed disease becomes greater. Compress No. 2 worn a few nights, and 3 or IS every morning, will usually be found sufficient.

LIVER COMPLAINTS

Very frequently accompany disorders of the stomach, and need treatment very similar in kind to that prescribed for dyspepsia. The principal difference between this group of diseases and those in which the stomach is principally affected, is the more impoverished and weaker condition of the body, and hence the lack of reaction under treatment. 'There is almost always a morbid shrinking from cold applications, which points towards a need for mild renfedics. Jaundice, enlargement, dropsy, congestion, sluggishness, all yield to mild treatment.

Treatment.—Morning, No. 2, followed by No. 1; forenoon, No. 7, for ten minutes; No. 17 and No. 12 in turn succeeding days. Afternoon, sitz 80°, for ten minutes, rubbing region of liver with cold wet hand. Fill up time with light occupation and recreative exercise.

Food.—Stimulants, condiments, and tobacco (in all forms), must be avoided. Fats, butter, rich gravies, See., are all bad. The driest and hardest portions of food above mentioned, will serve admirably, eggs being left out.

BOWEL COMPLAINTS OR COLIC.

1 his disease is a constriction of some part of the alimentary canal. It is very painful: is often attended with vomiting or costiveness, and is generally relieved when the bowels begin to act. It is caused by surfeit or excess of food, by the presence of poison, by wind, flatulence, and by inaction of the bowels, constipation.

. 7 reatment.—Emetic, by copious drinking of warm water; injections of warm water; No. 7, commencing at 100° Fahr., and gtadually heating up to 120J fiahr., or more. Jins generally gives

relief at once; should it not do so, No. 20 may be repeatedly applied.

J he heating bandage ought to be worn for some days, and careful attention paid to diet.

DYSENTERY.

this is a disease of the lareg intestine, and is supposed to be contagious. It is, however, much more likely to be the result of the same cause affecting a number of persons in one district. Marshy exhalations, a result of heat and dampness, is most frequently its cause. It often proves fatal.

Treatment.—Apply No. 2, or 11 and 7. at once, and follow it by 14; p is also good. The heating compress round the abdomen re-wetting every two hours. Warm injections, and No. 20, must be used m dangerous and severe cases. The patient generally requires rest and quiet when the attack is over.

DIARRHOEA

Is fiequently one result of dyspepsia. It is sometimes chronic, and must then be treated as dyspepsia. When acute, the

Treatment is just a vapour bath, followed by No. IS, a few tepid injections, and one or two tumblers of water. Fasting until well is better than any kind of food or medicine.

INFLAMMATION OF BOWrELS.

This disease may, in its early stages, be mistaken for coin There is great pain, sickness, heat, thirst, and hard, quick pulse, the abdomen being sore to the touch.

Treatment.—No. 17, 19, or a hot sitz bath ought to be taken at once, then 20 for a short time, at intervals, until pain is reduced. The heating bandage may then be worn, frequently re-wetting. Warm injections to move bowels, and warm water to drink until vomiting is produced, must go on with the rest of the treatment, . the object being to clean out the alimentary canal, and to draw the blood to the surface of the skin. For some time after recovery the food must be mild; all animal food and hot drinks should be avoided.

PILES.

This troublesome disease is another outcome of dyspeptic trouble.;. Purgatives only tend to make it worse; in fact, pills may be looked upon as a prominent cause of piles.

-Treatment.—Cold vet. cloths applied and frequently renewed, injections of small quantities of cold water and No. 6 once daily,

will generally reduce them for a time. Permanent relief can only be obtained by a course of treatment for the derangement of the digestive organs, which shows itself in this form of local disease. Diet, as in liver, stomach and bowel complaints.

FEVERS

Are of many kinds. There are eruptive, inflammatory, typhus or typhoid, intermittent, remittent,, and ephemeral. These are only great class names; many pages might be filled with the names alone.

Fever is a general disturbance of the system, caused by improper diet, foul air, impure water, or some such agent, and developed by a sudden change of climate, or some unusual tax upon vitality. A debauch, a cold, a gross meal, long continued and violent exercise, or exposure to bad weather may be the straw that breaks the camel’s back.

The form that a fever takes depends very much on the constitution. A strong man will generally have some one or other of the inflammatory forms, a weaker one of less active habits will have a more internal form, typhus or typhoid, and a dyspeptic one, perhaps bilious or nervous.

Fevers run from three to twenty, or even forty days. Nervous form of typhus sometimes takes six or seven weeks, the putrid form two to three weeks, and inflammatory fevers from one to two weeks. Under Hydropathic Treatment they do not run so long. Fevers treated by the following means rarely last a week. Nature gives a certain guide for the treatment of all these forms of crisis. When the skin is too hot, cool it with tepid water in dripping sheets, sponging, or packs; when too cold warm it by warm applications, and when unequal, warm the cold and cool the hot parts to equalise the circulation, and to prevent congestion.

Never press a patient to eat or drink against his will, nor compel him to lie still with all the body warmly wrapped during the hot stage of a fever. The popular idea that there is great danger of a patient taking cold when in this burning condition is a popular fc fallacy. Ol course an undue exposure to extreme cold, bringing oil the cold stage must be avoided.

PUTRID, TYPHUS, OR TYPHOID FEVER,

Is considered infectious, but frequently may be traced to the defective sanitary condition of the ship, camp, hospital, or closely-crowded quarter in which it rages. Bad water, impure air, are the

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carriers of the spores of this kind of fever, and when they get into a body predisposed to disease, they flourish.

Symptovs.—This disease is known by extreme debility, anxiety and restlessness, frequent and severe shivering fits, laborious respiration, foul breath; pulse quick, hard, thready, and sometimes unequal; throbbing of temples; excretions foul, black, and offensive; gums and lips covered with brown or black fur.

Treatment.—If the patient has ordinary strength, No. 12 for forty minutes, followed by tepid sponging. Repeat this evert' three hours until t lie fever is reduced; the pulse being lowered. No. 13 may then be used twice daily, and hot bottle be kept to feet. Plenty ol water to drink, tepid injections to move bowels, and abundance of ircsli air in the room, are all needed. If the patient is weakly, to begin with, use milder treatment, say No. 13 instead of 12. As the patient recovers. No. 1 or 3 may be given in the morning, and even No. 4, 5, or 6 as a final tonic. In the most severe cases this treatment may be restored to with confidence, and ought to be commenced long before the more painful symptoms manifest themselves. A few hours of treatment gives marked relief.

INFLAMMATORY FEVERS,

Whether simple or eruptive, present, during their earlier stages, somewhat similar features, and require to be treated accordingly. In the simple forms of inflammatory or high fevers, the body is hot and flushed; tongue, white, with red edges; pulse, hard and strong; eyes, reddish; skin, hot and dry, and the body feeling as if on fire.

Treatment.—No. 12 every two hours, letting hint remain in as long as he comfortably can, using two sheets instead of one. No. 21 at intervals. Cold water to drink; tepid injections. Should it be simple fever, as scarlet or scarlatina, it will be robbed of its power to do harm, and may be reduced in a few hours; and if it is an eruptive fever, say small pox, it will be alt the better for the vigorous commencement of treatment. The former, scarletina, is often accompanied by some throat affection. When this is the case, pack the throat sepa-rately, well up to the ears, fastening a part of the cloth over the crown; this will, if frequently re-wetted, remove any throat swelling or tendency to choke.

These inflammatory fevers, if allowed to run or maltreated, may gradually develop typhus or lyphoid symptoms. In this way fevers are closely related.

NERVOUS OR LOW FEVER

Ts characterised by disturbance of mental functions; dejection; unequal heat of skin; weak, ¡regular pulse; tongue covered with thick, white mucus.

Treatment must be adapted to the case, and ought to be of a mild nature. When the heat becomes great, applying cold or tepid packs, and when the head gets hot, and the patient mutters or becomes delirious, cold water to head and hot applications to feet, the object being the equalisation of the circulation. Cold, wet towels on abdomen, hot bottles to feet; and No. 21 to head must be resorted to if there are any signs of the modification known as brain fever. For diarrhoea, or other incidental complaints accompanying this class of fevers, use treatment found under those heads. Food extremely simple, but nice, newly cooked, and never left in the bedroom, with the hope that the patient may become hungry and eat it. Drink—barley water, rice gluten, milk and water, and pure water by sips.

MEASLES,

Owing to improper treatment and other complications, sometimes proves fatal, ft comes on with cough, sleepiness, itching of face, running of eyes, and catarrh. The eruption comes out. on the face the fourth day, and extends downward. The fever increases after the eruption comes out.

Treatment.—The heating bandage from the first, and after (not before) the eruption has come out, No. 12 may be given once daily, foi three or four days. Complications, such as diarrhoea and sore throat, must receive attention as prescribed for under their several heads. Food as in other fever cases.

INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN is sometimes caused by exposure to the sun’s heat, and can be brought on by violent exertion, by overstudy, and undue excitement of any kind, either mental or physical. Great pain in the head, throbbing of temples, flushed face, wild-looking eyes, and general feverishness, are its symptoms.

Treatment ought to be similar to that recommended for high fever with the addition of cold water or pounded ice to the head, and hot water, hot bottles, &c., to the feet. The moment the circulation is equalised, the danger is over. There is no .need for either bleeding, purging, or numbing with opiates. Very simple food.

CROUP

Is another dangerous form of throat inflammation. A false mem-

brane stretches across the throat and suffocates the patient. The great aim of treatment is to prevent its formation. It attacks children at night, very frequently, before midnight. The symptoms are—ringing cough, difficulty of breathing, a noisy rattling in the throat, and hoarseness of voice. Not much (if any) fever.

Treatment-Give warm water to drink, and tickle the throat, to induce vomiting. Pack the whole neck, well up to the ears, in very cold cloths, wash legs in mustard and hot water, 120°, or as hot as can be well borne. Then immerse the body in prettv warm^ water to top of shoulders, for fifteen minutes, rubbing it all the time, after which wrap up in blanket and keep warm, all but the neck, which must have the pack kept cold by re-wetting. If not soon better, repeat the foot bath, the warm bath, or both Take care of the child for some days, and if the weather is cold or changeable, keep a compress on chest.

MUMPS

Is a swelling and inflammation of the parotid gland. It is not dangerous. Simple food; no flesh meat. No. 2 every morning, and a continual wet pagk on the cheek or cheeks.

INFLAMMATION OF LUNGS

Takes three forms; inflammation of the great tubes, bronchitis, inflammation of the substance of the lungs, pneumonia and, inflammation of the surrounding membranes, pleurisy. There is no great need to distinguish between the last two; Nature does not, for one_ kind merges into the other. There is great heat and sense of wreight in thq chest, and deep-seated acute pain; cough, short breathing, quick pulse; the expectoration is flaky and blood-streaked. There is also more or less of general fever.

Treatment, unless there is a good deal of high fever present, ought never to be cold. An extra broad, heating compress, from armpit to top of hip bone, ought to be used, and re-wet every second or third hour. No. 2, 11, 17, and hot mustard and water foot and leg bath and wash down with soap and hot water, must follow one another at intervals of six hours, until pain is relieved, pulse reduced and breathing rendered easy. After which No. 9 may be taken a day or two, and then No. 1 or 3 on rising. No animal food, no condiments, stimulants, or medicine. If constipated, free tepid injections, and an emetic of warm water may be given. This is a dangerous disease, and therefore needs prompt and efficient action.

INFLAMMATION OF LIVER.

This disease, and inflammation of stomach, have to be treated about in the same way that inflammation of bowels is treated,

adding moderate drinking of iced water, in case of stomach affection, and for the liver, No. 20 pretty frequently, or mustard poultice as a counter-iritant. If, in either case, there is much

fever, Nos. 12 or 13 may be used.

NEURALGIA

Is simply nerve-ache, and may affect any part of the body. It principally affects the head and face, and, as in “tic,” often causes swelling of the part affected. The pain is very distressing; appears to dart and cut, and ceases sometimes in an instant.

Treatment—General treatment, as for dyspepsia, of which it is generally an outcome. No. 17 may be used one day, 12 or 13 the next, No. 6 the third day, and every morning commenced with the tepid dripping sheet, or Nos. 1 or 3, as they can be borne without shock or chill. Spinal rubbing may be employed with advantage while in the sitz bath.

SCIATICA

Is a rheumatic affection of the one, or both, of the great sciatic nerves. It generally affects the leg, from hip to heel, and is sometimes accompanied by lumbago, and at others by spinal irritation, or inflammation.

Treatment.—No. 17 or 18 to part affected, then 12 or 13 three times a week, at 10 a.m., for not less than twenty to twenty-five minutes. Tepid or cold sitz every afternoon, about 4 p.m., for ten minutes. If the case if of long-standing, and the patient weak, the sitz must be tepid, and tepid dripping sheet used in the morning. If the pain is severe, it will be relieved by alternate No. 20 and No. 6. Mustard poulticing may sometimes be used with advantage. Take little enough food, no animal food, and nothing stimulating. In some cases a cure is affected in a few days; in others, two or three weeks.

LUMBAGO.

This is. an acute rheumatic affection of the muscles in the lumbar region. There is great pain in the bottom of the back on attempting to stand upright. A sharp attack will lay a strong man up at once. It is a well-known disease, and needs no further description.

Treatment.—No. 12 at once for thirty minutes, or, if pain is very severe, a pretty strong mustard plaster as long as can be borne, right across the loins. Wipe mustard off with dry cloth; let the patient rest an hour; then apply No. 13 for thirty minutes. After this allow two hours rest, and then apply No. 17, 2, or 11,the first the best. Should the pain still continue, give hot

HEALTH AND WEALTH

mustard foot and leg bath, and repeat previous processes at intervals of three hours. For a few days after the pain has gone, use No. 1 or 3 on rising, and No. 6, with spinal rubbing, at 10 a.m. No 4, or even 5. may be used daily for a time, in cases where there is plenty of vitality.

HYSTERIA.

Treatment.—Cold water, pretty freely applied, is the best thing indicated in these cases. If it a result of some othev complaint, attend to it. It is often the result of morbid mental action, and partly, if not wholly, under the patient's control In such cases, the dread of a dash of cold water and drenching will act as a wholesome check.

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CHAPTER 4.

Miscellaneous Complaints.

ASTHMA.

Treatment.—Nos. 1 or 3 every morning; frequent rubbing of chest with cold wet hand. No. 12 once weekly, and No. 17 ditto. No. 18 to chest daily.

SPRAINS.

Treatment.—Steam, or No. 20, followed by rubbing with wet cold hand, then apply compress, keeping it re-wetted., and frequently rubbing as before.

SCURVY.

Treatment.—Nos. 12, 1, 4, 6, 10, and 17, in daily order, and simple, fresh, vegetable and farinaceous food.

ITCH.

Treatment.—No. 22, and complete change of clothing and washing in salt and water. Should this not cure, repeat it. and rub parts that the bath cannot reach with flowers of sulphur and iresh butter. Take Nos. 10, 17, or 19 once or twice to remove sulphur.

BOILS.

Use mild general treatment. Nos. 2, 7, 9, and 17; compress and poultice until all matter is extracted. Though painful and numerous, no alarm need be felt, nature is only making use of that means to purify the blood.

COLD

Is geneially more or less a form of fever, and, as it may rapidly develop into fever or inflammation, it must be promptly treated as the case demands. Nos. 2, 12, 13, 14, 17, or 19, are, any of them, useful in these cases of catarrh and common cold ’or chili, and will prevent further mischief. When perspiration has been suddenly checked there wjh be cold of some form: obviously the bath that restores the skin's action will remove the disease.

BLEEDING OF NOSE.

If caused by apopletic tendencies ought not to be stopped for some time. When it has to be arrested, a stream of cold water poured down the back of the neck will do it. Plugging of the nostrils is sometimes resorted to in extreme cases.

STITCH IN SIDE.

No. 13 or 17, and compress will remove the slight inflammation which is the cause of this pain. Should it continue and increase, treat it as an inflammation.

RUPTURE

Is sometimes a. sudden, sometimes a gradual protrusion of a portion of the intestines. When it occurs suddenly, through running, jumping or lifting, lay the patient on his back and gently press the intestine back into its proper position, then bandage and apply cold water to affected part by No. 6 for five minutes at once, and by splashing with cold water. A compress ought to be made to fit the part and worn for some time.

ULCERS.

Treatment.—No. 17 twice on alternate days, No. 1 or 3 every morning if it can be borne with ease, IS or 9 if not. No. 18 to part twice daily. Keep it well washed, and No. 2 made of old linen constantly upon it until well. If very much inflamed and painful, use No. 20 for a while.

SKIN DISEASES.

As 'dandruff, scald head, watery scab, dry scab, ecthyma, together with the presence of parsites of many kinds are curable by frequent ablutions. They may at times need the ilesh brush, and an abundance of soap and washing, and in some instances, may require to be treated as ulcers, but abstinence from all gross foods and ardent spirits, and attention to ablution, will cure all curable skin diseases. Avoid mercurial ointments.

SCALDS AND BURNS.

Apply No. 3 made of old linen and keep it constantly wet by dropping water upon the outside of it. If the burnt part can instantly be plunged in cold water, and kept there for 20 or 30 minutes no blister will arise. In these cases water continually applied will be the best healing salve, and will prevent painful inflammations.

WHOOPING COUGH.

7 real meat.—No. 12 or 13 once daily for about an hour, plenty of friction ol chest and throat by hand and cold water, and this, together with simple farinaceous food, no meat, nor even milk, will bring the child rapidly through.

WORMS

Are a troublesome complaint, in either children or adults. Tlieic arc several kinds, from the small, wire-like worm that irritates the seat, to the great monster tape-worm, several yards in length. The only real cure consists in getting the digestive organs in proper order. Taking strong medicines may remove the worms, but the disease, in such cases, is often preferable to the cure.

Treatment, as for dyspepsia, in addition to which apply an enema, of warm water and soap, four or five times a day. Plenty of pure water to drink, and simple food will do the rest.

CHAPTER 5.

Herbs and Their Lises

AGRIMONY.

(Agrimonia Eupatoria, Linn.) Syn.—Stickwort.

Action.—Mild astringent, tonic, diuretic. Useful in coughs, simple diarrhoea, and relaxed bowels. Best mode of using is by making a decoction of bounce of herb in 1 pint of boiling water, sweeten with honey or sugar, and take frequently in doses of half a cupful and upwards. It gives tone to the system and promotes assimilation of food. Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose, J-l drachm.

ALLSPICE. _

(Pimenta officinalis, Lindl.) Syn.—Pimento, Jamaica Pepper.

Action.—Aromatic, stomacjhic, carminative. Largely used as a condiment. A good addition to other medicines in the treatment of flatulence, dyspepsia, and diarrhoea.    Preparations.—

Powdered fruit: Dose. 10-30 grains. Fluid extract: Dose, J-l drachm. Oil: Dose, 2-5 drops. Water B.P.

ALOES.

Barbadoes Aloes B.P. is yielded by Aloe vera, Linn., and A. Chinensis, Steud.; Socotrine Aloes B.P. by Aloe Perryi, J. G. Baker; Cape Aloes by Aloe spicata, Thunb., and A. ferox, Linn.,

etc.

Action.—Emmenagogue, purgative, anthelmintic. Used in constipation. dyspepsia, menstrual suppressions, and piles. Generally given in pill form combined with anodynes and carminatives, also in liquid forms. Given to nursing mothers it causes purging in the suckling infant. Acts particularly on the lower bowel. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, 5-30 drops. Powdered extract: Dose, 1-5 grains. Comp, decoction, B.P.; Dose, J-2 ounces. Tincture B.P.: Dose, i-2 drachms. Aloin B.P.: Dose, i-2 grains. Tincture Aloes and Myrrh U.S.P.: Dose, 30 drops.

ANISEED.

(Pimpinella Anisurn, Linn.) Syn.—Anise.

Action.—Carminative and pectoral. LTsed in cough medicines and lozenges. The powdered seed is largely employed in condition and other condiments for horses. Preparation.—Oil, distilled from seeds: Dose, 4-6 drops on sugar. Water U.S P. Water B.P. Spirit B.P. and LT.S.P.: Dose, 5-60 drops.

ASPARAGUS.

(Asparagus officinalis, Linn.)

Action.—Diuretic, laxative, cardiac, sedative. It is said that this plant produces a copious diuresis, and it has been recommended in dropsy, enlargement of heart, &c. The fresh expressed juice is taken in tablespoonful doses. It can be made more palatable in the form of a syrup and is used as such in doses of 1-2 tablespoonfuls.

BAEL.

(Aegle Marmelos, Correa.)    Syn.—Bel, Indian Bael, Bengal

Quince. Part Lfsed.—Unripe fruit.

Action—Astringent. An Indian remedy and almost a specific for diarrhoea, dysentery, &c. It does not constipate. Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose, i-2 drachms.

BALM.

(Melissa officinalis, Linn.)    Syn.—Sweet Balm, Lemon Balm.

Part Used.—Herb.

Action.—Carminative, diaphoretic, febrifuge. Induces mild perspiration and makes a pleasant and cooling tea for feverish patients. To make the tea, pour 1 pint of boiling water upon 1 ounce of herb* let it stand for a quarter of an hour, allow to cool, then strain and drink freely. A very useful herb, either alone or in combination with others. Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose, 1-1 drachm.

BARBERRY.

(Berberis vulgaris, Linn.)    Syn.—Berbery, Pipperidge Bush,

Berberis dumetorum, Gouan. Part Used.—Bark, rootbark. Action.—Tonic, purgative, and antiseptic. Lfsed in all cases of jaundice, liver complaints, general debility, and _ biliousness. It regulates the digestive powers, being a mild purgative, and removes constipation. The berries make a pleasant acid drink of great utility in diarrhoea, fevers, &c. Prepanations.—Powdered

BAYBERRY.

(Mynca cenfera, Linn.)    Syn.—Candleberry, YVaxberry, V)(ax

myrtle. Part Used.—Bark.

powders and forms the basis of the celebrated composition powder. In cases of coldness of the extremities, chills, clamminess, etc., it will, combined with cayenne, cause that, action in the

Action.—A powerful stimulant, astringent, and tonic. If not absolutely the most useful article m botanic practice, it is certainly nearly so. It enters largely into many of the^ compound system which generates heat and induces perspiration. ^ for canker of the    stomach    and    bowels it    is invaluable,    being an

effectual deobstruent and cleanser. I he powdered bark is vein rallv used in an infusion of 1 ounce to I pint oi boiling water. To promote heat it should be drunk warm. The powder may also be    added    to    poultices    as it has    a very

healing and cleansing action on all scrofulous ulcers, sores, &c. Preparations.—Powdered bark: Dose, A-l drachm. Fluid extract: Dose, ■'-! drachm. Myricin: Dose, 1-3 grains. ,

BLACK CURRANT

(Ribes nigrum, Linn.) Part Used.—Leaves.

Action.—Diuretic, refrigerant, detergent. Very useful in febrile and inflammatory diseases, in hoarseness and affections of the throat. The infusion of I ounce in a pint of boiling water is taken /n teacupful doses. The fresh fruit is used for jams, je! lies, &c.. and forms an excellent basis for medicated lozenges.

BLOOD ROOT.

(Sanguinaria Canadensis, Linn ) Part Used.—’Root.

Action—Stimulant, tonic, expectorant. 01 great value in chest diseases, bleeding o ft he lungs, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, &c. In whooping cough and croup it acts advantageously, and should be given until vomiting results. As an external remedy the povv-deied root or tincture acts energetically in cases of lungoid tumours, ringworm, See. In polypus of the nose it should be used as snuff. Large doses will produce narcotic effects. Preparations.—Powdered root: Dose, 10-30 grains. Tincture: Dose, 1-2 drachms.    Tincture U.S.P.: Dose, 15 drops. Fluid extract:

Dose, 10-30 drops. Solid extract (ale): Dose, 5-8 grains. San guinarin: Dose; 1 1 grain.

BONES FT.

(Eupatorium perfoliatum, Liftn.)    Syn.—Thoroughwort, Indian

Sage. Part Used.—Herb.

Action/—Diaphoretic, tonic, febrifuge, expectorant, laxative. Will be found a certain remedy in all cases of fever. In many cases no other medicine will be needed if given in moderate doses frquently. It Is largely used by the negroes in the Southern States for this prupose as well as for its tonic effects. Also recommended in catarrh and skin diseases. An infusion of 1 ounce to L pint of boiling water may be taken in wineglassful doses, hot nr cold. For colds and to produce perspiration it should be given hot, and as a tonic, cold. Preparations.—Powdered herb: Dose, 12-20 grains. Fluid extract: A-l drachm. Solid extract: Dose, 5-10 grains. Eupatorin: Dose, 1-3 grains.

BUCFIU.

(Bnrosma betulina, Bart, and Wendl.)    Syn.—Diosma betulina,

Thunb. Part Used.—Leaves.

Action.—Diuretic, diaphoretic, stimulant. It exerts a direct effect on the urinary organs, in all affections of which it will be found beneficial. In gravel, inflammation, and catarrh of the bladder it is specially useful. The infusion (B.P.) of 1 ounce of leaves to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses three or four times a day. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, T1 drachm. Infusion B.P.: Dose, 1-2 ounces. Tincture B.P.: Dose, i-1 drachm. Solid extract: Dose, 5-15 grains. Barosmin: Dose, 2-3 grains.

BURDOCK.

(Allium Lappa, Linn.) Syn.—Lappa, Lappa minor, Hill, Thorny Burr. Parts Used.—Root, herb, seeds (fruits).

Action.—Alterative, diuretic, and diaphoretic. It is one of the finest blood purifiers in the herbal system, and should be used in all such cases alone or in conjunction with other remedies. Both root and seed may be taken as a decoction of 1 ounce to a pint and a half of water, boiled down to 1 pint, in doses of a wineglassful three or four times a day. Preparations.—Fluid extract root: Dose, 1-2 drachms. Solid extract: Dose, 5-15 grains. Fluid extract, seed: Dose, 10-30 drops.

CAJUPUT.

(Melaleuca Leucadendron, Linn.) Syn.—Cajeput, White Tea Tree, Swamp Tea Tree, Broad-leaved Tea-Tree, White-wood, Melaleuca Cajuputi, Roxb. Part Used-—Oil.

Action.—Stimulant, antispasmodic, diaphoretic. The natives of the Molucca Islands, where the tree grows, esteem it very highly as a remedy for all kinds of pains, internal and external. It may be employed with advantage in lotions for rheumatic affections, toothache, neuralgia, sprains, and bruises. Internally, it may be taken on sugar in doses of 1-10 drops as a valuable diffusive stimulant in colics, spasms, flatulence, and hiccough.

CENTAURY.

(Erythraea centaurium, Pers.) Syn.—Century, Centory, Feverwort. Parts LEed.—Herbs, leaves.

Action.—Aromatic, bitter, stomachic, tonic. Should be given in conjunction with Barberry Bark in cases of jaundice. Is used extensively in dyspepsia. The dose of the infusion of I ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is a wineglassful. Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose. i-1 drachm.

CLIVERS.

(Galium Aparinc, Linn.)    Syn.—Cleavers, Gooscgrass, Hayrifle,

Erriffe. Burweed, Goosebill. Part Used.—Herb.

Action.—Aperient, diuretic, tonic, alterative. Should be given in obstruction of urinary organs, suppression of urine, gravelly deposits, &c. Acts as a solvent of stone in the bladder. The infusion, hot or cold, of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water is taken frequently in wineglassful doses. Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose, -1-1 drachm.

CLOVES.

(Eugenia caryophyllata, Thunb.)    Syn.—Caryophyllus aromaticus,

Linn.. Eugenia aromatica, Willd. Part Used.—Buds. Action.—Stimulant, aromatic, carminative. A warm, stimulating aromatic, used chiefly in combination with other remedies. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, 5-30 drops. Oil: Dose, 1-5 drops. Infusion B.P.: Dose, i-1 ounce.

CAMPHOR.

(Cinnamomum Camphora, T. Nees and Ebcrm.)    Syn.—Gum

Camphor, Laurel Camphor, Laurus Camphora, Linn., Camphora officinarum, Nees.

Action.—Sedative, anondyne, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, anthelmintic. Internally. Camphor is used in colds, chills, and in diarrhoea from colds. In all -Inflammatory affections, fevers and hysterical complaints, it will be found of great value. It acts beneficially in gout, rheumatic pains and neuralgia, and is highly valued in all irritations of the sexual organs. Large doses should be carefully avoided, as they cause vomiting, palpitation, and convulsions. Externally, it can be safely applied in all cases of inflammations, bruises, sprains, &c. Preparations.—Camphor Water B.P.: Dose, 1-2 ounces. Liniment of Aconite B.P. Liniment of Belladonna B.P. liniment of Camphor B.P. Liniment of Camphor Comp. B.P. Liniment of Opium B.P. Liniment of Soap B.P. Liniment of Mustard B.P. Liniment of Turpentine B.P. Liniment of Turpentine and Acetic Acid B.P. Spirit of Camphor B.P.: Dose, 5-20 drops. Tincture of Camphor comp. (Paregoric) B.P.: Dose, i-\ drachm. Water B.P.: 4-1 fluid ounce.

CASCARA SAGRADA.

(Rhamnus Purshiana, D.C.)    Syn.—Sacred Bark. Part Used.—

Bark.

Action.—Laxative, tonic. Largely used for habitual constipation, dyspepsia, and digestive complaints, also in the treatment of piles. For chronic constipation a first dose of half or 1 teaspoonful at bedtime should be taken, followed by doses of 5-10 drops before each meal.    Preparations.—Fluid extract B.P.: Dose, 5 drops to

ldrachm. Fluid extract U.S.P.: Dose. 15 drops. Fluid extract, tasteless: Dose, 1-1 drachm. Fluid extract aromatic, U.S.P.: Dose, 15 drops. Solid extract, B.P.: Dose, 2-8 grains. Aromatic Syrup B.P.: Dose, i-2 drachms. Powder extract: Dose, 2-10 grains. Rhamnin: Dose. 2-6 grains.

CASTOR OIL PLANT. •

(Ricinus communis. Linn.)    Syn.—Castor Oil Bush, Palma Christi.

Part Used.—Expressed oil of the seed.

Action.—Cathartic, purgative. From its mildness of action this is especially adapted for young children and child-bearing women, and may be used in cases of constipation, colic, and in diarrhoea due to slow digestion. It is also used for removing worms, after other suitable remedies have been administered. Externally, it has been recommended for itch, ringworm, and cutaneous complaints. The nauseous taste can be covered by Lemon Oil, Sassafras Oil, and other essential oils, or it may be administered in fresh or warmed milk.

CAYENNE.

(Capsicum minimum, Roxb.)    Syn.—African Pepper, Guinea

Pepper, Bird Pepper, Chillies, Capsicum fastigiatum, Bl. Part Used.—Fruit.,

Action.—Stimulant, tonic, carminative, rubefacient. The purest and most certain stimulant in herbal materia medica. Produces natural warmth and equalises the circulation. Persons exposed any length of time to cold and damp may ward off disease by taking pills made of pure Cayenne, and a cold may generally be removed by one or two doses of the powder taken in warm water. Cayenne enters into many of the compounds of the herbal practice, and is one of the most important remedies. Preparations.— Powdered mats: Dose, s-1 drachm. Oleoresin U.S.P.: Dose, 1/5-2 grain. Tincture B.P. and U.S.P.: Dose, 5-15 drops. Fluid extract U.S.P.: Dose, 2-3 drops. Plaster U.S.P. Ointment B.P.

COHOSH, BLACK.

(Cimicifuga racemosa, Nutt.) Syn.—Black Snakeroot, Rattle-root, Rattleweed, Squawroot, Actcea racemosa, Linn., Macrotys actceoides, Raf. Part LTsed.—Root.

Action.—Astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, alterative. In small doses useful in children’s diarrhoea. In paroxysms of consumption it gives relief by allaying the cough, reducing rapidity of pulse, and inducing perspiration. Is specially _ recommended in cases of obstructed menses. In whooping cough its action is very highly spoken of. Said to be a specific in St. \ itus s Dance of children. Overdoses produce nausea and vomiting. Preparations.— Fluid extract U.S.P.: Dose, 15-30 drops. Liquid extract B.P.: Dose, 5-30 drops. Tincture B.P.: Dose, 15 drops to 1 drachm. Cimicifugin or Macrotin: Dose, 1-6 grains. Powdered extract U.S.P.: Dose, 4 grains. Tincture U.S.P.: Dose, 1 drachm. Solid extract: Dose, 1-3 grains.    ,

C'OLTSFOOT.

(Tussilago Farfara, Linn.)    Syn.—Coughwort, Horsehoof. Part

LIsed.—Leaves.

Action.—Demulcent, expectorant. This is one of the most popular of cough remedies, and is generally given in conjunction with one or two other herbs possessing pectoral qualities, such as Hore-hound, Marshmallow, Ground Ivy, &c. A decoction is made of 1 ounce of leaves in 1 quart of water boiled down to 1 pint, and is taken in teacupful doses sweetened. Preparation.—Fluid extract: :Dose, 4-1 drachm.

COMFREY.

(Symphytum officinale, Linn).    Syn.—Nipbone, Knitbone. Parts

used.— Root, leaves

Action.—Demulcent, astringent. Is highly asteemed as a remedy in all pulmonary complaints, hemoptysis, and consumption, and forms an ingredient in a large number of herbal preparations. Wherever a mucilaginous medicine is required this may be given. Has been used of late by the medical profession as a poultice to promote healing of obstinate ulcerous wounds. A decoction is made by boiling 4-1 ounce of crushed root in a quart of water or milk. Dose, a wineglassful. The leaves are preferably taken as an infusion prepared in the usual manner. Preparation.— Fluid extract: Dose, 4-2 drachms.

COPAIBA

(Copaifera Langsdorfffii, Desf). Syn.—Copaiva, Capivi, Balsam Copaiva, Balsam Capivi. Part LIsed.—Oleoresin.

25

Action Stimulant, diuretic, cathartic. Used in excessive mucous discharges, as in chronic gonorrhea, gleet, leucorrhea, chronic catarrh of bladder, Sec. On account of taste is generally given in pill or capsule form, mostly in combination with alkalines or Santa] Oil. C ubebs, ike. Dose, (B.P.), 1 | drachm. Preparation.Oil P*.P.: Dose, 5-20 drops.

•    COTTON ROOT

(Gossypium herbaceum, Linn). Part Used.—Bark of root.

Action.—Emmenagogue, parturient, oxytocic. Said to contract the uterus in a more effective and safe manner than Ergot. LIsed m cases of difficult and obstructed menstruation. It seems especially useful in sexual lassitude. An infusion of 2 ounces to a pini of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses. The seeds produce by pressure an oil, 01. Gossypii, offiicial in U.S.P. as Cotton Seed Oil.

.    CUBEBS

_ (Piper Cubcba, Linn). Part used.—Unripe fruit.

Action.—Aromatic, diuretic, expectorant. A valuable remedy in cases of gonerrhoea, gleet, catarrh, and internal inflammations. Also used in coughs, bronchitis, and lung troubles generally. Has a stimulating effect upon the mucous membranes. For gonorrhoea the oil is generally given in capsule form and in combination with Copaiba, Santal Oil. &c. Preparations—Powdered fruits: Dose, 111 drachm. Fluid extract: Dose, 1-1 drachm. Oil: Dose, 5-30 drops. Oleorisin U.S.P.: Dose, 5 grains. Tincture B.P.:: Dose, 2-1 drachm. Lozenges U.S.P.

FENNEL.

(Foeniculum dulce, D.C.) Part Used.—Seed.

Action.—-Stimulant, carminative, stomachic. Generally added as a carminative, and as such it forms part of the well-known Compound Liquorice Powder.

FENUGREEK

(Trigonella Foenum-graecum, Linn). Part Used.—Seeds.

Action.—Emollient.    Used externally as a poultice in abscess,

boils, carbuncles &c. Internally a decoction of 1 ounce of seeds in 1 pint of water is used in inflamed conditions of the stomach and intestines. Its chief use is as an ingredient in cattle and horse condiments. It also enters into curry powders.

~ FIG.

(ficus Carica, Linn). Part Used.—Fleshy inflorescence (so-called fruit).

Action.—Nutritive, emollient, demulcent, laxative. The fresh

HEALTH AND WEALTH

and dried fruits arc used in constipation, and they form part of the official confection of Senna. Roasted figs have a place in domestic practice as a poultice for gumboils, boils and carbuncles. A poultice of dried figs in milk is said to remove unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers.

GENTIAN

(Gentiana lútea, Linn.) Part Used.-—Root.

Action.-—Tonic.    Deservedly the most popular of tonic medi

cines. Being a simple bitter it may be given in all cases of weakness of digestive organs, general debility, female weakness, hysteria, &c. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, i-l drachm. Compound infusion BP.: Dose, \-l ounce. Compound tincture B.P. and U.S.P.: Dose, T1 drachm. Solid extract B.P.: Dose, 2-8 grains.

GINSENG

(Panax quinquefolium, Linn).    Syn.—Aralia quinquefolia, Dente,

and PI. Part Used.—Root.

Action.—Tonic, stimulant.    Useful in loss of appetite, stomach

and digestive affections, arising from mental and nervous exhaustion. The Chinese ascribe wonderful medicinal virtues to it. Distinctive character.—Root, spindle-shaped, pale brownish yellow 2-3 inches long, and about £ inch in diameter, ringed above, divided into two or three equal branches which are wrinkled longitudinally. Fracture short, white, mealy with a thin bark containing numerous reddish resin cells; wood wedges narrow, yellowish, medullary, rays broad. Taste, sweetish and faintly aromatic. Odour, imperceptible.

GOLDEN SEAL

(Hydrastis Canadensis, Linn).    Syn.—Orange Root, Yellow Root

Part Used—Root.

Action.—Tonic, laxative, alterative, detergent. Since about 1847 Golden Seal has figured conspicuously m the botanic practice. Die name was given to this plant by Thomsonians, who employed the root. The demand for “concentrations” was the means of discovering the two alkaloids contained in this drug—Flydrastine, the white, and Berberine, the yellow—besides others of less value. For many years these and the powdered root were the chief forms administered. Latterly, however, the drug in the form of a fluid extract is the most used and popular. It is a very valuable remedy in disordered states of the digestive apparatus. As a general bitter tonic it is applicable to debilitated conditions of mucous tissues. As a remedy for various gastric disorders it

takes a leading place, acting very beneficially in acute inflammatory conditions. It will be found of value in all cases of dyspepsia, biliousness and debility of the system. It is especially indicated in catarrhal states of the mucous membranes, gastric irritability, and passive haemorrhages from the pelvic tissues. Tn the second stage of gonorrhoea it should be used as an addition to other injections. Externally it is used as a lotion in treatment of eye affections and as a general cleansing application. Preparations.—Powdered root: Dose, 10 grains or more. Fluid extract: Dose {-1 drachm. Hydrastine. Berberine. Tincture BP. and U.S.P.: Dose, i-1 drachm. Solid extract: Dose, f grains.

GROUND IVY

(Glechoma hederacea. Linn).    Syn—Gill-go-over-the-ground, Ale-

hoof, Haymaids, Nepeta glechoma, Benth. Part Used.—Herb.

Action.—Astringent, diuretic, tonic. Useful in kidney diseases and for indigestion. Also used as an antiscorbutic. Combined with Yarrow or Chamomile Flowers it makes an excellent poultice for abscesses, gatherings, and tumors. The infusion of 1 ounce in 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses. Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose i-1 drachm.

GUAIACUM

(Guaiacum officinale, Linn and Guaiacum sanctum, Linn).    Syn-—

Lignum Vitae, Lignum Sanctum. Parts Used— Wood and Resin

Action.—Diaphoretic. Alterative. Tt is considered a valuable remedy itr gout, chronic rheumatism, impurities of the blood, &c. It is generally used in conjunction with Sarsparilla and enters into most blood-purifying compounds. The dose of the infusion (of wood) of 1 ounce to 1 pint ol boiling water is a wineglassful. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, 1-1 drachm. Tincture B.P. and U.S.P.: Dose, d-1 drachm. Ammoniated tincture B.P. and U.S.P.: Dose. Cl draclun. Resin: Dose, 5-1S grains. Mixture B.P:: Dose, d-l ounce. Lozenges B.P.

HOPS.

(Humulus Lupulus, Linn.) Part Used.—Flowers (strobiles).

Action.— Jomc, anodyne, diuretic. Generally used in combination with other remedies in debility, indigestion, worms, nervous conditions, &c. A pillow filled with Hops is considered good for sleeplessness and nervous irritation. 'The infusion of 1 ounce in 1 pint of boiling water may be taken in wmeglassful doses as a pood general tonic and .sedative.    Preparations.—Fluid extract:

Dose, i-1 drachm. Tincture B.P.: Dose, i-2 drachms. Lupulin:

Dose. 5-10 grains. Infusion B.P.: Dose. \-2 ounces. Oleoresin U.S.P.: Dose, .3 grains. Solid extract, ale.: Dose, 5-10 grains.

HOREHOUND

(Marrubium vulgare, Linn).    Syn.—Horehound.    Part Used

Herb.

Action.—Bitter tonic, expectorant, diuretic. Is perhaps^ the most popular of herbal pectoral remedies. It is exceedingly valuable in colds, coughs and pulmonary affections. It has a. pleasant taste and makes a nice tonic.    In many parts it is

brewed and sold as Horehound Ale, making an appetising and healthful beverage. Also a candy is prepared, and if properly made, is no doubt efficacious. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses frequently. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, 4-1 drachm. Solid extract: Dose 5-15 grains, Syrup: Dose, 2-4 drachms.

HORSERADISH

(Cochlearia Armoratia, Linn.) Part Used.—Root.

Action.—Stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic. An excellent stimulant to the digestive organs, and useful in the treatment of dropsy. A good condiment is made by steeping the scraped root in vinegar. Dr. Coffin recommends for dropsy an infusion prepared by pouring 1 pont of boiling water on 1 ounce of Horseradish and 4 ounce of Mustard Seed (crushed). The dose is 2-3 tablespoonfuls three times a day.    Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, 4-1 drachm.

Comp. Sp. Horseradish B.P.: Dose, 1-2 drachms.

JUNIPER BERRIES

(Juniperus communis, Linn). Part Used.—Berries.

Action.—Diuretic, stimulant, carminative. As a rule these are given in counjunction with other remedies for kidney complaints. The oil extracted from the berries and wood is also' largely used. The infusion of 1 ounce of berries tq| 1 pint of boilijig rvater is taken in wuneglassful doses.    Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose,

4-1 drachm. Oil of berries B.P.: Dose, 1-5 drops. Spirit B.P., U.S.P.: Dose: 20-60 drops. Comp. Sp. U.S.P.: Dose, 2 drachms. Solid extract ale.: Dose, 5-15 grains.

LEMON

(Citrus Limonum, Pdsso).    Syn.—Limon, Citrus, Medica, Var.

B. Limonum, Hook. Parts Used.—Fruit, rind, juice. Action.—Tonic, refrigerant, antiscorbutic. The juice may be freely used as such, -or in syrup form as a refreshing drink in all febrile diseases. It is a popular remedy in coughs and colds. The

rind is mostly employed (or flavouring purposes both in the household and in medicine. The juice of a lemon served with hot water and sugar is a well-known French remedy for colds.

.    LINSEED

(Linum usitatissimum, Linn).    Syn.—Flaxseed.    Part Used.—

Seed.

Action.—Pectoral, demulcent, emollient. Is largely used as an addition to cough medicines, &c. The infusion of 1 ounce of seed to I pint of boiling water, and sweetened, may be taken in wineglassful doses. The crushed seeds make a valuable poultice in bronchitis, alone or with mustard. The addition of a little powdered Lobelia becd makes it of value in ulcers, boils, &c. The oil is used externally as an application for burns, scalds, &c.

LIQUORICE ROOT

(Gicyrrhiza glabra, Linn).    Syn.—Licorice.    Part Used.—Root.

Action.—Demulcent, pectoral, emollient. One of the most popular and well-known remedies for coughs, consumption, and chest complaint. Beach mentions the following recipe as being used by the late Dr. Malone, of London, and speaks most highly of its efficacy. “Take a large teaspoonful of Linseed, 1 ounce of Liquorice Root, and 1 lb. of best raisins. Put them into 2 quarts of soft water and simmer down to 1 quart. Then add to it I lb. of brown sugar candy and a tablespoonful of white wine vinegar or lemon juice. Drink 4 pint when going to bed and take a little whenever the cough is troublesome.”    N.B.—It is best to

add the vinegar to that quantity which is required for immediate use. Liquorice is one of the best covers for bitter vegetable medicines such as Cascara, &c.    Preparations—Powdered root:

Dose, 4-1 drachm. Compound lozenges U.S.P. Solid extract: l>osc,H drachm. Fluid extract: Dose, 1-4 drachms. Compound powder B.P.: Dose,_ 1-2 drachms. Solid extract in form of sticks is known as Liquorice Juice.

LOBELIA

(Lobelia inflata, Linn).    Syn.—Indian Tobacco, Pukcwccd. Parts

Used.—Flerb, seeds.

Action—Expectorant, emetic, diaphoretic, anti-asthmatic, stimulant. This plant is extensively employed, and is regarded as one of the most_ valuable remedies ever discovered. It is chiefly used as an emetic, and may be prescribed wherever one is indicated. In bronchial troubles and pulmonary complaints its action is speedily and wonderfully beneficial. All accumulation of mucus is instantly removed after a full dose of the infusion, and many lives have been saved by its timely use. In. croup, whooping

cough, and asthma it is specially valuable, and it may be regarded as certain to give reiiei in the distressing paroxysms which characterise the last-named disease; in fact it may be used whenever there is bronchial spasms. In cases of infantile cough and bronchitis, when the child seems likely to be suffocated by phlegm, a dose will remove obstruction. Dr. Thomson recommends Lobelia in nearly every complaint, and there is no doubt of its general applicability in some way to most diseases. In liver or stomach troubles an emetic of Lobelia will remove all immediate obstructions and pave the way for the use of other-remedial medicines. Mixed with powdered Slippery Elm it forms a stimulating poultice for inflammations, ulcers, swellings, &c. The infusion of 1 ounce of powdered herb in 1 pint, of boiling water may be taken in doses of i-1 wineglassful. Preparations. -—Powdered herb: Dose. 5-60 grains. Fluid extract: Dose: 10-20 drops. . Solid extract ale.: Dose 2-4 grains. Acid tincture: Dose. 1-4 drachms. Tincture U.S.P.: Dose 1-4 drachms. Ethereal tincture B.P.: :Dose, 5-15 drops. Syrup, Dose, 1-4 drachms Oil of seed: Dose 1 drop rubbed up well with 20 grains of sugar, and divided into 6-12 doses. Lobelin: Dose, 1-3 grains.

MARSHMALLOW

(Althaea officinalis, Linn).    Syn.—Mallards, Guimauve, Mauls,

Schloss Tea. Parts Used.—Leaves, Root.

Action.—Demulcent, emollient. This plant constitutes a popular remedy for coughs, bronchitis etc., generally in combination with other remedies. In painful complaints of the urinary organs gonorrhoea, cystitis, it exerts a relaxing effect upon the passages as well as acting as a curative. The powdered or crushed fresh roots make a good ©oultice, which may be relied upon to remove the most obstinate inflammation and prevent mortification. Its pow-ers in this direction are so great that it has been termed Mortification Root. The addition of Slippery Elm is an advantage, and it should 1 v applied to the part as hot as can be borne, renewing the poulti**1 when dry. An infusion of 1 ounce of leaves to 1 pint of boiling water is taken frequently in wineglassful doses.    Preparation.—Fluid extract, leaves: Dose, i-2

drachms.

'    MARIGOLD

(Calendula officinalis, Linn),    Syn.—Caltha officinalis, Marygold,

Garden Marigold, Calendula. Parts Used.—Flowers, herb.

Action.—Stimulant, diaphoretic. Chiefly used as a local remedy Given internally it assists the local action and prevents suppuration. Useful in chronic ulcers, varicose veins, &c. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water may be taken in doses of a

n

tablespoonful or wineglassful, and used as an application for external purposes.

MOUNTAIN FLAX.

(Linum catharticum, Linn).    Syn.—Purging Flax. Part. Used.

—Herb.

Action.—Laxative, cathartic. Is preferred to Senna, though the action is very similar. Used in cases of constipation, gravel, dropsy &c., generally combined with other herbs. Also recommended in muscular rheumatism and catarrhal affections. The infusion of 1 ounce in 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses.    Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose, Ul drachm.

i MULLEIN

(Verbascum thapsus, Linn.)    Syn.—Blanket Herb. Parts Used

Leaves, flowers, root.

Action.—Demulcent, astringent, pectoral. Both leaves and flowers are useful in cases of pulmonary diseases, coughs, consumption, bleeding of the lungs and bowels. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses frequently.    Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose, -J-l drachm.

MYRRH.

(Commiphora Myrrha, Holmes).    Syn.—Balsamodendron Myrrha

Nees; Commiphora Myrrha, var. Molmol, Engl. Part Used.—

Gum-resin.

Action.—Stimulant, tonic, healing. A valuable and deservedly popular medicine. The tincture is used in- inflammatory sore throat, ulcers, bad legs, thrush, and other complaints. Makes an excellent wash for ulcerated mouth, tongue, &c. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses.    Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, 5-30 drops. Tincture

B.P. and LhS.P.: Dose, U1 drachm.

NETTLE.

(Urtica dioica, Linn).    Syn.—Stinging Nettle. Parts Used.—

Flowers, leaves, seeds.

Action.—Diuretic, astringent, tonic. The herb makes a nice botanic beer, and is also used as a medicine in nettle rash. The seeds are used in consumption. The infusion of either herb or seed of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses.    Preparation.—Fluid extract, herb: Dose, i-1 drachm.

OATS

(Avena sativa, Linn).    Syn.—Groats.    Part used.—Seed.

Action.—Nerve tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic. Avena forms an important restorative in nervous prostration and exhaustion after all febrile diseases, and as a tonic in spermatorrhoea, insomnia, &c. It seems to exert a very beneficial action upon the heart muscles and on the urinary organs, speedily relieving spasmodic conditions of bladder and ureter. It is mostly used in the form of a fluid extract.    Preparation.—Fluid extract: Dose,

10-30 drops.

PARSLEY

(Carum petroselinum, Benth & Hook).    Syn.—Apium petrose-

linum, Linn., Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm. Parts Used.—Root,

seeds.

Action.—Aperient, diuretic, emmenagogue. Is chiefly used on account of its diuretic properties. In gravel, stone, congestion of kidneys, and in dropsy it will be found of great service. _ The seeds contain an oil which is considered a safe and efficient emmenagogue, and is used in amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea. Preparations.—Fluid extract, root: Dose, i-1 drachm. Fluid extract, seeds: Dose, U1 drachm, Apoil (oil): Dose, 5-15 drops in capsules.

PENNYROYAL

(Mentha pulegium, Linn). Syn.—European Pennyroyal. Part Used.—Herb.

Action.—Carminative, diaphoretic, stimulant, emmenagogue. It is principally used as a remedy in obstructed menstruation, for which it forms a reliable cure, especially where a sudden chill or cold is the cause. It may also be employed with advantage in cases of spasms, hysteria, flatulence and sickness, as it is very warming and grateful to the stomach. The infusion of 1 ounce of herb to 1 pint of boiling water it taken warm in teacupful doses, frequently repeated. The oil is an excellent preventative application against mosquito and gnat bites. Preparations.— Fluid extract: Dose, f-1 drachm. Essence: Dose, 5-20 drops.

Oil: Dose, 2-3 drops.

PEPPERMINT.

(Mentha piperita, Sm.)    Syn.—Brandy Mint. Part Used—Herb.

Action—Stimulant, stomachic, carminative. Used for allaying nausea, flatulence, sickness, vomiting, and as an infants’ cordial. Generally combined with other medicines when its stomachic water is taken in wineglassful doses. Menthol is obtained from Peppermint Oil by subjecting it to a very low temperature. Preparations.—Fluid extract.: Dose, ¿-1 drachm. Oil: :Dose, $13 drops. Spirit B.P.: Dose, 5-20 drops. Water B.P. and U.S.P.:: Dose, 4 drachms.

PERUVIAN BARK

(Cinchona succirubra, Pav.)    Syn.—Cinchona Bark, Red Bark,

effects are required. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling Part Used.—Bark.

Action.—Antiperiodic, febrifuge, tonic, astringent. Useful in all febrile and typhoid conditions, and in remittent and intermittent fevers. As a general tonic it is much asteemed, and finds extensive use in the treatment of neuralgia, dyspepsia, and debility. With some persons overdoses produce headache, giddiness, and imperfect hearing. Preparations.—Powdered bark: Dose 10-60 grains. Fluid extract B.P.: Dose 15-60 drops. Fluid extract (ale).: Dose, $-1 drachm. Tincture B.P.: Dose, $-1 drachm. Tincture comp. B.P.: Dose, $-1 dracham. (Alkaloids) Quinine: :Dose, 1-10 grains. Cinchonine. Dose, 1-10 grains. Cinchonidine: Dose, 1-10 grains: Acid infusion B.P.: Dose, $-1 ounce.

PLANTAIN

(Plantago major, Linn).    Syn.—Ripple Grass, Waybread. Part

Llsed.—Leaves.

Action.—Cooling, alterative, diuretic. The fresh leaves rubbed on parts of the body stung by insects, nettles, See., will afford relief and will stay bleeding of minor wounds. Useful in diarrhoea, piles, Sec. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses.

PLEURISY ROOT.

(Asclepids tuberosa, Linn), v Syn.—Butterfly Weed, Swallowwort Wind Root, Tuber Root. Part Used.—Root.

Action.—Antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, tonic. Is also mlidly cathartic and carminative. As its name implies, it is of great use in pleurisy, in which disease it mitigates the pain and relieves the difficulty of breathing. It is valuable in all chest complaints and possesses a specific action on the lungs, assisting expectoration, subduing inflammation, and exerting a general mild tonic effect on the system. Recommended ecpeci-ally in pulmonic catarrh. A very useful medicine may be made as follows: Essence of Composition Powder, 1 ounce; Fluid extract Pleurisy Root, 1 ounce; mix and take a teaspoonful three or four times daily in warm sweetened water.

POPLAR

(Populus tremuloides, Michx.) Syn.—Quaking Aspen, White Poplar. Part Used.—Bark.

Action.—Tonic, diuretic, stimulant. This remedy deservedly holds a high position as a universal tonic. It takes the place of Peruvian Bark and Quinine, and has none of the drawbacks which interfere with the contineud administration of the last-named drug. For all cases of debility, indigestion, faintness, hysteria, &c\, it may be freely given. It is also used in gonorrhoea, gle^t, and other urinary complaints. The powdered bark is generally given in combination with other remedies.

RHUBARB, EAST INDIAN, CHIINA, or TURKEY. (Rheum palmatum, Linn, R. officinale, Baill). Part Used—Root.

Action.—Astringent, tonic, stomachic, aperient. In small doses the powder will cure diarrhoea; in large dose sit acts as a simple, and safe purgative, and is justly esteemed one of the most valuable remedies we possess. The tincture is chiefly used, but the powder is perhaps as effective and reliable.    Preparations.—

Powdered root: Dose, 3-30 grains. Fluid extract: Dose 10-30 drops. Tincture U.S.P.: Dose, 1 drachm. Aromat tincture U.S.P.: Dose, 4 drachm. Syrup B.P.: Dose 4-2 drachms. Concentrated solution B.P.: Dose, 4-1 drachm. Comp, powder B.P., (Gregory's): Dose, 20-60 grains. Comp, pill B.P.: Dose, 4-8 grains. Solid extract U.S.P.: Dose, 4 grains. Solid extract B.P.: Dose, 2-8 grains. Infusion B.P.: Dose, 4-1 ounce. Syrup B.P. and U.S.P.: Dose, 4-2 drachms. Aromatic Syrup U.S.P.: Dose, 2 drachms. Rhein: Dose, 1-4 grains.

RHUBARB, ENGLISH

Action.—Stomachic, aperient. Similar in action to Turkey (Rheum rhaponticum, Willd), Part Used.—Root. Rhubarb, though milder. Is especially useful in infantile stomach troubles and looseness of bowels. In fairly large doses it acts as a laxative.

ROSEMARY.

(Rosmarinus officanlis, Linn). Part Used.—Herb.

Acti®n—Tonic, astringent, diaphoretic. Also an excellent stomachic and nervine. Cures many cases of headache. Used externally, an infusion combined with Borax makes a good hair wash and will prevent premature baldness.

SANDALWOOD.

(Santalum album, Linn).    Syn.—Santalwood.    Parts Used.—

Wood, oil.

Action,Diuretic, antiseptic. Is chiefly employed in treatment of

chrome mucous affections such as inflammation of bladder, gonorrhoea, and other urinary diseases. The fluid extract of the wood is often better tolerated than the oil. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, 1-2 drachms. Oil : Dose, 5-20 drops.

SARSAPARILLA, JAMAICA.

(Smilax ornato. Hook. f ).    Syn—.Smilax medica. Schlecht and

C'ham., Smilax officinalis, H. B. and K. Part Used.—Root.

Action.—-Alterative.    This is the root introduced by the Spa

niards in 156.) as a sure cure for syphilis. It has been thoroughly tested since then, and experinece has demonstrated the fact that it. is not an absolute specific. However, it contains active alterative principles, whicn cause it still to be held in high opinion as a general purifier of the blood. It is chiefly given in conjunction with other remedies, such as Sasafras, Burdock, &c. It forms the chief ingredient in the Concentrated Compound solution of Sarsaparilla of the B.P. Preparations.—Powdered root.: Dose HI drachm. Fluid extract B.P.: Dose, 2-4 drachms. Fluid extract U.S.P.: Dose, 4-1 drachm. Solid extract: Dose, 10-20 grains. Compound solution. Dose, 2-8 drachms. Comp, syrup U.S.P.: Dose, 4 di*achms. Smilacin: Dose, 2-5 grains.

i    _    SENNA.

(Cassia acutifolia, Del.) Syn—Alexandrian Senna, Cassia An-gustifolia, Vahl., East Indian Senna, Tinnevelly Senna. Parts Used.—Leaves, pods.

Action.—Laxative, cathartic. , Is' generally combined with aromatics and stimulants to modify its griping effects. The following may be regarded as a good formuH for making an infusion: oenna leaves 2 ounces. Ginger 1 drachm, boiling water 1 pint. Let it stand for one hour, strain through muslin and take in wineglassful doses. Alexandrian Senna Leaves and Pods are considered to have_ a milder and yet as certain an action as the East Indian variety to which they are generally preferred. SLIPPERY ELM.

(Ulmus fulva, Mich.)    Syn.—Red Elm, Moose Elm. Part

Used.—Bark.

Action.—Diuretic, emollient, demulcent, pectoral; one of the most valuable articles in the botanic practice, and should be in every household. The finely powdered bark makes an excellent gruel or food, and may be used as such in all cases of weakness, inflammation of the stomach, bronchitis, bleeding of the lungs, consumption &c. It has a wonderfully soothing and healing action on all the parts it comes in contact with, and in addition possesses as much nutrition as is contained in oatmeal.. The food or gruel should be made as follows: Take a teaspoonful of t-lie powder, mix well with the same quantity of powdered sugar and add 1 pint of boiling water slowly, mixing as it is poured on. This may be flavoured with cinnamon or nutmeg to suit the taste and makes a very wholesome and sustaining food for infants. The coarse powder forms the finest poultice to be obtained for all inflamed surfaces, ulcers, wounds, burns, boils, skin diseases, purulent opthalmia, chilblains, See. It soothes the parts, disperses the inflammation, draws out impurities', and heals speedily. We cannot speak too highly of this remedy, and are confident there is nothing to equal it in the world for its above-mentioned uses. Inflammation in the bowels of infants and adults has been cured, when all other remedies have failed, by an injection into the bowels of an infusion of 1 ounce of powdered bark to 1 pint of boiling water, used while warm.

SOUTHERNWOOD.

(Artemisia Abrotanum, Linn).    Syn.—Old Man, Lad’s Love.

Part Used.—Herb.

Action.—-Stimulant, emmenagogue, antiseptic, detergent. This well-known garden plant is used to promote the flow of the menses. For worms in children it is given in teaspoonful doses of the powder in treacle morning and evening. The infusion of 1 ounce of herb to 1 pint of boling water is taken in wineglassful doses.

SPEARMINT.

(Mentha viridis, Linn.)    Syn.—Mackerel Mint, Mentha spicata,

_    Linn, Part Used.—Herb.

Action.—Stimulant carminative, antispasmodic. This herb is added to many compounds on account of its carminative properties and its pleasant taste. lhe infusion of 1 ounce in 1 pint of boiling water is taken in doses of a wineglassful or less as may be required. For infantile troubles generally the sweetened infusion is an excellent remedy. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, -i-l diachm. Oil. Water B. P. and U.S.P.: Dose, 4 drachms. Spirit U.S.P.: Dose, 30 drops.

THYME.

(Ihymus vulgaris, Linn) . Syn.—Garden Thyme. Part Used. ......—Herb.

Action—Tonic, Antiseptic, antispasmodic. Generally used in combination with other remedies. The infusion of 1 ounce in 1 pint of boiling water is taken in doses of a wineglassful repeated frequently.

THYME, WILD.

(Thymus Serpyllum, Linn).    Syn.—Mother of Thyme, Serpyl-

lum. Tart Used.—Herb.

Action.—Antispasmodic, carminative, tonic. Favourable results have been obtained in convulsive coughs, whooping coughs, catarrh and sore throat from the use of this herb. The infusion should be given. It is prepared with 1 ounce of herb to 1 pint of boiling water, sweetened with sugar or honey and made demulcent by Linseed or Acacia. This is given in doses of 1 or more tablespoonfuls several times daily.

UVA-URSI.

(Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Spreng).    Syn.—Bearberry.    Part

Used.—Leaves.

Action.—Mucilaginous, astringent,, diuretic. Has a specific action on the_ urinary organs and is especially useful in cases! of gravel, ulceration of kidneys or bladder, catarrh, gleet, leucorrhoea and menorrhagia. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses three to four times a day. Preparations.—Fluid extract: Dose, M drachm. Infusion B.P.: Dose, 4-1 ounce. Distinctive character.—Leaves leathery, obo-vate or oblanceolate, rounded at the apex, dark green and shining above, and tessellated by sunken veinlets, paler beneath and reticulated with dark veinlets; margin entire and reflexed, about jnc'h Hng and d~g- inch broad. Taste, astringent. Odour faintly tea-like.

VALERIAN.

(Valeriana officinalis, Linn).    Syn.—Great Wild Valerian. Part

Used—Root.

Action. Anodyne, antispasmodic, nervine. May be given in all cases of nervous debility and irritation, also in hysterical affection. It allays pain and promotes sleep. Is strongly nervine without any narcotic effects, and enters into various herbal nervine and antispasmodic compounds. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses. Preparations — Fluid extract: Dose, T1 drachm. Solid extract: Dose, 5-10 grains. ^ Finctuie B.P. and U.S.P. 1885: Dose, 1-2 drachms. Ammomated tincture B.P. and U.S.P., 1898: Dose, ff-1 drachm.

YARROW.

(Achillea millefolium, Linn). Syn.—Milfoil, Thousand-leaf Nosebleed. Part Used.—Herb.

Action. Diaphoretic, stimulant, tonic. Most useful in colds, obstructed perspiration, and the commencement of fevers. It opens the pores freely and purifies the blood. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses, drunk warm

YELLOW DOCK.

(Rumex crispus, Linn.)    Syn.—Curled Dock. Part Used.—Root.

Action.—Laxative, alterative, tonic. Can be freely used in rheumatism, skin diseases, bilious complaints, piles, bleeding of the lungs, &c. A syrup may be made by boiling i pound of crushed root in 1 pint of syrup, and taken in teaspoonful doses. The dose of the infusion of 1 ounce of powdered root in 1 pint of boiling water is a wineglassful.

DOSES AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS.

i drop is equal to 1/60 of a fluid drachm.

1 grain is equal to 1/60 of a solid drachm.

1 drachm is equal to s of an ounce.

1 tablespoonful is equal to 4 of an ounce.

1 wineglassful is equal to H-2 ounces or 3-4 tablespoonfuls.

1 teacupful is equal to 3-4 ounces or 6-8 tablespoonfuls.

1 pint is equal to s of a gallon or 20 fluid ounces.

1 quart is equal to 4 of a gallon or 2 pints.

1 gallon is equal to 4 quarts or 8 pints.

CHAPTER 6.

Jam Making.

JAM MAKING.

More than ever is it necessary to attend to that branch of housekeeping, for with the probable still further increase in the weekly bills a well-stored cupboard of jams and jellies will be a great asset.

HOW TO PROCEED.

How to proceed.—On no account boil jam in an iron or tin pan. The jam should be stirred with a wooden spoon. Skimming may be avoided by putting im the pan about half an ounce of butter just before the boiling is finished; the jam will then clear itself. This is an economy also, as it saves a certain amount of waste.

SWEETENING.

Sweetening.—The usual proportion of sugar used in jam making is three-quarters of a pound to a pound of fruit, but if very sweet jam is preferred or if the fruit is of a sour nature, one pound of sugar should be allowed. Some cooks use a little glycerine, and think it an improvement, substituting a tablespoonful for .3 oz of sugar.

BOTTLING THE JAM.

Bottling the Jam.—Care must be taken that the jars are perfectly dry, and glass ones will be found the best. Those with patent tops ensure the jam keeping well, but if those are not available ordinary clean jars will do. Should any hot jam be spilt on the sides when filling them it should immediately be wiped off with a cloth wrung out in hot water. A folded cloth wrung out in hot water is useful, too, on which to stand the jars while filling them; it prevents them from cracking.

TO COVER.

To Cover.— [here is a difference of opinion as to whether jam should be tied down hot or cold. In either case, the jam itself should first be covered with a round of tissue paper dipped in salad oil, then the jar should be covered with another and larger round of paper that has been dipped in hot milk or lightly brushed over with flour and water paste. The pots should be stored in a dry, cool place, and labelled neatly.

.    APRICOT JAM.

Apricot Jam—Halve and stone the fruit, and place in a dish with half the sugar sprinkled over, allowing a pound of sugar

So a pound of fruit; stand over night, and in the morning pour the syrup into the preserving pan; add the rest of the sugar and stir till dissolved. Put the apricots, and the kernels of about half the fruit; boil gently till done; test in the usual way. Peach jam is made in the same way.

APPLE JELLY.

Apple Jelly.—Slightly unripe, juicy fruit will yield, the clearest jelly. Wipe the fruit, and cut it up, but do not pare it. Put it in the preserving pan, and barely cover with water; simmer till perfectly _ soft, then strain through a bag. Coarse flannel is best for this purpose. Plenty of time must be allowed for the straining; never press it, as that will cloud the jelly. It should be allowed to strain all night. Measure the juice, and allow 1 lb of sugar to a pint. Boil the juice first for 10 minutes, then add the sugar and a little citric acid, about a teaspoonful to 121b of fruit. When the sugar has all dissolved, strain again, return to the pan, and boil till it jellies.

FIG JAM.

l'ig Jam.— 3 lbs. figs, 1 lb apples, 1 qt. water, 4 lbs sugar, Rind and juice of a lemon, 1 oz. whole ginger.    Method.—Wash figs,

cut into four, and put into saucepan with the apples cut into small dice, the water, ginger, grated lemon rind, and juice. Boil till nearly cooked, add the sugar, and boil about half an hour longer

BLACKBERRY, MULBERRY, STRAWBERRY, OR RASPBERRY JAM.

6 lbs. berries, 6 lbs sugar.    Method.—Sprinkle half the sugar

over the fruit and let it stand all night. Next day, boil briskly 1 hour, add remainder of_ sugar and boil till syrup will jelly. About half hour. The juice of a lemon may be added.

MARMALADE

Cut up oranges into quarters. Remove pips, slice thinly, and weigh, lo every lb. of fruit add 2 pints of water. Stand aside 24 hours.

Second Day Put all on fire and boil 10 minutes. Remove from fire, and stand aside another 24 hours.

rhird Day. Weigh.    Io every ib of pulp add 14 lb of sugar

Do not add sugar till fruit has come to the boil, then add gradually; also the juice and rind of 6 lemons.

Boil i hour, stirring and skimming constantly .

QUINCE JELLY.

6 lbs. quinces, 6 pts. water, 6 lbs. sugar.    Method.—Boil all

together (without peeling or cutting) for 4 hours. Remove quinces and serve as dessert. Pour syrup into jars and leave till set.

PEACH AND PINEAPPLE CONSERVE.

3 lbs. peaches (large yellow ones best), 1 pineapple (grated). 3 lbs. sugar.    Method.—Dip peache s in boiling water for 30

seconds to remove skin, then cut into pieces and remove stones. Put into preserving pan, sprinkle sugar over, and bring quickly to the boil, as the fruit discolours after peeling, when exposed to the air. When boiling add grated pineapple, and boil rapidly about 30 minutes, or till syrup will jelly.

The Apple.

APPLE TAPIOCA CUSTARD.

Heax one pint of milk in a double boiler, add two teaspoons-which needs no soaking, and cook fifteen minutes. Add two well-beaten eggs, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and one-fourth teapoy otp jo to ‘poq^os ^¡snoiAajd tioaq suij ipiqM moidfi} jo jnj spoonful of salt. Cook until thick, stirring constantly. _

Flavour with one-half teaspoonful vanilla extract, and chill on ice. Place cold baked apples, as prepared in the above recipe, in a serving-dish, pour over them the tapioca Custard, and heap sweetened and flavoured whipped cream on top.

APPLE SALAD.

Arrange the leaves of a bunch of watercress in a serving-dish. Peel the apples and cut into thin slices. Mix lightly with whipped-cream mayonnaise, and heap upon the watercress. Sprinkle with chopped nuts, and serve.

COMBINATION APPLE SALAD.

To two cupsful of peeled, diced apples add two peeled sliced bananas and a half cupful of chopped dates. Sprinkle over them one tablespoonful of lemon-juice and a dash of sugar. Mix well with whipped-cream and serve. To make whipped-cream mayonnaise, add one-third cupful of whipped cream to two-thirds cupful mayonnaise dressing.

APPLE AND GRAPE JELLY.

Do not peel the apples if the skin is nice, but wash them before using. Core and slice the apples. Stem the grapes, and wash. Take equal parts of apples and grapes, and half as much water as there is fruit.

Cook until the fruit is soft; strain in a jelly-bag, and measure the juice. To each cupful of juice allow a scant cupful of sugar. Cook the juice uncovered for twenty minutes and then add the sugar, which has been heated in the oven. Cook a few minutes longer, until it jellies.

APPLE LAYER CAKE.

Bake a three-layer cake, and spread apple jelly as given in a previous recipe, then sweetened and flavoured whipped cream between each layer. Ice the top layer with vanilla icing or merely sprinkle with powdered sugar.

APPLE TARTS.

Line tart-pans with puff-paste. Fill with layers of thinly sliced apples, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, and dot with bits of butter. Cover the tops with strips of paste forming cross-bars, and bake in a moderate oven until browned. For variety, the tarts may be baked without crossbars, and a meringue may be heaped on top and browned lightly in the oven.

APPLE TRTFLE.

To each cupful of thick apple-sauce add one cupful of boiled custard. Place a slice of cake in each individual dessert-dish, and pour over some of the sauce on each piece. Top each portion with sweetened and flavoured whipped cream.

\PPLES AND CHEESE.

Core and peel Hie apples. Cut into dice; to each cupful of apples add half a cupful of chopped figs and one peeled orange cut into small pieces.    Heap the fruit in the centre of a dish,

and arrange a border of cottage cheese around the fruit. Cover the whole with thick, sour cream, sprinkle thickly with chopped walnuts, and garnish with preserved cherries.

APPLE JAM.

To every pound of apples add the grated rind and juice of

one small lemon and three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar; put all into a preserving pan, and let it boil for an hour after it has simmered well all over; then take it up, pour into pots, let it stand until quite cold. It is then ready to tie down.

CLEAR APPLE JELLY.

Wipe and slice Up    the    apples; cover with cold water,    and boil

for two hours; drain    off the liquid    and let it stand till    the next

day; allow one pound of sugar to every quart of liquor, and the juice of one lemon; put into a preserving pan and boil til! it will jelly.

APPLE AND RICE PUDDING.

I cupful rice, 2 eggs, sugar to taste, 8 apples, 4 oz. butter. Boil the rice well and stew the apples; rub the apples through a sieve, sweeten and flavour,    and    mix with    the* rice; beat in the    yolks of

the eggs and the butter;    pour into    a pie-dish and bake    till firm;

heat the whites of the eggs to a very stiff froth and spread on the top; sprinkle with sugar and put back in the oven for a few minutes. Serve cold.

STEWED APPLES.

6 apples, 4 pt. water, 4 oz. loaf sugar. Few strips of lemon rind, Carmine, Cloves and currants.    Method.—Put water, sugar and

lemon rind on to boil in a flat stewpan. When it boils, add the apples (whole), peeled and cored, and simmer gently till tender. (If the syrup boils, they willbreak). When done, lift .out carefully on to a glass dish, stick cloves and currants round the top;

colour the syrup with a little carmine, and pour over. Serve either hot or cold with custard or cream.

BAKED APPLES.

6 apples, 2 eggs, Red Jelly, 2 oz. castor sugar. Method.— Wipe apples well, and core them, but do not peel. Put into a baking tin with 4 tablespoons of cold water, and fill up the centres with a little sugar butter, and a clove. Bake in a moderate oven till tender; then lift out on to a glass dish.

.    BAKED APPLE DUMPLINGS.

6 apples, 6 cloves, a little sugar and butter, i lb short crust. Method.—Make short crust, divide into 6 equal parts and knead each as round as possible. Peel and core the apples; hollow the paste slightly, put an apple in each, and work paste very gently round till the apple is almost covered.

Before the paste quite covers the apple, drop a clove and a little butter and sugar in each. Close the paste over, turn them upside down, put on a greased oven tray, brush over with white of egg and sugar, or water and sugar, and put in a hot oven from •I—f hour.

CHAPTER 8.

Curry.

CURRIED EGGS.

Curried Eggs.—Put 2 tablespoons of butter into a stewpan with a sliced carrot. 2 onions, a bay leaf, a sprig of thyme and parsley.

Fry together for a few minutes, stirring well. Then add 2 or 3 large spoonfuls of curry powder. Fry together, stirring constantly Add a pint of good stock. Simmer for about £ of an hour till the scum is well thrown up; then add 2 or 3 tablespoons of brown sauce. Simmer it gently till clear of scum; rub through, a hair sieve and heat, and add to the sauce hardboiled eggs cut in halves or in quarters, and serve them with boiled rice separately.

^    VEGETABLE CURRY.

Vegetable Curry.—Prepare the sauce as in the preceding recipe f@r curried eggs, and add to it cooked vegetables of any sort, neatly cut. Raw vegetables may be cut int© very fine dice, fried in butter with a thinly shred onion, over which 2 tablespoons of Madras curry powder should be sprinkled. Cook for about 10 minutes, add a little salt and about IV cups of milk. Simmer over a slow fire, and when the vegetables are tender add a tablespoon of lemon juice or a little vinegar. Serve with rice separately. Cocoanut may be added to the curry if liked.

CURRIED RABBIT.

Curried Rabbit.—Cut a rabbit into neat joints, fry till brown in 2 tablespoons of butter, remove from the pan, and fry 1 sliced onion, add 1 tablespoon of curry powder, 3 tablespoons of chopped cocoanut, 1 teaspoon of    sugar, 1 teaspoon    salt,    V cup    of    milk V

cup of stock or gravy,    boil up, and' add    the    pieces    of    rabbit.

Simmer gently for 1 hour, add 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, and serve with a dish of plain boiled rice.

CURRY SAUCE.

Curry Sauce.—Slightly brown the following vegetables in butter —12 oz. minced onions,    1 oz. parsley roots, 4 oz. minced    celery,

a small sprig of thyme,    a bay leaf, and a    little    mace. Sprinke

with 2 oz. flour and a teaspoon of curry powder. Cook the flout for some minutes without letting it acquire any colour and dilut with IV pints of white stock.    Boil, cook gently for 45 minuter

and rub through a sieve. Now heat the sauce, remove its grease and keep it hot. S’erve with fish, shell fish, poultry, and various egg preparations.

BOILED RICE FOR CURRIES.

Boiled Rice for Curries.—Rice for curries should be carefully cooked so that each grain may be distinct and dry. Either of the following recipes may be successfully practised, using Patna rice, and allowing,3 or 4 quarts at least of boiling water to a pound of rice. Wash the rice thoroughly several times in cold water. Then throw it into rapidly boiling water, and stir with a fork till it boils up. Keep it boiling fast for 13 or 14 minutes then try it, and if tender drain it at once on a sieve, and pour over it a little hot water. Shake it well and cover lightly with cloth or paper, and put it in the screen, or in a very cool oven to dry for about 2 hours. If over-cooked, the starch is dissolved in the water, and the grains of rice cannot be detached when drained. Shake it occasionally while drying. The rice may be washed three or four times, put into a saucepan, and blanched in enough cold water to cover it, drained, and thrown into boiling water cooked, and dried as above.

^    CURRIED SAUSAGES.

Curried Sausages.—Fry 1 lb sausages, skin them, and then pour a little water into a saucepan. Add 1 teaspoon of curry powder thickened with flour. Simmer gently for 10 minutes. Serve with dry boiled rice.

CURRIED LAMB CHOPS.

Curried Lamb Chops.—14 lbs. neck chops, 1 apple, 1 onion, 1 dessertspoon curry powder, 1 dessertspoon flour, 1 dessertspoon chutney, 1 teaspoon curants and sultanas (mixed), 1 desertspoon of sugar, 1 teaspoon of lemon juice, 1 oz. clar. fat, 4 teaspoon of salt, i teaspoon of pepper, f pt. of stock or water. Method.— Skin and trim the chops; mince apple and onion finely; mix curry powder, sugar, flour, pepper and salt together. Melt the fat; make it quite hot, and fry the chops till a light brown on both sides. Lift out and fry the apple and onion till brown. Add curry powder, flour, etc., and stir out the lumps; then add the stock or water, and stir till boiling. Return chops to the saucepan; add lemon juice, currants, etc., and simmer gently 14 hours.

CURRIED TRIPE.

Curried Tripe.—1 lb. tripe, 1 small apple, 1 small onion, 1 dessertspoon curry powder, 1 dessertspoon flour, 4 teaspoon salt, 4 pt. stock or w'ater, 4 teaspoon pepper, 1 small tomato, 1 teaspoon lemon juice, 1 dessertspoon clar. fat or butter, 3 oz. boiled rice. Method.—Remove fat from tripe, wash in 'warm water, and cut into 2-inch squares. Peel apple and onion, and mince finely: mix curry powder, flour, pepper, and salt together. Melt fat in small saucepan, make it very hot, and fry the apple and onion till a light brown; add the tomato, cut very small, and fry 3 minutes longer; then add flour, etc., and stir out the lumps. Adc stock, and stir till boiling. Put the tripe in, and simmer gently 1 hour or till tender. Add 1 teaspoon of lemon juice before serving.

CURRIED TOMATOES.

Curried Tomatoes.—1 doz. tomatoes, 1 apple, 1 onion, 1 dessertspoon curry powder, Cayenne (enough to cover 3d.), 1 oz. butter, 1 oz. flour, 1 gill milk, 1 teaspoon of sugar, \ teaspoon of salt. Method.—Skin the tomatoes. (Pour some boiling water over them for 2 or 3 minutes, and the skins will come off readily.) Cut into rather thick slices cross-wise. Peel apple and onion, and cut into dice; melt the butter; add apple and onion, and fry till a light brown; then add flour, curry-powrder, sugar, salt, and cayenne. Stir well over the fire till quite smooth, then add milk. Stir till boiling; put in the tomatoes, and cook gently till tender.

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CHAPTER 9.

Peas, Beans, Lentils.

LENTIL SOUP.

Lentil Soup.—Cook a pint of red lentils in a small quantity of water with salt to taste. When about half done, add a small piece of onion for flavouring. Rub through a colander when done, and add a little thick cream or milk. Serve hot.

HARICOT BEAN SOUP.

Haricot Bean soup.—To make two quarts of soup, soak a pint of haricots overnight. Cover with sufficient cold water in the morning. Boil slowly for two hours. When done, they can be passed through a colander or sieve, or served with or without the addition of a small amount of salt.

PEA SOUP.

Pea Soup.—'bake 1 pint of dried peas, some stock from boiled meat. 1 oz. butter, and an onion, a carrot, and a turnip. The peas may be whole or split; they should be soaked all night and be well looked over. If there is plenty of stock, and it is not salt, the peas may be boiled in it; or the peas may be boiled in water till tender— they generally require two hours’ boiling. Put in the other vegetables during the second hour. Rub all through a sieve, return to the pot, stir to keep smooth, and thin with stock or milk. Add a teaspoon of sugar, a good piece of butter or dripping, and serve with powdered mint and fried bread.

VECtETABLE PEA SOUP.

Vegetable Pea Soup.—Cook 14 pints of sliced potatoes and 1 pint of split peas until dissolved. When nearly done add a medium-sized onion, sliced thin, and a piece of parsley. When tender, rub all through a colander. Add water to make the proper consistency. Salt to taste, re-heat, and serve.

CURRIED BEANS.

Curried Beans.—Take 1$ cups haricot beans, 1 small carrot, 1 onion, half cup water or stock, some boiled rice, 1 apple, 1 tablespoon oil or butter, -4 teaspoons flour, and half teaspoon curry powder Cook the beans slowly till tender, kry the cut-up vegetables in the butter for five minutes; add the flour and curry (mixed) very gradually, and then the water or some of the liquor in which the beans were boiled. Boil up. Thicken and add the beans. Serve with a border of rice round. The beans should be soaked overnight before cooking.

HARICOT BEANS A LA MILANA1SE.

Ilaiicot Beans A La Milanaise.—Cook the beans as usual, and serve, with a covering of sauce a la Milanaise, which should be

made in the following manner:—Blanch four onions, dry, and cut them up, place them in a saucepan with a pinch of sugar, and ounce of butter, and a small spoon of salt. Boil a tablespoon of rice, and when cooked add it to the onions. Moisten with half a pmt of milk or water, and coo’: slowly, stirring occasionally. When the onions are soft add one tablespoon of finely grated cheese. Mix well, and pass through a sieve. Add half a pint of white sauce, mix thoroughly, and pour over the beans.

BEAN CROQUETTES.

Bean Croquettes.—'Lake boiled beans, breadcrumbs, salt, pepper, onion, egg or flour and milk, and oil to fry. Take some boiled haricot beans, mash them, add breadcrumbs enough to make them stiff enough to mould, a little chopped onion, pepper, and salt. Shape them into balls or flat cakes, egg and breadcrumb them, and fry in hot oil. Serve with some sauce or brown gravy poured round, and garnish with fried parsley.

BROWNED BAKED BEANS.

Browned Baked Beans.—Take a pint of small haricots, three pints water, one tablespoon nut butter, one cup browned breadcrumbs, and sa.lt to taste. Brown the beans in the oven until a light brown. Put to cook in warm water and cook slowly for two or three hours. Turn into a baking dish, and add nut butter and breadcrumbs. Bake in the oven until brown on the top.

LENTIL CUTLETS.

Lentil Cutlets.—Take one pint of brown or red lentils, wash, and cook until well done. Salt and pass through a colander. Mix sufficient breadcrumbs with this to make it quite stiff. Add a little cream and two well-beaten eggs. Shape into cutlet forms, placing a piece of uncooked macaroni in each cutlet, and moulding the lentil mixture around it well, so that about three inches of macaroni sticks out of the cutlet. Place cutlets in the oven, and brown. Serve hot with brown sauce.

HARICOT BEANS.

Haricot Beans.—1 lb. beans, 1 oz. fat bacon, 1 oz. butter, pepper and salt. Method.—Soak the beans over night; drain, and put on in plenty of cold water. Add the bacon, and bring slowly to the boil. Simmer till tender; pour away the water, and shake over the fire with the butter, pepper, and salt.

FRENCH BEANS.

French Beans.—Put saucepan of water three-parts full on fire to boil. Prepare beans by cutting a thin strip off each side to remove the skin, then cut into thin slices and drop into a basin of cold water. When water in saucepan is boiling, add 1 teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of Carbonate of Soda, and put in beans. Boil quickly with lid off saucepan till beans are tender; if young they will be done in 20 minutes. Strain through a colander, return to saucepan, add 1 teaspoonful of butter, and a little pepper and salt, and shake over fire till quite hot and butter is melted.

BROAD BEANS.

Broad Beans.—Put saucepan of water three-parts full on fire to boil. Shell beans, and when water is boiling add a slice of fat bacon if you have it, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of Carbonate of Soda. If you have no bacon add 1 teaspoonful of salt, put beans in, and boil quickly with lid off saucepan till tender. Strain through colander, return to saucepan, add 1 teaspoonful of butter and a little pepper and salt. Make some white sauce, put beans in hot vegetable dish, and pour sauce over before sending to table.

PEAS.

Peas.—Put saucepan of water three-parts full on to get hot. Shell peas, and when water is very hot, put in peas, with a sprig of mint, a teaspoonful of sugar, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of Carbonate of Soda. Bring to a boil, and boil gently with lid off saucepan till tender. Strain through a colander, put back in saucepan over the fire, with a teaspoonful of butter and a little pepper and salt, and shake well.

CHAPTER 10.

Tomatoes.

Of all vegetables tomatoes are perhaps the most useful, as they lend themselves to endless preparations, both in their cooked and uncooked state, and can always be put on the table in a fresh and appetising guise. For preserves, sauces, and chutneys, too, they are unsurpassed.    •

STUFFED) TOMATOES.

Stuffed Tomatoes.—Take half-a-dozen tomatoes, minced meat, gravy, and chopped parsley. Remove part of the centres from the tomatoes, and fill these up with some minced beef nicely seasoned with salt and pepper, and moistened with gravy._ Plec these in some little round dishes, or put them all in a piedish, and bake until the tomato is ready, about IS minutes. Sprinkle with chopped parsley, and serve.

FISH AND TOMATO PIE.

Fish and Tomato Pie.—Butter a piedish well, and coat it with white breadcrumbs. Have ready some fileted fish, two or three

tomatoes, three tablespoonfuls of white breadcrumbs, squeeze of lemon juice. 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper. Skin the fish, and take away all the bones; cut it into neat pieces; skin the tomatoes, cut them into slices. Into the piedish put first a layer of fish, then tomatoes, a squees of lemon juice, pepper and salt; then more fish, and so on, until the dish is filled. Cover with a good layer of breadcrumbs and a few pieces of butter. Bake in a moderate oven for half an hour.

TOMATO RISSOLES.    -

Tomato Rissoles.—Take 1 lb. of mutton, 2 lb. of ripe tomatoes, some pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Mince the meat, and skin and mash the tomatoes. Mix both together with the seasoning, add a beaten egg to bind the mixture together, form into rolls, brush with a little egg, roll in flour, then in breadcrumbs, and fry a light brown color.

TOMATO SAVORY.

Tomato Savory.—Two tomatoes, two slices toast, two eggs, half an ounce butter, pepper and salt. Skin the tomatoes and slice them up, put into a saucepan with the butter and^ seasoning, and when quite hot, pour in the eggs (well beaten). Stir until thick; cqt tire toast into squares, spread with mixture, apd serve hoc

TOMATO SCALLOPS.

Tomato Scallops.—Take equal parts of stewed tomato and boiled and chopped onion. Butter your baking dish, and put in well-seasoned layers of the vegetable alternately with layers of breadcrumbs. The latter are improved if dotted with butter or a little ham or bacon fat. Steam until sufficiently done.

TOMATOES FARCEE.

Tomatoes Farcee.—1 doz. ripe tomatoes, 1 oz. butter, i oz. flour, 1 gill of stock or milk, few drops of lemon juice, 1 dessertspoon finely chopped parsley, 1 dessertspoon cooked ham (minced), 1 dessertspoon Parmesan cheese, 2 large cooked mushrooms, some brown and white breadcrumbs. Method.—Melt the butter; add Hour, and stir out the lumps. Add stock or milk, and stir over the fire till it boils and thickens; add 2 tablespoons of white breadcrumbs, the parsley, cheese, ham, and mushrooms minced and mixed well together. Season with a few drops of lemon juice, salt, and cayenne. Wash and dry the tomatoes; cut a hole in the top of each one, and scoop out the inside carefully, leaving a good layer of tomato a,t the bottom. Mix the tomato you have scooped out with the other ingredients, and then fill each tomato with the mixture. Stand in a buttered dish; sprinkle a few brown breadcrumbs over the top, and bake in a hot oven 15-20 minute's.

TOMATO CHUTNEY.

Tomato Chutney.—4A lbs. brown sugar, £ lb. salt, 2h lbs. onions, 9 lbs. apples, 18 lbs. tomatoes, 2£ lbs. sultanas, 1 oz. cayenne, 1 oz. cloves, 1 oz. allspice, 2£ qts. vinegar, a bead of garlic, a little grated horse-radish. Method.—Boil tomatoes till soft, then press through a colander, and add salt, sugar, onions, and apples (cored, pared, and chopped very finely), and the other ingredients. Simmer gently 8 hours. Allow to cool, then bottle, and cork tightly.

TOMATO PICKLE.

Tomato Pickle.—12 lbs. green tomatoes, 8 lbs. onions, 4 qts. vinegar, 2 lbs. treacle, 1 lb. mustard, 4 tablespoons cloves, 4 tablespoons whole pepper, 4 tablespoons whole spice, 2 oz. chillies. Method.—Slice onions and tomatoes, sprinkle salt over each layer, and let them stand all night, then drain off the liquid. Tie cloves, peppercorns, and allspice in a muslin bag; boil with the vinegar* treacle, mustard, and chillies 10 minutes. Add tomatoes and onions, and boil 10 minutes longer. Bottle and keep in airtight jars.

CHAPTER 11.

Cakes, Etc.

WEDDING OR XMAS CAKE.

Wedding or Xmas Cake.—11 lb.s flour, 1 Ib'Tbutter, 1 lb. sugar, 1 lb. sultanas, 1 lb, raisins, 1 lb. currants, § lb. mixed candied peel, 4 lb. almonds, 4 lb. preserved ginger, 4 lb. figs, 1 lb. crystallsed cherries, 8 or 9 eggs, 1 gill brandy or whisky, 4 lb. grated nutmeg, 1 teaspoon mixed spice, 1 teaspoon pdr. cinnamon, 1 heaped teaspoon baking powder, 4 teaspoon salt.    Method.—Sift flour, bak

ing powder and salt, and add the spices. Clean currants and sultanas, blanch and chop almonds, cut citron peel very thinly and chop up ginger, figs and cherries. Beat eggs well. Cream butter and sugar, add eggs gradually and beat well, then add flour and fruit alternately, mixing all thoroughly. Colour with a little caramel, if necessary, and add spirits last. Put into a well-lined cake tin in a hot oven.

POUND CAKE.

Pound Cake.—10 oz. flour, 1 teaspoon baking powder, 8oz. castor sugar, 8 oz. butter, 4 eggs, 2 oz. dates, 2 ozs figs, 2 oz. sultanas, grated rind of a lemon. Method.—Sift flour and baking powder; £fone and chop dates, figs and sultanas; beat eggs, cream butter, sugar, and grated lemon rind together, add eggs gradually, then add flour and fruit1 gradually. Mix well, but lightly, and bake 24 hours in a moderate oven.

MADEIRA CAKE.

Madeira Cake.—10 oz. flour, 8 oz. butter, 8 oz. sugar, 4 eggs, 1 - teaspoon baking powder, \ teaspoon essence lemon, 2 oz. candied peel.    Method.—Sift flour and baking powder, and beat eggs;

cream butter and sugar, add eggs, and beat well; then add essence lastly flour, and candied peel, cut in very thin slices. Mix lightly. Bake in a moderate oven 14-2 hours.

GOOD PLAIN CAKE.

Good Plain Cake.—4 lb. butter, 4 lb. soft white sugar, 1 lb flour, 1 teaspoon c. of tartar, 4 teaspoon c. of soda, 4 lb. currants 4 lb. candied peel, 4 eggs, 1 gill milk, 4 teaspoon essence lemon. Method.—Sift flour, soda, and cream of tartar together, beat eggs, cream butter, and sugar,; add eggs gradually, and beat well, then add milk, essence, flour, and fruit. Mix well, but lightly, put in a well-lined cake tin, and bake in a moderate oven.

CHOCOLATE SPONGE.

Chocolate Sponge.—Take 1 oz. cornflour, and 3 oz. of grated chocolate, and mix smoothly with cold milk to a thin paste. Put the remainder of a pint of milk on to boil, pour it on to the mix-

ture, stirring thoroughly. Dissolve rather less than § oz. cf gelatine in some* milk, and then add to it the other ingredients. Stir while all cooks for seven minutes. Add the beaten yoke of one egg and sugar to taste, and a few drops of essence. Tour

CHOCOLATE SPONGE ROLL.

Chocolate Sponge Roll.—Take 1 cup of flour, 2 tablespoons, grated chocolate (or cocoa will do), and 1 teaspoon cream of tartar. Sift these all together on to a plate, and stand on stove to warm while you beat 3 eggs and 1 cup of sugar for five minutes. M ix flour and eggs together. Have ready half a cup of boiling milk. Put half a teaspoon of baking soda in a cup and pour boiling milk on it, holding cup over bowl of mixture so as not to waste any. Mix well together, and pour into well-greased tin, and bake in moderate oven about 15 minutes. Turn it on to a teacloth and roll at once. Leave a few minutes, then unroll and spread with jam or filling and roll. This is a very good sponge roll.

RUSSIAN SANDWICH.

Russian Sandwich.— 3 lb. butter, i lb sugar, 3 eggs, I gill milk, $ lb flour, 1 teaspoonful baking powder, a few drops cochineal, 1 heaped tablcspoonful cocoa. Vanilla essence, jam, icing sugar Attend to oven, grease sandwich tins well with butter. Beat butter and sugar together until white. Add well-beaten e^gs and milk and essence, add sifted flour and baking powder, mixing quickly and lightly, but do not beat. Divide mixture into three equal parts; pour cream colored mixture into sandwich tin. Colour one part pink with cochineal add cocoa to the other part. Pour coloured parts into different tins, smooth over with a knif. Cook in a moderate oven about twenty or thirty minutes. Turn on a sieve to cool. Join together with j»am; sprinkle with icing sugar. This is also known by the name of rainbow cake.

Brown Sandwich.—To make brown sandwich, take 2 eggs, 2 oz of_ sifted sugar, 2 oz. of butter, vanilla flavouring, \ lb of selfraising flour, and some chocolate or cocoa. Heat the milk and dissolve a little chocolate or cocoa in it. Cream the butter and sugar; add the milk, then the eggs, well beaten, add the flour; bake in a moderate oven.

RASPBERRY BUNS.

Raspberry Buns.—6 oz. flour, i teaspoon baking powder, 1 egg, 2 oz. butter or clar. fat. 2 oz. sugar, 1 gill milk.    Method.—Sift

flour and baking powder. Beat egg and add milk to it. Rub fat lightly into flour with tips of fingers. Make hole in centre, pour in eggs and milk, keeping a little back for glazing. Make

into a light dough, turn on to slightly floured board, divide into 12 or 16 equal parts, and knead each lightly round.    Hollow out

centre slightly, put on i teaspoon raspberry jam and close edges together again.

TEA CAKE.

Tea Cake.—\ lb. flour, 1 teaspoon cream of tartar, i teaspoon carb. of soda. 3 oz. sugar, 2 oz butter. 2 oz. currants, 1 egg, li gills milk.    Method.—Sift flour, soda, and cream of tartar. Clean

currants, beat egg, and add milk. Add currants and sugar to the flour, make hole in centre, pour in egg, and milk, and beat well; then add butter (melted.) Pour into a greased sandwich tin and bake 15 to 20 minutes in hot oven.

PASSION FRUIT CREAM SANDWICH.

Passion Fruit Cream Sandwich.—6 oz. butter, 8 oz. flour, 1 teaspoon cream of tartar, ^ teaspoon carb of soda, 3 eggs, 1 gill cream, 1 doz passion fruit, 1 gill cream, 1 tablespoon castor sugar, Lemon juice, i lb. icing sugar.    Method.—Sift flour and cream

of tartar. Beat eggs, cream butter and sugar, add eggs gradually and beat well; then add the carbonate of soda dissolved in the milk, flour, cream of tartar etc. Put into two round sandwich tins (greased), and bake 15 to 20 minutes. Whip cream, add 1 tablespoon castor sugar, lemon juice, and the pulp of half the passion fruit. Spread on one half of the cake when cold, and place the other half on top. Rub the juice of the remaining passion fruit through a sieve, and mix 2 tablespoons of it with the icing sugar. Stir over fire till just warm and pour over cake.

CINNAMON CAKES.

Cinnamon Cakes.—2 cups flour, 1 cup sugar, 1 cup butter, 3 eggs. 1 teaspoon c. of tartar, ? teaspoon powdered cinnamon, 1 tablspoon powdered cinnamon, a little milk, if required. Method.— Sift flour, soda, and cream of tartar together, rub the butter in lightly, and add the sugar. Beat the eggs well, pour into the dry ingredients, and make into a stiff paste. Turn out on to a floured board, knead slightly, and roll out about \ inch in thickness. Spread the cinnamon thickly over the top, and roll up as for jam roll. Cut in pieces about i inch in thickness, lay on greased oven sheet, sprinkle with sugar, and bake 20 minutes in a hot oven.

LEMON' CAKE.

Lemon Cake.—1 lb flour, 1 teaspoon baking powder, 8 oz. butter i lb. sugar, grated rind of 2 lemons, 8 eggs, 2 tablespoons brandy (if liked). Method.—Sift flour and baking powder, beat eggs, cream butter and sugar, add grated lemon rind, and beat in well;

then add eggs gradually, and essence, lastly flour. Stir in lightly and bake in a moderate oven 21 hours.

GINGER CAKE.

Ginger Cake.—1 lb flour, 6 oz. brown sugar, 1 lb treacle, i lb butter, 3 eggs, 2 dessertspoons ginger, 1 teaspoon c. of soda, ^ nutmeg. 1 teaspoon mixed spice, about i cup milk.    Method.—

Sift flour and carbonate of soda, melt treacle, butter, and sugar, add flour, spice, ginger, nutmeg, and mix well; then add the eggs, well beaten, and enough milk to make into a thick batter. Beat all well with a wooden spoon. Put in a flat dish, and cook J hour in moderate oven.

PLUM CAKE.

Plum Cake.—10 oz. flour, 8 oz. sugar, 8 oz. butter, 2 oz. raisins 2 oz. currants, 2 oz. candied peel, 6 eggs, 1 teaspoon baking powder, 1 wine glass brandy.    Method.—Sift flour and baking powder,

beat eggs, cut candied peel in small dice. Clean and pick currants and raisins. Cream butter and sugar, add beaten eggs gradually, then add flour and fruit. Mix well, but lightly. Bake in a hot oven 2i hours. The brandy is added last.

ALMOND CHEESE CAKES.

Almond C heese Cakes.— 1 lb ground almonds, i lb. castor sugar Grated rind of a lemon, 2 whites of eggs, 5 oz. butter, 1 tablespoon of cream, \ lb good puff paste. Method.—Make the paste and put in a cool place till required. Mix almonds, sugar, grated lemon rind, and butter well together. Whisk the whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and add to the other ingredinets. Line some small patty tins with the pastry, half fill with the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven 2U minutes.

GENOESE.

Genoese.— I lb flour, 1 small teaspoon baking powder, 4 eggs, + lb castor sugar, i lb butter, grated rind of a lemon. Method’— Line a small cake tin with buttered paper. Sift flour and baking powder, grate lemon rind, and beat eggs. Cream butter anr sugar, add beaten eggs gradually, then lemon rind and flour. Put into tin and bake in moderate oven about 40 minutes, having oven very hot the first 10 minutes. Turn on to sieve till cold. Cover with soft icing, trim edges, cut into shapes and decorate with royal icing, coloured pink, using 6 oz. of icing sugar for royal icing.

SHORT BREAD.

uhcrt Bread. 13 oz. flour, 8 oz. butter, 4 oz. castor sugar J teaspoon salt.    Method.—Sift flour and salt. Put butter and

\

sugar into a basin and mix thoroughly, rubbing eash into the other with the fingers; then add the flour gradually, and mix well. Turn on to a slightly floured board, mould into cakes, put on greased paper on oven tray, and bake in a slow oven about 30 minutes.

QUEEN CAKES.

Queen Cakes.—§ lb self-raising flour, 4 oz. butter, 6 oz. sugar, 2 eggs, 2 tablespoons currants, A little milk, if needed. Method.— Sift flour,- beat eggs, cream butter and sugar, add beaten eggs. Beat well, then add flour and milk alternately, lastly currants (cleaned). Put a heaped teaspoon of the mixture in greasen Queen Cake tins, and bake in hot oven.

Importers and Indentors of British, American, Chinese and Japanese Goods, Beads, Shells, Catseyes, Mother of Pearl Novelties, Leather Goods, Wire Jewellery Supplies, etc.


COUNTRY ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO


EXCELSIOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY

10, Arcade, Rundie Street, Adelaide.

S. R. PAUL, Frop.


S. R. FAULL

20 Adelaide Arcade, Rundie St.

CHAPTER 12.

Puddings.

Boiled Puddings must be cooked in plenty of water. Tlie water should be boiling before the pudding goes in, and kept boiling the whole time. As it evaporates, replenish with more boiling water. A plate or saucer should be placed at the bottom of the saucepan before a boiled pudding is put in. This prevents the cloth from sticking to the pot and burning.    The pudding cloth

should be put back into the water as soon as it is removed from the pudding. It should never be washed with soap, and should be thoroughly dried in the open air before folding away. When the pudding is dished, open the cloth and turn out as quickly as possible before the steam goes off. This prevents the cloth from sucking. There no necessity _ for scalding and flouring the cloth it the pudding is turned out immediately it is dished.

Steamed puddings should be covered with buttered paper and cooked rather slowly. The water should not be allowed to reach more than half-way up the mould.

. TEA CUP PUDDING.

lea Cup Pudding. 1 egg, 1 gill milk, 1 teaspoon sugar, essence °.n .m.on,.0,r    , Method.—Beat the egg well with the sugar

till it is light and frothy. Add milk and a few drops of flavouring and turn into a well-buttered cup. Stand the cup in a saucepan containing a little boiling water; cover it with a piece of buttered paper; replace saucepan lid, and steam gextlv 10-15 minutes or till set.    3

n . GINGER PUDDING.

Ginger Pudding. -1 cup of flour, 1 small teaspoon, c. of soda, teaspoon mixed spice, 2 teaspoons sugar, i cup suet (shredded), 1 oz. candied peel.    Method.—Sift flour and carbonate of soda,

and rub the suet well into it. Add sugar, soda, ginger, spice and candied peel; cut into dice. Melt the treacle over the fire; add milk, and stir into the dry ingredients. Put into a well-greased basin, sprinkled with sugar; tie a cloth tightly over the top, and boil 2 hours. Turn out on to a hot dish; sift a little

icing sugar over the top, and serve with sweet sauce or boiled custard.

RICH PLUM PUDDING.

i j^lc^ Blum Pudding.—1 lb flour, 6 oz. breadcrumbs, $ lb suet, * lb apples, i pint milk, f lb. raisins, i lb. brown sugar, 5 eggs, 2 oz. lemon pee 1, 2 oz. citron peel, 1 oz. mixed spice, grated rind of a lemon. 1 saltspoon salt 1 teaspoon baking powder, 1 wine glass brandy. Method.—Sift flour, baking pc^vder and salt; shred suet finely, and rub into the flour. ^Peel and chop apples very small

and add. Cut lemon and citron peel into dice, and add them; also the sugar, breadcrumbs, spice, grated lemon rind and raisins, cleaned and stoned. Beat eggs till very light; add milk and brandy,_ and pour into the dry ingredients. Stir till all are well mixed. Put into a prepared pudding-cloth, and plunge into boiling water with a plate or* saucer at the bottom of the saucepan, to prevent it from sticking. Boil hard for 5 hours, and replenish the water in the saucepan when necessary. Serve with brandy sauce. This pudding may be cooked in a basin. STEAMED DATE PUDDING.

Steamed Date Pudding.—6 oz. flour, 1 teaspoon baking powder (small). 2 eggs, 4 oz, sugar, 3 oz. butter, 4 oz dates, 2 tablespoons milk.    Method.—Sift flour and baking powder; beat eggs, stone

and chop dates. Cream butter and sugar. Add eggs, and beat well; then add milk, dates, and flour. Mix lightly; turn into a greased mould, cover with buttered paper, and steam gently li hours. Turn out and serve with sweet sauce or custard. YORKSHIRE PUDDING.

Yorkshire Pudding.—4 lb. flour, 1 pt. milk, 2 eggs, pinch of salt. Method.—Sift flour; add salt, and make a hole in the middle. Break in the eggs, and stir into them very gradually, as much flour as they will take up, using a wooden spoon to stir with. When they begin to get stiff, add a little milk by degrees, and stir well. When half the milk is used, all the flour should be stirred in, and the batter should then be beaten till the bubbles rise. Add the remainder of the milk, and stand the pudding aside for at least half an hour befor cooking. Grease a baking tin; pour in the batter, and cook in a fairly hot oven 4 hour; or it may be pourned round the roast beef half an hour before it is to be dished.

A BAKED PUDDING.

. A Baked Pudding.—Put a cupful of crumbs in a quart of boiling milk, and add a third of a cupful of sugar, three or four tablespoonfuls of treacle, and two tablespoonfuls of butter or sweet dripping, and half a saltspoonful each of cloves, cinnamon and ginger. Bake an hour and a half in a slow oven. Serve with brown sugar or other sauce.

BLACKBERRY AND CORNFLOUR PUDDING.

Blackberry and Cornflour Pudding.—Take 3 oz. of cornflour, 1 quart of milk,    1 oz    of sugar, a    little cinnamon or    lemon peel, a

pinch of salt, 1    egg.    Mix the    milk gradually into    the cofnflour;

add sugar, peel    and    salt. Rut    the mixture into a    saucepan and

stir till it boils.    Allow to cool,    and add the beaten    egg. Re-heat and then pour half the batter into a dish greased with butter. Pour upon this equal quantities of blackberries and apples which have been slowly stewed together. Add the remainder of the batter. Serve hot or cold.

COTTAGE PUDDING.

Cottage Pudding.—Take 1 tablespoon of dripping, 2 tablespoons of sugar, and 1 egg. Beat the dripping and sugar together, add a little milk, then enough flour to make a light dough, and a teaspoonful of baking powder. Bake in a greased piedish for half an hour. Turn out and serve with sauce.

SAGO PUDDING.

Sago Pudding.—Take a small half-cup of sage, place in the pudding-dish, and pour on enough rather hot water—not quite boiling—and mix it thoroughly, so that there are no lumps. Beat in 1 teaspoonful of condensed milk, diluted to required quantity 1 large tablespoonful sugar, 4 cup sultanas or stoned dates, and 1 or 2 eggs according to richness desired. Bake in hot oven. Place dish in tin partly filled with boiling water.

SEA PIE.

Sea Pie.—1 lb. of steak, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 1 onion, 2 potatoes, 1 dessertspoon of flour, i teaspoon    of    salt, { teaspoon    of pepper,

1 pt. stock or water,    i lb. suet paste.    Method.—Cut    steak into

inch squares, removing all skin and fat; mix with flour, pepper, and salt, and put into a saucepan with the water and onion, finely minced. Bring to the boil, and add the carrot and turnip cut into small square blocks. Simmer gently 1+ hours. Add the potatoes, cut in thin slices, and sprinkle with pepper and salt. Roll the suet paste    out the size    of    the top of the    saucepan,

and put it in on top    of the meat.    Make 3 or 4 holes    in it with

a sharp-pointed knife. Put lid on, and simmer gently $ an hour longer. Dish up with the paste on the bottom of the dish, and meat, etc., on top.

STEAK AND KIDNEY PUDDING.

Steak and Kidney Pie.—H lbs steak. 2 sheep’s kidney, 1 dessertspoon of flour, i teaspoon of salt, i teaspoon of pepper, 1 teaspoon finely chopped parsley, 4 lb short crust or flaky pastry. 1 gill stock or water.    Method.—Remove fat and skin from meat,

and cut into thin slices about 3 inches long and 2 inches wide. Cut kidneys in half lengthwise; skin and remove the core; cut up in small pieces. Mix flour, pepper, salt and parsley together; dip each piece of the meat into this, covering well; roll up with a piece of kidney inside. Cover neatly with pastry, put in a hot oven, and cook 1 hour, decreasing the heat after the pie has been in 10 _ minutes. If the pastry becomes very brown before the meat is cooked, cover the pie with a piece of paper to prevent it from becoming any browner.

Cornish Pasties.—4 lb. steak, 3 tablespoons potatoes, 1 small onion, 4 teaspoon of salt, 1 dessertspoon finely chopped parsley, i teaspoon of pepper, 4 lb short crust. Method.—Remove fat and skin fiom meat, and mince very finely; mince onion and potato, and add to the meat. Mix well with parsley, pepper, and salt. Make short crust, knead slightly, and divide it into eight equal parts. Knead each piece into a round ball, and roll a; lound in shape as possible, and about 4 inches in diameter. Divide the mixture into 8 equal parts, and put a portion on each piece of pastry. Brush half-way round each piece with cold water.; fold the two edges together, and press well. Then make a neat irill by placing the first finger of the left hand on the rim of the pastry, and pinching with the thumb and first finger of the right hand. _ Place on a cold greased baking dish or oven tray; brush over with yolk of egg or milk, and stick holes in each one wth a

i™'    . A>u':. *n a hot oven, and cook with decreasing heat for

about 40 minutes.

, .    .    . SATISFACTION PIE.

Satisfaction Pie. Puff paste, apricot jam, sponge cake, halfpint milk, two teaspoonfuls flour, 1 02. margarine, rind of a lemon two eggs, sugar to taste. Line a piedish with puff paste. Fill \vith law rice, and bake till cooked. When cold turn out the nee, spread a layer of apricot jam over the bottom; then a layer of crumbled sponge-cake. Make a custard-sauce, by working the oui and margarine into the milk; then cook while stirring till thick, adding enough grated lemon and sugar to flavor; cool a little, then add the _ beaten yolks of eggs and pour slowly over the ciumbs. Bake in a slow oven till custard is set; pile whipped whites on top and return to oven for a few minutes. Serve hot or cold.

^    .    .    PUMPKIN PIE.

Pumpkin Pie.—Take li cup prepared pumpkin, 1 cup boiling milk, i cup sugar, i teaspoon salt, 4 teaspoon ground ginger and cinnamon, a little grated nutmeg, 1 egg. Cook pumpkin with

skin on, then drain, remove skin, and mash, see there are no lumps left; add to pumpkin boiling milk, sugar, and remainder of ingredients; egg slightly beaten last of all. Line a piedish with pastry, put in mixture, cover on top with pastry. Bake half an hour; just before it is cooked brush over with whites of an egg, sift pounded sugar on top, and return to oven. Serve cold.

CHAPTER 13.

Biscuits.

OATMEAL BISCUITS.

Oatmeal Biscuits.—4 lb. oatmeal, 4 lb. flour, 4 lb. butter, 1 egg, I lb. sugar, 1 teaspoon c. of tartar, 4 teaspoon c. of soda, sufficient milk to make into a stiff paste.    Method.—Sift flour, soda, and

cream of tartar together, add oatmeal, and rub in the butter: then add the sugar. Beat egg, and add a little milk, pour into centre of dry ingredients, and make a stiff dough, adding more milk if necessary. Turn on to slightly-floured board, knead slightly, and roll out very thin. Stamp out in large rounds, cut these into shape of a fan, and mark the circular edge. Bake in a brisk oven till crisp and a pale fawn colour. Cook on top or middle shelf of gas oven.

ALMOND BISCUITS.

Almond biscuits.—8 oz. flour, 4 teaspoon baking powder, 2 oz. butter, 3 oz. castor sugar. 1 egg. 1 oz almond paste. Few drops /ssence of almonds.    Method.—Sift flour and baking powder, rub

in the butter lightly, and sugar and almond paste. Beat egg.

. add a few drops of almond essence, apd add to the flour. Mix to a stiff paste, and roll small portions, about the size of a walnut in your hand. Dip in castor sugar, place on a greased oven tray put a small piece of almond on each, and bake in a brisk oven 10-15 minutes, on top or middle shelf of gas oven.

ALMOND FINGERS.

Almond Fingers.—4 lb. flour, 1 teaspoon baking powder, 4 teaspoon essence almonds, 4 oz. butter, 3 oz. sugar, 1 yolk egg, 2 or. almonds (blanched, chopped or toasted). Enough warm wat*r to mix.    Method.—Sift flour and baking powder, cream butter

and sugar, add egg. and mix well; then add almond essence, flour baking powder, and a few spoonfuls of warm water if necessary. Mix to a stiff dough, turn.

KENT BISCUITS.

Kent Biscuits-—4 lb. butter, 4 lb sugar, 10 oz. flour, 1 egg. Method.—Sift flour, beat egg, cream butter and sugar; add beaten egg and a little essence of lemon or vanilla; then add flour, and mix to a stiff paste. Knead slightly, roll out very thin, stamp out in rounds, and bake in a hot oven 7-10 minutes. Put half an almond on top of each biscuit before putting in the oven. Cook on top or middle shelf of gas oven.

SODA BISCUITS.

Soda Biscuits.—Boil 1 large cup of milk with If cup of sugar; when quite boiled add 2 small teaspoons of carbonate of soda (very carefully or you will lose it all). While this is cooling, take 7 cups of flour, and 4 teaspoons of cream of tartar (sifted) and rub into it 1 cup of butter and a little salt, then mix with the liquid while it is still lukewarm. Roll thin, and bake.

RATAFIA BISCUITS.

Ratafia Biscuits.—Take 3 cups of flour, II cup of sugar, 1 cup of butter, 4 eggs, 1 teaspoon of carbonate of soda, 2 teaspoons of ratafia essence. Break off in small pieces, and roll in sugar, and bake.

PICNIC BISCUITS.

Picnic Biscuits.—1 lb. of flour, 2 oz. o fcastor sugar, I teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, 2 oz. of butter—rubbed in—a pinch of salt, a few caraway seeds, and a little milk. Mix very stiff and roll out 4 inch thick.

WELSH BISCUITS.

Welsh Biscuits.—Take 2 cups of flour, 1 cup of sugar, 4 lb. of butter, 4 teaspoon of cream of tartar, i teaspoon of carbonate of soda, 12 drops of essence of almonds, and 3 eggs. Mix together, roll out, cut into shapes, and cook in a quick oven.

LANCASHIRE PARKIN.

Lancashire Parkin.—II lb. of fine oatmeal, I lb. of butter rubbed in. 1 teaspoonful of ginger, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, I lb. of flour, I lb of sugar, 1 lb of treacle, and 1 egg. Dissolve the soda in 2 teacupfuls of milk. Melt the treacle and butter together, beat in the egg, and add the soda last. Mix well. Bake in a slow oven in a dripping tin.

PITCAITIILY BANNOCK.

Pitcaithly Bannock.—This is a particularly attractive form of shortbread, and can be made at the same time as other Christmas dainties, as it can be kept in an air-tight tin for a considerable time without in any way deteriorating. 1 Beat to a cream 4 oz. each fresh butter and salt butter. When smooth add 12 oz. flour 2 o. rice flour, 2 oz, blanched and minced almonds, 2 oz. minced orange peel, 2 oz. chopped candied peel, 4 oz. fine sugar. Rub all to a dough, form intq a round cake; prick round the edge with finger and thumb. Ornament the top with large carraways and candied orange peel; put a band of paper round it, and bake in a papered tin for 30 minutes in a moderate oven.

CHAPTER 14.

Icing.

ROYAL ICING.

Royal Icing.—1 white of egg, 8 oz. icing sugar. A few drops of acetic acid or lemon juice. A few drops of blue colouring. Method.—Rub the sugar through a sieve, and stir the sugar in gradually. Beat well until it is stiff enough to stand in points if lifted from a spoon. Add a few drops of colouring and^ the acid or lemon juice. Level the cake before spreading the icing over, and use a flat knife. This icing will keep for several days if a damp cloth is put over the basin.

SOFT ICING.

Soft Icing.—1 lb. icing sugar, 2 or 3 tablespoons of boiling water Method.—Rub the icing sugar through a hair sieve. Put it into an enamelled saucepan; add the water, and stir over the fire till warm, then pour over the cake.

COCOANUT ICING.

Cocoanut Icing.—1 cup of crystal sugar, \ oz. butter, 4 cup milk, | cup dessicated cocoanut.    Method.—Boil the sugar, milk,

and butter together 15 minutes. Remove from the fire, and beat well with a fork, till nearly cold; then add the cocoanut, and spread smoothly over the cake.

CHOCOLATE ICING.

Chocolate Icing.—i lb. icing sugar, 2 oz. chocolate or cocoa. 2 or 3 tablespoons of hot water. Few drops of essence of vanilla. Method.—Grate the chocolate, and dissolve it in the hot water. If cocoa is used, rub through a hair sieve with the icing sugar. Put into an enamelled saucepan; add hot water, and stir over ths fire till just warm; then pour over the cake.

COCOANUT ICE.

Cocoanut Ice.'—i lb. fondant, 1 cup dessicated cocoanut. Flavouring. Colouring.    Method.—Warm the fondant carefully

in a saucepan till it becomes soft; then add the cocoanut and flavouring. Divide the mixture into 2 parts, and colour one pink. Knead each part well, and roll out; put in layers in a piedish, and stand in a cool dry place to set firm; then turn out, and cut into blocks.

CANDY.

Candy.—1 lb best crystallised sugar, 3 tablespoons of rose water

14 cups of water.    Method.—Boil all together for 20 minutes.

Let it cool slightly; then pull and twist.

TREACLE CANDY.

Treacle Candy.—1 cup of treacle, 1 cup of sugar, 2 oz. butter,

1    tablespoon» of vinegar, 1 teaspoon carb. of soda. Method.— Boil all together, except soda, without stirring, until it hardens if dropped into cold water. Add the soda, and pour on to buttered dishes. When cool, pull and twist, and cut into sticks.

ALMOND ROCK.

Almond Rock.—1 lb. crystallised sugar, 1 cup of water, 4 teaspoon of c. of tartar. Almonds and essence of lemon or vanilla. Method.—Pour some boiling water over the almonds, so that the skins will come off readily. Toast them lightly in the oven for a few minutes, then turn them into a greased tin. Put the sugar water, and cream of tartar on, and bring to the boil, stirring all the time. When it boils, cease stirring, and allow it to cook till the syrup turns a pale straw colour. Add a few drops of essence of lemon; then pour over the almonds, and leave till set. WALNUT CANDY.

Walnut Candy.—1 lb. sugar, I lb. walnuts, 1 cup milk, 1 oz. butter, 1 desserispoon golden syrup. Few drops vanilla. Method —Boil all together, except the nuts, for 20 minutes, boiling quickly all the time. Remove from fire, add essence and nuts, and beat till it begins to thicken, then pour on to greased plates.

BUTTER SCOTCH.

Butter Scotch.—6 tablespoons of treacle, 4 tablespoons of sugar

2    tablespoons of butter. A pinch of cream of tartar. Method.— Boil all together for half an hour. T ry if done by dropping into cold water, as in previous recipe. Turn out on to a buttered dish.

WALNUT, OR ALMOND CREAM.

Walnut, or Almond Cream.—2 cups sugar, 4 cup milk. Few drops essence vanilla.    Method.—Boil milk and sugar in an

enamelled saucepan from 4-6 minutes, stirring all the time. (Count the time from when it commences to boil). Take off the fire; add the essence, and beat well. Form into little balls the size of the nut. Pour a little boiling water over the nuts, so that they will skin easily; then press them well into the cream. Set them near an open window to dry. The cream may be coloured with carmine.    .

DATE CREAMS'.

Date Creams.—1 lb. best dates, 4 lb fondant. Essence of

lemon or vanilla. Carmine and sap green.    Method.—Remove

the stones from the dates; sprinkle a few drops of essence on the fondant, and knead well; then divide into three. Colour one part a pretty pink with the carmine, and another with the sap green, and leave one white. Break small pieces off, roll them the length of the date; place them in the date in th space left by removing the stone; press them together slightly, allowing the fondant to be seen. Stand in a cool place till firm.

FIG CREAMS.

Fig Creams';—i lb. fondant, 1 box preserved figs. Essence. Colouring. . Method.—Cut the figs into quarters, and open them. Flavour the fondant, and colour it as in date creams. Roll in little balls, and press into the open quarters of the figs, and spread on a dish to dry.

TURKISH DELIGHT.

Turkish Delight.—2 lb. sugar, 2 cups water, 1 saltspoon c. of tartar, 3 oz. sheet gelatine. A few drops of acetic acid. Pineapple, essence of lemon, or vanilla flavouring.    Method.—Soak

gelatine for i hour. Put sugar and    water on in    an enamel    saucepan, and when it comes to    the boil,    remove the    lid. Mix    cream

of tartar with a tablespoon    of cold    water, and add to the    syrup;

then boil to feather degree,    or until    it hangs in    threads from the

spoon. Remove from the fire; add gelatine and flavouring; turn out to cool, and when set, cut into squares with a sharp knife, and roll in icing sugar.    .

S. R. FAULL

20 Adelaide Arcade, Rundle St.

CHAPTER IS.

Sauces.

WHITE SAUCE FOR VEGETABLES.

White Sauce for Vegetables.—1 oz. butter. 1 oz. flour, 1 pt vegetable liquor, 4 gill milk.    Method.—Melt butter carefully,

without browning it. Add flour, stir out the lumps with a wooden spoon, and when quite smooth, add the liquid, and stir till it boils and thickens; then remove from the fire, and add salt to taste.

PARSLEY.

Parsley.—1 oz. butter, 1 oz, flour, 4 pint liquor the meat was boiled in, 4 gill milk, 1 dessertspoon finely chopped parsley or capers, 4 teaspoon salt.

BREAD SAUCE.

Bread Sauce.—4 pt. milk, 1 small onion, 1 oz. butter. Blade of mace, 2. oz. breadcrumbs. A little grated nutmeg. Cayenne and salt. Method.—Cut the onion in four, and simmer very gently in the milk with the mace, till nearly tender; strain it out, return milk to the saucepan, and add breadcrumbs, butter, cayenne, and salt. Beat well together. Stand beside the fire for 10 minutes.

APPLE SAUCE.

Apple Sauce.—4 or 6 cooking apples, 3 cloves, 4 gill water, 2 ' tablespoons sugar.    Method.—Peel, core, and siice apples thickly,

and put in a saucepan -with the sugar, cloves, and water. Simmer gently till tender; remove cloves and mash well with a fork or rub through a hair sieve.

SWEET SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

Sweet Sauce for Puddings.—4 pt. milk, 1 gill water, 2 dessertspoons sugar. 1 dessertspoon cornflour. Strip of lemon rind. 1 bay leaf.    Method.—Put milk and water on to boil, with the

lemon rind and bayleaf; moisten the cornflour with a little cold water, and when the milk boils stir in the moistened cornflour, and add the sugar. Cook 2 minutes. Remove lemon rind and bay-leaf before serving.

BRANDY SAUCE.

Brandy Sauce.—I pt. water, 1 gill brandy, 1 dessertspoon of arrowroot, 1 dessertspoon of- sugar.    Method.—Put the water on

to boil, and moisten the arrowroot with a little cold water, then stir into the water when it boils. Add^the sugar and brandy,

i'ook 2 minutes, and colour with a few drops of caramel to a golden-brown colour.

MINT SAUCE.

Mint Sauce.—2 tablespoons mint, finely chopped, $ gill boiling water, 1 tablespoon sugar, i pt. vinegar.    Method.—Chop mint

very finely, pour the boiling water over, then add sugar and vinegar.

BROWN SAUCE.

■ Brown Sauce.—■> carrot, d turnip, 4 onion, f stick celery, 1 tomato or 1 dessertspoon tomato sauce. Bunch sweet, herbs, 1 pt. stock or water, 1 oz clar, fat or dripping, 1 oz flour, 1 oz. bacon. Pepper and salt.    Method.—Peel vegetables, and cut

up roughly, melt fat in a small saucepan, and fry the vegetables a, nice brown, add Hour,^ and stir out the lumps, then add stick or water, and stir till boiling. Put in bacon, herbs, pepper, and salt, and simmer gently 2 hour, then strain.

SAUCE FOR SALAD DRESSINGS.

Sauce for Salad Dressings.—1( pt. best Lucca oil, 2 yolks eggs, 1 tablespoon cream (if liked), 4 tablespoons vinegar. Salt and cayenne, 1 tablespoon castor sugar.    Method.—Put the yolks

into a round-bottomed basin, add salt and cayenne, and blend with a wooden spoon; then add the oil very gradually, drop by drop, and beat well one way with the spoon. When all the oil is used, the sauce should be quite thick. The oil must be added gradually, or the eggs will not blend thoroughly. Add vinegar then sugar, and cream if liked.

EGG SAUCE, FOR BOLIED FOWL.

Egg Sauce, for Boiled Fowl.—2 hard-boiled eggs, i pt. melted butter. Salt and cayenne to taste.    Method.—Shell the eggs,

separate the whites from the yolks, chop whites up roughly, and add tq the sauce; season with pepper and salt. Rub yolks through a sieve, and use for a garnish.

RED WINE SAUCE FOR PLUM PUDDINGS.

Red Wine Sauce for Plum Puddings.—$ pt. port or other red wine, 1 gill cherry juice, 3 dessertspoons of brandy. 1 small dessertspoon arrowroot.    Method.—Bring wine and cherry juice to

the boil, then moisten the arrowroot with a little cold water, and stir in. Remove from the fire, and add the brandy. Serve very hot. A little sugar may be added.

CHAPTER 16.

Ketchup, Etc.

KETCHUP SEASONING.

Ketchup Seasoning.—Black pepper, doves, piment equal parts, and ginger.

MUSHROOM KETCHUP.

Mushroom Ketchup.—Wipe mushrooms with a piece of flannel dipped’in salt. Place them in layers with a sprinkling of salt between each layer in an earthenware dish and cover with a damp cloth. Let them stand in a warm palce for 30 hours; then mash and strain. To each quart of juice add 1 oz. peppercorns_ and boil this 25 minutes, add 1 oz. each allspice, cloves, ] oz. ginger root, 1 blade of mace. Simmer for 15 minutes. When cold, strain and bottle.

APPLE AND PLUM CHUTNEY.

Apple and Plum Chutney.—2 lb. apples (peeled and cored), 1 lb plums, 6 oz. sugar, i lb onions, j lb sultanas, * lb. salt. H ozs. mustard, l oz. ground ginger, 1 oz cayenne pepper, one quart, vinegar. Stone the plums, chop fruit into small pieces, and summer altogether for four hours.

TOMATO CHUTNEY.

Tomato Chutney.—4 lb. tomatoes, 1 lb. sugar, i lb, dates, 1 lb. sultanas, i lb. almonds, one bottle vinegar, I lb. onions 2 oz. salt 1 oz. ginger, 1 oz. garlic, and i oz. chillies. Clean all the ingredients by scraping, then pound all together, except the tomatoes along with a little of the vinegar. When well mixed, add the tomatoes, cut up, and the vinegar; boil in a saucepan for four hours. When oold, bottle and seal.

APPLE CHUTNEY.

' Apple Chutney.—Use 4 lb. moist mustard, 1 oz. salt, 2 oz. garlic, 2 oz. ground ginger, 2 oz. mustard seeds, one quart vinegar, 12 sour apples, 2 oz. onions, and a little cayenne. Stone the raisins and chop into small pieces, and dry the mustard seeds; peel and slice the apples, and boil them in the vinegar until they are quite soft. Mix all the ingredients in a basin, and then add the vinegar and apples. Boil for 40 minutes, stir all together, and bottle.

CHUTNEY.

Chutney.—Take 8 oz. of soiw apples, >8 oz. of salt, 4 oz. red

peppers, 4 oz of garlic, 8 oz, hr jwn sugar, 8 oz. raisins, 6 oz. green ginger, three quarts of vinegar, one pint of limejuice. Allow to boil for three hours, strain through coarse linen, bottle for use. HOUSEHOLD SAUCE.

Household Sauce.—Take a bottle wihch will hold li pints, clean and dry it well. Mince two cloves of garlic very finely, and put in the bottle. Add 3 tablespoonfuls of walnut ketchup, the same amount of essence of anchovy, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy, and a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. Pour over the whole lot a pint of vinegar. Cork the bottle and shake well every doy for a fortnight, at the end of which time it will be ready for use.

WATERLOO SAUCE.

Waterloo Sauce.—4 pints vinegar, 1 pint port wine, -•> pint walnut ketchup, i pint mushroom ketchup, 1 oz. cayenne, 4 ozs. essence of anchovies, 1 oz. powdered cochineal, 12 cloves garlic, and sugar. Put the fruit into a shallow dish, sprinkle the sugar over it, allow it to stand over night, next day strain off the

WHOLE STRAWBERRY JAM.

Whole Strawberry Jam.—Take equal weights of strawberries syrup and boil it up quickly for 20 minutes. Add the strawberries, and boil another 20 minutes. Bottle and allow to cool boil well. Kgep the jam at a gentle heat till all the sugar has

CHAPTER 17.

Pickles.

/

MIXED PICKLES.

M ixed Pickles.—Obtain equal quantities of the following vegetables: Cauliflower, cucumber, button onions, French beans; cut the cauliflower into sprigs, the cucumber into good sized pieces, and leave the beans 'whole; peel the onions.    Put all these vege

tables into a basin with chillies. Have ready boiling water strongly seasoned with salt, pourover vegetables, in which allow them to stand uncil nearly cold.; then drain the vegetables free from water and spread them out on sieve to dry for about 14 hours. Put the vegetables in a bottle. Then boil cloves, peppercorns, mace and 1 oz mustard seed in vinegar, let it cool, then pour over vegetables. When cold dose each bottle tightly.

PICKLED WALNUTS.

Pickled Walnuts.—To 200 walnuts allow 2 quarts vinegar, 1 teaspoon salt, 2 oz. whole black pepper, 2 oz bruised ginger, i oz. cloves, ! doz. small onions, 1 blade mace, 2 oz. mustard seed. Boil these ingredients for 15 minutes. Make enough brine to cover the walnuts,    which should be tender enough    to pierce    with

a needle. Cover    the walnuts    with the brine.    Leave for    nine

days, changing the brine twice. Drain. Expose to the air in single layers. Pack in jars. Boil up the pickle mixture, and pour boiling water over the walnuts. Cover closely when cold. PICKLED ONIONS.

Pickled Onions.—Make a strong brine. Place in it 12 lb. of small onions, skinned. Leave for 20 hours, keeping the brine lukewarm. Take    six pints of    vinegar and bring    to boil.    Boil

for 15 minutes.    Bake; when    cool, put in glass    bottles.    Seal

close and store in a cool place.

PICKLED CUCUMBERS.

Pickled Cucumbers.—Select good, firm cucumbers, not very large Put the pickles in a stone jar with one l^rge onion in the centre. Make a strong brine, boiling hot, and pour it over the pickles. Cover the jar very close, and let it stand for 24 hours. Pour off the brine, and wach the pickles in cold water. Put them in the jar again with two or three handfuls of whole doves and allspice sprinkled between the layers. Scald enough good vinegar to cover them, with a cupful of sugar to every two gallons, and pour it boiling hot over the pickles. Close the jar firmly up, and store in a cool, dry place.    ■<«.

BEETROOT PICKLE.

Beetroot Pickle.—One beetroot, 1 oz. peppercorns, vinegar and salt. Boil the beetroot, taking care not to break the skin; it will take from 14 to 21 hours to boil, according to size. Let the beetroot get quite cold, then peel and cut into slices. Put into jars. 'Lake enough vinegar to cover, boil it with peppercorns and a teaspoonful of salt, and when quite cold pour over beetroot and bottle. Cork tightly.

PICKLED BEETROOT.

Pickled Beetroot.—Procure beetroot, boil, being careful to see skin is not broken, cut slices half an inch in thickness, put into jars with vinegar prepared with 4 oz. each peppercorns, allspice, sliced horse radish, and salt to every quart. Boil 10 minutes.

CHAPTER 18.

Miscellaneous.

SAGE AND ONTON STUFFING.

Sage and Onion Stuffing for Pork. Goose, Ducks, or Mutton.— 2 onions, I apple, 6 sage leaves, 1 cup breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoon butter or finely chopped suet, 1 teaspoon' moist, sugar. A little grated nutmeg. 1 egg, pepper and salt.    Method.—Boil the onions

till tender and chop up. Mince apple, and mix with the onion. Add breadcrumbs, butter, sugar, nutmeg, sage leaves (chopped up), pepper and salt. Bind all together with the egg, beaten. LIME JUICE CORDIAL.

Lime Juice Cordial.—4 lb. sugar, L lb. tartaric acid, 1 gal boiling water. Method—Pour boiling water over acid and sugar. Dissolve slowly, and boil for a few minutes. Let it stand aside till cold, then add 1 bottle of Mont Serrat lime juice. This makes 6 bottles.

CHILI BEER.

Chili Beer.—Method.—Place 2 lbs. white sugar in a vessel, with 2 teaspoons cream of tartar, 2 teaspoons essence of lemon. Boil 28 chilies in a pint of water for 20 minutes, strain over sugar etc., then add 2 gallons cold water, and 2 or 3 tablespoons yeast. Let work well. Bottle and cork. Will be ready for use in 2 or 3 days. The chillies to be used are Birds-Eye, sold by chemists.

FRUIT SALTS.

Fruit Salts.—2 07,. tartaric acid, 2 oz. bicarb of soda, 2 oz. cream of tartar, 6 oz, castor sugar, 1 oz. Epsom salts. Method.— Rub all through a sieve and mix thoroughly. Bottle and keep in dry place. Use 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls in a glass of water. LEMON SQUASH.

Lemon Squash.—Juice of a lemon, 1 dessertspoon castor sugar. Soda water, Ice.    Method.—Put sugar into a glass, squeeze juice

of lemon over, add small pieces of ice, then fill with soda water.

INDIAN CHUTNEY.

Indian Chutney. — Take 4 ozs. of raisins, 3 ozs. of onions, 1 oz. garlic, 14 ozs. of sour apples, weighed after peeling and coring, one pint of vinegar, 2 ozs. of mustard seed, 1 oz. of cayenne pepper, 2 oz. of salt, 4 ozs. of brown sugar. Boil the peeled and cored apples with the sugar and vinegar until they are soft. StoYie and mince the raisins.

Skin and mince the onions and garlic, put them into a mortar with the salt, mustard seed, and cayenne, and pound and bruise well. When the apples are cold mix all the ingredients very thoroughly with them and put into bottles.

APPLE CREAM.

Apple Cream. — Peel Id lb. of apples, remove the cores, and cut into thin slices.    Put them into

a saucepan with J lb. of sugar, the rind of a small lemon finely shred, J oz. of ground ginger, and two tablespoonfuls of red wine. Let them* simmer until soft enough to press through a sieve, then put in a dish, and allow to cool. Boil a pint of cream or new milk, or cream and milk mixed, with some nutmeg, and add the apples to it, beating all thoroughly together. Time to simmer, about half an hour.

TO DRY LAVENDER.

1 o Dry Lavender.—The lavender should be cut in January, usually about the 5th. or 6th of the month, then spread on sheets which are dragged into the sun in the day time. ft is frequently turned to dry thoroughly. When quite dry it is stripped from the stalk and put into tins or boxes with lids until it is all sold. The scent lasts for years. The lavender must be the true English lavender. Care must be taken when the lavender is first cut to see that it does not heat or sweat while under cover.

CANDIED PEEL.

Candied Peel.—Soak the skins of lemons or oranges in slightly water until soft. Test with a firm straw. Then drain wefl. salted water for three or four days. Drain, and boil in clean Make a syrup by boiling two cups of sugar with one cup of water for five minutes. Put peel in basin and pour syrup over it. Let this stand for five days. Then strain off the syrup and boil it up. Put the peel into the boiling syrup, and boil until it looks clear. Then spread peel on a shallow dish. Put a little of the syrup in each hollow, sprinkle fine sugar over it, and leave it to drv in the sun or in a cool oven.

WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE.

Worcestershire Sauce.—Pound i oz. cayenne pepper, J oz. shallots and J oz. garlic in a mortar, adding gradually a quart of white wine vinegar; then press through a sieve. Add a gill of Indian soy, and bottle and cork for use. If this method is considered too tedious, after pounding the ingredients put them into a jar, and pour the vinegar (boiling) over them. Cover closely, and let stand until the vinegar has extracted all the flavouring, and before bottling strain and add the soy. . DANDELION BEVERAGES.

Dandelion Beverages.—To make dandelion beer, boil in 2\

gallons of water 1 oz. of dandelion leaves, 2i oz. of ginger root, and t oz. or hops. Strain thoroughly, and then boil with H lb. of sugar and 1 oz of Spanish juice. Allow this to ferment for 24 hours, and then bottle for use. To make dandelion wine, pour 1 gallon of water over the dandelion flowers, and let it stand for 14 hours, then strain, and add 2 lb. of white sugar and 2 lemons. Boil to 3 quarts, strain once more, let it stand for two or three days, and bottle.

RASPBERRY VINEGAR.

Raspberry Vinegar.—To 3 pints of water add 3 cups of sugar, and. boil for 10 minutes; let cool, and add 1 small bottle (7 drachms) of raspberry essence, f cup of good vinegar, one level teaspoon of tartaric acid, and color with a few drops of carmine or cochineal. Bottle and cork tightly. Ready for use immediately.

LEMONADE.

Lemonade.—Take 6 lemons, f lb sugar, and 1 pint of boiling water. Rub lemons with some of the sugar, and peel them very thin. Strain the juice and put in with the boiling water, adding lemon peels and sugar also. Cover well to keep the steam in, and let it cool. Strain and dilute with cold water. Sufficient for three pints.

COLD WATER GINGER BEER. ^

Cold Water Ginger Beer.—Take 2 cups of sugar, 2 teaspoons of cream of tartar, £ taespoon of tartaric acid, 2 teaspoons of ground ginger. Mix all together in a basin, then add 1 gallon of cold water and 1 teaspoon of essence of lemon.

LEMON SYRUP.

Lemon Syrup.—Take 6 lbs. sugar, 6 pints water, 2 oz. tartaric acid, 2 oz. cream of tartar, and 1 bottle essence of lemon. Boil water and sugar for five minutes, then put to cool; then add tartaric acid, then cream of tartar, and lastly add essence of lemon, then bottle.

MACAROONS.

Macaroons.—Whites of 3 fresh eggs, £ lb. castor sugar, 6 oz. almond meal or pounded almonds, 2 oz. oatmeal. Method.—Beat whites of eggs to a very stiff froth; stir in the sugar lightly; then the almond meal and oatmeal. Grease a piece of paper, and spread it on the oven sheet; then put the mixture on in small round cakes. Press half an almond lightly on top of each. Let them dry well before taking from the oven. Cook on top shelf of gas oven.

LEMON OR ORANGE FILLING FOR CAKES.

Lemon or Orange Filling for Cakes.—4 pt. water, 2 tablespoonfuls arrowroot, 2 tablespoonfuls sugar, 1 dessertspoonful butter, 1 orange or lemon. Method.— (1) Put water and butter on to boil. (2) Grate rind (yellow part only) of orange or lemon, and squeeze juice. (3) Blend arrowroot with a little cold water, and stir into the water and butter on the fire as soon as it boils. (4) Add sugar and rind and juice of fruit, and cook 2 minutes. (5) W hen nearly cool, spread between layer of cake.

,    MOCK CREAM FILLING.

Mock Cream Filling.—1 cup milk, 1 dessertspoonful cornflour, 1 dessertspoonful butter, 1 tablespoonful sugar, few drops vanilla. Method— (1) Moisten cornflour with a little of the milk, and put the remainder of the bilk on to boil. (2) Stir in the moistened cornflour and cook 3 minutes. (3) Put into a basin to cool. (4) Beat butter and sugar to a cream with a wooden spoon. (5) Stir in cornflour very gradually, 1 tablespoonful at a time. (6) Add essence, and beat well.

SWISS ROLL.

Swiss Roll.—] lb. flour, } lb. sugar, 3 eggs, 4 teaspoon c. of tartar, } teaspoon c. of soda, 3 tablespoons butter (melted), teaspoon essence lemon. Method.—Sift flour, soda, and cream of tartar. Beat eggs and sugar till thick and creamy; add flour, essence, and butter, and stir in lightly. Pour into Swiss roll tin, which has been lined on the bottom with buttered paper, and bake in a brisk oven about 10 minutes. Try if done by pressing lightly with the finger, when no mark should be left. Turn out on to a damp cloth, sprinkled well with icing sugar (or flour or ordinary sugar will do). Roll up quickly; unroll, spread jam on; roll up again, and sprinkle a little icing sugar over the top.

HERB SYRUP.

Herb Syrup.—1 oz. gentian root, 2 oz. cascara bark, 1 stick liquorice, 6d. essence aniseed, as much cayenne pepper as will cover a shilling. Method.—Simmer all ingredients (not aniseed) in a quart of water of 2 hours, then strain. When luke-warm, add aniseed. Bottle, cork tightly.

LINSEED TEA.

Lins&ed Tea (for Colds).—1 oz. linseed, 1 oz. sugar, 4 oz. liquorice root, 1 tablespoon lemon juice, 1 qt. boiling water. Method.—Put the linseed, sugar, liquorice root and lemon juice into a jug; pour the boiling water over. Allow it to stand 3 or 4 hours, then strain. Give 2 tablespoons frequently.

LEMON JELLY.

Lemon Jelly.—3 lemons, 6 oz. loaf sugar, 1 tablespoon Tarragon vinegar. 2 whites and shells of eggs, 1 inch of cinnamon stick, 1 oz. gelatine, 1 pt. water, 1 gill sherry (if liked). Method.—Soak the gelatine in water 4 hour. Peel the lemons so thinly that the rind is the same colour on both sides, and rub the sugar over the outside of the lemon. Put rind, sugar, juice of lemon, cloves, cinnamon stick, gelatine, ahd water into a clean, bright saucepan. Wash the egg shells and crush, and beat the whites slightly. Put into the saucepan with the other ingredients, and whisk .over the fire till almost boiling. Take out the whisk, let the contents of the saucepan come to the boil; draw it off the fire; tilt the' lid, and allow it to simmer very gently till clear. Add wine, if liked. Pour some boiling water through the jelly bag, then strain the jelly through. If not clear, strain slowly a second time. Allow to cool, then pour into a wetted mould to set.

HOME-MADE LEMONADE.

Home-made Lemonade.—2 lemons, 2oz. loaf sugar, 1 qt. boiling water. Method.—Wash and dry the lemons, and peel very thinly, so thin that the peel is the same colour on both sides. Rub the sugar well over the outside of the lemons to extract the essential oil from the pith. Put the sugar into a jug with the rind of one lemon, and squeeze the juice of both over it, keeping back the pips. Pour boiling water over, cover tightly with a cloth, and leave till cold; then strain immediately, or it will be bitter.

ORANGEADE.

Orangeade.—May be made by the same method as lemonade, using 2 oranges and 1 lemon to 1 quart of water.

RESTORATIVE JELLY.

Restorative Jelly.—2 lbs. shin of beef, 1 cow-heel, 4 qts. water, salt to taste. Method.—Cut meat from bone, and put all on in the water; add salt, and bring very slowly to the boil. Simmer gently till meat is quite tender.

SNOW CREAM.

Snow Cream (a substitute for whipped cream, and used for decorating).—1 pt. water, 2 oz. catsor sugar, 1 gill cream, juice of a lemon. Method.—Put all ingredients into a basin, and whisk well till it forms a thick froth on the surface. Lift the froth off on to a hair sieve as it forms, and use for decorating'trifles, etc.

SUBSTITUTE FOR WHIPPED CREAM.

Substitute for Whipped Cream.— 1 pt. milk, 1 oz. butter, 2 oz. castor sugar, 2 eggs, J oz. gelatine, few drops essence vanilla. Method.—Soak the gelatine in a little of the milk for 1 hour.

Put the remainder on to boil; cream the butter and sugar. Add the yolks of eggs and beat. Pour a little of the boiling milk in, then gradually add the remainder. Stir in the gelatine and cook very gently till the gelatine is dissolved, taking care the eggs do not curdle. Allow to cool slightly; then add the vanilla and the whites of eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Stir in lightly, and put aside to cool.

EGG FLIP.

Egg Flip.—1 egg, 1 teaspoon castor sugar, i glass iced water, £ glass whisky.    Method.—Break egg, and remove the speck.

Beat it well with the sugar; add water and spirit. Pour into a clean glass, and serve.

CENTRE FOR NAPOLEONS.

Centre for Napoleons.—\ lb. flour, 4 teaspoon c. of tartar, 1 teaspoon c.    of soda, 3 eggs, * lb.    soft white sugary    4 lb. butter,

i gill milk    (enough to    make into    a thick batter),    few drops of

lemon juice.    Method.—Sift flour, soda, and cream of tartar.

Beat eggs. Cream _ butter and sugar, add eggs, and beat, then add milk, lemon juice, and flour. Spread the mixture on a piece of paper half the size of the pastry, and bake in a hot oven 7-10 minutes, on top or middle shelf of gas oven.

ICING FOR TOP OF NAPOLEONS.

Icing for Top of Napoleons.—1 yolk of egg, about \ lb. castor sugar (enough to make the consistency of cream), mix well with a knife. Method.—Cut    the paste    in two. Spread    jam on, lay

the cake on    top, spread    with more    jam, and cover with the other

half of the pastry. Spread the icing over, sprinkle with cocoanut or finely-chopped almonds, blanched and toasted, and put back in the oven for a few minutes to dry. Cut in oblong pieces. Puff paste may be used, and the ordinary soft white icing, if preferred. CREAM PUFFS.

Cream Puffs.—3 oz. butter, 6 oz. flour, \ pt. water, 4 large eggs. Method.—Put water and butter on the fire. When it comes to the boil drop in the sifted flour, and stir till it becomes quite smooth and in one lump. Remove from the fire, let it cool slightly, and beat the eggs well. Add eggs gradually, beating each in with a wooden spoon. Drop in smooth, round pieces on a cold, greased oven tray, and bake in a brisk oven 4 hour, gradually decreasing the heat. Let them get quite dry before taking them from the oven, or they will fall.

PUFTALOONS.

Puftaloons.—d lb. flour, 1 teaspoon c. of tartar, i teaspoon c. of soda, li gills milk, jam, 2 oz. clar. fat or good dripping. Method.—

Sift flour, soda, and cream of tartar, mix to a light dough with the milk, turn on to a slightly-floured board, knead slightly, and roll out about i inch in thickness. Stamp out in rounds. Melt the fat in a frying-pan, and when quite hot fry the scones till a light brown underneath; then turn, and fry on the other side. Do not cook too quickly, or the centre will be underdone. Serve with jam or honey.

Some Useful Fables.

CHAPTER 19.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES FOR THE KITCHEN.


1    cupful .................................................... about i pint

2    cupfuls .................................................... 1 Pint

4 cupfuls ................................................ »    1    quart

2 cupfuls of sugar ........................................ ,,    1    pound

2 cupfuls of butter ........................................ 5-    1    pound

2 cupfuls of flour or oatmeal .............................. 1 pound

4    cupfuls of sifted flour    ..............................    1    pound

1 pint of liquid ........................................    1    pound

10 eggs ........................................................ „    1 pound

l egg ........................................................ „    2    ounces

1 heaping tablespoonful    of    sugar .................... „    1    ounce

1    tablespoonful of butter    ................................ „    1    ounce

2    rounding tablespoonfuls of flour ....................    1    ounce

7 heaping tablespoonfuls    of    sugar .................... „    1    cupful

5    heaping tablespoonfuls    of    flour ....................    1    cupful


DICES'!' VARIOUS FOODS.


TIME REQUIRED TO

Rice ........................ 1    00

Granola .................... 1    00

Apples, sweet, mellow, raw 1 30

Eggs, whipped ............ 1    30

Trout, boiled ............ 1    30

Venison, broiled ............ 1    35

Sago ........................ 1

Tapioca .................... 2    00

Barley ....................• 2 00

Eggs, raw ................ 2    00

Apples, sour, mellow, raw 2 00

Milk, boiled ................ 2    00

Milk, raw ................ 2    15

Turkey, boiled ............ 2    25

Parsnips, boiled ............ 2    30

Potatoes, baked ........ 2    30

Beans, French, boiled ....    2    30

Cabbage, raw ............ 2    30

Turkey, roasted ........ 2    30

Goose, roasted ............ 2    30

Lamb, broiled ............ 2    30

Oysters, raw ............ 2    55

Eggs, soft boiled ........ 3    00

Beef, lean, rare, roasted 3 00

Beefsteak, broiled ........ 3    00

Chicken soup, boiled ....    3    00

Mutton, broiled ........ 3    00

Bean soup, Haricot ....    3    00

Mutton, roasted ........ 3    15

Bread, maize ............ 3    15

Mutton soup ............ 3    30

Bread, white ................ 3    30

Potatoes, boiled ........ 3    30

Turnips, boiled ........ .... 3 .30

Eggs, hard boiled ........ 3    30

Eggs,' fried ................ 3    30

Butter, melted ............ 3    30

Oysters, stewed ............ 3    30

Cheese .................... 3    30

Beets, boiled ............ 3    45

Corn and Beans, green 3    45

Veal, broiled ............ 4    00

Fowl, broiled ............ 4    00

Beef, lean, fried ............ 4    00

Salmon, salted, boiled ....    4    00

Beef, salted, boiled........ 4    15

Soup, marrow-bone........    4    15

Pork, salted, fried ........ 4    15

Veal, fried ................ 4    30

Duck, roasted ........... 4    30

Cabbage, boiled ........ 4    30

Pork, roasted ............ 5    15

CHAPTER 20.

Painting and Decorating.

WALLPAPER: HOW TO HANG TT.

Wall-paper; How to Hang It.—Tf the walls have been previously papered they should be carefully dusted with feather brush or cloth; if colour-washed they must be well wiped and dried with a flannel cloth and warm water the day previous, so that they may be perfectly dry. Tt is a saving of time and trouble to get the paper trimmed by the paper-hanger from whom it is bought. The necessary materials, such as batter, brush, tape-line, large pair of scissors, and a good supply of clean rags, should all be at hand. Measure the height of the walls and cut off several pieces the exact length. Most amateurs apply the batter to the paper, but it will be found very much easier and more satisfactory to put it on the wall in long lines. Beginning at one corner, place the upper corners of the paper in position, press it right along the top. and smooth it gently down the entire strip, taking care that no wrinkles remain. The second piece is placed with its edges trimmed over the selvedge of the first, and so the process is continued until the entire room is covered. Should the paper possess an elaborate or intricate pattern then care must be exercised in the matching of the different designs.

PASTE FOR WALLPAPER.

Paste for Wall-paper.—Mix 1 lb. flour in a small quantity of water, break down all lumps, add more water slowly, stirring briskly till the batter is the consistency of gruel; add 1 teaspoonful alum, and boil, stirring all the time until the mixture is as thick as porridge. (See also Pastes.)

TO PAPER DAMP WALLS.

To Paper Damp Walls.—Dissolve h lb. glue-size and $ lb. alum in a pail of water. Apply this solution to the damp walls after the wall-paper has been stripped off. When the mixture has dried, the room may be re-papered, and this precaution also prevents the paper falling off again.

LIME WHITEWASH.

Lime Whitewash.—Use well-slaked lime, and to every pailful add 24 lbs. alum dissolved in boiling water. Thin down with water for the first coat and apply another. It is better to have the wash too thin than too thick, and the alum tends to make it adhere and ensures a smooth surface.

MIXING PAINTS.

Mixing Paints.—Before applying any paints they must be mixed with linseed oil or spirits of turpentine, or certain proportions of both. For walls and doors inside a house, flat paints are chiefly employed, and these are merely diluted with turpentine, wMch must be carefully put on, and dries almost at once. The basis of each is white lead, and in ordinary cases it is first mixed with the oil in varying proportions, such as 12 parts oil to 100 parts white lead, or 72 parts oil to 100 parts light ochre, and so on. Add the tinting until the desired shade is obtained, then add the drier or turpentine. Keep a small portion of the paint in reserve lest an extra supply be wanted, and this serves to match the new mixture. Strain to a creamy consistency, neither too thick nor too thin. Apply very evenly, so that the work may be smooth and uniform.

TO MIX WHITE PAINT (COMMON).

To Mix’ White Paint (Common).—Make a paste of linseed oil and white lead (ground); add turpentine in the proportion of 1 quart to a gallon of oil as a general rule. Strain this for fairly fine work, and add more turpentine, if the paint is likely to be exposed to the sun, to prevent blistering.

COMBINATION OF COLOUR FOR TINTS.

Combination of Colour for Tints.—Buff—Yellow, white, and a dash of Venetian red. Brown.—Red and black. Cream.—Yellow, white, and Venetian red.    Chocolate.—Black and Venetian red.

Drab.—Umber, white, and Venetian red. Flesh Colour.—White, lake, and vermilion. French White.—Purple and white. Grey, Pearl.—White, black, and blue. Grey, Silver.—Indigo and lamp black. Green, Bright.—White and emerald green. Green, Dark.— Light green and black. Lead Colour.—White and lamp black. Orange.—White and yellow. Olive.—Red, blue, and black. Purple. —Blue, lake, and white. Pink.—White and carmine. Rose.— Lake and white. Straw Colour.—Yellow_ and white. _ gathering. Allow room in the preserving pan for the jam to GENERAL RULES.

General Rules.—Preserve the fruit as soon as possible after dissolved, then boil quickly and stir frequently. To see if the jam is cooked, test by putting a little on a plate and leaving till cool. If sufficiently cooked it will set. Jam insufficiently cooked is apt to ferment.

WHITE ENAMEL.

White Enamel.—Put 1 lb. zinc-white and i oz. ultramarine blue into a big, old jam-jar, pour on 4 gill raw linseed oil, mix together with an old knife and then add very slowly i quart white spirit varnish. Cover another jar with a piece of coarse muslin and pour the contents of the first through this to purify. The enamel may be used immediately, and hardens beautifully. Use a camel’s-hiar brush, and cover the jar closely to prevent enamel becoming hard. This enamel will please everyone.

CHAPTER 21.

Stains for Wood.

BLACK WALNUT STAIN.

Black Walnut Stain.—To 1 gallon French polish add ^ lb. dry burnt umber, 2 ozs. lamp black, and i lb. dry burnt sienna. Shake at intervals until all the ingredients are well mixed. Apply one coating with a brush in the usual way. Allow this to dry, then rub with fine sand-paper, and finally give a coat of shellac varnish. This stain may be used on either white wood or pine, and gives a very good appearance of solid walnut.

BLUE STATN.

_ Blue Stain.—Use a solution of indigo or copper, but the latter is preferable, as it gives a brighter colour.

BLACK STAIN.

Black Stain.—Boil for two or three hours i lb. logwood chips in i gallon' water, and brush over the wood whilst still very hot. To 1 quart water add 2 ozs. powdered galls. Keep in a slightly warm place for several days. Brush this mixture on three or four times, and finish with a solution of 1 oz. sulphat of iron and quart water. (2) A cheaper coarser black stain is produced by soaking i lb. of iron nails in 1 quart of vinegar to which has been added a little verdigris. This is excellent for chairs, etc|

YELLOW STAIN.

Yellow Stain.—Boil together i lb. French berries and ] oz. alum in 1 gallon soft water. Apply with a brush to the wood whilst the liquid is still boiling till the desired colour is obtained. When the wood is quite dry, give it a weak solution of water and alum..    •

BRIGHT RED STAIN.

Bright Red Stain.—Mix together i>- gallon water, i oz. pearl-ash, 2 lb. Brazil-wood chips, and set aside for two or three days, stirring periodically. Boil for three hours, and whilst still boiling apply to the wood with a brush several times until the tint is dark enough. While still wet brush on a solution of alum in the proportion of 1 oz. to v quart water.

OAK STAIN.    .

Oak Stain.—Wash the article in a solution of 1 gallon strong lye-water in which I lb. copperas has been thoroughly dissolved.

Allow it to dry completely, then oil, and the wood will look well for several years. Protect the hands whilst using this powerful stain, as it tends to blister them.

ROSEWOOD STAIN.

Rosewood Stain.—Add 1 oz. camwood to i gallon alcohol, set in some warm place, and later on add 14 ozs. extract of logwood and i oz. aquafortis. Dissolve all together and apply in one or two coats as necessary. (2) For soft wood mix Venetian red with white or brown (according as the wood desired is dark or light) with turpentine. This serves also for cherry or mahogany. In stains, “alcohol” is methylated spirit.    Satinwood.—Soak together

in 2 pints alcohol, 6 ozs. good turmeric and 8 ozs. gamboge, strain through coarse muslin, give two coats with a sponge, and, when dry, sandpaper and French polish or varnish.

MAHOGANY STAIN.

Mahogany Stain—(1) Into 1 quart of turpentine put 2 ozs. dragon’s blood,_ bruised. Keep in a warm place until thoroughly dissolved,_ shaking at intervals, and soak the article in the stain.

(2)    Spanish Mahogany.—i lb. powdered madder root, 2 ozs. logwood chips, 1 oz. fustic chips, and boil in 1 gallon water for three hours. Apply boiling hot several times, let the stain dry, and brush the surface over with i oz. pearl-ash in 1 quart of water.

(3)    Mahogany Cement.—Melt 4 ozs. of shellac or beeswax, then add Indian red, 1 oz. and enough yellow ochre to produce the required tint. This is an excellent composition for filling up holes and cracks in mahogany. The neatness of appearance will depend much upon getting the exact colour of the wood.

FLOOR STAIN.

Floor Stain.—Dissolve 1 oz. permanganate of potash in 1 pint Juke-warm water, and let it stand 12 hours at least. Pour a quantity into a soup-plate or basin and dilute with cold water, according as a light or dark stain is desired. Apply with a paintbrush the way of the wood, and let it dry before giving a second or even a third coating. Keep free of dust, and then varnish. It may be kept a good colour and well polished with the floor polish of beeswax and turpentine described elsewhere.

CHAPTER 22.

French Polishing and Varnishes

CRACKS IN THE WOOD.

Cracks in the Wood.—Fill any pores in the wood with a paste of plaster of Paris and water coloured to the shade of the wood by finely-powdered colour. Dab this with a sponge or rag into the cracks and pores, wipe off any superfluous liquid, allow the furniture to dry, then rub all over with fine sandpaper before starting to polish.

FRENCH POLISH.

French Polish.—These recipes are those actually used by furniture manufactories:—Orange (light)—1 i lbs. orange shellac (crushed) dissolved in 1 gallon methylated spirit. Garnet (dark). —20 ozs. garnet shellac dissolved with 4-ozs. rosin in 1 gallon methylated spirit. White (milky).—1 pint methylated spirit, 5 ozs. white shellac, 1 oz. sandarac. Red polish is orange variety coloured with Bismarck brown; black with gas black. Button polish is made as orange with button shellac. French polish, white or dark (the latter if an antique appearance is desired), may be bought, and, in addition, a bottle of white varnish, methylated spirits, linseed oil, cotton wool, and a few cotton and linen rags ought to be at hand.

METHOD OF FRENCH POLISHING.

Start by giving the surface a thin coat of white spirit varnish applied flatly and regularly with a small brush, which must be used in the direction of the grain of wood only. As the varnish quickly evaporates, the work must be done deftly, and any “blobs” or hairs instantly removed.

Allow the varnish to harden for at least 24 hours, when you may begin the polishing. Soak some cotton wool in the French polish, and form it into a pad by placing it on a fairly big square of linen, tying it tightly therein, and then rubbing it firmly on the palm of the hand so as to render it perfectly smooth.

Pour a single drop of linseed oil on the pad, which prevents the solours spreading in any way, but recourse should not be had oftener to oil. unless the pad refuses to work, as too much oil imparts a greasy look to the article. Rub round and round in circles slowly and gently with a gliding sort of motion until a polished surface is noticeable, and then put more elbow-grease into the work.

When a certain amount of shininess appears all over the surface, set the article aside for a day in a place where dust cannot adhere to it. In the case of legs of tables and such like surfaces, the rubbing naturally must be up and down. The following day a new pad must be made and soaked in French polish as before, and the first process is repeated. Now, pour a few drops of methylated spirits on the pad, and go over all the surface, backwards and forwards, following the grain of the wood, but exercising care not to do so heavily; this method insures a uniform evenness in the polishing and counteracts the effect of the oil.

The spirit must only be used after the second and third rubbings, which should last for half-an-hour within 24 hours between the applications. In using the spirit it is well to remember that a little of it lightly applied brings out the polish, whilst too much would utterly desrtoy the shine already imparted by your work.

Another thing to keep in mind is the rule:—‘'Work well round the edges and into the corners, and the middle will take care of itself.”

In the third and final polishing rather less French polish than formerly is required. Rub as before until the pad is practically dry, then with the fingers apply a few drops of methylated spirit and rub well into the pad, and go over all the work lightly again for about 20 minutes, when a brilliant polish will result.

Sometimes a dull spot confronts the worker in the final stage of polishing, but instead of rubbing this hard, as he is naturally tempted to do, he should work over the entire surface again with a drop of oil on the pad; the difficulty will thus be overcome, and the whole work shine beautifully.

It is well to remember that draughts spell ruin to polishing, which should be carried on in a warm room, and it is imperative that the articles be kept entirely free of dust during the process.

CHAPTER 23.

Varnish.

Varnish.—A universal black varnish suitable for boots, harness, wood, stone, glass, metal-work, etc., etc., which cost little, dries quickly, and will not chip, is made by adding 2 ozs. spirit black aniline to Id gallons methylated spirit. Put in a can and add 2:] lbs. crushed shellac, 1 lb. rosin, and h lb. camphor. In another vessel put 1 quart motor spirit, 3 ozs. castor oil, and Id ozs. boiled linseed oil, add to other, then shake and strain. Apply with brush or. sponge.

COPAL.

Copal.—1 gallon linseed oil. Id gallons turpentine, 4 lbs. gum copal, d lb. sugar of lead. Boil until stringy. (2) Cum Copal (4 lbs.), Id gallons linseed oil, 2d gallons turpentine, and 2oz. sulphate of iron. Dissolve the gum in a small quantity of oil and pour this mixture gradually on the other oil while boiling. Allow it to cool sufficiently before adding the turpentine, which, otherwise, would ignite. Recommended for house and sign painting.

CARRIAGE.

Carriage.—4 lbs. second-sorted African copal; boil in 1] gallons clarified oil till stringy; 2 ozs. litharge, the same f dried copperas and dried sugar of lead, 2d gallons strained turpentine, 4 lbs. second-sorted gum amine, Id gallons clarified oil, and 2d gallons turpentine. Mix with the first whilst still hot. The varnish dries hard if well boiled for six hours in winter and two less in summer. Used by house-painters and decorators; also for carriages, springs, wheels, etc. Gum amine is African copal.

FURNITURE.

Furniture.— (1) Dissolve in 1 gallon naphtha,, Id lbs. shellac, filter, and use. (2) Dissolve in 1 gallon spirit 4 ozs. benzoin and 2 lbs. shellac.

MASTIC.

Mastic.—1 gallon oil of turpentine and 2 lbs. mastic. Dissolve by means of heat. Improves in keeping, and should not be used for a year, when it is strong, brilliant, and colourless. Specially adapted for pictures.

INDIA-RUBBER VARNISHES.

India-rubber Varnishes.—Divide 1 lb. India-rubber in ' tiny pieces and dissolve in i lb. sulphuric ether by means of a glass flask on a sand bath. Add 1 lb. heated pale linseed oil varnish, and, after it settles, 1 lb. oil of turpentine, also previously heated. Filter while still hot into bottles. This takes some time to dry. Unvulcanised rubber is meant.

TO POLISH VENEERS.

To Polish Veneers.—Place a pennyworth of chromate of potash into a small bottle and add 3 ozs. or 4 ozs. of water. Saturate a sponge in the liquid, and after cleaning the veneer off the legs of chairs, etc., go over them evenly. According to the strength you may make mahogany any colour desired in a few minutes. Polish the article when perfectly dry. The liquid, if well corked, will keep for a long time, and it may be applied before or after oiling if the skin is not dark enough.

FURNITURE OR FLOOR POLISH.

Furniture or Floor Polish.—1 pint turpentine, 1 oz. beeswax, i oz. Castile soap. Shred wax and soap as finely as possible, then put it into a quart bottle with the turpentine. Let it stand for three days, shaking it from time to time in order to dissolve wax and soap. Fill up the bottle with water. For thicker cream add less water.

FURNITURE CREAM.

Furniture Cream.—Into 1 gill turpentine shred 1 oz. white beeswax and let it dissolve, then add 1 teaspoonful strong ammonia; stir all together, allow to stand for two or three days, when it will become thick and milky in appearance. If too thick reduce with turpentine. .A very little of this cream gives a brilliant polish.

FLOOR AND LINOLEUM POLISH.

Floor and Linoleum Polish.—Cut finely 2 ozs. beeswax, cover with turpentine, and dissolve in a gentle heat, adding more spirit if necessary. Rub evenly and thoroughly a small quantity into the wood, polish with two dusters, and finish off with a linen rag, rubbing the way of the grain. Reduce to thinner consistency for linoleum polish.

CHAPTER 24.

Glues and Pastes.

GLUE (FIREPROOF).

Glue (Fireproof).—Mix 4 ozs. of linseed oil with a handful of quick-lime; boil until fairly thick, spread on tins or plates to cool, out of the sun, when it will become very hard. It successfully resists fire, but may easily be dissolved by heat and used as ordinary glue.

GUM.

Gum.—Dissolve 1 part cheap gum arab.ic in 1 part water, and if it is wanted to keep indefinitely add a few drops of chloroform or glycerine. Strain through muslin.

PASTE (EVERLASTING).

Paste (Everlasting).—-Melt 1 oz. alum in a quart of warm water, allow to cool, then add as much flour as will make a thick cream; stir in i teaspoonful powdered resin and two or three cloves; boil, stirring constantly.

ADHESIVE PASTE.

Adhesive Paste.—In 1 quart water dissolve 1 teaspoonful alum, and, when cool, stir in first sufficient flour to make a good cream, and then as much powdered resin as will lie on a sixpence, and a few drops oil of cloves. Into a teacupful of boiling water, set in a pan, pour the solution, stirring all the time. Pour into an earthenware receptacle, cover, and keep in a cool place. Take out as necessary and dissolve in hot water. It will keep for a year and is better than gum.

PASTE FOR PAPER OR LEATHER.

Paste for Faper or Leather.—Soften 4 parts glue jn 15 parts cold water for 18 hours; heat till transparent; add 65 parts boiling water without stirring. Prepare also 30 parts starch and 200 parts cold water to a thin liquid. Pour the first solution boiling hot into this, stirring vigorously, and keep the whole mass boiling at the same time.

LIQUID MUCILAGE.

Liquid Mucilage—Melt together i lb. fine glue and 5 ozs. gum arabic in 1 pint water in a warm place._ When completely dissolved add very slowly 5 ozs. strong nitric acid, and, when cool, bottle, adding Uvo or three cloves to each portion. This never congeals.

GLUE (MOISTURE-PROOF).

Glue (Moisture-proof).—Dissolve 1 lb. of common glue in 8 pints of skim milk.

PASTE FOR FIXING FLOORCLOTH.

Paste for Fixing Floorcloth.—2 ozs. alum, 1 lb. rye-flour. Make a stiff paste of the flour and water, add Id pints boiling water, stirring constantly, put on the fire, and stir gently till it boils; add the alum, and, still tirring, let it simmer two minutes. The paste need only be applied to the edges of the floorcloth.

CHAPTER 25.

Cement and Solders.

C0L0UR1,ESS CEMENT.

Colourless Cement.—Dissolve i oz. of gum arabic in a wineglass of boiling water; add plaster of Paris sufficient to form a thick paste, and apply it with a brush to the parts required to be cemented together. (1) For China.—Apply a little carriage varnish carefully with a camel’s hair brush to the edges of broken china, the parts being neatly joined together. The fracture, when thoroughly dry, is hardly perceptible, and the china stands fire and water. (2) Expressed juice of garlic is everlasting and leaves no mark.

FOR SIMPLE BREAKAGES.

For Simple Breakages.—Mix powdered plaster of Paris to a paste with gum arabic water. Smear the fractures, press together, and leave to dry.

TO FIX THE HANDLES OF KNIVES AND FORKS.

To Fix the Handles of Knives and Forks.—4 ozs. black resin, 1 oz. beeswax, and 1 oz. well-dried and finely-powdered brick-dust. Melt and blend the ingredients, and use in a liquid form. This is useful in houses where knives are constantly being broken from their handles.    .

JEWELLER'S OR DIAMOND CEMENT.

Jeweller’s or Diamond Cement.—Dissolve half-a-dozen pieces of gum mastic the size of large peas in as much rectified alcohol as will render it liquid, and in another dish dissolve as much isinglass (softened first in water, which pour off) in rum or brandy as will make 2 ozs. strong glue, then add two tiny bits of gum camphor. Mix thoroughly the contents of the two vessels, and keep well corked. Place the vial in boiling water before applying to jewellery or glass, etc.

FOR WOOD, IRON, GLASS, CHINA, ETC.

For Wood, Iron, Glass, China, Etc.—J oz. of best isinglass, rub it between the hands until it breaks drown into powder, put in a bottle, and add as much common acetic acid as will just wet the mass through. Then stand the bottle in some boiling water; the paste will then dissolve and be fit to use at once. It can be wanned up again when required.

GASFITTERS’ CEMENT.

Gasfitters’ Cement.—Mix together 3 parts Venetian red, 1 part wax, and 44 parts resin.

CEMENT FOR LEATHER OR RUBBER GOODS.

Cement for Leather or Rubber Goods.—4 parts guttapercha, 1 part India-rubber, { part linseed oil, 4 pint common caulkers’ pitch. Dissolve together and use whilst hot.

FOR CRACKS IN ROOFS, ETC.

For Cracks in Roofs, Etc.—Mix white lead and dry white sand with oil to the thickness of putty. In a few weeks it becomes very hard and is specially adapted for filling crevices in brick buildings or in pointing up the base of chimneys.

CHAPTER 26.

Soap-Making and Laundry.

Since grease enters largely into the composition of soap it is not a difficult matter in most households to collect sufficient, say lbs., to start a first operation. Put all scraps of fat or skimmings of soup, etc., into large jars, melt in the oven, add water, mix well, and allow the mass to cool. Into the copper, large pan, or fish-kettle, which will contain 2 gallons, dissolve 1 lb. caustic soda in 1+ gallons of rain water. Stir well, add 7 lbs .fat, and place on the fire to simmer and boil for about three hours, stirring at intervals. Its consistency may be tested by pouring a few drops into a cup of boiling water, when it should dissolve without any suggestion of oil. Skim if necessary, and before the mixture cools add 3 ozs. sal-ammoniac and 1 lb. salt. Set aside to cool, cut the soap on top, pour off the water in the bottom of the pan, and boil the soap up again with a small quantity of water until it pours easily into jars, tins, etc. After the soap has stood a week or two it ought to be quite firm and sufficiently pure to serve not only for laundry but for toilet purposes.

SOFT SOAP.

Soft Soap.—Dissolve 2\ lbs. sliced bar soap and 1 lb. soda in 1} gallons water, boiling till dissolved, and an excellent soft soap results.

CARPET SOAP.

Carpet Soap.—Shred 2 ozs. yellow soap and pour over it 2 pints boiling water. Stir until it dissolves, then add 3 tablespoonfuls ammonia and i oz. washing soda. Keep in a tin or jar. Make a lather of the soap with warm water and apply vigorously with a doth or brush to the carpet. Rinse in cold water and dry with a clean cloth.

CAMPHOR SOAP.

Camphor Soap.—Melt the scraps of soap which accumulate in bathroom and bed-room, add a small quantity of camphor dissolved in a few drops of sweet oil. Stir all together over the fire, pour into a vessel, and when cool mould into balls. Excellent for OATMEAL SOAP.

Oatmeal Soap.—Into a saturated solution of powdered borax of cream, and then stir in sufficient oatmeal with a little flowers throw several pieces castile or glycerine soap, boil to the thickness rough hands.    .

SAND SOAP.

Sand Soap.—Prepare according to directions for camphor soap, adding sliver sand whilst the soap is still on the fire. Mould into balls or tablets.

MAGIC CLEANSER.

Magic Cleanser.—Take f lb. white castilc soap in a dry and crumbly state, shave it finely and pour over it 2 gallons soft or rain water, and boil till soap is dissolved. Add 1 h ozs. saltpetre, stirring very slowly until it is thoroughly assimilated. Strain, allow the suds to settle, skim off any top crust, add 1 quart a.qua ammonia, bottle, and cork tightly and immediately. Its qualities are as numerous as magical. It cleanses silver, copper, or brass with the addition of a little whitening applied by a rag; it spells death to bugs if left on beds, etc.; it serves as a shampoo mixed ■with an equal quantity of water; it renews carpets, and removes grease and oil spots from the finest fabrics without injury. Rub it well into the spots on both sides and rinse in cold water.

,    WASHING POWDERS.

Washing Powders.—The basis of most is soda-ash ground to a coarse powder in the proportion of 90 parts, mixed with a little soap and 2 parts each of borax or starch-powder. Mix together equal quantities soda-ash and washing soda, crushed to crystals, and add them to a thin solution of linseed oil or glue until the liquid is fairly thick; spread on wooden boards or tables and dry in warm atmosphere.

GREASE EXTRACTOR.

Gieasc Extractor.—\ parts turps to 1 part ammonia and a k part ether. Apply carefully to grease marks and then wipe well vith a sponge and clean, cold water.

BLEACH FOR BOILING CLOTHES.

Bleach for Boiling Clothes.—Mix 4 ozs. soda-ash with 2d. worth chloride of lime, and dissolve both in boiling water. Cool, strain, and bottle. A cupful of the liquid is sufficient for an ordinary wash, and it may be put in the boiler with the clothes. Shake solution before being used.

GLAZE FOR LINEN.

Glaze for Linen.—1 oz. gum tragacanth dissolved in h pint boiling water, and used in the proportion of 1 dessertspoonful to i pint of starch.

A STRONG BLEACH.

A Strong Bleach.— (1) Mix l lb. chloride of lime with cold water to a smooth paste, add 1 quart boiling water, pour into a vessel,

S. R. FAULL

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stirring well, cover, and allow to stand for two or three days, giving it an occasional stir. Strain through piece of muslin and use only sufficient of the solution to make the bleaching water smell slightly. Apply very carefully else it may burn. Use a rag and rub well into any stains and rinse repeatedly. The bleach must be kept in a dark place tightly corked.

FOR SCORCHED LINEN.

For Scorched Linen.—Cut up a large onion in slices and press all the juice out. Add to the liquid 1 o7.. soap, 1 o■/.. Fuller’s earth, and I pint of vinegar. Bring the mixture to the boil, spread illicitly on the scorched parts, leave until dry, and wash well in soap suds.    ■

FIRE EXTINGUISHING FLUID.

Fire Extinguishing Fluid.—Dissolve in 2 quarts of water 1 lb. common salt and l lb. sal-ammoniac. Bottle and store in a handy cupboard. Should a small fire arise break a bottle of the fluid into the flames and avert a conflagration.

INK STAINS.

Ink Stains.—Can easily be removed from linen by applying salt of sorrel to the damped spot; then dip in a weak eau de javelle and then in warm water.

MARKING INK STAINS.

Marking Ink Stains.—After washing, paint with a tincture of iodine, then after standing all night dip the spots in solution of potassium cyanide.

CHAPTER 27.

Inks and Sealing Wax.

BLACK WRITING INK.

Black Writing Ink.— (1) Boil together 6ozs. aleppo galls and 6 pints soft water: add 4 ozs. sulphat of iron and 4 ozs. gum arabic. Put the whole in a bottle and keep it in a warm place, shaking it occasionally. Tn two months pour it off into glass bottles and add to each pint a grain of corrosive sublimate or three of four drops of creosote. (2) Powder and mix together 1 oz. bichromate of potash and 1 07. extract of logwood, and add, stirring well, 1 quart rain water (hot).

BLUE INK.

Blue Ink.—On 1 oz. finely-powdered Prussian blue pour 1 oz. concentrated hydrochloric acid. Let it stand for 24 hours, then add water till the necessary strength is obtained.

COPYING INK.

Copying Ink.—1 gallon soft water, 4 oz. each of gum arabic, brown sugar, and clean copperas, and 64 ozs. powdered nutgalls. Mix and shake at intervals for 10 days. Strain and bottle. INVISIBLE INK.

Invisible Ink—Mix 20 parts water with 1 part sulphuric acid. Use a quill pen and the writing can be seen by heating the paper.

Indelible Ink (for Marking Linen).—Dissolve in 3 ozs. of liquor ommonia fortis § oz. nitrate of silver, and add 4 oz. gum arabic and 4 oz. archil. Write with a quil pen.

INK FOR TICKET WRITING.

Ink for Ticket Writing.—Dissolve 4 oz. gum arabic in 3 ozs. water and strain. This may be coloured as desired by adding carmine, lake, or vermillion 'for red; flake white for white; drop black, pulverised with the mucilage very finely for black; _ for green,!' emerald green; ultra-marine for blue. Either of these^ inks may be readily thinned down by water. Size the cards with a preparation of tlnn glue put on with a small biush before writing, and afterwards varnish.

--    LUMINOUS INK.

Luminous Ink.—Mix in a small bottle 4 oz. sweet or salad oil and 4 drachm phosphorus; heat slowly until well mixed. Writing in this ink shines out in the darkness and can only be read in a

dark room.    ^

100

RED WRITING INK.

Red Writing Ink.—4 ozs. best ground Brazil wood, 1 pint diluted acetic acid, ^ oz. alum. Boil slowly in a covered or enamelled pan for one hour. Strain and add i oz. of gum.

FINE MARKING INK.

Fine Marking Ink.—Put. 1 oz. nitrate of silver and 1} ozs. carbonate of soda in crystals, separately in distilled water. Mix the solution, collect and wash the precipitate in a filter, introduce the washed precipitate still moist into a Wedgewood mortar, and add to it 2 drs. 40 grs. tartaric acid, rubbing together until effervescence has ceased; dissolve 6 grs. carmine in 6 drs. liquor ammonia (.882), and add it to the tartar of silver; then mix in 6 drs. white sugar and 10 drs. powdered gum arabic, and add as much water as will make 6 ozs.

VANISHING INK.

Vanishing Ink.'—Boil 1 oz. crushed or powdered nutgalls in diluted nitric acid, and add i oz. sulphate of iron and a little chloride of ammonia. All traces of this ink disappear in a few days’ time.

BLACK SEALING WAX.

Black Sealing Wax.—if lb. best black resin, I lb. finely-powdered ivory black, and 2 ozs. beeswax. Melt over a slow fire and form into squares or sticks by rolling them on a piece of glass or mahogany into lengths, and then flattening them by means of a gentle pressure. To polish, hold over the flame of a spirit lamp, rub with a candle or piece of suet, and polish with a leather.

RED WAX.

Red Wax.—Mix 1 lb. shellac, I lb. finest vermilion or Venetian red, and 5 ozs. Venice turpentine in a gentle heat. Pour on a smooth surface and make up as above. Venetian red is cheaper, but duller.

CHAPTER 28.

Hair Washes.

FOR FAIR HAIR.

For Fair Hair.—J oz. of sesquicarbonate of ammonia, A pint of rosewater, and ] pint spirits of rosemary. Shake well. Apply to ihe hair before brushing.

FOR GREY HAIR.

For Grey Hair.—Peat the whites of three eggs to a froth and mix with 1 teaspoonful of salts of tartar. Then rub into the hair some soap-suds, and rinse with several waters into which a little borax lias been put. This will impart a lovely silver tinge to grey hair in the “pepper-and-salt” stage.

FOR GREASY HAIR.

For Greasy Hair.—This preparation should be rubbed into the scalp every second night:—2 ozs. witch hazel extract. 2 ozs. alcohol, 1 oz. distilled water, and 25 grains resorcin.

HAIR WASH.

Hair Wash.—6 oz. bay rum and 1A drachms milk of sulhpur. Apply this to the roots of the hair every second night, and in the morning brush the hair with a long bristled brush. Thoroughly shake before using. It nourishes the hair and keeps it in good cor dition.

WILSON’S HAIR TONIC.

Wilson’s Hair Tonic.—3 ozs. tincture of cantharides, 1 oz. oil of rosemary, 6ozs. bay rum, and 1 oz. olive oil. It is claimed that loz. of rock sulhpur, broken into small pieces (not powdered), added to this lotion will retard the coming of grey hairs.

LOTION FOR FALLING HAIR.

Lotion for Falling Hair.—1 drachm resorcin, 1 drachm sweet almond oil, 14 drachms chloral hydrate, 3 drachms chloroform, 3 ozs. eau-de-cologne, and 2i ozs. rectified spirit.

Hair Restorer.—4 ozs. Jamaica rum, 1 oz. rose-water, 2 ozs.

HAIR RESTORER.

sweet oil, and 1 drachm of tincture of cantharides. This preparation, which stimulates the growth of hair and delays its turning grey, should be applied two or three times a week.

BRILLIANTINE.

Brilliantine.—Mix 1 oz. glycerine with 2ozs. bay rum and 6 ozs. rectified spirit.

HAIR POMADE.

Hair Pomade.—Mix together equal quantities quinine powder and pure castor oil to a thick paste. Perfume according to taste. Rub well into the scalp several times a week.

CURLING FLUID.

Curling Fluid.— I drachm carbonate of potash, I drachm powdered cochineal, l drachm liquid of ammonia, 1 drachm essence of rose, 1 02. glycerine, 1$ ozs. rectified spirit, and 18 ozs. distilled water. Let the mixture assimilate, with frequent stirrings, for a week, and then hlter. Moisten the hair with the above while dressing.    •

DANDRUFF.

Dandruff.—Add 1 oz. flowers of sulphur to 1 quart water, shake the mixture frequently, and apply to the scalp.

LOTION FOR PARASITES.

Lotion for Parasites.—Put 1 lb. of quassia chips in an old jug or jar and cover with boiling water. Allow this to stand near the fire for 12 hours, strain, and bottle for use. After washing the child’s head, well rub or brush the hair with a little of the lotion, and allow it to dry into the hair. Repeat when the hair requires washing.

Established 3C Years.    Telephone—Central 593

PETER SMALL urnishmg Emporium

Houses Furnished on the Hire Purchase System

Furniture Bought, Sold or Exchanged Furniture and Pianos Cash or Easy Terms Invalid Chairs and Furniture for Hire by the Week

Corner of Flinders and Pulteney Streets, Adelaide.

[INSPECTION INVITED.

104

CHAPTER 29.

Perfumes, Powders, Etc.

JOCKEY CLUB SACHET.

Jockey Club Sachet.—Take 16 oz.s. powdered orris root, 5 grains musk (synthetic), 40 drops attar of roses, 1 drachm oil of bergamot. and 1 drachm santal oil. Mix well together.

LAVENDER-WATER.

Lavender-wa.tei\—11 pints spirits of wine, J pint water, and J oz.'essential oil of lavender. Mix thoroughly and a milky fluid will result; add 1 drachm burnt alum, and allow the liquid to stand for- a day or two. Decant the clear water for use.

SMELLING SALTS.

Smelling Salts.—One pennyworth rock ammonia broken into small pieces. Fill the bottle, and cover with lavender-water or eau-de-cologne.

COLOGNE-WATER.

Cologne-water.—1 drachm oil of lavender, f drachm oil of rosemary. J drachm oil of bergamot, J drachm oil of lemon, J drachm oil of orange, 1 drachm essence of musk, 5 drops attar of roses, and J pint proof spirits. Agitate thoroughly four times daily for one week.

PEARL POWDER.

Pearl Powder.—Take equal parts of French chalk, powdered finely, and pure pearl white, and mix thoroughly. For the skin.

ROSE POWDER.

Rose Powder.—1 drachm rose pink, 2 ozs. powdered starch, 20 drops essence of jasmine, and 5 drops attar of roses. Perfectly harmless and preferable to rouge.

ROUGE.

Rouge.—i oz.. alkanet and i pint alcohol; macerate for 12 days before pouring off the liquid and bottling.

VIOLET POWDER.

Violet Powder.—Mix SO parts potato starch, ground finely, with 2 parts orris powder; add 10 drops perfume, such as bergamot, ambergis, or musk, and pass through a fine sieve.

BATH POWDER (PERFUMED).

Bath Powder (Perfumed).—Take Id. worth of powdered orris-root, mix it with 1 lb. fine oatmeal, put the whole into a muslin

bag, which, when placed in the bath, will make the water delightfully soft and pleasant.

DUSTING POWDER FOR INVALIDS.

Dusting Powder for Invalids.—1 lb. powdered starch. 2 07s. boric acid, and 1 07. oxide of zinc.

SHAVING CREAM.

Shaving Cream.—-! ozs. white soap. 2 o/.s. finest honey, 1 07,. olive oil. 2 spoonfuls of water. 1 drachm carbonate of soda. Melt together to form a paste. Add a little proof spirit and any kind of perfume desired.

STROP PREPARATION.

Strop Preparation.—For sharpening, mix fine, washed emery thoroughly with beeswax or fat until a fairly thick paste is obtained. and then rub it well into the leather strop. For a finer mixture use rouge or putty-powder with the wax.

NAIL POWDER AND COLOURING.

Nail Powder and ’Colouring.—Equal parts of emery and cinnabar rubbed in, and scented by a lew drops of bitter almonds. A mixture of myrrh and pitch removes the white specks from nails. Brittle nails should be anointed lightly with warm olive oil and cold cream.

LIP SALVE.

Lip Salve.—2 ozs. oil of almonds, H ozs. white wax, and * oz. spermaceti. Mix thoroughly, perfume as desired, and apply before retiring.

Silver and Metal Cleaning.

TO PRECIPITATE WHITENING.

To Precipitate Whitening.—There is nothing better than whitening for cleaning silver-plate, and it possesses the merit of being much cheaper than any plate powder. It requires, however, to bo refined or precipitated thus:—Crush it with a rolling-pin to a very fine powder, pour into a muslin bag. which should be suspended from a crossways stick in a jug. Agitate the contents from time to time until the bag is empty. Allow the sediment to settle, then pour ofl the water and dry the whitening on a large plate or pudding-dish. Keep in well-covered tin.

BRILLIANT POWDER.

Brilliant Powder.—For gold, silver, copper, brass, etc., pulverise and mix together thoroughly 1 lb. best whitening, I ox. calcined magnesia, and 2 ozs. cream of tartar. Put up in small airtight boxes. Apply a small quantity on a damp flannel or leather, and finish with a little more on a dry duster, rubbing vigorously. The polish is surprisingly brilliant and lustrous.

TO CLEAN SILVER.

To Clean Silver.—Reduce a bar of good soap to jelly with water, and, when cold, add sufficient precipitated whitening to make it the consistency of cream. Keep in a jar. Apply with a flannel to the silver, rinse in warm wrater, wipe, but do not dry, polish with a chamois. Splendid for chased silver, as it leaves no suggestion of whitening.

TO RE-LACQUER BRASS.

To Re-lacquer Brass.—Cleanse the articles thoroughly with roiling water and soap extract, but do not dry. Prepare the fol-owing solution:—Mix & saffron, i oz. each gamboge, seedlac, dragon’s blood, and anatto, and pour on z pint methylated spirit. Bottle and cork; place in a pan of boiling water, agitating frequently until the contents are dissolved. Strain immediately through muslin into another bottle, and keep it closely corked. The brass articles should be put in a hot oven and kept there till they can just be removed for heat. The solution must be applied instantly on a camel’s-hair mop brush, and the articles left to dry in an atmosphere of 60 degrees Fahr. Treated as above, brass articles look like new.

POLISHING POWDER FOR SILV ER. BRASS AND COPPER,

Polishing Powder for Silver, Brass, and Copper.—One penny-

worth refined, powdered whitening and one pennyworth of rouge powder all well mixed together. Mix to a smooth paste with a little water, methylated spirit, or ammonia water. Hold the article to be cleaned in the hand, and with a soft flannel rub the whitening paste all over it. Let it quite dry on, then with a soft duster rub off the whitening, using a plate brush to get the paste out of any crevices, but being careful not to scratch the surface of the article. When all the whitening is wiped off polish with a chamois leather.

PASTE FOR BRASSES.

Paste for Brasses.—Dissolve 1 oz. stearic acid and 1 oz. oleic acid in 3 ozs. paraffin oil by heating carefully, then mix to a paste with 5 ozs. or 6ozs. precipitated silica. More paraffin will convert it into a splendid fluid polish.

Always Reliable lor Presentation Jewellery, Medals and Trophies.

Engagements and Wedding Rings Made to Order Watcb, Clock and Jewellery Repairs

Try Me and you will be well Pleased.

Watchmaker and Manufacturing Jeweller 9 ADELAIDE ARCADE (off, Grenfell St.)

Next to Wax Works, Adelaide.

’Phone—Central .1471 108

CHAPTER 31.

Store-Room Specialities.

FRENCH BAKING POWDER.

French Baking Powder.—9 ozs. ground rice, 9 ozs. carbonate of soda, and 8 ozs. powdered tartaric acid. Mix and sift. Keep in an airtight tin or bottle for use. This is a strong and superior article, and less of it may be added than of other kinds.

LEMONADE TABLETS.

Lemonade Tablets.— (1) 1 oz. tartaric acid. 4 ozs. of castor sugar, 1 drachm of essence of lemon. Mix these ingredients well together and damp with pure spirit to make into a dough. Divide into 20 equal portions, wrap them carefully into separate papers, and store for use in air-tight tins. Each portion is sufficient for one glass of lemonade. (2) 7 lbs. castr sugar, 54 ozs. tartaric acid. 1 oz. distilled oil of limes, i oz. pressed oil of limes, 4 oz. oil of lemon. Spread the sugar upon sheet of paper, sprinkle the flavourings upon it. and rub well through the hands. Put in oven till dry, turning occasionally. When perfectly dry mix in the tartaric acid, and keep in air-tight tin in dry place. See that the Sugar is dry before adding acid. These two are non-effervescent.

LEMONADE (EFFERVESCING).

Lemonade (Effervescing).—Take 4 ozs. sugar, 36 drops essence of lemon. 6 drachms bicarbonate of potash, and spring water sufficient to fill 12 bottles. Dissolve the ingredients in the water and ,41 the bottles, then add to each bottle 35 grains of citric acid in crystals. Cork and tie down immediately. Fit for drinking next day.

LEMON KALL.

Lemon Kali.—A lb. ground white sugar, i lb. tartaric acid, 4 lb. carbonate of soda, 40 drops essence of lemon. All the powders should be well dried; add the essence to the sugar, then the other powders; stir all together, and mix by passing twice through hair sieve. Must be kept in tightly-corked bottles, into which a damp spoon must not be inserted. The sugar must be ground, or very finely pulverised with a pestle and mortar. The powdered sugar sold for icing cakes will do. To make the beverage, dissolve a large teaspoonful in two-thirds of a glass of water.

SHERBET.

Sherbet.— (1) .14 ozs. citric acid and 5U drops essence of lemon well together; dissolve 4 lbs. loaf sugar in 2 pints boiling water,

109

and then add acid mixture. Stir it well up, bottle, and cork. Two tablespoonfuls to a glass of water. (2) 8 ozs. of white sugar pounded to fine flour, 4ozs. of tartaric acid, 4 ozs. of carbonate of soda, 30 drops, or more to taste, of essence of lemon. The ingredients are thoroughly mixed dry, bottled, and tightly corked. A small teaspoonful to a glass of water.

SODA FOAM.

Soda Foam.—2 lbs. white sugar, the whites of 2 eggs, 2 ozs. of tartaric acid, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 quarts water, and the ujice of l lemon. Boil two or three minutes and flavour to taste. After this is cold, dissolve l teaspoonful of soda in i glass of water, pour in about 2 tablespoonfuls of the acid, and it will foam to the top of the glass.

ANCHOVY PASTE.

Anchovy Paste.—Boil 2 eggs for 12 minutes, mix to a fine powder the yolks with a piece of butter the size of an egg, add 1 f tablespoonfuls of anchovy essence, and a dash of nutmeg and cayenne pepper.

r    Miscellaneous.

..    SHAMPOO.

Shampoo.—2 ozs. carbonate of potash. 8 ozs. alcohol. 1 oz. water of ammonia, and 5 ozs. water. After the hair is damped pour on enough of the solution to make a good lather. Rinse in lukewarm water.

MUSTARD PLASTER.

Mustard Plaster.—Mustard in powder 5ozs„ crushed linseed 5 ozs., water a sufficiency. Mix the mustard with 3or 4 ozs. of warm water, and add to the linseed previously mixed with warm water. Stir together.

POROUS PLASTER.

Porous Plaster.—Melt 4 lb. India-rubber. 4 ozs. pitch, 4 ozs. gumllms. and add 30 grains cayenne pepper. Spread while hoton muslin or linen with perforations to allow the perspiration to escape.

SALINE.    >

Saline.—Take 4 ozs. Epsom salts, 4 ozs. tartaric acid, 4 ozs. cream of tartar, 8 ozs. bicarbonate of soda, 2 ozs. citrate of magnesia, 1 i lbs. icing sugar. See that all the ingredients are thoroughly dry. Mix and pound them together till fine. Pass through a wire sieve three times. Place in perfectly dry bottles, and cork tightly. Two teaspoonfuls in a glass of water, with or without the addition of a few drops essence of lemon, makes a refreshing effervescing drink.

SARSAPARILLA.

Sarsaparilla.—Soak 15 ozs. sarsaparilla in 1 gallon of boiling water, reduce the liquid to 2 quarts, strain, add IS ozs. sugar, and boil to a syrupy consistency. Aniseed and sassafras are often added to flavour.

SEIDLITZ POWDERS.

Seidlitz Powders.—2 drachms Rochelle salts and 40 grains bicarbonate of soda mixed together for the blue paper. The white contains 38 grains tartaric acid. Empty both into i pint water, stir, and drink.

HERBAL TEA.

Herbal 'Tea.—Buckthorn bark 2 ozs., dandelion root 2 ozs., senna leaves 2 ozs., liquorice root } oz.. coriander seed I oz., aniseed j oz. See that all ingredients arc ground into powder and mix thoroughly together. Dose:—Take heaping tablespoonful and steep it in a cupful of boiling water, then strain and drink as ordinary vtea. Many people have an objection to taking liquid

111

Beale Sewing Machine Compy.,

43 ADELAIDE ARCADE.

All Parts Interchangeable with the Singer Machine.

The Beale, a £24 Machine for £14/10/-Terms Arranged

HEALTH AND WEALTH 112

medicine and pills because they contain alcoholic ingredients, and a herbal tea is often preferred as a general household medicine.

HOREHOUND SYRUP.

Horehound Syrup.—Infuse 1 lb. of white horehound in 1 gallon of boiling water for two hours; express liquor, strain and sugar to taste. Dose:—One tablespoonful. When cough is severe, a remedy that should be in every home.

LINSEED SYRUP.

Linseed Syrup.—Simmer gently for two hours three tablespoon-fids of linseed in three cups of water, then strain, and only about half of liquid should remain; then stir in about i lb. of sugar candy, and add six tablespoonfuls of white vinegar. Stir well to-egther, and allow to cool. Bottle and keep well corked. Dose: — One teaspoon fill, as desired, to relieve cough.

YEAST.

Yeast.— (1) For Home-made Bread.—Yeast may easily be made as follows:—Boil 1 lb. good flour, 1 lb. brown sugar, and i oz. of salt in 2 gallons of water for 1 hour. When almost cold bottie and cork closely. It will be fit for use in 24t hours, and 1 pint Will make four quartern loaves. (2) Baker’s.—Boil for one hour 1 oz. hops in 9 pints of water; let the liquor get milk-warm: then add 3A lbs. mashed potatoes, -1 lb. sugar, 1 oz. carbonate of soda, I oz. spirits of wine, J lb. flour, and 1 gill of brewers’ yeast to work it. Cover and stand it in a warm place, but not too near to the fire.

DRYING MINT.

Drying Mint.—Mint, like other herbs, should be gathered on a dry day, and the proper season for doing so is the end of June or July. Cleanse, the leaves and dry by the heat of a stove, or in an oven. Pick oft’ the leaves, pound, and sift, put into stoppered bottles, label, and put away for use.

COFFEE ESSENCE.

Coffee Essence.—-Put J lb. good, fresh-ground coffee into a percolator (or in coffee-pot with strainer), pour a pint of boiling water slowly over it. When it has filtered through, pour oft Lie coffee grounds, and let the liquid filter through a second time. Whei cool pour it into a dry bottle and cork it tightly. The essence will keep good for at least a fortnight. Use one tablespoonfut for a Dieakfast cup. This is a first-rate recipe, and, as it is un-¡weetened, it will be valued by those who prefer coffee without sugar.

Pianos, Player Pianos, Violins, &c.

AT

HeinicKe’s

PIANO DEPOT

Good Variety Beautiful rich-toned new German Models to choose from at most reasonable rates.

Agents for the World’s Best GROTR1AN STKIWKG Pfaffe, Iieidrich Zimmerman, Kastner and other makes.

Our KASTNER PLAYER PIANOS are unsurpassed for tone and simplicity of action, which enables anyone without musical knowledge to obtain most wonderful results when first played. Please come and inspect, compare prices and quality and also hear our Pianos demonstrated.

Good variety of German Accordeons and Concertinas to choose from.

Cash or Easy Terms.

Heinicke's Piano»

H. HEINICKE    P. FISCHER

Hindmarsh Buildings,

132 Grenfell Street, Adelaide

(Near Adelaide Arcade)

Open Friday Nights.    Phone 1574

LEMON CHEESE.

Lemon Cheese.—7 ozs. castor sugar. 2 ozs. butter, with the grated rind and juice (strained) of 2 lemons. Put into a saucepan, stir over tire stove until the butter and sugar are dissolved. When quite cool add slowly 2 eggs, beaten and strained, return ihc mixture to the saucepan, stir until it thickens, but on no account must it be allowea co boil. Pour into jars and use cold

FLAVOURING FOR SOUPS, ETC.

Flavouring for Soups, Etc.—-Save water in which celery or onions have been boiled. This will save vegetables, and will be found a most useful flavouring.

114

CHAPTER 33.

Poisons for Insects and Rats.

ANTS.

Ants.— (1) Use carbolic acid, tobacco-water, or a strong solution of spirits of wine and water. Pour into the holes for several days running and persist until the insect? are destroyed.

BUGS.

Bugs.— (1) Make a paste of Id. alum and boiling water, and apply to all infected parts. (2) Fill up crevices with equal parts of flour and alum. (3) Apply camphor to damp articles, such as the woodwork of beds, with spirits of naphtha.

BLACK BEETLES.

Black Beetles.—Sprinkle a mixture of borax «*td powdered sugar cccry night for a week or 10 days.

MOTHS.

Moths.—Sprinkle the inside of chests of drawers and cupboards periodically with spirits of turpentine. Wrap furs in naphthalene and newspapers, and keep in air-tight boxes.

FLY PAPER.

Fly Paper.—Melt a small quantity of resin and add sufficient sweet oil to give it the consistency of honey when quite cold. Spread on sheets of strong parchment or other paper and place where flies abound.

FLEAS.

Fleas.—Oil of pennyroyal is a quick means of riddance.

115    "

CHAPTER 34.

Waterproofing.

TO WATERPROOF TWEED.

To Waterproof Tweed.—Tweed garments may be rendered waterproof and impervious to the heaviest rains if treated as follows:— Into a pail of soft or rain water put i lb. sugar of lead and the same quantity of powdered alum. Stir every now and then until the mixture becomes quite clear. Pour it off into another vessel and place the garments therein for 24 hours. Hang up to dr} without wringing, and any coat immersed in this solution is to be recommended in place of a waterproof or raincoat.

TO WATERPROOF CLOTH.

To Waterproof Cloth.—Dissolve If lbs. alum in 5 galons of boiling water; then in a separate basin dissolve the same quantity of sugar of lead in 5 gallons of water and mix the two solutions. The cloth is now well worked in this liquid until every part of it is penetrated; it is squeezed or dried in the air or in a warm apartment, then washed in cold water and dried again, when it is fit for use. If necessary the cloth may be dipped in the liquid and dried twice before being washed.

WATERPROOFING, TRANSPARENT. FOR CALICO.

Waterproofing, Transparent, for Calico.—Take 3 pints pf pale linseed oil, 1 oz. sutrar of lead, and 4 oz. white resin. Grind the sugar of lead with a small quantity of the resin, and tiren mix it well with the remainde- Gently warm the resin in oil to make them mix well together. Apply the composition to the calico with a brush.

TO WATERPROOF A TENT.

To Waterproof a Tent.—Mix together 2 ozs. terebene and l quart boiled oil and apply it/ to canvas. Allow it to dry in the sun for a couple of days, when the tent will be found perfectly waterproof.

TO RESTORE RUBBER.

To Re«tore Rubber.—Make a solution of 2 parts water and l part aqua ammonia, and soak any rubber article therein Until its elasticity is restored. This may be effected in some cases in a few minutes, and in others the process will take about one hour.

CHAPTER 20.

Painting and Decorating.

WALLPAPER; HOW TO HANG IT.

Wall-paper; How to Hang It.—If the walls have been previously papered they should be carefully dusted with feather brush ^or cloth; if colour-washed they must be well wiped and dried with a flannel cloth and warm water the day previous, so that they may be perfectly dry. It is a saving of time and trouble to get the paper trimmed by the paper-hanger from whom it is bought. The necessary materials, such as batter, brush, tape-line, large pair of scissors, and    a good supply of    clean    rags, should all be at hand.

Measure the    height    of the walls    and cut off several pieces the_exact

length. Most amateurs apply the batter to the paper, but it will be found very much easier and more satisfactory to put it on the wall in long    lines.    Beginning at one    corner, place the upper corners of the    paper    in position,    press    it right along the top, and

smooth it gently down the entire strip, taking care that no wrinkles remain. The second piece is placed with its edges trimmed over the selvedge of the first, and so the process is continued until the entire room is covered. Should the paper possess an elaborate or intricate pattern then care must be exercised in the matching of the different designs.

PASTE FOR WALLPAPER.

Paste for Wall-paper.—Mix 1 lb. flour in a small quantity of water, break down all lumps, add more water slowly, stirring briskly till the batter is the consistency of gruel; add 1 teaspoonful alum, and boil, stirring all the time until the mixture is as thick as porridge. (See also Pastes.)

TO PAPER DAMP WALLS.

To Paper Damp Walls.—Dissolve i lb. glue-size and 1 lb. alum in a pail of water. Apply this solution to the damp walls after the wall-paper has been stripped off. When the mixture has dried, the room may be re-papered, and this precaution also prevents the paper falling off again.

LIME WHITEWASH.

Lime Whitewash.—Use well-slaked lime, and to every pailful add lbs. alum dissolved in boiling water. Thin down with water for the first coat and apply another. It is better to have the wash too thin than too thick, and the alum tends to make it adheie and ensures a smooth surface.

CHAPTER 35.

Common Names for Chemicals.

Acetic Acid, Vinegar; Aqua Fortis, Nilric Acid; Aqua Regia, Nitro-muriatic acid.

Balsam Syrup, Syrup Tolu; Bitter Wood, Quassia; Black Draught, Comp. Mixt. Senna; Blue Ointment, Lhiguentum Hydrargyrum; Blue Vitriol, Sulphate of Copper.

Calomel. Sub. Chloride of Mercury; Carron Oil, equal parts Lime-water and Linseed Oil; Caustic Potassa, Hydrate of Potassium; Chalk, Carbonate of Calcium; Carbonate' of Lime; Chloroform; Copperas. Ferri-Sulph; Copperas, Green Sulphate of Iron; Common Salt, Chloride of Sodium; Corrosive Sublimate, Bi-chloride of Mercury; Cream of Tartar, Bitartrate of Potassium.

Diamond, pure Carbon; dry Alum, Sulphate Aluminium and Potassium.

Epsom Salts, Sulphate of Magnesia.

Fire Damp, light Carburetted Hydrogen; Friar’s Balsam, Tr. Benzoin Comp.    .

Galena, Sulphate of Lead; Glucose, Grape Sugar; Gregory’s Powder, Comp. Rhubarb Mixture.

Iron Pyrites, Bisulphide of Iron.

Jewellers’ Putty Powder, Oxide of Tin.

Laughing Gas, Protoxide of Nitrogen; Lime, Oxide of Calcium; Lunar Caustic, Nitrate of Silver.

Muriate of Lime, Chloride of Calcium.

Nitre of Saltpetre, Nitrate of Potash.

Oil of Vitriol, Sulphuric Acid; Opodeldoc, Soap Liniment.

Potash, Oxide of Potassium.

Red Lead, Oxide of Lead; Rust of Iron, Oxide of Iron.

Sal-ammoniac, Chloride of Ammonia; Salt of Tartar. Carbonate of Potassa; Slaked Lime, Hydrate f Calcium; Soda, Oxide of Sodium; Smelling, Salts, Carbonate Ammonia; Sorrel Salts, Oxalic-Acid; Spirits of Hartshorn, Ammonia; Spirits of Sa)% Elydrochloric or Muriatic Acid; Stucco or Plaster of Paris, Sulphat of Lime; Sugar of Lead, Acetate of Lead.

Verdigris, Basic Acetate of Copper; Vermilion, Sulphate of Mercury; Vinegar, Acetic Acid (diluted); Volatile Alkah, Ammonia.

Water, Oxide of Hydrogen; White Precipitate, Ammoniated Mercury; White Vitriol, Sulphate of Zinc.

118

CHAPTER "36.

How to Use Honey.

PEANUT MONEY CANDY.

Tike 1 cup butler. 2 cups honey. 2 cups sugar, 1 cup boiling water, .1 teaspoonful cream tartar. I teaspoonful glycerine, a tiny ’ clash of soda. P.oil ten minutes to a soft ball, and set in cool place. When it has cooled slightly, stir in one or two tablespoonfuls of peanut butter, or to suit taste: keep stirring till creamy; then pour into buttered pans; mark in squares.

PEANUT CANDY.

I    se 1 cup honey. 1 cup granulated sugar. 4 tablespoonfuls sweet cream. Roil until it cracks when dropped in cold water. Remove from the fire and stir in a pound of peanuts that have been previously shelled and well crushed with the rolling-pin. Pour into a greased pan and set to cool.

HOP BEER.

II    gallons water, 1 handful hops. 8 pieces ginger. Roil for quarter of an hour. Let it cool and add 2 cups honey and h cup yeast. Bottle shortly after fermentation commences.

,    HONEY RUSKS.

a cups flour. 2 cups milk, 1-3 cup honey. I cup warm water, 1 cake compressed yeast, 1 teaspoon salt, 3 tablespoons melted butler. Raisins, currants, or cardarmom seed. 1 egg, 1 cup flour. Dissolve the yeast in warm water. Mix the flour, milk, honey, yeast and salt and set in a warm place to rise. When very light add the beaten egg, butter, and enough flour to make a stiff dough. Knead lightly and mould in small biscuits or twists. Raisins, currants, or cardarmom seed may be added at discretion. Rub the top with beaten egg; cover and let them rise again until they are doubly in bulk and are very light and Huffy. Bake 20 to 25 minutes in a moderate oven, glazing them with sugar and water just, before removing them from the oven.

LEMON CAKES.

Bring U cupfuls of honey to the boiling point. Skim, if necessary'. Add j cupful of butter and cool. Add 2 cupfuls of pastry flour, stirring it in carefully. Let this mixture stand over night. When ready to bake, stir in the grated yellow rind of one lemon, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, ¡3 cupful of chopped blanched almonds; add i teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little lukewarm water, and bake in small round tins. Ice when cool.

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419 King William St., Adelaide CARBERRY & DICK Vulcanizers    .

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Miles.

120 .

DOUGHNUTS.

I egg. 1 cup sweet milk, 1 cup honey, 2 tablespoons shortening, J teaspoon cream tartar, 1 teaspoon soda, flour, pinch salt. Cream the honey and shortening together and add the egg, well beaten, and the other ingredients. Mix well, and add flour enough to roll out and cut easily. Roll out on baking board, and cut with doughnut cutter. Try in hot lard. The honey in this recipe makes the doughnuts a delicious brown, and also keeps them moist for a long time.

' GINGER DROP CAKES.

1 cup sugar, 1 cup honey, 1 egg, 1 cup lard, i cup sweet milk, 1 tablespoon ginger, 4 teaspoon salt. 1 teaspoon soda. Cream the sugar, lard, and honey together. Dissolve the soda in a little hot water. Add the egg, well beaten, and the milk. Use enough flour to make the batter stiff enough to drop from spoon. Bake in greased gem pans in moderate oven, or drop on greased pan from spoon.

HONEY CORNSTARCH PUDDING.    l

1/3 cup honey, 1 teaspoon salt, 44 tablespoons cornstarch, 4 cups scalded milk. Mix the honey, salt, and cornstarch. Stir in the hot milk gradually, stirring until smooth. Stir and cook over boiling water until the mixture thickens. Cover and cook 15 minutes. Turn into a wet mould, chill, and serve with cream and sugar.

SHORT CAKE.

Three« cups flour, 2 teaspoonsful baking powder, 1 tesapoonful salt, 4 cup shortening, 14 cups sweet milk. Roll quickly, and bake in a hot oven. When done, split the« cake and spread the lower half thinly with butter, and the upper half with 4 lb. of the best-flavored honey. (Candied honey is preferred. If too hard to spread well it should be slightly warmed or creamed with a knife.) Let it stand a few minutes and the honey will melt gradually, and the flavor will permeate all through the cake. To be eaten with niilk.

LEMON CAKES.

One cup butter. 2 cups honey, 3 eggs well beaten, 1 tablcspoon-ful essence of lemon, 4 cup sour milk, 1 teaspoonful soda. Flour enough to make as stiff as can well be stirred. Bake at once in

FRUIT CAKE.    '

12X


Two cups of honey, 2 cups of raisins, 1 cup of shortening, 4 cup of sour milk, 1 teaspoonful soda, 4 te^spoonful cloves, 4 teaspoonful quick oven.

FRUIT CAKE.

Two eggs well beaten, 1 cup butter, i cup sour cream, 1 cup honey, 'J cup sugar. 1 teaspoonful soda dissolved in warm water, 1 teaspoonful cinnamon, ] teaspoonful cloves, 1 cup raisins, 1 cup currants, 2 cups Hour.

FRUIT CAKE.

Four eggs, 5 teacups Hour, 2 teacups honey, 1 teacup butter,

I teacup sweet milk, 6 teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1 lb. raisins,

1 lb. currants, 1 teaspoonful cloves, 1 teaspoonful cinnamon, 1 teaspoonful nutmeg. Then bake in slow oven. The above will keep moist for months.

RAISIN CAKE.

Three eggs, 1 cup honey, 4 tablespoonfuls melted butter, 1 cup sweet milk, 1 1/3 cups) raisins chopped fine, 3 cups flour, h teaspoonful salt, l teaspoonful soda, 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1 teaspoonful vanilla extract.

DROP CAKES.

One cup honey, s cup sugar, } cup butter or lard, ’] cup sour milk, 1 egg. 2 teaspoonful soda. 4 cups sifted flour. Flavor to taste.

MARSHMALLOW CREAM.

.}' cup honey, 1 teaspoon gelatine, i cup cold water, 1 teaspoon lemon extract, 3 cup boiling water, whites 2 cggs,_ 1 teaspoon vanilla. Dissolve gelatine in the usual way, heating it over a teakettle until thoroughly dissolved. Cool, but da not chill; stir in the honey, and add to the whites of the eggs beaten very light a few spoonfuls at a time, beating constantly. Divide into two parts; to one add a color and flavor with vanilla, about 1 teaspoon; to the other add, 1 teaspoon lemon extract. Mould in layers, adding nuts to one part and maraschino cherries to the other. Serve with ' or without cream.

HONEY FONDANT.

2 cups granulated sugar, 4 cup water, i cup honey. Mix, put over fire, and stir only until the sugar is dissolved. _ Boil carefully until able to shape a very soft! ball when tested in cold water (about 238 deg. F.). Do not stir while boiling and do not scrape off. sugar which adheres to the side of the pan. When done, pour into greased platter and partially cool. Beat and stir with a wooden spoon until it begins to crumble and then knead with the hands like dough. Pack in a bowl, cover with a cloth, and set aside until needed. When ready for use the bowl of fondant .may be set in hot water until soft enough to handle. Any flavoring may be added when shaping into candies. 1 he honey flavor alone is delicious when the fondant is used td stuff cakes.

The use of honey in fondant obviates the necessity of using cream of tartar. The slight, acidity ol the honey keeps it from graining too soon. If the fondant is boiled too hard, pull until white; the result wMl be a fine taffy.

Cakes, etc., sweetened with< honey willl keep indefinitely and IMPROVE zvit'h keeping.

HONEY is the finest Sweet known and contains the necessary constituents fur body building.

EAT HONEY EVERY DAY AND KEEP THE DOCTOR .    RIGHT AWAY.

This Book contains the Secret of Health and Wealth Wealth Makes Health. Don’t let the Want of Money Worry Yon because

James Lumbers

is a Genuine Private Financier who

combine New Ideas with Honest Treatment Gives Advice and Inspection Free of Charge and Advances Money Privately and Immediately from £5 to £1000 on FURNITURE, without Removal or inconvenience, Motor Vehicles, Deeds without Registration and Security. Enquiries and Transactions treated most privately

Consideration Shown to Clients when in Distress

The Charges are very Eow and a Small Weekly F'ortnightly or Monthly Repayment is all that is required

Therefore Come and Talk It Over and End Your Financial Worries

HjNote the only address—

50 Pirie St., Adelaide

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