whitccombe193xteachingreading | The Teaching of reading to infants : a guide to the method of the Progressive primer series; Teach.

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Teaching o/Reading,

Infants

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Whitcombe’s PROGRESSIVE PRIMERS

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BEAUTIFULLY ILLUSTRATED IN COLOUR AND UNE

The Teaching of Reading to Infants 1/9

Tiny Tots’ Primer .    .    .    6d.

First Progressive Primer    .    .    8d.

Progressive Phonic Primer Book I.    lOd.

Progressive Phonic Primer Book II. 1/1 Second Progressive Primer    .    •    17-

Third Progressive Primer    .    .    17-

Fourth Progressive Primer    .    .1/2

Fifth Progressive Primer    .    .    1/4

Sixth Progressive Primer    .    .    1/4

KOOKABURRA SERIES (3deach)

Supplementary to Progressive Phonic Primers No. 51. Tom’s Pets No. 52. Ruff and Mr. Rat No. 53. The Little Red Van No. 54. What Am I ?

No. 55. Shopping

No. 56. Jack Frost’s Tricks    '

No. 63. Ben Bunny’s Holiday No. 64. A Fright for Mr. Fox No. 65. The Magic Broom No. 66. What is My Name ?

No. 67. Hoppity Skip’s New House No. 68. Shy Mouse and the Goblin

PRICES SUBJECT TO ALTERATION WITHOUT NOTICE

.

THE TEACHING ; ’ OF READING

TO INFANTS

A GUIDE TO THE METHOD

OF THE

PROGRESSIVE PRIMER SERIES

Whitcombe & Tombs Limited

Christchurch, Auckland, Wellington, Dunedin, Invercargill, N.Z. London, Melbourne and Sydney

CONTEXTS

PAGE

The Progressive Primer Method

.. 3

Preliminary Work .. ..

.. 4

The Tiny Tots’ Primer ..

.. S

Individual Testing .. ..

.. 12

Simple Phonic Games ..

. . 15

Simple Reading Games ..

.. 20

First Progressive Primer ..

. . 23

Second Progressive Primer ..

.. 34

Third and Fourth Primers . .

. . 46

Fifth and Sixth Primers . .

. .

.. 54

Progressive Phonic Primers . .

• •

.. 55

Index . . . ..

Inside back cover

The Teaching of Reading to Infants.

A Key to the Method in the Progressive Primer Series.

The Progressive Primers are an The Progressive answer to an expressed need Primer Method of for a dual approach to reading Teaching Reading. —visual work and phonic work

proceeding in parallel lines, and each given due importance. From the beginning the child is reading- for content. At first the idea is associated with a word, and later with a phrase or sentence.

Before commencing Tiny Tots' Primer the child learns to associate activities and ideas with the written symbol as well as with the spoken word.

The Progressive Primers may be used either for group work or individual • work, though, especially in the early stages, individual work is recommended as being of far greater educational value.

Reading is the conveying of ideas Visual Work is not sounds. The child must read of the utmost for content. 'Every printed word importance. must convey an idea. Hence the

necessity for beginning reading with visual work and giving practice in (prick visualisation through all the preliminary stages of reading. As the child becomes more familiar with the look of words he will need the “phonic props'' only in tackling a new word. It is essential; however, that lie can “sound out” a ne\y word

3

accurately and quickly so that the idea contained in the sentence may not be lost. Hence the necessity for a thorough "rounding in phonies.

The old objection to a phonic Phonic work is approach was that it mechanised a necessity. the subject matter, making reading

stilted and unreal. In the Progressive Primers this error has been avoided by building only those words which occur frequently in the child's vocabulary. The sounds are presented in a definite order, taking into consideration—

(a)    ease of pronunciation,

(b)    frequency of sound occurring in reading matter,

(r) child’s power of imitation.

The phonic exercises are carefully graded and arranged. Games of many kinds are introduced to make the acquisition of the mechanical aid to reading as joyous and happy a process as possible.

Any teacher who follows faithfully the phonic system of the Progressive Primers cannot fail to lay a solid foundation for accurate reading and steady progress.

Before commencing Tiny Tots’ Primer

PRELIMINARY WORK.

Word Matching.

Stage I.—Objects with names attached and tickets for matching.

r.(j., book, pin, button, box, cork, toys and furniture.

Stage II.—Pictures with names attached and tickets for matching.

(a) Four to six pictures on a card and tickets in envelope on back, (or)

(b j Four to six separate pictures mounted on strong cardboard, and tickets in a packet.

Pictures should be large and of a uniform size.

All apparatus should be carefully and strongly made, as otherwise it is quickly soiled and torn.

Tickets should be large—not less than three inches long by one inch wide. A large ticket assists child's printing—a small one hinders. Place a line across the bottom left hand corner for the thumb. Then the child will not hold his card upside down.

It is a good idea to wash each set of tickets with water colour before printing with indian ink. If each child has tickets of a different colour there is loss difficulty in keeping the boxes in order.

Sorting and Several tickets may be provided for Arranging. each picture. The child finds great pleasure in sorting the tickets into groups and matching the correct pictures.

. bed s bee


can


. bee

can

can

can


He will then draw the picture and print the name as many times as he has tickets.

There is no need to keep to the words contained in the “Tiny Tots* Primer" for the preliminary work. Every possible object in the class room should have its name attached, the child's blackboard and hat peg should be labelled with Ids own name. Tims he will naturally associate the word with the object, and many games may be made up.

Make Word Matching The child becomes bored if as varied as possible. he has the same tickets too

often. A suggested series of words for twelve boxes:—

Note.—Draw “stick-men ' as children can copy more    easily.

1.    bed train horse can

(see reader)

2.    hop skip tump run

% f 1 if-

5.    mother father baby

4-,    tree bird nest

\

5.    chair wall door piano

(or other objects in roomj

6.    gate path flower fence house

(or objects in playground or garden)

This set can be used with blocks or sticks elc.

7.    bag coat hat shoes

(my possessions)

Match the actual objects.

8.    doll bed drum cot

(my doHs house)

There should be a dolls house in the classroom.

9.    spade saw rake hammer

(my tools)

10.    bread apple jam cake

(things I eat)

n.    dog cat horse cow

(my animal friends)

12.    play work sing sleep

(things I do)

Cue Cards on the walls for visual impressions of the above sets are necessary and important. These sets may also be used for oral expression lessons, etc.

(1)    On pictures,

(2)    actual objects,

(3)    cardboard cut-outs on stands,

(4)    models prepared by teacher,

(5)    models prepared by child.

It is hoped that even where floor space is limited a way may be found to use models and real objects as well as pictures. This really motivates preliminary work in reading.

Paper books made by children are of great assistance. The child must express himself freely, however, even at the expense of appearance of work. Let him print, draw, or cut out freely, then let him take his work home to show.

IIow to prepare material for a long Hints for the life. Strengthen all boxes with bookkeeping of binders’ linen or linen tape. Brush apparatus. cards over with size solution (2 oz.

powdered size to a pint of boiling water) and varnish with paper varnish.

Leave wide margins on cards so that they may be trimmed when torn. For wall bags or pockets use unbleached linen or coloured cloth, such as britwav.

Have the paste pot handy so that children may mend corners that come unfastened.

Take a pride in the appearance of your apparatus, and your class will assist you in keeping it in order.

TINY TOTS’ PRIMER

The keynote of this primer is action. Every page can and should be dramatized. The teacher who is not a psychologist may regard this emphasis on action as unnecessary play, but it is a well-known fact that every idea tends to externalise itself in action. A great deal of the child's ceaseless activity is due to the wealth of new ideas that flood in upon his rapidly developing brain. A dull brain accompanies a slow moving body; a quick brain reveals itself in tireless energy.

Lnless your class is too “well disciplined’’ you will have noticed the small arms and legs moving almost involuntarily when some new idea has been presented. (“Your class is wriggling.”) Let us use this fact of activity in a happy method of overcoming the initial difficulties of reading.

Through his word-matching and labelling activities the child will have become used to the idea of printed names for objects and persons.

He thus associates the word and the idea. The next step is the phrase and the idea. From the beginning the child should acquire the habit of reading by phrases, not by isolated words. The “one-word-reading” habit need never be formed if the child reproduces from memory phrases instead of single words (see pages 25 and 35). The use of

flash cards aids this reading’ for ideas and also the use of questioning on the subject matter. The “question' words “who, “where, ’ “what, “when, etc., can be taught easily, and the children may use them as the beginnings of questions while reading “Tiny 'Tots' Primer," c.g.y

“Who go to see Pat?’

“Where do father and mother go.'" “Who cannot run?"

“Where is Pat?” etc.

The teacher should combine phonics with Phonics, speech training, making sure that each sound is correctly produced. Finger play, he., making the letters with the fingers, is always enjoyed. The children will also like to act the letters to music. They may not look very much like the letters acted, but that is part of the fun oi guessing what they are meant to represent, e.g

“1 am ‘b’ with a bag on my back, (or) “ I am kd' with my drum."

-0~


The above are two suggestions for posters. Other sounds may be treated similarly and exhibited in turn on the class room walls. Use different coloured inks for figures.

P. 13.—The class may suggest stories for the sounds. For instance* country children say that “n”—“n” is the sound the separator makes.

The sound c (hard) has two pictures "k” and “c.”

A mouse bit a hole in “0” and made “C.”

P. 19.—There will be a difficulty in getting the sound “i” for "ink” correctly. Tell the children it is the smallest sound of all, the sound a baby mouse makes. Give practice in distinguishing “i” for ‘ ‘ ink *' from ‘ ‘ e ’’ for “ egg. ’ ’

P. 24.—These are tlie sounds presenting' the most difficulty or the least often used, "u” you say when you pull a heavy load, or try to chop a hard log of wood.

v, w, z, and y can be made with fingers and sticks.

" d" has a drum, or, too much dumpling for dinner.

All the words and sounds in Transition Stage, the “Tiny Tots* Primer** must

be thoroughly revised and tested before the first '‘Progressive Primer” is attempted. Test cards containing the thirty-two words should be made and reading cards must be prepared. The words can be tested in groups or singly, but as much individual work as possible should be done.

Heading Card (Page 17). Fold the card so that picture and story are inside the "book.”

Pat is in bed. Mother can see Pat in the bed.


inside of card or "book.”

Pa t

1 s

i n

bed

Mother

can

see

Pat

in

the

bed.

Child makes the "story” with the cards and then writes tiie story. lie may be able to add one more "story” to the above, using his book for a key to the spelling.

y

CD

o

0

]}_

Pat bed

in the

Pa +.

Pocket" tor Card S.

is Mother

see can

Here the words arc-mixed for

testing

Back of card or “book."

A set of these cards is necessary for testing visualisa tion.

Apparatus for Individual Testing of “Tiny Tots’

Primer.”

Make cardboard cut-outs of all the objects and persons named in tiie book. Make strong cardboard supports so that they will stand firmly on the floor. Make also a set of cards of all the words contained in the primer. Keep cut-outs and names together in a strong box. Several boxes of these cut-outs and names are most, essential, and will save many a “last minute rush" if carefully prepared before the book is begun.

Use.—(1 ) Labelling objects and drawing.

(2) Leader holds up object. Class find correct name.

(o) Arranging objects in a definite order from teacher's written blackboard list. (4) Placing objects in correct positions from blackboard directions of teacher or leader, e.g.}

The ho rse is in the train. Baby is in the tree.

(5) Placing objects and words according to directions.

(jj.. Teacher writes: The nest is in the tree.

Child places his nest in his tree, and finds the cards to make the sentence: he then draws and prints the sentence:

The

nest

_

js

jn

j

ne

, t ree.

(b) Phrasing.—Make some sets of tickets thus:-

......©

©

xThe horse

is by the tree.

©

©

J see father

xby the nest.

©

©

x Pat said

xmay 1 play.

Colour the two sections

of (a), (/>), and (c) with

red, green, and blue washes so that child may join the sentences easily. He may then illustrate sentences and print same.

Card for Individual Revision of Sounds.

Child has a packet of celluloid letters from which he picks as many ‘ C V' as possible. He matches

them on to the “C” card, draws the pictures, and places the symbol beside each one. The pictures may be stamped or drawn in a simple manner.

These cards may be purchased at a reasonable price from Whitcombe and Tombs.

Individual Apparatus for Phonics.

cup

bas I

table

door

OD

Ù0

apple^3

flag

man^

Ju9 i

c b

] J_ [I

Zl ΠcD 3D

Child places correct celluloid or sandpaper letter on its correct card. A similar set of cards without the name beneath should be made.

The following is a list of phonic Simple Phonic games from which the teacher may Games.    select those that she thinks would

make the work more interesting and enjoyable. It is obvious, of course, that any one teacher would not be able to use the whole series without placing undue emphasis on phonics. Many of tlie games may be adapted to harder examples, and thus made progressive.

1.    “I spy with my little eye.”

Something that begins with C” (sound only).

This old favourite should be played frequently. It can be made simpler by having a group of objects to choose from, in front of children.

2.    Six Gifts.

Leader: I went to visit the King of Spain,

I took an umbrella to keep off the rain, And six gifts beginning with d,

What were they?

lie points to six children in order. The first to miss giving a word must pay a forfeit.

Leader then continues in order round the group with another sound.

Variations will suggest themselves.

3.    The Way to School.

Leader: As you were going to school to-day

you saw these things upon your way. They all began with p (sound only).

Bill: I saw a pole.

Joan: I saw a pole and a path.

Jack: 1 saw a pole, a path, and a penny.

Jill : I saw a pole, a path, a penny, and a peanut.

(and so on).

To make this game easier for beginners the teacher or leader should draw each object on the blackboard in order as it is named.

4.    Names.

Leader: I know a girl’s name beginning with B. Child: Yes. Betty.

L.

1 know a

boy's name beginning with

C.

I know,

Pat.

L.

Some one

at home beginning with M

c.

Mother.

(And so on).

Other subjects for this game could be:—Flowers; tools; clothes; dishes, etc.


5. Baby’s Game is a great favourite.

Leader: 1 have a baby with nice white t.............

Child: teeth.

L.: And golden h............

C.: hair.

L.: He has chubby ch............

C.: cheeks.

L.: And dimpled h............

C.: hands.    (And so on.)

This game is best played by two children.

The above games may all be used during the progress of Book 1, with the symbols attached.

Group Games in Phonics.

1. Fire Engines.

The child with pointer is the lire engine.

If the child can say all the phonics he has driven the engine and helped to put the fire out (rubs out some of flames with duster).

When the flames are all out, the children can build the house again—each sound is a brick, etc.

(2)    Boat, Train, or Airship.

A large steamer is drawn with wide gangway. On this gangway sounds or words are written. If the child can say all the sounds he can climb the gangway, and draw himself in the steamer. This game can be made topical, e.g., an aeroplane ride.

(3)    Miles.

Child takes pointer and sees how many sounds he knows on the sound indicator. Each one counts as a mile. The children sec who can walk the farthest.

(4) Turning the wheel.

Make a large cardboard wheel with a movable arrow attached with a paper fastener. Each spoke of wheel represents a sound. As the child says the sound he moves the arrow. If he can go right round he has reached his destination.

(5) Hot Potatoes.

Father is making a bonfire, lie says we can roast some potatoes. (Every sound is a potato, which the children draw in the fire).

. (6) The children are birds finding breakfast for their babies (each sound is a grub).

These games are endless.

(7) Plucking Petals.

Teacher draws a daisy: each petal is a sound: who can pick all the petals, or (better still) daisy chains.

Each sound is a daisy: the children see who can make the longest chain of sounds.

Tiie same game can be played with pennies for a copper trail, sheaves of wheat in a stack, pots of jam on a shelf, apples on a tree, blackberries in a basket, mushrooms in a ring, bees in a hive, shops in a street, or chips for the fire.

(8)    Shop windows.

Teacher draws a shop window. The children draw in it as many objects as they can. placing the initial letter on the object; (or) the teacher may say “I am the shopman, everything in my window begins with ' C and the children say or draw the objects.

(9)    Fire stations.

Any child who lias visited a fire station has seen the stairs where the men climb up to their room, and the pole down which they slide.

CO W


now

how


to w n

bow


town

bow

now

how

cow


Children sound words slowly as they go up the stairs, and say words quickly as they slide down the pole. If words are said correctly the children draw themselves on a fire engine (previously prepared), and go off to help put the fire out.

10) Railway Stations.

Child acts as guard, and names all the stations on the line.

stations

\

bird

girl |

_I stir

firm

shirt

sir

railway line

This game can be varied in dozens of ways, eg.. ‘M have in my box six tilings beginning with the sound Mr: guess what they are."

or


The teacher may print the words or the child may draw the pictures.

Vary this game by having a large sheet of brown paper for the case. Pin this on the board and drop the tickets behind it.

3. Lotto Games may be played by four, five, or any number if you have enough apparatus prepared. There are many variations of lotto. Here is a very simple one.

Silent Lotto is best for a crowded class-room.

All those playing except the leader have cards prepared; each card has the same pictures stamped or drawn in a different order. The leader has a set


4u

L.


box


door


ba


ha


chair


tv


ba£


-ro-*


of names which correspond to the pictures, lie holds up one name at a time. The first child to find the correct picture receives the name to place beside it.

Six or eight tickets are enough for small children.

4.    Lotto may also be played with names on the large cards and pictures on the tickets. This is easier to prepare, as only one set of pictures is required.

5.    Snap games are great fun. and are always in requisition during recess and free work periods. Prepare a double set of twelve cards, 3 in. by 2 in., or, if you like, three or four sets; this is more fun for two players; the number of players may be increased later, when the child is quicker at recognising word-wholes.

coat

\_

coat

\

coat

\

book

book

book

\_

\_

These phonic and reading games need not necessarily be taken only during the progress of the Tiny Tots’ Primer, but should be used while reading the First and Second Progressive Primers also. It is not intended that the child should know all the initial sounds before commencing the First Progressive Primer.

FIRST PROGRESSIVE PRIMER

We now assume that the child has had ample practice in visualisation, knows the “shapes" of about thirty-two words accurately, and may have acquired many more through individual word-matching activities. In phonic work he is ready to build up words by the blending of consonant and vowel, and thus add greatly to Ids reading vocabulary.

Before proceeding further with our particular method we must step aside to consider something of the scientific aspect of reading. Every teacher requires a background of knowledge in order that she may avoid many pitfalls in the presentation of material and the preparation of apparatus. We are aware that all recently trained teachers will be conversant with the following facts. It is necessary, however, to keep a few salient points in the forefront of consciousness, and these are given briefly here.

How We Read.

In the process of reading the eye makes a series of jumps, accompanied by pauses. The more experienced the reader the fewer the pauses in each line, and the greater the extent of material perceived. This extent of material is known as the “span of perception.” It is during the pauses that perception takes place. Nothing is perceived while the eye moves. It is obvious, therefore, that two tasks confront the teacher,

(a) to establish easy and rhythmic eye movements, and

(&) to increase the span of perception.

How to Establish Rhythmic Eye Movement.

In making reading cards or booklets, or in setting out blackboard work or wall sheets, the following points should be observed:—

(1)    Make each line short (4 to 5 inches on cards).

(2)    Begin and end each line at the same place.

(3)    If there is a break in the sentence, arrange sentence in phrases.

(4)    Arrange sentence in a definite pattern.

i f) > Print clearly and uniformly—heavy black script is best.

Below are examples of reading cards showing suitable and unsuitable arrangements of reading material.

The child

danced

yT-

along the

—-—i

sands.

This card will hinder fluencv and rhvthmic eye movement.

$

r

y1

The

child danced

*

along The sands.

This card will aid fluency and assist in developing the “span of perception/’

How to Increase the Span of Perception.

(1)    Begin with interesting material, e.g., the child’s activities, toys, animal friends, games, etc.

(2)    Make individual reading material easy. Cards and booklets should be simpler, if possible, than reading taken in group work.

(3)    Do not stop to analyse every word the child does not know. Wait till the end of the paragraph or story.

(4)    Do not allow any pointing to the place in books or on cards.

(5)    Establish early the habit of reading by phrases or sentences, and not by isolated words.

Dramatization continues in Book 1, the teacher making certain that the activity of the child is not curbed. Make sure that handwork and drawing are used on every possible occasion, especially with the child who has poor word perception.

See notes to the teacher in the introduction to Book 1.

Expectancy should be roused in the child's mind before each new story is commenced. This is a valuable aid to memory and imagination. Prepare the child with talks on birds, fish, frogs, etc. In Books 2, 3 and 4 the story could be told and dramatized before it is read.

When the nursery rhyme sec-introduction of the tion of the readers begins, it Nursery Rhyme. is hoped that this will prove a

valuable aid in extending the span of perception by aiding the child to read in phrases. Do not therefore spend time analysing words before the rhyme is read. Be sure, however, the child knows the rhyme as it appears in the book. (See pp. 18 and 19 Book 1, and also Book 2.)

Proceed thus:—

Tell story to children.

Children act same.

Talk about the picture.

Teacher reads rhyme from book without stopping to analyse words.

Children do* same.

Children dance round room singing rhyme to set or improvised tune.

Children draw picture and print rhyme on B.B.s.

Look at new words on pp. 18, 19. Analyse if necessary.

Illustrate new words.

Use individual cards and self-testing apparatus.

The same method may be followed with pp. 28, 36, 37 in Book 1 and pp. 2, 3, 12 and 13, and 17 in Book 2.

When these have been read and the intervening pages mastered, the story telling and acting may, if desired, be cut down, the child frequently being able to master the nursery rhyme and the pages following without help.

Nursery Rhyme Cards (Book 1 and Book 2.)

Reading with Drawing Response.

The child illustrates and prints sentence.

The sentences may also be written on separate cards.

Draw the pictures

and write the sentences *—

Hey diddle diddle The cat and the fiddle.

Jack and Jill went up the hil

1.

To market, to To buy a fat

market

P'g-

Reading and Placing*.—Pictures are prepared, and one or more sentences describing each picture. Sentences are matched and picture drawn.

The frog swims in the pond._

I have an apple.

The bird sat on a twig. It sang to me.


This is my top. I can spin it.

Nursery Rhyme Phrase Reading* Cards.

Old Mother Hubbard Wenh ho hhe cupboard


\


Bui- when she goh f-here The cupboard was bare

Match correctly and illustrate.

etc.


[Jack ; [and | [Jill Wen I [ up [The J Oli

Children make up the rhyme from separate cards, aided by “whole-rhyme card/'

Peep Show Games.

Punch


ir» to block


board


Swim like a f • s h


Skip. Girls


hole foi

tic


r

ker.


Jump Boys


»I

Hop like a

rabbit.


Pi


h


saj/s


Make a from


Tckets to slip mto hole in cardboard

Children love any game of a peep-show nature. This variation of the flash card may be found useful. Teacher or leader may say “Punch says ....................” or “Judy says....................,M and individuals in class act as ticket dictates.

A similar game may be played using a traffic signal with movable arms.

Picture and Answer Cards. Book 2.

Place question in space beside correct answer.


What animal gives me milk?

What animal says bow wow?

What says

ch.ch.ch?


1 can swim.

1 cannot walk.

1 live by the pond. What am 1 ?

; Df ^

1 have fur.

1 sleep by the fi re. What am 1 ?

Match six questions to correct pictures.


Word Building Apparatus. Types of Cards. Book 1.

Make set also without pictures.

h a

mo

LP.J

a

b-q

#

m - n

&

c-t

J-

m

bed

sun

bus


egg


"Look at that big house at the top of the hill,” said Jack.

"Good Giant Big Shoes lives in that house,” said Jill.

"He may help us to find a home,” said Old Mother Hubbard.

ILLUSTRATION STILL IN COPYRIGHT

“It is going to rain, and I have no umbrella,” said the Pink Sugar Dolly. “I shall melt.”

“You may have mine,” sai d Billy Bear, who had his umbrella with him.

DUST UNDER THE RUG

There was once a poor woman who had two daughters, named Rose and Minnie. They lived in a small house near a wood.

As the mother and Rose were ill, Minnie had to go out to earn money.

Then the butcher’s boy remembered his meat! Oh dear! He looked to the right and saw one hungry dog running off with a leg of mutton.

He looked to the left, and saw the other hungry dog disappearing with the sausages.

Poor butcher’s boy!

ILLUSTRATION STILL IN COPYRIGHT

( So they all went together through I the wood, and they met a Turkeycock waddling along, very red in the face.

“Good morning, Pig, Kitten, Rat and Hedgehog,” he sai d.    “Where are

you going ?

[Specimen page from Sixth Progressive Primer]

dry


■—


r


v-nas


RUB-A-DUB

Bess is Ann’s rag doll. She fell in the mud.

"What a mess!” said Ann. "I must put your dress in the tub, Bess.”

Ann put the dress in-to the tub. Rub-a-dub! Rub-a-dub!

SIX LITTLE CHICKS

were under Mother saw

Speckled Hen had six little chicks.

"Cluck, cluck," she said. "Scratch, little chicks."

The six little chicks began to scratch.

"Sh, sh!” said Sambo, the black doll. "We cannot rest. ' Run back to the shelf, little red van. Get into your box."

The little red van went chug, chug, chug, back to his box. The little tin trumpet went back to his box. The little black top

[,Specimen page from uThe Little Red VanKookaburra Series]

WORD BUILDING APPARATUS

• > * >

obverse

There was once a chick

a

called Chippy. He had a dium

cn

called Charlie. you are such

a funny chap] said Chippy,

for you perch on top of

the church and cheep”—

reverse

(or) The phonogram “clr’ may be omitted on each occasion on reverse side and supplied with ticket by child.

Supplementary reading cards must be used during the progress of each book, and between each book. The necessity for these cards cannot be stressed too often.

Supplementary Reading Card.

Our cat saw a rat on the top of a jug. Thejug was on a shelf in the cupboard.


etc


SECOND PROGRESSIVE PRIMER

By the time the child lias reached the Second Primer lie has acquired some kind of emotional attitude towards his reading. If he has been bored lie will dislike his books, and the pleasure he should get from surmounting an intellectual difficulty will not correspond to his delight in overcoming physical hurdles. He will, in fact, prefer his tops and trains to his reading.

Reading is an acquired habit, and it is the teacher's duty to make it as pleasurable as his more instinctive occupations. Maintain the right attitude by keeping curiosity alive. By constant help and suggestion prevent any inferiority complex from developing.

The Second Primer is primarily a Nursery Rhyme book. It is intended that the pupil be now definitely encouraged to read by phrases, thus increasing the span of perception, and developing rhythmic eye movement. (See the Introduction to the First Primer.)

The child commenced this series of readers with vocabulary study—one word representing an idea or an activity. In the same wav a verv voting child will express his meaning. “Ta-Ta" means “I would like to go for a walk/’ or “Bow-wow" means “I like that noisy tiling that jumps.“ Very soon he learns to express his meaning in a phrase or sentence, and says “May I get down?’’ instead of “Down.“ Both word and sentence have the same meaning to him.

Now, unless the child forms the habit of reading by phrases or sentences he will be a one-word reader all his life, and will never use his skill in reading as a means of gaining ideas. He may need definite help in reading by phrases, both in group work and individually. (Read “The Introduction of the Nursery Rhyme,“ (page 26).

A child who finds difficulty with the Second Primer has not had sufficient time in the transition work. Reading cards should be arranged and graded to give practice both in word perception and phonic drills.

Backwardness in reading in the average child is often due to over-emphasis on methods which are valuable when used in moderation, for example, over-emphasis

(1)    on phonic drills,

(2)    on vocabulary study,

(3)    on large reading units in the early stages (sentence or paragraph).

This commences with the long sounds of the vowels. The short sounds have already been presented and used in word building. This transition to the long vowel should prove an easy step. Many devices and stories may be used to make the work attractive. e.(j.y in introducing “q” show that “q” “never walks out alone but always takes ‘u’ with it??; also that ‘x’ “never comes top of his class but very often comes bottom. ’ ’

Phonic work in the

Second Primer.


Rhymes and jingles of all kinds are a very great help in phonics at this stage, e.gA. A. Milne’s “Emmeline has not been seen'7 for the ea and ee phonograms, is always a favourite.

Types of Apparatus for Long Vowels.

x-'T /\ o

/ \ (/)

yx \

A.-----------1_J

X mat ^ i

ldD| S

py-- vx

4


o.


Movable arm attached to back with paper pin.

i( n >>

6 converts short vowel to long vowel.

Illustrations on reverse side.

APPARATUS FOR LONG VOWELS

Child fits “gate” between “gate posts” and llustrates.


stories on reverse sides.


Poster for Phonic Work in Books 2 or 3.


Phonic Games. (Group) for Primers 2, 3? or 4.

(1) Apparatus: a number of sets of cards—six in a set—with one word on each card.

Each child receives a set.

Teacher or leader has a set.

. t re e

CL

0

-4—

y

\s'ng

.down

meat

sShip

---

Teacher holds up a card and asks Glass to show a word that

(a) rhymes with it,

(or) (b) has the same initial letter,

(or) (c) contains the same phonogram, etc.

The first child to respond correctly has his card pinned up in its correct place under the teacher's card.

(2)    Teacher or leader says, “I hear with my little ear, something to rhyme with ‘seat’." Children find correct ticket from among their sets.

(3)    Children take cards to blackboards and print as many words as possible containing the same phonogram or the same initial letter. They may use the lists at the back of the Primers for reference if so desired.

Game of Family Post.

Phonies (Second Primer).

Three card-hoard houses with letter-box.

Coverof box cut to attach to back of house


n


X....... .7 V

wm

J

back of house

open match box after postinq


Envelope or

coal

Postmans bog

roe^Mr

containing mixed

boat]

cords or letters"

.cool

A--

see

Each child has a box containing three card-board houses with little boxes, also an envelope with mixed cards, lie sorts out cards or “letters” and posts them at the right house. lie can make a list of the “letters” he has posted, and make a “story” or sentence about as many as he can.

This game is much enjoyed, and the apparatus is simple and inexpensive to make.

PLAYING SHOPS

Word Testing Game. Second Primer.

1

-•('§ jr & 1

n

0

-h

claws

door

teddy-bear

fur

roof

mouse

window

[ toes

tail

^_

wal 1

^_

paint

41


Child places ticket in correct column.

Shops may be played similarly—a baker, a grocer, and a butcher—child arranges tickets on which are printed names of goods—in correct columns.

These cards may also be used for written expression work, the words provided being a help in spelling.

Print on the back of card, directions such as

(1)    Pretend you are a cat and tell all about yourself.

(2)    Have you a baby at home? Write down some of the things he does.

(3)    Draw your own house and garden and tell all about it.

Word Testing*. Primers 2 or 3.

on    no

by    my

I am — the box. If ! have — hat.—^' The cat is — the box The cat is — cat. \


, on

no

v my

l


Use only words child lias met before. Child may either (a) re-write sentences and put in missing word, or (b) place correct ticket in sentence and then write it.

Other words difficult to visualise on account of their similarity should be made use of for individual work, e.g.,

saw    was

of    for

felt    left    etc.

These words, especially, must be looked at carefully by the pupils. Correct visualisation is the only basis for good spelling, and no amount of phonic drill can take its place. The aim should be to develop a keen eye for similarities and differences in words, not to teach verbatim a certain number of phonograms.

HANDWORK AND DRAWING RESPONSE

43


Individual Game.

The child has several pictures and an assorted variety of tickets, e.g.?

He is told to pick out the words that tell what the person, place, or thing always has. Thus from among the tickets, he would place under house, door, roof, window, wall, etc. Under '‘cat’' he would place head, legs, tail, etc. He could then write a “story” about the picture, using the words on the labels.

Example of Handwork and Drawing Response.

Book 2.

Cut out this quarter

v

The child cuts out two circular discs of cardboard : he pastes or draws the four pictures on one

and prints as indicated; he cuts one quarter from the other circle and prints I can as shown. The two circles are then attached with a paper pin. The child finds many games he can play with this toy.

While the Second Primer is being read the child should be tested with short tests containing the words in a new context : a few examples are given here.

Examples of Test Cards.

2nd Progressive Primer.

Page 3

In a shoe there lived an old woman She did not know what to do with so many children.

i \jye 5.

There were Tommy Thin, Johnny Stout Boy Blue and Bo-Peep.

Jack went up the hill with Jill for water

Pa ye 6.

Mother Hubbard had no home.

The poor little children had no tood.

Page 18.    .

The hen said, Look, I have laid an egg for your tea'' The giant gave the children the fat hen.

Poge 20

The hen has laid such a funny egg.

It is not like the rest.

1+ is round and it has funny legs.

The children laughed when they saw it.

Page 21.

He could not ride.

He was too round.

When he rolled in the dust all the men sang and laughed.

Page 23

.1 will sit on the wall and wait till the King comes The sun was so hot that soon he was sleepy

Page 45.

What a naughty boy he was.

He went to drown poor' pussy cat.

Page 46

[hat is not your bone,you naughty caf.

Page 47

“Mi-ow. mi-ow, I want to get out. Would he take her out of the welH

Page 48

“Poor Pussy! I’ll help you, said Johnny who came running by.

“I shall not let you drown!’

Page 49

u lommy, I am cross with you.

She whipped him soundly.

Supplementary readers may be used before the Third Reader is attempted. The following “Whitcombe’s Story Books” are available:—

“The Pied Piper,”

“The Three Little Pigs,”

“Baby Bunting,”

“Tom Thumb,“ and many others.

THE THIRD AND FOURTH PRIMERS

The teacher's task is by no means simplified when the child has gained a certain facility in word perception or word analysis. Many children who read fluently aloud have no comprehension of the context. Other children, keen on getting the general outline of the story, "skip" any word they do not recognise. This practice is very prevalent among the brighter children, and if persisted in, will cause habits to be formed which will be most difficult to eradicate later. The reading vocabulary will suffer, and only one type of comprehension will be developed. The pupil will find great difficulty in following written instructions, or precise directions.

Comprehension is an involved process, and in order that thorough testing of all types of comprehension may be understood, the following short explanation is given here.

Types of Comprehension.

(1)    Reading to get the general significance of a paragraph or story, or "skimming” to get the bare facts—provided by fairy tale, fable, and story.

(2)    Reading to satisfy the feeling for rhythm or balance—provided by poetry (including nursery rhymes) or stories with repetition occurring frequently.

(3)    Reading to acquire precise data or particular directions which if understood are easily remembered—provided in the form of posters, written instruction, directions, etc.

TESTING G0MPKEI1EXSI0K

47


Training to get the general significance does not develop comprehension necessary to understand precise data and vice versa. It is. therefore, obvious that tests in all types must be arranged.

Testing may be undertaken in a varietv of ways.

The teacher may ask the class to

(1)    recall facts,

(2)    ask or answer questions,

(3)    memorise portions,

(4)    give theme of paragraph or story,

(5)    locate a sentence or paragraph that answers a question,

(6)    paraphrase, dissect, or enlarge paragraphs or sentences,

(7)    illustrate paragraph or sentence by drawing or dramatization.

The wealth of story and fable in the Progressive Primers will give ample scope for exercises in sentence-matching games and dramatization.

The following sentence and picture-matching exercise is most valuable for individual work. It may be turned into a group exercise if the teacher prepares one large card on which the sentences are printed, and asks the children to illustrate each sentence and print the explanation beneath. Use this type also for reading correlated with nature study, hygiene, etc.

A type of sentence comprehension test for fourth, fifth, or sixth readers. Take any story such as “Dust Under the Rug” (p. 11, Bk. 4) which the child has read several times. Prepare four pictures and four cards as on page 51. The child has to match each card with its corresponding picture.

When Minnie stepped into the house, she saw twelve untidy beds.

Twelve little men came in.

I hey were surprised to see Minnie.

(Picture on page 13, Book 4.)

Minnie sat looking at Jack Frosts beautiful pictures.

(Picture on page 15, Book 4.)

Minnie lifted the rug. There were twelve pieces of shining gold.


The reading of stories, however, sliould be as free and uninterrupted as possible. In fact the content of a folk or fairy story is often not suitable for testing for precise information.

Suitable reading material must be made available by the teacher in the following ways:—

(1)    The reading of posters, announcements, orders, directions, or signs.

(2)    Directions on how to use materials, such as scissors, pencils, paste, tools, etc.

(3)    Directions on how to make toys, play games, illustrate episodes, etc.

(4)    Directions on how to obtain information

about drawing, colouring, constructing, practical number work, nature study, hygiene, keeping records, etc., etc.

Very often the so-called backward reader will respond to this “practical” reading when the fairy story or fable makes no appeal. lie is the practical boy, who is bored by fantasy, and whose imagination carries him into the wonderland of engines and racing cars rather than into the realms of Oberon and his train of fairies. In fact, most boys of seven or eight develop a contempt for reading material that is not “true.”

One or two examples of the type of reading which should be provided by the teacher in addition to the readers are given here. The opportunities for “practical reading” about a class room are endless.

Notice to be placed on the tool cupboard door:

Count and put awav

in their places

4 hammers

1 box nails

2 saws

1 box tacks

2 screw drivers

1 box screws

etc.

All announcements or orders, such as

“Children may not eat lunch in the porch.” “Wash your hands before eating.”

“This bag is for dusters.”

“Put back your cards as you found them.”

etc., etc., should be clearly printed and put in convenient positions where they may serve as constant reminders.

How to Make.

Teacher may hectograph drawings and directions. Children may paste them on brown paper and make “My Work Book,” constantly adding more pages.

How to Make A Racing* Car.

You need

a piece of wood about three inches long, one inch wide, and one inch deep, four checkers for wheels,* four screws, one wooden bead, and one small nail.    .

READING DIRECTIONS

51


y


ou need


7

/


wood


©

one bead


oooo

fourcheckers

T ï ï T

four screws

-1

one nail


c


Shape wood like this.

Put on the wheels.


Shape the wood with your pocket knife as in the picture, round for the front of the car and pointed for the back.

Screw on the four wheels.

Nail the bead on to the driver's seat, slanting backwards as in the picture.

Paint the car red, yellow, or black.

Poster, or Card.

Directions on How to use Seccotine.

Seccotine is often used for sticking cardboard toys. It is stronger than paste, but not so strong as

glue. You must be careful how you use it or you will spoil your toy.

(1)    (’ut a small strip from a waste piece of cardboard.

(2)    Take out the pin from the mouth of the tube.

(T) Hold the tube at the bottom and squeeze a small piece of seccotine on to the cardboard strip.

(4)    Put the pin back in the mouth of the tube.

(5)    Stick your toy, holding the toy in one hand and the strip of cardboard in the other.

If you list1 seccotine like this none will be wasted on your fingers and clothes.

Reading and Written Expression Work.

The reading material in the Third and Fourth Primers consists of the folk story and fable, which follow naturally from the nursery rhyme. The Fourth book contains stories which may be used as illustrations of or correlation with nature study or hygiene projects. Oral expression, of course, is particularly suited to such stories, and must not be neglected.

The stories lend themselves admirably to dramatization.

The phonic work continues from the Second Primer, and should he treated similarly. The teacher must remember that short lessons at frequent intervals are of more value than long periods with longer intervals. Phonic games are of infinitely more value than drills, for the children come back to them again and again, and never tire of the repetition. Do not insist that the child have a thorough knowledge of a new sound on the tirst presentation, but aim at “partial learning followed by frequent repetitions.

Written expression work must go hand in hand with reading.

Here are a few suggestions, the use of which will aid the mechanical mastery of words.

L Drawing objects and writing names.

2.    Writing word families and drawing pictures.

3.    Writing action words and drawing (or doing ) actions.

4.    Copying a nursery rhyme from book or card; writing it again without looking.

5.    Copying from blackboard or card, and filling in missing letters or phonograms.

(I. Copying from blackboard or card, and filling in words which must be gathered from the context.

7.    Looking at a picture and writing out the names.

8.    Looking at a picture and writing all the doing (action) words.

9.    Writing stories (sentences) using given words and drawing illustrations.

THE FIFTH AND SIXTH PRIMERS

The remarks made on types of comprehension

apply even more to the Fifth and Sixth Primers than to the earlier ones. At this stage the child becomes so interested in the story that ‘‘skipping*' words becomes a set habit unless guarded against. A great deal of careless spelling is due to neglect in this direction. Now that the phonic work lias become largely word-building it will be necessary to consider meanings as well as sounds of words. It is unavoidable that his reading vocabulary will exceed his spoken vocabulary. There is no reason why reading cards dealing with this phase of reading should not be used for individual work to test the pupil’s advance in word comprehension. Exercises in the use of new word forms can be made as attractive as similar work in the infant class, and are much easier to arrange.

Another big difficulty, however, now confronts the teacher. She has taugh the child how to read* but what is he to read ? The necessity for a class library is now felt. There are many supplementary readers on the market, which should be used for individual and group reading. The child should read every book at least twice, make a list of those he has read, and be prepared to answer oral or written questions on his reading. The reading material should be as varied as possible in order that the different types of comprehension may be developed. The library should include books on nature study, handwork, toy making, animals, other countries, etc. The more widely a child has read, the more value will he get from his education. It is, in many cases, only through his reading that lie can become aware of a world outside his immediate environment.

Speech Training.

As is indicated in the Second and Third Primers, it is intended that the teacher use the “jingle way” of speech training. There are many excellent speech training manuals on the market. These treat the subject more carefully than it could be treated in this key. One is constantly, however, finding teachers who become convinced that the teaching of correct pronunciation is a waste of time. The child who speaks perfectly in the class-room relapses into “colonial" or cockney as soon as he mixes with his playmates. But in reality he lias become bi-lingual. and surely there is a great virtue in being able to speak standard English when necessary.

Reading Records should be kept at all stages of reading.

The teacher should fde her own records, consisting of a separate card for each child, and showing dates of promotion from group to group, and his advance in reading age from month to month.

Indications of his progress should also appear in the class room in a simplified form, in order that he may compare his work with that of his fellows. At the end of the second year he will be able to keep his own record of books read, and thus become more responsible for his own progress.

PROGRESSIVE PHONIC PRIMERS

No matter what method of teaching reading is adopted a sound phonic training is essential if the young reader is to acquire a sense of power and independence in working out new words for himself. The chief objection to a primer built solely upon the system of teaching to read by sound is that the text is stilted and unnatural because of the limitations necessarily imposed on it. Great pains have been taken in the compilation of the Progressive Phonic Primers to overcome this disability by the introduction of simple puzzles, dialogues, action-reading and similar interesting* devices that have the approval of infant teachers everywhere. The illustrations, too. are of the same high standard of brightness and charm that have helped to make the Progressive Series so deservedly popular both with teachers and with pupils.

The Progressive Phonic Primers follow a definite and carefully considered plan.

Book I deals with the consonants, the short vowel sounds and twelve of the simple double consonants.

m convey hshape of


1. Each sound is introduced by means of a picture chosen to convey the general shape of the letter together with its sound. The child is able to use these pictures as a means to self-help, and the teacher can call upon her imagination and ingenuity in weaving stories round them. Thus the pig .with his bundle on a stick is obviously out to seek adventure; the house with its tall brick chimnev and arehwav must belong to someone and a story can be made about the people who live in it. For instance the boys illustrating “y” and “k” may be brothers and may live in the house, and the cat and the tortoise may be pets belonging to it. The monkey and the elephant probably belong to a circus and can perform clever tricks. In this way the drudgery can be taken out of phonic drill without the

sacrifice of definite training in sounds. If the pictures and letters are copied on to a Avail chart so much the better, as the children, having them always before their eyes, will become familiar with them all the more quickly.

2. The first four sounds to be taught are those of a, n, c, p. From these the four words “can/1 ‘ cap,” “pan” and “nap” can be built. Cards with these words printed on them can be easily made for practice in individual word-matching. Page 3 can be treated in the same way.

tap

3. When eight sounds have been taught and ten words have been built from them, the next step is to use these words in short simple sentences. At this stage a few “look and say” or sight, words must be introduced. On pages 4 and 5 the simple device ot picture-reading is employed for the first time, and it appears throughout the book where necessary or helpful. In this way not only are the pages made brighter and more interesting by the insertion of gay little pictures in place of difficult words, but the range ol reading matter is thereby greatly extended. Word, phrase and sentence matching may all be employed with profit in these and succeeding pages.

Sit in the

4. The simple short vowel sounds and consonants have all been dealt with by the end of page 19. The method is always the same, viz. a few new sounds taught, words names of common things * built from them and finally short sentences built from these words, picture-reading being employed where helpful. Where possible the sentences are sufficiently related to suggest a story, till on page 19 when all the simple sounds have been taught, a complete story is presented. This completes the first stage and the next d pages are devoted to revision work. On page 20 a very simple dialogue is given. Page 21 presents a picture game to drive home the short words ‘‘on,” “any’ “am,” etc. These short words, though phonic, present no definite picture to the eye and give more trouble than many larger words that have a distinctive shape. Children that can climb up the ladder in the picture without stumbling may then jump down into the orchard of ripe fruit on the other side. Following the ladder game comes actionreading. Children read the sentences and then do or pretend to do what they say, e.g.

Hop to the step.

Skip up to six.

Page 2'2 gives a variation of the picture game by using stepping stones across a creek. Those who are able to cross dry-shod may follow the path to the town in the distance. This is followed by more actionreading. On page 2d ten sentences each with one word missing are given. The right word is to be chosen from the words supplied, e.g.

zip

jam


I see a pot of plum .... Did you see a bag with a . . .

Page 24 is devoted to a final review of troublesome small words in a picture-game. Those who are able to walk up the path without stumbling may ring the door-bell and join the party at the house. This concludes the first section. Simple short vowels and simple consonants have been dealt with and the work so far covered revised in five pages that give thorough practice on each of the sounds taught.

5.    The next section introduces some of tlie easy double consonants. The first five, ss, zz, gg, ff, and 11 (actually simple consonants though having double letters), lead up to ck, st, sh, wh, ch, th (soft sound only) and ng. The last two stories revise the work covered in the book and should be well within the ability of the average child by the time he has absorbed the phonic training and sight vocabulary that has been taught.

6.    At the end of the book the complete vocabulary has been listed according to sound for the assistance of teachers in revision ; for although the words containing the special sound dealt with in individual lessons are set out at the head of these lessons, there are many words that are not so listed because the vocabulary is being constantly enlarged. The “look and say” words are roughly grouped where grouping is possible.

The ground covered in Progressive Phonic Primer Book 1 leads up to the study of long vowel sounds, more difficult consonant combinations, and irregular words. These are dealt with in Book 11.

Progressive Phonic Primer Book II.

Building on the solid foundation laid in the first book, Book II carries the work a stage further and deals with the long vowel sounds and some of the more common digraphs.

1. The first fourteen padres of the book are devoted to simple stories built from the short vowel sounds and consonants taught in Book 1. Besides providing additional practice and revision these introductory pages serve as a link with the previous book and make the approach to new work more gradual. Page 15 drives in tlie form of a picture-game a complete revision of the “look and say" words used in this introductory section.

2. Page 16 introduces the first of the new sounds, the long sound of a as in day. No preliminary word lists are given in Book II, but the key to each lesson is placed at its head (e.r/.j ay]) and the

words built from it grouped at the end of the book. The ‘‘look and say" words however are, for obvious reasons, given at the beginning of each individual lesson so that the story need not be held up by these obstacles. Some words that have been regarded as sight words in individual lessons do not appear in the list at the end of the book because the sounds contained in them have been taught in subsequent lessons, c.g. on page 16 both “spade" and “down" are given as sight words. The sound of a as in

“spade" (a^e is taught on page 62. “ow" as in “down” on page 45, so that they automatically cease to be regarded as “look and say ’ words.

One of the puzzles that confront young children is that the same sound may be presented in several different letter combinations, c.g.

The long sound of a is found in bay, rain, game.

The long sound of i is found in shy, pie, kite, high and so on.

in order to avoid needless confusion each digraph has been presented separately so that it may be assimilated before the next is tackled. Thus ay and ai are dealt with in the separate lessons “At the Bay" and “Bain, Rain, Go to Spain." Words containing ay appear in the lesson dealing with ai since they have already been taught.

The poem “Who Likes the Rain?" on page 20 has been included partly because it follows a story about rain, and partly because of the many phonic words it contains. Most of it is within the grasp of pupils at this stage.

The digraphs ee and ea, y and ie are all dealt with in individual lessons as were ay and ai; oe and oa are taken together because there are very few words with the oe combination. A useful combination is cw, the words containing which are introduced in a few brief sentences. On page 31 a revision exercise is presented in the guise of a simple puzzle. All the long sounds so far taught are represented here, and the puzzle is self-explanatory.

3. The next group of sounds deals with the long vowel with final “e.” They are taught in the order a-e, i-e, o-e, and u-e. (The only e-e word that belongs to tin4 vocabulary of this age is “here“ and this is not separately dealt with.) Comparison can be made here with words such as, see, pie, hoe, etc. Letter “e” makes the other sound say its own name whether it is beside it or separated by another letter. Plenty of reading practice on these combinations is provided by action-reading (“Things to I)o") and guessing games (“What am 1 .’") on pages 32-35.

4. Thus far the long vowel combinations dealt with are: ay, ai; ee, ea; y, ie; oe, oa; ew; a-e, i-e, o-e, and u-e. In the story “Wet Paint" on page 36 each of these is represented so that this story gives thorough revision of work covered.

5. The remaining combinations dealt with in Book II are. the sound of 66 as in ‘‘moon,” ow as in “cow,” 1 as in “high,” and ou as in “house.” By this time tlie children will have acquired a considerable vocabulary of sight words, and attained a degree of independence in working out new words containing the sounds they have learned. “The Moon in the Pool" belongs to the popular type of repetitive story and provides plenty of practice in the new sound. To avoid confusion the short sound of oo as in “book” is not taught in this book.

6. The sound of ow as in “cow” is introduced on page 45 in the action-reading entitled “Things to Do.” Sentence-matching cards would be helpful for individual work on this and similar pages throughout the book.

7.    The long sound of i as in “high” is introduced in two short guessing games on pages 46 and 47. This is a rather difficult combination and pupils will require plenty of practice to enable them to recognize it easily.

8.    The sound of ou as in “house” is the last combination taught in Book II. Again it is presented in a repetitive story and abundant practice is provided in the new sound as well as many of the long vowel sounds dealt with previously.

9.    The book concludes with a revision exercise in the form of a missing-word test, and a poem (page 55) that contains many sounds that have been taught.

10.    The complete vocabulary of Book It is listed and grouped in the last five pages. “Look and say ” words with some similarity of construction or idea oi* sound have been grouped to assist in their recognition, t jj. words ending in “-er” have been grouped, and also were, where, there; are, arms, bark, etc.

Teachers will, of course, apply their own individual method in using the book. It will be seen that the text supplies abundant opportunity for dramatization since the keynote of all the stories is action. The guessing games and “things to do" pages provide suitable material for word, phrase and sentence matching.

It is hoped that even where the system employed is not mainly phonic, teachers will find the Progressive Phonic 1'rimers helpful. They may be used, for example, as supplementary books to Tiny Tots' Primer and the First Progressive Primer respectively, and since they are largely free from the stilted text usually associated with phonic primers, it is hoped that those teachers who favour the phonic system will find in them exactly the type of books that they require.

Progressive Phonic Primer Book III

By the time children have completed the second Phonic Primer they are in possession of a fairly extensive vocabulary, and are ready to attack the more difficult common sounds that are dealt with in Book 111. These include such sounds as oo, as in ‘‘wool”; u as in “pull”; ow as in “blow”; ew as in “grew”; or; ar; er, ir, ur; aught; and silent letters. Where the same sound is represented in different ways, e.g. er, ir, ur, each is treated separately and finally combined in a revision lesson. Simple puzzles and dialogue also find a place as in the previous books of the series. The type is bold and clear and the illustrations of the same high standard as heretofore.

KOOKABURRA SERIES

The Kookaburra Series has been specially designed to supplement the Progressive Phonic Primers and to provide additional reading matter for these young readers. The stories which are very short, are built upon the sounds taught in the primers and each deals with a topic that appeals to children of this age. Each book comprises eight pages, is brightly illustrated in colour and printed in the same bold type as the primers themselves. Pupils who have mastered Progressive Phonic Primer, Book E find themselves able to read the six books that supplement it. and thus experience their first taste of reading independence.

INDEX

Action’, the keynote, 8 Action reading, 58, 61 Apparatus for individual testing of Tmv Tots’ Primer, 12-13 Apparatus for long vowels, 36-38 Apparatus for word matching, 5-7 hints for keeping, 7-8

COMPREHENSION, 3

types of, 46, 54 Cue Cards, 7

Dialogue, 56, 58

Digraphs, 59, 60, 61    m

Dramatization, 8, 25, 26, 47, 52, 63

Emotional attitude, 34 Expectancy, 26

Fifth and Sixth Primers, 54-55 Finger play, 9 Fire engines (game), 17 First Progressive Primer, 23-34

Game of Family Post, 40 Games, group in phonics, 17-20, 39, 40 Games, simple phonic, 15-17 Games, simple reading, 20-22 Guessing games, 61

Jfan»'work and drawing response, 43 How to make things, 50-52 How to use seccot.ine, 51

Individual work necessary, 11, 43

Kookaburra Series, 64

Labels, reading game, 20 Lotto games, 21

Missing word test, 62

Nursery Rhymes, use of, 26-30 Nursery Rhyme phrase reading cards, 28

Oral expression, 52

Paper books, 7 Peep Show games, 30 Perception, span of, 23, 25, 26, 35 Phonic games, 15-17, 39, 40 Phonic Primers, Progressive, 55-64 Phonics, combined with speech training, 9 Phonics, individual apparatus for, 15

Phonic work, 3, 4, 9, 55-63 second primer, 39, 40 Phonograms, teaching of, 33, 39 Phrase reading, 3, 8, 25, 35 Picture and Answer Cards, 31 Picture and sentence matching, 28 Picture game, 58, 59 Picture reading device, 57 Posters, 9-10, 38 reading of, 49 Preliminary work, 4 Punch and Judy Show, 30 Puzzle, 61

Railway stations (game), 20

Reading card, 11

Reading for content, 3, 49

Reading games, 20-22

Reading records, 55

Reading with drawing response, 27

Records, reading, 55

Repetitive story, 62

Rhythmic eye movement, 24

Second Progressive Trimer, 34-45 Sentence comprehension test, 47, 48 Shop windows (game), 19 Snap games. 22 Sounds, revision of, 14, 15 linked with pictures, 56 Span of perception, 23, 25, 26, 35 Speech training, combined with phonics,9 the ‘’jingle way”, 55 Spelling helps, 41, 42 Stick men, for pictures, 6 Supplementary readers, 45 Supplementary reading cards, 34

Test Cards (Second Primer), 44-45 Testing visualisation, 12 Third and Fourth Primers, 46-53 Tiny Tots’ Primer, 8-22

Apparatus for individual testing, 1213

Transition stage to First Primer, 11 Second Primer, 35

f

Visualisation testing, 12 Visual work, important, 3, 29, 42

Word building apparatus, 32 Word matching, 4-7 Word reading, 3, 8 Word testing (Primers 2 or 3), 42 Word visualisation, 29 Written expression, 52

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