SPELLING-BOOK.

I    ... . Tr

Matter and Method for the Teaching of Spelling mainly through Word-building and Exercises in Elementary Composition.

PART 1.

(GRADE 111., Victoria)

For the pupil of average ability between the ages of 8 and 9 years.

MELBOURNE:

fc

CHRISTCHURCH, WELLINGTON, DUNEDIN, N.Z., LONDON

WHITCOMBE.& TOMBS LIMITED

3d.

TO THE TEACHER

A perusal of what is stated under spelling in recent books on school method and in new courses of study will reveal the fact that the spelling-book is again to have a place in the elementary school. The reasons for its restoration are cogent. The ability to spell correctly the words one uses is held to be a desirable possession;" and the evidence is ample that it can rarely be acquired, as has been thought, by merely learning the words that constitute the subject-matter of the reading lesson. Instruction on more systematic lines is necessary.

There is need, at .present, moreover, for a spelling-book providing a method of procedure in keeping with the conclusions that have been arrived at from the psychological and pedagogical investigations made, during late years, into the problem of learning to spell. The more important of these, put into brief form, are as follow:—

(1) It is desirable that there should be a graded course of instruction in spelling, supplemented by the study of a selection of the words that occur in the reading lessons. (2) To secure rapid progress iiv the ability to spell correctly, the first consideration in the method of teaching is to prevent the making of wrong forms. If made, wrong forms should be completely obliterated, and steps taken to fix the right ones. The use of the dictionary should be taught early. (3) A spelling lesson that involves the use of the eye, the ear, the vocal organs, and the hand should be the rule. (4) The pupil should be brought to know the use of the word he is asked to spell; and his interest in it should be aroused. (5) Many of the spelling lessons should be concerned with groups of words that make an appeal to the eye, the ear, and the intelligence; for example, phonic groups, word-building groups, and special vocabularies. (6) Words should be studied in the form that they ordinarily have in script and print; but, as the unit of spelling is usually the syllable, the syllables should be indicated in spelling lists. (7) In learning to spell a word, its sound should be known before the attempt is made to memorize the letters that compose it. (8) Articulation of the syllables simultaneously with the writing of the word is probably the best method of learning to spell a word of more than one syllable—it involves every essential element, visual, auditory, and motor.

“The Federal Spelling-book” has been designed with the object of making the carrying out of these principles an easy matter for the teacher. (See “Directions for Using this Book” on the inside of the back cover.)

THE FEDERAL SPELLING- BOOK. •

Matter and Method for the Teaching of Spelling mainly through Word-building and Exercises in Elementary Composition.

PART 1.

For the pupil of average ability between the ages of 8 and 9 years.

MELBOURNE:

CHRISTCHURCH, WELLINGTON, DUNEDIN, N.Z., <fc LONDON

Whitcombe & Tombs Limited

(See "Directions for Using this B(X)k" on the inside of the back cover.)

Spoken words are made up of sounds; and written words are made up of the symbols of sounds, called letters.

Spelling a word is telling, in their right order, the letters that form it.

In the English alphabet, there are 26 letters; but, in pronouncing words, 4o well-marked sounds are used. The same letter does not always stand for the same sound; the same sound is not always written in the same way.

The letters may be divided into two classes—vowels and consonants.

The vowels represent open sounds—those produced without any squeezing or stopping of the breath in the throat or mouth. They are a, e, t, o, u, and, sometimes (as at the end of a word or syllable), w and y.

The consonants represent those sounds that are obstructed l»v some part or parts of the organs of speech. They are less open sounds than the vowels, and cannot be fully produced without a vowel sound along with them.

A dipthong (dif 'thong), or double sound, represents a compound vowel sound, made oy the rapid running together of two vowel sounds, as “oi” in oil.

A digraph (die'yraf) is a combination of two letters to represent one simple sound, as “th” in thick, “ea" in head.

A syllable is a division of a word, composed of one or more letters and representing a single sound.

A sentence consists of words, which, taken together, express a thought (or make sense).

RUIiES.

Always begin with a- capital letter:—

The first word in a sentence; the name of a person or place; the name of a month or a day of the week; the word God, and any word standing for “God”; and I (the person speaking).

A sentence ends (except when it is a question or an exclamation) with a full stop.    A sentence that asks a

question ends with a note of interrogation (?).

THE VOWEL A.

The short sound of a, as in "am,” is shown by <i and in other ways.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Am, lamb; black, stack; scratch, snatch; rang, sprang; scrap, strap, wrap; dance, prance; catch, patch; crash, splash.

Note.—The “b” in "lamb” and the "w” in "wrap” are not sounded—they are silent consonants.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:-

(1) I saw a lamb by the side of its mother.

(2) Our cat is black. It can catch mice, and it can scratch. Last night, it sprang at a mouse.

(3)    Tom saw a rat on Mr. Jack’s stack. (4) There is not a scrap of food left for Harry’s dinner. (5) Wrap up some of that cold lamb, please.

EXERCISE 111.

Form new words thus:—

(I) Put un before “wrap” and “strap,” and ping after them. (2) Add en, ed, ing, and ness to “black.” (3) Add ed and ing to “scratch,” “snatch,” “patch,” “crash,” and “splash.” (4) Add r to “dance” and “prance.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The mother sheep found her.....    (2) We

have a.....cat. (3) Take care to ... . yourself up

well, when the.....is over. (4) Did you......

Sam with water? Next time you do so, you will get

the...... (5) The horse began to....... (6) Ann

put a neat.....over the torn part of her dress.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

The long sound of a, as in ‘’ale,” is shown by a, ae, aif ay, and in other ways.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words-

Ale, pale; ate, state; stake, wake; bathe, lathe; aim, claim; pair, stair; drain, pain, stain; day, play, pray.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) James ate his dinner after he had had a bathe.

(2) Jane tied the lamb to the stake before she went to play. (3) That top was turned on a lathe. (4) All the people in the church knelt down to pray. (5) Last market-day, his mother bought him a new pair of boots.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add less to “aim7’ and “stain.” (2) Drop the “e” and add iny to '‘state,77 “wake," and “bathe.77    (3) Add s, ed, and ing to “claim,"

“stain,77 and “pray.7' (4) Add r to “pale77 and “bathe.7 7    ‘    *

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Please .... me at six o'clock. (2) A man who

makes legs for tables uses a...... (3) The fruit left

an ugly.....on the cloth. (4) I have a . . . .

in my foot; I hurt it when I was crossing the......

(5) They went to.....in the creek. (6) The miners

say that the.....is worked out.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

The middle sound of a, as in “arm," is shown by (i. ea, an, and e.

EXERC ISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words: —

Arm, harm, charm; brass, grass; half, scarf; calm, psalm; heart; hearth; laugh; launch; draught; clerk.

Notes.— (I) “Draught” may also be spelt “draft,” but, when it means a current of air, “draught” is the form preferred.

(2)    The “1” in “half,” and “calm,” and the “p” and “1” in “psalm" are silent consonants.

EXERCISE 11.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) The cow did him no harm, and he began to laugh. (2) John's scarf came undone, and he felt the draught. (3) The girls sang half the psalm.

(4) The fire on the hearth went out. (5) Did the clerk write the letter? (6) The sea was so calm that it was no trouble to launch the boat.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ed, and ing to “harm, ' “charm," “haunt,'’ and “laugh.” (2) Add en to “heart."

(3)    Add y to “brass,” “grass,'’ “draught," and “heart.” (4) Add ly to “calm.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The man was trying to.....the snake. (2)

The master told his.....to write soon. (3) Tom

put a log of wood on the....... (4) The children gave a hearty...... (5) Before he went out,

the old man wound the.....round his neck.

(6) He did only .... his exercise, because his . . . was sore.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of w^ords:—

All, small, squall, tall; chalk, talk; waltz; aught, caught, naught; cause, gauze, pause; claw; awl, crawl; brought, sought.

Note.—The “g” and the “h” in “aught.” “caught,” “bought,” and “sought** are silent consonants.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) The ship was caught in a storm. (2) The lion sprang upon the deer, and tore the poor thing with its claws. (3) Bootmakers use small awls. (4) Mary can waltz round the room without feeling giddy.

(5)    Aught means anything; naught, nothing. (6) A meat safe is made of wrood and gauze.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ing, and ed to “claw,” “crawd, ” and '‘talk.” (2) Add er and ness to “small” and “tall.” (3) Add y to “chalk,” “gauze,” “naught,” and “squall.” (4) Drop the “e” and add ing and ed to "pause.” (5) Add es, er, ing, and ed to “waltz.”

(6)    Put be before “sought.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXE INCISE IV.    •

Fill the spaces belowr with words from the list:—

(1) The teacher wrote on the blackboard with

...... (2) Did Charlie catch the ball? Yes; he

......it. (3) The bootmaker pricked his finger

with an ... .    (4) Our bab}' was trying to......

(5) Our lunch cupboard lias.....sides. (6) When

I....., I become giddy. Do you ?

Learn to spell all the word in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound:—

(1) That man adds up numbers quickly, but he cannot smooth a log with an adze. (2) He lacks power to take pains; please, do not be lax with him. (3) The bad boy was scolded by the teacher, who bade him do his exercise again. (4) The lady made her maid go back for the cloak. (5) I thought that the boy looked pale when he came in with the pail of milk.

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) An .... is a sharp tool that is used for smoothing timber. (2) I fear your teacher is . . . with you. (3) The mother .... her child go to bed. (4) The . . . . had finished her work by four o’clock. (5) ‘‘Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a .... of water. ”

Learn all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE 111.—THE BODY.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Breast, cheek, ear, eye, face, jaw, lung, knee, mouth, skull, thigh, throat, thumb, toe, tongue, tooth waist, wrist.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—CLOTHING.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Belt, boot, braid, brooch, cape, cloak, coat, furs, glove, muff, scarf, shawl, shirt, shoe, sock, thread, veil, vest.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

THE VOWEL E.

EXERC ISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

End, mend; trench, wrench; fence, hence, whence; any, many; says; said; health, stealth, wealth; breath, death; friend.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Did Mr. Peck wrench his foot in the trench?

(2) Whence did he come? (3) My friend has great wealth but poor health. (4) His breath is short, and, I fear, he is near death. (5) He said, “There's many a slip ’twixt cup and lip.” (6) Go hence quickly.

(7) He took the fruit by stealth.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add ¿U and ing to “end,” “mend,” and “wrench.” (2) Add er to “mend,” “trench,” “breath.” (3) Put be before “friend.” (4) Add y to “health” and “stealth.” (5) Add ly and ship to “friend.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Did he......his ankle in the......?

(2)    No; he hurt it when getting over the......

(3)    In spite of his great......, he does not enjoy

good....... (4) The teacher asked him......

he had come. (5) No one knew how much he gave away: he did good by........

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

The long sound of e, as in “me,” is shown by

c, ee, eee, ee, ea. and in other ways.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Eve; sleeve; breeze, cheese, freeze, sneeze, squeeze; seem; keel, peel; keen; cease, peace; beach, peach; beam; breathe, sheathe; meat, wheat.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Eve is another word for evening. (2) In the evening. Eva sewed up the seam of the sleeve of her dress. (3) Do cease talking, and let us be at peace, please. (4) He was told to sheathe his sword. (5) Did the children go to the beach? (6) The wife cut some bread and cheese for her husband’s lunch.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—    .

(1) Drop the “e” and add ing and ed to * ‘squeeze,” ‘“breathe,” and “sheathe.” (2) Add ly to “seem” and “keen.” (3) Add less to “sleeve” and “cease.”

(4) Add ful to “peace.” (5) Add er and est to “keen.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) From morn till dewy . . . , he was in the field.

(2) The air in this room is bad, I can scarcely

........ (3) The men sawed through the.....

(4) The pepper made Annie....... (5) Bid him

.......his sword quickly. (6) That is a good crop

of......(7) As the boat turned over, I could see

its.....

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound:—

(1) A large beech-tree grewr near the beach. (2) The keeper did not beat the bear, but gave it a beet to eat. (3) The flesh of the deer is good; but it is scarce, and, therefore, dear. (4) Willie cut his heel; but^his mother says that the wound will soon heal. (5) I heard the lowing of a herd of cattle.

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below’ with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) We had a picnic on the....., and paddled

in the sea. (2) My mother cooked a red . . . . , and then cut it into slices. (3) Last market-day, pigs were .....    (4) The cut on his hand will take a

long time to..... (5) The stockmen had much

trouble to drive the .... into the paddock.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—THE SCHOOL.

Say, spell, and wu-ite the following names:—

Book, chair, chalk, class, clock, desk, drill, form, friend, grade, ink, learn, leave, march, mate, peg, read, rule, seat, slate, stand, teach, write.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—GAMES.

Base, bounce, bowl, catch, chase, crease, field, game, goal, hide, hoop, hop, pitch, race, seek, skip, spy, strike, team, throw, tig, touch.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

THE VOWEL I.

EXERCISE I.

Sav, spell, and write the following list of words:—

111, mill, spill; chick, thick, trick; drift, shift, thrift; blink, shrink; ditch, stitch, switch; print, squint; build, guild; built, guilt.

EXERCISE II.

( opv the following sentences:—

(1) Did Bill spill the honey? No; but he spilt the milk when on his way to the mill. (2) By thrift, he saved money, and built a big house. (3) A number of men called a guild built a hall in which to meet. (4) Do not shrink; a cut with that switch will not hurt much. (5) His eyes are weak; they both blink and squint a great deal.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add en to 1‘chick'’ and “thick.” (2) Add $, ed, and ing to “shift,” “drift,” “blink.” “print,” and “squint.” (3) Put up before “build.” (4) Add less and y to “guilt,” “shift,” and “thrift.”

(5) Add ness to “ill” and “thick.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill in the spaces below with words from the list:

(1) Did you.....the water on the floor, Robert ?

(2) Sam struck the pony with a....... (3) He

had done wrong, and lie thought that every one knew

of his...... (4) This will not hurt you; do

not....... (5) If you......, you should go

to a doctor to have your eyes looked at.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Ice, mice; bind, rind; pie, tie; dine, mine; dive, drive, strive, thrive; blithe, writhe; knife, wife; cry, try; bye, dye, rye.

Note.—The “k” in ‘‘knife” and the “w” in “writhe” are silent consonants.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Charlie cut his hand with a knife, and the pain of the wound made him writhe. (2) George wanted his sister to search for his tie, while he was eating his piece of pie. (3) ‘‘Who drives fat oxen should himself be fat.” (4) By and by, the train will reach the station. (5) Say good-bye to your cousin. Bob.

(6) She is going to dye her dress red.,

EXERCISE ITT.

xForm new words thus:—

(1) Add s and ing to “bind” and “dye.” (2) Drop the “e” and add ing to “dine,” “dive,” “thrive,” “strive,” and “writhe.” (3) Add less and ly to “blithe” and “wife.” (4) Add es to “cry” and “try,” after changing the “y” into i. ^

Frame sentences, using the new words and others'.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill in the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Jane should not have thrown the .... of her orange on the pavement. (2) Her mother tried to . . . Maud’s dress blue. (3) It took a week to cut the

crop of    (4) Mike was......and happy.

(5) On his return from work, his .... met him with a smile. (6) We should all......to do our best..


Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE 1.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound:—

(if They told him to sing a hymn. (2) The farmer was in the inn, when his horse took fright.

(3) My sight is not good, and I cannot see clearly the site for the new school. (4) Alas! the blood of the men who will die in the battle to-morrow will dye the ground. (5) When night came, the knight left the cam]). ^

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

'(1) Last Sunday, I joined in the singing of every

.....    (2) In England, the word ... is often used

for a place where strong drink is sold. (3) The .    . .

for the new hall has been chosen. (4) The dyer was told to . . . the dress blue, but he has made it green.

(5) The......drew his sword, and rushed to meet

the foe.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—FOOD.

Say, spell, and write the following names: —

Beef, bread, broth, cake, cheese, cream, cress, dish, egg, fork, fruit, jam, knife, lamb, lard, leek, loaf, meat, milk, mint, peas or pease, plate, pork, rice, roast, sage, salt, sauce, spoon, sprouts, steak, stew, tea, thyme, veal. \

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—THE HOME.

V

Bath, beam, blind, broom, brush, chair, clock, oemb, cord, couch, knife, lamp, latch, lounge, match, quilt, roof, rope, sack, sheet, shelf, soap, soot, sponge, stairs, string, tongs, vase, watch.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

THE VOWEL 0.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following words:—

Odd; cot, dot; dock, knock; bond, fond, frond, pond; blotch, notch; dodge, lodge; bronze; solve; what; watch; squad; squash.

Note.—The “k” in “knock” is a silent consonant.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) A dock is a plant; and a place for ships to lie in is also called a dock. (2) Let us watch and see if John will knock at the door of that cottage. (3) A penny is made of bronze; it has no notch on its edge. (4) I like to watch a squad at drill. (5) There is a kind of melon that is called a squash.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add tage to “cot.’’    (2) Add ting to “dot.”

(3) Add s, ed, and ing to “knock/’ (4) Add es} ed, and ing to “notch,” “blotch,” “watch,” and “squash.” (5) Add le to “fond.” (6) Drop the “e” and add ing to “dodge” and “lodge.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The teacher bade the class.....the problem.

(2) His elder brother told him .... to do. (3) My

.....stopped at twelve o’clock. (4) The cook put

the......in the pot to boil for dinner. (5) That

little boy can name all the......coins in use in Aus

tralia.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Old, sold; globe; clothe; whole; stove, throve, wove; foal, goal; oats, boats; cloak, soak; broach, coach; foe, hoe, throe, toe, woe.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) The teacher showed Australia on the globe.

(2)    There are people who clothe themselves in skins.

(3)    Did Joe and Robert leave by the coach? (4) Katie’s brooch fell from her cloak and was lost. (5) The home team strove its hardest, but only one goal was kicked. (6) They wove the wool into cloth.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Put un before “clothe,” and then add d to the word. (2) Add ed and ing to “cloak,” “coach,” and “soak.” (3) Add d and ing to “toe” and “hoe.” (4) Drop the “e” and add ly to “whole.” (5) Add ful to “woe.”

Frame sentences, using the new vords and other-.

EXERCISE IV.

•* Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Did Jack eat the.....pie without giving

you a share? (2) In the lower paddock, there was

a heavy crop of..... (3) Sounds of . . . were

heard after the battle. (4) Did the boys . . . the turnips the right way? (5) On the road, we passed

a mare with a pretty.....    ^

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell

the words in each that have a like sound:—

\

(1) I did not tie the knot in the string. (2) The horse jibbed, and the driver grew hoarse through shouting at it.' (3) For the fourth time, he went forth to fight. (4) In spite of its sore wing, the eagle is able to soar. (5) There will be too many then, if two more join in the game, s

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) The .... has been tied so tightly that I cannot undo it. (2) At the end of his speech, the man

was quite....... (3) He shot.....one arrow

after another. (4) Did you ever see a bird . . . . through the air? (5) Twice . . . are four.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—THE COUNTRY.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Barn, bridge, brook, churn, creek, ditch, fence, field, furze, hare, hedge, hill, horse, lake, lane, oats, plough, rail, rake, reap, river, road, scrub, scythe, sheaf, shear, sow, spade, stack, stream, sty, team, thrash, swamp, wheat.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—THE TOWN.

Sav, spell, and write the following names:—

Bank, cab, cart, chaise, church, curb, gas, house, jail, lamp, lane, noise, park, seat, shop, square, store, street, tram, trough.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

THE VOWEL U.

EXERCISE I.

Sav, spell, and write the following list of .words:—

Up, sup; cluck, duck, struck; crush, hush; crumb, dumb, thumb; shrunk, trunk; won; done, none; come, some; rough, tough; young.

Note.—The “b” in “crumb,” “dumb,” and “thumb” is a silent consonant.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) I heard a duck quack and a hen cluck. (2) There was some rough play, and one boy was struck with a stick. (3) Hush! the noise may wake the baby. (4) The shirt, after it had been washed, was much shrunk. (5) The poor boy was dumb—he could not speak.

EXERC ISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add ling to “duck.” (2) Add es, ing, and ed to “crush” and “hush.” (3) Add er and est to “rough,” “tough,” and “young.” (4) Add dcr to “won.” (5) Add per and ping to “sup.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The stone......Peter on the head. (2)

Please do not.....me against the desk. (3) My

sister is too.....to come to school. (4) This steak

is too.....to eat. (5) There is not a.....of

bread in the house (6) The elephant has a long


Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

The long sound of it as in “use,” is shown by

u, ue, oey ooey oo, ue, ewf and in otlier ways.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—*

Use, fuse; huge; pure, sure; brute, flute; lose, whose; soothe; choose; smooth; blue, due, glue, hue, true; ewe; view.

Xotes.— (1) ‘‘Sure” is pronounced “slmr.” (2) The “i” in “view” is a silent vowel.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Fuse is used by miners to set fire to powder.

(2) The men had to move a huge rock. (3) The two pieces of wood were joined with glue only. (4) The old ewe was bleating for her lamb. (5) The little girl was trying to soothe the baby. (6) I wonder why William is late; he was due at seven o’clock.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Drop the “e” and add ly to “due” and “true.” (2) Drop the “e” and add ing and ed to “fuse,” “glue,” “prove,” “soothe,” and “use.” (3) Add s, ing, and ed to “view.” (4) Add ness to “blue,” “huge,” and “sure.” (5) Add ly and ness to “smooth.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:-

(1) Of what ... is the sky this morning, Jane?

It is.....    (2) The teacher wanted to know.....

(4) You may......the one you like best. (5)

He plays the.....well. (6) This milk is quite


book 1 had. (3) The big.....sprang at its keeper.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

18

i he middle sound of u, as in * * full, ’ is shown bv u, o, ooy on, and in other ways.

EXERCISE I.

v Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Full, pull; put; bush, push; puss; wolf; good, stood, wood; goose, loose; foot, soot; groove; could, should, would.

Note.—The "1” in “could,” “should,” and “would” is a silent consonant.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Please do not push me into that prickly bush.

(2)    Joe let the goose loose, and she flew into the bush.

(3)    Jim would have gone after her, but his foot was sore. (-C Little Red Riding-hood met a wolf in the wood. (5) Put your pens in the grooves, and cover up the ink.

EXERCISE III.

Frame new words thus:—

(1) Add ness and ly to “good” and “loose.” (2) Change the “f” in “wolf” into ves. (3) Add esy ed, and ing to “push.” (4) Put un before “loose.” (5) Add ting to “put.” (6) Add ness to “full.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Frank.....not or.....not say the verse.

(2) Hubert shot a.....with his gun. (3) The

chimney is free from.....(4) Ruth put her pencil

in the....... (5) I.....much like to go to

the football match. (6) This belt is too.....for me.

(7) Jessie calls her cat > > 4 . f

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound:—

1 A bird that had built its nest in the flue of an old chimney flew out at the top. (2) Fred missed his aim, and threw the ball through the window. (3) The ruff that she wore round her neck was made of rough muslin. (4) I heard a loud whoop, and out rushed a boy bowling a hoop. (5) Hugh took the axe to hew down the tree.

Note.—“Axe” may be spelt “ax,” which is the better form.

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) Two birds .... over our heads. (2) The

horse bolted, and dashed.......the fence. (3)

Do not be so....., Bob, when playing with the

little ones. (4) Tommy can make his-/. . . go round in a circle. (5) People more often say “cut down” than7“. . . down,” when they are speaking of felling a tree.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERC ISE III.—BIRDS.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Beak, breast, build, chirp, crow, dart, finch, fly, hatch, hawk, light, nest, owl, perch, quail, rise, shag, skim, soar, stork, straw, swan, swift, swoop, thrush, tongue, whirr, wing, wren.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—SIZE.

Say, spell, and write the following words:—

Breadth, broad, deep, depth, great, height, high, huge, length, loitg, short, small, tall, thick, thin, wide, width.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

THE OBSCURE VOWEL SOUND.

The obscure sound lying between the sounds of short i and short h. as in “bird,” is shown by c, (<t, h o, u followed by r, and in other ways.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Bird, third;* birth, girth; stir; whirr; dirt, skirt; berth; dearth, earth; search; worse, worst; worth; churn, spurn; fur; burr.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) The boy had to climb into his berth on the ship. (2) Rupert heard the whirr of the bird’s wings as she flew off the nest. (3) All the pupils were thirsty, for there was a dearth of water. (4) Butter is made in a churn. (5) “To-morrow is my birthday, said little Susan. (G) Some burrs have stuck to my stockings.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ing, and ed to “churn,” “girth,” “spurn,” and “whirr.” (2) Add er to “churn” and “search.” (3) Add less, y, and ily to “worth.”

(4)    Add ly to “earth.” (5) Add ring, red, and rer to “stir.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The teacher was vexed, and said, “That is the . . . * r excuse you could give. (2) How did you get that .... on your jacket, Willie? (3) Slu* tore

her.....when getting through the barbed-wire

fence. (4) The horse bucked, and broke the . . . t w .

(5)    The people were starving, for there was a......

of corn in the land.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE 1.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound:—

(1) The sailor fell out of his berth on his birthday. <2) The farmer heard, on his way home, that his dairy herd had got into the crop. (3*) The squirrels that live in the big fir-tree in our paddock have grey fur. 4) Take care not to eat that berry, or we may have to bury you. (5) If you were to work for a year, you would not earn money enough to buy that golden urn.

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) My mother made me a large........cake.

(2) Last night, a .... of cattle went by our house.

(3) The black possum of Tasmania has very good . . . .    (4) Some tribes of blacks in Australia do not . . . . their dead. (5) In some parts of Europe, a dead man’s body used to be burnt, and the ashes placed in an ... .

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE HI.—ANIMALS.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Bear, bee, calf, deer, ewe, flea, gnat, goat, hare, horse, lamb, louse, midge, moth, sheep, wasp.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—THE SEA AND FISH.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Bait, bay, beach, boat, bream, cape, coast, crab, eel, gulf, perch, shark, shore, shrimp, sole, strait, trout, whale.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

The sound of oi. as in “oil” (this is the sound of

0    in “or,” very rapidly followed by the sound of

1    in “pit”), is shown by oi, oie. and oy.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Oil. boil, broil, coil, soil, spoil; coin, loin; hoist, joist, moist; choice, voice; noise, poise; joint; cloy, joy, toy.'

EXERCISE TT.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Do not boil the meat; broil it, please. (2) Please bring me a loin of lamb, butcher. (3) \\ e hoist the flag at our school on Empire Day. (4) Did you see the hawk poise before it darted down ? (5) Tf we eat too many sweets, they cloy, and we feel ill. (6) The joists that support this floor are strong. ,

r    EXERCISE ITT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Put re before “coil,” and add s> ing, and ed to the new word. (2) Add ure, en, and ness to “moist.” (3) Add s, ing, and ed to “boil,” “broil,” “cloy,” “coin,” “hoist,” and “spoil.” (4) Add less to “joy,” “noise,” and “voice.” (5) Drop the “e” and add y to “noise.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The carpenter put strong......under the

flooring boards. (2) The butcher cut these chops

from the.....    (3) “There is too much.....,”

said the teacher, raising his...... (4) The boy has

so many toys that T fear his . . . will soon . . . A . (5) The ground is quite.....after the rain.

Dearn to spell all the words in these sentences.

The sound of ou, as in “found” (this is the sound of a in “path.” very rapidly followed by the sound

of u in “put”), is shown by on. oue, and ow.

EXERCISE I.

Say. spell, and write the following list of words:— /Found, mound; shout, spout; cloud, shroud; doubt, drought, sprout; ounce, flounce, pounce; bough, plough; owl, howl, prowl; clown, drown; browse.\ /

Notes.—(1) “Plow” for “plough” may be used, but it is not the form preferred by the “O.E.D. ”    (2) The

**b” in “doubt”’ and the “gh’’ in “drought.” “bough.” and “plough” are silent consonants.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) The drought will not last much longer. When the rain comes, there is no doubt that the grass will grow quickly. (2) The sheep began at once to browse.

(3) T saw the cat pounce on a mouse. (4) The dead man was clad in a shroud and placed in a coffin. (5) Annie's dress caught in the hough, and the flounce was torn.

EXERCISE ITT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ing, and ed to “doubt,” “drown.” “howl,” “prowl,” “shout,” and “sprout.” (2) Add er, ry. and at ion to “found.” (3) Add less to “cloud” and “doubt,” (4) Drop the “e” and add es, ing, and ed to “pounce” and “browse.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Before the rain comes, the.....must be

cleaned out. (2) A......was made for the dead

man. (3) The drover let the cattle......in the

scrub. (4) All the tanks were dry owing to the long

........ (5) You need not.....his word, for

he has always told the truth.

Bearn to spell all the words in these sentences.

This book is planned to serve for a year. On each page (beginning with the third), there are seven short lessons—a fortnight's work when some lessons from the subject-matter for reading are added.

The pupil should begin the book at Exercise I. on page 3.

Exercise I.—One plan (a thorough one) of teaching this exercise to a class is as follows:—(1) The teacher pronounces a word, and writes it carefully on the board. (2) The pupils pronounce it. (3) The meaning and use of the word are made clear. (4) The pupils look at the word, pronounce it, and spell it. Attention is directed to silent letters (or any other peculiarity), if they exist. (5) The pupils close their eyes, and think of the appearance of the word. (6) They look at the word again. (7) The teacher erases the word. (8) The pupils write the word on paper. (9) The result is scanned by the teacher.

Exercise H.—After being treated as directed, the sentences may be used as dictation tests.

Exercise HI.—Take, as an example, Question 3:—“Add €il and iny to ‘scratch/ ‘snatch/ ‘patch/ ‘crash/ and ‘splash.’ ” The pupil should write—“Scratched, scratching; snatched, snatching; patched, patching; crashed, crashing; splashed, splashing.” In writing a sentence that he himself has framed, the pupil should not use any word if he is in doubt about its form. When in doubt, he" should appeal to his dictionary, or, if unable to use a dictionary, to his teacher.

Exercise IV.—After being treated as directed, the sentences may be used as dictation tests.

Exercises I. and II. (page 7).—After being treated as directed, the sentences may be used as dictation tests. Exercises III. and IV. may be treated in the manner suggested above for Exercise I. on page 3.

Correction.—An incorrect form should be obliterated completely (not merely crossed through), and the pupil should write the correct form several times.

Notes and Buies (page 2).—These are intended to enable the teacher to give definiteness to the ideas that the pupils will acquire as they work through the exercises. Reference should be made to them only when the need arises. The same remark applies to the first statement on the subsequent pages.

Note.-—When preference for a form is expressed, the warrant is the “Oxford English Dictionary” (Murray, Bradley, and Craigie). In some cases (the “O.E.D.”' not being complete yet), the “Authors1 and Printers' Dictionary'9 (F. H. Collins) is the authority.

The Southern Cross


POETRY BOOKS


Book 1-JUNIOR

For use in Reading, Recitation, and Composition Lessons, with notes on the Uses of Poetry in schools and suggestive exercises.

Revised Edition.    Illustrated.

108 pages, 6d.


Book 2—SENIOR

A cheap supplementary reader for the upper Grades, containing an admirable selection of poetic masterpieces, with explanatory notes, suggestive exercises, subjects for composition, and elementary remarks on diction and metre.

100 pages, 6d„


WHITCOMBE & TOMBS LIMITED


The Specialty Press Pty. Ltd., 189 Little Collins St., Melbourne