THE FEDERAL SPELLING-BOOK.

Matter and Method for the 1 eaching of Spelling mainly through Word-building and Exercises in Elementary Composition.

PART II.

(Grade IV., Victoria)

F or the pupil of average ability between the ages of 9 and 10 years.

. MELBOURNE :    .

< 'tRIS'J'OHUBCli, W ELMNOTON. DUNEDIN, N.Z., & LONDON


Whitcombe & Tombs Limited

4d.

In Part I. of “The Federal Spelling-book,“ the reasons for using a spelling-book in the elementary school are stated. Then follow the principles that must be observed in the teaching of spelling to secure the desired result with economy of time and effort.

The lists in Part I. consist of monosyllables, and, in this book (Part II.), the need of a thorough grounding in monosyllables has been kept in view in compiling the lists, but not to the exclusion of words of two or more syllables.

The word-building exercises in both Parts provide practice in the development of disyllables and trisyllables from monosyllables.    *

Care has been taken to make each of the vowel sounds in the International Phonetic Alphabet (see “Exercises in Phonics,“ by A. Fussell, M.A., Chief Inspector of Schools, Education Department, Victoria) the phonetic element of a group of words. .

It is very desirable that the dictionary habit should be acquired by a pupil as early as possible in the school course. The words in the lists have, therefore, been arranged in ^ alphabetical order, and some guidance has been given towards the interpretation of diacritical marks.

The syllables of Words of more than one syllable have been shown, and the accented syllable of each has been marked. While it was desirable that both these things should be done, yet as little change as possible has been made in the usual appearance of the words.

The pronunciation of common words that are frequently mispronounced, for example, “asphalt,“ “clique,“ is given; and, though the meanings of almost all the words listed are revealed by their use in sentences for transcription, still a definition, when judged helpful, has been supplied.

The treatment of punctuation, commenced in Part I., has been continued in this book. As the written exercises provide for the application of the rules, the result to those who work through the course should be the easy acquirement of the ability t*> punctuate correctly.

GO THE FEDERAL

VQ--

SPELLING-BOOK.

Matter and Method for the Teaching of Spelling mainly through Word-building and Exercises in Elementary Composition.

PART 11.

l or the pupil of average ability between the ages of 9 and 10 years.

MELBOURNE:

CHRISTCHURCH, WELLINGTON, DUNEDIN, N.Z., & LONDON

Whitcombe & Tombs Limited

CCM02'14-52 L.O

(SeeDirections for Using this Hook'' on the inside of the

hack cover.)

VOICE.

In the study of speech sounds, voice means the buzzing sound produced by the rapid vibration of the vocal cords as the breath passes between them in its passage outwards from the lungs.

Sounds may be classed as voiced (or sonant) and voiceless (or unvoiced, breathed, surd).

They are voiced when the vocal cords vibrate; voiceless when the vocal cords do not vibrate.

To distinguish voiced from voiceless sounds, put the hands against the ears, and say the sounds:—s—z—s—zs; f—v —f—v—f.    A buzzing is heard in the case of the voiced

sounds, z and v.

SYLLABICATION.

A syllable is a vowel or collection of letters pronounced by one effort of the voice, and containing only one vowel sound.

If a syllable ends in a vowel, it is called open, as either syllable in “la'dy;” in a consonant, closed, as either syllable in 11com'mon.?

A word of one syllable is a monosyllable; of two, a disyllable (the form of the word that is preferred); of three, a trisyllable; of more than three, a polysyllable.

As a general rule, in dividing words into syllables, regard is to be paid to the pronunciation, not to the derivation.

ACCENT.

Accent is the stress laid upon a syllable of a word of twro or more syllables.

The syllable that is made prominent is called the accented (or stressed) syllable, and is said to receive the accent (or stress). fn written or printed language, it may be indicated by a mark placed at the right hand of the syllable and a little above it, thus, “syllable.”

In English, the accent usually falls near the beginning of a word.

PUNCTUATION.

I    (See also Part I., page 2.)

Punctuation is the art of placing certain marks, called stops, in written language. Its purpose is to divide the language into sentences1 and parts of sentences, so as to make the writer's meaning clear.

The stops that are most used are the following:—The comma (,), the semicolon (;), the colon (:), and the full stop (or period)^

THE TSE OF THE COMMA IN THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.-

When, in a simple sentence, the subject, predicate, object, and adverbial adjunct (extension) follow one another in that order (their natural order), they are not separated bv any stop.

When the parts of the sentence are out of their natural order, or its flow is checked by the introduction of a word or phrase, use is found for the comma, the stop that marks the smallest division in a sentence.

The following are among the cases needing its use:—

1.    When a phrase-" that is an adverbial adjunct comes at the beginning of a sentence, it is marked off by a comma.

Example: 1 2 3 4 ‘ On recovering his senses, he answered me; " but, “He answered me on recovering his senses.”

2.    When an adverb** comes at the beginning of a sentence, it is usually marked oil* by a comma.

Example: “Gradually, his health and strength returned;” but, “His health and strength returned gradually.”

3.    When a phrase is introduced, it is marked off by commas.

Examples: “The boy, after tying up his horse, opened the gate;” but, “The boy opened the gate after tying up his horse. ” “Jane, having tidied the room, sat down to her lessons. ’

4.    \\ hen such a word as an adverb or adverbial conjunc tion is introduced, it is marked oft bv commas.

Example: “This, however, was not my purpose.”

5.    When three or more words of the same part of speech have the same grammatical construction, they are marked off by commas.

Examples: “Earth, air, and water teem with life.” “He lias a good, sound, healthy body.”

(>. When a person is addressed, the name is marked oil' by a comma or commas.

Example: “John, come here.” “Are you, sir, waiting for anyone?”

7.    When a word or phrase is in apposition to a word that precedes it, it is marked oli' by commas.

Example: “Edward, the first Prince of Wales, was born in Wales.”

8.    When the number of a year follows the name of a month, a comma is placed between them.

Example: “August, 1914.”

The short souiiTh of a. as in “am,” and its long sound, as in *‘ale, ” are shown in various ways.

Many compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use “a” for the short sound and “a” for the long one.

EXERCISE I.

Sav, spell, and write the following words:—

Short A.— Gnash, gnat, jamb, knack, manse, thatch, spasm, an'swer, attack', can'cel, cap'tain, fash'ion, ham'mock. ^

Long A.—Ache, plague, vague, la'bel, ra'zor; chaise, straight, gai'ly, refrain'; whey; freight, neigh, weigh, skein, vein, veil.

Note.—The initial consonants in “gnash,” “gnat,” and “knack,'? and the final consonant in “jamb,M are silent.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Was it when George was putting the thatch on the stack that he janibed his thumb? (2) The numbers would not cancel, and I am afraid that my answer is wrong. (3) The old captain thought curds and whey poor food. (4) Do you think that veils for ladies will ever go out of fashion? (5) A spasm is a short, sharp pain, quite different from an ache. (6) When he was shaving, he cut a small vein with the razor.

EXERCISE ill.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ing, and eel to “veil,” “jamb,” “answer,” “attack,” “neigh,” “weigh,” and “refrain.” (2) And tij to “weigh.” (3) Add ly to “vague.” (4) Add ling to “cancel” and “label.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Francis was seen to.....bis teeth with rage.

(2)    Clouds of.....were flying around the light.

(3)    The maid was singing.....as she carried the

milk into the dairy. (4) The sailor was asleep in 11is........ (5) He has the.....of doing it.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

The middle (or Italian) sound of a, as in “arm/* and its broad sound, as in 4‘all/* are shown in various ways.

Some compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use “a" for the middle sound and ‘‘a" with two dots under it for the broad sound. It Webster's New International Dictionary, the symbol for the latter is d, as in “orb.”

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Middle A.-^Ums, palm, ifcaft, ar'bor, strch'er, arc'tic, martyr; aunt, daunt (“an" in this word as middle a or broad a); guard; ser'geSnt ¿[sar'gant).

Broad A. —/Balk, warmth, wa'ter, awe; haul, taught; brawl, fawn, pawn, gnaw; bought, fought, ought, thought, wrought; scorch^.

Xote.—“Arbor” is the only form in Arbor (tree) Day; but “arbor” or “arbour” may be used with the meaning bower.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) It was sad that the old sergeant had to beg for alms. (2) My aunt was a martyr to toothache. (3) Three times did the horse balk at the hurdle, but that did not daunt his jockey. (4) “Wrought” lias the same meaning as “worked.” (5) There is much ice in the Arctic Ocean.

EXERCISE 111.

Form new words thus;—

(1) Add s, ing, and ed to “waft,” “daunt,” “guard,” “balk,” “fawn,” “haul,” “pawn,” and “gnaw.” (2) Add es, ing, and ed, to “scorch.” (3) Add y to “palm,” “archer,” and “water.” Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

y    EXERCISE IV.

' Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) We planted a hundred trees on.....Day.

(2) Dogs like to ... . bones. (3) The man told the

......./of the robbery. (4) A feeling of . . . came

upon every one. (5) Do not let the fire......your

cloak, Annie. f

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

There is a long sound of a, as in “care,” which is shown by a, at, e, ea, and ei followed by r.

Some compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use the symbol “a’" for it.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:— Dare, fare, pare, rare, scare, char'y, var y, war'y, gar'ish, par'ent; lair, stair, air'y. dair'y, fair'y; ere, there, where; bear, tear; heir (“h” silent), their. £

Note.—This sound is so close to the long a in “ale” that it may be so pronounced in “chary,” “vary,” “wary,” 1 ‘dairy,11 and “fairy,” and the “ry” may be made the second syllable in each word.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(l)vThe mistress was very chary with the tea: the servants called her mean. (2) Be wary when you go near that pony. (3) The hall was hung with so many flags that it looked garish rather than pretty.

(4)    Janet went to the dairy for some cream.

(5)    Cinderella was helped by a fairy. (6) “Myself was stirring ere the break of day.N”

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Put com and pre before '‘pare.” (2) Put wel before “fare ’ and icell after it. (3) Add ess to “heir.” (4) Put else before “where.” (5) Add ing to “vary,” “dairy,” “bear,” and “tear.”

(6) Add ly to “garish” and “rare.” (7) Put for before ‘ ‘ bear. ’ ’ \

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

" Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Only one......came to the school on Arbor

Day. (2) The room was well lit and.....    (3)

Be .... , or the snake may bite you.    (4) I was

.....about crossing the paddock in which the bull

was grazing. (5) The .... of the tiger was strewn with bones. y

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

In addition to its short sound, as in “am,M the vowel a has a short sound (the short Italian sound), as in “ask.” intermediate between that in ‘‘am” and its middle (or Italian) sound, as in “arm.”

Note.—One or other of the sounds that this sound lies between is frequently used for it. In unaccented syllables, the sound is often dulled, and the symbol used for it is “aM (italic type), or that for the obscure vowel,

99 with the sound of er, as in “her.99 -

EXERCTSE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

In accented <tyllahlcs.f- Blanch, chant, graft, hasp, lath, plaque, (plak), staff, stanch, trance, advance', a ghast', com mand'.\

In unaccented    syllables.—Abound',    al'ge bra

(first “a” as in “am”), i de'a, so'fa, vil'la, bot'any, sal'a ry (first “a” as in “am”)j

EXERCISE IT.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Emma heard a man say that age had blanched his hair. (2) The clasp of a padlock is called the hasp. (3) On the four plaques, or metal plates, on the pedestal of the statue of Burke and Wills are portrayed scenes in the expedition. (4) Sylvia and Sarah are learning botany and algebra. (5) Ada fell into a trance, and was laid on the sofa.

EXERCTSE TTT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ed, and ing to “chant,” “graft,” “command,” and “abound.” (2) Change the “if” of “staff” into ves and the “y” of “salary” into ics. (3) Drop the “e” and add ing to “advance.”

EXERCISE TV.

Frame sentences, using the new words and others:

# (1) “Martha,” said her father, “have you any . . . . where you left the key?” (2) Julia lives with

her parents in a.....j (3) The lining of the house

is of ... . and plaster. (4) He stood......at the

sight, and could not.......a step.

Bearn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound :—

(1) “What ails you'** said the man to his mate. “I feed ill,** was the reply; “I wish I hadn’t drunk that pint of ale.’* (2) “I have all I need,” said the bootmaker, “except a bent awl.” (3) The father would not assent' to his son’s wish to make the ascent' of the mountain. (4) The pupils were not allowed to read the poem aloud. (5) There were eight ripe cherries on the dish, and Francis ate (also pronounced et) them all.

EXERCISE IT.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing

sentences:—

(1) The brewer makes . . . from malt and hops. (2) The saddler changed a bent . . . for a straight one.

(3) The ladies found the    of the hill very try

ing. (4) Without being aware of it, the woman was

uttering her thoughts......(5) He has a pain in the

stomach, because he ... a green apple.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—THE BODY.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

>*Ab do'men, an'kle, ar'ter y, el'bow, en'trails, fore'arm, fore'head (for'eel), knuc'kle, mus'cle, mus tache'i nos'tril, pal'ate, palm, sin'ew, sole, stom'ach, vein, whisk'er. ^

. Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—CLOTHING.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

/ Bod'ice, cloth, col'lar, flan'nel, gar'ter, guern'sey, hand'ker chief (hang'ker chif), leg'ging, pet'ti coat, pin'afore. san'dal, sleeve, stock'ing, trou'sers, waist'eoat. y

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

I lie short sound of <, ¿is in “end, ' and its long sound, as in “me, ' are shown in various ways.

Many compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use “e" for the short sound, and “e” for the long one.

EXERC ISE I.

Say, spell, aiuLwrite the following list of words:— Short E. —/Depth,    tenth, wretch; breadth,

break'fast, cleanse, threat; heif'er, lei'sure; leop'ard; buyfyJ

Long PlVscneme, adhere'; breeze, jeer; bleak, preach, smear, yeast; grieve, siege, thief, thieve; ceil'ing. deceive', seize; peo'ple; machine'’, police./

EXERCISE II.

conv the following sentences:—

(l )rThe length, breadth, and depth of the tank were stated in the problem. (2) After breakfast, the cups, saucers, and plates were cleansed in boiling water, (d) Heifers are, sometimes, killed by leopards in Africa. (4) You have no right to deceive people, or to jeer at them; much less, to thieve from them. (5) The general formed ¿i scheme to attack the city; but, as his guns were seized, he could not adhere to ity

EXERCISE ITT.    x    '

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add ed to “wretch,” “jeer,” “preach,” and “smear.” (2) Drop the “e” and add cd and ing to “cleanse,” “adhere,” “grieve,” “thieve,” “deceive,” and “seize.” (3) Add cr and cst to “bleak.” (4) Add ry to “machine.” (5) Put be before “smear” and “siege.” (6) Add ly to “tenth” and “leisure.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The baker put.....into the flour to make it

Owing to a leak in the roof, the;......of our draw

ing-room was spoilt. (4) We expect'the thrashing....... to come to-morrow. (5) Thei......caught

the" . '. . . . .    ’ ' / / •


rise. (2) “Let the dead past .... its dead.” (3)

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the wfrrds in each that have a like sound:—

(1) If you have aught against him, you! ought to speak out now. (2) The carter, charged with stealing a bale of wool, was put in prison; and no one would bail him out. (3) Those who had to sing the bass part in the chorus were told to stand near the base of the statue. (4) Frederick is quite a beau now: he thinks much of his dress, and spends his afternoons shooting at a target with a bow and arrows. (5) The drinking of beer lias brought many a man to the bier at an early ages

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) My father agrees with teacher that we.....to

spend some time every evening in study. (2) Many were willing to ... . the man out, for they thought that he was not guilty of the crime. (3) At the .... of the monument, there are three steps. (4) The archer could bend the . . . quite easily. (5) They placed the body on a ... ., and bore it to the grave.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—THE SCHOOL.

/Say, spell, and write the following words:—

A rith'me tic, as sist'ant, at tend'ance, class'mate, com panlon, ge og'ra phy, mis'tress, mon'i tor, o bey', pen'cil, point'er, pu'pil, rec'i ta'tion, reg'is ter, rub'ber, schol'ar, sci'ence, stu'dent, win'dow. j Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—GAMES.

Say, spell, and write the following words:—

1 An'gling,\arch'er y, bath'ing, billiards (bil'yerdz), crick'et, dan'cing, golf, draughts,|hock'ey, la crosse, mar'bles, t quoits, rowing, skip'ping, skit'tles, swim'ming, ten'nis.|

Frame sentences, Vising these words and others.

The short sound of i, as in “ill,” and its long sound, as in "ice,” are shown in various ways.

Many compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use “i” for the short sound and “I” for the long one.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spelL/and write the following list of words:— Short I.^Inch, flinch, res'tive; for'eign. for'feit; bis'cuit; don'key, mon'ey, mon'key^ valTey; car'riage, mar'riage;Isieve, mis'chief; parliament; wom'en (wim); En'glish/rwy).    ,

Long I.— Blight, sight/ scythe, type, tyre, wry, ay; aisle (“s” silent); height; guide, disguise'.

EXERCISE IT.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) The horse is restive, and it flinches at the slightest touch. (2) It is said that some foreign nations do not like English traders. (3) George, put this scythe and sieve in the tooT-house, please. (4) At the party last night, we had a game of forfeits. (5) It was a grand marriage, and even the aisles of the church were filled with people, most of whom were women. (6) In Australia and New Zealand, all the members of parliament have to he elected. (7) The sailors answered, ?Ay, ay, sir.”

EXERCISE ITT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s to “forfeit,” “biscuit,” “^donkey,” “money.” “monkey,” “valley.” “carriage,” “marriage,” “parliament,” “sieve,” “tyre,” “scythe,” “type,” “aisle,” and “height.” (2) Drop the “e” and add ing and a nee to “guide.” (3) Add ing and ed to “finish” and “forfeit.” (4) Drop the “e” and add ing and ed to “disguise.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.


EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Tt is sad to see so much......on the appletrees in the orchard. (2) What......in his stock

ings was he? (3) The .... of the motor-car burst.

(4) The people elect members of...........

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound :—

(1) The belle of the ball was presented with a pretty silver bell. (2 The hoop flew up, and caused a bruise on the leg of the man who brews ale at the brewery. (3) The man whom 1 saw broach (make a hole in) the cask^had a brooch in his necktie. (4) The borough council gave an order that every rabbit burrow in the naddock should be dug out. (5) The meeting of the ycanons of the cathedral was disturbed by the sound of cannons.

EXERCISE IT.

j

Fill the spaces below with words from tthe foregoing sentences:—    \*

(1 One of her presents was a pretty hand-V t ^

(2) My mother.....several gallons of hop beer

every summer. (3) Maria lost her......, because

she did not fasten the pin properly. (4) The boys

put a ferret into the......v (5) The army lost two

.......when it was crossing the river.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—FOOD.

Say, spell, and write the following names:— Bana'na, bis'cuit (bis'kit), cab'bage, car'rot, choc'o late, co'coa (ko'ko), gra'vy, gru'el. jel'ly, muf'fin/ mus'tard, pars'nip, pas'try, po ta'to, por'ridgey pud'ding, sand'wich, sau'cer. syr'up, trea'cl^mir'nip, veg'e ta ble, vin'e gapf

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—THE HOME.

Say, spell, and write the following words:— |Bath'-room, car'pet, ceil'ing, cel'lar, chim'ney, cup'board (kub'erd), din'ing-room, / /Idtch'en, knock'er, li/brary, man'gle, man'tel-piece^oil'cloth, , pan'try '    or par'lour, pic'ture scul'ler y/

/shut'ter, so'fa, stair'case, thresh'old^ veran'da, ward'robe, win'dow/

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

The short sound of o, as in “odd,” and its long: sound, as in “old,” are shown in various ways.

Many compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use “0" for the short sound and “6” for the long one.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell^ and write the following words:—

Short 0.—|Copse, knock quar'rel/ squad, swab, wal'let, watch, yacht (“eh*' silent^ ; knowledge* /Long 0.— Folk (“1” silent;), yolk, ghost,t rogiu^

. lo'co mo'tive; loath, roam; al though', dough, shoul'der; sew; mauve (mvx*); beau (M ; yeo'man/

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(l/ln En|iand, in the olden time, yeoman was a term for a man free born. (2) “T like,” said Janet, “a mauve tint for a skirt better than a purple one.”

(3)    The doctor took if swab from Harry’s throat when it was sore. (4) A locomotive engine can move from one place to another. (5) The old man called his bag a wallet. (6) The copse hid the squad from the enemy’s sight. (7) Many yacht races have taken place in Port Phillip Bavy

EXERCISE TIT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add .5, ed, and ing to “knock,” “roam,” “shoulder.” and “sew.” (2) Add ling and led to “quarrel.” (3) Add bing and bed to “swab.”

(4) Add ly to “ghost.” (5) Add y to “dough.” (6) Drop the “e” and add ish to rogue.^

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE TV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) I have no.........of what is taking

place in England to-day. (2) I should be.....to

give up without getting the answer to this problem. (3) B . . . is another word for a dandy. (4) The . . . . of this egg is hard. (5) My mother wanted some yeast with which to make......

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences,

As well as having the short sound, as in “odd/* the vowel o has a short sound, as in “obey/’ which is shown by o and in other wavs.

•r    V

Some compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use the symbol “o” with a bar and dot over it for this sound.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

/


0 mit', bro cade', mo lest', po lite'. pro long' (second “o‘* short, as in “odd”), propose' (second “o” lymg, as in “old”), rosette', ha'lo, her'o, las'so/ tobac'co, bal'cony, lac/L ^<me, scaf'fold; ar'row, bel'low, bil'low, el'bow, talllow; fur'lough.

EXERCISE Tl.

Copy the following sentences:—

(l)r -Judith wore a brocade dress with a dozen rosettes on it. (2) Last night, T saw. from our balcony, the moon with a halo round it. (3) The judge was granted a year’s furlough. (4) The doctors say that it is harmful for growing boys to smoke tobacco. (5) The cowboy, with the aid of his lasso, saved the drowning girl, and became quite a hero.vl

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add ting and ted to “omit.” (2) Add s, ing, and ed. to “lasso.” “molest,” “prolong.” and “bellow.” (3) Drop the “e” and add ing and ed to “propose.” (4) Add es to “hero” and “halo.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) T had a strange feeling in my fingers when I knocked my u.. ... on the desk. (2) He was too

.....to smoke in the presence of ladies. (3) How

exing! Sorm*^. .... dropped on my dress from the candle I was caryifig last night. (4) There is not enough*.......'in this lamp to last the whole evening. (5)At theVnext meeting, T shall.......that

a coneertjbe held v

Tjearn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound:—

(l)Mn the United ¡States of America, a cent is worth a halfpenny, so that one would need a large number of cents to buy a bottle of good scent. (2) You will find the sealing-wax on the shelf near the cviling. (3) The loss of that T20 cheque has put a vheefc on my spending power. (4) lie who chews that one will need to have good teeth. 1, certainly, shouldn't choose it. (5) A chord in music has nothing in common with cord that is used for tying parcels. ^

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the fore

going sentences:—

(1 ^Katherine sprinkled.....on her handkerchief. (2) Wre have a steel.......in our dining


room. (3) “You must really put a.....on your

tongue, Katie," remarked the teacher. (4) “Has

my turn to......come at last?" asked Ellen. (5)

“Get me a piece of . . . ., please," said Frederick.\

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—THE COUNTRY.

. -Say, spell, and write the following words:—

Draught horse, gar'den er, hay'rick, home'stead, dove'cot, ken'nel, lagoon', man'ger (“a” long), mead'ow^ or'chaixi, pad'dock,^ pal'ings, pas'ture. pi'geon, (p-ij'un), selection, sheaves, shoe'ing, forge, sic'kle, ^ta'ble, val'ley, vine'yardv (“i” short).

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE W —THE TOWN.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

As'phalt (second “a” as in “am”), car'riage (kar'rij), chap'el, cjt'i zen, pon'cert, Gor'ner, fac'to ry, *' found'ry, gut'ter, hos'pi tal,| mar'ket, mo'tor-, 6m'ni bus, pas'sage, path'way, pave'ment, po lice'man (“i”as long e), post of'fice, sew'er, town hall, wag'on.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

The short sound of u, as in “up/' and its middle sound, as in “full/' are shown in various ways.

Some compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use “u” for the short sound and “u” with a dot under it, or “ uoo? for the middle one.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Short U.—Bub'ble, buzz, clutch, crutch, grudge, plumb'er (“b” silent), Shrunk, un wor'thy, ush'er; tongue; pig'eon, sur'geon, lunch'eon; fash'ion; jeal'ous, joy'ous./

Middle U.— Bull, bush, bush'el, but'cher, pud'ding, pull, fulfil'; wolf, wom'an, bos'om* coop'er, crook'ed, wool; would.    '

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) The baby clutched at the bubble as it floated away. (2) Six young men were chosen to usher in the people. (3) We had pigeon pie for luncheon.

(4)    The surgeon had to lance the plumber’s hand.

(5)    The cooper made two casks for the butcher. (6) The lame man had to use a crooked crutch. (7) For many years, they were bosom friends. ^

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:— .

(1) Add es, ed, and ing to “buzz” and “clutch.”

(2) Add s, ed, and ing to “usher,” “fashion,” “butcher,” and “pull.” (3) Add led, and ling to “fulfil.” (4) Add ten to “wool.” (5) Add ly to “jealous,’’ “joyous,” “crooked,” and “wool.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The bee drew its......from the flower, and

flew off with an angry..... (2) On Christmas

Day, we always have plum- . .\..... (3) “He is,”

1 am sorry to say, “quite...... . . of trust.” (4)

The material had......in the washing. (5) A

......of oats weighs 40 lbs. (6) The . .*.....first

cleansed the wound.

Learn to spett nil the words in these sentences.

The long diphthongal sound of u (where it has a slight short i sound before it), as in “use” (yusc), and its long simple sound, as in “rude." are shown in various ways.

Some compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, use “ii” for the former and “u” with two dots under it, or “66,” for the latter.

EXERCISE 1.

Say, spell, and write ttye following list of words:

Long diphthongal l .— Lure, lute, mus'ic, pu'ny. pu'pil, tube^in ducert su'et; cue, due, feud, Tues'day; nui'sance.

Long simple U.—Rude, ru'mor, ruse/(m>2), sure (shoor), cru'et, exclude', flu'id, fru'gal, ju'ry; screw, shrewd; swoop, whoop. ^

EXERCISE 11.    .

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) 1 could not induce the people to bring their feud to an end and live in peace. (2) The teacher is loath to exclude the pupil from the music lesson.

(3) “Whoop, whoop!" shouted the boys. (4) Please pass me the cruet. (5) The player struck the billiard ball with his cue. (6) I fear that that rubbish heap will become a nuisance in summer. (7) Suet is needed for a plum-pudding.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ed, and ing to “screw,” “swoop,” and “whoop.” (2) Drop the “e” and add ed and ing to “lure” and “induce.” (3) Ad ly to “rude,” “sure,” “frugal,” and “shrewd.” (4) Change the “y’ into i and add er and est to “puny.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The .... is a very old instrument of......

(2) The .... found the prisoner guilty. (3) liis wages were small, and, to keep out of debt, he had

to be....... (4) “Did he say that £6 was

due to him?” asked Rupert. (6) A.....at rest

has a level surface.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

In words of one syllable and in accented syllables, e, ea, i, o, and n, when followed by r, have a long obscure sound lying between the sounds of short and short u, as in “bird." In respelling for pronunciation, 99 is. sometimes, used for this sound.

In unaccented syllables a, e, o, u, y become obscured in ordinary' speech. The symbol j is, sometimes, used for this sound.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write following words:—

Long obscure vowels. —Err, herd, verge, ver'min, cer'tain, colon'el    (ker'-nel); pearl; skir'mish,

thirst'y, vir'tue/whirl; blurred, sur'face; myr'tle.

¿Short obscure vowels.— Fa'tal, fi'nal, in'fant, sen'ate, sep'arate (first- “a” obscure), ve ran'da (second “a” obscure) ^gath'er; an'chor, thor'ough; cup'board (kub'erd); mar'tyr.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) If he doesn't learn his lesson more thoroughly, he is certain to err. (2) Gum-trees belong to the myrtle family. (3) The members of the Commonwealth Senate did not separate before midnight.

(4) All should possess the virtue of honesty. (5) In Australia, rabbits are vermin. (6) The colonel gave the order to skirmish.

EXERCISE LIT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add sf ed, and ing to “err,” “whirl,” and “gather.” (2) Drop the “e” and add es, ed, and ing to “separate.” (3) Change the “y” into i and add er and est to “thirsty.” (4) Put more and most before ‘ ‘ blurred.5 J

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) It seemed to be a pleasure to Florence to.....

round on her toes. (2) The Japanese diver found

a.....in the oyster. (3) The captain ordered the

......to be dropped. (4) “She went to the

........to get him a bone.”

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE T.

Write the followincr sentences, and learn to spell the words in them that have a like sound:—

0 In that long clause, the word “claws” occurs twice. (2) On the course where the races were to take place, there were many men; and some of them were dressed in coarse clothes. (3* Every cadet in the corps was hungry; and. after the meal, it would have been hard to find even an apple core. (4^ They heard the bridge over the creek creak as the wagon passed over it. (5) Both crews were unwilling to set out on a long cruise.

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) The cat sheathed her...... (2) This is very

......sugar. (3) The N... is that part of an apple

which contains the seed. (4) “T don’t like to wear

my new boots: they.....so much.” said Matilda to

Annie. (5) After her long......, the ship was

painted.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE ITT.—BIRDS.

./Sav, spell, and write the following names:—

/ Bit'tern, bow'er-bird. butch'er-bird, buz'zard, ca na'ry> 4ock'a too, cuck'oo, cyg'net, e'mu, gos'ling, her'on, lvre'-bird, mag'pie, mar'tin, mo'poke./? nest'ling, os'trich, par'rot, par'a keet pea'cock, pat'rel, pheas'ant, plov'er, rob'in, star'lir 5

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

x -

EXERCISE IV—SIZE.

Say, spell, and write the following words:—

A'cre, bush'el, con tract', de gree', ex pand', fur'long,    gal'lon,    immense', lit'tle, me'dium,

✓rfiinute', (very small), min'ute (pronounced min'it, means sixty seconds), nar'row, sec'ond, ti'ny.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

The diphthongs ox, as in “oil," and on, as in “found," are shown in various ways.

Some compilers of dictionaries, in respelling for pronunciation, represent the former by “oi" and the latter by “ou."

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:— The diphthong 01. —Choice, poise, quoit (koit), avoid', loi'ter/ oint'ment, recoil', rejoice', mois'ture, nois'y; alloy', annoy', enjoy', sav'e loy, buoy (“u” silent), sloyd^oys'ter, voy'age.

The diphthong 01'.—Blouse, slouch, slough (“gh” silent), devour', coun'cil, coun'ter-pane, found'ry, scoun'drel/ allow', trow'el.

'    EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) He poised the quoit before throwing it.    (2)

Willie says that he enjoys sloyd woodwork.    (3)

What we speak of as a bog. the stranger called a slough. (4) Charlie was so hungry that he ate a dozen oysters and a saveloy. (5) The man did so many evil deeds that people called him a scoundrel.

(6) Some of the iron parts of the buoy were made in a foundry. (7) Pennies are made of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin.

EXERCISE ITT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ed, and ing to “avoid,” “loiter,” “recoil," “annoy," “enjoy/' “devour,” and “allow.”

(2) Drop the “e” and add ed and ing to “poise” and “rejoice.” (3) Add es, ed, and ing to “slouch.” (4) Change the “y” to i and add ly to “noisy.” Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERC ISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1)A bricklayer spreads mortar with a.......

(2) A...........was then spread over the blanket.


(3) Part of the duty of a.......is to have roads

made. (4) There is still some........in these

clothes. (5) “Please put some........on this

cut,” said Patrick.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

20


EXERCISE I.    •

Write tlie following sentences, and learn to spell the words in them that have a like sound:—

(1) That actor with his hair done in a queue looks troubled. Perhaps he has forgotten his cue.

(2)    The Dane did not deign to answer me. (3) The dew was heavy; but, as 1 was due at eight o'clock, 1 had to cross the paddock. (4) A doe is a female deer. It would be useless to offer it dough to eat.

(5) Though the woman was dying, her thoughts ran on dyeing a dress.

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) An actor’s ... is the closing words of the one who has just spoken before him. (2) The man was rude: he did not.....to raise his hat to the lady.

(3)    The train is . . . at 10.50 a.m.; that is. at fifty

minutes past ten (or ten minutes to eleven) in the morning. (4) The baker was busy kneading the ......    (5) The men were......clothes.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—AUSTRALIAN ANIMALS.

-^Say, spell, and write the following names:— /Ban'dicoot, croc'o dile, das'yure (native eat of Australia), din'go (wild dog of Australia), hy e'na, e chid'na (porcupine of Australia), kan'garoo', koa'la/ (native bear of Australia), pos'sum (name preferred to “opossum" for the Australian animal), go an'na -I (name preferred to “iguana” for the Australian animal), wal'la by, wom'bat.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV—THE SEA AND FISH.

^ Say, spell, and write tin* following words:—

Bar'ra cou'ta, tfjlTow, cray'fishi floun'der, gar'-fish, lob'ster^her'ring^ma rin^ (“i” as long c), mul'let, mus'sel. oys'ter, padjdle, per'i win'kle, pier, por'poise (por'pasV salm'oiw ‘ 1 ” silent), sar dW (“i” as long e), snap'per, steam'er, tur'tle.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

As a rule, the consonant c before a, o, k, or a consonant is voiced, having the sound of k; and. before e, or y, is voiceless, having the sound of s.

EXERCISE I.

Say. spell, and write the following list of words:—

C voiced.f-rCave, cav'ern, cap'tain, can'non, ca det'. cas'tle^cat'tle; coat; cof'fee, col'lar, col'lege; curve, cum'ber, crude; cler'gy; ex pecty ob ject';-pic'nic, arc'tic.

C voiceless.—Cell, cell'ar, cer'tain; cease; ceil'ing; cit'y, civ'il,/cir'cle, cir'cus, cigar', ci'der, decide',

ac'id, plac'ici; cyg'net, bi'cycle.

Note.—The second “c” in 1 1 circle/71 circus,99 and “bicycle’, is voiced.

EXERCISE TT.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) They expect that the captain will bring cannon to batter down the walls of their castle. (2) That preacher was, for some years, at a college where clergy are trained. (3) That drawing is crude; the curves and circles are not well done.

(4) A cygnet is a young swan. (5) Arthur remained calm when his bicycle was broken : he has a placid temper.

EXERCISE TIT.

Form new words thus :—

(1) Add king, ked, and her to “picnic.(2) Add ly to “crude,” “certain,” “civil,” and “placid.”

(3)    Add less to “cease” and “coat.” (4) Put en before “cumber” and “circle.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Hubert will be a.....next year, and will

have a uniform. (2) These bushes......the

ground; they should be cut down. (3) The......

Ocean lies to the north of Europe, Asia, and America.

(4)    The teacher will......the matter to-morrow.

(5)    The swan was followed by half a dozen........

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

The digraph ch is sometimes voiced, having the sound of k, and sometimes voiceless, having the sound of either sh or tsh.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

C1I voiced.—Chasm,/ choir, chem'ist, cho'rus, Christ'maS| ache, ech'o, or'chid, an'chor, stom'ach, mon'arch. j

CH voiceless like sh.*— Chute, chaise, machine'.

CH voiceless like tsh. — Chafe, church, chap'el, chan'nel, chap'ter, chis'el. chim'ney>^her'ish, arch.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) A chute is a kind of trough or tube. Did you ever “shoot the chute”? (2) The choir of the chapel sang a joyful chorus on Christmas Day. (3) The chemist gave my mother a powder to cure her headache. (4) Yesterday, Annie brought several orchids to school; in shape, they were very different from the garden flowers.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add es, edf and ing to “echo," “cherish," and “arch.” (2) Add 5, ed, and ing to “anchor.” (3) Drop the “e” and add ing to “ache,” “machine,” and “chafe.” (4) Add way to “arch.” (5) Add es to “chorus” and “church.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) The smoke will not go up the.......to-day.

(2) At what.......in the book are you? (3) The

horse bolted with the lady, and broke the.......

(4) The explorers came to a wide.....that had

been made in the plain by the action of water. (5)

A pain in the.......may be caused through eating

green fruit. (6) The.......sat upon his throne.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound:—

(1) The heir to the estate became ill; it was thought that the sea air did not agree with him. Ere is used in verse for ‘‘before." and e'er for “ever." (2) The ewe was feeding under the yew-tree. (3) I would fain help the man. if he did not feign to he worse than he really is. (4) “Did she really faint/" asked Florence. "I thought that it was only a feint on her part." (5) The man paid the fare willingly, for the charge was a fair one.

EXERCISE 11.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) it is never fresh . . . that gives people colds.

(2) There are not many . . . -trees in Victoria. (3;

“Did you.....to be asleep when the bell rang,

Thomas?” asked his mother. (4) Patrick made a

.....to strike his brother Michael. (5) “You are

getting that stuff at a ... . price." said the draper.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE III.—CLASSES OF PERSONS.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Actor, ad'miral, a'gent, art'ist, apprentice, artisan (the “s” as z), author, bai'liff,/bank'er, bar'ber, bind'er, bish'op, butch'er, (car'pen ter> carv'er, cashter (pronounced    eer), caterer,

chem'ist,\ 'clerk (the “e” as “a” in “arm”), cloth'ier (pronounced yer), con'sta ble (the “o” as short u).

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—CLASSES OF PERSONS (continued).

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Dec'o ra'tor, doctor, dra'per, dress'mak'er, driv'er, drug'gist. dy'er^ edt tor,- en grav'er, en'gin eer, far'ri er, fish'mon'ger, fruit'er er, gar'-den er, gas'fit'ter, gen'er al, gla'zier/ (pronounced zher), gold'smith, gov'ern or, grip'man, gym'nast, inspector, i'ron mon'ger (“ron” pronounced urn).

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

The consonant g has a voiced sound, as in “gate, and a voiceless sound, as in “gem.’ It is usually voiced before a. o, and u, and voiceless before <, i, and

y•    . t    .

Note.—There are many exceptions to the voiceless g before i, as in    ” giddy,” “giggle.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

G voiced — Gai'ly, gal'lon, gal'lop, gauze, gong, gouge, guide, gulch, gulp, gur'gle, rogu'ish (“u" silent).

G    voiceless.— George, gen'eral. gen'try, ges'ture,

sur'geon, gi'ant, gill, gib'bet, gip'sy, giraffe', en'gine, gym'nast, E'gyptu

Note.—In “gaol,” the “g\ is voiceless. The form “jail” is preferred.

EXERCISE IT.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Four gills make a pint; and eight pints, a gallon. (2) When doing sloyd woodwork, George sometimes uses a gouge. (3) The child had a roguish look, and made strange gestures. (4 1 The gipsy guide took the party through the gulch. (5) Egypt is in Africa, the only continent in which the giraffe is found.

EXERCISE 111.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add 6-, e<7, and ing to “gallop” and “gulp.” (2) Drop the “e” and add ing to “gouge/ “guide,” and “gurgle.” (3) Add ess to “giant.” (4) Add ship to “general.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list :—

(1 ) Years ago, it was the custom to hang murderers on a......at the roadside. (2) The.......gal

loped up to the wounded man. (3) Do you remember the story about Jack the.....Killer? (4) 1

saw a.......at the circus do many clever feats on

a horizontal bar. (5) The driver of the......put

on the brake.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

The digraph ph usually has the sound of /. as in “fizz.”

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words:—

Phrase, sphere, phlegm (flem . pheas'ant. phi'al, Phil'ip, phys'ic, as'phalt, cam'phor, ci'pher, , hyph'en, or'phan, proph'et, si'phon, So'phy. suTphur, tri'umph, al'phabet, el'e phant, geog'raphy. #

Note.—In neph'etc and Ste'phen, the “ph” has the sound of v.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Tn a phrase, there are usually two or more words. (2) Tt needed only one dose of the physic in that phial to cut the phlegm in the baby's throat.

(3) This pavement is made of asphalt. (4) The parts of many compound words are joined by a short mark, called a hyphen, as in ‘‘clear-headed/’ (5) Naught is another name for the cipher (o). (6^ The lyre-bird is sometimes called the native pheasant.

EXERCISE ITT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add ic to “prophet,” “sulphur,” and “alphabet.” (2) Add s to “phrase,” “sphere,” “orphan,'’ and “siphon.” (3) Add ant to “triumph.” (4) Turn y into ies in “geography.” (5) Add ing to “asphalt,” “cipher,” “hyphen,” “siphon,” and “triumph.” (6) Add king to “physic.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Tn our.........lesson, the teacher told us

that the earth is called a....... Tt is almost round,

as an orange is. (2) My sister.....had a ride on

the........in the Melbourne Zoo. (3) P.....

was left an......at an early age. (4) Our mother

said that we did not need any other......than

.......and treacle. (5) A.......was one who

foretold events. Joseph was a........ /

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE 1.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound:—

(1) The teacher, in a joking mood, remarked that he would not like to say what would be the fate of any one who stayed away from the fete on Empire Day. (2) It was a great feat for him to jump that height and land safely on his feet. (3) ‘'That," said the wheelwright, “must be the fellow to this felloe/’ (4) “Surely there is no need to flee at the sight of a little ilea!" exclaimed Jessie. (5) “It’s very cold to-night,*’ said JByran, the Irish coachman, “ 1 must put on my frieze coat, or ill freeze."

EXERCISE II.

Fill the spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) “Mother says that I may go to the .... that is to be held at our Sunday school next week," said Ruby to Janet. (2) Alalcolm lias chilblains on both

his.....(3) A......is one of the pieces that

form the rim of a wheel.    (4) The .... is an insect.

(5) They......mutton to take it to England.


Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE 111.—CLASSES OF PERSONS {continued).

Say, spell, and write the following names:— LLa'borer, law'yer, machin'ist (“chin” pronounced sheen), magistrate, ma'son, may'or, mer'chant, inil'ler, miliin er, min'er,! mu si'cian (mu zish'en), navi ga'tor, of'fi cer, operative, or'ator, os'tler, (“t” silent), paint'er, plumb'er (“b” silent).

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERCISE IV.—CLASSES OF PERSONS (continued).

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Sad'dler, sail'or,1 ^ales'man, sculp'tor, seam'stress, sen'ator, sex'ton, stew'ard, sta'tion er, stok'er, sur'geon (jun), sur vey'or; tai'lor, teach'er, tourist, trustee', tur'ner, typist (“y” like long i), up hol'-ster er, weav'er, wheel'wright.

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

The consonant q is always followed by u; and the digraph thus formed has usually the sound of kw, but, sometimes, the sound of A*.

EXERCISE I.

Sav, spell, and write the following list of words:— / b>( //Ay ¿w.—Quaint, quartz, quest, quire, quite, squeal, quadrille', quar'rel, quar'ry, quartet', quo'rumv

Q1 like k — Quay (kec), quoit, con'quer, liq'uor

(er, the “e” as in her), cheque, clique (kleek), an tique', ob lique', mosque, mos qui'to./

EXERCISE II.

C opy the following sentences:—

(1) In her old-fashioned dress, Lucy looked quite quaint among the others at the picnic. (2) The miner’s quest for gold-bearing quartz was, at last, successful. (3) Philip paid with a cheque for an antique ornament he had bought. (4) A clique is a set of people who are closely united for some object. (5 i in India, there are large mosques. (6) The ship left the quay at one o’clock. (7) Till a quorum was present, no business could be done.

EXERCISE ITT.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add ly to “quaint” and “oblique.” (2) Add be, con, and in to “quest.” (3) Add ing to “squeal,” “quarry,” and “conquer.” (4) Add ling to “quarrel.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Eight couples stood up to dance the first

.......... (2) Among insect pests, the........

many bottles of......were on the table? (4) At

the concert last night, four gentlemen sang a

........ (5) There is a vast......of white

marble in Italy. (6) Stephen found a.....that

had rolled a long way from the peg.


is. perhaps, the most dangerous to man. (3) How

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

28

The consonant .s* has. sometimes, a voiced sound, as iu ‘‘was," and. sometimes, a voiceless sound, as in ‘‘sense.” In some words, it has the sound of zh ; in others, that of sh.

EXERCISE I.

Say, spell, and write the following list of words;—

S voiced.—/"Wise, cleanse, reins, dai'sy, des'ert, dis'mal, rai'sin, res'in, pan'sy, de serve',*1 op pose', peruse', busi'ness (biz'nes), Wednes'day \wenz), ven'i son.

S voiceless.— Self, psalm, sword, has'ten (has''n), isth'musand'wich, select'.

S like zh.—Meas'ure. treas'ure, oc ca'sion (zhun).

S like sh.— Sure, su'gar, A'si a, pen'sion (shun).

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) They hasten to peruse the letter again, so as to grasp its full meaning. (2) The only business my grandfather had in the city was to get his pension.

(3)    The cook made sandwiches with the cold venison.

(4)    “Janet,” said her mother, “cleanse your hands, and help me to stone these raisins for the Christmas pudding. ’ ’

EXERCISE III.

Foyn new words thus


(1) Put en before “sure.” (2) Drop the “e” and add ing to “cleanse,


iserve, ” “ oppose, ’ ’ peruse, ’! measure,” and “treasure.” (3) Change the “y” :‘pansy” into ies.

, and “dismal.’1


7 7 l i


in “daisy” and “sure,” “wise ”


(4) Add ly to


Frame sentences, using the new words and others.


EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) On this......... 1 shall not punish you. (2)

As soon as the.....broke, the horse bolted. (3)

Pine-trees yield a kind of...... (4) The I......

of Panama joins Central America to South America. Frame sentences, using these words and others.

EXERt ISE I.

Write the following sentences, and learn to spell the words in each that have a like sound :—

(1) The lady's furs were caught by the furze, as she was walking near the hedge. (2) As soon as lie came in the gate, i could tell who he was by his gait. (3j His guilt was clear; lie had tried to pass a gilt sixpence for a half-sovereign. (4) The grocer said, “If you are lighting a fire in a grate, you will find kindlers a great help." (5; That hale old fellow seems to care nothing for the hail.

EXERCISE 1J.

Fill tiie spaces below with words from the foregoing sentences:—

(1) When it is in full bloom, a.....hedge looks

very pretty. (2) We speak of a man’s manner of

walking as his..... (J) “My mother bought a

.... frame for my portrait," said Josephine to Catherine. (4) The men had a .... . deal of trouble to get the stump out of the schoolground. (5) it came on to rain and then to.....

Learn to spell the words in these sentences.

EXERCISE 111.—HOUSEHOLD NAMES.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Ba'by,^ bach'e lor, board'er, chiFdren, cousin, do mes'tic, fam'i ly, friend, gen'tle man, gov'ern ess, groom, guest, house'keep'er, house'wife (the mis-tressof a family), in'fant, landlord, lodg'er, ma'tron, mispress, neph'ew (ncv'-u), niece^par'ent, reFative, serv'ant, ten'ant, visitor, wait'er, waitress.

Frame sentences, using these words and others:—

EXERCISE IV.—DIVISIONS OF LAND AND WATER.

Say, spell, and write the following names:—

Af fluent, bight, canal',\ chan'nel, continent, cra'ter, del'ta, des'ert, es'tuary, har'bor or har'bour, highlands, island (the “s” silent), isth'mus,* junc'tion, lagoon', moun'tain, o a'sis, pen in'su la, plateau' (“teau” pronounced “toe”), trib'uta ry, valley, volca'no, wa'tershedl

Frame sentences, using these words and others.

The digraph th has, sometimes, a voiced sound, as in “this,” and, sometimes, a voiceless sound, as in “thin.”

EXERCISE I.

Sav, spell, and write the following list of words:—

TIT voiced. — Thence, though, bathe, breathe, sheathe, blithe, clothe, scythe, soothe, hith'er, thith'er, wheth'er.

TII voiceless. — Threat, theft, thumb, thought, through, thorough, this'tle thim'ble,' thir'ti eth. thresh'old, Eth'el, fifth, loath, growth, wreath, thwart, length.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) Though Ethel’s thimble did not fit well, she did her sewing in a thorough manner. (2) 1 should be loath to try to make a wreath of thistles. (3) You will have to sheathe your sword on the threshold of the hall. (4) Thither will T come, even to the thirtieth time. (5) Tie seemed blithe and happy, as the grass fell before the strokes of his scythe. (6) Francis thought that his brother Charlie would be at school, whether it was raining or not.

EXERCTSE TII.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s and cd, to “thwart” and en to “threat.” (2) Drop the “e” and add ed and inq to “bathe,” “breathe,” “sheathe,” “clothe,” and “soothe.” (3) Add ly to “thorough” and “fifth.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE TV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) Ruby tried hard to......the baby. (2) Tie

went.......in a rage. (3) Tt is pleasant to.....

in the sea in summer. (4) A......is used for mowing grass. (5) TTo was.....to come to school with

out having done his lessons. (fi) Stephen was told to measure the......of the fence with a tapeline.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

THE CONSONANT X.

The consonant x has. sometimes, the voiced sound of gz, as in “exist" (eg zist'), and. sometimes, the voiceless sound of ks, as in “expel’’ (ekspcV). In a few words, it has the sound of z.

EXERCISE I.

Say. spell, and write the following list of words:—

X like gz.—Ex act', ex alt', ex am'ine, ex am'ple. ex empt', ex ist', ex ult', ex haust', ex hib'it.

X like ks.—A'pex, ca'lyx\*ex elude', ex cuse', expel', expense', explain', expose', ex'tra. ex treme', fix'ture.

*

X like z.— Xa'vi er,i Xen'o phon, Xer'xes.

EXERCISE II.

Copy the following sentences:—

(1) “Let me first explain,” said the teacher, “that the apex of a triangle is the point at the top.” (2) Xenophon was a Greek general who wrote several books. (3) “Really, Thomas, you will exhaust my patience,” exclaimed the teacher. (4) The inspector said that he would exempt my brother, who would not be examined then. (5) Francis Xavier went to India to preach the gospel. (6) Xerxes was the king of Persia who led an army into Greece.

EXERCISE III.

Form new words thus:—

(1) Add s, ing, and cd to “explain,” “exact,

‘ ‘ exalt, ” “ exempt, ” “ exist, ” “ exult, ” “ exhaust, ’ ’ and “exhibit.” (2) Drop the “e” and add ing and ed to “exclude,” “expose,” and “examine.” (3) Drop the “e” and add ure to “expose.”

Frame sentences, using the new words and others.

EXERCISE IV.

Fill the spaces below with words from the list:—

(1) James always sets a good.......to the class.

(2) As it is cold to-night, please put an.....blanket

on my bed. (3) The.....of the buttercup is green.

(4) The sloyd teacher went to some.......to have

the bench made a........ (5) That man has

.......views on the taxing of land.

Learn to spell all the words in these sentences.

This Part, like the preceding, has been planned to serve for a year. On each page (beginning with the fourth), there are seven short lessons—a fortnight’s work when some lessons from the subject-matter for reading are added.

The pupil should begin the book at Exercise I. on page 4.

For directions concerning the treatment of the exercises, sec the inside of the back cover of Part I.

SOME GUIDANCE IN TEACHING SPELLING.

A definite time for the teaching of spelling by means of exercises in word-grouping and word-building should be provided.

Remember that the oial method alone is of little practical value; that the conning over of lists of isolated words is wasteful of time and energy; and that dependence for good results in spelling on the teaching of only the words of the reading lessons is discredited.

The foundation principle in learning to spell is that the greater the number of association links as ihe result of the activity of the various senses, the readier the recall.

Contrive that pupils shall see words accurately. If possible, never let them see a word wrongly spelt. As it is certain, however, that they will misspell words, require that these be listed and studied.

Teach the meaning of a new word. This may be done in one or more of the following ways:—(1) By using it in a sentence; (2) by defining or describing it; (3) by giving a synonym or an antpnym of it.; (4) by illustration with object, action, or drawing; and (5) by etymology.

Give lessons on the use of the dictionary, and cultivate in yourself and your pupils the habit of referring to it.

Require pupils to pronounce words distinctly and correctly before spelling them.    •

Require pupils to make, in spelling a wTord of twTo or more syllables, a slight pause after each syllable.

■. #.

In spelling wrords in which double letters occur in separate syllables, as “pret'ty,” or in which they occur in the same syllable, as “root,” “add,” each letter should be said separately.

Note.—When preference for a form is expressed, the warrant is the “Oxford English Dictionary” (Murray, Bradley, and Craigie). In some cases (the “G.E.D.” not being complete yet), the “Authors’ and Printers’ Dictionary” (F. E. Collins) is the authority.

The Southern Cross

POETRY BOOKS

Book 1—JUNIOR

For use in Reading, Recitation, and

Composition Lessons, with notes on

the Uses of Poetry in schools and »    •

suggestive exercises. *

Revised Edition    Illustrated.

108 pages, 6d.

Book 2—SENIOR

A cheap supplementary reader for the upper Grades, containing ah admirable selection of poetic masterpieces, with explanatory notes, suggestive exercises, subjects for composition, and elementary remarks on diction and metre.

100 pages, 6d.

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1

There are simple, complex, and compound sentences.

2

~. A simple sentence is a group of words making complete sense, and is either a statement, desire, question, or an exclamation.

3

d. A phrase is a group of words having a grammatical connexion, but containing neither subject nor predicate.

4

This is not the practice in open punctuation, a system in which stops are omitted whenever possible without ambiguity.