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BY A. IRELAND.

VKIXCIPA L OF I’ll K UO BAHT TOWN (OJ.UXi i A TK .SCHOOL. A N U LA.’l HKAI) JfAtfcTKK OF CIIAI-Al KKS* S( .HOOT, l.IOBAKT K»WS..

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS,

jfy _    nr beeebesce to the

GEOGRAPHY A H D HISTORY OF OCEANIA.

Price is.

“ The compilation is, as as fur we have had an opportunity of judging. a careful and accurate one, and a very large proportion indeed of the information it supplies is new.”—II. T. Mercury.

“ Contains a very large amount of useful information, and will supply a deficiency which has been long experienced."—11. T. Advertiser.

** Mr. i relaxn has come to the assistance of the Teacher and the taught, by preparing the hook before us. In it is to he found a detailed description of the Australian Colonies, including notices of their 4 Physical Facts,'—‘ Natural Productions,’—‘Political Features,’ and ‘General History.' We cannot but conclude that this Manual will be welcomed by the Instructors of Youth throughout Australasia. A Map of the Australian Colonies and New Zealand accompanies the book. We congratulate the Author upon his valuable contribution to Tasmanian literature, and heartily wish him success in his enterprise.”— H'alch's Literary Intelligencer.

“ This little work will be useful in Schools, but it should also be on the shelves of every settler as a book of daily reference.”—Launceston Examiner.

44 It is obviously one of the first of the duties resting upon our Schools to make the children growing up in these colonies and islands acquainted with the physical geography of Australasia. A work such as this will help to that end, and therefore we welcome it.”—Melbourne Argus.

44 A very useful and carefully compiled work designed for the use of schools. *    *    * The volume appears to be full of information, of a varied and most

useful character, as regards the Geography, Physical Features, Population, and Productions, of Australasia and Polynesia. *    * * It ought to find a place on

the book shelves of every library.”—Melbourne Aye.

44 We hail the appearance of ‘Oceania’ for its own sake. It is most creditable to Mr. Ireland that in the few leisure hours which he could snatch from a laborious profession, he has prepared so valuable a work us this is. He lu'.s supplied a want generally felt, by furnishing a book which should in our Sc hools take the place of Stewart s Geography and such like books. This work will be at the same time useful to children of a larger growth who may he disposed to brush up their knowledge of the region they live in. We trust "that Mr. I rki.and may be encouraged by the popularity of this first attempt to prosecute his labours in preparing School-books specially adapted for the rising generation of the Golden Land and the Coral Isles.”—Australian Messenger.

“ This very useful book, designed 4 for the use of Schools,'contains much original matter, and deserves the especial attention of every inhabitant of the Australian colonies. For the arrangement of the matter under various heads and classification of the different portions of the world referred to in the title, the author deserves great credit. *    *    * After exercising severe criticism we

have discovered one or two minor errors and omissions. All could be amended in a future edition, which we trust the deserving character of the work will ere long entitle it to attain. Notwithstanding these minor errata, the hook supplies a want which has been daily more and more felt by the teachers of youth in the Australasian Colonies. We can confidently recommend its purchase by parents and instructors in every portion of this colony. Hut our meed of praise must not stop here. As an example set to those who have the means of collecting useful information and the leisure to arrange it for dissemination among their fellow-countrymen in an intelligible and accessible form, the labours of Mr. 1 relax i> entitle him to a place among the highest ranks of colonial patriotism. More than politician, explorer, merchant, legislator, or adminis-

trative official, the man deserves well of his country who lays one stone on the foundation of a colonial literature : and especially if the attempt be directed towards the acquirement of knowledge and intelligence by those who in future years will direct the destinies of this part of the British Empire. Future rulers of Australasia will remember with gratitude that the exertions of Mr. 1 helasp taught them to know more about, their own and neighbouring localities; and other writers, no doubt, will be incited by his example, and will thank him for encouraging them to contribute to the reputation of these colonies for literary and scientific attainments.”—J\'eic Zealand Advertiser.

“ We have perused this work with much pleasure, and feel confident that it will ¡»rove of much benefit to the youth of the Australian Colonies. Mr. Ik eland has stepped in, and, by perseverance and industry, supplied a want long felt in Australia,—that of a means of disseminating in Schools a knowledge of the Geography of the Colonies : for hitherto teachers of Schools have been utterly at a loss to communicate any other knowledge than that which they possessed from practical observations. In making these remarks we are not unmindful of the great obligations due to Mr. Honwk k. formerly of Hobart Town, for the great services rendered by him to the public with regard to this subject; but the material in his possession was of too limited and crude a nature for him to bring forward a hook of so complete a character as that of Mr. 1 reland. A very neatly cxcuted map of the Colonies is attached to the work.”—Geelong 1 nlelligeneer.

The following are from Gentlemen in Hobart Town :—

** Mr. Ireland's work appears to me to supply a great desideratum in colonial education. The geographical hooks written at home for home-readers arc especially defective as to Australasia. This work remedies the deficiency. The plan is good, and the execution very creditable. 1 have met with two errors in reading through it, but upon the whole it seems very accurate. 1 shall, therefore, recommend it for adoption in the Schools under the Southern Board of Education.”—J. J. Stutzerinspector of Schools.

“ I regard this work as being, for school purposes, far the best book on that subject that I have yet seen; I shall therefore introduce its use into the High School.”—R. 1). Harris, M.A., llector of High School.

“ I am of opinion that in compiling this work the author has rendered an important service to British youth in general, and particularly to young Australians. He has had recourse to the most authentic sources of information, and has arranged his materials with great care and accuracy. The style is neat and perspicuous. The information supplied is extensive and interesting, and will greatly assist Teachers in their endeavours to inspire youth with the love of knowledge.”—Sv. Day, Teacher of Languages.

I have perused with much interest the proofs of Mr. Ireland's Work as they passed through the Press, and believe that all instructors of Youth in the Australian Colonies will acknowledge the obligation under which that gentleman has laid them. The arduous task which he has undertaken has been accomplished in a most conscientious and able manner, bearing unmistakeable testimony to his industry, skill, ami judgment; and there can be little doubt that this’little book will gladly be adopted as a standard Class Book. In Europe, where so much ignorance still prevails in reference to these Colonies, it will form an invaluable addition to every School Library."—F. Hartwell 1 Tens low k, Cleric of the House of Assembly.

Many equally favorable testimonials are in the Author’s possession ; among others, those from His Excellency Sir H. E. F. You so, the Bight Rev. F. R. Nixox, and Teachers and Rectors of various Schools in this and the other colonies.

Co\\o<cH o

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

OF

0 C E A N I A

A B R 11) G E I),

OK A CONCISE ACCOUNT

OF

¿Australasia, ¿ìlalausia, ììoimirsia, ani»

¿Ufartiita. '

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KY A. IRELAND,

PRINCIPAL OF THE IIOBART TOWN COLLEGIATE 8CTTOOL, ANO LATE JIEAI) MASTER OP CHALMBRS’ SCHOOL, HOBART TOWN.

SECOND EDITION.

.® as m a n i a:

W. FLETCHER, PRINTER, ELIZABETH STREET :

SOLD BY

J. WALCH AND SONS,

WELLINGTON BRIDGE, IIOBART TOWN, AND BRISBANE STREET,

LAUNCESTON ;

J. MOORE, GEOIIGE-STREET, SYDNEY; AND S. MULLEN,

C 0 L LI N S-ST11 LET, M EL BOURN E.

18C3.














PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.

The following Abridgment of the Author’s Geography and History of Oceania has been undertaken on the recommendation of teachers and others interested in Education. The interest excited by the original work, the eulogiums passed by the Colonial Press, the approbation of competent judges, and its increasing sale, are suflicient proof of its aeceptableness. To meet the demand for copies, a second edition is in preparation, in which the inaccuracies unavoidable in the first edition will be rectified, and deficiencies supplied. That work, however, though forming an excellent Class-book for advanced pupils, and supplying to teachers a fund of information, has been found too elaborate for junior classes. In producing the present Manual, the Author has endeavoured to respond to the numerous expressions of opinion from various parts of the Australian Colonies as to the desirableness of such an Abridgment. The matter has been carefully revised, and the topography compiled from the most approved and recently published Maps. The Author is under obligations to the New Zealand Press, and to several gentlemen personally acquainted with the Geography of the respective Colonies, for their suggestions and valuable information.

A Second Edition of the “ Abridged Geography and History of Oceania” being demanded, the Author cannot but express his gratification in finding that the Work has received the approbation of many to whose judgment he defers, and that it has been adopted in many highly respectable educational establishments throughout the colonies. The whole matter has beelu-rcvised, a few additions made, and some errors that had unavoidably crept into the First Edition rectified.

C 0 N T E X T S

PACiE

1

2

4

0

(5

7

7

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8 15 27 37 43 47 50 ($1 71


OCEANIA .................

Malaysia ..............

Polynesia ..............

Australasia ...........

Papua .................

Chatham Islands.....

Auckland Islands ..

Norfolk Island........

Australia ...........

New South Wales

Victoria.............

South Australia .. Western Australia

Queensland ........

Tasmania ..............

New Zealand ........

Antarctica ...........

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN T1IE FOLLOWING WORK.

The number after the name of a mountain shows its height in feet,—> after the name of a. township, its distance from the capital.—and aft or the name of a river; its length in miles.


Arch° ............ Archipelago.

B................Bay.

C...................Cape.

Co.; Cos.........County; counties.

Chan.............Channel.

K................... Fast.

Ft................ Feet.

G................... Gulf.

Gt................ Great.

llarb. ..... Harbour.

I................... Isle or Island.

Is................ Isles or Islands.

L................... Lake.

Lat................ Latitude.


Long.............Longitude.

M. ; sq.    m....... Miles; square miles.

Mt................ Mountain.

Mts................ Mountains.

N................North.

Pen................ Peninsula.

Pt.......:.......Point.

R................... River.

S................... South.

Sd................Sound.

Str................ Strait.

Trih.............Tributarj\

W................ West.


OCEANIA.

Oceania, the fifth great division of the earth's surface, includes the numerous islands scattered over the great ocean which extends from the south-eastern shores of Asia to the western coast of America. It is separated from Asia by the Str. of Malacca, the Chinese Sea, and the Channel of Formosa; and from America by a broad belt of ocean comparatively free of islands. It naturally divides itself into three great sections :—Malaysia, Australasia, and Polynesia;—the aggregate area of which is estimated at upwards of 1,500,000 sq. m.

Race.—Dr. Latham, Cuvier, and other celebrated ethnologists have reduced the five primary varieties of mankind to three :—the Japetidae, embracing all the chief nations of Europe and the various states and colonies established by them ; the Atlantidae—the tribes of Africa, Syria, and Arabia ; and the Mongolidac—the nations of Asia, Oceania, and America.

The Aboriginal Races of Oceania exhibit two types :—the Malay, or brown complexioned and straighthaired race; and the Negrito, of a sooty black colour, with hair sometimes straight, in other cases frizzy or even woolly.

The Negritos extend over New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, New Ireland, the islands between it and New Caledonia, and, according to some, the Fijis.

The brown division occupy the rest of the Oceanic area :—Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Moluccas, Polynesia, Ac.

B

Each of these divisions falls into a great number of subdivisions.

Utalagsia, or tljc |nVum Ardjipdagcr.

This division takes its name from the Malays, who are the principal inhabitants, and includes the archipelago immediately adjoining the south-eastern coast ot Asia, generally known as the East India Is. It lies between lat. 12° 4:0' S. and 20c N., and long. 95° and 134° E., and consists of minor clusters and chains, intersected by straits and channels. Area, 750.000 sq. m.

PRINCIPAL ISLANDS.    CIIIEF TOWNS.

C Bencoo'len, in the SAY.;

Sumatra, in the W. .........< Palembang', in the E.;

( Acheen', in the NAY. "Bata'via, on the NAY.

Java, S.E. of Sumatra


coast ; Samarang' and -    Souraba'y a, E. of Batavia,

on the N. coast; Sonra-ca'rta, near the centre. Borneo and Sarawak', in the NAY. ; Sambas and Pontia'nak, in the

Bor'neo, Ar. of Java .........^ AY.;Benjarma'sing,with

Cel ebes, E. of Borneo


1


Fort Ta'tas, in the S. ; Coti and Passir, on rivers on the S.E. coast. Ylaardingen, in the S.AY., erected on the site of the ancient city of Macassar; Bayoa, capital of the native state of Boni.

M°CeiZs °r SpiCC Is’’K 0/] Amb°y'na and Ter'nate.

.    T    ,r ry XC Manilla, in the SAY. of

( of the group.


./ Hi ippme Is., N. <. of) Luzon, the largest island Borneo.    ‘    °

REMARKS.

Sumatra, is 1,050 miles Iona:, and is 3 times larger than England. The chief Exports are—rice, coffee, pepper, and camphor. Off the southeast coast are the islands of Banca and Billiton, held by the Dutch, and possessing exceedingly rich tin mines.

Java extends 060 miles from W. to E., contains a population of 10,000,000, and in area is nearly equal to England. Exports:—coffee, rice, tea, sugar, cinnamon, pepper, and teah timber.

Borneo, 250 miles N. of Java, is about times larger than Gt. Britain. Coal, iron, gold, diamonds, and other minerals, are abundant. On the north-west coast of Borneo is the island of Labuan, established as a British colony in 1846, and possessing rich coal mines.

The Philippine Is., about 1,200 in number, were discovered by Magellan, 1521. Their aggregate area is twice that of England, and the population amounts to nearly 4,000,000. Exports:—rice, sugar, and tobacco.

The coasts of the Celebes and the other islands in the east of Malaysia have pearl fisheries, and furnish the tripang or sea-slug, and edible birds'-nests, both of which are much prized by the epicures of China.

The Moluccas produce spices, nutmegs, cloves, maize, &c.

The Dutch possess the whole of Java, the Moluccas, and the greater part of Sumatra and the Celel>cs ; the Spaniards, the greater part of the Philippine group; the Portuguese, a portion of the island of Timor: and the British, the peninsula of Malacca, and the islands of Singapore, Labuan, and Prince of Wales.

Straits.—Str. of Malacca (50 miles wide), between Sumatra and Malacca (a territory of about 1,000 sq. m.

belonging to the British) ; Str. of Sunda (25 m.), between Sumatra and Java; Str. of Macassar (70 m.), between Borneo and Celebes ; Molucca Passage, between the Moluccas and Celebes.

Physical Features, Soil, and Climate.—The islands are throughout of a mountainous nature, the highest point being Mt. Ophir (13,050), in Sumatra; and the archipelago is traversed by several lines of volcanic action, which exhibits itself in the burning craters of Luzon, Java, &c. There are few extensive plains, abundance of jungle and unhealthy swamps, but no arid deserts; and, where not cultivated, the better land is generally covered with forests of stupendous trees, and with shrubs and aromatic plants of the most luxuriant growth. Winds.—The north-east and southwest monsoons N. of the Equator, and the south-east and north-west monsoons S. of it; typhoons in the N.

Productions.—Malaysia is rich in every species of tropical produce.

The indigenous Animals are—the elephant, rhino-cerous, babyrousa, tapir, tiger, buffalo, bat, pongo, ourang-outang and other quadrumana. Birds: Cassowary, bird of paradise, parrot, parroquet, cockatoo. Reptiles: Crocodile, python, and chameleon.

Vegetables.—Trees: Palms (cocoa-nut, sago, and cabbage palms), camphor-tree, sandal-wood, and ebony-trees. teak, bamboo, and upas-tree. The delicious Fmils are—the mango, guava, See,

Minerals.—Gold, tin, antimony, copper, iron, coal, diamonds, and other precious stones.

Population.—20,000,000.

Keligion.—The more advanced of the Malays, especially those that live on the coasts, profess Mahometanism, which was introduced in the fourteenth century ; but the superstitions of the wilder tribes in the interior very much resemble those of the Polynesians.

or tljc §oiiilj fra Jslank

Polynesia includes the numerous groups of islands scattered over the Pacific Ocean within 30° on both sides of the Equator, and between the meridional lines of 133° E. and 100° W. long.

The following are the principal groups :—In the Northern Hemisphere:—The Carolines, including the [View Is., in the "YV.; the Marianne or Ladrone Is., N. of the Carolines; the Marshall and Gilbert Is., E. of the Carolines; the Sandwich Is., N.E. of the Marshall and Gilbert Is. ; and the numerous reefs and coral islands scattered over the Northern Pacific, and designated Micronesia.    .

In the Southern Hemisphere:—The Fijis, in the "W\ ; the Friendly Is., including the group of the Tonga Is.. E. of the Fijis; the Samoan or Navigator’s Is., X. of the Friendly Is. ; Hervey or Cook's Is., E. of the Friendly Is.; the Society Is., including the Georgian or Tahitian and Austral Is., E. of Hervey’s group ; the Low Is. or Dangerous Arch0., including the Gambier or Mangareva group, E. of the Society Is.; the Marquesas, N. of the Low Is.; Pitcairn’s I., S.E. of the Low Is.:

Easter I., E. of Pitcairn’s I.

REMARKS.

These islands are divided into two classes as to their natural structure • the mountainous, which are mostly of volcanic formation : and the coral, which are mostly low reefs, only raised a few feet above the level of the sea. The mountainous islands are—the Sandwich, Ladrone, Society, Marquesas, and some of the Figi, Friendly, Samoan, and Hervey Is.

The Caroline Is., named after Charles II. of Spain, form a vast group lying nearly midway between Japan and Australia, and extending E. and VV. through a distance of 2,500 miles.

The Ladrones, discovered by Magellan in 1521, and so called from the thievish disposition of the natives, are situated about 600 miles N. of the Carolines and 1,400 E. of the Philippine Is.

The Sandwich Is. (discovered by Capt. Cook, 1778), in consequence of their proximity to the whaling grounds, and their geographical position—the natural centre of the commerce between South America, India, China, California, and Australia,—form the most important group of Polynesia. This group consists of ten volcanic islands, of which Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and Kauai are the principal. Hawaii, the death-place of Capt. Cook, is remarkable for its towering volcanoes; Mouna Roa, of which a terrible eruption took place in 1855, being 13,650 feet high. Honolulu, in Oahu, is the capital, and possesses a spacious and secure harbour, the resort of numerous whalers and merchant vessels.

The Tong an, or Friendly Group, discovered by Tasman in 1643, and so named by Capt. Cook from the apparent friendliness of the natives, and the Samoan or Navigator's Group, so called from the superior canoes which the natives used, and the dexterous way in which they managed them, lie from 1,500 to 2,000 miles E. of Northern Australia.

The Hervey Is. were discovered by Capt. Cook 1773-7. Raratonga, the largest, was the scene of the labours of the missionary Williams.

The Society, the Marquesas, the Georgian or Tahitian Is., and several of the adjoining groups, which are now subject to France, lie still further east, and occupy a central position in the Pacific, about 1,300 miles S. of the Equator. Tahiti, or Otaheite, the first place in Polynesia to which Christian missionaries were sent, is the largest, being 108 miles in circumference. It is a beautiful island, and, with its lofty verdant mountains, presents a striking appearance from the sea. Here the memorable mutiny of the Bounty took place in 175)0. The mutineers settled (1790) on Pitcairn’s I., which formed the abode of their descendants till their removal to Norfolk I. (1836).

The Soil is in general exceedingly fertile, and the Climate delightful. Winds.—Land and sea breezes, with occasional hurricanes.

Productions.—The only quadrupeds found on the islands when first visited by Europeans, were hogs, dogs, and rats : the ox and horse have since been introduced.

The Birds are numerous, consisting of poultry, pigeons, turtle-doves, as well as parrots and other tropical genera.

Vegetable Products.—Bread-fruit, sugar-cane,cocoa-nut, banana, pandanus, plantain, and a variety of tropical fruits; the taro, yam, batata, and other farinaceous roots.

Polynesia is deficient in minerals.

J

Australasia lies S.E. of Malaysia, and consists of the great island of Australia, or New Holland, with its appendage Tasmania, and the belt of islands that lie N., N.E., E., and S.E. of it. The chief islands forming this belt are Papua, or New Guinea, N. of Australia, and the various groups of islands lying to the E. and S.E. of New Guinea, viz.—Louisiade Archipelago, New Britain, Admiralty Is., New Ireland, Solomon’s Is., Queen Charlotte’s Isles, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Norfolk

I., New Zealand, Chatham Is., and Auckland Is. Between the northern section of the belt and the coast of Australia is the Coralline Sea.

Papua, about 1,300 miles in length, with an area of 200,000 sq. m., presents ranges of very high mountains (chief summit, Mt. Stanley, 13,205), and is described as a rich and magnificent country, containing in all probability, from its situation and appearance, the most valuable vegetable products of the Malaysian Is.

The only quadrupeds known to exist on this island are dogs, rats, wild hogs, and some new species of marsupial 1 animals; but the feathered race are of great beauty ^ and infinite variety. New Guinea is the native place oi the bird of paradise, the crown pigeon, parrots, lories, and minas.

Of the other islands forming the northern section of the belt, New Caledonia, recently taken possession of by the French, is the largest, being 400 m. long, though not more than GO broad. They generally have mountains of great height in the interior, many of them being active volcanoes. The lower grounds are fertile ; and there are dogs, pigs, and iish, in abundance.

The Chatham Is., E., and the Auckland, Campbell, and Macquarie Is., S. of New Zealand, are stations lor the South Sea fisheries of the elephant, seal, and whale.

The British possessionem Australasia are—Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Chatham Is. (situated about 300 miles E. of New Zealand), Auckland Is. (about ISO miles S. of New Zealand), and Norfolk I. (about 000 m. N.E. of Sydney) : the whole comprising a territorial area in the southern hemisphere nearly as large as Europe.

Government.—Since    the year 1S55, all the

Australian Colonies (with the exception of A\ esteni Australia) have, under the sanction of the Queen and

the Imperial Parliament, enjoyed the privilege ol sell-government in respect to local interests, upon a system modelled as nearly as circumstances would admit upon the plan of the British constitution.

In each colony the Government is vested in a Governor and his responsible ministers (forming the Executive), and a Parliament consisting of a Legislative Council and a Legislative Assembly.

In each there is a supreme court for the sole administration of the laws ; there are also courts oi general and quarter sessions and courts of requests. Juries sit both in civil and criminal cases.

In Western Australia the Government consists of the Governor and the Executive and Legislative Councils ; and in New Zealand, of a Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Representatives. In the latter colony

each province has a Superintendent and a Provincial Council. The Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Representatives, legislate for the whole colony, with the exception of matters of purely local interest, which are left to the Provincial Councils. The principles of responsible government are carried out as in England, both in the general and the provincial governments.

The Chatham and Auckland Is. are under the protection of the government of New Zealand. Norfolk J. was attached to the government of Tasmania during the period of its employment for penal usages, but has since ueen transferred to that of New South Wales.

Religiox.—All the denominations of the Mother-country are represented nearly in the same proportion as at home ; the principal sects being—Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Wesleyans, Baptists, and Independents. All classes, of whatever creed, are on an equality, and enjoy equal privileges ; and where State-aid is granted, all are equally entitled to participate.

Educatiox.—Education has been for some years a matter of primary consideration with the colonists. Great efforts have been made to render the means of mental improvement accessible to even the lowest classes of society. Several colleges have been established ; and numerous excellent seminaries, iniuding private, national, and denominational schools, are well attended. The national and denominational schools receive Government aid, and are under the direction of Boards, and tho supervision of Inspectors appointed by the Boards.

Australia.

Australia, the largest island in the world, is bounded on the W. and N.W. by the Indian Ocean; on the N. by the Arafura Sea, G. of Carpentaria, and Torres Str. ;

on the E. by the Pacific Ocean; and on the S. by Bass’s Str. and the Pacific, or, according to some, the Indian Ocean. It lies between the parallels of 10° 45' and 38° 45' S. lat., and the meridians of 112° 20' and 153 30' E. long. Its greatest length (from E. to W.) is 2,227 and its breadth (from C. \ork to V\ ilson’s Promontory) 1.6S0 geographical miles. Area, 2,GOO,810 sq. m.

The several Colonies in Australia are—E. ot the 141st degree ofE. longitude—Victoria, in the S.; Xew S. V ales > X. of Victoria; and Queensland, X. of Xew South \\ ales. The other colonies are—South Australia, V . ot \ ictoria, Xew South Wales, and the southern part of Queensland ; and Western Australia, comprising all that portion ot the island W. of 129° E. long. In the undivided and unsettled region, lying between Western Australia and Queensland, and X. of the 26th parallel, settlements were formed on Melville 1. and Coburg Peninsula, but were abandoned, chiefly on account of the unhealthiness of the climate and the sterile character ol the soil.

Bays and Gulfs.—On the JV., G. of Carpentaria, Arnhem B., Van Diemen's G., and Cambridge G.; on the N. W., King's Sound and Collier’s B.; on the Sharke B. ; on the S., Gt. Australian Bight, Spencer’s G., G. of St. Vincent, Port Phillip, and Western Port; on the E., Twofold B., Botany B., Port Jackson, and Moreton B. ; on the Ar.7f., Port Curtis, Broad Sd.

Capes.—On the AT., Sandy C., and C. Melville ; on the A\, C. York, C. Arnhem, and Pt. Dale; C. Van Diemen in Melville I.; on the N.W., ISorth-west C. ; on the S.W., C. Leemvin ; on the 5., C. Spencer, C. Jervis, C. Otwav, and Wilson’s Promontory ; on the S.E., C. Howe.

Straits.—Bass’s Str. (100 m. wide), between Tasmania and Victoria; Investigator’s Str., between Kangaroo I. and Yorke Pen. ; Clarence Str., between Melville I. and Arnhem Land ; Cockburn Sd. and Apsley Str., between Bathurst and Melville Is.; Dundas Str., between Melville I. and Coburg Pen.; Brown Str. between Vessel I s. and Pt. Dale; Torres Str., between Papua and York Pen. u 2

Islands.— On the S., Tasmania, with Furneaux and King’s Groups in Bass’s Str., S. of Victoria, and Kangaroo I., near St. Vincent’s G.; on the 2V., Melville

I.. Bathurst I., ^Vessel Is., and English Company’s Is.; in the G.of Carpentaria, Groote, Wellesley,andPellew Is.; Gt. Sandy I., on the if., and exactly opposite it, on the TV, coast, Dirk Ilartog’s I.

The Barrier Beefs, on the X. and X.E. coasts of Australia, form a vast submarine buttress which skirt the shore, and, in the instance of the Great Barrier Beef, extend from Breaksea Spit, in 24° 30' S. lat., to Bristow I. on the coast of New Guinea, a distance of about 1,100 geographical miles. Numerous detached reefs extend from Torres Str. to Xew Caledonia.

Peninsulas.—York Pen., E. of G. of Carpentaria ; Coburg Pen., X. of Arnhem Land ; Peron Pen., between Freycinet and Haineliu Harbours ; Eyria Pen., on the W, and Yorke Pen. on the E., of Spencer’s G .

GREAT PHYSICAL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA.

As far as the country is known, a long mountain chain runs along the whole eastern coast, crossing Bass’s Str. into Tasmania, and running under Torres Str. to the shores of Xew Guinea, a distance of about 2,400 geographical miles; its submarine continuation in Bass and Torres Straits being indicated by a line of steep, rugged, and often peaked islands.

Plains.—On the landward or western side of this chain are great plains, declining gradually to the AY., but at first often broken by detached hills or groups of mts. Still farther TV, appear immense plains, which seem to extend from the sea-coast round the G. of Carpentaria on the X. to that of the G t. Australian Bight on the S., and to stretch along the N.AV. coast from NAY. Cape to Collier B.

As Minor Features may be mentioned—the spur stretching westward through Victoria from the main dividing range ; the mt. chain of S. Australia, running X.

from C. Jervis to the singular horse-shoe-shaped depression of L. Torrens; the high land of Western Australia running X. from P. D’Entrecasteaux and King George's Sound to the neighbourhood of Shark B. ; and the high land which forms the coast from Collier's 13. to \\ iekham s Victoria 11., and seems to stretch in an E. and W. direction across the interior of Arnhem Land to the western shores of the G. of Carpentaria.

Biters.—Draining the Landward Slope.—Towards the

S., the B. Murray and its numerous tributaries, discharging their waters into L. Victoria or Alexandria ; further north, the Victoria B., which drains into Sturt’s Central Desert, and in seasons of flood probably reaches L. Torrens ; and several small rivers, which, on the X., run into the S.E. portion of the (L of Carpentaria.

Draining the Outer or Seaward Slope.—In New South Wales, 1 lie Hawkesbury,- Hunter, Manning, Macleay, and Clarence ; in Queenslandthe Burnett, Eitzroy, and Burdekin; in Arnhem Land, the South Alligator, and AVickham’s Victoria B. ; in Western Australia, the Gascoyne, Murchison, Swan, and Blackwood.

Lakes.—Australia is remarkably destitute of large-fresh-water lakes: L. Victoria, the principal, is merely a brackish lagoon. There are, however, numerous small salt lakes sprinkled over its southern portion.

Climate.—The climate of all the colonies and all the coasts of Australia, is remarkable for its dryness and for its long droughts. Though great rains fall occasionally, they arc irregular and partial. The only large rivers at present known are those draining the western slope of the Dividing Bange ; and of these the only one having a permanent stream is the Murray, from the only mt. summits (the Australian Alps), that are permanently covered with snow. The climate of the whole territory, however, is remarkably salubrious, excepting on the X. and X.AV. coasts, which partake of the unhealthiness of a tropical region. The general direction of the winds on the W., S. W., S., and S.E. coasts being from the sea, the temperature is delightful. On the Blue Mountains in New South Wales, and on the Australian Alps in Victoria, snow falls in winter, aud it freezes there for several months.

Soil.—In some parts the soil is of excellent quality and well watered, in others sterile and arid. (For soil of the colonized districts, see N. S. Wales, Ac.)

PRODUCTIONS.

Quadrupeds.—With the exception of the native dog or dingo, three species of bat, two mice, and one waterrat, all the mammals of Australia are either marsupial (pouched), or monotrematous (a closely-allied form). Of the former the principal are—the tiger-cat, native-cat, kangaroo (forester, brush, and wallaby), wombat, opossum, and bandicoot; to the latter belong the platypus, or ornithorhynchus, and two species of porcupine.

Of Birds may be mentioned—the king-fisher, bee-eater, and humming-bird ; parrots, paroquets, cuckoos, and cockatoos ; vulture, white eagle, falcon, and hawk ; several varieties of thrush (one of which is sometimes called tho “ laughing jackass”), and wattle-bird; swallows and goatsuckers ; pheasants, quails, and pigeons; the cassowary or emu; bustard, curlew, ibis, herons, rails, snipes, and spoon-bills; black swan, gannet, penguin, petrel, duck, magpies, crow, bird of paradise, Ac.

Fish.—Fish are plentiful in the bays along the coast, but are not so abundant in the rivers. The principal are— of salt-water fish—schnapper, rock-cod, fiat-head, taylor-fish, mackerel, sole, and guardfish ; of fresh-water—the Murray cod, found in the R. Murray, and eels, caught in the marshes and lagoons ; of Crustaceans- lobsters, crabs, crayfish, prawns, and shrimps ; of Molluscs—oysters, mussels, cockles, periwinkles, whelks.

Seals and whales are found in the neighbouring seas, and the dugong abounds in the bays and harbours of tropical Australia.

The Bepliles consist of turtles, alligators, iguanas, lizards, serpents, and frogs; and the Insects, of butter-ilies, moths, beetles, locusts, mosquitos, scorpions, centipedes, flies, ants, bees, and an insect called the gum-grub.

The most valuable Trees are—the gum-trees, wattles, the cedar or turpentine tree, she-oak, forest-oak, sassafras, and the Norfolk Island pine; palms and other tropical plants, in the N. and N.E.

HISTORY OF DISCOVERY.

The first attempt to explore this island is unquestionably due to the Dutch, whose vessels, during the period 1G16-22, discovered the west coast from 35° to 22° S. lat., and (1G27) 1000 m. of the S. coast, which they named Nuyt’s Land. The English navigator, William Darn pier, in 1GSG, and again in 1G09, explored the N.AY. coast. Capt. Cook, in 1770, explored the whole E. coast, from C. Howe to C. York, not minute!v entering: into the details of every part, but laying down a correct general outline. To Capt. Flinders we owe the completion in detail of the coasts of Australia, with the exception of the AY. and N. AY. coasts, which he was prevented from accomplishing by the loss of his ship. In 1837, the anchorages and harbours in the immediate vicinity of the Swan River settlement were correctly laid down ; and detailed charts of the coast from King George's Sound to Melville Harbour were furnished by Wickham, who was entrusted with the duty of conducting a minute survey of all the Australian coast which Flinders had left unsurveyed. He was succeeded in 1839 by Mr. Stokes, who continued zealously employedinthis important duty untill 1843.

Explorations in the Interior.—In 1813, Mr. Evans prosecuted two successful journeys across the Blue Nits., to the distance of about 300 m. AY. of Sydney, and discovered the Bathurst Plains, and again, in 1815, traced the course of the Macquarie 115 miles from its source. In 181G, Mr. Oxley extended the discoveries of Evans, and (1823) surveyed the districts of Moreton B., Hervey B., and Port Curtis. In 1824-5 explorations were actively pursued to a like distance southward by Messrs, llovell and Hume, who passed over a most extensive range of country, from the junction of the Mur-rumbidgee and Yass rivers to the north-western shore of Port Phillip. In 1825, Allan Cunningham prosecuted a successful exploration up the valley of the Hunter, travelled (1827) over the beautiful table-land known as the Liverpool Plains, traversed a line grazing country called New England, and discovered the verdant prairie-lands of Darling Downs. Sturt, by his researches (1828-31), discovered the Darling, and ascertained that, instead of the Darling, Lachlan, and other streams, that run to the westward, falling into a great inland sea or extensive marsh, as was conjectured, their united waters constitute a large river, which, under the name of the Murray, was found to turn to the southward, and empty itself into an extensive estuary. About the same period several expeditions under Capt. Banister, Capt. Grey, and others, were prosecuted in "Western Australia. Sir T. Mitchell surveyed (1832-6) the Darling and its tributaries, and explored Australia Felix (a part of \ ictoria). Strzelccki made a successful journey on foot (1840-5) through New South Wales and Tasmania to ascertain their physical and geological character. In 1810, Eyre travelled through the territory called Nuyt’s Land, and (1841) conducted an expedition towards the interior from Spencer’s Gulf, when he discovered L. Torrens. Capt. Sturt (1844-5-6), from Adelaide, penetrated due north into the very centre of the island. In 1844, Dr. Leichardt, a botanist, crossed overland from Moreton B. to Port Essington ; and (1846) Sir T. Mitchell, in liis search for a good practical line of road to the nearest part of the Indian Ocean, to the westward ot Torres Sir., toward the G. of Carpentaria, discovered a river which he named the Victoria. Mr. Cunningham, who accompanied this expedition, fell into the hands of the natives, by whom he was barbarously murdered. Mr. Kennedy, while prosecuting (1848)"the survey of that part of tropical Australia situated between C. York and Rockingham B., was massacred by the natives. In the same year Dr. Leichardt started from Sydney with the design oi explo-riug the interior of the continent, across which lie hoped to force a passage to the »Swan River settlement ; but this intrepid explorer has not yet re-appeared, nor has any certain vestige of him ever been discovered. In 1856-8, Gregory conducted an exploring party westward along the northern districts as far as the meridian of 127^ 30'. Stuart, in 185S-9, explored an extensive squatting district to the W. and N.W. of the settled districts of South Australia, and again, in the years 1S01-2, crossed the continent from Adelaide to Van Diemen's Gulf, to the N.W. of Arnhem Land, and returned by the same route. The successful but ill-fated * expedition of Burke and Wills left Melbourne on the 20th August, 1S60; and an advanced detachment of eight reached Cooper’s Creek on the 11th November, where they established the permanent depot. Burke, the leader of the expedition, accompanied by AY ills, King, and Gray, pushed forward and reached the Gulf of Carpentaria, on the 11th T’ebruary, 1861, having accomplished the great feat of crossing the continent from sea to sea in less than seven months. On the return journey from the Gulf, Gray died from hunger and exhaustion; Burke and Wills became the victims of starvation after reaching Cooper’s Creek (the party left in charge of the depot there having taken their departure southwards a few hours previous to their arrival) ; King alone survived to toll the sad fate of his companions.

The result of these recent explorations has been the discovery of an extensive tract of excellent country in the N. of Australia, and practicable routes thither across the continent.

SOUTH WALES.

Boundaries*.N., Queensland; E., Pacific Ocean; S. Victoria; YY., South Australia.

v A line commencing at Point Danger, about 2S° 8', and following a tortuous course W. by S. till it reaches long. 110°, and thence along the 2Gth parallel to

Extent.—Greatest length from E. to AY., 7G0 English m.; breadth from N. to 025.

Area.—Upwards of 250,000 sq. m.

Coasts.—Its coast-line (including the principal openings) is about 730 m.

COUNTIES PROCLAIMED BY LETTERS PATENT.

M aritime.—Macquarie, in the N. E.—Port Macquarie (278), Ballengarra, Kempsey, Mariaville, all on the coast.

Gloucester, S. of Macquarie.—Raymond Terrace (100), in the S. ; Carrington, on Port Stephens Harbour ; Stroud (30), on the Karuah R.; Gloucester, towards * the X.

Northumberland, S. IV. of Gloucester.—Newcastle 80), Hexham, Morpeth, E. and AY. Maitland (127), and Singleton, all on the R. Hunter ; AYollombi (93), near the middle; St. Alban’s and Gosford (35), both in the S.

Cumberland, S. of Northumberland—Sydney, on Port Jackson; Parramatta (15), AY. of Sydney; Liverpool (20), S.AY. of Sydney; Pitt Town, Windsor (35), Richmond (39), Castlereagh (39), Penrith (33), and Karelian, all in the AY.; Campbell Town (33), and Appin (45), in the S.

Camden, S. of Cumberland.—Herrin:a (SO), near the middle, ,011 the R. Bernina; Camden (40), in the N. ; Kiama (88) and AYoollongong (64), on the coast; Picton (52) and A\ ilton (40), both S. of Camden ; Murrumba, in the S.AY.

St. Vincent, S. of Camden.—Braidwood (104), Hus-kisson, Ulladulla, Broulee, Earnham, all on the coast; Tianjarra, towards the AV.; Karriga and Marlow, in tho AY., on the R. Shoal haven.

Inland.—Murray, W. of Camden.—Queanbeyan (182), near the centre; Bungendore, N.E. of Queanbeyan; S. Yass, in the N.AY.; Larbert, in the E.

Argyle, N.E. of Murray.—Goulburn (125), near tho the 141st degree of E. long., forms the boundary line between Queensland and New South Wales. A straight line drawn from C. Howe to the head of the R. Murray, near Mt. Kosciusko, and thence along the course of that river to ihu eastern boundary of S. Australia, forms its divisional line from Victoria.

middle; Maridan (109), E. of Groulburn; Bungonia (117). S. of Ma rulan ; Te raiga. in the X.

Westmoreland, N. of Argyle.— O'Connell, in the X'. Cook, N.B. of Westmoreland.—Hartley (78) and Bowenfells (80), in the W.; Emu (30), in the S.E.; Wilber force, in the E.

Hunter, N. of Cook.—Jerry's Plains (190), in the X.; Colo, in tiie S.

Durham, N.E. of Hunter.—Patterson, Seahnm, Clarence Town, Dungog, Hinton, all in the S.E. ; Merton, in the S.W.; Camberwell, towards the S. ; Muswellbrook, in the AV.

Brisbane, IV. of Durham.—Murrurundi, in the X.E., Scone, St AnbiiTs, and Aberdeen, all in the E.; Invermein, near the middle; Merriwa, S.W. of Invermein.

Phillip, S.Wf of Brisbane.—Cooval ('150), towards the

XT.W.

jRoxburgh, S. of Phillip.—Kelso, in the S. ; Sofala, in the AC.; llylstone (101), in the X. ; Eydall, (30), E. of Kelso.

Georgiana, S. TV. of W'eslmor eland.—Bingham and Cook’s Vale, near the centre.

Ding, S. W. of Georgiana.—Gunning (131), towards the E.; Xr. Yass, in the S.AV.

Bathurst, N. of King.—Bathurst (121), in the X.E.; Carcoar (145) and Blaney (130), near the middle.

Wellington JST. of Bathurst.—Mudgee (171), in the N.E.; Wellington (231), in the X.W.; Tamberoora, in the S.E.; Molong, in the S.W.

Bligh, N. of Wellington.—Ailsa, in the E.; Cassilis (245), near the middle ; Coolak, in the X.

SOUTHERN, NORTHERN, AND WESTERN COUNTIES.

Southern.—Maneroo District.—Dumpier, S. of St. Vincent,—Moruya, on the coast ;    Auckland, S. of

Ham pier,—Eden (350) and Boyd (240), on Twofold B.; Wrellesley, W. of Auckland,—Bómbala, near the middle; Beresford, X". of AVellesley,—Cooma (254) and Bunyan ; Wrallace} S.AAr. of Beresford,— Moama; Cowley, X. of

Wallace,—Ainslie; JBuccleuch, W. of Cowley,—Tumufc

. (249>* ...

Northern.—ALcLeay River District.—Hawes, AY . of

Macquarie,—ch. t. Tobin; Vernon, N. oi Hawes,

—Henderson and Waicha; Dudley, N.E. oi A ernon,—

Chapman.

Clarence River District.Raleigh, N. of Dudley,— ch. ts. Grafton and Coutts ; Gresham, AV. oi Ealeigh,— Newtownboyd ; Drake, N. of Gresham,—AN hitmore and Tenterfield; Duller, N. of Drake,—ANilkin; Rouse, E. oi Duller,—Fawcett; Richmond, S. of Duller,—Ogilvie, Gain, Tabulan.

New England District.Sandon, AN . of Dudley,— ch. ts. Armidale and Dumaresque; Inglis, S.AV. of Sandon,— lieu denier ; liar dinge, N.AN . oi Sandon,— Eocky Eiver and Bundarra ; Gough, N. of Hardinge,— AVellingrove and Dundee.

AY estern.—Liverpool Plains District.Parry, S.AV . of Inglis,—Tam worth (275) and Hanging Eock; Buckland, AV. of Parry,—Breeza; Pottinger, AV. of lluckland,—Mokai; Napier, S.AV. of Pottinger,—Balaro; Gower, AV. of Napier,—Conabarabram ; Lincoln, S. of Gower,—Dubbo (260).

Wellington District.Gordon, S. of Lincoln,—Nurree; Ashhurnham, S. of Gordon,—Burree.

Lachlan District—Monteagle, S. of Ashhurnham,— Murringa; Harden, S. of Monteagle,—Jugiong (260), Binalong, Bookham; Clarendon, NNr. oi Harden, Gundagai (255).

Mur rum hidgee District.Wynyard, S. of (. larendon, Tarcutta and Bago; Selwyn, S. oi AVrynyard,—Tama; Goulhurn, N.AV. of Selwyn,—Albury, on the E. Murray; AVagga AN agga, on the Murrumbidgee E.; Deniliquin, on the Edward ; Moulamein, at the junction oi the Edward and Coates ; Moarna and Euston, on the Alurray E.

commissioner’s districts.

Murrum h id gee Squatting District,—situated between the

Murray R. on the S., and the Murrumbidgee on the X., and W. of the Maneroo District.

Lachlan District,—X. of the Murrumbidgee District.

Lower Darling District,—X.AV. or the Murrumbidgee and Lachlan Districts».

7Wellington District,—X.E. of the Lower Darling District.

Bligli District,—E. of Wellington District.

Liverpool Plains,—X. of Bligh District.

Gwydir District, X.E. of Liverpool Plains.

JS/ew England District, E. of Gwydir District.

ALcLcag District,—E. of Xew England District.

Seas and Gulfs.—Twofold B., Auckland; Bateman B., Jervis B., St. Vincent ; Port Hacking, Botany B., Port Jackson, Cumberland; Broken B., between Cumberland and Xorthumberland; Port Hunter, between Northumberland and Gloucester; Port Stephens, Earquhar Inlet, Gloucester ; Harrington Inlet, between Gloucester and Macquarie; Camden Haven, Port Macquarie, Macquarie; Trial B., Dudley; Shoal B., Baleigh.

Capes.—C. Howe, Green C., Auckland; C. St. George,

St. Vincent; Pt. Bass, Camden; Sugar-loaf Pt., C. Hawke, Gloucester; Smoky C., Macquarie; C. Byron, Louse.

Islands.—Montague I., off co. Dampier; Seal I., off co. Gloucester; Solitary Is., off co. Raleigh.

Mountain System.—The Dividing Range, the watershed of which is from 50 to 100 miles distant from the sea, is differently named in different parts, as the Blue Mts., in the vicinity of Sydney ; the Liverpool Range, in its northerly, and the Australian Alps, in its southerly extension. The chief summits are—Mt. Oxley, Mt. McArthur, Buckland ; Coricudgy, Tayan Peak, Hunter; King’s Table Land (2,790), Mt. Walker, Mt. Clarence, Mt. Tomah (3,210), Alt. Hay (2,425), Mt. Victoria (2,007), Mt. York (3,441), Cook; Mt. Murrum, Westmoreland; Mt. Eitton, Mt. Dixon, Mt. Chaton,

King ; Mt. Murray, Buceleuch ; Mt. Kosciusko (6,510), Wallace.    -

Minor Ranges and Isolated Mountains.—Wanderer Range and Mt. lmlay (3,000), co. Auckland; Mt. Ainslie, Murray ; Cullarin Range, King ; Mittagong Range (2.131). Camden; Mt. Blaxland (3,256), Westmoreland; Prospect Hill (3,275), Cumberland ; Mt. Marsden, lloxlnirgh ; Mt. Cannoblas (-1,610), Bathurst; Mt. Sea View (6,000), in the X. of Ilawes ; Mt. Mitchell (1,160), and Ben Lomond, Gresham; Mane’s Range and JN ackie Nackie Hill (2,242), Murrumhidgee District; Taylor’s and Goulburn Ranges, and Mt. Stewart and Peel Range, Lachlan District; Harvey's Range and Summer IIill (3,010), Wellington District ; Mt. Harrison, Bligh ; Hardwick's Range and Mt. Lindsay (5,720), in the S. of Gwydir District; Chandler’s Peak (3,288), Hew England; Warning Range (3,300), Clarence River District; Mt. Wingan (volcanic), Brisbane.

Plains.—The Goulburn and Breadalbane Plains, in the S., and the Bathurst, in the W. of* Argyle co. ; Warwick Plains, in the S., and Dunn’s Plains, in the E. of Bathurst; Emu Plains, Cook; Illawarra Plains, in Camden ; Patrick’s Plains in Hunter and Durham cos. ; Liverpool Plains (proper), in co. Buckland ; Yass Plains, in the X.W. of Murray co.; Mancroo Plains or Brisbane Downs (including 7 counties in the S.), from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. high, bounded on the E. by a coast range of mts., and on the W. by the Australian Alps ; Hamilton Plains, Murrumhidgee District; Bullan Plains, Lachlan District; Wellington, Cannil, and Baird Plains, Wellington District.

Rive us.—Draining the Eastern Slope.—The Richmond R., from the Dividing Range, Hows S.E. and then N.E. separating Rouse from Buller and Richmond. The Clarence It. flows southward, forming the western boundary of Richmond, then eastward through Clarence, and falls into Shoal B. ; it receives on its right the Rocky and Boyd Rs. The Bellinger R. flows E. through the N. part of Dudley. The Xumbucca R. flows E. through

Dudley. The Macleay R., with its tributary the Apsley, Hows S. through £ an don, and then eastward between Dudley and Macquarie into Trial B. The Hastings R., with its tributaries the Maria and \\ ilson, flows eastward through Macquarie into Port Macquarie. The Manning R., from the Liverpool Range, flows E. through Hawes, separates Gloucester from Macquarie, and falls into the sea by two mouths called Farquhar and Harrington Inlets. The Iiunter R., from the Liverpool Range, flows 8.W., and after receiving the Goulbum from the W. flows S.E., separating Durham and Gloucester from Brisbane, Hunter, and Northumberland, and falls into Port Hunter. The Hawkesbury R., formed by the junction of the Nepean and Warragamba, flows N. and E., round Cumberland, to Broken Bay ; it receives the Grose at Richmond, the Colo, and the Macdonald. The Nepean rises in the N. of Camden, and forms the south-western boundary of Cumberland. The Warragamba, formed by the junction of the Wollondilly and Cox, flows E. between Cook and Camden. The Parramatta is an extension of Port Jackson: and the George R. falls into Botany B. The Shoalhaven R., separating St. Vincent from Argyle and Camden, falls into Shoalhaven B. The Clyde flows S. through St. Vincent, and falls into Bateman’s B. The Moruya R. flows eastward between St. Vincent and Dampier, and falls into Moruya B. The Snowy R. rises in the Australian Alps, flows southward through the western portion of Maneroo Plains, and then S. through co. Combermere (Victoria).

Draining the Western Slope.—The Murray R., 2,100m., of which 2,000 are navigable, rises in Mt. Kosciusko, flows AVr. by N , separating Victoria from N. S. Wales, W. and then S., through S. Australia, and reaches the sea through L. Victoria into Encounter Bav: it receives on its right the Coates and Murrumbidgee (with its tributary the Lachlan), and the Darling ; on its left, the Mitta Mitta, Ovens, Goulburn, Campaspe, and Loddon. The Murrumbidgee R. (1,000), rises in the Australian Alps, and after receiving the Yass, Coodrabidgee, Tuinut, and several smaller streams, flows westward, and falls into the Murray, E. long. 143L 15. The Lachlan R., irom the Blue Mts., flows X. W. and then S. \\ ., and falls into the Murrumbidgee R. 141 K. long. 1 he Darling R.» formed by numerous streams from the Dividing Range, flows S. W. and then S. into the Murray, E. long. 144 53' : its chief tributaries are the Balonne, from the Me Pherson Range ; the Xainmoy or Peel R., and the Castlereagh R.. from the Liverpool Range ; and the -Macquarie and Bogan, from the Blue -Mts.

Lakes.—L. Bathurst, in Argyle ; L. George, Murray ; L. Marquarie, Tuggerah L., Brisbane Water, Northumberland ; L. Myall, Gloucester ; L. Innés, Queen’s, Watson’s, and Tavlor’s Ls., co. Macquarie ; Campbell s and Regent s Ls., Lachlan District; L. Cawndilla, by the Lower Darling.

Climate.—The climate is varied, but highly salubrious, particularly in the inland districts.

Soil.—The character of the soil is very diverse, there being lands of the very best, and others of the very worst description ; but generally speaking, the lands on the eastern streams are inferior in quality, both for agriculture and pasture, to those oil the western rivers-— the latter consisting of a rich black mould and dry soil, covered with luxuriant herbage, on which the herds and flocks of the settlers graze.

PRODUCTIONS.

Animals.—(Eor    the indigenous animals, see

Australia).

Imported, Stock, Poultry, $c.—Horses, horned cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, Timor ponies, camels ; domestic fowls of every description, and various singing birds.

Vegetable.—The agricultural products are—wheat, barley, oats, and rye, with hay, lucerne, and other kinds of fodder for cattle and horses; and in the northern districts, maize, tobacco, and cotton. The culinary vegetables are—potatoes, cabbages, carrots, parsnips, turnips, onions, peas, beans, cauliflowers, lettuces, cucumbers,

pumpkins, artichoke, Ac., besides sweet potatoes, yams, and plantains.    •

Fruits.—Peaches, apricots, nectarines, loquats, oranges, grapes, pears, plums, figs, pomegranates, raspberry, strawberry, mulberries, and melons of all sorts, attain the highest degree of maturity in the open air. Added to these, the northern districts produce pine-apples, bananas, almonds, guavas, lemons, citrons, and other tropical fruits.

Minerals.—The principal mineral products are—gold, coal, iron, copper, lead, and marble.

The real practical discovery of gold in Australia was made by Mr. E. IT. Hargraves, a New South Wales colonist, who, having been for some time in California, returned to the colony for the express purpose of searching for gold, which he discovered in the Bathurst district, west from Sydney, in the spring of 1851. The gold-fields are the Western (the most productive), the Southern, and the Northern. The Western are—Sofala, Louisa Creek, Bathurst, Tamba-roora, Mudgee, Orange, Stony Creek ; the Southern— Goulboum, Tumberumba, Gundagai, and Meragle; and the Northern—Pocky River, Nundle, Tam worth, and Timbarra. Sofala and Louisa Creek are the most productive of the western, Braidwood and Tumut of the Southern, and Nundle of the Northern. The quantity of gold received by escort from the gold-fields (1859), was 287,797 oz., valued at £1,103,009. The gold is found by washing the surface-detritus of the water-runs and digging holes into the strata overlying the so-called pipe-clay. Another source is the quartz-rock, which is now crushed to extract the gold. Large masses of pure gold are sometimes found embedded in the quartz.

The principal coal-bearing locality extends over the Hunter R. basin,—the coal measures of that locality occupying an area of at least 200 sq. m.

Iron «abounds in various parts of the colony. Most of the smaller streams and fossil-trees lately discovered are strongly impregnated with it. The fields or rather rocks of ironstone surrounding the Fitzrov iron-works in the neighbourhood of Camden, about 70 m. distant from Sydney, spread over a large area. The ore is of such extraordinary richness that it can at once be manufactured at the forge.

Copper is obtained in the mountain ranges around Bathurst.

Freestone is obtained in the vicinity of Sydney, tho tract between the Blue Mts. and the coast being occupied by extensive plains of sandstone, lying nearly in an horizontal position; whinstone or basalt, with which the roads are metalled, from the Blue Mts.; beautiful grained marble (greatly in request for chimney-pieces, Ac.), in Argyle county; potters' clay and rock porcelain, N. of Sydney harbour.

Agriculture.—The objects of culture are—wheat, maize, hay, potatoes, oats, barley, vines, sorghum, imphee, Ac. The pastoral grounds are very extensive, especially AV. of the Dividing Range: about 17,000,000 lbs. of wool are annually obtained from the flocks.

The Manufactures are in a flourishing condition; the principal are—flour, sugar, tallow, wine and brandy, woollens, tweeds, soap and candles, tobacco, butter and cheese, leather, Ac.

Towns famous for their woollen manufactures :— Sydney, Parramatta, Penrith, and Hartley.

’ The whale and seal fisheries are also prosecuted.

Commerce.—The chief Exports are—gold, wool, coal, live stock, grain, provisions, hides and leather, oil, timber, tallow, and wine. Imports.—British manufactured goods, sugar, tea, spirits, gold, hardware, grain, wool, wine,

tobacco, Ac.

Principal Ports.—Sydney, Newcastle, and Eden.

Population.—336,572 ; troops allotted to New South Wales, 906.

Finance.—Revenue (1859). £2,339,490 ; Expenditure, £1,S5S,10S ; Fublic Debt, £3,519.530.

HISTORY.

25


II I S T O R Y.

After the separation of the United States from (it. Britain, it was determined to establish a colony for the reception of British convicts on the eastern shore of Australia. The first settlement was formed early in 1788. on the south shore of Port Jackson, under Capt. Phillip as Governor. The principal incidents in the history of this colony are—the arrival, during the administration of Capt. Hunter, of the New South AVales Corps, and of capitalists and other free settlors from England ; the rebellion (1S02) of the convicts stationed at Castlehill; and the deposition of Capt. Bligk by the New South Wales Corps. During the administration of Governor Macquarie great progress was made; the population, free and bond, increased ; public buildings were erected at the expense of the British Government; roads were constructed by means of convict labour; government farms were established; and the Bathurst country explored. Under his successor the liberty of the press was recognised ; and during the administration of Sir Geo. Gipps, the proceedings of the Legislative Council were thrown open to the public; an act for regulating the occupation of Crown Lands known as the Squatting Act was passed (March 22nd, 1833), and transportation discontinued. Early in 1841, a great public meeting was held in Sydney, for the purpose of adopting petitions to the Queen and British Parliament for a representative Legislature. In 1842, two very important measures came iuto operation — the incorporation of the city of Sydney, and the adoption of Wakefield’s system of bounty emigration. On the 1st Jan, 1843, the Governor received the Constitutional Act, by which a Legislative Council was constituted, partly elective, partly non-elective.

During the same year, the colony experienced unusual commercial embarrassment; and the value of cattle and sheep was so depressed, that their conversion into tallow by the “ boiling-down process” was had recourse to. Tallow has since formed a staple article of export; and during the last five years, extensive candle manufactories have been established in all parts of the colony.

C

Early in 1850, the New Soutli AVales Association for preventing the revival of transportation was formed, but was merged (Jan. 1st, 1S51) in the Australasian League. On 12th Feb., 1851, the Bathurst gold-field was discovered; and (1852) Her Majesty’s Government placed at the disposal of the Governor and Legislature of .New South A\ ales (and also of Victoria) the fund arising from license-fees and royalties on gold.

The other important features of this period are—the introduction of the uniform twopenny-postage rate; the commencement of ocean steam communication with India and Europe ; the incorporation, endowment, and inauguration of the I Diversity of Sydney, with its affiliated Colleges and G rammar School; the turning of the first sod of the G t. Southern Railway ; the laying of the first stones of the sites of theFitzroy Dry-dock and Sydney Exchange; and the establishment of the Sydney branch of the Royal Mint.

Inder Sir AV. Denison, new churches, schools, colleges, scientific institutions, and various societies arose, indicating the advance of the religious, educational, scientific, literary, and social condition of the colony. Having been promoted to the Governorship of Madras, he was succeeded by Sir J. Young, previously Governor of the Ionian Islands.


SUCCESSION OF GOVEBNORS.

From To

'a p ta in Arthur Phillip, R.N..............

1 : ".......

......Tan. 26, 1788 Dec. 10, 1792


' aptaiti rrancis uross (Lieut.-Gov.)............Dec. 11,    1792    Dec. 11,    17J/1

Captain Paterson, N.S. W. Corps (Lieut.-Gov.) Dec. 15,    1794    Aug.    o’,    1795

Captain Hunter, K.N...............................Aug. 7,

Captain P. G. King, R.N.........................Sept.28

Captain W. Bligh, R.N* ........................Aug.13,’

Major-General Lachlan Macquarie.............Ian.

Major-General Sir T. Brisbane, K.C.R.......Dec.

Col. Stuart, 3rd Regiment, or Butt's (Lt.-Gov.) Dec.

Lieutenant-General Ralph Darling............Dec.


1, L 1, 19, 223,

. _ _ . , 6,

Sir George Gipps....................................Del). 24,

Sir M. C. O’Connell (Lieut.-Gov.)................July 11,'

Sir Charles Augustus    Fit/.roy ..................Aug. 3,

Sir William Denison    ...............................Jan> 17

Sir John Young ....................................Mar. 22*


Colonel Lindesny, C.B. (Lieut.-Gov.) .........Oct.

Major-General Sir R. Bourke, K.C.B..........Dec.

Lieut.-Col. Kennett Snodgrass, (Lieut.-Gov.) Dec. Sir George Gipps....................................Dej)#


Sept.27, 1800 Aug. 12, 1806 Jan. 26, 1808 Dec. 1. 1821 Nov. 30, 1825 1825 Dec. 18. 1825 1825 iOct. 21, 1831 1831 Dec. 2, 1831 1831 Dec. 5,

1837    Feb. 23,

1838    July 10,

1840 Aug 2,

1840 Jan. 17,


1795 1800

1806

1810

1821


1855 Jan. 24, 1801


1837

1838 1840 1816 1855 1801


* Lieut.-Col. C. Johnstone, Lieut.-Col. Foveaux, and Col. W. Paterson, (Lieut.-Governors,) administered during the suspension of Gov. Bligh, until the arrival of his successor, Gov. Macquarie.


VICTORIA.

Boundaries.—X., New South Wales; W., South Australia ; S., Southern Ocean and Bass's Straits ; S.E., Pacific Ocean.

Extent.—Its greatest length from E. to W. is 500 m., and greatest breadth from X. to S. 300 m.

Area.—55,571,810 ae., or 80,831 sq, in.

Coast.—The coast-line embraces a range of GOO m.

COUNTIES AND TOWNS.

Gipps’ Land.— Howe, in the i7.

Comhermere, TV. of Ilowe.

Abinger, TV. of Comhermere.—Bruthen and Tambo, towards the 8., on the It. Tambo.

Bruce, W. of Abinger.— Barnsdale and Lucknow, in the S.E.; Seacombe in the S., on L. Wellington; Stratford, X.W. of Seacombe.

Haddington, W. of Bruce.—Sale (136), Longford (160), and Gilford, in the S.E.

JDouro, S. of Haddington.—Port Albert (112), Tarraville, and Alberton, all in the S.; New Bruthen, N.E. of Alberton.

Bass, TV. of Haddington and Douro.

Western Port Di strict.—Mornington, W. of Bass.—Fraukston, in the W. ; Dandenong, partly in Bourke ; Cranbourne, Packingham, and Berwick, towards the N.W.

Evelyn, N. of Mornington and Bass.—Eltham, Little Eltham, St. Andrew’s (gold-field), and Anderson’s Creek (gold-field), all in the W.

Bourke, IV. of Evelyn.—Melbourne (pop., including suburbs, 100,122), near the mouth of the Yarra Yarra. Its suburbs are—Collingwood, on the N.E.; Richmond, on the E.; Toorak, Prabran, Windsor, St. Kilda, Brighton, and Elsternwick, on the S.E.; Emerald Hill, on the S.; Sandridge, on the S.AY.; Footscray and

YICTOEIA.

2S


Flemington, on the W. and X.W.; and Carlton and Brunswick, on the N. Beyond the suburbs are— the hamlets of Moonee Ponds, Xorthcote, Heidelberg, Kew, Borondara, Caulfield, &c.; Williams town (4), on the pen. forming the southern side of Hobson’s Bay; Essen don (5), Cambellfield (9), Donnvbrook (20), and Walian Wallan (30), X.; Epping (14), Yan Yean (20), and Wittlesea (25), X.N.E.; Hawthorn (3.1), Pentridge (5;), and Preston (9), X.E.; Oakleigli (9), S.E.; Wyndbam (18), S.AY.; Keilor (11), Sunbury (20), Gisborne (31). and Blackwood (54), X.AY. of Melbourne; Lancefield (40), in the X. of the county; Bacchus Harsh (20), W. of Keilor.

Grant, S.W. of Bourke.—Geelong (44), (pop. 23,507), on Corio B.; Pt, Henry, X.E, Ceres, S.E., and Fyans Ford, W. of Geelong; Batesford and Teesdale, X.AV. of Fyans Ford ; Port Arlington, Queenscliffe (04), in the S.E. of the county; Winchelsea,2 Inverleigh,2 and Shelford.2 in the W.; Steiglitz, near the centre, Meredith, XX AY. of Steiglitz ; Ballanf and Egerton, both in the X.; Corduroy and Buninvong, in the X.W.

Grenville, IV. of Grant.—Ballaarat (78), in the X.E.; Poke wood and Creasy, near the middle; Pitiield, X.W. of Jvokewood; Howling F’orest, Carngham, and Chepstow, in the X.

Pol war th, S. of Grenville.—Middleton, in the S., on Apollo B.; Colac, in the X'., on L. Colac.

Talbot, N. of Grenville ami Grant.— Castlemaine.J (72); Chewton, Elphinstone, and Fryerstown, in the X.E.; Guilford and Xewstead, S.AY. of Castlemaine ; Alma, Maryborough, and Carisbrook, in the N.W.; Amherst and Lexton, in the AY.; Creswick, in the S.; Daylesford and Frauklinford, in the S.E.

Dalhousie, B. of Talbot.—Kilmore, in the S.E. ; Kyueton, Carlsruhe, AYoodeiul, and Malmesbury, all in the S.W. ; Heatlicote, in the Xr.; Pyalong, X., and Broadford, X .E. of Kilmore.

Anglesey, E. of Dalhousie.—Seymour, in the X.AY. : Merton3 and Avenel,3 both in the X.

Portland Bay District.—Jleytcsbury. TV. of Eohcarth.

Hampden, X. of Ileytesbury.—Hexham and Mortlake, towards the AY.; Darlington, in the centre; Camperdown, in the S.; Framlingham, in the S.AY.; Skipt-on, in the X.E.

ViUiers,    IV. of Ilampden.—Belfast (ISO) and

"Wamambool (170), in the S., on the coast; Woodford, X. of AYarnambool; Kirkstall, X.E., and Yambuck, \\ . of Belfast; Dunkcld, in the X.

Normanby, TV. of Yillers.—Portland (231), in the S., on Portland Bay; Hey wood, Hotspur, Digby, and Merino, on the main line of road running X. from Portland; Hamilton,t in the X.E.; Branxholme, S.A\ . of Hamilton.

Dundas, N. of Normanby.—Cavendish, near the middle; Coleraine, S.AY. of Cavendish; Balmoral, in the X.

Follet, TV. of Dundas and Normanby.—Castertou, in the E. ; Lindsay, in the AV.; Dartmoor, in the S.E.    .

Ripon, E. of Hundas—Ararat, Cathcart, and Itaglan, in the X.; AYickliffe, in the S.

Hurray District, in the N.E.—Beech worth (1GG), the capital of the Murray District and Ovens Diggings, 25 m. S. of Albury, and in the vicinity of the May-Day ll ills ; Bel voir, on the Murray, opposite Albury ; Wangaratta, Benalla, Violet Town, Euroa, and Longwood, all S.AV. of Belvoir, on the main line of road between Melbourne and Sydney.

Rodney Co., IV. of Hurray District.—AVhroo and Jtushworth, towards the S.E.; Murchinsou, E. of Ivushworth.

Loddon District, TV. of Rodney.— Sandhurst, Epsom, Lockwood, Muckleford, Maldon,aud Harcourt, all towards the S.E ; Lamplough, Avoca. Bet Bet, in the S.W. ; Dunollv, X.E. of Avoca; Jones’ Creek. X. of Dunollv ; Kingower, X. of Jones' Creek; Echuca, in the X.E., on the Murray.

Wimmera District, W. of Loddon District.—Xavarre, St. A maud, Glenorchy, Stawell, and Crowlands, all in the S.E.

Bays and Gults.—Discovery B., Bridgewater B., and Portland B., co. Nor manly; Port Fairy, Lady B. (harbour of AVarnambool), Viltiers; Childer’s Cove, Port Campbell, lieyteslury; Port Phillip, S. of Bourke, and separating Momington from Grant; Western Port, Morninyton; Anderson’s Inlet, Shoal Lagoon, Dass; Refuge Cove and Sealer’s Cove, E., and Corner Basin, N. of Wilson’s Promontory; Corner Inlet, entrance into Corner Basin ; Port Albert, indenting Douro.

Capes.—C. Bridgewater and C. Xelson, Normaiiby; C. Otway and C. Patton, Dolwarth; Port Phillip lids, (the western—Lonsdale Pt, and Pt. Nepean—the eastern) ; Shortland’s Bluff, on the western side of Port Phillip; C. Shanck and C. Patterson, Morninyton; Pt. Grant, western extremity of Phillip I.; C. Liptrap and Wilson’s Promontory, Dass ; C. Conran, Combermere; C. Everard, in the S., and C. Howe, in the E. of co. liowe.

Islands.—Lawrence and Lady Percy’s Islets, in Portland B.; Phillip I. and French I, in W estern Port; Glennie and Cleft, A\r., llodento Bock, S., and Seal and Babbit Is., E. of Wilson’s Promontory ; Snake L, at the entrance of Corner Basin; Sunday L, at the entrance of Port Albert; Baymond I., between L. King and L. Ahctoria; Gabo, near C. Howe.

Mountain System.—The Australian Alps (the AVarragong or Snowy Alts.) run from X.E. to S.AV., through the eastern portion of ATctoria, and extend to Wilson’s Promontory, rendering the adjacent country, by their intricate branchings on either side, rugged, and comparatively sterile ; chief summits—Forest llill, Cobboras, Tainbo, and Bavv Baw, The spurs on the

t Paitly in Dundas.


N.W. side are—the Gibbo and Benambra Alts., E. of the Alitta Mitta R. ; the Bogong Range (chief summits —Mt. La Trobe and Alt. llotham) and May-Day Hills, between the Mitta Mitta and Ovens Its. ; the Buffalo Itange (chief summit—Mt. Aberdeen) and the Fuller Range, on the W. of the Ovens It.; Mt. Pinnabar, S.W. of Ait. Kosciusko. The other prominent peaks are— Mt. Wellington (5.2(39), Tombaritha (5,8(35), Mt. Buller (5,425), Castle Hill (1,860), Mt. Valentia (3.560), Ben Cruachan (2,912), Bruce ; Mt. 1 seful (4,800), Haddington; Bald llill (4,008) and Notch Hill (4,625), Abinger; Delegate Hill, Ilotce.

A great spur thrown off at the sources of the R. Goulburn, and continued westward in the Plenty, Mt. Maeedon, Blackwood, Bullarook Forest, Bald, and Pyrenean Ranges to the Grampians, divides the waters flowing northward to the Murray from those flowing southward to the sea. The spurs on the northern side are—the Cerberean and Puzzle Ranges and the Black Range, Anglesey; M’lvor Range (chief summit—Mt. Ida), between the Goulburn and Campaspe, and the Mt. Alexander Range (chief summit—NLt. Alexander), separating the head waters of the Campaspe and Loddon. Mt. Maeedon (3.000), 35 m. N.N.W. of Melbourne, is the chief summit of the Maeedon Range, and Mt. Blackwood of the Blackwood Range.

The Grampian Range running N. and S., is called in its southern extension the Serra Range : the chief summits are—Mt. William, the central and highest; Mt. Zero, the extreme northern; and Mts. Sturgeon and Abrupt, the southern. The Victoria and Black Ranges, \V. of the Grampians.

ALL nor Ranges and Isolated Mountains.—Mt Bun-inyong (2,800), in the NAV. of Grant; Mt. Hope and Pyramid Hill, N". of Mt. Alexander, Loddon District; Mt. Arapiles, N.W. of Mt. Zero, Wimmera District; Alt. Dundas (1,288), co. Dundas; Rifle Range and Mt. Napier, A'or numby; Alt. Rouse (1,259), Villiers; Marrak Hills, along the coast E. of C. Otway ;

VICTORIA.

32


Strielecki Range, Bass; Arthur Seat, Mt. Martha, and Mt. Eliza, skirting the eastern shore of Port Phillip ; Station Peak, Grant; Mt. Disappointment, 35 m. N. of Melbourne.

Plains.—Vast plains occupy the greater part of the "Wimmera District, and those broken by the northern spurs of the Dividing Range extend thence to eo. Rodney and beyond the Goulburn; between the rivers Plenty and Hopkins are plains of moderate extent.

River System.—The Murray (2,400 m. in length, of which only 2,000 are navigable), is the largest known river of Australia, draining portions of the three colonies of New Sovth Wales, Victoria, and S. Australia.

Draining the Northern Slope.—The Mitta Mitta and the Ovens, in the Murray District ; the Goulburn, forming the eastern, and the Campaspe, forming the western boundary of Rodney; and the Loddon, in the Loddon District,—all hill into the Murray. The Avoca, the Avon, and the Wimmera, terminate in lakes in the Mallee Scrub.

Draining the Southern Slope.—The Genoa R.,in Howe ; the Snowy R., in Combermere : the Tambo or Thomson, in Abinger, and the Nicholson or Mitchell, between Abinger and Bruce,flowing into L. King; the R. Dunlop and the R. Avon, in Bruce, falling, the former into L. Victoria, and the latter into L. Wellington. The Latrobe R. rises in Mt. Baw Raw, flows E., receiving the McAlister from the N.W., and falls into L. Wellington. The Anderson R., in Bass, falls into Anderson Inlet. The Yarra Yarra K., from Mt. Baw Baw, flows W. through Evelyn, S.W. through Bourke, and falls into Hobson's B.; it receives the Plenty R., from the Plenty Range, and, near its mouth, the Saltwater R., from the Mt. Macedon Range. The Werribee flows S.E. between Bourke and Grant, and falls into Port Phillip. The Barwon R. rises in the mountains near C. Otway, flows N.E. through Polwarth, N. between Grenville and Grant, E. and then S.E. through Grant, and enters the ocean by L. Konewarre, a few miles to the westward of the entrance of Port

Phillip ; it receives the Moorabool and the Yarrowee or Lee from Bullarook Forest, the former through Grant, and the latter between Grant and Grenville. The Hopkins It., from the Pyrenees, flows S. through Eipon, and then separates Yilliers from Hampden and Heytesbury; it receives on its left the Taylor It., flowing southward through Hampden. The Eumeralla flows S. between Yilliers and Normanby. The Glenelg

K. , from the Grampians, flows W., forming the northern boundary of Dundas, then S., separating Follet from I)undas and Xormanby ; it receives the \\ annon, which rises on the eastern slope of the Grampians, and, after winding round the southern extremity of this mt. range, flows westward, receiving in its course the Wando and several other tributaries.

Lakes.—L. Korangamite, between the cos. of Hampden, Grenville, Heytesbury, and Polwarth; L. Linlithgo, in the N.W. of Villiers ; L. Gnarput, in the E., and L. Titnboon, in the S. of Hampden ; L. Boloke, between Hampden and Eipon. In the Wimmera District.—L. Buloke (S. lat. 36° 15' and E. long. 143°) ;

L.    Bael Bael and L. Boga, N.E.; L. Tyrell, X.; and L. Corong, L. Hindmarsh, and L. Albacutya, N.W. of L. Buloke ; L. Burrambeet and L. Whitestone, in the N.E. of Eipon ; L. Colac, in the X. of Polwarth ; L. Konewarreo and L. Modewarre, in the S. of Grant; L. Wellington, L. Victoria, and L. Eeive, in the S. of Bruce; L. King and L. Bungo, between Bruce and Abinger ; Koo Wee Eup, or Gt. Swamp, in Mornington and Bass.

Climate.—Victoria enjoys a cooler atmosphere and a more regular fall of rain than New South Wales. The rainy months are March and April, September and October. In autumn and winter the greater number of winds are from the north quarter, and in spring and summer from the south ; the hot winds generally commence about the middle of November, and recur at intervals throughout the summer, until about the middle of March.

c 2

Soil.—The country generally may be described as exceedingly fertile. To the A\ . of Port Phillip, a belt ot land, 200 miles in length, and of an average breadth of 25 miles, is admirably adapted for agriculture and vineyards, yielding rich crops of wheat, oats, maize, Ac. ; while the level districts 2s. and N.A\ . of the watershed consist chiefly of sand or meagre clay-soil.

PRODUCTIONS. ^

The productions are similar to those of N. S. AY ales.

Prom the situation of Victoria, the fruits and other vegetable products are nearly restricted to those of European growth. The Flora includes the wild geranium ; two lovely creepers—one not unlike the laburnum iti shape, the other resembling the double violet; the golden and silver wattle; the brunonia ; the indigenous hyacinth and musk plant; the English pelargonium and fuchsia; and the daisy, buttercup, and violet.

Minerals.—Gold," coal, copper, cinnabar (sulphuret of mercury), and salt.

Gold Districts and Divisions.—Ballaarat (57,900).—Ballarat, Buninyong, Steiglitz, Creswick, Smyth’s Creek, Blackwood.

Castlemaine (30,523).—Castlemaine, Hepburn, Tarran-gower, Fryer’s Creek, Taradale, St. Andrew’s.

Maryborough (49,615).—Maryborough, Avoea,Korong, Dunoliy, Amherst.

Ararat (13,290).—Ararat, Pleasant Creek, Baglan.

Sandhurst (21,930).—Sandhurst, lleathcote, Waranga, Kilmore.

Bcechworth (28,134).— Spring Creek, Three-Mile Creek, Snake Valley, AVoolshed, Yackandandah, Omeo, Buekland.

The Ballaarat, Ait. Alexander, Anderson’s Creek, and Bendigo gold-fields, were discovered in 1851 ; the Ovens, in 1852 ; the Mclvor and Goulburn, in 1S53 ; and the remainder in 1854.

Total population upon gold-fields (1S59), 201,422 ; of these about one-sixth were employed in quartz mining, and the rest in alluvial mining.

Produce of the gold-fields (1859), 2,235,0*5 oz. 13 dwt.; estimated value, £9,120.971.

Coal exists at Western Port, 0. Patterson, and Loutifc B., near C. Otway ; copper, in the mt. ranges ; and cinnabar, near Portland Bay.

Salt is obtained in abundance from the interior lakes.

Limestone is found at Pt. Nepean and X. oi Alberton ; and lime of very tine quality is made from oyster and cockle shells, of which extensive beds are found around Port Phillip B. and on the banks of the Mitchell R. (20 m. from L. King). Crystalized limestone exists near Mr. Macedon; and the whole of the coast Irom the Gleneig R. to Port Fairy is of limestone formation.

Agriculture.—The principal objects of cultivation are—wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, hay ; minor crops— peas, beans, millet, mangold wurzel, sorghum, carrots, parsnips, cabbages, onions, &c. Nearly .\ of the land in Victoria is pastoral, and nearly i both pastoral and agricultural.

The Manufactures are numerous.

Commerce.—Exports.—Total value of exports (1859), £13,807,859; the principal articles being—gold, wool, hides and skins, live-stock, tallow, grain, and leather. Imports.—Total value, £15,022,891; the principal articles being—drapery, clothing, &c., grain, specie, Hour, building materials, sugar, tea, &e.

Principal    Ports.—'Melbourne,    Geelong, Port

Albert, Portland, Warnambool, and Port Fairy.

Population.—Estimated population (1859), exclusive of the military, 530,207, of whom 43,385 were-Chinese ; roving Aborigines, estimated at 1,760.

Army.—The amount of military force allotted to' Victoria, 888. There are, besides, volunteer corps, numbering 10,000 men. The naval force consists of Her Majesty’s Colonial steam-sloop Victoria, with a crew of 50 men, stationed in Hobson’s B.

Finance.—Revenue and Expenditure (1859), each about £4,000,000; debt, upwards of £4.000,000.

VICTORIA.

30


HISTORY.

Lieut. Murray, B.N., in Feb., 1802, first discovered Port Phillip ; and on the 10th Oct., 1803, Lieut.-Col. Collins arrived from Britain with a body of convicts, accompanied by a party of soldiers and free settlers, but removed soon after to the Derwent. (See History of Tasmania.)

In 1835, one Batman, at the head of a party from Hobart Town, and J. P. Fawkner, at the head of the Launceston Association, obtained by contract from the aborigines extensive tracts on the shores of Port Phillip and the banks of the Yarra. Sir It. Bourke, Governor of Y. S. Wales, despatched (1S3(>) Mr. Stewart, a magistrate, to take possession of the territory in the name of King 'William IV., and, subsequently, Capt. Lonsdale, as Police Magistrate, with a party of soldiers and convicts, and a few officials, when the settlement was formally placed under British rule. The extraordinary rise in the value of property, and the extravagant prices of live-stock, provisions, ¿c., which took place in the early period of the colony consequent upon the great influx of population, and the almost unprecedented extravagances iu business of the settlers, was followed in 1812 by a general insolvency. The colony, however, still possessing her true source of wealth in the rich agricultural and pastoral lands, soon arrived at even a more flourishing condition than it enjoyed before. A mere police establishment was superseded (1839) by a local administration. Melbourne was erected into a corporation 1st December, 1812; and, June, 1813, a partially representative system of government came into existence. The “ Orders in Council ” for regulating the sale and occupation of Crown Lands were issued 9th Marsh, 1847, by the Imperial Government. The absorbing topics of ISIS were—the    great politico-ecclesiastical question of

voluntaryism, the petition for the removal of Mr. La Trobe from the office of Superintendent, the nomination of candidates for the Legislative Assembly, and the emigration and separation movements. Gold was discovered in the province IS 19; the Australian League against transportation was inaugurated 1st Feb., 1851; and the 1st July of the same year being the day appointed by the home authorities for the act of separation to take effect, Mr. La Trobe assumed the title of Lieut.-Governor of Victoria. The Ballaarat rebellion broke out 1851, and several skirmishes took place between the armed diggers and the 12th and 10th llegiments. The first free Parliament of Victoria was opened 25th Xov., 1S5G. Among the results of the new constitution may be mentioned- - the consolidation of local self-government by erection of municipalities, the passing of the Crown Lands Bill, and the formal discussion of the State-aid question.

LIST OP GOVERNORS AND LIEUT.-GOVERNORS.

From

To

Mr. La Trobe, (Lieut.-Gov.) .....................

J. V. F. S. Foster, Esq. (Acting-Gov.).........

Sir C. Hotham, K.C.B............................

Major-General M‘Arthur (Acting-Gov.) ......

Sir 11. Barkly, K.C.B...............................

July 1, 1S51 May 5, 1861 June 21, 1851 Dec. 31, 1855 Dec. 23, ls5(>

May 5, 1851 June 21, 1851 Dec. 31, 1855 Dec. 23, 1858

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

Boundaries.—X., the 2Gth parallel; E., the meridional line of 1110 E. long. ; AV\, that of 129° E. long.; and S., the Southern Ocean.

Extent.—Its greatest length from X. to S., S30 miles ; breadth from E. to W., GSO; area, about 372,000 sq. m.

Coast.—The coast-line exceeds 1,800 m. in extent.

COUNTIES AND TOWNS.

Maritime.Ilindmarsh, opposite the eastern part of Kangaroo I.— Goolwa, on Port Elliot; Strathalbyn and Macclesfield, both in the X.    * ruth, in the W.

Adelaide, X. of Hindmarsh.—Adelaide, on the R. Torrens, and Port Adelaide, on Torrens Inlet, both in the AV.; Glenelg, Brighton, Clarendon, Morphett A ale, Xoarlunga, Aldinga, and AViliunga, alls, of Adelaide, on the coast; Salisbury, X.AV. of Adelaide; Lyndoch Valley, in the X.E.

Gander, X. of Adelaide.—Gawler, in the S.E.; Port Wakefield, in the X.W.

Stanley, X. of Gander.—Stanley, in the S.E. ; Armagh, in the middle.

Inland.—Burra, E. of Stanley.—Kooringa and Red


Light, S. If. of Barra.—Kapunda, near the middle; Greenock, S. of Kapunda ; Tanunda, in the S.E.

Eyre, E. of Light.—Moorundee, in the E., on the Murray R. ; Truro and Barton, in the Av.

Start, S. of Eyre.—Xairne and Staughton, in the S.AY*. The remaining 5 cos. are Russell, E. of Encounter 13. ; Robe and Grey cos. (chief settlements, Robe Town and Grey Town), situated in the S.E. of the colony ; Frome, E. of the extremity of Spencer's G. ; Flinders (Lincoln, the only settlement), Eyria Pen.

Bays and Gulfs.—Beginning at the W.—Fowler’s

B.    and Streaky IT ; Anxious IT, between AValdegrave Land

C.    Radstock ; Coffin B.. S. of Eyria Peninsula; Spencer's G. (300 m. in length), E. of Eyria Peninsula; Franklin Ilarb. on the western, and Port A ictoria and Ilardwicke B. on the eastern shore of Spenser's G.; Sturt’s B., S., and St. A incent’s G., E. of Yorke Peninsula; Torrens’ Inlet, Holdfast IT, Deception B., Aldinga IT, Yankalilla IT, on the eastern shore of St, Arincent’s G. ; Encounter IT, connected with L. Victoria

bv GooLva Channel (Port Pullen); Lacepede IT, Guichen IT, Rivoli IT, and D’Estaing B.; Xepean B., on


Kangaroo I.

Capes.—Beginning at the TV.—Pt. Bell, Pt. Brown, 0. Radstock, Pt. Sir Isaac, and Pt. AY hid bey; C. Catastrophe, S. of Eyria Peninsula ; C. Spenser, the extremity of Yorke Peninsula; C. Jervis, S.AY., and Rosetta lid.,

Islands.—Xuyt’s Areh°, W. of Streaky B.; Investigator’s Isles, S. of Anxious B. ; Williams’ I., S. of C. Catastrophe ; Kept une Is., S. E. of Williams' I.; Thistle

S. of co. Iliudmarsh; C. Bernouilli, X.AY . of eo. Robe ; C. Northumberland, S. of Grey ; C. Borda. the western, and C. "Willoughby, the eastern extremity of Kangaroo I.

Straits.—Thorny Passage, between Thistle I. and the mainland; Investigator’s Sir., between Kangaroo I. and Yorke Peninsula; Backstairs Passage, between Kangaroo 1. and C. Jervis.


1.,    S.E. of Eyria Peninsula; Gambier Is., S.E. of Thistle I. ; Sir J. Banks’ Group, X.E. of Port Lincoln ; Torrens’

1.,    near Port Adelaide ; Kangaroo I., S. of Yorke nsula.

E. of Spencer’s Gulf.

Mountain System.—The Aft. Lofty Range stretches


Peninsulas.—The Eyria Pen., AY., and Yorke Pen..

from C. Jervis along the E. shore of G. St. Vincent to the northward, for about 10 min., there attaining an elevation of 2,334 ft. At this point it divides into two main branches:—one runs X.X.E., chief summits Ait. .Rufus (2.500), Alt. Horrocks (2,000), Alt. Bazorbaek (2,992), Alt. Bryant (3,012), and the Black Bock llill (2.750); while the more western branch, called Blinders’ Eange, stretches northward along the eastern side of Spencer’s G., then nearly parallel with the inner shore of L. Torrens, and terminates in Mt. Hopeless. The other principal peaks of Blinders’ Range are Alt. Serle (3,000) Alt. Deception (3,000), Alt. Arden (3,000), Alt. Brown (3,000), and Alt. Bemarkable (3,179). JNIt. Barker (2,331), and Mt. Wakefield Barrges, E. of Alt. Lofty Bange ; Barossa Bange, 30 m. to the Is. E. of Adelaide (chief summit, Keizerstuhl, 2,000 ft.) In the Eyria Peninsula. —Mt. Olinthus (2,000), AY. of Erankiin Harb. ; Alt. Middleback, X. of Alt. Olinthus ; Alt. llill (2,000), S.AY. of Alt. Olinthus ; Marble Range, about 30 miles X.AY. of Boston B. ; Ait. Albert, X., and Alts. Dutton and Greenley, AY. of Aiarble Bange. To the N. of Eyria Peninsula.—Gawler Bange; Baxter Bange, E. of Gawler

Eange ; Stewart and Turret Ranges, to the AV. of the N. part of L. Torrens; Mts. Gambier and Shanck (1,000), both volcanic cones containing large craters, at a short distance from the coast, near the Gienelg R.; Mt. Burr Range (LOGO), N.W. of Mt. Gambier.

Elvers.—The Murray, which has a course of from 200 to 300 miles within the province, with an average breadth of 175 yards, runs first W. and then 8., and enters L. Victoria.

Mixor Streams.—Inman, Ilindmarsh, Finnis, Angus, and Bremer, falling into Encounter B. and L. A ictoria; the Yankaliila, Currucalinga, Myponga, Onkaparinga, Sturt, Torrens, Upper and Lower Fara, Gawler, Light, and Wakefield, falling into or running towards G. St. •Vincent; and the Broughton, Dutton, and several small streams, falling into or flowing towards Spencer’s G. Although the streams, as in Australia generally, are reduced in the dry season to a string of waterholes, yet the colony is not so deficient in water as it might seem ; it can generally be found by digging to a greater or less depth.

Lakes.—L. Victoria or Alexandrina, the receptacle of the Murray E., in the N. of Encounter B. ; connected with L. Victoria—on the S.E., L. Albert, and on the S. the Coorong, which runs parallel with the coast for a distance of 00 miles, with an average breadth of 2 miles ; L. Torrens, encircling the northern extremity of 1 linders* Eange ; L. Gairdner, A. of Eyria Peninsula; L. Young-husband, ]Sr., and L. Hart, N.E. of L. Gairdner; L. Bouncy, in co. Grey.

The Climate is very salubrious. The prevailing winds are from the 8.; in summer intensely hot winds blow from the N. The rainy season is from May to September.

Soil.—The soil varies considerably, even throughout the available districts; that in and around Adelaide equals the best soils of Australia, producing fruit rich in flavour, and corn of a greater specific gravity than that of England.

Productions.—The animal and vegetable productions are similar to those of the other colonies. The Murray abounds in fish: the “ Murray cod,” weighing from 15 to 70 lbs., at one time formed a valuable export. The native heaths and shrubs are surpassiugly beautiful.

Minerals.—Copper, lead, iron, gold; precious and ornamental stones,—chalcedony, cornelian, jasper, opal, Ac.; also, asbestos and gram mat ite. The whole of the Mange running X. and 8. through the settled district is more or less metalliferous: copper is found there in great abundance. Copper has a’so been discovered in "York Peninsula, and in the vicinity of Mt. Remarkable, near the heui of Spencer’s Gr.

Agriculture and Horticulture.—The objects of cultivation are—wheat barley, oats, potatoes, hay, maize, vines, fruits, Ac. Numerous fruit-trees and some of the choicest shrubs, timber-trees, and flowers, lately imported, thrive admirably; the climate, however, owing to the heat and long •continued droughts of summer, is not so well adapted to the growth of succulent vegetables, bush-fruit, or of chestnut, walnut, and plane-trees.

The Manufactures are—wine, leather, butter and cheese, soap and caudles, flour, Ac.

Commerce.—Exports.—The    principal are—wool,

bread-stuffs, grain, Ac., copper and other minerals; total value (1859), £1,055,876. Imports.—The principal are —sugar, tea, wool, live-stock, drapery goods, hardware, spirits, Ac. : total value, £1,507,494.

Principal Ports.—Port Adelaide, Eobe, Elliot, and Goolwa.

Population.—(1861), 127,000 (exclusive of the military).

Army.—Imperial troops, 91; volunteer military force, 2,143 ; number of militia liable to serve, 14,330.

Finance.—The revenue for 1859 was £511,927 ; expenditure, £020,756.

f H I S T O R V.

Col. Light, who was sent out to suggest the site for the capita], arrived in August, 1830. and alter examining ^Nepean Bay, Port Lincoln, and Encounter B., decided upon establishing the capital where it now stands. Capt. Hindmarsh, the first Governor, arrived at the close of the same year, and proclaimed the colony on the 2Sth Dec. The short career of oiiiee of the first two governors was characterized by numerous inconveniences ; and the reckless and imprudent expenditure into which Col. Lawler, the third governor, launched, resulted in an almost universal bankruptcy, from which the colony was saved only by the rigidlv economical measures of his successor, Capt. Grey, under whose administration the expenditure was reduced to about one-sixth of what it had been : agriculture was promoted, the colony rendered not only self-supporting, but enabled to export grain, wool, tallow, aitd beef; copper was discovered ; and ever since, with but a short interruption arising from the more recent discovery of gold in the adjacent colonies, a steady career of prosperity has since been reported. Every year enlarges the area of land under cultivation; the wool exports are increasing in a most cheering manner; and the mineral resources show no signs of abatement. Great attention is now given to the drying of fruit and the making of wine.

LIKUT.-GOVBEN'ORS OF 6. AUSTRALIA, ACCORDING TO THE OATES 0» THEIR BRING PROCLAIMEL> IN' THE COLONY.*

Capt. Hindmarsh, R.X..................................

Dec. 28th Oct. 12th May 10th Oct. 11 h Aug. J st June 7 th

1836

1838

1811

1845

1818

1855

Lieut.-Col. Gawler .......................................

Capt. Ceo. Grey .........................................

Major Kobe ................................................

Sir H. K. F. Young.......................................

Sir Richard Graves McDonald........................

Sir Dominio Daly .........................

* The two Acting-Governors were George Milner Stephens, Esq., who succeeded £aj>t. llindmarsh, and It, T. Finals, Esq., who succeeded Sir 11. E. F, Young,

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

Boundaries.—X. and W., Indian Ocean ; S., Southern Ocean ; E., meridional line of 120° E. long.

Extent.—1.280 in. long, from X. to 8., and 800 m. broad from E. to W.; area 1,000,000 sq. m.

The Swan River settlement embraces only the southwestern corner, or that portion which is S. of the 30th parallel and W. of the meridian of 120' E. long., and extends about 4U0 m. in length by about 250 m. in breadth.

The Swan Biver settlement is divided into 20 cos., of which 15 were laid out on the map at the commencement of the colony : —

Twiss, Perth, Murray, "Wellington, Kelson, Sussex, Lanark, Stirling, Plantaganet, Kent, maritime; and York, Grantham, "Wicklow, Goderich, llav, inland. Subsequently the territory called Australind. to the X. and X.E., was divided into 11 cos. ; -Melbourne, Glenelg,Grey,Caernarvon, Victoria,Durham,Lansdowne, Beaufort, Ilowick, Minto, Peel.

The principal townships are, Perth, the capital, on the Swan lv., Ereemantle (seaport of Perth), Guildford, Kelmscott, co. Perth ; Albany, Wyndham, Hamilton, Plantagenet; Busselton and Augusta, Sussex; York, Kortham, and Beverley, York; Peel Town, Peel; Bunbury and Australind, Wellington ; Kumballup, Stirling ; Wurrenup, Hay; Bannister and Williamsburg, Wicklow ; Whitfield, Melbourne.

Seas and Gulfs.— On the A\, Cambridge G. ; on the JSr.Jtr., Admiralty G., Collier 1»., King’s Sd., Roebuck B., Exmouth G. ; on the W., Shark B., including thcHamelinand Freyeinet Harbours,Champion, B., Breton B., Peel Inlet, Geographe B.; on the S., Flinders’ B., King George’s Sd., Doubtful Island B., Esperance B.

Capes.— On the Ar., C. Dussejour, C. Londonderry ; on the N. W.7 C. Bougainville, C. Voltaire, C. l^ond, C,

Terry, C. Leveque, and North-west Cape: on the TTr., C. Farquhar, C. Lesehenault, C. Bouvard, C. Naturaliste; on the S., C. Leeuwiu, Pt. D'Entrecasteaux, Pt. Nuyts, C. Le Grande, C. Arid, Pt. Culver.

Islands.—OntheN.W., Bigge I., Byam Martin, I., Augustus I.; Buccaneer Arch0., at the mouth of King Sound, Dampier Arch0., Barrow I. ; on the if., Bernier and Dorre Is., at the mouth of »Shark B., Eaurre, in Hamelin Harbour, Dirk Hartog I., at the mouth of Freycinet Harbour, Iioutroan’s Ahrolhos (situated between the parallels of 28° and 30’), forming the upper surface of the great western coral bank, liottnest, Garden, Peel’s, and Carnac Is., all at the entrance of Swan R.; on the S., Recherche Archipelago.

Straits.—Mermaid Strait, between Dampier Archo°. and the mainland; Geographe Channel, the northern, and Naturaliste Channel, the southern entrances into Shark B.; Geelvink Channel, between Houtman’s Abrolhos and the mainland.

Mountain System.—A belt of hilly country, of an average breadth of 40 m., runs N. and S. for a distance of 500 m. ; its western crest, the Darling Range (chief summit Mt. William, 3,000 ft. in S. lat. 33 ), runs nearly parallel to the AY. coast, at a distance therefrom of about 20 in., and is continued northward in the Smith and Gairdner Ranges ; Mt. Eliza, near Perth ; a spur of the Darling approaches C. Leeuwin; the Stirling Range, GO m. N. of King George’s Sound, runs E. and \Y., chief summits Toolbrosnap Hill (3,000), and Mt. Kovkinarup (3,500).

Plains.—Between the Darling Range and the sea extends a gently undulating plain 20 m. in breadth. The great Australian Bight extends from the AY. side of Port Lincoln Peninsula to the neighbourhood of King George’s Sound. The N.AVr. coast, from the neighbourhood of Dampier Archipelago to Roebuck B., is according to all accounts an absolute flat, scarcely raised above the level of the sea, and fronted by lines ot sand dunes running along the beach.

Rivers—Flowing Southward.—The Salt R., through Hay and Keut; the Kalgan, through Plantagenet into lviug George’s Sound; the Kent, through Stirling; the Forth, through Goderich and Stirling; and the Blackwood, S.W. through Wicklow, Nelson, and Sussex. Flowing westward.—The Murray, through Wicklow and Murray, into Peel Inlet; the Swan, called in the upper part of its course the Avon, through Minto, York, and Perth ; the Moore, through Melbourne and Twiss ; the Arrowsmith and the Murchison, X. of the Port Gregory District; the Gascoyne, with its tributary the Lyons, into Shark Bay.

Lakes.—L. Moore, in the N., L. McDermott, in the centre, and Cow-Cowing L., in the S. of Grey ; L. Brown, in the S. of Caernarvon; Gt. Inland Marsh, E. of the Port Gregory District.

Climate.—The climate of the Swan River settlement is of acknowledged salubrity. The summer commences about the middle of Nov., and continues till about the end of April.

Soil—Very various: there are many extensive wastes, but there are also rich alluvial flats.

Productions.—Animal. —(See under Australia and New South Wales. Vegetable.—The heavy timber consists of numerous species of gum-trees : jarrah, tuart, blue, white, and red gum, morrel, kc. The ornamental woods are—sandal, ebony, raspberry orjamwood, banksia, and various species of dryandria.

Minerals.—Coal, copper, silver, lead, and iron.

Coal of an excellent quality has been found in the vicinity of Champion B. ; and the coal-bed discovered on the Swan R. is supposed to continue in a S.E. direction to the southern coast near Doubtful B., where coal has been found cropping out close to the coast.

The whole of the Port Gregory district contains minerals which are now being exported.

Agriculture.—The principal objectsof cultivation are —wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, rye,* vines, maize, and olive-trees.

Manufactures.—Unimportant.

Commerce.—The principal Exports —wool, sandalwood, copper-ore, timber, animals, vegetables, Ac.—total value (1S59 , £93,037; Imports, £125,315.

Pkincipal Port.—Freemantle.

Population.—About 15,000.

Army.—305.

Finance.Colonial Revenue, £ IS,751;    Colonial

Expen it it ure, £51,918.

HISTORY.

In Aug., 1829, Capt. Stirling, who had previously explored the coast, arrived at the proposed site of the new settlementoii the Swan 11., to which he was appointed Lieut.-Governor. The history of this colony up to the vear 1850 contains little of interest, being merely that of a disastrous early settlement, and of its subsequent struggle for a bare existence, with a scanty population, and with little capital to render available its natural resources. So late as the year ISIS, things had reached such a state of general depression, that the colonists, to save themselves from absolute poverty, requested the Home Government to make it a penal settlement. The request was granted (1850), and ever since the colony has been prospering.

GOVERNORS AND ACTING-GOVERNORS.

(’apt. Sir J. Stirling, R.X., governor.....................

1st June, 1820 Sept., 1832 Sept., 1833 Aug., 1831 2nd Jan., 1830 Feb., 18R) 7th I Feb., 1817 Sept., 1840 1854

Cant. Irwin Hill, (»3rd (acting) ..........................

(’apt. Daniel Hill, 21st (acting)...........................

(’apt. Sir .1. Stirling, returned from England.........

John Hutt, Esq., governor................................

Lieut.-Col. Clarke, K.B....................................

Major Irwin (acting) .......................................

Capt. Fitzgerald, K.N.. governor ........................

A. E. Kennedy, Esq., governor ..........................

John S. Hampton, Esq. ...............................

QUEENSLAND.

Boundaries.—E. and X.E., Pacific Ocean : AY G. of Carpentaria and the meridional line ot 14 P E. long. ; 8., New South If'ales.

Extent.— Greatest length from X. to S., 1,300 m. ; and breadth, from E. to AY ., 7GO Eng. m.

Area.—1,209,800 sq. m.

Coast.—1,760 geographical miles, exclusive of the openings.

COUNTIES AND TOWNS.

Moreton Bay    District.—Maritime    Cos.—

Stanley, TV. of Moreton B.—Brisbane (640),* towards the E., on t lie It. Brisbane; Ipswich, in the AY., on the It. Bremer.

Ward, S. of Stanley.

Canning, JY. of Stanley.— McConnel, in the S.AY . March,N. of Canning— Maryborough, onthe It. Mary. Inland.—Lennox, W. of March.

Fitzroy, W. of Lennox.

Cavendish, S. of Fitzroy.—Berthwick, in the ^.;

Bonifont, in the S.YY".

Auhiffni/, W. of Cavendish.—Gambooya, in the S.E. ; Drayton, X. of Gambooya ; Dalby, in the X.AY. Churchill, S. of Cavendish.

Merrivale, SAC. of Churchill.—AYarwick (532), in the 8.AY"., on the MacIntyre Brook ; Leyburn, in the A\r.

Other Districts.—Darling Downs (chief town, A"aiulilla, on the It. Condamine), AY", of A'loreton Bay District; Maranoa Plains, X.AY. of Darling Downs; AVide Bay and Burnett, X. of Moreton Bay District; Port Curtis, X.AYr. of Wide Bay and Burnett; Leichhardt, AY. of Port Curtis District. Projected Cos. of Port Curtis District.Maritime.—Liebeg, Palmerston, Livingston, Deas Thompson, Clinton (Gladstone, ch. t.), Blinders ; Inland—Itaglan, Pelham.

*


Distant from Sydney.

Seas and Gulfs.—Aforeton B., E. of Moreton B. District:—on the jVYZ£., YYide B., llervey B., Port Curtis, Keppel B., Shoalwater B., Broad Sd., Edgecumb© B., Halifax B., Boekingham B., Trinity B., Princess Charlotte B., Temple B.;—on the X., York Haroour, or Endeavour Str.

Cvpes.— On the NE.y Sandy C., X. of Great Sandy T.: C. Capricorn, ('. Bowling Green, C. Grafton, C. Bedford, C. Flattery, C. Melville, C. Weymouth;—on the N\, C. York (the most northerly point of Australia), Duvfhen Pt., and Pet a lid., on the eastern shore of the G. of Carpentaria.

Islands.— Moreton, Stradbroke, and Bribies Is., in Moreton B. ;—on the JSf.JE., Gt. Sandy I., E. of llervey B. ; Curtis I., Northumberland Is., Cumberland Is., and Hincl brook I., between the Barrier Beef and the mainland ; Prince of Wales I., Horn I., Mulgrave I., and Banks’ 1., N. of York Peninsula.

St k aits.—AY hit Sunday Passage, between Cumberland 1. and the mainland ; Endeavour Str., between Prince of AVales 1. and York Peninsula.

Mountain System.— McPherson Bange, S. of A lore ton Bay District; Dawe’s Bange, S. of Port Curtis District ; Caernarvon Bange, AY. of Dawe’s Bange ; Expedition Bange, X. of Caernarvon Bange; Christmas Bange, AY., and Peak Bange, X. of Expedition Bange ; Alt. King, W. of Caernarvon Bange; Alt. Pluto aud Ait. Playfair. AY. of Ait. King; ALt. Mudge (2,247), X. of Alt, Pluto.


Plains.— Cecil Plains, in the E. of Darling Downs District; A7ervain and Calvert Plains, \Y. of Wide Bay and Burnett District; Macleay and Boan Plains, in the extreme S.W. of the colony.

Eiyer System.—Draining the Eastern Slope.—The Brisbane and Logan Bs. in Aloreton Bay District; the Burnett andFitzrov, in Wide Bay and Burnett District; further north, the liurdekin and Kennedy. TheAYarrego and the Barcoo or Mitchell's Victoria B,, flowing westward, lose themselves in morasses. Falling into the G. of Carpentaria.—The Mitchell. Gilbert, Caron, and Flinders.

The Climate of of this colony, from its more northerly position, is somewhat hotter than that of X. S. Wales, and the whole province makes nearer approach, both as respects climate and produce, to the characteristics of the torrid zone. The northern Districts of the province, indeed, fall within the tropical zone; but large portions of this territory enjoy, from their elevation, a comparatively cool temperature. The mean annual heat of Moreton Bay is GS¿°, which only exceeds by 3° that of Sydney; the mean temperature of the hottest month is 78°, and that of the coldest 51.Vo.

Soil.—The soil of the basaltic plains and valleys is very rich, and, were the country well-watered, might be rendered very productive. The sandstone ranges are com paratively sterile.

Productions.— Vegetable.—The pine-apple, banana, guava, lemon, citron, orange, fig, peach, coifee, cocoa-nut, are abundant; dye-woods, mulberry-trees, maize, wheat, &c., thrive admirably ; and both soil and climate appear

well suited to the cultivation of cotton, sugar-cane,

arrowroot, tobacco, and indigo: the cotton-plant promises to become an important staple of colonial produce. The indigenous timber is of great value, particularly the Moreton Pay pine, the bunya-biinya pine, and cedar. Indications of Mineral wealth occur.

Agriculture.—The country is more pastoral than agricultural; around Moreton B. is an extensive squatting district, occupied by some of the first and now most wealthy settlers.

There are no Manufactures of importance. The seal and dugong fishery is extensively prosecuted—the dugong weighing from 200 to 700 lbs., and yielding from 2 to 18 gallons of oil. Turtle also abound.

Commerce.—The staple articles of Export are coal and wool.

Principal Ports.—Brisbane, Rockhampton, Port Curtis, and Wide Bay.

D

Population.— Europeans,— 18,121 males, 11.038 females, total 30,059 j aboriginal blacks, supposed to number 12,000.

Army.—A volunteer corps has been established, for which £800 is paid from the Col. Treasury, and there is a detachment ot 50 of H. M. Troops.

Finance.—Estimated revenue (1SG3), £317.200 ; estimated expenditure, £308,048.

II I STORY.

Queensland was erected into a separate colony 1st Dec., 1859, when Governor Sir George Ferguson Bowen entered upon ollice.

TASMANIA.

Boundaries.—X., Hass's Str.; E., S., and W., the South Pacific Ocean. It is situated between 40 40' and 43c 40' S. hit., and between 144 30' and 148° 30' E. long.

Its greatest length (from C. Grim to C. Pillar), is 210 English miles ; breadth on the northern side 200, and on the southern, reckoning from C. Pillar to S. 4\r. Cape, 100, or from Tasman’s Head to S. "W. Cape, G5 miles; and the extent of coast-line about 720 miles, exclusive of the openings into the land. Area, including the islands in Bass’s Sir., 1G,890,000 acres, or 20,400 scp m.

Tasmania is divided into 18 counties, of which two are northern counties, viz., Devon and Dorset; one is northwesterly, "Wellington ; four westerly, Bussell, Montagu, Franklin and Montgomery ; one south-westerly, Arthur ; one southerly, Kent; three easterly, Cornwall, Glamorgan, and Pembroke ; six central, Buckingham, Cumberland, Lincoln, Monmouth, Somerset, and Westmoreland.

COUNTIES WITH TOWNSHIPS SETTLED OR PARTIALLY SO.

Wellington, in the N.W\—Stanley, on the Pen. of Circular lid. ; Burnic, in the K.E., on the It. Emu ; Wynyard and Table Cape, W. of Burnie, on the coast.

Devon, S.E. of Wellington.—Exeter and York, both on the R. Tamar; Burgess, on Port Sorell; Tarleton, Torquay, and Latrobe, on the R. -Mersey ; AYivenhoe, in the X.AY., at the mouth of the K. Emu.

Dorset, E. of Devon.—George Town (100), near the mouth of the R. Tamar ; A\reymouth and Portland, on the X. coast.

Cornwall, S. of Dorset.—Launceston (121), in the X.AY., on the R. Tamar; Perth 112), S. of Launceston ; Evandale, E. of Perth; Falmouth, on the coast; Fingal (120), S.AY. of Falmouth ; Lymington, in the AY., on the R. Xile ; Avoca, in the S., on the S. Esk; Breadalbane and Franklin, between Perth and Launceston.

Glamorgan, S. of Cornwall.—Swansea and Bicheno, on the coast; Llewellyn, in the X.\\r.

Pembroke, S.of Glamorgan.—Buckland, in 1 lie middle ; Triabunna, on the coast; Lewisham and Sorell (27), both on Pittwater.

Monmouth, W. of Pembroke.—Botliwell (10), and Hamilton (13), in the AY., on the Clyde; Pontville, Brighton, and Richmond, in the S. ; Bagdad, Kempton (formerly Green Ponds), Picton, and Apsley, near the middle.

Buckingham, S. W. of Monmouth.—Hobart Town (cap.), Xew Town, O’Brien’s Bridge, Bridgewater (11), and Xew Xorfolk (21), all on the Derwent; A’ietoria and Lovett, on the R. Huon; Kingston, on Brown's River; and Margate, in the E.

Kent, S. of Buckingham.—Franklin (21) and Adelaide, on the Huon; Folkstone, Hvthe, and Ramsgate, in the E. ; Bathurst Town, in the AY.

Westmoreland, S. of Devon.—Longford (110), in the X.E., on L. River ; Hadspen, Exton, Hagley, AYestburyr, Deloraine, Bishopsbourne, and Chudleigh, ail in the X., on the line of road running AY. from Launceston.

Somerset, S.E. of Westmoreland.—Oatlands (50), in the S.; Cornwallis, Tunbridge, Ross, Campbell Town (80), and Cleveland, X*. of Oatlands, on the Hobart Town and Launceston road ; Xewstead, in the S.E.

The rest of the counties have only township reserves.

Bays a>:d Gulfs.— On the X. coast.—Duck B. and Freestone Cove, indenting Wellington; Emu 13,. between Wellington and Devon ; Port Fenton, Port Frederick, Port Sorell, Devon ; Port Dairy in pie, between Devon and Dorset; Bingarooina B., Dorset. On the K. coast.— Bay oi* Fires, Dorset; George s B., X.E. of Cornwall; Oyster 13., Glamorgan ; Little Swan Port, between Glamorgan and Pembroke ; Prosser’s 13. and Marion 13., Pembroke; Beidle B., E. of Maria I.; Monge or Pirate’s B., X.E, Maingon 13. (the northern extremity of which is Port Arthur , S., Wedge 13., W., and Norfolk 13., X., of Tasman’s Peninsula; Storm B., between Brimi Island and Tasman’s Peninsula; Frederick

Henry B., X. of Storm B. ; Pittwater, X. of Frederick Henry 13. ; Ralph's B., between South Arm and the southern part of Monmouth ; Adventure B., E. of Bruni Island ; Port Esperance and Southport, Kent. On the S. coast.—S. Cape 13. and Louisa 13., Kent. Oil the lì’, coast.—Port Davey and Bathurst Harbour, Kent ; Macquarie Harbour, between Franklin and Montgomery ; Studiano 13., 7Vellington.

Stkaits.—Bass’s Str., separating Tasmania from Australia ; Banks’ Str., between Dorset and Clarke I. ;


Armstrong’s Channel, between Clarke 1. and C. Barren I.; Franklin Inlet, separating C. Barren I. from Flinders’ I. ; Bobbin’s Passage, between Bobbin’s 1. and Perkin’s 1.: D'Entrecasteaux Chan., separating Bruni I. from Buckingham and Kent; Geographe Sir., between Schouten 1. and Ereycinet’s Peninsula.

Capes.— On the IV. coast.—Circular Head, Eockv C., Table C, Wellington; Port Scroll Pt., Flinders’ C. Devon; Low Head, C. Portland, Dorset. On the K. coast.-— V. Xaturaliste and Eddvstone Pt., Dorset; St. Helen’s Pt., on the E. of Cornwall; Long Pt., C. Lodi, and 0. Tourvilie, Glamorgan; C. Eorestier, X.E. of Ereycinets Peninsula; C. Bougainville, Pembroke; Bagged lid. and C. Mistaken, in the E., and C. Peron, in the S. of Maria I.; C. Frederick Hendrick, N.E., and (3. Surville, E. of Forestier’s Pen.; C. Pillar, S.E.,

and. 0. Raoul, S. of Tasman’s Peninsula; Tasman's lit!., IS., and B runi lid., S.W., of South Bruni. On the 8. coast.—S. E. Cape, S. Cape, and S. W. Cape, Kent. On the tV. coast.—Rocky P., Pt. Hibbs, and C. Sorell, Montgomery; Sandy C., Hassell; West Pt. and C. Grim, 71 ailing ton.

Islan ds.—The islands in Bass’s Str. consist of several groups at the eastern and western entrances. At the eastern entrance—Furneaux group, including Flinders’ 1. (130 m. in circumference) ; Cape Barren 1. (22 m. by 7 m.), S. of Flinders’ I.; Clarke 1., S. of Cape Barren 1.; Chapelle Is., S.W., Hummock I., W., and Sisters'Is., X. of Flinders’; Kent G roup, between Flinders’ 1. and Wilson’s Promontory; Swan I., E., and Waterhouse 1., W., of C. Portland. At the western entrance—King’s 1. (35 m. by 15 in.), midway between C. Grim and C. Otway; Hunter Is. (principal Barren, Three Hummock, and Albatross), between King’s I. and Wellington ; Robbiu’s 1., Walker’s I., and Perkin’s 1., S.E. of Barren I. The other islands are—Schouten I., IS. of Freycinet’s Peninsula; Maria I., E. of Pembroke ; Bruni I., S.E. of Buckingham ; l)e Witt's I., S. of Kent.

Peninsulas.—Circular Hd., X. of Wellington ; Freycinet's Pen., E. of Glamorgan; Forestier’s, S. of Pembroke ; Tasman’s, S. of Forestier’s ; South Arm, between Ralph’s B. and the estuary of t he Derwent.

Isthmuses.—Freycinet’s Isthmus, joining Freycinet’s Peninsula to Glamorgan ; East Bay Keek, joining * Forestier’s to Pembroke ; Eagle-Hawk Keck, joining Tasman’s to Forestier’s.

General View of the Mountain and River

System.—The watershed of the countrv, as indicated by the courses of the larger rivers, runs, generally speaking,&nnbsp;S.W. atid X.E., the country on either side of it gradually sloping towards the X.W. and S.E. Emerging from the sea* at C. Portland, the dividing range runs S. by E. towards St. Patrick’s Hd. (2,227), Cor nival l,

then SAY. to L. Toom : from L. Tooin it proceeds westward towards St. Peters Pass, then northward, dividing L. Sorell from L. Arthur, and arriving at Dry’s Bluff (4,257), Westmoreland, makes a semicircular bend in its course towards Western Bluff, or Mt. Humboldt (5,520). Prom this point it runs S. and then S.E. till it reaches S. Cape.

Its chief summits are —Table Mt. (3,590), Somerset; Mt. Penny (3,782), Bradv’s Look-out (1.497), Ironstone Mt. (4,73(5), Westmoreland; King Win’s. Mt. (4,3(50), Lincoln: Mt. Ilobhouse (4,031), Wyld’s Craig (4,390), Franklin; La Perouse (3,800), Kent.

In its course it throws off spurs at all angles. The first branches off at the source of the Ringarooma R.; the second stretches westward as far as George Town, chief summit, Mt. Barrow, Dorset; and the third is crowned by the elevations of Ben Nevis (3,910) and Ben Lomond (5.002), Cornwall. Another spur separates Spring Hill from the Clyde, chief summit "Wood's Quoin (3,033), Monmouth. At Dry’s Bluff a spur is thrown off which encircles L. Arthur, crowned by Barren Tier (3,889), Westmoreland; and between Dry’s Bluff' and "Western Bluff, one branches to the northward, chief summit Quamby’s Bluff, Westmoreland ; and several to the southward, which divide the lakes from the tributaries of the Derwent.

At Western Bluff, a spur is thrown off' to the X.E., separating the Meander from the Mersey: two to the N., the valleys between being drained by the Mersey, Forth, and Leven, the chief summits—Black Bluff (4,381) and Mt. Roland (4,047), Devon; one to the N.W. towards C. Grim, called in different parts of its course the Hampshire and Surrey Hills; several to the AV.—one stretching through Bussell, separating Arthur R. from Pieman’s IL ; another (the Eldon Range), separating Pieman’s R. from King’s R.

S. of L. St. Clair, two remarkable spurs are thrown off: one which divides King’s R. from Gordon’s IL, and is crowned by the Frenchman’s Cap (4,756), Franklin ;

the other separates the Derwent from the IInon, chief summits, Field West (4,721), Collins’ Bonnet (4,131), Mt. Wellington (4,166), Buckingham.

Minor Ranges and Isolated Mountains.—Row Tor (3,393), Dorset; Mt. Victoria, St. Paul's Dome (3,363), Cornwall; Snow Hill (3,475), Glamorgan ; Field Fast (4,165), and Mt. Nelson (1,149), Buckingham ; Adamson’s Peak (4,017), Kent ; Mt. Picton (4,340), Arthur Range (3,608), and Wilmot Range (3,483), Arthur ; Cradle Mt. (5,009), Lincoln; Miller’s Bluif (3,977), 5ft. Franklin (3,587), Somerset; Mt. Dromedary (3,245), Monmouth.

Plains.—Epping Forest and Henrietta Plains, between Campbell Town and Perth; Salt Pan Plains, S. of Ross ; Cross Marsh, between Lovely Banks and Jericho ; Brushy, Mosquito, and Prosser’s Plains, Pembroke ; Clarence Plains, in the S.E. of Monmouth ; Huon Plains, in the \V. of Buckingham; Arthur Plains, in the E. of Arthur; Vale of Rasselas, W. of the R. Gordon.

WATER SYSTEM.

B i vers Dra in ing the So nth-Kas tern S1 ope.—TheDer wei i t (120), rises in L. St. Clair, in Lincoln, Hows vS.E. separating Buckingham from Cumberland and Monmouth, and falls into Storm B.; it receives on its left the Vive (35), the Dee (15), the Ouse (60), the Clyde (50), and the Jordan (50); and on its right, the Florentine (35), and the Russell (20). Little Swanport R. (30), flows E. between Glamorgan and Pembroke, into Oyster Bay. Prosser’s R. flows E. through Pembrokeinto Prosser’s 1>. Coal R. (25flows S. through Monmouth, and falls into Pittwater. Huon R. (100) rises in L. Edgar, flows eastward, separating Buckingham from Arthur and Kent, and falls into D’Entrecasteaux Channel.

Draining the North- Western Slope.—The R. Gordon (90) rises in L. Richmond, flows S.E, through Franklin, then westward, separating Franklin from Arthur and Montgomery, and falls into Macquarie Harbour. King s R. (50), from Lincoln, flows westward between Franklin and Montagu, and falls into Macquarie Harbour. Pieman’s K. (50), from the Pocky Mts., flows westward between Montagu and Kussell. Arthur 1i. (50), with its tributary the Hellver, from the Surrey Hills, Hows westward between Kussell and "Wellington.

The remaining Streams belonging to this Division flow northward into Bass's Sir.—The Ks. Montagu, Duck, Black, Detention, lnglis. and ( am, Jf ellington ; the Ks. Emu, Blythe, Leven, Forth, and Don, through Devon ; K. Mersey (40), between Lincoln and Westmoreland, and then through Devon.

The Tamar '40 formed by the junction of the X. and S. Esks, flows X. W. between Devon and Dorset. The X. Esk (GO) rises in Ben Xevis, flows westward between Cornwall and Dorset, and unites with the S. Esk in forming the Tamar. The S. Esk (110) flows circuitously through Cornwall, and separates Cornwall from Somerset and Westmoreland; it receives on its right the Xile (25) from Ben Lomond, and on. its left, Lake K. (50) from the S. of Westmoreland, with its tributary the Macquarie (70) from the S.E. of Somerset, and the Meander (50), flowing X, through Westmoreland, and then E. between Westmoreland and Devon.

Lakes and Lagoons.—Hobbs’ Lagoon, in the X.W. of Pembroke; L. Tiberias, in the X. of Monmouth; L. Pedder, in the E. of Arthur; L. St. Clair, towards the S. of Lincoln; Great Lake, in the S.W. of W estmoreland; Arthur’s Jj., S.E. of Great Lake ; L. Echo, towards the X.W., and "Wood’s L., in the X.E. of Cumberland; L. Sorell, in the W. of Somerset; L. Crescent, S. of L. Sorell.

Climate.—The Climate is naturally very salubrious. The prevailing winds from April to October are from the X and X.W., and during the other five months from the S.E. In summer, hot winds are occasionally felt, but neither so frequently, nor, when they do occur, are they so intense, as in Australia.

Soil.—The soil is very varied ; in some places a rich alluvial mould ; in others, sandy and argillaceous.

PRODUCTIONS.

Animals.— Quadrupeds.—Kangaroo (forester, brush, and wallaby), kangaroo-rat, bandicoot, opossum, and wombat, native hyena or tiger, native devil, tiger-cat, and native cat,—all marsupial; and the platypus and two rarities of porcupine. The other mammals are—three species of bat, two mice, and one water-rat. All the common domesticated animals have been introduced, and these, especially sheep and cattle, have thriven amazingly.

Birds.—The feathered tribes of this island are numerous ; some of them are very handsome ; but few can be cosidcred melodious. The principal are—the emu, eagle, six or seven varieties of hawk, three or four species of owl, cockatoo (both black and white), parrots of many varieties, wood-pigeon, snipe, quail, wild-duck, teal, and black swan. Pelicans, cormorants, penguins, gulls, and cranes, line the sea-shore and the margin of lakes and rivers.

Insects.—Among insects are—moths, bottle-flies, gnats, mosquitoes, a great variety of beetles, ants, grasshoppers, tree-locusts, crickets, spider, mantis, scorpions, centipedes, common flies, and other insects well known in England. Bees have been introduced.

Reptiles.—The reptiles are—snakes (the most common kinds being a large black snake, the diamond snake, and a smaller brown sort, all armed with poison-fangs), iguanas, frogs, and harmless lizards.

Eisn.—Freshwater fish are limited to very few species ; of these the most in favour is the so-called herring, or mullet, a small fish weighing four or five ounces, which appears to be migratory, and is identical, or nearly so, with the English smelt Eels of an immense size, a sort of bream, barracouta, fiatheads, king-fish, trumpeter, flounders, gurnet, cod, salmon-trout, mullet, guard-fish, plaice, perch, silver-fish, pike, blue-heads, and skates, are the principal at present known and eaten. A fish found in the bays and on the shores of the island, and supposed to be a species of toad-fish, is a strong poison. d 2

Large sharks, porpoises, and whales (black and sperm), abound in ail the Australian waters. The shell-fish^are— oysters, mussels, cockles, periwinkles, whelks, and mutton-fish ; crustaceans,—prawns, crabs, lobsters, and crayfish. Coral and sponges are also abundant.

Vegetable.—Trees.—The forests of Tasmania are of unsurpassed grandeur. All the trees are evergreens ; and some of them, particularly the wattles, put forth very rich blossoms in spring. The most common kinds include the peppermint, stringy-bark, iron-bark, and different varieties of gum-trees ; the wattles, the dark and pale varieties of light wood, the forest-oak, she-oak, three or four descriptions of pine, &c.

Grains.—Barley, buckwheat, Cobbett’s corn, oats, rye, tares, wheat, &c.

* Fruits.—Apples of 128 varieties, pears of 72 varieties, peaches, nectarines, quinces, filberts, cherries, medlars, apricots, plums,damsons, raspberries, gooseberries, currants (red, white, and black), Cape gooseberries, strawberries, walnuts, almonds, figs, grapes, greengages, hazel-nuts, &c.

Minerals.—The minerals are valuable, and some of them abundant:— Gold, iron, copper, lead, coal, black -lead, limestone, granite, marble, and various other sorts of building stone, are all found to a greater or less extent. Coal abounds in the Jerusalem and South Esk Basins, and is now worked at the Mersey, the Don, the Douglas K., Port Arthur, Seymour, New Town, and in the Schouten Is. Limestone is found in almost every part of the island ; granite on High Tor (near the Eldon Range), Ben Lomond, Frenchman’s Cap, and many other places; freestone, in the N., the centre, and the S. of the island; and gold at Fingal, and in the channels of some of the rivers. Marble also abounds.

A cj ric v lture .—The objects of field cultivation are—the different sorts of grain (wheat, oats, barley), peas, beans, grasses (English and Colonial), potatoes, turnips, onions, mangold wurzel, &c.

The Mafufactures are numerous, but unimportant: none of them being carried oil to any great extent. The

principal articles are—ale, candles, leather, lime, malt, soap, starch, blue, vinegar, <&e.

Commerce.— Exports.—The principal are wool, timber, oil, agricultural produce, fruits, flour, horses, Ac. Total value (1861), £905,403.

Imports.—The principal are—drapery goods, sugar, live stock, hardware, clothing, etc., tea, oilmen's stores, spirits and wines, beef and provisions, tobacco, and coal. Total value (1861). £953.517.

Principal Ports.—Hobart Town, in the S.; Launceston, in the X.

Population (not including the islands)—SS,976.

Army.—340, but there are numerous volunteer corps.

Finance.—Revenue (1SG2), £255,200 ; expenditure, £205,000. Debt of the colony (1803), £471,700.

III S T O R Y.

Tasmania was discovered (10 42) by the Dutch navigato r Tasman, who named it Van Diemen’s Land, in honour of Van Diemen, Governor-General of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, from whom he had received a commission to explore New Holland, and to ascertain how far it extended towards the Antarctic Circle. It was afterwards visited in succession by the navigators Marion (1772), Furneaux (1773), Cook, accompanied by Clarke (1777;, Cox (1789), Bligh (1788 and 1792), Brum D’Entrecasteux, in the Recherche, accompanied by Iluon Kermandee, in the Esperance (1792), and Hayes (1794). This island was first taken possession of by a party from Port Jackson, who arrived (10th August, 1803),andsettled on the east bank of the Derwent at llisdon (Bestdown).

Port Phillip was discovered (1799) by Capt. Murray, and occupied (1803) by a party of prisoners and a few settlers under Lieut-Gov. Collins. The spot selected being considered unsuitable, they removed to Van Diemen’s Land, where they arrived in two divisions on the 19th Feb. 1804, at Sullivan’s Cove, on the W. bank of the Derwent ; and the locality at llisdon having been disapproved of, they established their head-quarters on the spot where Hobart Town now stands. On the 3rd May, 1804, and

again in 1805. hostile collisions took place between the Troops and Blacks; but, on both occasions, the latter were repulsed with loss. Colonel Patterson, with a second party from Sydney, formed a settlement at the mouth of the Tamar (Port Dairymple) in the end of 1804. York Town was first selected, then George Town, and finally, Launceston was fixed on as the site of the northern capital.

The removal of tbe settlers from Norfolk I., occupied in 1788, took place in 1810. On their arrival from that island they were located on small farms about O’Brien’s Bridge, New Norfolk, and Norfolk Plains. During the administration of Col. Davev, the ports were opened for commerce (June 1813 ; tbe whale fishery was extended ; the plough introduced ; corn exported; the foundationstone of St. David’s Church was laid (Feb. 1817); and the first number of tbe Hobart Town Gazette and Southern JReporter was published (June 1st, 181G). In 1817, the Peninsular war being over, Col. Sorell arrived as Governor, accompanied by many half-pay and retired officers, who, on their arrival, obtained free grants of land.

During the reign of his successor, Col. Arthur, the Van Diemen’s Land Company was formed; the press liberated from all Government restrictions (1824) ; several banks were established ; and the island (Dec. 1825) declared independent of New South "Wales. The recti on of the New Wharf, the making of the Richmond lioad, and the planning of the Bridgewater Causeway, and other material improvments, are marks of the enterprise and skill of this Governor.

fhe doors of the Council Chamber were thrown open to tlie public by Sir J. Franklin (1837); the Australian Colonies Government Bill was passed (5th August, 3850), and under it a Legislative Council, consisting of sixteen elected members, was constituted ; the Australian League against transportation was formed in 1851 ; and transportation of convicts to the shores of Tasmania was abolished in 1853. The Constitutional Act, passed on 1st Nov., 1851, by the Tasmanian Legislature, received the Queen’s assent in 1855; and in 1856, a Legislative Council and House of Assembly, both elective, were chosen.

SUCCESSION OF TASMANIAN GOVERNORS, &C.

LIE

I'TENANT-QOVKRNORS, Ac.

From

To

Lieut.

-Col. I>. Collins, R.M..........

Feb.

16th,

1801

Mar

24th,

1810

Lieut.

Capt.

-Edward Lord (at II. Town)") Murray. H.M. 73rd Reg.)

Mar.

24th,

1810

Feb.

« •

1813

i a

Lt.-Col. Geils. do (at l4t. Dairy mple)

Feb.

1812

Fob.

4th,

1813

Lieut.

-Col. T. Davcy, R.M..........

Fob.

4th,

1813

April 9th,

1817

Lieut.

-Col. W. Sorell ..................

April 0th,

1817

M av

pith,

1824

Lieut.

-Col. George Arthur............

Mav

14th,

1824

Oct.

30th,

18,3:4»

Lieut.

-Col. 1L Snodgrass (acting)...

Oct.

31st,

1830

Jan.

5th,

1837

Capt,

Sir .1. Franklin, R.X..........

Jan.

6th,

1837

Aug

21st,

1813

Sir .1.

E. Eardlv-Wilmot, Bart. ...

Aug

22nd,

1843

Got.

13th,

1840

Charles Joseph Latrobe (acting:) ...

Oct.

13th,

1816

Jan.

20th,

18J7

Sir \Y

. T. Denison,4 Knt. Capt. ILK.

Jail.

26th,

1847

Jan.

8th,

185

Sir 11

K. F. Voting.....................

Jan.

8th,

18 V)

10th

Dec.,

1801

Col. 1

honias Gore Browne............

10th

Dec..

1801

NEW Z E A L A N 1).

New Zealand is situated in the S. Pacific Ocean, about 1,200 miles eastward of Tasmania, between the parallels of 31° and 48° S. lat. and the meridians of 16G° and 179° E. long. It consists of two large islands, the North and Middle, with a lesser one called Stewart’s I., and numerous islets scattered round the coasts.

Extent.—The extreme length, from N. Cape to S. Cape, exceeds 1,100 miles ; its breadth varies from 1 to 300 m., though 100 is the average. The Northern and Middle islands are separated by Cook’s Straits, from 30 to 100 m. in width ; and Stewart’s is separated from the Middle Island by Foveaux Strait, 15 m. wide.

Area.—The united area of the the three islands is upwards of 122,000sq.m.; the North Islandcontainingabout 48,700 sq, m. ; the middle, 72,072 ; and Stewart’s, 1S00.

PROVINCES ANI) TOWNS.

North Island.—Auckland, in the N.—Auckland, on Waitemataf Ilarb ; Onehunga, 8. of Auckland ; Russell, oil the Bay of Islands ; Hobson's Town and Wan gar i, on tlie Wairoa R

Hawke s Bay, S.E. of Auckland.—Napier, in the E.

// 'cllington, S. Ur. of Ilawke s Bay.—Wellington, in the S.. on Port Nicholson; Wanganui, at the mouth of the Wanganui E.

Taranaki, N. TV. of Wellington.—New Plymouth, or Taranaki, in the W.

Middle Island.—Nelson. S. of Cook's Sir.—Nelson, in the N., on Blind B.; Collingwood, on Massacre Bay.

Marlborough, N.E. of Nelson.—Blenheim (formerly Beaverton).

Canterbury, S. of Nelson.—Lyttleton, on Port Cooper; Christchurch (the capital of the province), about G miles N.W. of Lyttleton ; Kaiapo, Akaroa, Timaru, all in the E.

Otago,    oj Canterbury.—Dunedin and Port Chalmers,

on Otago Harb.

Southland, W. of Otago.—Invercargill, in the S., on Bluff Harb.; Riverton, on the S. coast.

Bays.— On the N. Coast.—Doubtless or Lauriston B.. B. of Islands, Waitemata Harbour, Hauraki G., Frith of Thames, B. of Plenty ; and on the E. Coast— Open B., Tokomarua B., Tolaga or Uawa B., Poverty B., Auckland; Hawke B., Hawke Bay Province; Pegasus B., Port Cooper, Port Levy, Port Pigeon, Akarao llarb., Canterbury; Moerangi B., Otago Harb., Molyneux B., Otago. On the S.E. Coast —Tautuka B., Bluff Harb., Tewywys 13., Preservation B., Chalky or Dark Cloud Inlet; and on the W. Coast—Breaksea Sound, Doubtful Inlet, Thompson Sd., Charles Sd., Caswell Sd., George Sd., Bligh Sd., Milford Sd., Martin B.; Kawhia Harb., Aotea Harb., AVhaingaroa Harb., Manukau Harb., Kaipara Harb., HokiangaHarb.,Htfc/i7rt;^/. On Cook's Straits—Massacre B., Blind B., Port Underwood, Cloudy B., Nelson; AV aim ate Bight, Taranaki; Port Nicholson, Palliser B., Wellington. On Stewart's Island—Port William, Patterson Inlet, Port Adventure, Port Pegasus, on the E., and Mason’s B., on the W.

Capes.— On the N. 'Coast—North C., C. Karakara, C. Brett, Bream Hd., and C. Colville On the D. Coast-East C., Table C., Auckland; C. Kidnappers, Hawke Dag District; Turnagain C1., Castle Pt', Palliser C., Wellington; C. Saunders, Otago. On the S. Coast— The 131 uft‘, Puvsegur Pt. On the IT' Coast—AC. Cape, Otago; Cascade Pt., Canterbury; C. Foulwind, Bocks Pt., Nelson; C. Eginont, Taranaki; Beef Pt., C. Maria Van Diemen, Auckland. On Cook's Straits—C. Farewell, Separation P., C. Stephens, C. Jackson, Wellington Hd., C. Campbell, Nelson; C. Turakirae, Terrawitti C., Baring Hd., Sinclair Pt., Wellington. On Stewart's Island—Saddle Pt., in the X.; South Cape and South West Cape, in the S.

Islands.— Gt. Barrier I., Little Barrier I., Kawau I., Waiheke I., and Otatu 1., in the Frith of Thames ; Mayor I. and White I. (volcanic), in the Bay of Plenty ; D’Urville L, Entry I., Stephen’s I., Guard’s L, Arapawa I., Kapiti I., Mana I., and the Brothers, in Cook’s Str.; the Sugar-loaf Is., W. of Taranaki ; Buapuke, Centre, and Green Is., in Foveaux Str.; Dusky I., Anchor I., Besolution I., Breaksea I., and Secretary I., W. of Otago; the Three Kings, near the North C.

Peninsulas.—Banks’ Pen., in the E. of Canterbury, Coromandel, E. of Frith of Thames; Terakako or Mahia, in the S.E. of Auckland; the peninsula forming the northern part of Auckland; and that forming the eastern shore of Otago llarb.

Straits.—Cook’s Str., separating the North and Middle Is.; Foveaux Sir., between . Middle I. and


Stewart’s I.

Mountain and Biyer System.—The mountain ranges run nearly parallel with the coast, generally from N.E. to S.W. In the Northern I. these ranges vary from 500 to 1,500 ft. in height, until they reach the centre of the island near Mt. Perongia (2,800), where the great central Bangitoto chain commences, which, under the name of lluahine (chief summits—Tongariro, G,200, and

Ruapehu, 9.195) is continued southward to Cook's Sir. in two branches, the Tararua and the Rimutaka ranges. Tiie Puketoi and Maungaraki are coast-chains between Cook’s Str. and Hawke B.

The mountains in the North I. do not form so continuous a chain, and, with the exception of a few detached peaks, do not attain so great a height as those in the .Middle 1. Tongariro, a volcano in active operation. and Ruapehu, an extinct volcano, lie close to each other, forming, with two or three lesser peaks, a magnificent mountain group near the centre of the island:—Mt. Egniont (S.270), in the W. ot Taranaki; Mt. Edgecumbe (2,575), S. of the B. of Plenty ; Mt. Jkaurangi (5,535), and Mt. Ilardy (3,700), N.E. of Mt. Edgecombe.

The Middle Island has its northern shore skirted by a high crescent-shaped range of mountains, throwing out spurs towards the sea, and forming the sheltered harbours with which that locality abounds. From this range arise a great central range, which runs through the island midway taking a direction to the E., and the Southern Alps (chief summits—Mt. Cook, 13,000, and 311. Aspiring 9,135), which skirt the western coast. The mts. in tins island seem to form coast ridges similar to those in the Northern Island, with a table-land in the interior.

Minor Ranges and isolated Mts. in Otago.—Black Peak (7,328),* Pesa (0,420), Grandview (4,703), Eyre Mts. (0.081), Dome (4,505), Takituna(4,998), Hamilton (4,074), Ida (5.498), Kyeburn (5,129), Rock and Pillaux (4,675), Benmore (0,111), Totara Peak (5,S70), St. Cutlibert (4,902), Mt. Cargill (2,297).

Plains.—Plain of Taupo, in the centre of the North 1.; Rua O Taniwa Plains, in the Hawke Bay District; Wairarapa Plain, in the S. of Wellington; also Waimea Plains, in the N., and AVairau Plains, in the N.E. of Nelson; Great Southern Plains, in the E. of Canterbury; Taieri Plains, in the E.; Tokomariro and Clutha Plains, in the S.E.; and Wairaki Downs and Murchison Plains, in the S. of Otago.

Piters.—Draining the Jf'estern Slope.—Tkellokiamra, in the X. of Auckland; AYairoa' It. flows S.AY. into Kaipara Harb.; Waikato 11. rises in Ait. Kuapehu, in the X. of Wellington, flows X. through L. Tanpo. then X.W. and W. through Auckland,—it receives the Waipa it. from the Jtangitoto Bange; the Mokau it. forms the northern boundary of Taranaki; the Kawatiri or Buller it. flows westward through Xelson; Grey It. between Canterbury and Xelson.

Draining the Eastern Slope.—YVaiau-toa, or Clarence it. flows X.E. and the Waiau-ua it. E. through Xelson; the Hurunu it. between Xelson and Canterbury; the Courtenay, ltakaia or Cholmoudely it., ltangitata it., and Orangitari, all flow eastward through Canterbury ; AYaitangi it., between Canterbury and Otago; Molyneux or Clutha it., flows S.E. through Otago.

Draining the Northern Slope.—In    Auckland—-

AYhakatane and Eangitieki into the 11. of Plenty, and the Waiho or Thames, and Piako, into the Frith of Thames ; the AVairau, Motueka, Ohiere or Pelorus, AVaimea, and Awatere Its.; into Cook’s Straits.

Draining the Southern Slope.—AVairarapa, Manawat u, AVangaehu, liutt, AVaikanae, Otaki, Ohan, Turakina, AVaitutara, AVenuakura. Patea, and Wanganui, into Cook’s St.; the Mat-aura, Xew, Waiau. and Jacob, into FoveauxSt.

Lakes.—L. Taupo (greatest length 36 m., breadth 25 m., ft. above the sea 1,337), in the S. of Auckland; L. ltoto-rua and Itoto-iti, X. ofL. Taupo ; L. Arthur and L. Ilowick, in the middle of Xelson ; i j. Ohou, in the S. of Canterbury ; L. llawea and L. AY anaka (L,036 ft. above the sea), in the X. of Otago ; Greenstone or Wakatip L., S. of L. AVanaka; Waiora L., E. of Greenstone L.

Climate.—The climate is remarkably salubrious and agreeable, and more equable than that of the neighbouring colonies. It varies with the latitude : the mean annual temperature at Auckland being 59° and at Dunedin 50°. Throughout the Islands rain is most frequent during the winter months, hut refreshing showers occur at all periods of the year. High winds are also verv frequent. In the low grounds snow seldom falls, except in the southern part of the Middle I.

Soil.— Generally fertile : but, owing to the light and porous nature of the surface and subsoil, wet rapidly drains and percolates away. The North I. is that best suited for agricultural pursuits. All the eastern portions of the Middle I., together with the extensive plains on the northern side of Cook’s Strait, are admirably adapted for grazing purposes.

PRODUCTIONS.

Animals.—Mammals.—Indigenous.— One species of bat. and in the neighbouring seas whales and seals.

Quadhi peds.—Introduced.—Dog, cat, rat, mouse, pig, horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and a few asses and mules.

Bums.—Indigenous.—Kiwi, kuia, pukeko (a species of water-hen), kuhupa (a large wood-pigeon), wika (wood-hen), kaka (a species of parrot), two species of karariki (parroquet), tni, several species of wild ducks, quail, six or seven varieties of cormorant or shag, toria or oyster-catcher, two or three kinds of waders and sandpipers or curlew, a small bittern (the mataku of the natives), a small bluish crane, two species of hawks, a small kingfisher, and many others, some not unlike the English crow, thrush, and starling; a great variety of small singing-birds ; and several species of sea-birds, the principal being the albatross, gannet, puffin or mutton-bird. Introduced.—Canaries, bull-finches, and all sorts of poultry; also pea-fowl, guinea-fowl, Ac.

Reptiles.—Indigenous.—Several species of lizards, ail perfectly harmless. Snakes are unknown.

The Indigenous Insects, many of them peculiar to New Zealand, are numerous ; the principal are—grasshoppers, caterpillars, ants, centipedes, spiders, sand-flies, blowflies, and, in the native villages, abundance of vermin. Introduced.—Gees.

Fish. The only sorts similar to those caught on the coasts of Britain are—the conger-eel, sole, plaice, and flounder. Of other sorts may be mentioned—the shark, dog-fish, hapuka (an excellent fish of the cod kind, weighing from 20 to 112 lbs.), mold (somewhat resembling the dorey\ kawai (resembling the mullet), barracouta, wareho, and others, The rivers abound in small fish, resembling the eel, grayling, white-bait, lampreys, Ac.

Vegetable.—Indigenous.5—The most common trees of the forests are—the kauri, totara, puriri or New Zealand oak. The forests also abound in ornamental trees and shrubs :—tree-ferns, some of them with stems from 10 to GO ft. high; many species of laurels, fuehsia-trees ; and the beautiful mimosa, covered with clusters ot yellow flowers. Introduced:—Almost every vegetable production known in England has been introduced with invariable success. The oak, ash, horse-chesnut, Spanish-chesnut, and some mimosas from New South \\ ales, are the principal timber-trees. BesidesEnglishfruits,flowers,and garden vegetables, and European grains and grasses, there have been introduced the kuinerat or sweetpotatoe, a small but delicious kind of yam called the taro, Spanish and Portugese onions, mulberry, lemon, and orange trees, the tobacco-plant, and Cape gooseberries.

The principal plants are—the Phormium tcnacc or New Zealand ilax, fern-plants, a kind of bulrush, called by the natives raupo, a shrub tutu, somewhat resemblingourelder, and bearing poisonous berries ; a few grasses. The only fruit worthy of mention is a parasitical plant called kickie.

Minerals.—Copper, iron, gold, and sulphur. Coal has been found near the X. Cape, on the banks ot the W aikato and Mokau Its., at Massacre 1>., and in the Canterbury and Otago settlements, (fold diggings are being worked at Coromandel, near Auckland, and at Aorere, near Nelson ; and gold has been discovered in the Matoure B. and throughout the whole of the interior ot the Otago colony. Sulphur abounds in the volcanic districts.

Agriculture.—The objects of cultivation are—grass, wheat, oats, potatoes, barley, maize, &e.

The Manufactures are unimportant.

^ HISTORY.

Commerce.—Exports.—The principal are—gold, wool, timber, potatoes, oil. grain, <fcc.

Imports. The principal are—ale, beer, cider and perry, drapery goods, spirits, sugar (raw and refined), tea, wine,&e.

Principal Ports.—Auckland, Wellington, lvussell. Nelson, Otago, Monganui, Lyttleton, Akaroa, Bluff Harbour, Hokianga, New Plymouth, Chatham I., Kiapara, and Wanganui.

Population.—According to the census of 1SG1— Europeans, 100.209; New Zealanders, 00,000; estimated Military and their families, 7.29-1.

Finance.—Revenue for the year 1S62-3, estimated at £ 158,000. and Expenditure at ¿293,353.


This country was first seen by the Dutch navigator Tasman (loth Dec. 1012), but as he never landed, and supposed it to form a part of a great southern continent, the honour of its discovery belongs to Capt. Cook, who sighted the land ((5th Oct., 1709), and between that date and 1 7 77 circumnavigated and roughly surveyed the two principal islands, landed at various places, and took formal possession of the country for the King of Gt. Britain.

As earlv as 1793, the whaling ships of different nations began to touch on the coast, and in 18 11-15 the liev. 8. Marsdcn, Colonial Chaplain of N. S. Wales, established at the Bay of Islands a mission of the Church -Missionary Soviet v, and appointed Mr. T. Ivendal resident magistrate. The first Wesleyan Mission was founded in 1823 at Wangaroa, N. of the Bay of Islands; and Dr. Selwyn, who was appointed Bishop of New Zealand (17th Oct., 1811), arrived (29th Oct., 1842) with a suite of Clergymen, whom lie had appointed to reside at Wellington, Nelson, and New Plymouth. Two chiefs, Hongi and W aikato, accompanied Air. Kendal to England in 1820, where they became acquainted with Baron de Thierry, French by birth, whom they led to entertain the hope of acquiring extensive territories and rights of chieftainship in New Zealand. This circumstance laid the foundation of the attempt made by the French Government in IS 10 to establish a penal paper, b v which they declared the independence of the whole of New Zealand as one nation, and formed themselves into an independent state with the title of the ‘! United Tribes of New Zealand.'5 In 1837, a large class ot‘ merchants and gentry in Gt. Britain formed a society called the New Zealand Company, and sent out (1830) an expedition under Col. Wakefield, followed soon after by a body of emigrants, who on their arrival formed the settlement of Wellington. The example of the New Zealand Company was followed by an association of gentlemen connected with the Church of England, who, in 1818, formed the Canterbury settlement; and the same year the Otago settlement was planted by gentlemen in connection with the Free Church of »Scotland.

settlement in the Middle Island. Hongi had no sooner returned, than he armed his own tribe and its allies with the weapons lie had received in England as presents, and attacked the powerful tribes which inhabited the west coast of tiie Northern Island; hence arose the native wars which raged throughout both islands, almost exterminating the aboriginal inhabitants. Such a state of things required some remedy ; and Mr. Bushy was accordingly appointed (1831) “ ltesident Officer,” but with no means at his disposal for maintaining authority, so that the wars of the natives, in which the white settlers joined, still continued, and European vices ami diseases were spread among the diminished native population. In 1835, alarmed at the prospects of a French occupation projected by Baron de Thierry, the leading missionaries of New Zealand induced 35 chiefs to sign a


The precursors of a French penal settlement on Banks’ Peninsula sailed from France (Nov. 1839), but were anticipated by Major Banbury and Capt. Hobson. The latter arrived in Jan. 1810, and having with great difficulty obtained the sovereignty by treaty from the natives, acted in several capacities as Consul, Lieut.-Governor, and Governor, during the period extending from Jan. 1810 to ¡Sept. 1812. In consequence of Ins illness, the government was carried on from about a month after his arrival until the accession of Governor

Fitzrov, Dec. IS 13. by Lieut. Short land, the civil staff which he had brought with him from Sydney, and a Mr. Clarke, a missionary cathechist who had been appointed Protector of the Aborigines. Capt. Fitzrov administered the affairs of the Colony in a very partial spirit until he was recalled in consequence of his financial absurdities and land-regulations. His vacillation and pusillanimity towards the natives had provoked an agressive warfare on their part, in the course of which the British troops sent from N. S. Wales were disgracefully worsted, the earliest British settlement at the Bay of Islands was plundered and destroyed, and the out-settlers near Wellington attacked and robbed with some loss of life by parties of marauders directed by Te Bauperaha and Kangihaeta.

The administration of his successor, Captain Grey, was one of marked improvement: the latter Governor dis-plaved unceasing activity in visiting^ the different settlements, and a great anxiety to remedy in some measure the evils which had accumulated under the mismanagement of his predecessors; while, by his judicious administration of British Law, lie not only suppressed the native disturbances in Wanganui of 1S47, and held in check the rebellious Maories throughout the colony, but even gained their respect and confidence. On the 1st Jan., 1848, he proclaimed the constitution granted to New Zealand (10th March), and fixed as the boundary between Auckland and the southern Provinces of the North I. the parallel of 30° 40'. During his absence in 1854, and again during the period between his final departure and the arrival of his successor Col. Gore Browne, the affairs

of the Government were administered by Col. Wynyard. In 1851), differences arising out of land-questions, between the Europeans and the Natives, led to several skirmishes without any decisive result. Such being the state of affairs, Her Majesty’s Government transferred Col. Gore Browne to Tasmania, and, at the desire of the Natives, re-appointed Sir G. Grey, whose policy appears still to give satisfaction.

It is not improbable that the New Zealanders will ultimately establish a separate government for themselves, with the consent ol the British Sovereign, being


more inclined to profit by their intercourse with Europeans, than to enter into a war which must end in extermination.

GOVERNORS OF NEW ZEALAND.


29th Jan., 1840 LOth Sept, 184-2 Dec., 1813 Dec., 18 b> •ith Sent.. 18*>5 3rd Oct.' 1 s-Jl


Capt. Hobson .. Lieut. Shortlaud Capt. Fitzroy ..

Capt. Grey........

Col. Browne .....

Sir Grey Grey ..

An


tarctica.

Or late years, several islands and extensive tracts of land, supposed to form portions of a great Continent within the Antarctic Circle, have been found by British, French, and American navigatorsSouth Victoria Land, S. of New Zealand; Adelia and Sabrina Land, S. of Australia; Kemp and Enderby Lands, S. of Madagascar; and Graham Land, about GOO miles S. of Terra del Fuego ; —all on or near the Antarctic Circle. South Shetland, X., and South Orkney and South Georgian Is., N.X.E. of Graham Land. In this division may be reckoned a few islands, which, although not in so high a latitude, yet bear a certain resemblance to the lands in the more immediate neighbourhood of the Antarctic Circle in their general dreariness of aspect and the scantiness of their vegetation. These comprise a small group of islands lying between the New Georgian Is. and Af rica, ol which Tristan d’A cun ha is the largest; Prince Edward Is., about 600 miles S.E. of the Cape of Good Hope ; Crozet and Marion Is., E. of Prince Edward Is.; Kerguelen’s I. or Desolation Land, E. of Marion Is.; Amsterdam and St. Paul’s Is., N.N.E. of Kerguelen’s I.; Bishop and Clerk, Judge and Clerk, and Macquarie Is., S. of the Auckland Is.

REMARKS.

These islands and the lands of Artarctica are generally volcanic ; their shores are frequented hy the albatross and vast numbers of penguins ; and seals and whales abound in the neighbouring seas ; the cold there is more intense, the winds and seas more boisterous, and the ice extends at least 10° nearer the Equator than in the arctic basin, and the barometric pressure (as is also the case in the arctic regions) is much less than in tropical latitudes. Destitute of inhabitants, wholly devoid of vegetation,

n ml covered with eternal snow?», and its shores lined with lofty volcanic mountains or guarded hy inpenetrabie harriers of ice, this continent must }uv-cnt an extv< .nt-ly wild an l !es late nppear&n e. South Victoria Land, discovered in 18-41 by Sir James K-.ss, and named in honour of the Queen, contains Mount Erebus, an active volcano, 12.40) feet high. and Mt. Terror, ;ui extensive crater of somewhat les> elevation, to the E. of Mt. Erebus. To the W. of the same volcano, viz. in hit. 7">° o' S., and. long. 14o° S' E., is the South Magnetic Pole.* The surface of Tristan d’Acunha i s rocky, and rises in one point above 8,<XX) feet high. Let ween this island and La Plata are the deepest parts of the ocean yet known, soundings of 7,700 (8J miles) and 8,300 fathoms (iU miles) being taken in 1812. Amsterdam is remarkable for its hot springs, and a crater 1,000 yds. in diameter, into which the sea lias forced its way.

TOE SEVERAL LANDS AND ISLANDS OF •* ANTARCTICA.”

Name.


St. Paul’s I. . Amsterdam I


Pnnee Edward is Marion ls.,&*Cro-zet’s or Desert Js.


Latitude & Longitude.

1 (38°

42'

S. lat.

, and)

) 77c

52’

E. long.

.........f

f 37 °

52'

S. lat.

, ami \

( 77°

E. long.

.........f

)

f Bet.

y 50 0 s.

lat.,y)

¦ f

\ Gy 0

¿v* i

1 0 E. loi

....../

Bet. 4i> 0 y 17 0 S. lat.,y)

; \ 3s 0 y -IS 0 E. long. ...J


Sandwich Land S. Georgia Group New S. Shetland


(Ret. 57° *01 oS-lat.,*)

, \ 2? ° 13* & 27° 4.V W. \

| l long.........................j

) Bet. 54 0 .v 55 ° S. lat., &) '[ \ 34 0 y 38 0 W. long. ... l Bet. Cl 0 y C3 0 S. hit..)

1 J & 51° & 56° 45* \Y '


........111,„;.......:j

?’s I. ...: 03 S. lat., & 57 \v . long.


Louis Philippe

New* S. Orkneys ......1 61° S. ¡at., & io 0 \V. long.

Trinity Land :

Graham Land..

Peter’s I.........

Alexander's 1...


old)

...J


Kemp & Enderbv^ Land..................J


Balleny Is. ... Victoria Land


V laming.

Ditto.

Kerguelen.

By whom Discovered.

Brand felt. Weddell. Beliinghausen. Biseoe.


f Bet. 64 0 & 68° S. lat, \ i & 38 0 y (’8 ° W. long. ) iC8° 57* S. lat., and)

l 90° 46’IV. long..........J

) OS0 13’ S. lat., and)

t 73° 10’ W. long.......J

('Undor Antarctic Circle,)

\ and bet. 46 c and (¡2 0 [-

( E. long...................)

( 6(5 °44 S. lat., 1G3 0 ll’l

( E. long...................J

) Between the parallels) ,^    1Q1,

{ Of 70°» 78° S.......\ 11th Jan., 1841


(2 Fr. Cnp-tains. Marion y Crozet.


’ In IS 10 an expedition was fitted out under the command ofCapt. (afterwards Sir) J. IIoss for the purpose of making scientific, and particularly magnetic, observations in tlie Southern Ocean, and of ascertaining the position of the south magnetic pole. On his wav southward he touched at Hobart Town, New Zealand, and the Auckland Is., crossed the Antarctic Circle on the 1st of January 1-iE discovered Victoria Land on the 11th, sighted the volcano of Mt. Erebus, situated in 77'-- 32’ S. lat., and 171° 7’ E. long., on the 28th, and reached the latitude of 73 ° 4’ (cr within S40 miles of the south Pole), which is the furthest advance hitherto made in that direction.

W. Fi etcher, Printer, 45 & 47, Elizabeth-street, llobart Town.





í


V

1

Termed Australasia from its southern position in relation to Asia, and Melanesia from the dark complexion of its aboriginal inhabitants.

2

Tartly in Grenville.    t Partly in llourke.

J Partly in the Loddon District.

3

Partly in Murray District.

4

Sir W. Denison was the first Governor-in-Chief, and received his commission as such a year or two before he removed to New South Wales;—up to this time all the Governors of this colony held commissions only as Lieutenant-Governors.

t In reducing the Polynesian and Maori dialects to a written form, the Italian pronunciation of the vowels has been followed ; i.e , a represents the sound heard in far ; e, the name sound of letter a: i, the sound of ce; o, as in English ; and u, the sound of oo. The English sounds of the consonants are preserved.

5

Six hundred and fifty distinct species of trees and plants are indigenous to New Zealand : parasitical plants and species of the fern and palm-tree families are very numerous.

f It is supposed that the Maories, when, according to their traditions, they migrated to New Zealand, brought the kumera and taro with them.