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A JVNiOR READER

Of

AustPa.Sia.n History

CORRELATED W!TH GEOGRAPHY

By GEORGE SUTHERLAND,

James ìngram & Sow

227 LSttle Cvillns St<9 MeSt >wi*we

PREFACE.

Of the forty-four lessons included in this reading bock, twenty-two a^e devoted to the exploration, and twenty-two to the settlement, of Australia and Tasmania. Only the most notable of maritime voyages of discovery and of inland exploring expeditions have been dealt with, and no attempt has been made to trace minutely the historical sequence of events connected with the settlement of each locality of the various Australian states. The historical method has been followed, in the latter part of the book, only in reference to the capital city of each state; but the course of settlement and the reasons which led to it in every important tract of inhabited territory have been indicated as far as space admits. Frequent reference to a large map of Australia, as well as to the illustrations, will be found very helpful in enabling readers of the book to follow the routes taken by the voyagers and explorers, and also to trace the flow of settlement, thus correlating the historical narratives and brief descriptions jvith the geographical facts of position.

CONTENTS.

The Land We Live In ... ... ...

Page

7

Australia and Tasmania ... ... ...

9

Spanish and Dutch Ships ... ...

10

Tasman Finds Tasmania ... ... ...

13

The Tasmanian Blacks ... ...

14

Dampier Lands on the West Coast ...

16

The Australian Blacks ... ... ...

18

Captain Cook Lands on the East Coast ...

20

Captain Cook’s Voyage ... ...

22

The East Coast as Seen by Captain Cook ...

24

Bass and Flinders make Boating Trips

25

Flinders Sails Round the Coast ... ...

27

The South Coast as Seen by Flinders ...

29

Wentworth Climbs the Blue Mountains ...

31

Hume and Hovell go to Geelong ...

33

Captain Sturt Traces Two Rivers ... ...

36

The Australia Felix of Mitchell ...

38

Eyre’s Journey to the West ... ...

39

Captain Sturt in Central Australia ...

41

Burke and Wills Cross Australia ... ...

43

Stuart Crosses Australia ... ...

46

Journeys Between East and West ... ...

48

Early Days of Sydney ... ... ...

51

The Coast of New South Wales ... ...

53

Districts South of Sydney ... ...

54

Some Other Parts of New South Wales ...

57

The Merino Sheep in New South Wales

58

The First Gold Diggings ... ... ...

61

Early Days of Melbourne ... ...

63

Some Harbours of Victoria ... ...

66

Western Districts of Victoria ... ...

67

Eastern and River Towns of Victoria ...

69

Early Days of Adelaide ... ...

71

Some Parts of South Australia ... ...

74

Other Parts of South Australia ...

75

Early Days of Brisbane ... ... ...

77

First Settlers in Queensland ... ...

79

Tropical Queensland ... ... ...

82

Other Parts of Queensland ... ...

83

Early Days of Hobart ... ... ...

• •0

85

More About Tasmania ... ... ...

• •o

87

Early Days of Perth ... ... ...

• •0

89

Some Towns of Western Australia ...

00

...

91

The Australian Commonwealth ... ...

0*0

93

Index ... ... -- ... ...

Me

o«<

95

Easy Stories for Australian Children.

Lesson I.
THE LAND WE LIVE IN.

1    The boys and girls of Australia should learn about the land they live in.

2    It is a large island lying between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean, and it is 2,400 miles in length from the east to the west.

3    If a man started to walk from Cape Byron, in the east of New South Wales, and kept walking towards the west, doing twenty-four miles each day, it would take him a hundred days to get across to Steep Point, on the other side of Australia.

4    The Great Dividing Range is a long line of mountains, going from the south to the north, not far from the eastern coast, through Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland.

5    The Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges, in South Australia, and the Darling and Stirling Ranges, in West Australia, also run, not far from the coasts, from the south to the north.

6    Plenty of rain falls on the sides of these mountains, and on the high land and coasts near to them. This is the chief reason why nearly all the people of Australia live within a short distance of the sea. The northwestern coasts, which have no mountains near them, and get very little rain, are barren.

7    Grass and fodder plants for live stock, besides wheat, maize, and many other crops sown or planted by men, thrive well in the rainy parts, and timber can be had by felling the trees on the sides of the hills and in the valleys.

8    But the great hollow basin with the salt lakes of South Australia, and a very large tract of land to the west of it, cannot grow useful plants, because the rainfall is so scanty.

Lesson II.

AUSTRALIA AND TASMANIA.

1    Look at a map of Australia and Tasmania. Between these two islands there are smaller ones, the chief of which are King’s Island on the west side, and Flinders Island on the east.

2    Cape Otway, in Australia, faces Cape Grim, in Tasmania, and King’s Island is right between the two. On the eastern side there is a string of islands, showing the way from Wilson’s Promontory to Cape Portland.

3    These small islands were plainly at one time parts of a neck of land which joined Australia to Tasmania, but which slowly sank into the sea, leaving only the tops of the mountains and other high places above water.

4    The rocks and trees of the Tasmanian mountains are very much like those of Victoria, on the other side of the Strait.

5    The peaks rise to about the same height as those of Victoria, Cradle Mountain and Ben Lomond being over 5,000 feet high, while

Mount Wellington and some others are nearly as high.

6 The passage between Australia and Tasmania is called Bass Strait. Captains of ships passing through must be very careful to watch for islands and rocks.

Lesson III.
SPANISH AND DUTCH SHIPS.

1    A long time ago there were no white people in Australia. In every part of the island there were only tribes of blacks, who lived by hunting animals for food.

2    The first white men who saw any part of Australia came from Spain. They had sailed across the Pacific Ocean from the South American coasts in search of new lands, and after seeing many islands, they passed through the strait which lies to the north of Cape York. This was in the year 1606.

3    The Captain of the ship, whose name was Torres, saw Cape York, but thought it was only the end of a small island. Many years

later the name of Torres Strait was given to the passage through which he had sailed.

4    The first white people who landed on Australian soil were Dutchmen from the island of Java, where the people of Holland had formed a colony named Batavia. In a small ship called The Dove they sailed into the great gulf in the north of Australia, and landed on its shores. They called the land New Holland, after their own country.

5    Here some of the Dutch sailors were caught by blacks, who threw spears and killed several of them. So The Dove turned back at a place called Cape Keerweer, or Turnagain, and did not go near Australia again.

6    On their way to Java and India, round the Cape of Good Hope, many Dutch ships met with stormy weather, and were driven to the west coast of Australia. Each part which had been seen was called by the name of the captain who saw it.

7    In this way Dutch names came to be given to Dirk Hartog Island, and Edel’s Land in the north-west; also to Nuyt’s Islands in the south, and the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north, which was named after General Carpenter.

Lesson IV.
TASMAN FINDS TASMANIA.

1    The Dutch did not like the look of the north-western parts of Australia, with their fierce, savage tribes of blacks; but they thought there might be some islands to the south of the Indian Ocean.

2 So a captain named Tasman was sent out from Java in the year 1642, with two ships. He first sailed away down to the south of the Indian Ocean, but found nothing.

3    Then he turned to the east, and after some weeks he suddenly came upon a rocky coast, behind which there were mountains with the highest trees he had ever seen.

4    This was the island of Tasmania, which was at first called Van Diemen’s Land, after the governor of Batavia. But long afterwards the white people of the island called it Tasmania, because they thought it should be named after the man who really found it.

5    The sailors of Tasman’s ships thought, that the people of the island must be giants.

On the trees they saw notches, seven feet apart, cut by the blacks for climbing by stretching up their hands and then drawing up their feet. These sailors thought the notches were only steps for the feet, and must be made for giants.

6 Tasman then sailed further to the east, and went along part of the coast of New Zealand, where he named one headland Cape Maria van Diemen. But none of the Dutch wanted to go and live either in Tasmania or in New Zealand.

Lesson V.
THE TASMANIAN BLACKS.

1    The Tasmanian blacks were not nearly so tall as the sailors of Tasman thought them to be. Indeed, they were shorter than the Australian blacks, and belonged to a different race, not unlike the negroes, having curly or frizzly hair, and a shiny, black skin.

2    Black people of the same kind are still to be found on islands of the Indian and

Pacific Oceans, mostly hiding away in dark parts of the forests. The Tasmanian blacks were also very shy, and would not make friends with the whites.

3    After the white people went to settle in Tasmania they often tried to be friendly with the blacks. Governor Davey got a friend to draw a picture showing that the whites ought to be kind to the blacks, and the blacks ought not to kill the whites. This was printed, and copies of it were stuck on the trees for the blacks to see.

4    Yet still the fighting went on. Tribes of blacks hiding in the bush would come out, now and then, and kill some lonely settler; and then the whites would take their guns, and kill as many blacks as they could find. A long line of riflemen tried to drive all the blacks into a corner of the island, but only one was caught.

5    At last a settler named Robinson began to search for the blacks in a friendly way, and, after five years of very dangerous work in tracking them through the bush, he collected them together. Houses were built for them on South Bruni Island* and in other places, where they were kindly treated. Yet they all died off. The last black woman lived till 1876.

Lesson VI.
DAMPIER LANDS ON THE WEST COAST.

1    Long after Tasman’s voyage an Englishman named Dampier lived for twelve days on the northwest coast of Australia along with some sailors from different countries. They were all fighting men who had sailed round the world looking for Spanish and Dutch ships to plunder.

2    But after its long voyage their own ship needed to be repaired, and so they landed at a place near the islands which are still called Buccaneers’, or Pirates’, Islands; but they did not go far inland.

3    When Dampier told his friends in England about the great southern land the King heard about it, and asked him to go back and examine its coasts properly.

4    So Dampier started in the year 1699, sailing in a little vessel called The Roebuck. He reached the coast at an inlet which he named Shark Bay, because he caught a very large shark in it.

5    Sailing along to the north-east he saw nearly a thousand miles of the coast, and sometimes made short trips inland to see what the country was like. But he found it all barren. The black natives looked wretched, and were very shy.

6    Dampier wrote a book about his voyages; and because he had seen the worst part of the coast, all the people in England thought Australia must be a desert island.

7    But they began to want to know more about it, and about the islands of the Pacific Ocean. It was on one of these islands that Robinson Crusoe lived all alone, and Dampier rescued him during one of his voyages. This man’s real name was Alexander Selkirk.

Lesson VII.
THE AUSTRALIAN BLACKS.

1    Dampier called the blacks whom he had seen in the north-western parts of Australia the most miserable wretches in the world. He said they had no houses, and hardly any food except fish, cockles, mussels, and periwinkles.

2    The blacks of that part of Australia, which is so dry and sandy, have no chance of growing big and strong; but in the southern and eastern parts of the island many of them are very hardy, and are able to travel long distances on foot without being tired.

3    Most of the tribes of blacks move about from place to place in search of opossums, native bears, wallabies, and kangaroos, for food; and those who live beside big rivers, like the Darling and Cooper’s Creek, have very clever tricks for catching fish and making canoes.

4    When they travel they usually carry fire sticks with them, but if their fires go out they know how to make flame by spinning a pointed rod of hard wood with their hands, and pressing the point against another piece of hard wood covered over with dry grass.

5    They flght a great deal among themselves, but their weapons are mostly used for killing animals. The boomerang is a piece of wood shaped something like the letter L. A skilful thrower can hit a duck on a lagoon and make the boomerang come back to him

6    They have barbed spears made of wood. Other pieces of wood are used to help them in throwing the spears. They also have many kinds of clubs, and hatchets with heads of hard, flinty stone.

7    The blacks are fond of dancing, and they paint themselves with pipeclay or red earth so as to frighten people. They have foolish notions about magic, and these cause most of their quarrels; but, as a rule, they are kind to one another.

Lesson VIII.
CAPTAIN COOK LANDS ON THE EAST COAST.

1    Captain Cook was the next Englishman to land in Australia; but he went to the east coast, and found it very different from the }and described by Dampier.

2    The spot on the south shore of Botany Bay, where Captain Cook first landed in Australia, is so close to Sydney that the people of that city can go to it very easily.

3    It is marked by a stone column, which was built in 1870—just one hundred years after Cook’s landing. On the column are two brass plates, one of which has an extract from Cook’s journal.

4    This tells how he found Botany Bay, and that his ship was anchored about two miles from the Heads, not far from the south shore.

5    At this place two blacks tried to stop the boat’s crew of The Endeavour, with Captain Cook, from going ashore. They held up long spears as if they would throw them, and a shot was fired to frighten them.

6 The British flag was unfurled at this spot, and Captain Cook took all the eastern half of Australia as a part of the British Empire.

Monument at Captain Cook’s Landing Place, Botany Bay.

7 He named the inlet Botany Bay, on account of the large number of new plants which were found near to the shore. The trees, shrubs, and flowers of Australia are, in very many cases, quite different from those which grow in England.

Lesson IX.
CAPTAIN COOK’S VOYAGE.

1    When Captain Cook was a boy his father, who worked on a farm in Yorkshire, sent him to serve in a shop. But he liked the sea better, and was allowed to sail in a small ship which carried coal from one seaport of England to another.

2    After he had been working in this trade for nine years he joined the Navy, and saw some fighting against the French in Canada. In that part of the world he learnt to explore coasts and make good maps of them.

3    He was sent on a long voyage to the Pacific Ocean, where he landed at Tahiti, and then sailed along New Zealand, stopping at several places, and making friends with the Maori natives.

4    Leaving New Zealand, he made for Tasmania, which had been seen a long time before by Tasman. But, going a little further to the north, he saw, instead, the coast of

Australia near Cape Howe, and began to sail along it, always going towards the north.

5    He stayed eight days at Botany Bay, so that he might see the country, and allow his friend, Mr. Banks (afterwards Sir Joseph Banks), who was a botanist, to gather plants.

6    Then he sailed away to the north, passing along the coast. But when he got in among the rocks of the great Barrier Reef, he was puzzled to find the channel, and The Endeavour struck heavily.

7    It was hard work to lighten the ship by throwing some heavy guns and other things overboard. At last she was got off the rock, but had to be taken into the mouth of the Endeavour River and repaired. She sailed through Torres Strait to the island of Timor, where many of the crew died of fever. But the rest got back to England with Captain Cook.

Lesson X.
THE EAST COAST AS SEEN BY CAPTAIN COOK.

1    The view which Captain Cook and his crew had of the east coast of Australia was a rather hurried one, so that many points and bays were missed. Some of the names given by Captain Cook were altered in later years.

2    He named the first cape which he saw Cape Hicks, after the officer who first espied it. It is either Cape Howe or a smaller cape near it. Close at hand is Gabo Island, where the lighthouse is now built.

3    To the north of this cape the whole coast of New South Wales is like a high, rocky wall, excepting in a few places where then are openings with sandy beaches.

4    The most easterly point is Cape Byron, and near it is Point Danger—a bold, rocky cape, beyond the present Queensland boundary.

5    Going further north Captain Cook passed by Sandy Cape and Cape Moreton, which are long sandspits at the ends of low-lying, sandy islands.

6    Then he saw and named Cape Palmerston, which is a kind of lonely mountain standing up like an island. There are several other high capes of the same kind,

7    After this the east coast is part of a long, jutting piece of land called York Peninsula, which lies very low.

8    Much of the coast in this place is swampy, and very unhealthy for people who live near it. The most northerly point of all is Cape York.

Lesson XI.
BASS AND FLINDERS MAKE BOATING TRIPS.

1    Nine years after his famous voyage to Australia Captain Cook was killed by some natives of the Sandwich Islands, who rushed his boat on the seashore.

2    But his book, telling about what he had seen, showed the English people that there was much good land in Australia, and that the east coast was c uite different from what Dampier had seen on the north-west.

3    So several ships w^ere sent out to Botany Bay, carrying many prisoners and a few soldiers under the command of Captain Phillip, after whom Port Phillip is named. More ships followed, and on one of these were two young men, a doctor named Bass and a midshipman, Matthew Flinders.

4    These two young men got the loan of a little boat named The Tom Thumb, and with a boy to help them they sailed out of Port Jackson into Botany Bay. Then they went along the coast for about forty miles south of Sydney, meeting with dangers from the stormy weather at sea, and from the blacks when they landed.

5    Bass then got the use of a whaleboat, and taking with him six men he went much further to the south. He saw the Shoalhaven River, entered Twofold Bay, and reached beyond Wilson’s Promontory. Sailing still further he took shelter from storms in Western Port, and also in Corner Inlet.

6    Being now almost sure that Tasmania was an island Bass got Flinders to join him in trying to make certain. They sailed in a little sloop called The Norfolk, and went right round Tasmania, proving it to be separate from Australia, and finding the Tamar River.

7 Bass then went off to South America, and no one knows what happened to him there.

Lesson XII.
FLINDERS SAILS ROUND THE COAST.

1    But Flinders went to England to show the maps which he had made to Sir Joseph Banks, who was a friend of King George III. He was then asked to sail right round Australia in an old warship, The Investigator.

2    He sailed to the south-west coast of Australia, and starting from King George’s Sound he passed along the Great Australian Bight, and into two great inlets, which he named Spencer Gulf and the Gulf of St. Vincent. He also found Kangaroo Island.

3    Near this island he met with a French vessel which had gone out to explore the coast.

As England had been at war with France when he started, he got ready for a fight.

4    The French captain was quite friendly, but Flinders called that part of the coast Encounter Bay. He had with him as a midshipman his young cousin, John Franklin, afterwards Sir John.

5    But he was just a little too late to be the first to examine Port Phillip, which had been entered a few weeks before by Lieutenant Bowen in a little ship, The Lady Nelson, from Sydney.

6    Passing through Torres Strait the old ship. The Investigator, was found to be unfit for the long voyage to England, so Flinders had to return to Sydney.

7    After this he had many troubles. In trying to get back to England in a small vessel he was wrecked on a low island of the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, and had to send a small cutter back to Sydney for help.

8    He started again from Sydney in a very small vessel named The Cumberland, but was captured by the French at Mauritius, and kept for nearly six years. He reached England at last, and wrote a book ^bout his voyage.

Lesson XIII.
THE SOUTH COAST AS SEEN BY FLINDERS.

1    When Captain Flinders was on his way along the south coast of Australia a sad accident took place, in which Mr. Thistle, one of the officers of The Investigator, and a boat’s crew were drowned.

2    For this reason the Captain called the nearest cape, which marks the turning point into Spencer Gulf, by the name of Cape Catastrophe.

3    The vessel at the time was lying near an island which is still known as Thistle Island, after the name of the drowned officer. A very large harbour on this part of the southern coast is named Port Lincoln.

4    Many years after the accident at Thistle Island pieces of sheet copper were picked up in the scrub at the back of the beach, and were found to fit on to another piece which a man had in his house at Port Lincoln.

5    They proved to be parts of a notice left by Captain Flinders, fixed to a post, telling of the accident. No one knows for certain the words in the part that has been lost, for Captain Flinders did not mention the copper tablet in his book of travels.

Memorial of the accident near Cape Catastrophe.

The shaded parts show the pieces of copper which were found; the lighter portions are filled in by guesswork, but the last word has never been guessed.

6 The Flinders Range, near Spencer Gulf, and the Mount Lofty Range, near the Gulf of St Vincent, were seen by Captain Flinders, and marked with great care on his maps, which were taken from him by the French. The names of the gulfs were altered in France to Bonaparte and Josephine.

Lesson XIV.
WENTWORTH CLIMBS THE BLUE MOUNTAINS.

1    It was a young man named Wentworth who, along with two friends, first climbed over the Blue Mountains, and began exploring the interior of Australia to the west of Sydney.

2    These mountains are very steep, and the range in nearly every part looks like a high wall of rock. Several parties had tried to get over to the western side, but all had failed.

3    At length, in searching along the range for a chance to get across, Wentworth and his two friends came upon a place where there was a sloping piece of ground that led more than half way up the side of the rocky wall, and so on to a landing place, where the cliff was all jumbled up and broken.

i It was very hard work climbing over the great broken pieces of rock, but they did not give in. When they got to the top they had a fine view, and then passed down by a sloping piece of wooded and grassy country to the district in which the town of Bathurst now stands.

5    The governor of New South Wales, whose name was Macquarie, was glad to hear of their success, and he soon got men to begin making a road across the Blue Mountains to Bathurst.

6    Many squatters sent flocks of sheep over to the western side by this road. Some merino sheep, which came from Spain, had been brought to the colony, and the numbers of the flocks were growing fast, so that more land was needed.

7    Wentworth became a famous man, known as Sir William Wentworth. His statue is in Sydney University, and the town of Wentworth, at the place where the Darling joins the Murray, is named after him.

Lesson XV.
HUME AND HOVELL GO TO GEELONG.

1    Hamilton Hume, born at Parramatta not many years after the founding of Sydney, was, at the age of twenty-seven, one of the best bushmen in New South Wales.

2    When Governor Brisbane arrived at Sydney, Hume was asked to lead a party overland for the purpose of finding what kind of country was near to Port Phillip and Western Port.

3    There was some trouble about getting horses, but a squatter named Hovell offered to lend several, if he could go as one of the leaders of the party. They started from Lake George along with six prisoners, who were to be set free if they did good service.

4    The Murrumbidgee was in flood ; but Hume swam across it, taking the end of a cord in his mouth, and then the provisions were pulled over in punts, which consisted of their two drays without the wheels, and made watertight by means of tarpaulins. Then on some

high ground they came in sight of a great line of mountains, which they named the Australian Alps.

5    They got across the Murray (which they called the Hume) in the same way as they had crossed the Murrumbidgee, and passing-down to the south-west they found the Mitta Mitta, the Ovens and the Goulburn, all of which flow into the Murray.

6    Climbing a peak of the Great Divide they failed to get a glimpse of the sea, and so they called the hill Mount Disappointment. They passed Mount Macedon, which they named Mount Wentworth, and so they got on across the country where Bacchus Marsh now is, and then within sight of the shores of Port Phillip, until they came to Corio Bay.

7    They asked the blacks what was the name of this bay, and were told it was Geelong. Hovell thought it was Western Port, and had a hot dispute with Hume about the question.

8    They all got safely back to Sydney, and not only were the six prisoners set free, but each had some land given to him to start farming.

Lesson XVI.
CAPTAIN STURT TRACES TWO RIVERS.

1    Captain Sturt was the first who made very long journeys in the inland parts of Australia. He was not a sea captain, but belonged to a regiment of soldiers with whom he served in Canada, Spain, and France. As an ensign he hoisted the British flag in Paris when the Allies entered that city in 1815.

2    Soon after arriving in Sydney he was sent along with Hume to see if some swamps, which had stopped Mr. Oxley on the Macquarie River, were dried up. There was a drought in Australia at that time.

3    He found the western plains dry, but the reeds were so thick that he could not pass through. So he struck out to the west, and found a large river which he called the Darling, after the Governor of New South Wales.

4    Next year—1829 — he got some bullock drays, one of which carried a boat, and he went away over the southern hills to the upper waters of the Murrumbidgee River.

5    There were ten men in the whole party. When they found the channel of the river deep enough they made a depot, and started to row down with the current.

6    Every evening they made their camp on the bank of the river, and Mr. Macleay, who was collecting specimens for nature study, roamed about the country, making friends with the blacks whenever he could.

7    In this way they passed safely down into the Murray River, and noted where it is joined by the Darling. They only saw a small part of this latter river, because they did not want to break a fishing weir made by the blacks. They went down to Lake Alexandrina, and after many troubles they returned safely to Sydney

Lesson XVII.

/ L

THE AUSTRALIA FELIX OF MITCHELL

1    Near the western boundary of Victoria is a bay named Portland Bay. Some sheep were landed at this place in 1828 by the brothers Henty, who had sailed from Tasmania.

2    The station at Portland Bay was visited in 1836 by Major Mitchell, who came from Sydney, having passed down the River Murrumbidgee.

3    He crossed first the Murray and then two other rivers named the Loddon and the Wimmera. He did not know that white men were living at Portland Bay, and was very much surprised to see huts.

4    His waggons carried light boats, and when he came upon the Glenelg and Wannon Rivers, close to the present western boundary of Victoria, he was able to sail down to the sandy bar near the sea.

5    The country to the east of the Pyrenees, through which the Campaspe, Loddon, and Avoca Rivers flow, was so very fine that he called it Australia Felix, or Happy Australia.

Lesson XVIII.

EYRE’S JOURNEY TO THE WEST.

1    One of the early settlers in South Australia was a young man named Edward John Eyre. He went to Sydney first, but crossed over through part of Victoria with stock, and became fond of travelling. So he offered to explore the places lying to the north of Spencer Gulf.

2    He started from Adelaide in 1840, taking with him some horses and a small flock of sheep. His party was stopped by coming upon Lake Torrens, the bed of which was nearly dry but covered with salt. He also saw Lake Eyre, but the whole country was very barren.

3    Turning to the westward from the head of Spencer Gulf, he tried to take his party along the Great Australian Bight; but he could not go far owing to the want of water. Then he made up his mind to do a very dangerous thing, for he was ashamed to return without having gone far.

4    He left all the rest of his party to go back, and with only his friend Baxter and three blacks he set out for Western Australia. But behind the high cliffs of the Bight he found that the country was fearfully dry, and he nearly died of thirst.

5    Poor Baxter was shot one night by wild blacks, and two of Eyre’s blacks cleared out the same night, showing that they must have had some hand in the murder.

6    But Wyllie was faithful, and he trudged dong with Eyre, till at last they came in sight of a whaling ship near the shore, from which they got food and water.

7    They reached King George’s Sound safely, although the wild blacks were watching them for a long distance.

Lesson XIX.
CAPTAIN STURT IN CENTRAL AUSTRALIA.

1    The dry parts of Central Australia can be most safely crossed by using camels, which do not need a drink of water every day. Captain Sturt did not know this, and when he started from a station on the Darling to explore the far north, he had only horses, bullocks, and sheep.

2    He camped for a long time, in very hot weather, near to the spot where Broken Hill now is, and here his surveyor, Mr. Poole, died. But when he tried to go further north he was stopped by the drought, for no water could be found.

3    Rain fell at last, and the party made for the interior. They got into a very bad part of Central Australia, which they named the Stony Desert, because the ground was nearly all covered with broken pieces of stone, so that the horses soon got tired picking their way among them.

4    The accounts which Captain Sturt had to

give of what he had seen in Central Australia were not at all good, but he had made up his mind    to    find out    whether there    was    a

central sea,    or any    good country ;    so    he

started once more.

5    This time he went a little further in a northerly direction, and found a fine river named Cooper’s Creek, There was some good country near this river.

6    But, going still further north, he got into the Stony Desert again, and became very ill, so that he had to be brought for many miles back on a dray.

7    Then    his    eyes began to fail on account    of

the glare    of    the sun,    and he was in    a sad

plight when the party got back to Adelaide. But he lived for a good while longer in England, where he published interesting stories of his travels. His eyesight was always weak from the effect of the sun in Australia.

Lesson XX
BURKE AND WILLS CROSS AUSTRALIA.

1    Burke and Wills were leaders of a party which started from the Royal Park in Melbourne for the purpose of crossing Australia from the south to the north.

2    On reaching Cooper’s Creek, they made a depot with small huts, and then the leaders, along with two men named Gray and King, went forward with horses to travel to the Gulf of Carpentaria, going as quickly as possible, because they had not much food with them.

3    They got safely across Australia to the sea waters of the Gulf, but had such a hard time on the return journey that Gray died before reaching the depot at Cooper’s Creek, and both Burke and Wills were so weak that they could hardly walk.

4    It was a pity they forgot to cut any marks on the trees at the depot, because a relief party, which had just left the place, came back shortly afterwards with fresh

The Burke and Wills Expedition leaving the Royal Park, Melbourne,

INSERTED BY PERMISSION OF THE PROPRIETORS OF THE “LEADER.”

supplies of food, But even the relief party forgot to make any marks on the trees.

5    Having no food left, Burke, Wills, and King had gone to live with some blacks, who treated them kindly, showing them how to gather nardoo seed, and roast it for food. But it was not good for white men to live on.

6    Although very weak like the others, Wills, who was a young man, went back to the depot, but seeing no one there, and no marks on the trees, he turned back to look for the others again. He found them, but was too tired to go in search of the blacks ; he was laid in a little hut, where he died.

7 On the morning of the third day of looking for the blacks, Burke also died, and then King was all alone. By good fortune he found a bag of nardoo, left by the blacks, and then he came upon their camp, where they were kind to him, until he was found by a rescue Darty led by A. W. Howitt from Melbourne.

Lesson XXI.

STUART CROSSES AUSTRALIA.

1    Stuart started from Adelaide to cross Australia just three months after Burke and Wills had set out from Melbourne. He was a very good bushman, and knew how to find water almost as well as the blacks did.

2    He had, many years before, been one of Captain Sturt’s party in central Australia, and he once saved their lives by watching a bird alight at a distant waterhole. He felt sure there was water at that place from the way the bird few straight to it.

3    Before trying to cross the continent he made four journeys to the interior, during the last of which he reached the very centre of Australia, and raised a flag on a hill which he named Central Mount Sturt, after his old chief, but his friends put another letter into the name, and called it Central Mount Stuart, after himself.

4    After all his practice as a bushman and explorer, he was ready to make a start for crossing from south to north in i860.

5    He had the bad luck to get into a very dry region, which he named Sturt’s Plains, and, as he never would advance without being sure of finding water, he had to return. But this made him all the more eager to try again.

6 Within four weeks of getting back to Adelaide he started once more, but had a horse accident, which kept him back for five weeks; then he led his party straight to the point where he had turned back, and at last found water at two places.

7    So he reached a stream leading to the Roper River, from which he crossed over, through some hilly country, to the Adelaide River, and so went on to the Gulf of Van Diemen. He brought his whole party back safely, although he himself was very weak. He got a present of ¿2,000 as a reward for his success.

Lesson XXII.

JOURNEYS BETWEEN EAST AND WEST.

1    A telegraph line was made along Stuart’s track, from Adelaide to Port Darwin, and finished in the year 1872. After this the people of Australia could hear news from Europe, and send messages every day, instead of having to wait for weeks while ships were bringing out letters and newspapers.

2    Another benefit that arose from the making of the telegraph line was that the task of crossing portions of Australia from the east to the west, or in other directions, became easier.

3    The attempt made by Dr. Leichhardt in the early days to cross Australia from east to west, cost the lives of the brave Doctor and of the ten men who were with him.

4    He left Brisbane in 1847, and passed away into the interior. On leaving the furthest western sheep station of Queensland he was full of hope, but nothing has ever been heard of any of the party since that time.

5    After the telegraph line was made, houses were built at the telegraph stations, with officers in charge, so there was always plenty of food to be got at intervals along the line. Then there were plenty of schemes for passing across from one side of Australia to the other.

6    Major Warburton, with a long string of camels, went from one telegraph station to the coast of Western Australia, through some of the worst country in Australia, and Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Forrest made the passage from the west to another part of the line. Giles also made journeys across at other places.

7    Forrest had passed across from the west some years before, keeping to the north of Eyre’s tracks, and finding that the country inland was in many places better than any that Eyre had found.

TUB EASTERN HALF OF AUSTRALIA.

Lesson XXIIL

EARLY DAYS OF SYDNEY.

1    Sydney was founded on the twenty-sixth day of January, 1788. This was nearly eighteen years after Cook had sailed along the eastern coast of Australia, and had found that the land was good for white people to live in.

2    The holiday, which is kept by the people of Australia on the twenty-sixth of January in each year, is called Foundation Day, and is intended to show they do not forget that their country was founded on that day of the year 1788.

3    Captain Phillip arrived at Botany Bay on January 20, in command of a number of ships, some of them bringing soldiers in charge of prisoners, or convicts, as they were called, while others were filled with stores for food and clothing, and with building material.

4    The waters of Botany Bay were too shallow for ships to go very near the shore, so Captain Phillip sailed out in a small boat into the Pacific Ocean. He turned into the entrance of an inlet which Captain Cook had seen, and had named Port Jackson after a friend in England. This he found to be the finest and most beautiful harbour in the world.

5    The land near a small bay of this harbour was chosen for the site of a town, because the water was deep, and a nice stream ran into it. This bay was named Sydney Cove, after Lord Sydney, the British Minister who sent the ships out from England.

6    From Sydney Cove the huts were built in lines going southward, and the winding tracks between them became fine streets, two of which were named George Street, after King George III., and Pitt Street, after his Prime Minister, *

Lesson XXIV.
THE COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES.

1    A few miles to the north of Sydney the early settlers found a large inlet, which, on account of its shape, they called Broken Bay.

2    At the present time the railway leading to Newcastle goes over a long iron bridge which spans a narrow part of Broken Bay.

3    Newcastle is the second largest port in New South Wales. It is visited by hundreds of steamers which carry coal to all parts of Australia and to the other side of the Pacific Ocean. Many steamers go there to get coal for their own engines.

4    A few years after Sydney was founded an officer named Shortlands sailed past the cliffs at this place into the River Hunter. As he looked at the cliffs he saw something black jutting out from them. This proved to be coal, and the opening of the mines afterwards made the place a very busy port.

5    Further to the north is Port Stephens, where there is a large and fine harbour. It is not much used, excepting when storms come on, and the ships passing along the coast have to take refuge.

6    Another harbour of the same kind is Port Macquarie, named after the Governor of New South Wales who made the road over the Blue Mountains.

7    To the south oi Sydney there is another harbour called Jervis Bay, after the same great Admiral whose name was taken by Flinders for Cape Jervis in South Australia. Near Cape Howe and the Victorian border is Twofold Bay.

Lesson XXV.
DISTRICTS SOUTH OF SYDNEY.

1    At the western end of Port Jackson is the old town of Parramatta, which at one time was called Rose Hill. Its name means, in the language of the blacks, u The Head of the Waters.” Very fine oranges are grown here, and tne district is said to have the largest orange trees in the world.

2    In going south from Sydney to Melbourne the railway crosses over the hills of the

Dividing Range not far from the city of Goub burn.    A branch railway goes off from this

station to Cooma, and to the high lands of the Monaro table land, in the south of New South Wales.

3    On the lower land, towards the west, the crossing place over the Murrumbidgee Rivei is at the town of Wagga Wagga. Great numbers of sheep are kept on the stations of this country, and there are also many farms,

4    Albury is on the northern or New South Wales bank of the River Murray. It is the chief stopping place on the Interstate Railway, and passengers must change trains at it, because the rails in New South Wales are 4ft. 8Jin. apart, while those of Victoria are 5ft. 3m. apart.

5    All the country to the north of the River Murray, through which the Murrumbidgee and smaller streams run, is known as Riverina. It is nearly all flat, much of it being covered with salt bush and used for grazing sheep.

The central town of this district is Deniliquin, which has a railway crossing over the Murray and going to Melbourne.. Large numbers of shearers pass through this and other towns of Riverina during the wool season.

Lesson XXVI.
SOME OTHER PARTS OF NEW SOUTH WALES.

1 Some of the finest land in New South Wales is in the valley of the Hunter River. The district has a large trade, the centre of which is at Maitland, a town having two divisions, East and West Maitland.

2    Further north, on the railway going towards Queensland, are three large towns in the midst of fine high country, from which the rivers run down to the Pacific Ocean on one side, and to the Darling River on the other. These are Tamworth, Armidale, and Tenter-held.

3    On the River Darling, at the place where Sturt on his first trip from Sydney turned, back upon his tracks, is the town of Bourke. Sturt cahed the place Fort Bourke, after Sir Richard Bourke. P here are some artesian wells near Bourke, from which the water spurts out of the ground like a fountain.

4 At the meeting place of the two great rivers, Murray and Darling, is the town of

Wentworth, called after Sir William Went* worth, who crossed the Blue Mountains.

5    The Barrier ranges run close to the boundary of New South Wales and South Australia. One peak was named by Sturt Mount Gipps, after the same governor whose name was given to Gippsland.

6    It was on the Mount Gipps station that a boundary rider found silver and lead ores on the top of a ridge which was called Broken Hill on account of its strange shape.

Lesson XXVII.
THE MERINO SHEEP IN NEW SOUTH WALES.

1 The King of Spain many years ago made a law that anyone caught taking merino sheep out of Spain would be put to death. 1 his breed of sheep grows very fine wool, and as the Spaniards had the best flocks in the world, they wanted to keep the merino wool trade all to themselves.

2 But another king of Spain arose after a while who was very friendly to King George the Third of England, because the British had done him some good service. So, as a very

Sheep Shearing by Machinery.


great favour, he sent some merino sheep for a present to King George.

3 The climate of England is not suited to the merino, which first came from hot countries of Asia; and the King only kept the sheep as pets in his park.

4    Now it happened that, at that time, Captain Macarthur, an officer who had taken up land in New South Wales, was on a visit to England, and when King George heard that he was looking for a kind of sheep suited for a warm climate, he sold a few so that the Captain might obtain some.

5    The merino sheep were safely landed in New South Wales. At Camden, a few miles to the south of Sydney, where the Governor had given Macarthur a large grant of land, there were soon many hundreds of healthy sheep and lambs.

6    After this the Australian colonists were able to send wool in exchange for many things that they wanted to get from England, and as the price of the best merino wool at that time was as high as five or six shillings per pound, some of the squatters, or sheep farmers, became rich.

Lesson XXVIII.
THE FIRST GOLD DIGGINGS.

1    It was not far from the town of Bathurst that the first gold-field in Australia was found, at the junction of two creeks flowing into the Macquarie River. At the time when the road over the Blue Mountains was made, some specimens showing specks of gold had been picked up.

\l    .    T

3 He thought perhaps he might do better by returning to the Bathurst district and looking for gold there, because he remembered that the rocks, slates, and quartz reefs of that place were very much like those of California.

* So he took his passage in a ship which sailed for Sydney, On arriving there in the early part of the year 1851, he bought a


2    A man named Edward Hargreaves, who had lived a long time on a sheep station near Bathurst, went off to California, in North America, to try to make his fortune digging for gold. But he got a bad claim, and was not able to save much.

horse ana some provisions with money lent by friends. Soon he was riding over the Blue Mountains and on to the hills at Summerhill, which make the watershed dividing off the creeks of the Macquarie River from those of the Lachlan.

5    He took a boy with him on the morning when he set out to make his first trial for gold, and this boy was very useful in showing a short cut by a track which he knew through the scrub to the junction of the two creeks. At this place the very first pan of washdirt showed good gold.

6    Returning to Sydney, Hargreaves got a promise of a reward from the Government if he showed where to find a gold-field. A large party was made up with about thirty men, and shortly after that the place was very busy.

7    They took out ten thousand pounds’ worth of gold in a fortnight, and named the gold-field the Ophir, after the famous land of gold which is mentioned in the Bible. A large reward was given to Hargreaves,

Lesson XXIX.
EARLY DAYS OF MELBOURNE.

'    1 Melbourne was founded by two settlers

from Tasmania named Batman and Fawkner,

' . . . r , who came across Bass Strait in little vessels,

The Rebecca and The Enterprise. Fawkner had

been with Collins at Sorrento in 1803, when

he was a little boy.

2    These two men were both in search of good land for sheep, because the squatters oi Tasmania wanted a larger area of pasture, and they knew that the brothers Henty had found some at Portland, on the other side of the strait.

3    The Rebecca, with Batman on board, anchored, in the year 1835, close to the point where Williamstown now is, and a party went ashore to look at the country near the Saltwater River, the Merri Creek and the Yarra River.

4    Batman fixed upon a site on the Yarra, quite close to Hobson’s Bay, as “the place for a village,” and then went back to Tasmania

to get ready for bringing over a flock of sheep and materials for building his house.

5    But Fawkner, crossing over in The Enterprise a few weeks later, took with him horses, ploughs, seed-wheat, and many things for building. He sailed his little vessel right up the Yarra, and landed its cargo where the wharves now are.

6    Some of Batman’s men, who had been left behind on the shores of Port Phillip, came and camped at the same place. They had with them Buckley, the wild white man, who knew the language of the blacks.

7    The place where all the settlers were camped was named Collins Street, after the first Governor of Tasmania ; and the next street, further from the river, Bourke Street, after Sir Richard Bourke, the Governor oi New South Wales.

Lesson XXX
SOME HARBOURS OF VICTORIA.

For some years after Melbourne had been founded, the seaport of Geelong, on Corio Bay, where Hume and Hovell had rested after their journey from Sydney, was just as busy as Melbourne, and seemed likely to be the chief town of the Port Phillip district. But it is now very much smaller than Melbourne.

2    The western seaport of Victoria is Portland, where the brothers Henty formed their sheep station in 1834. It had been a favourite place for ships engaged in the seal fisheries to-stay at. A fine breakwater has been built at Portland, so that ships are safe in all weathers.

3 But the chief seaport of the Western District is Warrnambool, which also has a large breakwater to guard ships against the big waves from the Southern Ocean.

4    just to the east of Port Phillip there is an inlet called Western Port, which was entered by Bass. Some settlers were landed on its shores a few months before Melbourne was founded; but they failed to make a town.

5    On the eastern coasts of Victoria there are no towns with deep water harbours ; but steamers can pass through the entrance to the Gippsland Lakes.

6    For some of these there are landing places at Sale, on the western side, and at Bairnsdale, on the eastern.

Lesson XXXI.
WESTERN DISTRICTS OF VICTORIA,

1 Many of the towns of Victoria were founded by gold diggers. Gold was found by James Esmond at Clunes, in July 1851, and by other men at Buninyong during the next month.

9 Between these two places the richest diggings in the world were found at Golden Point OH the Yarrowee Creek. This is now part of the Site of the city of Ballarat.

3 Further to the west gold was found at Ararat, and at Stawell, where deep sinking was firs*; tried in Victoria, and quartz with gold was brought up from a great depth, sj

^ To the east of Clunes is a large area of hilly country, in which there are hundreds of quartz reefs. Two of the mining towns are Oaylesford and Creswick.

5    Going north from Clunes we come to Maryborough, where gold is got from the old beds of streams now buried very deep in the ground. Huge pumps are at work keeping the ground dry for the miners.

6    Still further north is Dunolly, where the famous “Welcome Stranger7' nugget of gold was found in i86g. It was so heavy that two men could hardly lift it, and it was worth ^10,000.

7    All these places have many farms round

them at the present day.    In the Western

District of Victoria there are other large farming areas. Hamilton is the central town; and Colac lies further to the south.

® In the north-west is a large tract of country known as the Mallee, because millions of mallee trees—a small kind of gum tree^— cover the ground. Horsham is a centre for the Mallee trade.

Lesson XXXIL
EASTERN AND RIVER TOWNS OF VICTORIA.

1    The railway which runs north from Melbourne to Castlemaine, Bendigo, and Echuca may be taken as the boundary line between western and eastern Victoria.

2    Some diggers, in 1852, found gold forty miles north-east of Clunes, near a hill called Mount Alexander, and on the banks of Forest Creek the town of Castlemaine was founded,

3    Very deep mines are worked at Bendigo, further north. Some of the workings are nearly a mile down from the surface of the ground. About forty thousand people were camped here in tents and huts during the year 1852. The place is now a fine city.

4    On the main road from Melbourne to Sydney, not far from the Murray, is Beech-worth, the mining centre of north-eastern Victoria.

5    The chief towns on the Interstate Raib way are Wangaratta and Wodonga. The latter is on the left bank of the River Murray opposite to Albury.

6    Many of the river steamers which ply on the River Murray make their chief stopping place at Echuca, where there are large wharves.

7    River steamers pass right down the Murray as far as Lake Alexandria, in South Australia. Other stopping places in Victoria are Swan Hill and Mildura.

Gold Mining at Bendigo. (Surface works of a mine, showing hollow, from which part of a reef has been dug out.)

Lesson XXXIII.
EARLY DAYS OF ADELAIDE.

1    Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, was founded by some settlers who came from London to that part of Australia because they had read reports that the land near Mount Lofty was good.

2    Flinders marked Mount Lofty on his map, when he saw it from Kangaroo Island; but the position did not agree with that of the hill which Sturt took to be Mount Lofty, when he passed down the River Murray in his boat.

3    So Captain Barker, who belonged to the same regiment of soldiers as Captain Sturt, was sent to find out the correct position of Mount Lofty. He found that the hill seen by Sturt lay a little to the east of Mount Lofty. It was afterwards named Mount Barker.

1 When he got to the Murray mouth he swam across a channel all alone, and the blacks killed him with spears. But the other members of his party went to Sydney, and reported

Î^ORTH TERRACE, ADELAIDE (showing Public Library, Art Galleries, University Exhibition

Building and School of 'dines).

that there was good land on both sides of Mount Lofty.

5    A company was formed in London called the South Australian Company, and some ships were sent out with settlers, some of whom at first landed at Kangaroo Island.

6    Then Captain Hindmarsh arrived in the warship Buffalo, and became first Governor of South Australia. He was one of Lord Nelson’s officers, and first became famous as a boy for saving a ship at the battle of the Nile when the French ship blew up and the brave boy Casabianca was killed»

7    A square in the city is named after him, and the main street after King William IV., whose queen was Queen Adelaide, and gave her name to the city.

Lesson XXXIV.
SOME PARTS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

1    The chief seaport of South Australia is Port Adelaide, which lies about eight miles from Adelaide beside a short river or arm of the sea on the eastern side of the Gulf of St. Vincent.

2    The early settlers landed at Glenelg, about ten miles to the south of Port Adelaide. The place was named Holdfast Bay, because the anchor of the Governor’s ship held fast when put down. But the sea in a high wind was too rough for a harbour.

3    On the other great gulf of South Australia, named Spencer Gulf, there is a seaport at which a large trade is done for the silver and lead mines of Broken Hill. This is Port Pirie, where there are some of the largest smelting works in the world.

4    At the head of Spencer Gulf there is a long narrow inlet, up which Captain Flinders sailed in a small boat until the channel became shallow and muddy. At a deep part of this inlet is Port Augusta.

5    Besides silver and lead a great deal of copper is smelted close to the shores of Spencer Gulf. The seaport for the copper mining trade

is Wallaroo.

6    Within sight of the place where Flinders met the French Captain Baudin in Encounter Bay is Victor Harbour, which has a large breakwater, but has now only a small trade. Further to the east are two small seaport towns named Beachport and Kingston.

7    It is a strange fact that the most northerly seaport of Australia belongs to South Australia. 1 his is Port Darwin, named after Charles Darwin, who studied the animals of Northern Australia, and became a famous man.

Lesson XXXV.
OTHER PARTS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA,

1 hrom Adelaide about an hour’s journey by train on the northern railway line takes us to Gawler, and further north a branch line leads to Kapunda, where the first copper mines of South Australia were found.

2    The most famous copper mines in Australia were at a town called Kooringa, but generally known as the Burra. The rich copper ore wa9 taken out of a large hole in the ground just like a quarry.

3    The deep copper mines near Spencer Gulf, although not so rich, have lasted much longer than the Burra. T hese are at Moonta and Kadina, quite close to the seaport of Wallaroo.

4    All over South Australia there are small towns in the midst of farms, a large part of this State being used for growing wheat-

5    A few miles to the east of Adelaide is Mount Barker, a pretty town lying close to the hill which was seen by Sturt when he went down the Murray in a boat and thought he had seen the peak which Flinders had called Mount Lofty.

6    In the south-eastern corner of the State there is some very rich soil mostly made up by the eruptions of an old volcano, or burning mountain. The centre of this district is the town of Mount Gambier.

Lesson XXXV L
EARLY DAYS OF BRISBANE.

] Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, lies on the River Brisbane, which flows into Moreton Bay about five hundred miles to the north of Sydney.

2    Mr. Oxley, the surveyor, was sent in 1823 to find a new place for a convict station, and he sailed away up the Queensland coast far beyond Moreton Bay. On his way back he went ashore, and was surprised to learn from the blacks that they had two white men living with them.

3    These men proved to have been wrecked on the Queensland coast and, the blacks being kind to them, they had settled down to live in the country.

4    They showed Mr. Oxley the River Brisbane, and he saw at once that its banks were suited for a town.

5    For nearly twenty years after Brisbane was founded it was used for nothing but a place of punishment for the worst of the

rr*

prisoners from Sydney. If any prisoner was very unruly he was sent to Brisbane, where there was a treadmill, and a “cat1' was used for flogging men. This was a very evil time in the history of Queensland.

6 But after the year 1842, when free settlers were allowed to enter Brisbane and to take up land near the river, the colony of Queensland soon made progress.

Lesson XXXVII.
FIRST SETTLERS IN QUEENSLAND.

1    While Brisbane was still a small village a number of squatters, who had found fine pastoral country in New South Wales to the north of the Liverpool Range, passed over still further north with sheep and cattle to take up land on the Darling Downs.

2    This very fine, high district had been found by Allan Cunningham when searching for plants in the year 1827. Lie was a botanist and loved to find new kinds of trees, flowers.

and shrubs in a land so little known as Australia was at that time.

3 A rush of gold diggers set in some years

Artesian Well (water spouting out under pressure from below)

later, and thousands of men went to the valley of the Fitzroy River, which flows into Iveppel Bay.

4 Some of the men who went to dig for gold could not find any; but they saw the country was good, and settled down near Rockhampton.

5    The Mary River also flows through gold bearing country, and at a place called Gympie, not far from Maryborough, a large gold-field was opened up, where very many of the diggers were lucky.

6    Good country was found by Dr. Leichhardt in T.844 near the Rivers Burdekin, Mitchell, and Gilbert. In the valleys of these rivers runs were taken up by the squatters for large droves of cattle.

7    Dr. Leichhardt found a very large area of good country in Queensland before he started on his fatal journey with the object of crossing from one side of Australia to the other.

d Much of the land in western Queensland, which at one time was only used for grazing cattle, now carries large flocks of sheep. Some of the stations have artesian wells, from which the water spurts out to a great height above the surface of the ground.

Lesson XXXVIII.
TROPICAL QUEENSLAND.

1    A little to the north of Cape Capricorn, where the tropic of Capricorn crosses the Queensland coast, is Rockhampton, at the head of Keppel Bay. It is the seaport for a large district, in which sugar cane and many tropical plants are grown. Near at hand is the famous Mount Morgan gold mine.

2    Much gold has also been taken from the mines at Charters Towers. The same district grows a large amount of sugar cane, and its seaport is named Townsville.

3    Further to the north is the Endeavour River, where Captain Cook’s ship was mended after having struck a rock. The port at this place is called Cooktown, in memory of Captain Cook’s escape.

4    No one has ever been able to find the cannons which were thrown over the side of the ship so as to make her lighter, when she lay on the rock.

5    Queensland has a very long coastline and quite a number of ports. Opposite Great Sandy Island, which lies midway between Brisbane and Rockhampton, there are Maryborough and Bundaberg.

6    Midway between Rockhampton and Townsville is Mackay. All these ports send out a good deal of sugar from the fields and mills close at hand.

Lesson XXXIX
OTHER PARTS OF QUEENSLAND.

1    From Brisbane small steamers can pass up the Brisbane River as far as the town of Ipswich, which is sometimes called the Parramatta of Brisbane.

2    High up on the Dividing Range to the west is Toowoomba. At this town the nights are nearly always cool, and many people from Brisbane go there for their health. Warwick is on high ground close to the border of New South Wales.

3    Much gold has been found between Brisbane and Rockhampton, and the chief goldfield is at a place called Gympie.

4    Gold is also found in plenty in the deep mines of Charters Towers. This town is about as far north as Townsville, which is its seaport.

5    I o the south-east of the Gulf of Carpentaria is another gold-field, the centre of which is the town of Croydon.

6    Many tin mines have been opened up in the hilly district a little further to the north. Near the ridge of the Dividing Range at this place is the town of Herberton.

7    Although this town is far within the tropics, yet its climate is not very hot because it stands so high above the level of the sea.

Lesson XL.
EARLY DAYS OF HOBART.

1    Hobart, the capital of Tasmania, lies on the River Derwent, which flows into Storm Bay on the south side of the island.

2    It was founded more than a hundred years ago, at a time when the British were at war with the French. Captain Baudin, the French officer who met with Flinders in Encounter Bay, had passed through Bass Strait, and the British Government feared the French might make a colony on one side or the other.

3    So Colonel David Collins was sent, with a large party of soldiers and convicts, to raise the British flag and to settle either in the south of Australia or in Tasmania.

4    He tried the land at Sorrento, near the eastern Head of Port Phillip ; but it was too sandy. He then crossed over to Tasmania.

5    First he made a beginning at Risdon, but on finding that the place was not suitable for

Mimi*

a town he shifted to the present site, just at the foot of Mount Wellington.

6    A few men had already been landed at Risdon, under the command of an officer named Bowen, who had been sent from Sydney in The Lady Nelson, the first ship that entered Port Phillip. These men were shifted, along with the others, to Hobart.

7    A large tribe of about two hundred blacks came near the town, and the soldiers, fearing they meant an attack, fired at them and killed many. Then began the “Black War’’ which did not end until only a few of the blacks were left.

Lesson XLI.
MORE ABOUT TASMANIA.

1 On the north side of Tasmania the River Tamar flows into Bass Strait through a long and very fine inlet of the sea. This river is formed by the North Esk and the South Esk, and at the place where these two join, in a deep valley, lies the town of Launceston.

2    Launceston is the chief centre of the trade between Australia and Tasmania, and railways connect it with the middle and south of the island.

3    Tin is found among the wild, hilly country in the north-western part of Tasmania, a place called Mount Bischoff being the most famous tin-field. A railway brings large quantities of black tin ore down from this hilly district to Emu Bay on the north coast, where the port is named Burnie.

4    Apples are grown in large quantities in Tasmania, because the soil and climate suit the fruit so well. Large ocean-going steamers visit Hobart each year to take away shipments of apples for the London market.

5    Among the apple orchards one of the best known places is the pretty town of New Norfolk, from which small steamers ply down the Derwent River to the wharves at Hobart, and into other parts of Storm Bay.

6    The name Zeehan has been chosen for the chief centre of a silver mining district among the very rugged hilly country of western Tasmania. This was the name of one of

the two ships in which Tasman sailed when he found the island.

7 Not only silver, but copper, gold, and several other metals are found in this hilly district. The mines are now easily reached, because a railway runs from them to Macquarie Harbour on the west coast.

Lesson XLII.
EARLY DAYS OF PERTH.

1    Perth, the capital of Western Australia, lies beside a wide part of the Swan River known as “ Perth Water.”

2    The distance to the mouth of the river is about twelve miles, and small steamers can pass down to Fremantle, which is the chief seaport of the State.

3    When Captain Fremantle landed at this place in 1829 there was not much shelter for vessels from the waves of the Indian Ocean ; but now there is a large breakwater, beside which very large ocean-going steamers can lie in perfect safety.

4    A few soldiers and convicts, who had been shifted from Albany, were already camped near the shore at the mouth of the Swan River in 1829. Yet the new colony was not formed until the Governor, Captain Stirling, arrived.

5    Before the year 1830 a number of ships with settlers came out to the Swan River Settlement, as the place was called. The black swans, which had been seen on the river, had made it famous, because all European swans were white.

6    Among the early settlers at Swan River were the brothers Henty, who afterwards went to Tasmania and then to Portland, becoming the first sheep farmers in Victoria.

Lesson XLI1I.
SOME TOWNS OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

1    The richest gold-field in Australia is at Kalgoorlie, where the Great Boulder Mine was found in the year 1893, and within a few months there were many thousands of people on the scene. One part of Kalgoorlie is named Boulder City.

2    A railway passes eastwards from Perth and Fremantle to Kalgoorlie, and on it is Coolgardie, the centre of a number of gold-fields, most of which were found a short time before Kalgoorlie.

3    The longest water pipes in Australia are used for the supply of Kalgoorlie and other gold-fields of Western Australia, which have a dry climate and do not get enough rain. The water had to be brought from a place not far from Perth, and pumped up into tanks on the gold-fields, which are at a higher level than the land near the coast.

4    Among the farms and orchards of Western Australia, to the east of Perth, there are several towns. One of these is Guildford, on the Swan River, and another further to the east is York.

5 Albany, on the south coast, has a very

Traveling on camels in the interior.

large harbour, King George’s Sound, The place was visited by Flinders, and was used as a station for soldiers before Perth was founded.

6 In the year 1826 there was a rumour that the French intended to take the western part

of Australia. An officer and soldiers were therefore sent from Sydney, and landing at King George’s Sound, took possession of Western Australia, thus the whole continent became British.

7 The north of Western Australia, near Shark Bay, is occupied by sheep stations and has some lead mines. The chief port is a town named Geraldton.

Lesson XLIV.
THE AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH.

1    There are six States in the Commonwealth of Australia, and the names of these are New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia.

2    Until the year 1901 these States were called Colonies, but at the beginning of that year, which was the end of the nineteenth century, they were all joined in a federal union.

3    This Union was proclaimed, or made known, on New Year’s Day of 1901, and the Federal Parliament was opened on May 9 of the same year.

4    Australia in this way became one country, divided into six States for some purposes, but joined in a union for others.

5    The soldiers who belong to the Australian defence forces are soldiers of the Commonwealth, and are sworn to defend any part of Australia that may be attacked by foes.

6    Also the Customs Houses and the Post Offices belong to the Commonwealth, as well as some other public offices. There is a Federal Parliament having control over all the officers of the Union.

7    But the State Governments have their own State Schools as well as their railways, and other public works, apart from one another. Each State has its own Parliament, with many public offices.

8    The people of all parts of Australia belong not only to their own States and to the Commonwealth, but also to the British Empire—the greatest Empire that the world has ever known.

INDEX.


TOWNS.

Adelaide 34, 39, 48, 55, 71, 72, 73

Albany ......

Albury

Ararat ......

Armidale    ...

Augusta, Port Bacchus Marsh ... Bairnsdale    ...

Ballarat ......

Batavia ......

Bathurst Beachport    ...

Beechworth ... Bendigo

Bischoff ......

Boulder City ...

Bourke ......

Brisbane 48, 55


Broken Hill 41, Bundaberg Buninyong Burnie, Port Burra    ...

Camden ... Castlemaine Charters Towers Cl unes Cooktown Cooma ...

Colac    ...

Coolgarclie Creswick Darwin, Port Croydon Deniliquin


42, 46, 47,

, 74, 75, 76 ... 90, 92 55, 56, 70 ...    67

... 55, 57 ... 55, 74 ...    35

...    67

... 55 67 ... 11, 13 32, 55, 61 ...    75

... 55, 69 55, 69 70 ... 88 ...    91

55, 57 77, 78, 79, 83, 84 55, 58, 74 ...    83

...    67

... 88 ... 55, 76 ... 60 ...    69

55, 82. 84 67, 68, 69 ... 55, 82 ...    56

... 55, 68 ...    91

... 68 ... 48, 75 ...    84

... 55, 56


Daylesford ......

Dunollv .........

Echuca    55,

Fremantle    34,

Gawler .........

Geelong    35,

Teraldton    ......

Glenelg .........

Golden Point    ...

Grafton    ......

Goulburn    ......

Guildford    ......

Gvmpie .........

Hamilton    ......

Herberton ......

Hobart

Horsham    ...

Ipswich ......

Kadina ......

Kalgoorlie    ...

Kapunda    ...

Kingston    ...

Kooringa    ...

Launceston Lincoln, Port ... Mackav ...

Macquarie, Port Maitland    ...

Maryborough 55, Melbourne 34, 43,

54, 55, 56, 63, 64, Menindie    ...

Mildura ......

Moonta    ...

Newcastle    ...

New Norfolk . . Parramatta    33,

Perth    34, 89,


34, 85, 86,


34,


68,

44,

66,


68

68

69, 70 89, 91

75

55, 66 93

74

67 55

55, 56 92 81, 84

68 84

87, 88 55, 68 55, 83

76 34, 91

75

75

76 87, 88

55 55, 83 54 55, 57 81, 83 45, 46, 67, 69 34 76 76

53,    55 88

54,    83

91, 92


Pirie, Port

...... 55, 74

Glenelg ...

38

Portland

55, 63, 66, 90

Goulburn ...

35

Risdon ...

...... 85, 87

Hunter ......

53,

57

Rockhampton 55, 80, 82, 83, 84

Lachlan

34, 55,

62

Rosehill

...... 54

Loddon ......

38

Sale ...

...... 67

Macquarie 34, 36,

55, 61,

62

Sorrento ...

...... 63, 85

Mary ......

81

Stawell ...

...... 67

Merri Creek ...

63

Summerliill

...... 62

Mitchell ......

... 55,

81

Sydney 20,

26, 28, 31, 32,

Mitta Mit ta ...

35

‘ 33,'' 34, 35,

36, 37, 38, 39,

Murray 32, 34,

35, 37,

38,

51, 53, 54,

55, 57, 61, 62

55, 56. 57, 69,

70, 71,

76

66, 69, 71,

77, 79, 87

Murrumbidgee 33,

34, 35,

37,

Swanhill ...

...... 70

38, 55,

56

Tenterfield

...... 57

Ovens ......

35

Townsville

55, 82, 83, 84

Perth Water ...

89

Toowoomba

...... 83

Roper ......

47

Wagga Wagga

... ... 55, 56

Saltwater ...

63

Wallaroo

55, 75, 76

Shoalhaven ...

... 26,

55

Wangaratta

...... 69

Swan

89. 90,

92

Warrnambool

... 55, 66

Tamar ......

... 27,

87

Warwick

...... 83

Tamworth ...

57

Wentworth

32, 55, 58

Wannon ......

38

Williamstown

... 63

Wimmera ......

38

Wodonga

...... 69

Yarra ......

... 63,

65

York ...

... 92

Yarrowee Creek

67

Zeehan

...... 88

MOUNTAINS.

RIVERS.

Alexander ...

69

Adelaide

...... 47

Australian Alps

.. 71,

35

Avoca ...

...... 38

Barker ...

76

Brisbane

77, 78, 83

Ben Lomond ...

9

Burdekin

...... 81

Barrier ... ...

58

Campaspe

...... 38

Bischoff ...

88

Cooper’s Creek

Blue 31, 32, 54, 55,58,61,6'/

18.

34, 42, 43, 55

Central Mt. Stuart ...

4b

Darling 18,

32, 34, 36, 37,

Central ML Sturt ...

46

41, 55, 57

Cradle ......

9


85, 86, 88 ... 23, 82 ...    87

... SO ...    55

69 81


35 8, 30 55, 76 5§


Derwent Endeavour Esk, N. and S Eitzrov Elinders Forrest Creek Gilbert ...

Darling- Ranges    ...

Disappointment    ...

Flinders Ranges ...

Gambier .........

Gipps ........

Great Dividing Rang-e

7, 12, 35, 56, 83, 84

Liverpool Range

79

Java

11,

12, 13

Lofty 8, 30,

71, 73. 76

Kangaroo 12, 27,

55,

71, 73

Macedon ...

... 35

King’s ... ...

9, 34

Morgan ......

... 82

New Caledonia

12

Pyrenees ......

... 38

New Guinea

12, 55

Stirling Ranges

... 8

New Hebrides ...

12

Wellington

10, 86, 87

Nuvt’s ......

11

Wentworth

... 35

Pirates’ ......

16

Sandwich ...

25

CAPES.

Solomon Islands

12

Byron ......

7, 24

South Bruni ...

16

Capricorn

82

Tahiti

22

Catastrophe 25,

29. 30, 55

Thistle ... ...

29

Danger, Point .

... 24

Timor ......

12, 23

Eyre Pen. ...

... 34

LAKES.

Grim, ... ...

... 9, 34

Hicks ...

... 24

Alexandrina ...

37, 70

Howe 23,

24, 54, 55

Amadeus ...

34

Jervis •.....

... 54

Eyre

34,

39, 55

Keerweer

... 11

Gairdner ...

34, 55

Leeuwin ...

... 12

George ......

33

Maria Van Dieman

... 14

Gippsland

67

Melville ...

... 55

Torrens

34,

39, 55

Moreton ......

... 24

BAYS, GULFS,

ETC.

Otway

... 0, 55

Palmerston

... 25

Adelaide, Port ...

74

Portland

... 9

Augusta ...

74

Sandy Pt.

... ‘ 24

Botany Bav

Steep Point ...

... 7

12, 20, 21,

23,

26, 51

Turn Again ...

... 11

Broken Bay ...

53

Wilson’s Promontory 9, 26, 55

Carpentaria, Gulf

of

York

10, 25, 34

11, 12,

43,

55, 84

York Peninsula

12, 25, 55

Coral Sea ...

12, 55

Yorke’s Peninsula

... 55

Corio Bay ...

35, 66

Corner Inlet ...

20, 26

ISLANDS.

Darwin, Port

34,

48, 75

Barrier Reef 23,

28, 34, 58

Emu Bay......

88

Borneo ......

... 12

Encounter Bay 28,

55,

75, 85

Buccaneers’ ...

... 12, 16

Great Australian Bight

Celebes ... ...

... 12

12,

27, 39

Dirk Hartog ...

... 11, 34

Hobson’s Bay ..

63

Fiji ......

... 12

Holdfast Bay ...

74

Flinders ......

... 9, 34

J ackson, Port

Gabo ......

... 24

12, 26,

50,

52, 54

Great Sandy ...

... 83

Jervis Bay ...

54

Keppel Bay ..... 80,    82

King George’s' Somnd

12, 27, 40, 92

Lincoln, Port    ...    29

Macquarie Harbour    89

Macquarie, Port ...    54

Moreton Bay ...... 12,    77

Phillip, Port 12, 26, 28, 33, 35, 55, 65, 66, 85, 87

Pirie, Port ...... 74

Portland Bay    ...    38

Shark Bay    12,    17, 93

Spencer Gulf 12, 27, 29, 30, 39, 55, 74, 75, 76

Stephens, Port...... 53

Storm Bay ...... 85,    88

St. Vincent, Gulf of

12. 27, 30, 55,    74

Sydney Cove ...... 50,    52

Townsville, Port ... 82, 84 Twofold Bay    26, 54, 55

Van Pieman, Gulf of    47

Victor Harbour    75

Wallaroo, Port ...    75

Western Port 26, 33, 35, 66

STRAITS.

Bass    10. 34, 63, 85, 87

Torres    11, 23, 28, 55

OCEANS.

Indian 7, 12, 13, 14, 34, 89 Pacific 7, 10, 12, 17, 18, 22, 34, 51, 53, 55, 57 Southern    ...    ...    34, 66

DISTRICTS, PLAINS, ETC.

Arnheim Land    .    12

Alice Springs ...    ...    34

Central Australia    ...    41,    42

Barrier Reef    23,    28,    58

Dampier’s Land    ...    12

Darling Downs    ...    55,    79

Edel’s Land .,.    ...    11

Gippslan 1    ...    ...    58, 67

Mallee ...    ...    ...

Marshes    ...    ...    55

Monaro    ...    ...    ...    56

Northern Territory ... 55, 75

New Holland ...... 11,    12

Ophir ...... 62

Riverina    ...    ...    56

Stony Desert    41,    42, 55

Sturt’s Plains    ...    ...    47

Tropic ........ 82

Van Dieman’s Land ...    13

Western District ...    66

HISTORICAL NAMES.

Adelaide, Queen ...    73

Australia Felix ...    38

Banks, Sir Joseph    23,    27

Barker, Captain ...    71

Bass    12, 25, 26, 27, 66

Batman     63,    65

Baudin, Captain    ...    75,    85

Baxter ...... 40

Bible ...... ...    62

"Black War” ...... 87

Bourke, Sir Richard    57,    65

Bowen, Lieutenant    .    28,    87

Brisbane, Governor ...    33

British Empire ... 21, 94

Buckley ...     65

"Buffalo, The”...... 73

Burke    34, 43, 44, 45, 46

Carpentaria, General    1 I

Casabianca    ...    ...    73

Collins, David ... 63, 85 Colonies    ...    ...    93

Commonwealth ... 93, 94 Cook, Captain 12, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. 25, 51, 52, 82 "Cumberland,    The”    28

Cunningham.    Allan    79

Dampier 12, 16., 17, 18,20,26 Darwin, Charles 4    75

Davey, Governor    15

"Dove, The”    ...    H

"Endeavour, The    20,    23

"Enterprise. The” 63, Esmond, James Eyre, Edward John

34, 39, 40,

Fawkner     63,

Federal Parliament 93, Flinders, Matthew 12, 25, 27, 2S. 29, 30, 54, 71, 75, 76, 85, 92 Forrest, Sir John ... "Foundation Day” ... Franklin, Sir John ... Fremantle, Captain ... George III.    52, 59,

Giles .........

Gray .........

Great Boulder Mine IIappy Australia ... Hargreaves, Edward 61, "Head of the Waters” Henty Brothers 38, 63, 66, Hindmarsh, Captain Howitt,    A. W.    ...    ...

Hovell    33,    34,    35,

Hume, Hamilton

33, 34, 35, 36, Inter-State Railway ... 56, "Investigator, The”

.    27,    28,    29,

King    ...    ...    ...    43,

"Lady Nelson,    The”    28,

Leichhardt, Dr.    34,    48,

Macarthur, Captain ...

Macleay    ......

Macquarie, Governor

Maori .........

Memory Cove    ...

Midland, Wm.......

Mitchell, Major    ...    34,

Nelson,    Lord    ...

"Norfolk, The”    ...

Oxley ....... 36,    77

Phillip, Captain    26,    51

Poole ......... 41

"Rebecca, The”    ...    63

Robinson     15

Robinson Crusoe    17

“Roebuck, The”    ...    17

Royal Park, Melbourne 43, 44 Selkirk, Alex.    ...    17

Shortlands ...... 53

South Australian Company 73

States ...... .    94

Stirling, Captain    ...    90

Stuart ......... 34,    46

Sturt, Captain 34, 36, 41, 42, 46, 48, 57, 58, 71, 76

Sydney, Lord ...... 52

Tasman 12, 13, 14, 16, 22, 89

Thistle ......... 29,    30

"Tom Thumb, The”...    26

Torres     10

Union ...    ...... 93, 94

Warburton, Major    ... 34, 49

"Welcome Stranger”    68

Wentworth. Sir William 31,32

William IV....... 73

Wills    34, 43, 44, 45, 46

Wyllie ......... 40

AUSTRALIAN STATES.

New South Wales Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria

Western Australia

New Zealand

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