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The New Standard Geographies, No. i.






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With Illustrations, and 17 Maps by the Author


StUUiam &VOOh* ft 0* o.,

Contractors for the supply of Reading Rook* to the Public »School* of N.8.W.

Sydney and Brisbane.

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illiam Brooks &* Co., Co'/tractors io /he Public Insiruction .    Department of New South Wales.

Brooks s New Standard Geographies

No. i.—Geography for Third Class ... o 9 No. 2.    ,,    Fourth    ,,    ...    09

No. 3.    ,,    Fifth    ,,    ...    16

With a large number of Maps and Illustrations.

Brooks’s New Standard English


No. 1.—English History for Third Class, 51

illustrations by D. II. Souter ...    ...    1    o

No. 2.—English History for Upper Third Class, with 24 illustrations in line by D. H.

Souter ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ... i o

No. 3.—English History for Fourth Class,

with illustrations by D H. Souter ...    ...    1    o

No. 4. — Ditto, for Fifth Class ...    ...    1    o

Illustrated Method for easily Learning or

Teaching French. (First Book) by Edw.Périer 1    6

(System based on Principles of Mind development).

(Authorised for use by the Public Instruction Department of N.S.W.)

Drill Books.


A Drill Standard for Girls’ Department    ...    o    6

An Easy    System of Dumb-Bell Exercises    ...    o    6

,,    ,, Club Exercises and Maypole    Dance ...    ...    ...    •••    •••    0    6

An Easy    System of Wand Exercises ...    ...    o    6

This is a New Series of Hand Books for the use of Teachers, and others, compiled bv F. Smith, Q.M.S., and which are already acknowledged to be of great assistance to those who have the Drilling of a number of childicn.

Brooks’s 101 Arithmetic Tests (2d).

Answers to same (3d).

Brooks’s Date Book of Australian History (2d).

Brooks’s Spelling Books, and other publications.

Note.—All School Books are supplied to Schools post free at published prices, and School Stationery less 10 %.

William Brooks Co for School Stationery. Samples, where practicable, sent on application.

( 'OHO Of* !<?,!

BreeUs’s [\leW Australian Scheel Senes.

, (9    i    i ^    0

The New Standard Geographies, No. 1 *








With Illustrations, and 17 Maps by the Author!

^vcuthft & CCo.,

Contractors for the supply of Reading Books to the Public Schools of N.3. W.

Sydney and Brisbane.



Introduction : Why you


Islands ...


...... 8

learn Geography ..


Oceans ...

...... 9

The Cardinal Points and


...... 10

the Map...... ..



...... 11

Continents ... .. ...


Straits ...

...... 12






New South Wales

... 14

Westralia .. ...

... 23

Victoria ......

... 18

Tasmania ... ...

... 24

Queensland... ...

.. 20

New Zealand ...

... 26

South Australia ...




The British Islands

Page. .. 32

Italy... ... ..

Page. ... 42

England ... ...

... 33

Switzerland ...

... 43

Scotland ... ...

... 35

Belgium and Holland

... 44

Ireland ... ...

... 36

Denmark ... ...

... 44

France ... .

... 36

Sweden and Norway

.. 45

Germany ... ...

... 38

Spain and Portugal

... 46

Austria- H uno ary

.. 39

The Balkan Peninsula

... 47

Russia ......

... 40



India . ........

Page. . 40

Russia-in-Asia ...

Page. ... 55

Indo-China ... ... ..

. 51

Tuhkey-in-Asia ...

... 56

The M vlay Archipelago


Arabia ......

... 57

The Chinese Empire ..

. 52

Persia ... ...

... 58

Korea ... ... ..


Afghanistan ...

... 58

Japan ..... ..

. 54

Baluchistan ...

.. 58


British North America..


. 59

Central America ...


.. 64

The United States ..

. 62

The W est Indies ...

... 64

Mexico ......... 04



Son'll America

Author’s Explanatory Note to Teachers.


T'HIS BOOK lias been written for the use of Australian boys and girls. Whilst there has been no attempt to collect a large mass of facts, there has been an effort to select such facts as will be of practical value; and to present them in a form which will interest and impress.

All experienced teachers know that Geography is one of those subjects which cannot be satisfactorily taught without constant revision. No amount of teaching—however skilful—will make a sufficiently permanent impression on the mind of the pupil unless such revision be thorough and systematic.

A text-book, written in clear and simple language, which will enable the pupil to revise the work for himself, should become a valuable aid to the teacher in dealing with this important and interesting subject.

But it is necessary that young teachers should be reminded that all text-books, however suitable they may be for the pupils to read for themselves, are merely aids to teaching, and should never be allowed to supersede it.

What Geography is and Why You Learn It.

-- ---

lailliS earth on which you live is a large ball, somewhat like an fo7 orange in shape. Many years ago men thought it was a great, fiat ^ disc, for in those far-oft days only a small part of the surface of the earth was known. But nowall excepting a very small part—of its surface is known, and has been carefully examined by men, and it is quite a common thing for people to travel right round the globe. No doubt you will know someone among your friends who has done so.

Thus we are able to know some things about every part of the earth’s surface, and, though we may not he able, to travel very far away, we can read in books about all these places, and learn as much of them as if we really saw them. This study of the position of places on the earth’s surface is called Geography. Geography also includes the study of the things produced by different countries, the occupations of their peoples, and the means by which products of different parts are exchanged.

It is a very pleasant, as well as very useful study, and, nowadays everyone is interested in it. With our quick steamships and railway-trains, our telegraph and cable lines, news travels so fast that men in one part of the world soon get to hear of what is taking place far away. Newspapers and books constantly refer to these far-off places, and even small boys and girls are expected to know, at least, the position of the more important places on the earth’s surface. Thus, when you hear your father reading from his newspaper the latest cable news from China, from Spain, or from some other country, you should know where to find that country on the map, what sort of a place it is, what towns are in it. how long it would take you to get there, and so on.

As you" go on studying this subject 1 am sure you will become interested in it, for l have known a very large number of boys and girls of all kinds and sizes, but 1 have not vet met one who does not like Geography, or who does not seem pleased and look happy when that lesson comes on in the usual course of the school work.

And, as you grow interested in the subject, you will never see a great ship pass along without asking yourself and trying to find answers to such questions as : Where is she going ? How long will it take her to get there? What sort of a place is it ? What cargo is she taking there? What will she bring back to us? and so on.

Let me 'hope, too, that you may often be led to think out for yourself what becomes of the wool from our sheep grazing peacefully out on the great plains, of the hides and tallow from our cattle, of the butter from our factories, and the gold and silver and tin and coal from our mines. Try to picture in your mind the various journeys each may possibly take across the wide ocean, and imagine what things may be supplied by other countries in exchange for them ! Ask yourself, too, whence come the salt, the pepper and the hundred other things used on your table. In what countries are they produced? What sort of people live there? What kind of a climate have they ?

All these and many other similar questions you will be able to answer for yourself when you have learned a great deal of < ¡eography, and it is for the purpose if enabling you to do so that you now commence the study of this very interesting subject.

V J D 0








Brooks’s New Standard Geography


Section I.

The Geography for the First Half-year.


In order to describe the direction of one place on the earth’s surface from another, you need to know the position of four points

the line where earth and sky appear to North, South, East, and West. They that is, chief or principal—Points of the Compass, which is a strange little instrument used for finding the direction of places on the earth. If, in the middle of the day, you fix a cricket stump upright in the ground, it will cast a shadow pointing away from it towards the south. When you thus know the south, you can easily fix the other three points. If you look towards the south, and spread your arms out to their full length in line with your body, your right arm will point to the west, your left arm to the east, and the north will he the direction straight behind your hack.

on tho horizon-—that is, meet. These points are are calk'd the Cardinal -

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Now, 1 want you to fix firmly in your mind the positions of these cardinal points, so I w ill tell you another way to find them. The place on the horizon where the sun appears to rise is near the east ; thus, when he rises in the morning, he shines directly upon the eastern side of your house. At midday his rays fall directly upon the northern side, and in the evening, just before he sets, they shine on the western wall. 1 hope you will think this out for yourself, and find out which is the eastern side of your house, and your school, and so on, for it will help you very much in your geography if you understand these things well. Half-way between these cardinal points are the Secondary Points - South-east, South-west, North-east, and North-west. They take their names from their parents, i.e., south-east is half-way between south and east, and so on.

A map is a kind of picture of the earth’s surface, or of some part of it. It shows that surface, not as it looks to you as you stand and observe the things around you, but as it would appear if you were to go up in a balloon and view it from above.

Here, for instance, is a picture of a little school l once saw out in the “ Far West.”

But this is not a map of the school. Here I will show you my map of the iloor of that very school.

,    \ ou see how 1 have shown

the door, the desks, table, etc., just as they would appear if you were to climb up among the rafters of the roof and look down at them. ^ ou should, in the 5 same way, draw on your slate a ^ map of your school-room just as I have done. Then try to draw a map of your playground, and Md/// ftOAD    of the town you iivc in, or of

the district around you. A map of a building, or of a very small part of the earth’s surface, is often called a plan.

Maps are now always made with their cardinal points in the same place. The north of a country, or district or building, is always put at the top of the map. You will sec from this that the right hand side must be the east, the left hand side the west, and the bottom the south. In drawing maps of your school, or of your playground, or of your town, the top line should represent the northern boundary.


A little more than one-fourth part of the earth’s surface is land. This is made up of six great divisions, called continents, and a large number of islands. The continents, or great divisions of land, are : Australia, Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and South America. Our continent, Australia, is the smallest. It contains 3,000,000 square miles that is, if we could cut up the whole of it into squares, with each side measuring one mile, there would be three millions of such squares. To the north-west of us lies the largest continent, Asia. It is nearly six times as large as Australia. We should take about 17 days to get there from Sydney in one of the large mail steamers ; or, if we wished to get to the East Coast, we could go to Hongkong by the Eastern or the Japan mail steamer in 21 days ; or the Brisbane Royal mail steamers would land us at Singapore, in the south-east of Asia, in IS days from Sydney. Europe adjoins the western side of Asia, it is only a little" larger

than .Australia, but it is the home of more than 100 times as many people. It contains the most important countries in the world. The British Islands (the “Mother Country" of Australians) are situated oil the West Coast of Europe. It would take us about 40 days to reach them from Sydney, either by the Royal mail steamer (which leaves Sydney each week) or by one of the two monthly .American mail steamers. If we took a journey home by the Koval mail steamer, wo should pass within sight of the Northeast (’oast of Africa, a continent four times as large as our own. South America lies due east of us. It is more than twice the size







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of Australia. Large sailing vessels often load coal at Newcastle to carry across the ocean to the West Coast of South America. North America is a larger piece of land than South America, and is three times the size of Australia. It has a country called the United States, which is the home of one of the greatest nations on the earth. Steamers connect Sydney with North America, which can he reached in about 24 days.


Islands are portions of land surrounded by water. Two of the largest islands on the earths surface (New Guinea and Borneo) lie to tlu‘ north of Australia. Each of them is nearly as large as New South WTiles. In New Guinea are found the most beautiful birds in the world. Lovely birds of paradise, crowned pigeons, and gorgeous parrots live in the great forests which cover this wild country. Borneo is covered with great mountains. It lias a very hot climate, and men have not gone far into the centre of the island, so we know but little of it, except of the parts near the sea. The large island of Greenland, to the north-east of North America, is about the same size. It is a very cold place, and the men who live there arc very small. The British Islands, though not the largest, are by far the most important on the earth. They are the home of the greatest nation the world has known. Each one of us should be proud to belong to a nation so great and so famous. Madagascar, oil the East Coast of Africa, ranks fourth in size. It is fertile and well woode'd, and its forests abound in flowers of rich and varied hue. The Dutch islands of Sumatra and Java, lying north-west of us, can be reached in about 10 days from Sydney by the British-India mail steamer. They have a large number of volcanoes, and their climate is hot and unhealthy. Other important islands are : New Zealand, 5 days’sail south-east of Sydney; Tasmania, 120 miles south of Victoria; New Caledonia, an island belonging to 1'ranee, 4A days’ sail to the north-east of us ; the Japan Islands, off the East Coast of Asia, a beautiful mountainous country, with lovely scenery and many busy cities—the home of an intelligent and industrious nation. Steamers reach them in about 25 days from Sydney. The Sandwich Group, belonging to America, and the Philippine Group, recently conquered bv the United States, are two of the most important groups in the Pacific Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, you should look on your map for Iceland (to the north-west of the British Islands) and Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, and Newfoundland (near America). In the Indian Ocean is the beautiful island of Ceylon, which sends us a large quantity of tea.


The waters of our globe cover nearly three times as great an area as the land. They are divided into six great parts, called oceans, viz. : the Pacific, Southern, Indian, Atlantic, Arctic, and Antarctic.

The Pacific Ocean stretches from the East Coast of Australia and of Asia to the West Coast of North and South America. It- is the largest of the oceans, and has a very great number of islands in it. It is very useful to us, for it is the highway for our trade with America, as well as between our neighbour colonies and our coastal rivers.

Uhe Southern Ocean washes the South Coast of Australia, and forms a belt of water round the globe. The two lines of steamships which leave Sydney every month for South Africa sail across this ocean westward, and the New Zealand Royal mail boats cross it eastward to go round Cape Horn, in South America.

Hie Indian Ocean is about a quarter the size of the Pacific. It is like an enormous gulf, enclosed by Africa, Southern Asia, and Australia. It is a very hot place, and has peculiar winds, known as monsoons, which blow for six months of the year from the

north-oast, and thon for tho next six months from the south-east. The English mail steamers cross this ocean as they come to and go from Australia.

The Atlantic Ocean has America for its western and Europe and Africa for its eastern boundary. It is the great highway for commerce between Europe and America. The middle part of this ocean used to bo known as the “ Spanish Main,” because so many Spanish vessels sailed across it to the colonies Spain owned at that time in South America.

The Antarctic Ocean surrounds the South Pole. We know very little of it, for few men have been there as yet.

The Arctic Ocean surrounds the North Pole. It has a great deal of ice, and is the homo of the polar bear, the walrus, and tho seal. l)r. Nansen, a great explorer, recently returned to Europe, after spending three years among the ice of this cold region. He got closer to the North Polo than any of the navigators who tried to roach it before him.


are parts of the ocean near the land, and having special names. Near our East Coast, and stretching across to New Zealand, is the Tasman Sea. Tho Arafura Sea and tho Timor Sea form parts of the northern boundary of Australia. Along the East Coast of Asia are the China Sea, which is often disturbed by violent winds, called tvphoons ; the Yellow Sea, which is coloured by the soil carried (Town by the long Chinese rivers; the Japan Sea, now a busy highway for the trading vessels of the “ Land of the Rising Sun " ; the Sea of Okhotsk, which forms the home of innumerable whales : and Bering Sea, on the islands of which men hunt the seals which are so numerous there. These are all parts of the Pacific Ocean.

Tho chief sea of the Atlantic Ocean is the Mediterranean, a name meaning tho middle of tho earth. It was so named by the ancients, for it was in the middle of tho world as they knew it. It is very deep and very salt, and of a dark blue colour. For many centuries it was tho world’s chief highway of trade, and several of the countries which border it have, in turn, been the greatest of their time. Its chief arms are the Adriatic Sea, on the shores of which stands Venice, a beautiful city of Italy, and the Black Sea, into which one-third of the waters of Europe are poured by numerous rivers which flow there. The North Sea is a shallow sea between England and Germany. The Baltic Sea is a great shallow, brackish sheet of water, which is frozen round the edges for from three to six months of the year. It has occasionally been entirely covered with ice, and once the ice was so thick that an army was able to march across. 1'he Caribbean Sea, between South America and a string of beautiful islands in the Indies, is in a very hot region

The great Gulf of Mexico and Hudson Bay, in North America and the Bay of Biscay, in Europe, should also be called seas.

The Red and Arabian Seas, which are very hot places, are parts of the Indian Ocean, and the White Sea, which is very cold, and is often frozen over for six or nine months of the year, is an arm of the Arctic Ocean.

The so-called Sea of Aral, Caspian Sea, and Dead Sea are really large salt lakes, and, though they are so large, should not be called seas.


Bays are portions of water forming inlets or indentations of the sea coast. If such an inlet runs a long way into the land, it is called a gulf; if it is a very open bend, it is sometimes called a bight, if sheltered and deep enough for vessels to enter and lie-in safely, it may be called a port or harbour. The chief bays near the centre of our coast are Port Jackson, the beautiful harbour of which w’e are all so proud ; Broken Bay, a little to the north of Sydney ; and Port Hunter, at the mouth of the river of that name. This port has large wharves, and many vessels lie there, whilst tons and tons of coal are put into their holds to be carried to distant parts. On the northern part of our coast the chief inlet is Shoal Bay, at the mouth of the Clarence River. It is, as its name shows, a shallow inlet, and many a fine vessel has been lost on its sands or on the bar of rock which stretches across the mouth a few feet below' the surface of its waters. On the south part of our coast is Jervis Bay, an opening tw'o miles wide, with a splendid lighthouse flashing its red, green, and white light all through the night to warn sailors of its rocky headland, and Twofold Bay, a large double opening, with the pretty little town of Eden on its shore. Many whalers live here, and all day long a man stands on the hill, looking out with his telescope for signs of the great monster of the deep.

On the South Coast of Australia are Port Phillip, the large bay, 40 miles wide, through whose rather narrow opening all vessels must pass in order to get to Melbourne ; St. Vincent Gulf and Spencer Gulf, with Yorke Peninsula between them—large, wide, unsheltered openings, with fertile lands around their entrance, though the country is rather barren to the north of them ; and the Great Australian Bight, a great stretch of coast with rugged limestone rocks right on the water’s edge. Shark Bay is the chief inlet on the west, and on the north are Van Diemen’s Gulf and the great GuP of Carpentaria, a wide, open gulf with low-lying, swampy, mangrove-covered shores.

In Europe, besides the many arms or branches of the various seas, the chief bays are the stormy, wind-tossed Bay of Biscay and the Zuyder Zee (South Sea), a shallow sheet of water, which is gradually becoming smaller as the land is reclaimed from the sea by the thrifty Dutch.

Asia has, on the north, the Gulfs of Obi and Yenesei, which are frozen over for greater part of the year ; on the south-east the Gulfs of Siam and Tongking, in a hot climate, with shores covered by lovely tropical foliage ; on the south the Persian Gulf, on whose low-lying shores grow large numbers of date palms, and the Gulf of Aden, with its dreary, barren, desolate coasts.

Africa lias few important inlets. On its North Coast s the Gulf of Sidra, with a low, flat coast, backed up by sandhills, and on the west is the great opening known as the Gulf of Guinea, whose shores are something like those of our Gulf of Carpentaria— hot, swampy, and unhealthy.

North America has, on the north, a great sea, larger than New South Wales, called Hudson Bay. It is covered with ice the greater part of the year, and, as it has many shoals and reefs near its shore, it is of little use for ships. Baffin Bay, another large area of water, is blocked with ice for eight or nine months of every year. The Gulf of St. Lawrence, noted for its dangerous fogs, and the Bay of Fundy, for its high tides, are in the north-east. The great Gulf of Mexico, with its low shores, lined with large numbers of small sandy islands, is in a very hot region. The Gulf of California is the only large inlet on the west of North America.

Tho inlets of South America are unimportant; the Gulfs of Panama and Venezuela, on the north, are the largest.


A strait is a narrow piece of water joining two larger pieces together. A wide strait is sometimes called a channel. Between Australia and Tasmania there is a strait 120 miles wide, named after tho young surgeon who first discovered it, Bass Strait. Between C. York and the Island of Now Guinea, to the north, is Torres Strait, also named after its discoverer. It is SO miles wide, and has in it a number of islands which make navigation difficult. Man y men live on these islands, and carry on the work of pearlfishing. Between the North and South islands of New Zealand is Cook Strait. If we were to pass through it, and sail across the Southern Ocean to South America, we could make our way into the Atlantic by passing through a winding passage of 400 miles, called Magellan Strait. Sailing thence along the Hast Coast of America, there are a large number of straits among the islands of the West Indies. The Strait of Florida, joining the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic, is the chief of them. The Strait of Belle Isle, bet ween Newfoundland and the mainland, is often dangerous, on account of its icebergs. Sailing through it in summer time, we would see large numbers of these great masses of ice stranded on cither shore. But wo would meet with still more of them in Davis Strait, v hieh leads into Baffin Bay, and in Hudson Strait, which opens into Hudson Bay.

Crossing over to Europe, we would find a large number of straits, the most important being the English Channel, called in its narrowest part the Strait of Dover. 21 miles wide, between England and France. Loading into the Mediterranean Sea is the Strait of Gibraltar, the entrance bring guarded by that great English fortress of t in' same name. l ids strait is only nine miles wide in it< narrowest part, so that in sailing through one may see Africa to the south and Europe on the north. Two very narrow straits more like rivers than straits lead in and out of the Sea of Marmora; they are the Dardanelles, one mile wide, and the Strait of Constantinople, about three «piartersof that width. On both banks of these straits there is splendid scenery.

Section il.

If we sail from there through the Suez Canal, a large, important, and useful artificial strait, we reach the Red Sea, whence we may pass through a strait *20 miles wide, called Bab-el-mandeb (the gate of tears), the scene of a large number of wrecks, into the Arabian Sea. The other straits of Asia are Ormuz, between the Persian (iulf and Arabian Sea; Palk Strait, unnavigable and dangerous, covering the 60 miles between India and Ceylon ; Malacca Strait, between Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, and the Bering Strait, 36 miles wide, between North America and Asia, joining the Arctic and Pacific Oceans.

The Geography for the Second Half-year.


This island-continent ot ours is plain between its edge and the sea.

a great table-land with a narrow The eastern side of this table-


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land is its highest part. It forms a mountain range known as the Great Dividing Range, which is 2,000 feet above the sea-level. The western edge of the plateau is only about half that height. On the south, the table-land either ends abruptly on the sea coast in cliffs a few hundreds of feet high, or terminates in the mountains of the Dividing Range, as in Victoria. On the north, the edge is much higher than either the south or west, though not so high as the east. If you were approaching this table land from the seaside, you would have to climb either a steep hill or a mountain ; but if you were walking from the centre of the continent to the coast, you would find the rise a gradual one, because in the south-centre there is a great shallow hollow, with a group of large, marshy lakes in it, and from this the land slopes upwards towards the edge of the plateau. The slope from the eastern mountains towards this central depression is only one-half as far as that from the western edge ; and, as the mountains on the east are higher than those on the west, it is from that direction that the only large Australian rivers llow. These rivers, at last, drain into the Murray. If measured from the source of the Culgoa, one of its tributaries, along the Darling and the lower course of the Murray, we have the longest river in the Eastern Hemisphere—a stream which ranks next in point of length to the two great rivers of the new world. Various irregular ranges of mountains of no great height are scattered over this vast plateau, the most important being Flinders Range, which runs for GOO miles north of Capo Jervis, in South Australia. The soil of much of this great plateau is dry and sterile—little better than a sandy desert.

Australia is, politically, divided into six colonies. Five are ou the mainland, and one of them (Tasmania) is an island. The colonies on the mainland are New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and Westralia. These six, together with New Zealand, comprise the “Seven Colonies of Australasia”—a group which forms one-third part of the British Empire.


This colony is not the largest, but it has more people living in it than any of the others. About 1,400,000 of people have their home here. This is not a very large number for a country the size of ours, for, if the surface of our colony were cut up into squares, with each side a mile long, there would be 310,000 altogether. The coast, which has several large and useful harbours, stretches for 700 miles, from the steep and rocky Point Danger, on the north, to Cape Howe, a low-lying projection, with a background of sandhills and slirubs, on the south. Between this coast -line and the edge of the great plateau there is a tract, from 30 to 150 miles wide, known as The Coast District. It has a pleasant climate, for the winters are not very cold, and, in the summer, winds from the south and east cool the air. It is watered by IS rivers, which rise in tlie mountainous edge of the plateau and flow into the ocean. They not only make the soil fertile, but many of them are navigable for coasting steamers ; so towns have sprung up on their banks, and farmers can send away their maize or sugar-


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cane, or dairy produce, to other parts, and have goods carried there in exchange. Some portions are still covered with grand forests, and, on the northern rivers, many men are employed cutting down trees, which are sent as timber to other parts of the colony, and even to Kurope. Where the land has been cleared, men have made farms ; and on the North Coast, near the Clarence and Richmond and Tweed Rivers sugar-cane is grown and sugar is made ; whilst south of these again, on the Macleay, Manning, Hunter, and Hawkesbury Rivers, maize, lucerne, tobacco, and the vine are cultivated. On the coast south of Sydney, dairy farming is the chief occupation of the people ; milk and butter and cheese are produced there. The largest rivers on the South Coast are the Shoalhaven and the Bega. Near this sea coast, too, there are two large coal-fields. One surrounds the town of Newcastle, at the mouth of the Hunter River ; the other is in the beautiful Illawarra district, of which Wollongong is the centre.

The Table-land stretches from south to north right through th<‘ colony. It is surmounted throughout its entire length by <mountain chain known as the Great Dividing Range, so-called because it divides the waters of the coastal rivers from those of the west. In the far south, on the borders of Victoria, the table-land reaches its greatest height, being fully 5,ooo feet above the sea-level, while several peaks (the highest of whichis Kosciusko) are 2,000 feet higher still. It is here 100 miles wide, and is traversed by several parallel mountain ranges, which, running south to north, form parts of t he Dividing Range, rhechiof of t hese arc the Monaro Range and the Snowy or Muni-ong M ountains. The table - land gradually gets lower as it goes north, until, due west of Sydney, it rises into the broken ridges of the Blue Moun tains, where grand scenery, Wantiful foliage, m a g n i ti c e n t gorges, fairy-like dells, and graceful waterfalls combine to make a district of surpassing interest to visitors. Here

too, on the wes- mt. koscicsko.

tern slopes of the mountain range, is situated the third great coal-mining district of the colony. Lithgow is the centre of this western coalfield. 1* rom the Blue Mountains northward, the tableland again decreases in height and width, till, west of the Hunter River valley, it forms a narrow ridge of hills with a very slight elevation, t rom this plaee the table-land gradually rises in height towards the Queensland border, being still traversed by the mountain chain, here known, first as the Liverpool Range, and, farther north, as the New England Range. Numerous small streams, which help to feed the rivers of the coast and of the plains, rise in the mountain chain. I hese serve to make the highlands fertile, and cereals and fruit arc produced abundantly, though large areas are still occupied as sheep and cattle stations.

The Western Plain, which gradually slopes from the table-land towards the South Australian boundary, is watered by the long, sluggish rivers which feed the Murray, viz. : the Murrumbidgee, Lachlan, Darling. Bogan. Macquarie. Castlereagh. Namoi. and others. In the south-east portion of this plain wheat is grown in abundance, but, on account of the small rainfall, the other parts are not suited for agriculture. They support, however, millions of sheep ; and tanks for storing rain-water, and artesian wells and boros have been constructed to provide for stock in the dry seasons. Our colony owns more than forty-three millions of sheep and more than two millions of cattle. Thus the wool exported produces an annual income of nearly ten millions of pounds sterling, and the hides, tallow, etc., bring in more than one million a year. Oold, silver, and coal, to the annual value of more than one million pounds each, are also produced.

The chief cities and towns of New South W ales :—


Sydney (*408,000), the oldest city and chief seaport of Australia, situated on Port Jackson, is the busiest centre of trade in the Southern Hemisphere. and the third port of the British Empire.

Newcastle (60,000), at the mouth of the Hunter River, is the second town of the colony : it has enormous coal mines in its vicinity, and exports that mineral to all parts of the Pacific.

Broken Hill (19,000), on the western boundary of the colony, in the dry, hot desert, has the largest silver mine in the world.

Parramatta (11,000), once known as “ Rose Hill,’' is 14 miles from Sydney, on the threat Western Railway line, and on the Parramatta River. It is the centre of a great fruit-growing industry.

Goulburn(l 1,000), 134 miles from Sydney, on the Great Southern Railway line, and on the upper part of the llawkesbury, is the chief town on the southern table-land, and the centre of a large farming district.

Maitland (10,000), on the Hunter River, also the centre of a prosperous farming district.

Bathurst (9,000), across the Blue Mountains, 145 miles west of Sydney, on the Great Western Railway line. The centre of a large district, where gold-mining, fanning, and wool-growing have sway.

Albury (5,000), on the Murray River, exports wheat, wine, and wool. Orange (5,000) is near Bathurst, and has a similar surrounding district. Grafton (5,000), on the Clarence River, 340 miles from Sydney, surrounded by maize and sugar-cane farms ; now developing

•The numbers placed in parenthesis after the names of towns state their populations.

into a dairy-farming centre. Armidale (4,000), the chief town on the northern table-land, has fruit and wheat. Tamworth, on the (treat Northern Railway line, Dubbo and Bourke, in the Far West, and Wagga, in the South, are pastoral centres. Wollongong“, on the South Coast, is the centre of a great coal-mining and dairying district.


Victoria is tin* south-eastern colony of Australia. It contains 88,000 square miles, about f of the area of New South Wales, and it has a population of 1,180,000. A continuation of our great dividing chain runs through the centre nearly to the western

boundary of the colony. It is there called the Dividing Range, though some parts of it have special names. For example, the highest part, the broken, rugged mass just over the N.S.W. border, is called the Australian Alps: north of Melbourne, where the scenery is very tine, it is called Mount Macedon ; and, near its western end, it is known as the Pyrenees. A short range runs at right angles to this western extremity. It is known as the Grampians. From this central ridge the land gradually slopes oil’ south east and south towards the sea, and north towards the Murray. Many rivers rising in the mountains also traverse these slopes." T1 to fertile district of Gippsland, in the east, is watered by many rivers, such as the Snowy (rising in N.S.W.), the Mitchell and the Latrobe (the latter two flow into the Gippsland Lakes:

Wellington, noted for its wild fowl; Victoria, for the prettjq wooded islands near its shore ; and King, for its lovely scenery.) This district sends fat oxen, milk, and butter to Melbourne, and in the d^nse forests farther back, huge trees are cut down and sent away as timber. Of the rivers which ilow south, the chief are the Yarra and the Glenelg. In its upper course, the Yarra is a fine stream of crystal-clear water, but as it approaches its estuary, Port Phillip, it is polluted by the drainage of Melbourne, which is on its banks. The Glenelg, in the south-west, waters the chief woolgrowing district of Victoria. Several rivers flow into the Murray. The longest of them are the Ovens, with wide open meadows around its lower course, though its upper reaches are among rugged and picturesque mountains, and the Goulburn, which has been made deep and safe enough for vessels to travel up and down to collect the wheat from the farms near its banks.

The north-west part of Victoria forms a dry, open plain, known as the Wimmera District. It has several large, shallow lakes, the largest being a wide, salt marsh called Lake Tyrrell. Into these lakes flow several sluggish, shallow streams, the largest being the Wimmera River. In the southern district there is another large salt lake, Corangamite, surrounded by quite a host of little lakes, five of which are fresh. Colac, the largest of these fresh-water lakes, has very fine scenery around it.

Victoria produces very little silver or coal, but more than twice as much gold as N.S.W. It has less than 14,000,000 sheep, but nearly as many cattle as the mother colony. It produces a little more wheat, eight times as much oats, but very much less maize, than our colony.

The chief cities and towns of Victoria are ;—

Melbourne (490,000), on the Yarra. It is a busy port and centre of trade, and forms the capital of the colony. It has fine buildings and wide streets, but lacks the beautiful natural surroundings of Sydney.

Ballarat (46,000), a beautiful city on the Adelaide railway line, 100 miles west of Melbourne, is a great gold-mining town.

Bendigo (37,000) is 100 miles north-west of Melbourne. It is a great gold-mining centre, where quartz is raised from very deep mines in and around the town.

Geelong (25,000), the second seaport, is on the west arm of Port Phillip. It has large woollen mills, and does considerable trade in wool, grain, hides, etc.

Warnambool (6,000), the third seaport, is on the west of the South Coast. It has an artificial harbour, and it exports potatoes and other farm produce from the surrounding district.

Castlemaine (5,000) and Stawell (5,000) are two gold-mining towns north-west of Melbourne.

Hamilton (4,000) is near the Glenelg River, in a fine pastoral district; Echuca (4,000) is on the Murray River, in a line pastoral and wheat-growing district; and Sale (4,000) is in the picturesque district of Gippsland, among the dairy farms and hop gardens of the most fertile portion of Victoria.



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Queensland ismore than twice the size of N.S. Wales, but its population (about 500,000) is much less than that of N.S.W. Like the mother colony, it has three districts— t he Coast, Table-land, and Inland Plain. The tableland is bounded on the eastern side by the Coast Range, parts of which are known as Bellenden Ker and Leichhardt Ranges. It is a broken, irregular chain, extending from Cape \ ork, southward, parallel with the coast, nearly to

Brisbane. The western boundary of this table-land is the Main Range, a continuation of the Great Dividing Range of N.S.W. This forms the chief watershed of the colony ; but, north of the Burdekin River, it gradually merges into the Coast Range. This table-land is covered with well-grassed, treeless, undulating plains, known locally as Downs (Darling Downs and Peak Downs being the most important), where millions of sheep find pasture.

From the Main Range rivers run both to the coast and inland. Of the coastal rivers, the Brisbane, Fitzroy, and Burdekin are the

chief. The Brisbane has a winding course ; its upper reaches, among the mountains, are shallow and impetuous with lovely cascades as the water falls over the projecting rocks, hut, getting away from the mountains, it becomes wide and deep, and may he navigated to Brisbane city, 25 miles from the sea. The Fitzroy is the longest river on the coast. It, too, is shallow in its upper course, but deep and wide near the sea. Rockhampton, 20 miles from the mouth, may be safely reached by the coastal steamers. The Burdekin River, farther north, consists of a succession of deep pools, joined by a running stream of shallower water. In this river you might see great alligators seeking their food. You would see them, too, in the several rivers (of which the Mitchell is the most important) flowing into the Gulf. Usually narrow, slow streams, flowing through a sandy waste, when the tropical rains come on they become broad and dee]), sending their waters far and wide across the cattle stations which lio beyond their banks. In the south there are several tributaries of the Darling (the Culgoa, Warrego, etc.), which, like the Darling itself, become chains of water-holes in the dry season. The Barcoo, Victoria, or Cooper’s Creek is another river of the same general character, sometimes watering well-grassed plains—in times of drought a mere chain of ponds.

Queensland owns seven millions of cattle (more than half the total of Australasia) and about twenty millions of sheep, ranking second to N.S.W, in the number of these useful animals. Her chief agricultural product is sugar, and she gets from her farms about half as much maize as N.S.W. She gets enough coal to supply her wants, while the output of gold is second only to Victoria, and of tin nearly equal to N.S.W.

The chief cities and towns are :—

Brisbane (94,000), on the northern bank of the Brisbane River, flat but compact, the capital and chief seaport, being 25 miles up the river from Moreton Bay. It is a busy trading centre.

Rockhampton (14,000), the chief town of Central Queensland, on Fitzroy River, has a large and rich pastoral and agricultural district surrounding it. From Mount Morgan, in the vicinity, £7,000,000 worth of gold has been taken during tho past 12 years.

Maryborough (10,000), 25 miles from the mouth of the Mary, has many foundries, saw and sugar mills, and refineries in the surrounding district. There are also coal mines not far off.

Townsville (9,000) is the most important town right on the coast. It exports gold, wool, meat, tallow, See.

Gympie (8,000), on Mary River, is the centre of a large goldmining district.

Ipswich (7,000), 24 miles from Brisbane, forms the centre of the chief coal mines of Queensland.

Toowoomba (7,000), the chief town on Darling Downs, is the centre of a pastoral district, now becoming agricultural as wheat, grapes and fruit are being planted.

Charters Towers (5,000), the premier goldfield of Australia, on the Burdekin River, produced more than a million pounds worth of gold in the year 1897.


South Australia is the central strip of Australia, extending from the North to the South Coast, and binding together the other four colonies. It covers nearly one-third of the continent, but lias fewer than 400,000 inhabitants. The centre is a great plain, covered with grass in winter, but, in summer, provided only with thinly-scattered bushes, on which the sheep feed. Artesian wells have now been made and dams constructed, so as to conserve the rains which fail at the time of the change of the monsoons, thus, in some measure, men have overcome the disadvantage of having no watercourses. In the south-east of the colony, between Spencer Culf and the Victorian border the soil is exceedingly fertile, and, as there is abundant rainfall, enormous quantities of wheat, wine and fruit are produced.

^ The mountains of tho colony are neither high nor important. The Mount Lofty Range, a few miles east of Adelaide, and parallel with the east coast of St. Vincent’s Gulf, consists of beautifully undulating hills,’clothed with forests ; the valleys in between the ranges are very fertile, and aro dotted with farms and orchards. Still further north is Flinders Range, a somewhat similar elevation, though in places tho summits are treeless, and occasionally rocks project above the grassy slopes. Gawler Range, parallel with the south shore of Lake Gardiner, is an irregular succession of hills, with fine grazing land surrounding. Various scattered ranges, the Macdonnell Range being the highest, are to be met with in the centre of tho colony.

In the depression north of Spencer Gulf are Lakes Kyre, Frome, Torrens, and Gairdner, and in the centre of the Westralian border is Lake Amadeus. I hey are all vast salt marshes, almost dry in times of drought, and filled with water only in the rainy season.

The lower course of the Murray River is in this colony. Various feeders of this river flow through the wheat lands and vineyards of the fertile district around. About 20 miles above its estuary, Lake Alexandrina, this river is crossed by a tine bridge, over which passes tho railway line to the border. Through the city of Adelaide flows the little River Torrens. It is nothing more than a shallow creek. In the interior there are various rivers whose volume of water varies with the seasons, the chief of them is Cooper’s Creek, which rises in Queensland and Hows into Lake Kyre. In the Northern Territory the finest river is the Roper, navigable by large ships for 100 miles from its mouth. The South Alligator is neady as large as the Roper, and the Victoria waters a large district, and has its mouth in a marshy, mangrove-covered flat.

South Australia has seven and a-half millions of sheep, and one-third of a million cattle. It produces less gold than any other Australasian colony, hut has an annual output of a quarter of a million pounds’ worth of copper—more than all the rest of the colonies put together. 1 hough it does not produce quite as much w heat as \ ictoria, it is (on account of its smaller population) able to export nearly eight millions of bushels a year—a quantity more than the other two wheat-ex porting colonies (Victoria and New Zealand) together.

The chief cities and towns :—


Adelaide (13«*),000), with one-third of the population of the colony, is situated six miles from sea, and is the capital of the colony.

Port Adelaide (5,000), seaport of Adelaide, is the port of call for mailships, etc.

Port Pirie (4,000), an important seaport, whence silver ore from Broken Hill (New South Wales) and wheat from the surrounding district is exported. In the vicinity are smelting works for the treatment of ore.

Glenelg (4,000), on the coast, six miles from Adelaide, is a suburban, residential seaport.

Gawler (2,000) is in the centre of the wheat-growing district —25 miles north-east of Adelaide.

Kapunda (2,000), formerly a copper-mining centre; now a manufacturing town, with good marble quarries near it.

Palmerston (1,000). The chief town in Northern Territory —on Port Darwin, 2,000 miles from Adelaide, the terminus of two cable lines ; there are only 300 Europeans out of a total population of about 1,200.


The largest colony of Australia comprises more than one-third of the total area of the continent, but it has the smallest population —only about 100,000 people. It is a vast and generally level plain, broken by hill ranges near the coast, whilst inland there are many depressions and slight elevations. The chief of these hill-ranges is the Darling Range, which stretches for .300 miles, parallel with the west coast, and 10 to .30 miles from it. It is covered with enormous trees of valuable Jarrali wood. The Stirling Range is on the edge of the tableland, parallel with the South Coast, it is little more than a hill. In the north-west district is King Leopold Range, forming the watershed between the Fitzroy and the Ord Rivers.

Of the rivers, the Swan is the only one capable of navigation. Perth is on its banks. The rivers on the West Coast are surrounded by splendid pasture lands, with sheep and cattle stations they have long courses, but scarcely any fall, so few of them run throughout the year. The Murchison, Gascoyne, and Ashburton are the chief of them. In the north-west of the colony are the Fitzroy and Ord Rivers, watering the rich plains of the Kimberley district—now occupied by sheep and cattle stations.

Westralia has two and a quarter millions of sheep and 200,000 cattle. Though it has very rich gold mines, the total produce does not reach the value of a million pounds per annum. Pearlshell, Jarrah, and Sandalwood are valuable articles of export. It produces much less grain than any other of the Australasian colonies.

The chief towns are :—

Perth (20,000), the capital, 12 miles from the mouth of the swan River. It has made great progress recently.

Fremantle (5,000), the second town and chief seaport, near the mouth of the Swan River, connected with Perth both by rail and river-boat. It is one week nearer to Europe than the eastern •aaports of Australia.

Coolgardie (5,(XX)), 350 miles east of Perth, with which it is now connected by rail. Ricli and valuable gold mines were opened up here in 181)2-3*.

Albany (5,000), 340 miles south-east of Perth, on a splendid harbour, is a place of call for the Royal Mail Steamers; it has beautiful surroundings.

Northam and York are 60 or SO miles east of Perth, in the cent re of a large farming district, where wheat, barley, and | vegetables are grown.

Geraldton is situated on a fine natural harbour Champion Bay to the north of Perth. Though it has a small rainfall, it has] a splendid climate. It is the port of Murchison Goldfield.

Bunbury, on the south part of the West Coast, has poor anchorage, but the coast steamers take away great cargoes of Jarrah timber, which is got from the surrounding forests.

Broome, on Roebuck Bay, in the north-west, is a great resort of I the pearl fishers, and is the terminus of a submarine cable from Java, j


The island colony of Australia is about 150 miles south ofii Victoria. It is 26,000 square miles in area, or about one-eleventh] of the size of New South Wales, whilst its population, 170,000, is about one-eighth of this colony.

The interior is a tableland fully 3,000 feet above sea level, dotted with several prettily-situated lakes St. Clair, Sorrell, The Great Lake, Woods, Echo, etc. —; fed by n u m erou s mountain streams, which abound in fine fish and splendid wild fowl, its edge is a series of mountain chains, except in the south, where it gradually slopes off toward the hills on the north bank of the Derwent, which is a tine stream flowing into Storm Bay. This river has Hobart, the capital of Tasmania, on its south bank, and it is navigable as far as New Norfolk. Above that town rapids and rocks impede the navigation. South of the Derwent is the Huon River, flowing through a famous fruit-growing district, whence apples, cherries, etc., are exported, as also large quantities of the well-known timber, Huon Pine. On the North Coast are the Tamar and the Mersey. The Tamar is only 10 miles long, but it

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is formed by the junction of the North and South Esk, which How, in some places, through narrow and deep gorges, where their current is obstructed by shoals. At the junction of these rivers stands


Launceston, the second town of Tasmania. The Mersey River \\aters a splendid agricultural district the towns of East and West

East and West

The rivers of the W est The chief of them are the

Devonport are situated at its mouth.

Least are shallow, unnavigable streams.

^rthiir and Gordon Rivers.

I here are three groups of mountains: The Western Group lias the twin mountains of Heemskirk and Zeehan (with silver mines in their vicinity), Mount Bischoff (which has the largest tin nni,Vjn the world), and Cfadle Mount, t he summit of Tasmania ; 1 im North-east Group, of which Ben Lomond is the highest peak ; mal the Central Group, which consists chiefly of the Great Western Range, a semi-circular ridge partly surrounding the central lakes and on their east side.

Tasmania has only one and a half millions of sheep. Alone amongst Australasian colonies, this number has remained the same or the past 35 years. It owns only 160,000 cattle. It produces large quantities of silver and tin—second only to New South W ales in iese metals ; a fair quantity of gold and of coal is also won from le ei^h- Other exports are fruit, jam, hops, and grain.

I he chief cities and towns :—

Hobart (30,000), the capital, is prettily situated at the foot of \f0llnk Wellington, and near the Derwent River. It has a beau-1 ully cool summer climate, and is therefore a great tourist resort.

Launceston (20,000) is a busy trading town, picturesquely situated on t tie Tamar River, 40 miles from the sea. Large sea-going steamers sail up the river to Launceston.

Zeehan (5,000), the third town in the island, is near the West Coast. It is the centre of a large silver and tin mining district, connected by rail with Strahan.

Devonport (4,000), the chief seaport on the North Coast, is divided into East and W est Devonport, with tlie River Mersey between them.

Latrobe is the centre of an agricultural district 10 miles from l)c veil port.

Beaconsfield is a gold-mining centre, 12 miles from the mouth of the Tamar River.

Waratah, near the Mount BischofF Tin mine, is connected by rail with its seaport, Burnie.

Fingal, near the East ('oast is the coal-mining centre of Tasmania.

New Norfolk, 21 miles up the Derwent from Hobart, has a large Lunatic Asylum, but is more noted for the hop gardens in its vicinity, and for the (Government Salmon Ponds, where English salmon are bred to supply the inland waters.


This colony is five days’ steam to the south-east of Australia. It consists of two large islands, with one smaller island to the south of t hem, and a large number of small islets, chiefly contained in 8 or 10 groups, otY the coast. The North Island is about one-seventh the size of New South Wales, and the »South Island is less than one-fifth the size. Their total population is nearly three-quarters of a million.

rl lie surface of North Island is a series of low table-lands, covered with forests, except in the centre around the Hot Lakes (Rotorua, Tarawera, Rotomahana). Above tlieso table-lands rise several volcanic peaks, as Egmont, Ruapehu, Tongariro, and Tarawera. Egmont has gone out, men know it is a volcano because there are traces of volcanic rock around it, but there is no record that anyone ever saw it active; Ruapehu and Tongariro, however, are active volcanoes. They are near the centre of the island. Men thought Tarawera was, like Egmont, extinct; but, in 1886, it suddenly became active and did much damage all around, destroying some very fine natural terraces near the hot lakes. Since then it has again been at rest. Several mountain ranges cross the island from south to east. The chief of these are Ruahine, Ahimanawa, and Tararua ; fine ranges, clothed in forests of kauri pine, etc., with lovely valleys between the ridges. Through these valleys flow such rivers as the Manawatu River, which has always been noted for the wild yet grand, scenery on its banks. Another river flowing south is the Wanganui, which is a navigable stream, rising in Tongariro and flowing into South Taranaki Bight. »The longest river in North Island is the Waikato, which rises in Ruapehu, and flows north through Lake Taupo. entering the sea near the town of Waikato on the west coast. Beside the Hot Lakes, already noticed, there is in the centre of the island a large, irregular, oval-shaped lake called Taupo. It has few indentations, and but little foliage near it. Its shores are studded with Maori settlements.

The South Island has a backbone of high mountains, running from north to south, parallel with the west coast. This west coast lias, in its southern part, thirteen deep inlets, called sounds, which run a long way into the land. They are bordered by high, steep precipices, which are clothed with beautiful foliage, and have many waterfalls tumblingdown from rock to rock. Bowen Falls, at the head of Milford Sound, are the most noted. Tourists from all parts of the world travel to these fine solitudes to admire their striking beauty.

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The mountain chain, known as the Southern Alps, has, in its centre, Mount Cook, the highest peak in Australasia.

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snow all the year round, and it has a great field of ice, called the Tasman Glacier, larger than any in Europe, on its side. At its north and south end this mountain range consists of a number of spreading ranges, and several spurs are sent out from the main chain eastward, traversing a Central Plateau, which is bordered by a lower range of mountains, running parallel to the east coast. Between this range and the coast are Canterbury and Otago Plains, *28

the best grazing country in the island. Among the mountains are many beautiful lakes : Te Anau, surrounded, except on its eastern side, by densely wooded mountains, is the largest. It is drained by the \\ aiau River, the most beautiful of these lakes is Wakatipu, hardly excelled the wide world over for its lovely scenery. Tekapo is a strange lake, for its waters are always of a milky color. It is led by the glaciers, which descend the lofty mountains which surround this lake. All the rivers of the South Island of Now Zealand are rapid, impassable streams, fed by the glaciers of the Southern Alps,

1 he longest of them is the Clutha, which, though a very rapid river,


is partly navigable for one-third of its course. It drains a rich gold-prod uomg district, and in the river you might see a number of dredges dragging tor gold which is got in some quantity from the sand of the met >ed. I he Duller and Grey Rivers, in the north-west, drain the coal mining district of New Zealand ; they are rapid, impetuous rivers, flow me through a wild and mountainous count rv.

I TV    £iain ?TI1( vegetables, butter, and cheese, are sent

c nelly to Australia. Nearly 300,000 ounces of gold are annually pioduced; whilst m the export of coal, New Zealand has about two*

,OA .V." Zealand owns 20 millions of sheep, and she exports about U0 millions of pounds of wool each year. Many woollen mills use the locally grown wool, and tweeds and blankets"are now exported to New South Wales. Large quantities of frozen meat are sent to

iiftlis the output of, and ranks next to, New South Wales among the Australasian Colonies.

The chief towns, in the North Island, are Auckland, Wellington, Napier, Wanganui, and Thames; and, in the South Island, Dunedin, Christchurch, Invercargill, Oamaru, Greymouth, Westport, and Nelson.

Wellington (35,000), on Port Nicholson, has been the capital since 1865 ; it is not the largest town, but is the most central; it has a deep and large harbour. Earthquakes are common there, so most of the houses are built of wood, and are only one storey high.

Auckland (51,000), once the capital, is the chief seaport of New Zealand, and carries on great trade with Australia, America, and the Pacific Islands. Many manufactures are carried on in this beautifully situated seaport.

Napier (9,000), on the sea coast, has an artificial harbour, and, as it is the centre of a large sheep-farming district, it exports wool, cattle, and frozen meat.

Wanganui (5,000) is the centre of a large farming district, and an important seaport. It was fortified during the Maori war.

Thames (5,000), a seaport on the Firth of Thames, is the centre of a gold-mining district.

Dunedin (48,000), the finest and busiest city of New Zealand, is surrounded by a large farming and coal-mining district. It has numerous factories.

Christchurch (48,000) is 7 miles from the mouth of the Avon, which flows into the east coast. It has the finest buildings in the colony.

Invercargill (9,000), in the south, is surrounded by farms and sheep stations. It exports butter, frozen meat, timber, etc.

Oamaru (6,000), exports wheat and wool, and frozen meat. Its buildings are built of very fine white stone quarried in the neighbourhood.

Greymouth (4,000), as its name shows, is at the mouth of tho Drey River. It has an artificial harbour, and exports coal.

Westport (3,000), farther north, at the mouth of the Buller River, has a natural harbour, and is the other coal-exporting town of N.Z.

Nelson (7,000), on Tasman Bay, has round it a line fruitgrowing district, and lovely hop gardens.

Section III.

Geography for the Third Half-Year.


We have now to talk about the greatest of the continents, Europe. It is not the largest. Indeed, excepting our own continent, R is the smallest ; but it contains six of the greatest nations of the earth, besides eleven others of lower rank. There are 1*20 times as many people in Europe as in Australia.

Its surface may l>e said to consist of three parts : (l) the Great Plain of the north-east ; (2) the Highland Region of the centre and south-west; and (3) the Scandinavian Plateau of the north-west. I he Great Plain covers more than one-half of the continent. It stretches from the Ural Mountains across to the Caucasus, the Black Sea, and the Carpathian Mountains on the south, along the Arctic Coast into Sweden in the north, and over as far as the North Sea in the west. It is watered by many long rivers which How into the Caspian, Black, Baltic, and \\ hite Seas. It is, in shape, like a triangle, with its base on the boundary of Asia and its apex on the shore of the North Sea in Holland. The Highland Region of the centre rises, in its highest parts, into the snow-clad peaks of the Alps, which cover an area larger than the colony of Victoria. Mountain ranges branch off from this central group towards France, Germany, Austria, and Italy. The Highland region is continued further south in the plateau of Central Spain and of the Balkan Peninsula. The Scandinavian Plateau rises gradually from the great plain on its north-west, and forms a wide, broken Highland in Norway, being stoop and rocky on the side which faces the Atlantic Ocean.

Kurope has a splendid climate neither very hot nor very cold, so that men can workout of doors all the year round, and, as the soil is fertile and rain is abundant, largo quantities of grain are produced.

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soo P'rance and Italy. France is a compact square-shaped country with a diversified surface. 'The north and west of the country form part of the great plain. The centre is a tableland, and east of it is the Rhone Valloy, beyond which rise the snow-capped mountains of Italy. Italy is a great boot-shaped peninsula with a mountain range running down its centre and encircling, on the north-east, a splendid fertile plain through which flows the useful river Po. W est of France, and beyond the ocean, are the British Islands, the homo of the great nation to which we belong. Though there arc seven countries of Europe of larger area, there are not any so great or so important as these British Islands. The six great countries already mentioned are known as the Six Great Powers of Europe. The other countries are Sweden and Norway, two mountainous countries forming the Scandinavian Peninsula in the northwest ; Spain and Portugal forming the Iberian Peninsula in the south west. The three low-lying countries of the North Sea coast, Holland, Belgium, and Denmark ; the mountainous little country of Switzerland, and the countries of the Balkan Peninsula— Roumania, a fertile and prosperous State on the north-east ; the equally fertile but badly-governed Turkey ; the flat, pastoral and agricultural country of Bulgaria ; the two mountainous countries of Servia and Montenegro ; and, in the far south, the mountainous and romantic country of Greece—once the pride of the earth, now a country of small power or influence.


The British Islands consist of the two large islands of Great Britain and Ireland and nearly 5000 small islands near their coasts. Their total area is less than one-third that of New South Wales, but they have nearly thirty times as many people. Great Britain is about three times the size of Ireland. It contains the countries of England and Wales and Scotland.

The west and north-west of Great Britain is mountainous, whilst the east and south-east form a lowland plain watered by numerous navigable rivers which flow into the North Sea. Ireland is mountainous in the north and south (the highest ranges being on the north-west and the south-west) and between these stretches the Central Plain of Ireland.

The people of Ireland are chiefly employed in farming, but in Britain mining and manufactures are now the leading industries. Enormous quantities of coal, besides iron, slate, tin, lead, etc., are produced ; and cotton, woollen, linen, and jute goods are made and exported. Machinery and metal goods and chemicals also form important manufactures. One-fourth part of the exports of Britain go to the colonies of the British Empire. The countries of Europe, the United States of America, Brazil, Argentina, and China rank next in importance in this respect. Nearlv every part of the world, produces something which is imported by England.

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Mountains and Rivers of England : On the northern border are the Cheviot Hills, a number of flat ridges through the breaks of which small streams flow. A range branches off from this and runs south towards tlie centre of England. It is called the Pennine Chain. It forms the watershed between the rivers of the East and those of the West Coast. North-west of this chain there is a group of broken peaks with many very pretty little lakes in the valleys between them. This group is known as the Cumbrian Mountains. The surrounding country, which is a favorite place for tourists, is called tin* Lakes District. Lake Windermere is the largest of the many lakes there. The other mountains are in W ales. They are called by the old name of that country, the Cambrian Mountains ; they cover the whole of the little Principality. The longest rivers are the Thames and the Severn. The Thames rises near some hills in tlie south-west of England, and flows in an eastward direction. On its banks is situated London, the capital of the Empire, and the largest and busiest city in the world. The Severn rises in the Cambrian Mountains, and sweeps round in a semi-circle to the Bristol Channel on the south-west. The Mersey in the north-west is important, because of the shipping carried on from Liverpool near its mouth, as also from Manchester which is now connected with it by a ship canal. Opposite to the Mersey, and on the East Coast, is the Humber, formed by the junction of the Trent, which flows north, and the Ouse, which flows south ; and, north of it, is the small but useful river Tyne, on whose banks is Newcastle, a great coalexporting port.

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Cities : London has a population larger than the whole of Australasia, and nearly four times as large as that of Xew »South Wales. Amongst the hundreds and thousands of ships which annually take goods to and from this great city those trading to Australasia are the most important. They carry our raw products to London, and bring back manufactured goods in exchange.

Liverpool ((>20,000) the second seaport, is the outlet for the manufacturing districts of Lmeashire and Yorkshire. It carries on an enormous trade with America—-the steamer voyage occupying eight or ten days each way.

Manchester (400,000), 40 miles from Liverpool, is the great centre of cotton manufactures. It has recently become connected with the sea by the opening up of the Manchester Ship Canal, 35 miles in length.

Leeds (360,000) and Bradford (220,000) are on the Yorkshire coal-iields. They are great centres of woollen manufacture. Much of the wool grown on the sheep of our great western plains goes there to be woven into fabrics.

Birmingham (460,000) in the centre of England, and also on a large coal-held, is the largest iron manufacturing town in the world.

Cardiff (130,000), the seaport of the South Welsh coalfield, is now the third seaport of England. It exports very large quantities of smokeless coal.

Sheffield (340,000) is on the south of the same coalfield as Birmingham. It is famous for the manufacture of cutlery and steelware.

Hull (200,000), on the River Humber, is the chief grain-exporting town of England. It has considerable trade with Europe.

Bristol (240,000) was once a great seaport for trade with America, but now, though it has large imports, it has comparatively few exports, because far removed from the manufacturing districts.


The surface of Scotland consists of two parts : the Highlands and the Lowlands. The Highlands are north of the valley of the Clyde and Tay. They are covered with broken and rugged hillranges. The most distinctly marked range there is known as the Grampians, a name which we have borrowed to apply to a range in Victoria. Among these heather-covered mountains there are many pretty lakes; Loch Lomond is the largest, but Loch Katrine is the most beautiful. There is only a sparse population in the Highlands, but many tourists visit them in the summer for fishing, and shooting, on the banks of the Dee or the Spey, or some other of the many rapid rivers which rush down the mountain side of this hilly region. All the country south of the Clyde and Tay is spoken of as The Lowlands. They are not perfectly level, for they have several hill ranges. They have two large coalfields, and, as iron is also found near at hand, manufactures of machinery, iron ships, etc., are very important. Cotton and linen manufactures also employ large numbers of people. Farming (oats, barley, and wheat) is likewise an important industry. Scotland is little larger than Tasmania, but it has 4,000,000 of people.

The chief cities and towns :—

Edinburgh (300,000), the i( modern Athens,” is picturesquely situated near the Firth of Forth. It has a grand old castle, which has 1 een the scene of many stirring historical events. Its famous University isits chief pride in these days. It is the capital ofScotland.

Glasgow (750,000), the largest city of Scotland, is the centre of the greatest shipbuilding industry in the world. Surrounded by a coalfield, it has large cotton and iron manufactures, and the trade with America is very important. It, too, has *i large and famous University.

Dundee (200,000) lias great trade with the Hal tic States, and employs many men in the linen, jute, and hemp industries, as also in seal and whale fisheries of the Arctic Sea.

Aberdeen (130,000) is the chief town of The Highlands, and is a famous University centre, at the mouth of the Dee. Its fisheries, granite works, cotton, and linen manufactories make it a busy place.

Greenock (65,000) is near Glasgow, on the Clyde, and, like it, is noted for its shipbuilding.

Leith (70,000) is the port of Edinburgh, on the Firth of Forth.


Though not much larger in size than Tasmania, Ireland has 4J millions of people. Its surface consists chiefly of a central plain. The chief mountains form a group in the south-west, known as the Mountains of Kerry, rising in their highest parts, into peaks called Macgillicuddy's Reeks. Among these mountains there are several very beautiful lakes, known as the Lakes of Killarney. There are many larger lakes in Ireland, such as Lough Neagh, in the north, and Loughs Mask and Corrib, on the west; but none are so noted for their lovely scenery as those of Killarney. Among the Irish

4    *    •

rivers, the most important are the Shannon, Blackwater, Suir, Barrow, Liffey, and Boyne. The Shannon is the longest river in the British Islands. It is on the west coast, and in its semicircular course it spreads out into several wide lakes. The other rivers are slow and navigable. Their banks, in many places, form vast marshes and swamps, owing to tiie level nature of the surrounding country.

Ireland is noted for its moist climate. Grass grows so richly that the land is often called, from its green appearance, the Emerald Isle. But the moisture makes the land unsuitable for the growth of wheat. The chief exports of this island are farm and dairy produce: Butter, eggs, bacon, cattle, sheep, and pigs. In the north, some linen is manufactured, and whisky also forms an important article of export.

The chief cities and towns of Ireland are : —

Dublin (360,000), at the mouth of the LifTey, on the east coast. A large and important trading town. It is the capital of Ireland.

Belfast (210,000), the second seaport, has important trade with Britain and the Continent of Europe. It is the centre of tho linen and spirit manufacturing industries.

Cork (82,000), in the south-east, is the third seaport. It is surrounded by a large dairy-producing district and exports much butter, etc.

Limerick (40,000), at the mouth ofthe Shannon, is the largest city in the west of Ireland. It has several manufact ures, and much inland and coastal trade.

Waterford (25,000), in the south, and Londonderry (33,000), in the north, export farm and dairy produce.


France, the chief wine producing country in the world, is separated from England by the Strait of Dover, 21 miles wide. On its eastern boundary are some very high mountains—the Alps, nearly three miles high, divide it from Italy, the Jura Mountains aro on the Swiss boundary, and, on the borders of Germany are the Vosges Mountains. At the western foot of the Alps lies the valley of the Rhone, a swift unnavigable stream subject to groat and

dangerous floods. West of this valley is the south-eastern or central plateau traversed by the Cevennes and Auvergne Mountains, which contain many extinct volcanoes, and have slopes of fertile soil. South of this plateau is the picturesque" chain of the Pyrenees Mountains. It is a grand and rugged chain, and forms tlie boundary between France and Spain. The whole of the north and west of France forms part of the Great European Plain. This part is watered by many rivers flowing west. The Seine flows through a splendid farming and manufacturing district into the English Channel. The Loire is a busy stream, for, as it is navigable nearly to its source, it is traversed by innumerable trading vessels. The valley of the Loire has fertile farm lands. Another river flowing into the Bay of Biscay is the Garonne, Its valley is the chief brandv-making district in the world.

France is two-thirds of the size of New South Wales, but has 38 millions of people, about the same number as the British Islands.

We send quantities of wool, hides, tallow, etc., to France in the large French mail steamers, and get in return wine and silk, woollen and fancy goods manufactured there. France is mainly an agricultural country, it produces enormous quantities of wheat, barley, etc., but it requires it all for home use, and has to import wheat and flour from other countries. It lias two large coalfields, the Northern, surrounding Lille ; the Southern, near Lyons and St. Etienne.

The chief cities and towns of France are—

Paris (2,500,000), a very beautiful city on the River Seine. The capital of France, and second largest city in the world.

Lyons (420,000), on the River Rhone, near the Southern coalfield, is the most important silk manufacturing town in the world. It is the second town of France.

. Marseilles (400,000), the chief seaport, is on the Mediterranean coast. It is the terminus of the French mail-boats.

Bordeaux (252,000) is near the mouth of the Garonne on the Bay of Biscay. It exports much wine and brandy, which is produced in the surrounding district.

Lille (201,000), in the centre of the Northern coalfield, has large linen and ironinanufactnres.

Rouen (11.~>,000), on the Seine, is the chief seat of cotton manufactures. It was formerly the capital of Normandy.


Germany is very little larger than France, hut it has f>0 millions of people. Except in the south and west it is a level country, forming a part of the great European plain. Besides the Vosges Mountains, already mentioned, there are the Black Forest. Bohemian Forest, Sudetic and Harz Mountains. The Black Forest Mountains are on the east of the Rhine ; they are covered with splendid trees, and many men find employment therein cutting and removing timber. The Bohemian Forest and Sudetic Mountains bet ween Germany and Aust ria rise gradually from the plain. They have mines of iron, silver, and lead, where thousands of miners are employed. The Harz Mountains are in the centre. They are rich in silver and copper ore, and have many large mines.

The plain is watered by the Vistula and Oder Rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea, and the Elbe. Weser, and Rhine flowing into the North Sea. Down the Vistula and the Oder float immense rafts of timber, and barges laden with the rye. oats, and wheat from the plains around their upper courses. The Elbe and Weser are similar rivers, navigable almost to their sources. The Rhine, the second river in Europe in length, has its upper and middle course through very grand and magnificent scenery; fine vineyards, and the ruins of many medieval towers are to he seen from the boats which glide up and down the stream. Its lower course is through an extensive and important coalfield, and several large manufacturing towns are on or near it.

We send to Germany, in the large German steamships, wool, hides, tallow, et<*., and get in exchange woollen and cotton fabrics, paper, and iron manufactures. Germany also exports sugar, coal, toys, etc. Large areas are sown with rye, oats, wheat, barley, etc., but the produce is not sufficient for the needs, and much is imported from Austria and Russia.

The chief cities and towns of the German Empire arc—

Berlin (1,000,000), the capital, an inland city, on the Spree, a tributary of the Elbe. It is four times the size of Sydney, and is a great manufacturing centre.

Hamburg (324,000), on the River Elbe, is the fifth seaport in the world. It is connected by river and canal with all parts of the empire, and has very great trade. It has direct communication with Sydney by large cargo steamers of the German-Australian line.

Breslau (300,000), in the south-east, on the upper course of the Oder, is a most important trading and manufacturing town. Woollen goods form its chief manufacture and it has a great wool fair every year.

Munich (348,000), the largest city of Southern Germany, is the capital of Bavaria, one of the chief States of the Empire.

Dresden (270,000), the capital of Saxony, is a beautiful city. It has a mild climate. Amongst its many manufactures that of porcelain occupies a high place.

Cologne (282,000) is an important city on the Rhine. It has a great Cathedral which occupied 000 years in building.

Bremen (12.7,000), on the Weser, is a city of great trade. From its seaport Bremerhaven the German mail boats start for Sydney.

' Germany is a federation of 2d States, of which four are kingdoms, the others being Duchies, Grand Duchies, Principalities and Free Cities.


Austria, the second largest country in Europe, is about four-fifths the size of N.S. Wales, and has 41 millions of people. It has a varied surface. The Danube flows through the country from west to east, and with its tributaries (of which the chief are the Save and the Theiss), waters the great Plain of Hungary. The north-west part of the country forms the Plateau of Bohemia, watered by the River Elbe. This plateau is bordered by four low forest-covered mountain ranges-—the Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, Sudetic, and Bohemian Forest From its eastern edge stretches a semi-circular ridge of steep and rugged mountains — the Carpathians—which reach over to the well-wooded Plateau of Transylvania, on the east of the Empire. I his plateau is crossed from east to west by a mountain range, called the Transylvanian Alps. The south-west is a mountainous and picturesque district, the Tyrol, covered with the offshoots of the Alps.

Grain (wheat, oats, barley) and flour, beet-sugar, timber, and cattle are the chief exports.    ^

One-fourth of the people are a German race, the Austrians. The remainder, the Hungarians, are of Slavonic origin like the Russians. These two nations differ in language, ideas, and habits.

The c-.hiot cities and towns : —

Vienna (1,850,000) has a population about equal to that of all X. S. Wales. It is the fourth city of Europe. Situated on the Danube River, it is a great place for trade and manufactures.

Buda-Pesth (500,000), on both sides of the Danube River, is the capital of Hungary. It was formerly two separate towns. It has many manufactures, and a great quarterly fair is held for the exchange of goods.

Prague (810,000) is in the centre of the chief manufacturing district of Austria, in the centre of the Plateau of Bohemia—a beautiful eitv with noted glass, cotton, and woollen manufactures.

Trieste (158.000) is the chief seaport. It is on the Adriatic Coast, and has shipbuilding yards, leather and rope works, etc.

Lemberg (150,000) is an old city, lying in a narrow valley among the hills on the great trade route between Russia and Turkey.

Gratz (118,000) is the chief city among the Alps in the west.


Russia-in-Europe is an immense plain, sloping off towards the White. Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas. The only mountains are on the border. The snow-clad Caucasus, on the south, stretch from the Black to the Caspian Sea. The Ural Mountains, on tne east, are rich in gold, iron, copper, and platinum. Towards the centre of Russia, there is an elevation known as the Valdai Hills (rich in iron mines), whence flows the long river Volga to the Caspian Sea. This river has a gentle current, with few shallows and no falls. It is navigable in the summer, but icebound in winter. Its waters abound in fish, in the vic inity of the same hills rise the Don, the Dneister. the Dnieper, and the Bug, flowing south; the

Dwina and the Niemen flowing west, and the Northern Dwina flowing north. The Ural, flowing into the Caspian, and the Petchora, into the Arctic Ocean, both rise in the Ural Mountains. The rivers are all long, sluggish streams. Those which flow south have some rapids and shoals, but all the others are navigable during summer, though frozen during the winter. In the north-west of

Russia there is a large flat hikedis-trict with many large fresh-water lakes, which abound in fish. Lake Ladoga (more than a quarter the size of Tasmania) and Lake Onega are the largest of them.

Russia in Europe is two-thirds the size of Australia, and has90 millions of inhabitants.

Ex ports :— Corn and flour, flax, fish, kerosene, linseed, butter, and eggs, leather, etc.

The chief cities and towns of Russia are:—

St. Petersburg (1,Out),000), a beautiful city, founded 200years ago, on the banks of the Neva River, by Peter the (ireat. Its site was originally a marsh, and innumerable strong and huge piles had to be driven into the ground to form the foundations of what is now a busy manufacturing and trading centre.

Moscow (800,000), the ancient capital, is near the centre*. It has various manufactures of fabrics, leather, etc. It has a noted great bell, 200 tons in weight. Its people burned the city in 1S12 to prevent it falling into the hands of Napoleon.

Warsaw (f>00,000), the former capital of Poland, manufactures silk and woollen goods, and has great markets. It is a strongly fortified inland town.

Odessa (330,000) is the chief Black Sea seaport, and one of the greatest wheat exporting towns in the world.

Riga( 100,000), at the mouth of the Western Dwina, is the chief Baltic seaport. It exports wheat, pine, tar, tlax, linseed, etc., etc.

Batouin (403,000), on the Black Sea, in Russia-in-Asia, exports petroleum, which is brought down by rail from Baku, on the Caspian Sea.

Kishinev (200,000), on the lhieister, in the south-west, is the centre of the great grain-producing district of Russia.


Italy is the central peninsula of Southern Kurope. It, has a backbone of mountains running right through the country from north to south, rather nearer to its eastern than its western coast. 'This mountain range (known as the Apennines) is continued through the island of Sicily, where it reaches its summit in    the celebrated    volcano of    Etna.    North-west    of

thi' Apennines is the fertile and productive, irrigated Plain of Lombardy,    famous for its    enormous    yield of    wheat, wine,

iicc, etc. This plain is watered by the River Po, one of the most useful rivers of Europe, both for navigation and irrigation. The northern boundary of Italy is formed by the Alps, which abruptly rise from the plain. Among the southern spurs of these mountains many tributaries of the IN> rise. There also arc several lakes, such    as Maggiore,    Coino, and    Garda,    remarkable    for

the extreme beauty and grandeur of their surroundings. Near the southern part of the West Coast is the famous volcano of Vesuvius.    The Tiber and    the Arno    are two    rivers on    the

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Italy has an area of little more than one-third of New South W ales, and a population of 30 millions. It exports silk, olive oil, fruit, wine, and sulphur.

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Vesuvius, is the largest city in Italy. It is a port of call for the Orient mail steamers.

Milan (300,000); on theRiverPo. A busy manufacturing town, where silk fabrics, firearms, and cutlery are made. It has a grand cathedral, built of white marble.

Turin (230,000), also on the Po, was formerly the capital of Italy. It has extensive silk and woollen manufactories.

Genoa (140,000), a great seaport on the north-west, has great velvet manufactories. It is a port of call of the large German mail boats. It was the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of America.

Brindisi (10,000), a seaport on the south-east, is the nearest por of Italy to us. The P. and 0. mail boats call there tii voufc to England to land their mails, which are sent overland to Calais, and then across the Strait of Dover.

Sicily is an island with an uneven surface. It has many mountains, Etna being the highest. Its valleys are fertile and productive, so that much fruit and wine are exported. Palermo

(200,000), its capital, occupies a beautiful position on the northwest coast.    . ,

Sardinia is another Italian island, less fertile than »Sicily.

Its capital is Cagliari.    . .

Malta, 00 miles south of Sicily, is an important British naval and military station. It has a hot climate, and its soil has been made fertile. Valetta, the capital, has a tine harbour, is strongly fortified, and forms the headquarters of the British Mediterranean fleet.


Switzerland is a small and very mountainous inland country. From the Alps, on its south boundary, and the Jura, on its west, high ranges branch oil and cross the intervening plateau. i he valleys between these ranges are occupied by rivers. The Rhine, with its 2,700 tributaries—the chief of them in Switzerland being the Aar—rises in Mount St. Gothard, flows through Lake Constance, and thence, as far as the town of Basle, forms the northern boundary of the country. The Rhone also rises in Mount St. Gothard, and flows into the Lake of Geneva, in the south-west corner of the republic. Many tributaries of the Po rise on the south slopes of the Alps, and the Inn, a tributary of the Danube, drains the east of the country, Other lakes of Switzerland are Zurich,

Lucerne, and Neuchatel.    #

Switzerland trades chiefly with adjacent countries, to which it exports silk and cotton fabrics, cheese and agricultural produce. It has a population three times as great as \ ictoria, though its area is but little more than one-sixth of that colony,

The largest city of Switzerland is Zurich, about one-quarter the size of Sydney. It is situated near the centre of the country, and has cotton manufactures and important commerce. Geneva (/ 3,000), in the south-west, lias most beautiful scenery. It is noted for its manufacture of watches. It was the birthplace of 3<*hn l alvin, the reformer. Bale (70,000), a border-town, on the Rhine, is a place of great trade. Bern (48,000) is the fourth town in . ize, but is the capital.


These are very flat count ries, on the North Sea coast. They are called the “ Low Countries, 7 because they are, in many parts, below the level of the sea, which is only kept out by dykes and sand-dunes. Three river mouths are in Holland, viz., the Rhine, the Maas, and 1 he Scheldt, and on and near them are several large manufacturing towns. Holland is a little more, and Belgium a little less, than half the size ot Tasmania ; but Holland has a population slightly larger than all Australia ; whilst Belgium has 1A times as many people, and is the most densely populated country in the world.

Belgium is a great manufacturing country, for it has two large coalfields, besides important mines of iron and zinc ; but Holland is chiefly a farming country, though its people, the Dutch, have always been great traders,

Belgium exports linen, woollen, cotton, and iron goods, besides wheat. Hour, and sugar; Holland exports butter, cheese, fish, spirits.

Hie capital of Holland is Amsterdam (40b,000), a large commercial city, about the size of Sydney, situated on the Zuyder Zee. It is intersected by canals, and now has a large ship canal connecting it directly with the North Sea. Rotterdam (‘203,000), on lho chief mouth of the Maas, is the centre of a busy trade, for large sea-going vessels can sail up its chief canal to the centre of the city.


Utrecht (88,000) is a large trading and manufacturing city, one-fifth the size of Sydney.

Leyden (43,000), a town near the Hague, has a famous University.

Belgium has its capital, Brussels, in the centre.

Brussels (400,000) is a large, well-built city, with important manufactures of lace, linen, and carpets. Antwerp (220,000), at the mouth of the Scheldt, is the chief seaport ; one of the most important in Europe. It has direct communication with Sydney by the large steamers of the German-Australian Line (not the German Mail Line). Ghent (15*2,000) is an important cotton manufacturing town, near the Scheldt-, whence it may be reached by canal. It has a magnificent cathedral. Liege (143*000), in the centre of the iron and coal fields of Belgium, has important manufactures of cannon and firearms. Bruges (47,0000), a few miles from the North Sea coast, is an important manufacturing c ity. Four hundred years ago it was one of the most important in Europe. Ostend (34,000), on the sea coast, is a place of considerable trade with Enidand.


The Hague (170,000), near the North Sea coast, is the seat of


Denmark is a small, low-lying country smaller than Switzerland on the North Sea Coast. It consists of the peninsula of Jutland and several islands, chief of which are Seeland, Ptinen, and Bornholm, The last named island is rocky, but all the rest of the Country is low ami flat, without mountains or rivers. The islands are separated by straits which form the gateways of the Baltic. The Sound, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt are the chief of these straits. On the west of Jutland the soil is sandy, but elsewhere it is very fertile, and supports immense numbers of cattle, for the dairy farming industry is the chief one here. Though only three fifths of the size of Tasmania, it has as many people as New South Wales and Victoria together. It exports butter, eggs, cattle, pigs, and some wheat and barley. Dairy-farming is very skilfully and scientifically carried on in this country, and Australia has learned many of the improved methods of cream-separating, butter-making, etc., from Denmark. It has two and a quarter millions of people.

Copenhagen (375,000), the capital, is but little smaller than Sydney, and is more than ten times as large as any other Danish town. It is on the Island of Seeland, near the Sound, and is a great trading town. It was taken by the English under Lord Nelson in 1801.

Aarhuus (33,000), is the chief town on the mainland, and is a place of considerable trade. Elsinore is a town on Seeland at the entrance to the Sound. There ship-dues were formerly collected.

The Faroe Islands, midway between Scotland and Iceland, belong to Denmark. They are dull, bare, rocky islands, exporting feathers, down and wool.

Iceland is another Danish possession. It is a volcanic island, about half the size of Victoria, and has 70,000 inhabitants—a remarkably honest and well-educated people. The island has some celebrated geysers, or hot springs, and its highest volcano is Hekla. It exports fish, eiderdown, sheep and wool.


Sweden and Norway make up the Scandinavian Peninsula, a vast mountain region somewhat smaller than New South Wales. The mountains rise steeply from the Atlantic, which penetrates the West coast into deep fiords—like the Sounds of South Island of New Zealand—some of them running 100 miles into the land. Norway is really a great plateau crossed by these flat-topped mountain ranges, but Sweden has, along the western shore of the Baltic sea, a strip of low-lying land—an offshoot of the great European Plain. This strip is crossed by several very rapid, and therefore unnavigablo streams, of which the Tornea River is the most important. The Gota, a river with very picturesque waterfalls, drains Lakes Wetter and Wener, two large, island-studded lakes near the South of Sweden. The River Glommen, 400 miles long, and flowing south, is the largest and only navigable stream in the peninsula.

Sweden has five millions of people and Norway two millions. They are ruled by the same king, but have separate Parliaments. They export produce from their mines, farms, factories, forests, and fisheries : Iron, butter, oats, matches, pine and fir, cod and herrings, and train oil.

Stockholm (240,000), the capital of Sweden, is more than half the size of Sydney. It is at the entrance of Lake Malar, an intricate maze of waters, and, being built partly upon islands, it is somewhat like Venice, and nearly as beautiful. It is a manufacturing and trading citv.

Gothenburg (105,000), on the South Coast, is the chief seaport. It has important manufactures, and it exports iron and timber.

Malmo (80,000), in the extreme south, has important trade witJi Germany.

Christiana (150,000), the capital of Norway, is a little larger than Adelaide.

Bergen (")4,000), on the West Coast, is the chief fishing port, and it exports salted ling-fish and fish-oil in large quantities.

Hainmerfest, on an island near North Cape, is the most northern town in Europe.


'These two countries occupy the square-shaped Iberian Peninsula, in the south-west of Europe. This peninsula forms a great plateau, traversed by a large number of nearly-parallel mountain ranges, and watered by numerous rivers resembling those of our Western Plains, varying in volume according to the season. The chief of these rivers are the Douro, the Tagus, and the Guadalquiver, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ebro, flowing into the Mediterranean Sea The latter two, alone among Iberian Rivers, are usefulfor navigatior and irrigation.

Of the mountain ranges, the chief are the Sierra Nevada (snowy mountains), of the south, which have important lead mines, and the parallel ranges of Morena and Toledo, farther north, abounding in iron ores.

Portugal is only one-sixth of the size of Spain, and, together, they have an area about two-thirds of New South Wales. Portugal’s population is three times, and Spain’s is nearly thirteen times as large as ours.

Both countries export wine, fruits, copper and cork. Portugal also sends out fish, salt and onions, and Spain iron, lead, quicksilver ami zino.

The cities and towns of Spain are :—

Madrid (500,000), the capital, in the centre, on an arid plain, the most elevated capital in Europe. Its climate has extremes of heat and cold.

Barcelona (‘272,000), the second city of Spain, is a Mediterranean seaport, and has much trade and some manufactures, cotton goods being the most important. Valencia (171,000), on the same coast, exports fruit.

Seville (143,000), on the Guadalquiver, is a very old city, whence wine, fruit and silk are exported. Malaga (134,000), on the South Coast, is the third Mediterranean seaport. Emit and wine are chiefly exported.

Portugal has only two important cities—Lisbon and Oporto.

Lisbon (240,000), the capital, is near the mouth of the Tagus, and has a tine natural harbour. Its climate is dry and healthy.

Oporto (105,000) is at the mouth of the Douro,and is the centre of the most product ive district of Portugal. Port-wine is its chief export.

Gibraltar is a British town on the west side, and base of a lofty rock, which is connected with the Spanish mainland by a narrow isthmus of sand. It was captured from Spain in 1S04, and, as it guards the entrance of the Mediterranean, it is one of England’s most dearly-prized naval stations. A garrison of 0,000 soldiers is maintained there.


The Balkan Peninsula, the most western of the three great peninsulas of Southern Europe, contains five independent states — Turkey, Roumania, Servia, Montenegro and Greece, together with tiie principality of Bulgaria nominally tributary to Turkov. Four-fifths of this surface is a plateau, from 1,000 to 2,000 feet high, well-watered—excepting in Greece, where the rivers are unnavigable mountain torrents, often dried up in the summer. This plateau is crossed by the Balkans, mountains of moderate height, but very steep, and with few and difficult passes. From the Shar Dagh, a group of broken, rugged rocks in the west, a chain of mountains runs south, known as the Mount Pindus Range. It forms the watershed between the eastern and western rivers. The remaining one-fifth comprises the two eastern lowland plains of Bulgaria and of Adrianople. The Bulgarian Plain, or plain of the Lower Danube, consists of treeless heaths and wide-spreading pasture lands, which support immense herds of cattle and horses. The more fertile parts, especially in Roumania, arc cultivated, and produce wheat and maize abundantly. The Plain of Adrianople, or Valley of the Maritza, has fertile soil, and produces maize, fruit and wine.

The rivers are the Danube (tributaries Alutha, Sereth, Truth), flowing into the Black Sea, and the Maritza. Vardar, and Salembria, flowing into the Aegean Sea. The Maritza is navigable in the winter and spring as far as Adrianople, but is swollen by the summer rains, and is then, like the Vardar and Salembria, unnavigable.

Roumania is the most fertile of the Balkan states. It has more than one-third the area and four times the population of New South Wales. Turkey and Bulgaria each have as many people as Australia. Greece and Servia each have about half as many, vhile Montenegro has only 300,000.

Roumania exports maize and wheat; Turkey, silk, wheat, wine, raisins, opium, and tobacco; Greece, currants, olive oil, wine and figs ; Servia and Bulgaria, wheat, wine, wool, tallow, etc. ; and Montenegro hides and skins.

The chief towns are :

Constantinople (000,000), capital of Turkey, a large and busy trading city, with narrow, dirty streets ; built on seven hills, on the shores of its harbour, the Golden Horn.

Adrianople (100,000), the second city of Turkey, in the fertile valley of the Maritza, has important manufactures of silk and leat her.

Bucharest (222,000), the capital of Roumania, is about half the size of Sydney. It is on a tributary of the Danube, and has large trade in grain, wool, honey, etc.

Belgrade (40,000), the capital of Servia, is a strongly-fortified city at the junction of the Save and the Danube.

Cettinje (4,000), the capital of Montenegro, is only a village with one long street, in which is the palace of the prince.

Athens (107,000), t he capital and largest city of (iroccc*, is about the size of Brisbane. It has many beautiful ruins of temples, etc. In ancient times it was celebrated for its learning. There poetry and the line arts flourished.

Patras (84,000) is the chief currant-exporting city of Greece—-this important article comprises more than half the value of exports thence.

Sofia (30,000), the capital of Bulgaria, is on the Isker, a tributary of t he Danube. It has extensive manufactures of wool, silk and leather.

Section IV.

Geography for the Fourth Half-Year.


Asia lies to the north-west of us. Tt can be reached at Colombo in Ceylon, by the English mail steamer in 18 days from Sydney, or at Hongkong, in China, either by tHe Japan mail boat or the China Navigation Company's steamer in 21 days. It contains one-third of.all the land on the earth’s surface, and more than half the population (850 millions).

It is a great continent of plateaus and mountain ranges. A large belt of plateaus, covering two-fifths of the continent, stretches from the Mediterranean, in the south-west, to Behring Strait, in the north-east. In the centre of Asia this belt narrows, where the plain of Northern India approaches that of Southern Turkestan, so that the Hindu Kush Mountains form an isthmus-like connection between the Eastern and W estern Divisions of the belt. The Western Division has three parts, known as the Plateaus of Asia Minor, Armenia, and Irania. The Eastern Division consists also of three parts : the Plateau of Tibet, the Plateau of Eastern Turkestan and the Hanhai (a depression as compared with the highland regions north and south of it), and the Plateau of Zungaria and Mongolia. The extreme west of Tibet forms a small, rugged region known as the Pamir    Plateau,    the highest table-land    in the

world. From it branch oil    five great    mountain    ranees the    Hindu

Kush westward, the Himalaya. Kuen Lun, and Thian Shan eastward, and the Sulaiman southward. North of this great plateau-belt lies the vast north-west lowland plain of Siberia. It is very wide in the west,    but gradually gets    narrower as    it goes

eastward. South of the    belt are    the three    lowland plains of

Mesopotamia, Northern India, and China ; whilst south of these again lie the plateaus of Central Arabia, the Deccan, the IndoChinese Peninsula the latter of very moderate elevation, with parallel mountain ranges branching off from the edge of the plateau and intervening valleys watered hv rivers rising there. An isolated plateau, known as Sikhota, covers the peninsula of Korea and a part of Manchuria.

Of the thirteen political divisions, three of the largest are dependencies of European Powers. England owns the large and rich country of India, in the south : Russia owns the large territory known as Russia-in-Asia, in the north ; and part of the Turkish


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Empire fills the extreme west of Asia. The Malay Archipelago, between Asia and Australia, belongs chiefly to Holland, though England, Portugal, and America own parts of it. The Empire of Japan, off the East ( oast, is a limited monarchy ; China, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Siam, and Korea are absolute monarchies. Arabia has a tribal government, each tribe being governed by its own sheikh. Indo-China contains, besides the independent kingdom of Siam, four French Colonies on the east, and four British Dependencies on its west.


This great British Dependency is half the size of Australia, and has 287 millions of people. On the northern boundary, the Himalaya Mountains rise abruptly from the great Plain of Northern India, which is watered on its fertile eastern half by the Ganges and the mouth of the Brahmaputra, and on the west by the Indus, flowing through a sterile desert region. South of this plain there is a series of highlands (greater part forming the Plateau of Deccan) crossed by mountain ranges (e.g. the Vindhya and Satpura Mountains)

intersected by numerous valleys (through which flow such rivers as 1 he Mahanadi, the Godavari, and the Kistna, eastward : and the I'apti and Narbada westward), and buttressed by tin* Eastern and Western Ghats, which are parallel to the coasts, and are covered by splendid forests of teak. The Western Ghats are very close to the sea coast, but the Eastern Ghats are' from 30 to 50 miles from their coast, thus leaving room for a very fertile lowland plain along tin* eastern seaboard.

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We send to India horses and frozen meat, and England sends cotton fabrics, hardware, and mac h i n e ry. India’s chief exports are raw cotton, opium, indigo, rice, oilseeds, when t, tea, and jute.

Government: Three-fifths of India are under direct British rule. The remainder consists of about 800 distinct states, most of them of very small size. Two of these. Nepal and Bhotan, up among the Himalaya Mountains, are independent; the lest of the native states are either directly dependent on British states or tributary to them. France owns a few seaport towns; Pondicherry and Chan-dernagore, on the east coast, being the most important : whilst Portugal owns Goa and two other small towns on the west coast.

Cities and towns:

Calcutta (1,000.000) is the residence of the British Governor-General and the capital of India. It has jute and cotton factories, and is a place of great trade.

Bombay (804,000) is the chief seaport on the west-coast. It is a busy place of trade with the countries of Europe, and has also important manufactures of cot-


Madras (450,000), the chief seaport on the south of the east coast. The cable from Penang to Madras forms part of the Australian cable connection with London.

Haidarabad (420,000) is a walled city, in the centre. The home of the Nizam, the most powerful native ruler of India.

Patna (167,000) is a grout trading city, on the Ganges.

Surat (108,000), on the west coast, was the first British settle incut in India, hut is now declining in favour of Bombay.

Karachi (104,000), the most western seaport, near the mouth of the Indus, exports much wheat, brought by rail from the valley of Kashmir.    ~

Delhi (103,000), on the Jumna, a tributary of the Ganges, is the old Mogul capital of India.

Ceylon is a British Crown Colony, with about three millions of people. It is an island about the size of Tasmania, and its capital, Colombo (120,000), is a port of call for the European mail boats. It exports tea, spices, etc.


lndo-China is covered with a series of fan-like ranges, of no great height, running north to south, from the edge of the great plateau. The valleys between them gradually widen, towards the south, into the fertile plains of Lower Burmah, Siam, etc. These valleys are watered by four considerable rivers: The Irawadi and Salwen, two navigable rivers, which are guarded by British war vessels, as they form the highway into the centre of Burma. Menam, a river which has an annual flood when the snows of the mountains melt, and the Mekong, whose current is impeded by rocks and sandbanks. The navigable Songka, in the north-east, flows into the Gulf of Tonking. It is a great commercial highway, and waters a fertile and densely populated French protectorate.

Politically, the peninsula consists of the British possessions of the West (Upper and Lower Burma, the Straits Settlements, and the Protected Malay States), with a total area about equal to that of New South \\ ales, and a population seven times as great ; the French possessions of t he East (Tonking, Anam, Cochin China, and Cambodia), with an area slightly less, but double the population of the British possessions; and the independent Kingdom of Siam, with an area two-thirds of New South Wales and four times the population.

Exports : Silk (from Tonking), gold, rubies, kerosene (from Burmah), cotton, tea, tobacco, teak and rubber from all the states.

The chief towns are

Bangkok (600,000), capital of Siam, a city which is larger than Sydney.

Hanoi, Hue, Saigon, Pnompenh, are the capitals of the French Colonies.

Mandalay (capital of Upper Burma), Rangoon (of Lower Burma), and Singapore (capital of Straits Settlements).


The Malay Archipelago is a large group of islands between Australia and Asia. It consists of two divisions ; (1) the Austro-Malay. and (2) lndo Malay Groups. In the former the chief islands arc New Guinea, the Moluccas, Timor, and Lombok ; whilst the latter include Sumatra, Java, Bali, Celebes, Borneo, and the Philippines.

The islands aro of volcanic formation, and earthquakes are of frequent occurrence, especially in Java. Their climate is hot and moist, the soil very fertile, and the vegetation most luxuriant.

Exports : Coffee, cinchona, sugarcane, tobacco, rice, sago, and edible birds’nests ; tin (from Banca); coal (from Labuan and British North Borneo).

Great Britain owns British New (iuinea, British North Borneo, Laimm Island.

Holland owns Sumatra, Java, the Moluccas, Western New Guinea, and South Borneo.

Germany owns north-east of New Guinea and some adjacent islands.

Portugal owns part of Timor, and the United States of America lately deprived Spain of their old possession, the Phillipines.

Batavia (250,000), in Java, is the largest town in these islands —it is on our home cable line.

Sourabaya (128,000), an important seaport on the north coast of Java has much foreign trade.

Padang (15,000), in Sumatra, is the capital. It exports pepper and camphor.

Benkulen (12,000), in Sumatra, is the chief seaport on the south coast, and was originally an English settlement. Its houses aro built on bamboo piles.

Manila (800,000), capital of the Philippines, recently taken by America, has an unsafe harbor. It exports cigars, tobacco, hemp, and sugar.


The Chinese Empire has an area of four millions of square miles and an average population of 100 to the square mile, of whom 880 millions live in China proper, which is half the area of Australia.

The western part of this Empire comprises the eastern division of the great belt of plateaus: Tibet, Eastern Turkestan, and the Hanhai, and Zungaria and Mongolia, bounded on the east by the Khingan Mountains. The eastern part of the Empire includes the fertile and productive Great Plain of China, watered by the Si Kiang and Yang-tse-kiang, two tine navigable and useful rivers, t lie shallow, turbulent H wang-ho. with its treacherous, shifting sandbanks, and the Pei-ho with its two large cities ; and the Plateau of Sikhota. an isolated highland region partly in Manchuria and extending into the peninsula of Korea.

The chief mountain ranges of the Empire are—

Himalayas, the highest and broadest mountain range on the eart h's surface. They run west from the central block of the Pamirs, and their summit, Mount Everest, exceeds five miles in height.

Kuen Lun. springing out from the Pamirs, covered on their lower ranges with splendid forests and with snow-clad peaks towering above.

Thian Shan, also branching off from the Pamirs, a wild contorted ridge with several extinct volcanoes.

Altai, a long but lower range of mountains on the Russian boundary, rich in minerals, and with fine farming lands on their northern slope.

Khingan, forming the abrupt eastern edge of the Great Plateau.

Pe Ling, or Northern Mountains, forming the watershed between the t wo great rivers of China.

Nan Ling, or Southern Mountains, which gradually decrease in height as they approach the coast.

Of the inland rivers of the Chinese Empire the chief is the Tarim which flows into Lob Nor, a shallow sheet of water on the north slope of the Kuen Lun Mountains. Koko Nor and Tengri Nor are two important lakes with very blue, salt water, situated on the Plateau of Tibet.

Politically the Empire consists of China, and the dependencies of Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, Eastern Turkestan, and Zun-garia.

Tibet is a large plateau twice the size of New South Wales, peopled by six millions of people. It is the centre of the Buddhist religion, the high priest or Grand Llama of which resides at Lassa, the capital. There also lives the Chinese Viceroy.

Mongolia is half the size of Australia, and has about double the population. It has a border of grassy plains, but its interior is a sterile desert. Its capital is a small town, Urga, on the River Tola, but its most important town is Maimatchin, on the Russian frontier, a place of much trade, where woollen and cotton cloths, and furs of Russia, are exchanged for the teas and silks of China.

Manchuria is about the size of New South Wales. It has fertile lands around the River Sungari, a tributary of the Amur, and here numerous herds and flocks find pasture; but the north of the country is covered with forests. The walled city of Mukden is its capital.

Zungaria, a division about half tho size of New South Wales, is a wild desolate mountain region in the north-west. Its inhabitants are nomads. Urumtsi, a village on the caravan route to Russia, is the residence of the Chinese Viceroy.

Eastern Turkestan, or Chinese Tartary, forms the west of tho Empire. It has a crescent of fertile, irrigated lands round the baso of the mountains, but its interior is a desert. It is larger than New South \\ ales, but has only half the population. The fortified town of Kashgar, in the extreme west, is the capital.

The Japan and China steamers bring us from China tea, silk, rice and bamboo goods, and return with our raw products and island goods ; but the most important import of China is opium, produced in India.

The chief cities of China :—

Pekin, the capital, is on the Pei-ho River, and is supposed to have a million inhabitants.

Canton is double the size of Pekin. It is on the Si Kiang River, and is the great centre of the tea trade. It was formerly the onlv port with which Britain was allowed to trade ; but now there are 23 such treaty ports, chief of which are Amoy, Fuchau, Ningpo, and Shanghai, on the coast, and Nanking and Hankow, on the V ank-tse-kiang. Most of these cities are larger than Sydney.

Hongkong’ (moaning “ sweet waters'’), a small island, at the mouth of tin* Si Kiang has been a British possession since 1842. It is a great trading place, and is the chief British naval and military station in the North Pacific. It is a hilly, well-watered, and healthy place, with a quarter of a million inhabitants on its 80 square miles.


Korea has Been an independent country since 1805, hut it was formerly a portion of the Chinese Empire. It is a highland peninsula about the size of Victoria, with a population of 10 millions. Seoul is the capital, and Chemulpo its chief seaport.


Japan can be reached by the mail steamer in about 25 days from Sydney. It consists of four large islands: Honshiu (also known as Nippon and as Hondo), about the size of Victoria ; Yezo, less than half that size ; Shikoku and Kiushiu, each less than quarter that size ; and about 4,000 rocky islets, of which the chief are the Kurile Islands, on the north, and the Lu Chu («roup and Taiwan (formerly called Formosa), on the south. Their total area ate about half that of New South Whiles, and their population is 33 times as great. These islands form one of the most mountainous countries in the world. Fusiyama, the summit, is an extinct volcano, 00 miles from

from the capital. 'The i n ha hi tan ts regard it as a '    V'. sacred mountain.


■    rill

The rivers are innumerable, but they are all impetuous mountain torrents, useless for navigation, though used for irrigating the surrounding land.

The Japan mail boats bring us tea,

silk goods, rice, camphor, ginger, porcelain, bamboo, and fancy goods. Japan also exports coal to t'hina. She imports our raw products, and England's cotton and woollen goods, ships, and machinery.

Tokio (1,400,000), a large and busy city, with many fine buildings and objects of interest, and many important and increasing manufactures.

Osaka (500,000), the second city, is a large manufacturing town, with an artificial harbour, at the mouth of the River Yodo.

Kioto(300,000), the ancient capital, is a most beautiful city, with grand temples and places. It has now many manufactures of art ware, porcelain, and bronze work. It is still the religious and intellectual centre of Japan

Chief cities and towns of Japan :—

Yokohama (150,000), the port of Tokio, has, within the last 40 years, grown from a little fishing village into a large and flourishing seaport.

Kobe (or Hiogo) (150,000), the brightest and healthiest city of Japan, and a place of much trade.

Nagasaki (50,000), on the island of Kiushiu, has a splendid harbour, whence much coal is exported from the surrounding coalfields.


Russia occupies one-third of the total area of Asia. It is divided into three parts, Siberia, Russian Central Asia, and Caucasia. Caucasia, is the smallest (one-half size of N.S. Wales) division but the most densely populated. It lies between the Black and Caspian Seas on each side of the Caucasus Range, and forms a plateau divided into Ciscaucasia and Transcaucasia. The mountains are high and rugged, covered with perpetual snow and crossed by only two passes, the Dariel in the middle and the Derbend near the Caspian. The River Kur, with its tributary the Aras, drains the southern portion, and the Terek flowing east and the Kouban west receive their waters from the northern slope. The Plateau of Armenia is on the southern border, occupying also a part of the adjacent empires of Persia and Turkey. It has on it three intensely salt lakes, one in each country, Gocha in Caucasia, Van in Turkey, and Urumia in Persia. The chief exports are petroleum or kerosene from the wells near Baku on the Caspian, and copper and iron from the mountains. Batoum, on the Black Sea is the seaport of Baku. Tiflisand Valdikavkaz, which are connected by rail, form the chief towns of the south and north divisions.

Siberia, is a great plain, marshy in the north, forest covered in a central zone, and covered with treeless steppes in the south. Jt is watered by the Obi, the Yenesei, and the Lena rivers flowing north, and the Amur flowing east. The northern rivers are icebound for nine months of the year, but the Amur is usually free of ice for half the year. The chief products are fossil-ivory from the north, furs from the forest zone, wheat from the Steppes, and gold, silver, iron, lead, etc., from the mountains, the Ural on the west and the Altai (continued as the Yabloni and Stanovi) on the south and east. Valdivostok, a seaport on the sea of Japan, is a very strongly fortified naval station. Other important towns are Yakutsk, on the Lena; Kaikhta, the great frontier trading town ; Irkutsk, the largest city, situated near Lake Baikal the largest fresh-water lake in Asia; Krasnoiarsk, the capital, on the Yenesei; Tomsk and Tobolsk on the Obi.    ^

Russian Central Asia is in the middle of Asia. In its south-east is the Pamir Plateau, the place “where three Empires meet, ' and the “ roof of the world.” Thence the country gradually slopes towards the Caspian Sea on the west, and the desert Steppes on the north. It contains three bitterly salt lakes, the Sea of Aral, Lake Balkash and Issik-kul, remnants of what was once a great inland sea. The country is watered by the Amu and the Sir, two rivers which rise m the Pamirs and flow through the irrigated plains of Samarkand and Khiva into the Sea of Aral. They are peopled bv eight millions of nomads, gradually becoming farmers, who already export fruit , tobacco, cotton, corn, and silk. Tashkend (on the Sir) is the capital, and Kokand on the same river, the most important trade centre. Samarkand is a great farming centre, and Bokhara and Khiva are two vassal States towards the south.


This country, with an area twice as large and a population fifteen times as great as that of New South Wales, consists of three parts (1) Asia Minor, (2) Syria, (3) Armenia-Mesopotamia.

Asia. Minor is a great plateau, ascending by successive terraces from the Mediterranean eastwards towards Armenia, and buttressed on the north and south bv mountain ranges, the Euxine Hills on the north and the Taurus Range on the south. The centre forms a sterile, salt steppe with many lakes, of which Tuz Gol is the largest. It has many rivers, the Kizil Irmak flowing into the Black Sea, and the Menderes into the Mediterranean, are the largest. They have winding courses through picturesque valleys, but aro useless for navigation.

1 he exports are carpets, mohair from the Angora goat, sponges, dates, silk, cotton, tigs, opium, wheat, etc.

Smyrna (200,000), the largest city and chief seaport, is a great trade centre. The products of the fertile inland districts are brought there for export.

Trebizond (45,000), tlie chief Black Sea seaport, is the seaport terminus of the caravan trading routes from Persia and Mesopotamia.

Brussa (25,000), near the Sea of Marmora, is the centre of the silk-producing industry.

Angora, in the centre, sends its abundant mohair to Scutari, a suburb of Constantinople, by rail.

Syria is a coastal mountain region with an interior desert plain. Its south-west portion is Palestine, the Holy Land, in which Jesus Christ spent His life on earth. The chief mountains are the Lebanon ranges in the north-west, with snow-clad summits of Khotib and Hermon. In these mountains rise the rivers Orontes and Leontes flowing into the Mediterranean. The river Jordan, a swift tortuous stream flows through a deep valley into the Dead Sea, a lake seven times as salt as the ocean, with hare, dry, arid desolate shores without trace of animal or vegetable life. Its chief cities are Damascus (200,000) the oldest city in the world, situated in a fertile oasis in the middle of the interior desert. Aleppo (120), an important inland trading town in the north, on tlie chief caravan route from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean coast. Jerusalem (70) an inland town midway between the Jordan and the coast, connected by rail with its seaport, Jaffa.    /-

Armenia-Mesopotamia is the district of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. They rise in the plateau region of Armenia (the summit of which is Mount Ararat) not far from the salt lake Van. They are long, sluggish streams, navigable by small vessels, and, after a course of about a thousand miles they unite a hundred miles from

the Persian Gulf, to form the Shat-el-Arab. The country between them forms the Plain of Mesopotamia—once a fruitful, irrigated region, now gradually being rendered less fertile as the desert encroaches upon the plain.

In Armenia the chief city is Erzerum ((50,000), once twice its present size, but now reduced by successive wars—still a place of very great trade. Bitlis (25,000), the second city of Armenia, is near Lake Van, on the upper part of the Tigris. It is also a great trading town. Bagdad (180,000), on the River Tigris, once the capital of the Arabian Empire, and the residence of the Caliphs, is still the largest city of Eastern Turkey. Basra (40,000) on the Shat-el-Arab, was once the starting place of the western caravan, but is declining in importance. It is the head of navigation for ocean-going vessels on the Shat-el-Arab.

Cyprus, an island one-seventh the size of Tasmania, is 60 miles from the west coast of Syria. It has belonged to Britain since 1S78. It- has very fertile soil, and exports corn, cotton, and wine. Once it was noted for its export of copper, and it had a population of a million, but now it has only one-fifth of that number. Nicosia (12) in the centre, is the capital, and Larnaca on the south coast, the ciiief port, but its harbour is small and insecure.


Arabia, the largest peninsula in the world, has an area more than tlnee times as great and a population four times that of New South Wales. Mountain chains run parallel with the western, southern, and eastern coastlines, and enclose a vast interior plateau, which is traversed by a few high mountain ranges. The coast mountains reach their highest in the north-west, where they are called the Mountains of Sinai. Along the coasts of the Persian Gulf stretches Ihe^ Tehama, a low, narrow, arid, waterless, and intensely hot plain. I he interior plateau, called the Nejd, has large, fertile oases, but in the south it forms the Desert of Dahna, and in the north, near Syria, the Neiud, or Sandy Desert—sometimes called the Arabian Desert.

1 he port of Aden and Island of Perim, in south-west, belong to Britain, t he coasts of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf belong to I urkey, and the Peninsula of Sinai, in the north-west, to Egypt. I lie remainder of the country is inhabited by Nomads, divided into tribes, each ruled by a Sheikh.

Maskat (60,000), an Eastern seaport, is the largest town in Arabia; it has much trade vdth India, Persia, etc., exporting pearls from the adjacent seas, and dates, almonds, and figs from inland. Mecca, the birthplace, and Medina, the tomb of Mohammed the Prophet, <n c near t he Red Sea Coast. Jedda, the seaport of the former, is important because it is the port of call for ships with pilgrims to x isit the shrine of their Prophet. Sana (50), in the south-west, grows much coffee, which is now exported from its port—Hodeida

instead of, as formerly, from Mocha vhence the best coffee is named.


A country the size of Queensland, lias more than twenty times as many people as that colony. It has an interior plateau, hounded on the north and west bv mountain ranges, beyond which lie plains along tho Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and River Tigris. The El Burz Mountains, along the south shore of the Caspian Sea, are the most important elevations. The Safed Rud (or Kizil Uzen), flowing into the Caspian, and the Kerkhaand Karun, into the Sliat-el-arab, are the chief rivers. Persia is under the Shah, a despotic ruler. It exports dried fruits, silks, carpets, pearls, opium, cotton cotton and wool. Teheran (200,000), the capital, is south of the Klhurz Mountains, and 70 miles from the Caspian. Tabriz (180,000), near Lake Urumia, is a noted trading town on the caravan route from Teheran to the Black Sea Coast. Ispahan (60,000), in the centre, is the ancient capital. Bushire, on the Persian Gulf, is the seaport of Shiraz (50,000), tho centre of the most fertile district of Persia, noted for its splendid rose gardens and vineyards.


Afghanistan is equal in sizo to New South Wales, and has three times as many people. It is part of the plateau of Iran, and is one of the most mountainous countries in the world. It is of great political importance, because it lies between Russia and India. The Kabul River, one of the tributaries of the Indus, flows through the Khyber Pass —a noted gorge through tlie Suliaman Mountains. I he centre of the country is drained by the Helmand, a long river which flows into a large freshwater swamp, Lake Hamun. on the border of IVrsia. It has three important towns : Kabul (70,000), which has much trade, through the Durram Pass, with the Punjab : Kandahar, now connected, by rail passing through the Bolan Pass, with Karachi (India); Herat, near the Persian Border, and on an important trade route, is in a fertile date, wheat, and tig-producing vallev. The nominal ruler the Amir -who lives at Cabul, receives a subsidy from the Indian Government, but the tribes of the mountains are, as a rule, independent , being warlike and turbulent.


Baluchistan has a population about equal to Queensland, but it is only one-fifth of the size of that colony. It also forms part of the plateau of Iran, but has a low coast strip along the Arabian Sea. It is a British protectorate, and a part of the country, in the north, around the town of Quetta, is under direct British rule. The country exports rice, horses, drugs and wheat to India. Quetta is connected by rail an i t h Karachi. Kalat is the capital; it is the residence of the Khan, but his rule over the many Baluchi tribes is merely nominal.


North America, which can be reached from Sydney by the American mail steamer or the Canadian mail steamer in about 24 days, is three times the size of Australia, and has more than 18 times as many people.

Its surface consists of four parts—the Pacific Plateau, the Central Plain, the Atlantic Highlands, the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Pacific Plateau extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Isthmus of Panama. It is traversed by three mountain ranges, running north to south—(1) The Coast Range, containing Mount Wrangell, in Alaska, the summit of North America, right on the sea edge. (2) The Sierra Nevada (called, in Columbia and the north-west of the states, the Cascade Mountains); and (3) the Rocky Mountains, on the east edge of the plateau (called Sierra Verde and Sierra Madre in Mexico). The most important parts of this plateau are—(a) The Yellowstone Region, the national park of the States, situated on the east of the plateau, a region of hot springs, magnificent canyons, splendid forests, and of remarkable natural beauty, (b) The Plateau of Utah, in the centre, has two lakes, Great Salt Lake and Lake Utah. Once a dreary and sterile plain, it has been converted, by the industry of the Mormons who settled there, into a fertile and productive irrigated region, (c) The Plateau of Mexico, surrounding Mexico city, containing the beautiful salt Lake Tezcuco, encircled by volcanoes, Popocatepetl being the chief.

The Central Plain is a vast lowland region, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean, and from the Rocky to the Appalacian Mountains. It has only two mountain ranges the Ozark Mountains, west of the Mississippi, and the Height of Land, near the borders of Canada, where that river rises. Near the mountins and rivers there are large forests, but in the centre, and especially on the borders of Canada and the States, there are large meadows, called Prairies, where vast herds of buHaloes graze. Much of the Prairies are now being brought under cultivation, the fertile soil yielding abundant crops of wheat, etc.

The Atlantic Highlands consist of the Plateau oi Labrador and the Appalacian Mountains, a series of irregular parallel ridges, running north and south. Its most important ranges are the Alleghany and Adirondack Mountains. In the north of these mountains is a coalfield (of which Pittsburg forms the centre), covering an area equal to half of Tasmania.

The Atlantic Coast Plain is a fertile tract of land between the Appalacians and the sea—marshy in some parts, well watered by numerous rivers, such as the Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Roanoke, Pedee, and Savannah.

The polititical divisions of North America are British North America (consisting of Canada and Newfoundland); the two Federal Republics of the United States (including Alaska) and Mexico ; the States of Central America ; and the Islands of the West Indies.


British North America consists of (1) the Dominion of Canada, and (2) the Colony of Newfoundland, with its dependency Labrador. In area it is about equal to Australasia, whilst its population is about five millions.

Canada consists of tlu; Western Pacific Plateau and the Central Lowland Plain, with its Northern Arctic region, its forest zone across the middle, its widespread treeless prairies, in the southwest, and its fertile lands in Manitoba and Ontario, and stretching over to the Eastern l’l&teau of Labrador.

On the north-west is the upper course of the Yukon, and, in the south-west, the Fraser River, flowing into the Pacific. The Fraser is a rapid, variable river of little use for navigation, but abounding in valuable salmon, which is exported to Australia and Europe. 1 he Mackenzie-Athabasca, which flows into the Arctic Ocean, drains Lake Athabasca, Great Slave and Great Bear Lakes. It is ice-

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hoiiiKl for six or nine months of the year. Its hanks are the favourite grounds of the Canadian fur-hunters. The SaskatchewanNelson is the chief of the rivers flowing into Hudson Bay. It drains several large lakes, of which Winnipeg is the most important. The St. Lawrence carries to the Atlantic the waters of the live great Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario. It is navigable to the west end of Lake Superior, for a series of canals enables vessels to avoid the Falls ot Niagara, between Lakes Erie and Ontario, one of t he most magnificent of the natural wonders of the world. It is said that this river, and its great lakes, contain half the fresh water on the globe. Lake Michigan is in the United States, the other four lakes rorin part of the boundary between the States and Canada. Their total area exceeds that of Victoria. Superior, the largest, is one and one fifth times the size of Tasmania; whilst Michigan and Huron are each about four-fifths of the size of that island.

We get from Canada, fish (salmon), timber, wheat, and manufactured goods ; sending, in return, wool, hides, tallow, etc. So important does Canada deem our imports, that it now has a special resident representative here to foster trade between the two countries.

The Dominion was formed, in 1867, by the political federation of three states. It now consists of Ontario (capital, Toronto), Quebec (capital, Quebec), Nova Scotia (capital Frederick ton), Prince Edward Island (capital, Charlottetown), Manitoba (capital, Winnipeg), British Columbia (capital, Victoria), and the NorthWestern Provinces, divided into several separate parts, each with a capital of its own.

The chief cities are : —

Ottawa (40,000), on a river of the same name, which forms a tributary of the St. Lawrence. It is the capital of the Dominion, and the centre of the lumber trade of the province of Ontario.

Quebec (65,000) has a strongly fortified position, on the north bank of the St. Lawrence. It is a quaint old French town, and as a large timber trade. It is the capital of its province.

Montreal (250,000), the largest city of Canada, is on an island in the St. Lawrence, near the junction of the Ottawa. It has large trade, and many manufactures, The longest tubular bridge in the world there carries the railway across the St. Lawrence.

Toronto (200,000), the capital, and largest town, of the province of Ontario, on Lake Ontario, is the centre of industry and trade, and of shipping amongst the lakes.

Halifax (42,000), chief naval station and military headquarters of Canada, and capital of Nova Scotia. It is on a fine harbour, and is connected by rail with all parts of the Dominion.

Victoria (24,000), the capital of British Columbia, on a fine harbour on the island of Vancouver. Vancouver (16,000), on the mainland, the terminus of the Canadian-Pacific Railway, and terminal point of the Sydney-Canadian mail steamers, is a rapidly growing seaport. It is also connected by regular steamer with Hongkong and Japan.

Newfoundland is a wild, sterile island, half the size of } ictoria, surrounded by a famous cod-fishing ground which supports fully half of its 20,000 people. It exports cod, seal, and timber, also

a little copper and iron. It is the oldest British colony, its capital, St. John’s (30,000), is situated oil a splendid harbour.

Labrador is separated from Newfoundland, to which it is politically attached, b\ tho Strait of Belle Isle. It is a sterile region, but has valuable cod, herring, and salmon fisheries oil' its coast.


This great country has an area slightly less than that of British North America, and a population of 03 millions nearly 1T> times that of Australasia.

The Great Western Plateau is 1,( 00 miles wide in its central part, but gradually narrows otl to half that width on the Canadian


and Mexican borders. It is divided by a range of mountains known as Wahsatch, running from south-west to north-east, into two parts, the Great Basin, including the Plateau of Utah, in the north, and

the Colordao Plateau, in the south. The plateau is watered by three rivers—the Columbia, noted for its salmon ; the Sacramento, which irrigates the valley of California ; and the Colorado, which is a navigable river, flowing through deep gorges into the Gulf of California. In general, it is a sterile region. From the edge of the Rocky Mountains stretches the vast Lowland Plain which forms the valley of the Mississippi. The portion near the mountains is barren and unproductive, but in the northeast, and in the parts watered by the Mississippi tributaries, it is of remarkable fertility, and produces enormous quantities of wheat, oats, hay, etc. Its great river, the Mississippi, has numerous tributaries, the Missouri and the Ohio being the chief. The river is navigable, and forms a great highway of trade. Its eastern boundary, the Atlantic Plateau, is surmounted by the Appalacian Mountains, which are about half the height of the Rocky Mountains. The Pittsburg Coalfield is in the north of this plateau, in the State Pennsylvania. The Atlantic Coast Plain is narrow in the north, but gradually broadens out towards the south. In the north, watered by the Connecticut and Hudson Rivers, much fruit (apples, pears, etc.) is grown. In the centre (in the valleys of the Delaware, Susquehana, Potomac, and James) enormous quantities of maize and tobacco are produced, and in the south, cotton and sugar-cane and oranges are grown. The most important of these rivers is the Hudson, which is navigable, and forms a great highway for trade between New York, at its mouth, and the towns in its upper valley.

Exports . — The largest quantity and best quality of raw cotton in the world is produced in the South-east and Gulf States. It is exported in large quantities to England, France, and Germany. We get from »San Francisco wheat and flour, tinned fruits, and fish, kerosene, and timber. The other exports to Europe are tinned meats, beef, bacon, hams, butter, cheese, tobacco, etc.

The chief cities and towns are :—

New York (1,500,000), which with the adjacent towns, has 2.\ millions of people. It is the great centre of trade, foreign export and manufacturing industry.

Philadelphia (1,000,000), on the River Delaware, the chief manufacturing city of the States, lias also a great export trade by means of ocean steamers which can sail up its river.

Chicago (1,400,000), on Lake Michigan, St. Louis (450,000), on the Mississippi, and Cincinnati (.‘>00,000), on the Ohio, are the centre of the grain trade. They have great bacon-curing and beef-canning industries.

Boston (500,000), m the north of the Atlantic Coast, is the great seat of learning in America, and is surrounded by many manufacturing towns.

San Francisco (350,000) is the chief seaport on the West Coast. It has great trade with Sydney, and with the eastern coasts of Asia and the Pacific Islands.

New Orleans (240,000), at the mouth of the Mississippi, in a low’-lying, swampy district, is the greatest cotton-exporting town of America.

Seattle (40,000), a western seaport, on Puget Sound, is developing a large trade in lumber with Australia and other Pacific Ocean countries.

Washington (230,000), the Federal Capital, is on the Potomac River, in tin? h.istern States. It contains the Congress House and the \\ Into House, the oiiieial residence of the President of this Federal Republic.


Js a country as large as Queensland and Victoria together, and it lias a population equal to three times that of Australia.

It. tonus a high plateau, rising by terraces from a narrow strip of low-Ring land, about 00 miles wide on each side. The surf;vce of the plateau is crossed by numerous mountain ranges (Sierras Verde and Madre being the chief), and has many volcanoes, Mounts Popocatcpel and Orizaba being the highest. The rivers are mostlv short, unnavigable mountain torrents, but the Grand del Norte\ on the northern boundary, is navigable as far as the Great Rapids’ 4.)0 miles from its mouth. The Santiago is the largest river flowing into the Pacific. The Peninsula of Yucatan, in the south-east^ forms a lowland plain.

Mexico exports silver, coffee, hides, vanilla, mahogany and dye w oods, henequen (a text ile plant from which a hemp-like substance is obtained).

Chief towns are : Mexico (330,000), on the Salt Lake of Tezcuco, m the centre of the plateau, an ancient city, with many handsome buildings ; canals, in some of the streets, receive their waters from

bjlve. Acapulco (80,000) is the only natural harbour on the l acini; ( oast. Vera Cruz (24,000) is the chief Gulf seaport. It has an artificial harbour. Guadalaxara (95,000), and Puebla (80,000) are silver mining and manufacturing inland towns.


Central America is about twice the area of Victoria, and has about three times as many people, only a quarter of whom are white.

Like Mexico, it has a high cent ral plateau, bordered by narrow, hot, and unhealthy coastal plains. The chief of its rivers, Sar’ Juan, drains Lake Nicaragua, a shallow sheet of water nearly r quarter the size of Tasmania. Politically, it consists of (1) the British Colony of Honduras, slightly larger than Lake Nicaragua, from whose capital and seaport, Belize, are exported mahogany and dye wood : and the five small independent republics of Guatemala, capital Guatemala (70,000); Honduras, capital Tegucigalpa (12) ; San Salvador, capital of same name (17,CKX)); Nicaragua, Managua (lS.iXHM ; anil Costa Rica, capital San «Jose. T he chief exports arc eoihv (especially from Costa Rica), indigo and cochineal, bananas, cattle, silver, dye woods and mahogany.


These form a semi circular chain of islands, stretching from Merida to the mouth of the Orinoco River. There are° three

divisions—The Bahamas (500 low-lying, flat, sandy, coral islands in the north); the Greater Antilles (consisting of the volcanic islands ot Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico); and the Lesser Antilles (consisting of the Leeward and \\ indward groups of small mountainous islands of volcanic formation).

Haiti, slightly larger than Tasmania, is divided into two independent republics—Haiti and San Domingo. Cuba (half the size of Victoria) and Puerto Rico one-twelfth the size of Cuba) have recently been taken from Spain by the United States.

The rest of the islands belong to England, France, Holland, and Denmark.

Britain owns Jamaica,, the Bahamas, the Federation of Leeward Islands (of which Dominica and Antigua are the largest), and about ten islands in the Windward Group (Trinidad anil St. Lucia) being the chief.

France owns Martinique (in the Windward), and Guadaloupe (in the Leeward Group), and a few smaller islands.

Holland owns Curacoa and two smaller islands near Venezuela, and Saba and another small island in the Leeward Group.

Denmark owns Santa Cruz and two other small islands in the Leeward Group.

The chief exports of the West Indies are rum, sugar, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, and spices.

Havana (250,000), the capital of Cuba, is the largest city in the \\ est Indies. It has extensive trade and very large cigar manufac tories.

Kingston (48,000 the capital of Jamaica, has a splendid harbour, whence rum, sugar, coffee, etc., are exported to the United States and England. It is connected by rail with tall parts of the island, which has an area of 4,200 square miles and a population of 600,000 (20,000 of whom are whites).

I lie Bermudas are a group of small British islands, 700 miles sout h-east of New York, noted for their splendid climate. Hundreds of American tourists visit Hamilton, their capital, in the winter months.


Arica. etc., the voyage taking about 70 days, and the New Za

Shipping Company’s monthly Royal maif steamers and the Alh.....

mail steamers also leaving ISew Zealand monthly for England, call at Monte \ ideo and Rio Janeiro, the voyage occupying about 19 to 22 days from Wellington.

The Surface: Near the west coast the chain of the Andes runs from north to south, leaving a narrow plain between their base and the ocean. In the north the chain consistsof three parallel rangesof mountains in the centre of two, and south it is a single range. Between

1 his, the fourth continent in size, is supposed to have a population of 35,000,000, an average of live persons to the square mile, the large majority of whom are Indians and half-breeds -descendants of the original Spanish and Portuguese settlers. There is no direct passenger communication with Australia, but ships laden with coal often leave Newcastle for the Pacific seaports, Callao, Valparaiso, Arica. etc., the voyage taking about 70 days, and the New Zealand Shipping Company’s monthly Royal maif steamers and the Albion

the parallel ranges there are plateaus. The most important are Titicaca (on the borders of Peru-Bolivia), in which is the* Lake 'Titicaca surrounded by several volcanoes, Sorata being the highest ; and Quito, in Ecuador, also encircled by volcanoes, of

which Chimborazo is the most important. The eastern slopes of the Andes are covered with thick forests, and are known as the Montana. The continent east of the Andes is of moderate elevation, gradually sloping off towards the Atlantic. It is divided by two mountain systems, the Parime in the north and the

Brazilian towards the south, into three vast plains, the Llanos, Selvas, and Pampas. (1) The Llanos, or Savannahs, forming the basin of the Orinoco, are covered w ith line grass, excepting during the dry weather, when the ground opens out into deep and wide crevices till the rain comes, and often causes the Orinoco to flood the whole adjacent country. The vast herds of horses, cattle, and sheep which form the chief wealth of Venezuela, are reared here. (2) The Selvas, or Forest Plains, which form the basin of the Amazon River, lie between the Pari me and Brazilian mountains. They are covered with dense forests of tali trees, with afc undergrowth of matted vines, and, near the banks of the rivers which flow into the Amazon, there are large swampy tracts. Towards the south-west the plains open out into wide grassy flats, which are covered with water in the rainy season, and in the south-east they merge into Campos, plateaus of moderate height, near the Brazilian mountains. (3) The Pampas, or Treeless Plains, form the basin of the rivers which flow into the Rio de la Plata, and they lie between the Brazil mountains and the Andes. They are, in general, covered with coarse grass in winter, but this becomes dried up in the summer time. Some parts form swampy tracts covered with canes, tall reeds, and gigantic thistles. On the north they gradually merge into the barren and arid desert known as El Gran Chaco, and on the south into the equally sterile Great Shingle Desert of Patagonia.

The River Amazon (3900 miles) is the largest river in South America, and next to the Mississipi, the longest in the world. It is navigable for the largest vessels 2,500 miles from its mouth, and for boats drawing six feet nearly to its source. The largest of its many long tributaries are the Ucayali, Madera, and Tapajos, on the south bank, and the Negro, on the north bank. Between the Amazon and the Orinoco, the chief river is the Essequibo, in Guiana, and west of the Orinoco the Magdalena, in Colombia is the largest river. South of the Amazon are the San Francisco and the rivers which join to form the Rio la Plata, viz., the Uruguay, Paraugay, and Parana rivers.. South of this again the Rio Negro, is the longest river

Politically the continent is divided into Three Colonies — British Guiana, capital, George Town (50,000); Dutch Guiana, Paramaribo (28,000) ; and French Guiana, Cayenne (8,000). Three Federal Republics—Brazil, Rio Janeiro (360,000); Argentina, Buenos Ayres (560,000); and Venezuela, Caracas (77,000); and Seven General Republics—Colombia, Bogota

(100.000) ; Ecuador, Quito (80,000) ; Peru, Lima (110,000); and Chili, Santiago (200),000, on the Pacific Coast; Bolivia, La Paz

(55.000) ; and Paraguay, Asuncion (35,000); two inland Republics, and Uruguay, Monte Video (172,000) on the Atlantic seaboard.

Brazil occupies nearly half the continent, and is about the size of Australia ; Argentina is nearly half the size of Brazil; the other countries vary in size from French Guiana, the same size as Tasmania, to Venezuela, which is as large as Queensland. Brazil has fourteen millions of people, Argentina four and a quarter millions, Guiana and Paraguay each 350,000 Uruguay 700,000. Ecuador one and a

quarter millions, and the other countries each about three millions. In Chili and .Argentina two-thirds of the people are white; in Cuiana and Ecuador, one-tenth ; and in the other States the proportion varies from one-fourth to one-half.

The chief exports of these countries are codec (Brazil is the greatest coffee producing country in the world), indiarubber, sugar, tobacco, cocoa (especially from Venezuela), silver, gold, nitrate of soda, wheat, barley, mahogany, and dye woods; wool, hides, etc., (chiefly from Argentina, competing with our exports in the European markets), tinned meats, etc., from Uruguay.

Buenos Ayres (otiO,000), the capital of Argentina and largest city in South America, is on the south bank of the La Plata, it is an important trading city, and exports the produce of the mines, forests, farms, and sheep stations of the interior, conveyed there by railway trains.

Rio Janeiro (3G0.000), the capital of Brazil and the second city of South America, stands on a beautiful harbour somewhat resembling Port Jackson. It is a place of great trade.

Lima (130,000), the capital of Peru, is six miles from its fortified port Callao (20,000), to which wo annually send nearly 30,000 tons of Newcastle coal. But more than ten times that quantity is sent to Valparaiso (105,0(H)), the chief South American Pacific seaport, which is 40 miles from Santiago (200,000), the capital of Chili.

[The End.]

William Brooks & Co., Educational Publishers, Sydney and Brisbane.


New Australian School Series.

Brooks's School Reading Books.

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Senior and Junior Exam

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II illiam Brooks    Co* tor School Stationery. Samples, 'where

practicable,    0// application.


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The largest country in Europe is Russia. It takes up, as you may see by the map, more than half the continent. There are many long rivers flowing through it, and up and down most of these rivers ply tlie trading boats which convey goods to and from the inland towns, iduelling Russia on the west you will see the two countries which rank next to it in size, viz., Austria and Germany. The former has the great river Danube flowing through it from west to east. The basin of this river forms a very fertile plain, but in the south-west the country is very mountainous, and in the east and north-west are long spreading mountain ranges. Germany has many mountains in the south, but its northern part is in the great plain, and from the land in the river-vallevs vast quantities of grain are procured. Touching these two countries on the west you will