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Tiik importance of the subject treated of in the following pages is a sufficient apology for our appearance before the public tribunal. We thought it better to appear, even in a rough exterior, than not at all; yet, on this account, we feel that a few words, by way of explanation, may reasonably be desired of U3. The reader will be pleased, then, to take into consideration the circumstances under which this little treatise has been published. The Chapters have been written at various times, and amid the whirl of colonial business, for the columns of a public journal; and as the endeavour has been, rather to render easy to the apprehension of the rustic and unlettered immigrant, the important facts which it was desirable to bring under his notice, than to produce an elegant or finished work it is hoped, that, if the attempt has been in any degree successful, this will save us from too severe a criticism on the part of those who are apt to look rather at the dress in which an author appears, than on the real form and substance.



Preface ................................ iii-


On the land question, page 1. On emigration and immigration, 5. Mrs. Chisholm’s system, 2. The auction system, 3. The expediency of a land tax considered, 3. On agricultural leases, 3. The p ublic works, 3.



The various classes of cultivators described, page 4. The importance of an early commencement, 5. On the meteorological tables, their importance to the farmer, 5. The market gardener, 6. The carter, 6. Various modes of acquiring land, whether by purchase or lease, 7. On the land societies, 7. The importance of government inspection, 8. Preparations to be made by the market gardener, 8. The marking out and division of a garden, 9. On fencing, 10. The proportionate space for various crops, 11. On the m-rliets, 12. On cow-keeping, 12. On bees, 12. On the profits of a market, garden, 12. On the expenses of a market garden, 13. On the probable results of farming near town, or at a greater distance, 13. Advice to the newly-arrived immigrant, 14. The agricultural laborer, 14. The “new chum,” 15. How to proceed on his arrival in the colony, 16. On the importance of education and mental culture, 17. Examples of success on the part of industrious men, 17. The gold-digger, 18. On the importance of health, and the best means of promoting it, 19.



The slab hut, page 19. The paling hut, 20. T he wattle and dab hut, 20. The mud hut, 20. The Pisa house, 20. Brick and stone houses, 21. Timber-framed houses, 21. The canvas framed house, 22. Corrugated iron houses, 23. The log' hut, 23. Cellars, 24. Wells and Tanks, 25, On public and other resei'voirs, 26. Artesian wells, 26. On the use and manufacture of filters, 26. Stables, 27. Poultry houses, 28. Pig-styes, 28. Seed-store, 28. Barns, 29. Digression on the importance of cultivating the soil and the importation of produce, 30 and 31.



The horse, page 32. Character of the Australian horse, 32. The Suffolk punch, 33. On the purchase of horses, 33. On shoeing, 34. Mode of feeding recommended, 34. Swine, 35. The best breeds recommended,

35. Mode of feeding ditto, 30. Methods of coring pork and hams, 37. The cow, 38. Best modes of management, 38. On cheese and butter naking, 39. The Goat, 39. Poultry, 40. Management of the common fowl, 40. The Cochin China breed, 41. The Poland fowl, 42. Ducks, 42. Geese, 43. Turkeys, 43. Rabbits, 44. Bees, 44. On the bleaching of wax, 45.



January.—Kitchen garden, page 46. Nursery and orchard, 46. Flower garden, 47. Agricultural and stock farming, 47.

February.—Kitchen garden, 47. Nursery and orchard, 47. Flower garden, 48. Agriculture, 48.

March.—Kitchen garden, 48. Nursery and orchard, 48. Flower garden, 48. Agriculture, 49.

April.—Kitchen garden, 49. Nursery and orchard, 49. Flower garden, 49. Agriculture, 49.

May.—Kitchen garden, 50. Nursery and orchard, 51. Flower garden, 51. Agriculture, 51.

June.—Kitchen garden, 52. Nursery and orchard, 52. Flower garden, 52. Agriculture, 52.

July.—Kitchen garden, 52. Nursery and orchard, 52. Flowergarden, 53. Agriculture, 53.

August.—Kitchen garden, 53. Nursery and orchard, 53. Flower gardened. Agriculture, 54.

September.—Kitchen garden, 54. Nursery and orchard,54. Flower garden, 54. Agriculture, 54.

October.—Kitchen garden, 55. Nursery and orchard, 55. Flower garden, 55. Agriculture, 56.

November.—Kitchen garden, 56. Nursery and orchard,56. Flower garden, 56. Agriculture, 57.

December.—Kitchen garden, 57. Nursery and orchard, 57, Flower

garden, 57. Agriculture, 58.

Mode of cultivating artichokes, 58. Asparagus, 58. Beans, 58. French beans, 59. Beat root, 60. Brocoli, 61. Brussels sprouts, 61. Cabbage, 61. Carrots, 62. Carraway, 62. Cauliflower, 63. Celery, 63. Cbicorv, 63. Cress, 64. Cucumber, 65. Endive, 65. Flax, 65. Leeks, 66. Lettuces, 66. Melons, 66. The onion, 67. Parsley, 68. Parsnips, 68. Peas, 68. Potato, 69. Pumpkin, 71. Radish, 71. Rhubarb, 71. Savoys, 72. Sea-kale, 72. Spinach, 72. Scotch kale, 73. Tomato, 73. Tobacco, 73. Turnips, 73. Vegetable marrow, 74. Herbs, 74.


the orchard; and the culture of the vine.

State of the fruit market, page 75. Modes of planting fruit trees, 76. Budding and grafting, 76. Pruning, 76. Different fruit trees described,77. The olive, 77. The orange and lemon, 78. The almond, 79. The vine, 79. The best aspect for a vineyard, 79. Selection of a site, 80. Mode of planting, 80. On terracing hill sides, 80. Early treatment of the vine, 81. On the soil and manure best adapted to the growth of the vine, 82. On the general management of a vineyard, 82. On pruning, 83. Methods adopted in France. Hungary, and at the Cape of Good Hope, 84. On the making of wine and brandy, 85, Raisins, 85. The vineyard association, 86.



The calcarious—sandy and clayey soils described, page 87. Chemical composition of loam as given by Davy, 88 The soil as distinguished by its upper and lower strata, 89. The action of air and water considered in its relation to the soil, 89. On the choice of laud, 90. The temperature of the soil, its relation to vegetable life, 91. The importance of chemical analysis, 91. Difficulty of ascertaining the quality of soils in Australia without local experience, 92. Classification of soils in Victoria, 62. Rocky, clayey and sandy soils, and soils of a mixed character, described, 93. Description of the black clay, the alluvial and feruginous soils, 94. Gravelly, peaty, and calcarious soils, 95 Description oi Brighton, 96. Of Dandenong, Western Port, and Gipps’ Land, 97. The country to the east, north-east, and north of Melbourne described superficially, 98. Kilmore, Seymour, Benalla, &c., 99. The Keilsr Plains, Gisborne, &c., 100. Kvneton, Malmsbury, and Forest Creek, 101. Bendigo and Bullock Creek, 102. Buninyong, Ballaarat, and the Wimmera, 103. Geelong and the Portland Bay district, 104. On manures, 104. Atmospheric influence upon the soil, 105. On sub-soil ploughing, and trenching, 105. The mode of treatment for stiff, clayey soils, 10(5. On animal manures, 107. Carcases of animals, fish, &c., 108. Bone dust—the component parts of, 109. Guano, 109. Stable and farm-yard dung, 110. Compost heaps, 110. Liquid manures, 111. Vegetable manures, 111. Mineral substances used as manures, 112.



On the prevailing winds in Victoria, page 112. Hypothesis on the hot wind of Australia, 113. Various precautions to be observed with reference to the climate,113. Brief description of the prevailing weather, with table, 114. Table of the diurnal temperature, 115. Table of the mean thermometer for every month, at London and Melbourne, 115. Table showing the mean fall of rain in London and at Melbourne, 110. Remarks on the land scheme as propounded by the Chamber of Commerce, 116. A new scheme proposed, 117, On the relative profits of the farmer now, and at former periods, 118. Concluding nemarks, shewing the importance of cultivation in relation to the climate, 118.

i oí» to j?tft!c in Dictcra,



By Rüsticus,


' If we look around us and contemplate tlie present condition of the population, we shall not fail to be impressed by the ill effects resulting from the tendency of the inhabitants to congregate in towns instead of settling down to the cultivation of the soil. Many circumstances have fostered this tendency, some of which have been recently removed, at any rate to a considerable extent« The difficulty of obtaining land from the Government, in suitable lots, and at a moderate price, together with the almost total inaccessibility of our best agricultural districts, from the want of roads, have operated most injuriously upon the Colony by withholding the people from reproductive employments, thus causing an artificial and unhealthy condition of society, which, if allowed to continue, would ultimately lead to its total subversion.

It is with much gratification that we hail the advent of a new order of things; the prospect having at length been afforded of an abundant supply of land, and though much progress has not yet beeu made in the construction of roads and other public works, yet that which has been accomplished must be considered as the forerunner of more extensive improvements.

The land question, though it has been extensively discussed yet its solution is of such importance to the interests of the immigrant, that we cannot forbear making some observations upon it. The public lands of the Colony may be considered as so much capital stock held by the Government in trust, to be invested for the benefit of the community, not only of the prerent, but future generations. All sums, therefore, derived from the sale of such lands, should be held amenable to the same law • that is, they should be appropriated in such way as to increase the value of the unsold lauds, and, at the same time, to procure

or provide suitable facilities for the permanent settlement of the country. The value of the land will always hear some ratio to the amount of population and the supply of labour, and therefore the expenditure of such funds for the purposes of emigration is the most legitimate use to which they can be applied.

It is an opinion which is gaining ground that mo-re encouragement should be held out than is at present offered for the introduction of passenger immigrants; by which we understand, those who come out by means of their own resources. It is justly thought that it would have a much more beneficial effect upon the moral character of the emigrant to let him feel that his future success depends, from the first, upon his own character and exertions, and that from the day on which he leaves his native land he becomes, and is to be recognised as, an independent man. In order to cultivate this feeling of self-reliance, it is of the utmost importance that nothing should be done which should have even the appearance of pauperising him; yet it is quite reasonable that measures should be taken for assisting those to emigrate who are unable, either in whole or in part, to defray the expense of their own passages ; means being taken for securing repayment of the.se advances within a certain time after their arrival in the Colony. It is upon this principle that the society established in England, under the auspices of Mrs. Chisholm, was originated; and though its sphere of action has been compaia-tively narrow, yet it has been sufficiently successful to test favourably the practicability and soundness o-f the principle itself. The plan of remitting to "every working man on his arrival in the Colony an amount in"the purchase of land equivalent to the sum expended by him for his passage from England, or even a moiety of it, would be a far less invidious mode of payment than that adopted bv the Emigration Commissioners, and would prove a far greater stimulus"to emigration than might at first be supposed, inasmuch as it would insure to each individual, having the means of paying his passage-money, a small freehold on his arrival in the Colony, and would also encourage the introduction of a superior class, who would, from the commencement of colonial life, he taught to look forward to the cultivation of the soil as the safest means of procuring a position of permanent welfare

and independence.    . .    ,

Perhaps both these plans might he adopted with advantage, as there is no reason why they should not work together harmoniously

and with success.    _    .    .    ,, ,

The expense, if any, of bringing out emigrants should, however be partly borne by the parent state, seeing that the advantages resulting from a properly-organised system of emigration are reciproealm every respect. But supposing a moiety of the

land fund to be expended in the introduction of labor, the remaining portion ought to be strictly and faithfully applied to theinternal improvement of the Colony, more especially upon bridges and other means of intercommunication: all such improvements to be of a durable and substantial character. We have not included railways, because it is generally admitted that these are better carried out by private enterprise ; yet we would observe that it is quite within the province of the Government to make extensive and liberal concessions to public companies established for such purposes, and even, in some cases, where there appears to be a lack of public spirit, to take the initiative by laying down the main lines, reserving the necessary lands for villages and stations ; also by offering the necessary guarantees, and otherwise inviting attention to their particular advantages. It should also be borne in mind that these improvements should never follow, but should in all cases slightly precede, the advance of population, as these are the only means by which it can advantageously be extended.

It is questionable whether the present system for disposing of our public lands by auction is a desirable one or not, seeing that it enables the speculator to out-bid, in every case, the bona fide cultivator of the soil, and thus to monopolise large tracts of land, to the detriment of the Colony, and the injury of the small tanner. If the system be still retained, it will, however, be necessary to modify it in some particulars, and otherwise to provide such safeguards, as the public interests imperatively demand. The imposition of an acreage tax upon all uncultivated lands in the hands of private individuals would do much to remedy the evil; but it is also needful that some direct facility be afforded to the unmonied classes to locate themselves upon the soil immediately after their arrival in the Colony. In order to accomplish this we would propose that farms of from seventy to one hundred acres should be leased by the Government,at a fixed annual rental, equal to, say, ten per cent, interest upon the money value of the land at the time the lease is granted. These leases should be renewable for ever, with right of redemption, at the option of the tenant. By this arrangement an annual revenue would be derivable to the Government, which would be available for any purposes of public utility. It would, moreover, be of a permanent character, and might ultimately reach to such an amount as would enable the government of the country to be carried on without any taxation whatever.

To the immigrant of small capital it would afford advantages of incalculable value, inasmuch as it would enable him at once to commence the operations of the field, without, as under the presont system, being compelled to wait an indefinite period for

the purchase of his land, and when the purchase has at length been effected, finding that his little capital has been absorbed bj an unequal competition with the hungry capitalist, thus leaving him nothing wherewith to improve or cultivate his estate.

Since the Crown lands are about to be placed under the entire control of the local government, we may expect such concessions to be made to public opinion, and to the necessities of the colonists, as will tend in a great degree to modify the present arrangements, and whatever alteration the svsfem may undergo, we have reason to believe that it will comprehend an improvement upon everything which has preceded it, and that all hindrances to the acquisition of land, on the part of the moderate capitalist, will be removed. It is in order to prepare for this desirable change that the following remarks are now submitted to the reader, and though the style is simple and the diction homely, it is hoped that the information contained will not be the less acceptable to those classes of our population for whom they are more particularly intended. But we desire that it should be distinctly understood that we do not anticipate much real advancement for the Colony unless our material progress be accompanied by a corresponding development of the intellectual and moral element. It . is by this means only that as a people we can become truly great or happy, and it is to the attainment of this end that our efforts should be directed.


Tiif. following papers are intended solely for the guidance of the industrial classes, especially those connected with agriculture and gardening; and such information is afforded as would appear to he necessary to enable them to enter upon these pursuits with profit to themselves and advantage to the community. Those recently arrived in the Colony will more particularly appreciate the advantage of these suggestions ; for without some such guide much useful time must be expended in acquiring the necessary experience.

For the purpose of simplifying our observations we will arrange the subject, so as to include, specifically, the following classes of

immigrants :—

J. The farmer by profession, with a limited capital.

T The farmer without capital, hut possessed of experience

and skill

h < he unskilled labourer, seeking to better bis condition.

For the agricultural capitalist we do not profess to write, as the ;jic . bers of tl class can always command an abundance of r.    .1 colonial experience; but of the other classes to which

v : :r. e referred, we trust that before many years have passed

away, tliey may attain to such a condition of material wealth and comfort as is at present unknown among them ; and if the instructions herein conveyed should in any degree subserve this purpose, we shall be amply rewarded. Notwithstanding, however, all that can be written, and whatever a man’s capital may be. it must be admitted that same degree of colonial experience, personally acquired, is of paramount importance. We seek, therefore, to point out such facilities as may enable him to acquire this experience as soon as practicable after landing in the Colony, and at as little expense as possible ; in short, to enable him to make a beginning without loss or delay, and with reasonable hope of ultimate success.

Although some parts of Australia have been colonised for more than half a century, either from neglecting the means, or other causes, but little notice has been taken, in a scientific way, of the atmospheric changes peculiar to the climate; and much of what has been attempted is in such a crude form that but little dependence can be placed upon it. It was not until the present century that the philosophical societies in England bestowed much attention upon the subject, nor was it till such men as Sir William Dennison, of Tasmania, and Dr. Wyatt, of Adelaide, urged the necessity and benefit of such observations being taken, that the importance of the subject began to be attended to in the colonies, and the necessary apparatus procured for the registration of meteorological changes. But though for some years these have been regularly taken, a long period must elapse before any statistical tables can be compiled on which, practically, dependence can be placed. Upwards of quarter of a century must expire before the seasons arrive again at the same point; and two or three circuits of observations will be necessary, for the sake of comparison, before any satisfactory result is attained, or before any definite laws can be established.

Statistical tables, combining the principal results of such meteorological observations as have already been taken, will be found in another place. In these, everything calculated for the instruction of the small farmer will, as far as possible, be given ; while those who have the time and inclination may seek for fuller information in more extended publications.

There are many of our fellow-colonists who, having received a liberal education, and been in business in the old country as farmers on their own account, and who, though not without means, are often perplexed as to how they should commence with advantage. On the one hand, they cannot afford to remain inactive ; and on the other, their feelings of independence will not suffer them to descend to a position inferior to that which they had occupied in England. These individuals we have included under the denomination of “ farmers with a limited capitaland as we feel assured that a respectable body of yeomen will ever form the strongest bulwark of society, it is desirable that their interests should be particuWly cared for.

Of the many points to which the small farmer may turn his attention in this Colony, there is nothin»; more certainly remunerative than a market garden, if well situated and on good soil. The wharf, or other town work, a water-cart, drawing bricks from the kiln to town or elsewhere, carting stone from the quarries, or stores and other commodities to the various diggings, present opportunities, under certain circumstances, to those who have drays and horses, of meeting with profitable employment, and sometimes of obtaining larger profits, and a quicker return, than can be had from a farm or garden. But the care and anxiety frequently attending the business of a carter, besides the risk of losing the horses, and of accident to the dray, neutralise the greater gain; more especially when we take into consideration the frequent depreciation of stock, and the uncertainty of employment. But perhaps the chief objection to this occupation, when carried on at a distance, is, that it removes a man from his home, and prevents him from exercising that moral influence and paternal care so essential to the welfare of the family. He is supposed to come to this Colony for the purpose of bettering his condition, and that of his family, not to demoralise them, orbring them up in a lower condition in the social scale than himself ; while, therefore, he should certainly endeavour to make provision for himself and partner in old age, he should not neglect, by a course of liberality and justice to his children, to raise them, if possible, higher in the scale of civilization than himself.

For the purpose of illustration, let us suppose that an individual of this class has just landed with his wife and children, bringing with him some tools and implements, and a few hundred pounds in cash ; and that he is in need of advice, as to how he should proceed in order to obtain and settle down upon a cottage farm, or market garden, with the best prospect of ultimate success. To meet such a case in particular, and that of others, iu a more general way, we submit the following observations;—

We should recommend, in the first place, the situation of the land to be within an easy distance of Melbourne or other town, so as to avoid the necessity of travelling too great a distance to and from the ordinary market, and to prevent the expense of passing a night in town or upon the road. For a small farm or market garden, five or six miles is a good distance; hut it is difficult by ordinary means to oblain land so near to town, especially if situated on a main road, excepting at an enormous rate.

There are three modes usually resorted to for the purpose of

acquiring land. Firstly, by absolute purchase; secondly, by taking it for a term of years, with right of purchase within a certain period ; and thirdly, by means of a simple leasing from year to year, or for a term of years.

ist. By absolute purchase.—The arrangement of this is generally simple and easy, and the terms of payment moderate, if purchased from private hands, viz.: one-third or fourth cash at time of purchase, and the rest in equal payments at intervals of three, six, and nine months, subject, however, to modification under particular circumstances.

2nd. By lease, with right of purchase.—There is a prejudice existing on the part of the industrial classes against the acquisition of land in this way, which, however, does not appear to be well founded ; for though a higher price has commonly to be paid for it, when the purchase is effected, it must not be forgotten that the means of payment may often be acquired from the soil itself, if managed with ordinary care and prudence, a subsistence being obtained in the mean time for the occupier, who would perhaps otherwise have been entirely dependent upon others.

3rd. By simple lease.—There are many landowners, who, having purchased large tracts of land, for the sake of investment. and who, being desirous of having them improved and cultivated, will let such lands on moderate terms, and on long leases. When the taking of such leases is merely viewed as a preliminary step to the acquisition of a larger farm, it may be quite admissible to occupy in this way; and it may, indeed, sometimes be entered upon with profit and advantage, whereas in some cases the rent asked would not exceed a reasonable interest on the money value of the property, under which circumstances the tenant is in abetter position, as such, than he could possibly be as a proprietor, if compelled to borrow money upon mortgage for carrying on the business of his farm. Indeed, rents should always be viewed in the light of interest for the use of the land, or, whffili is the same thing, the amount in money which represents its value. In the colonies leases are not so stringent as in England. There are no clauses, or at least but seldom, relative to the rotation of crops, &c., &c., but certain simple covenants, chiefly regulating the payment of rent, fencing in, clearing, speedy cultivation, and building. A tenant taking an unenclosed section is frequently allowed the first year's rent, provided it is fenced in within that time; and half the rent is sometimes remitted the second year, provided it be sufficiently cleared and cultivated. This privilege does not, however, extend to small allotments.

All tenants should, if possible, have a clause inserted in their

leases, to the effect that buildings and other permanent improvements erected during the term should he taken at a valuation when possession is given up, otherwise that the tenant should have the right of a renewal on the same terms. If the land be let on a long term, the rent is sometimes raised from time to time, so as to commence at a low rate, and then be gradually increased at intervals of about seven years, or thereabouts, as may have been agreed upon. In other cases the amount of rent is made to depend upon the price of wheat; and in some of the colonies it is often payable in wheat at the rate of from one to two bushels per acre, depending upon the quality of the land, and its distance from the market town. This plan is a safe one for the landlord, and not unfair towards the tenant; as, let the markets rise or fall, the advantage, or otherwise, is proportionally shared by each.

Having carefully considered the comparative advantages offered by the above methods of obtaining use or possession of the soil, if it should be determined to effect the object by a direct purchase, the best mode of procuring a freehold will commonly be to join, as a member, one of the many land societies now established; several of which are based upon sound principles of economy, and the rules, for the most part, admirably adapted to meet the requirements of the small capitalist. In order to avoid delay, it is best, when practicable, to join as an early member, the land being usually allotted according to a system of regular rotation. To insure the early possession of a piece of land, it will, in some instances, be advisable to purchase a share or two from one of the older members, having a priority by rotation, upon which, however, a premium will have to be paid.

In the City of Melbourne Suburban and Agricultural Freehold Home Society the entrance fee is one pound per share, each share representing one hundred pounds, which is payable by weekly instalments of ten shillings. According to this plan one hundred pounds worth of land may be obtained at the wholesale cost, or within ten per cent, of it, the additional charge being merely the amount necessary to cover the current expenses of the society. From six to eight per cent, is charged after possession of the land is granted, upon the balance remaining in the hands of the purchaser until the whole has been paid off. There is also a provision for advancing money upon the same easy terms for building purposes, and for the cultivation and general improvement of the estate. In this way land may frequently be obtained, and houses erected, at half the price that would be demandeu by the private speculator; besides which there is the advantage of being permitted to pay for them by almost imperceptible instalments. Considering the immense facilities which such societies afford,

we consider them to bo among tbe foremost institutions of the country, and heartily recommend the newly-arrived emigrant to enrol himself as a member without delay.

Though there is every reason to believe that the operations of these societies have hitherto been conducted in the most honorable way, we would, nevertheless, recommend that their accounts should annually be subject to a Government inspection, which would bo chiefly for the purpose of inspiring greater confidence on the part of those who are unacquainted with their working.

The immigrant having made a selection of his land, which we will suppose to bo ten acres, the first step taken should be to erect a frame tent, or other temporary habitation, into which ho should enter with his family without loss of time. A supply of stores should be laid in, sufficient for three or six months’ use, which will bo found muflt cheaper, as respects first cost, and far more economical in many ways, than being necessitated continually to resort to the shop for every thing which may be required. A stock of good warm clothing will also be a desideratum, especially during the wet months. The family once settled, and town expenses provided against, the immediate circuit of the house should be marked out, and f( need in, the yard railed in, the site pegged off for the future main residence : a third portion for a flower garden, and a fourth might be devoted to the apiary and herb beds. Whilst the house is being built, and the stable, sheds, &c., erected, two good grubbers and splitters should be taken on to clear the land as quickly as possible, taking care to clear that part first which is nearest the house. These men must be lured and paid by piece-work. The present price varies from ten shillings to one pound per tree for grubbing. This will be found to involve a considerable outlay in the first instance, but it will pay back a good return in the end; for, with every stump left in the field, there is, on an average, a loss equivalent to at least ono square rod or perch of ground, to say nothing of the appearance. The wood may be cut up, and split into marketable sizes for about twelve shillings per ton measurement—forty-eight cubic feet being allowed for green wood.

Other men should be engaged in the meantime to fence in the land, which should be contracted for at per rod. A substantial three-rail fence would answer best for the outside, with slip-panels provided at the entrances. If the allotment is at the corner of a road a round solid post should be fixed at the angle, otherwise it would not be safo from injury by drays. Before the work is paid for the whole should be carefully examined, and if the posts cun be easily shaken it is an evidence that the ground has not been well rammed. At tho

time we are writing (1854), posts and rails are worth about eight pounds per hundred in proportion of three rails to a post; but the average price is under this. No other posts but gum will last for any considerable time; she-oak and stringy-bark being particularly liable to decay. The posts should be from six and a half to seven feet long, and the rails nine feet. Charring the lower ends of the posts will inciease their durability, and if good sound timber be employed, and the posts split in the way the splitters term backing off, they will probably last for twenty years; but proper precaution should be taken to guard against bush fires, which have occasionally devastated the country.

Jt should, perhaps, be added that, by a colonial Act, the owner of the adjoining land on which the fence abuts, is compelled to share the expense of its erection, or otherwise provide a substantial fence himself, within a certain period after being properly served with notice. Should he neglect or refuse to do so, the work may be performed without further reference to him, and he may then be compelled to pay his moiety of the expense.

While these operations are in progress, if the season of the year be advancing, the ground should be prepared for the reception of seed, and that portion prepared for the flower garden might be used temporarily as a nursery, and young vegetables intended for transplanting should also be grown there. As other portions of the ground are got ready, early peas, beans, and potatoes may be put in, or, indeed, any of those plants which may be quickly succeeded by other crops. To work on the cheapest scale, it would be well, at the commencement of these proceedings, to purchase a horse and dray, so that fire-wood may be carted to market, and building materials, manure, &c., be drawn home by the return loadings. The first cost will be from eighty to one hundred pounds, and the subsequent expense of keep, &c., will not only be covered, but a handsome profit will be realized upon the investment besides which, there is another advantage, namely, that a little ready money may generally be procured, v/hen needed, by carting for those residing in the neighbourhood.

If not already provided with tools, the following will be found the most useful. A good cross-cut saw and hand saw, wedges and maul for splitting timber, two or three axes and an adze, morticing axe and auger, chisels, gimblets, hammer, mallet, and nails. The gardening tools are so well known, that it is, perhaps, unnecessary to enumerate them; the following are, however, indispensable : two shovels, two or three spades, a couple of three-pronged forks, long-handled dung forks, rakes,

and hoes, a trowel, a dibble, a marking out line, and a measuring tape, a couple of barrows, a water barrow and watering pots complete the list.

Farming implements are but little needed for so small a plot as ten acres; but a light plough and a small set of harrows will be found useful, and save iabour, where turnips and potatoes or vetches are grown.

The following arrangement, for subdividing the land, will be found useful : and it may be considered to give a fair proportion for the different crops. Much, however, depends upon the means which a person has at his command; at any rate, or until the land has been turned over a few times, those crops should only be attempted that require but little attention, or those whoso natural hardiness will enable them to thrive if left to themselves.

Five acres may be sown with fodder for the horse; say, four of oaten hay, and one of lucerne, which latter succeeds admirably in this Colony, on particular soils ; but manure is*so cheap, that if properly attend to, it must succeed. The remainder can be allotted as under;—

1^ acre 1 „

°4    »

o! „ Oi ..

o| „


°i „

Potatoes    ...    ...    ...

Turnips ...    ...    ...

Peas and    Beans    ...    ...

Cabbages, Brocoli, &c.    ...    ...

Onions    ...    ...    ...

Carrots and Parsnips    ...    ...

Flower Garden, Herb Beds and Nursery Yard and Paths    ...    ...

5 acres.

The above list contains nothing but what will meet with a ready sale, and if the succession of crops be properly attended to, the returns may probably be doubled. Cabbages, in particular, meet with a quick sale at all times of the year, and should be a main crop of the garden. They seem here to bid defiance to the summer sun as pertinaciouly as they brave the northern winter. The returns will commence in about three or four months after the crops have been put in, during which interval there will bo abundance of work to perform. And when the crops are all in wood may be carted into town, or the team may be employed in carting brick or stone. On the present roads, a large load cannot be taken at any time; but the quantity will much depend upon the season and the state of the weather. In carting bricks, for instance, from Prahran to town, a distance of about three miles, three hundred and fifty bricks form an average loading for a single horse, and two trips can be made a day. The usual price paid, per thousand, is from three pounds to three pounds ten shillings. Carting stone from the quarries, at Brunswick or Collingwood, into Melbourne, pays equally well. In coming home

a return loading may generally bo had, but, if otherwise, a load of manure should not be forgotten.

A man living upon his own land, and driving his own drav, if he he sober and industrious, will not fail to procure a comfortable livelihood, and is, in all respects, thoroughly independent. He can, at all times, select either to work at home or to go out with his dray, and in either case he will do well.

When the crops are ready for gathering in, the produce should he taken to one of the public markets, in Melbourne, before 6even o’clock in the morning, unless they can he disposed of privately to the shopkeepers, on more advantageous terms, and without loss of time. This, however, can seldom he accomplished except by making a previous arrangement with the dealer. One advantage of contracting in this way is, that another person may, if desired, be employed for the delivery of the produce.

The entire cost of the fencing may, in a majority of cases, he defrayed by the tfhle of the timber cleared from off the land. And the household expenses may nearly be covered by a little attention to the pigs and poultry. Those living six or more miles from town will have no difficulty in keeping two or three cows ; and the sale of butter, and occasionally a little cream cheese, will be highly profitable. The butter-milk is a valuable food for rearing young pigs.

Particular attention should be paid to bees, as, with careful management, they will be found to add a considerable item to the yearly income.

The actual receipts derivable from the farm or market garden, when the occupier employs his own team for carting, will depend in some degree upon the quality of I he soil, and also upon the amount of industry bestowed upon the cultivation. According to the mode of division recommended above, the average returns may be estimated as follows, viz. :

£169 0 0 100 0 0 75 0 0 45 0 0 56 0 0 416 0 0

5 Acres Fodder ...    ...    ...

li    „    Potatoes    ...    ...    .

Of „ Cabbages, 375 doz.    ...

1    „    Turnips    ...    ...    .

Of ,, Other Vegetables ...    ...

104 days hired work of two horses and dray

£861 0 0

In the above every item is taken at the lowest rate, as it would be undesirable to hold out expectations which might not bo realised. In the second and succeeding years the proceeds will probably be greater, while the outlay will certainly be diminished. Itshould, however, be remarked, that, in some soils, potatoes would not answer well the first year, in which case it would be desirable to increase the quantity of cabbages or other vegetables.

The current expenses, for the first year, may be taken a* under, viz. :

Wages of two men, including self, at £3 10 per week    ...    ...    ...

Keep of two horses    ...    ...

Household expenses    ...    ...

Incidental expenses, horse shoeing, &c. Interest on £400 at 10 per cent. ...

£364 0 0 208 0 136 0 0 100 0 0 40 0 0

£848 0 0

The household expenses, though included here, would be, for the most part, if not entirely, covered by the means above suggested ; the amount would, therefore, be devoted to the paying off the balance due upon the land.

The preliminary outlay would be,—

£100 0 O 40 0 0

130 0 0 30 0 0 50 0 0 10 0 0

Deposit on Land, say One Dray and Harness Two Horses    ...

Temporary House ... Tools, &c.    ...

Incidental expenses ...

£360 0 0

In addition to this, £100, or more, will be required for the purchase of posts and rails, which, however, will be ultimately repaid by sale of fire wood, &c. If a trustworthy man can be hired to manage the carting, it will be best to remain as much at home as possible, so as personally to superintend, and assist in carrying out, the improvements to be made during the first few months of occupancy. Something may be saved by engaging with a single man, and taking him to board with the family. Also, in those cases where the capital is very limited, one horse only might be purchased in the first instance.

In the calculations above, we have assumed the distance from town to be about five or six miles, the extent of land occupied as ten acres, and the prime cost <£50 per acre. But if the previous pursuits of the individual should induce a preference for a more extended plan of cultivation, by proceeding to a somewhat greater distance from town, a much larger breadth of land may be taken up for the same amount, and a system of farming rather than that of gardening may be commenced with similar advantage, this only difference excepted, that the returns cannot be depended upon with so much certainty and regularity, and therefore it is desirable that those embarking in such business should have two or three hundred pounds to fall back upon, in case of a failure, or partial failure, of the crons. We will here observe, that it is of the greatest importance to select the land of good quality, as every thing depends on this. In

the present state of the Colony, and considering the high value of labour, it will seldom pay to cultivate land of indifferent quality, particularly when situated at a distance from town. This is obvious, inasmuch as the tilling is doubly expensive, while the crop may not be more than one-half in quantity or quality, in which case, while there might be a profit of 50 per cent, in the one instance, there would be an absolute loss to the same extent on the other. As we shall hereafter endeavour folly to describe the different kinds of soil met with in the Colony, and point out tho quality of each, it is not needful that we should enter more fully on this point at present, wo will only observe, that on settling down upon the land, some preparation should be made as early as possible for the introduction of fruit trees; the vine in particular answers well in warm situations, while apples are propagated with advantage in cooler localities.

We will now offer a few words of advice to the emigrant farmer arriving in the Colony without being provided with the requisite capital to start upon Ins own account. It is evident that he cannot at once establish a position ; neither should he expect for the first two or three years to reap the same advantages as are possessed by those who have the means of purchasing and cultivating an estate. Yet this is the position that he should constantly aim at, and if he be careful and assiduous he may not be long in accomplishing his object. It has indeed been a frequent matter of remark, that those, who have come to this Colony unprovided with capital, have often done better for themselves in the long run than those who have arrived with a well-furnished purse. The reason is obvious : the capitalist has placed too much dependance upon his capital, and too little upon his own care and management of the business, while, on the other hand, the man without money has had to earn it: in doing which ho has gained an amount of experience which has ultimately proved to be of more value to him than perhaps hundreds of pounds would have been in ready cash without it. We recommend, therefore, that a person circumstanced as we have supposed, should, immediately after landing, endeavour to obtain a suitable situation either in his own congenial pursuits, or in some other suitable occupation. If possible, it should be of a permanent nature; and if the individual be possessed of ordinary energy and skill, he may be sure of finding employment at a rate sufficient, with care and rigid economy, to enable him to save at least one-half his wages. These savings could not possibly be devoted to a better purpose than by paying regularly towards a fund for tho purchase of land in one or other of the respectable societies instituted for this purpose. Having once reached the position of a landed proprietor, he may pursue his course thenceforth, according to tho rules already laid

down for the guidance of the suburban farmer. But if inclination prompt, there is no reason why he should not select a stat ion fifteen or twenty miles from town, the quantity of land obtained for agiven sum being proportionably greater, as the distance increases. Formidable difficulties may, perhaps, have to be surmounted in the first instance, but these once overcome, it is doubtful whether his position might not be better than that of those residing nearer town. At any rate, he will have greater scope for the cultivation of particular plants, fruit trees, grasses, and cereal crops. Above all, he should not neglect the vine, which, in its ultimate returns of profit, rivals all other cultivation. But as we intend to devote a particular portion of our treatise to this subject, we will not dilate upon it here.    *

The agricultural labourer next claims our attention. Under this designation we include for the most part that class who arrive in the Colony under the denomination of Government emigrants. These are the men who constitute the foundation on which society is based.

Some of this class are possessed of a few pounds on landing, but the majority have seldom more than enough to pay their expenses for a few days.

Those who possess the means of entering into some little business on their own account, such as the working of a horse and dray, or the cultivation of a suburban garden, we would strongly recommend not to be too much in haste in deciding as to the course to be pursued, before they have made themselves acquainted with the usages and customs of the Colony. Whatever knowledge a person may have had in the mother country, he will find that some degree of colonial experience is necessary, in order to secure him against loss and disappointment. The best plan for him, therefore, is to bank his money for a few months, and to enter the lists at once as a day labourer.

If persons just landed, and unacquainted with the manners of the place, commence business on their own account immediately after landing, the effect is generally to produce some feeling of jealousy on the part of those already embarked in the same pursuit. They appear to suffer from an apprehension of being under-sold, or in some other way implicated by the inexperience of, as they call him, the “ new chum.” It generally happeps, however, even in these cases, that a generous deportment, coupled with energy and perseverance, will do much to remove the ill-feeling; and he will often find, if he does not retort, or otherwise render himself obnoxious, that those who have been foremost in attempting to put him down will at length be most ready to extend the hand of friendship.

\ et this would be experience dearly bought, and for this reason we would still recommend him, if possible, to obtain a situation in a store, or garden, or some other kind of employment, at certain wages, before he parts with his money. Laboring men, of every descripti >n, can generally obtain work immediately after landing in the Colony, at from ten to eighteen shillings per day, but without rations. If it is not to be had in town, it may always be had in the country; and single men, in particular, should strap their blankets upon their backs, and proceed at once into the surrounding districts ; they need not go far before employment is offered them. But, in the first instance, it would be better for them to accept a somewhat lower rate of wages than to stand out at such a time. The immigrant will very soon be able to ascertain the value of his labour, according to the colonial standard; and he will also know better where to look for it; but at first he is liable to form very exaggerated notions of his own value, and therefore we say, wait a while. Anything is better than doing nothing. Idleness is the bane of the working man, in every country ; but it is more especially the case in this, where time is of tenfold greater value to the individual than it would be in England.

Until within a short period, great difficulty was experienced in obtaining house-accommodation in or near Melbourne, at any price ; but now small cottages are not only alwavs to be had in considerable numbers, but the rents are much lower; nevertheless, they are still too high to render it advisable for a labouring man to undertake such payments at the outset of his career. Some, indeed, obviate the difficulty by taking a house somewhat larger than may be required for their own family, and, by receiving two or three lodgers, realise sufficient to pay the whole of the rental. Others prefer to live in a tent, or other temporary habitation, so that they may, to a certain extent, enjoy the comforts of home without the presence and influence of strangers. Every one will, of course, be guided by liis own notions of what is best; but if we were called upon for an opinion, we should certainly advise, especially in those families where there are children, that the lodging-house system should be avoided, as it often tends to bring men into company, which were better avoided, and otherwise has frequently a demoralizing tendency. Perhaps the safest and best course to pursue, at first, would be to procure a small allotment of land, in the way indicated above; that is to say, by those who, from the number of their family, or other causes, are not likely to procure the means of settling in the country. A framed tent can be put up by one man, in about three days, and thus a home is secured against all possible contingencies. The temporary inconvenience of buch a habitation is so slight,

compared with the advantage of living rent-free, that those must be scrupulously exact, indeed, who would object to it, especially in such a climate as this.

It is almost superfluous to remark, that, in order to insure a successful issue, economy and frugal care on the part of the housewife will be particularly needed at this eventful period of their residence in the Colony. But if a due regard be paid to these points, and an ordinary degree of caution and industry be exhibited, the immigrant need have no fear for the result.

Education and industry go hand in hand; it is important, therefore, that the young be early initiated into the pursuit of useful knowledge; and the newly-arrived immigrant should be careful not to allow any mercenary feeling to induce him to neglect the education of his children. And by education we do not mean mere book-learning, but the knowledge of everything calculated to make a good husband and father, and a useful citizen. This should be particularly attended to in Australia, inasmuch as every one here will, sooner or later, find full scope for the exercise of his talents, whatever they may be, and thus the parent has the satisfaction of knowing that his good endeavours will not be thrown away. And, as the poorest labourer, after a very few years of industrious exertion, may calculate upon becoming the possessor of a respectable freehold, the necessity for education will be the more severely felt, as education and property cannot be dissevered without loss to the possessor, either on the one hand or the other.

Among hundreds of other instances, we may state, that a laboring man, recently employed by us, as a fencer, and who was then possessed of household property valued at o£G00 per annum, bitterly complained of the loss and inconvenience he sustained from the want of education. Another individual, brought up in the same wav, had six houses, from five of which he received a rental of £400 per annum ; he lived in the sixth hintself, had a large garden, and kept a horse and dray, which would bring him in about £6 per week, clear profit, and yet this man could neither read nor write.

A person newly arrived, but poor, and having a wife and three children, has recently left town, in order to try his skill at gold digging, leaving his family behind. The wife is a good scholar, and possessed of some experience. The two eldest boys, aged twelve and fourteen respectively, are employed during tiie early part of the day in procuring fire-wood for sale, and bringing it to market, by means of a goat cart, which they manage with some skill, anu by which means they realize from twenty-five to thirty shillings per week. Under a mother’s eye, they are

trained with considerable care ; their education, both mental and physical, being well attended to. Both mind and body are invigorated by wholesome exercise, and they are taught to handle implements at an early age, so as to become skilful in their use ; while, by a regular system of educational discipline at home, they will ultimately be prepared to occupy a wider field of usefulness than they could ever otherwise have hoped to realize. With such lessons, as cases of this kind afford, it would appear unnecessary to dwell longer upon this topic ; we will, therefore, dismiss the subject, by once more urging it upon the serious consideration ot the class whom we are now addressing, as being of more vital importance to their future interests than any other matter which could possibly be brought under notice.

Perhaps it is expected, that we should here offer some remarks upon the occupation ofthe gold-digger. In the first place, then, we would observe, that, as a general rule, this pursuit is tar better calculated for the single than the married man. It is seldom that a family fails to suffer from the prolonged absence of the husband and,father. If he should be unsuccessful, they may be exposed to much physical suffering; and even it be be successful, it will generally happen that they suffer in a moral point of view. On the other hand, it would hardly be prudent for a man to remove his family to the diggings, unless he had a very sale and certain prospect of success) and even then, it is questionable whether they would not be exposed to more suffering, both morally and physically, than it would be desirable to risk. The moral atmosphere of the diggings is certainly not favorable to the advancement of a family; and the frequent changes and removals to winch the digger is exposed must be detrimental to bodily health, while it tends, in a certain degree, to foster a spirit of speculation and improvidence—the opposite of that quiet and contented spirit which a settled home is calculated to produce. We consider the cultivation of the soil, in the long run, to be both safer and more profitable than the occupation of the minor; and it is certainly more healthy, for it is a well-known fact, that nothing is so trying to the constitution as a prolonged residence on the gold fields. None but men of the hardiest constitutions should attempt it; hut if a man he determined to give it a trial, we would not dissuade him from it; all we would say is, do llot re" main two long, whether successful or unsuccessful, iurn your attention, as early as possible, to pursuits of a more permanent

character.    , . ,    •

For those who depend entirely for subsistence upon their own physical exertions, it is of the utmost importance to preserve a condition of bodily health; we will, therefore, here add a word

or two, by way of caution, on this subject. Generally healthy, as these colonies are admitted to be, yet there are several phases of disease peculiar to them, differing, indeed, but little from the same complaints in England, though occurring much more frequently than in that country. The more malignant and contagious diseases known in Europe have, however, not made their appearance among us, and for that reason we should be cautious not to permit the existence of anything calculated to promote their introduction. The most prevalent diseases are complaints of the heart and nervous system, dysentery, and low fever ; all of which are very trying to the constitution, and in some cases terminate fatally. The following rules will be found conducive to a state of health :—

1.    Select for a residence a high and airy situation, as far removed from town as possible.

2.    Remove all stagnant water, and all other offensi-ve matter from the neighborhood.

3.    Temperance in the use of spirits and animal food.

4.    Warm clothing, and a rigid attention to personal and domestic cleanliness.

5.    Good food, and the use of filtered water for drinking purposes.

6.    Moderate and regular exercise in the open air.


Buildings.—-We propose, in this chapter, to lay down some general remarks, for the guidance of persons wishing to build; especially for those who are unaccustomed to the use of tools, and have no idba as to the means which should be taken for the erection of temporary dwellings, in cases where but little cash is available for the purpose of their construction.

The new arrival, though he may be possessed of ground, may not always find it practicable to advance even two hundred pounds towards the erection of a cottage; nor will it always be convenient to wait whilst ,one is being built; and, although tents, in such cases, answer very well as a temporary substitute, they are only to be recommended in those cases where it is in contemplation to build a more permanent residence at once.

We will here describe some of the cheapest modes of building; any of which can be adopted, according as circumstances may seem to determine.

d he ¡Slab Hut is frequently met with in the country districts where timber of the proper description may be obtained in abundance; and, if well made, forms a very comfortable habitation,

as compared with many others. The walls are formed of largo slabs of timber, split to a thickness of about three inches, and cut off to a length corresponding with the height required, say about nine to ten feet: they are set up endways, and placed as closely together ns possible. Strips of wood are then nailed over the seams or joints so as entirely to exclude the air and rain, and the inside may be either white-washed or papered at discretion. The roof may either be covered with bark or shingle, and the chimney is usually constructed of stone, procured upon the spot, or carted from the nearest plaoe.

Paling Huts may bo erected with more speed than the former, but are not, on the whole, so desirable, as they are much colder in winter, and communicate the heat much more readily in summer.

The Wattle and Dab Huts are formed by sinking in the ground rows of young straight wattles, fixed side bv side, and afterwards daubed over with strong mud, which, finding its way between the interstices, when it becomes dry, hardens like mortar, and if brought to a smooth surface and afterwards whitened, forms a very good habitation for the bush. The roof may be either thatched with reeds, or, as in the former cases, covered with largo sheets of bark, upon which a weight is usually placed for a few months, to prevent it from curling with the heat of the sun.

The Mud Hut is made with well-tempered clay, mixed with chopped straw, worked in with a small quantity of water, and i,hen laid upon the wall, by hand, in small quantities at a time, so that the work may set quite hard in each course before the succeeding layer is placed upon it. The surface of the wall is then smoothed off by a spade or trowel, and the roof may bo formed by means of saplings, which should be connected together at the foot by means of tie-beams cut out of the same material, or even of the small round wattles which are to be met with in almost every part of the Colony. A good coating of lime and sand when the former can be procured, vastly increases the durability of these structures, which otherwise require a verandah, or other means of protection from the effects of rain. In many cases, by giving a sufficient projection to the eaves, this difficulty may he overcome.

The Pisa House is constructed by means of a shifting frame, which is removed from plaoe to place, all round the building, in iu-der to receive the earth of which the wall is composed. The itraiiaee soil is frequently well adapted for the purpose. One man digs it out, works it. up finely, and then throws it into the frame, which is about six feet long, three feet high, and eighteen iuches

wide ; another labourer is engaged in ramming in the earth as it is thrown into the frame, so as to make it perfectly solid. No water is used with it, and as soon as the frame is full it is taken asunder and removed to the adjoining space. Stiff clays are not suitable for this work, and the best soil is that which contains a small admixture of sand. These walls are rendered very durable by a coating of plaster, to preserve them from moisture, and form an excellent substitute for a stone-house. A little broken glass should be thrown in at the bottom, to keep out rats or mice, and a good drainage secured all round the building. Before putting the roof on, good wall-plates should be laid all round the building, and well secured at each angle. These houses are quickly constructed, and will be found very comfortable, both in summer and winter, as they exclude both heat and cold alike. A coat of plaster, inside and out, with the addition of a verandah, will increase the durability of the walls, and improve vastly the appearance of the house, but can be added at a future period. In Italy, where this mode of construction was first introduced, many of the country churches are composed of this material.

Brick and Stone Houses may sometimes be erected at a very small cost, but will always involve a greater expense than the description of houses already given. It will not always occur that the young beginner will have either time or money at his disposal for burning bricks ; if he has, he is well off. Sundried bricks, if mixed with chopped straw, and carefully made, are an excellent substitute for the burned brick; and as they may be made very large, say nine inches wide and eighteen-and-a-half long, they are very quickly laid. In Victoria there is, in general, a scarcity of lime ; it can always be had in Melbourne, though but seldom in the country; a mortar made of sandy clay or loom must therefore be substituted for it. In some cases it happens that good building stone is found on the site of the new dwelling : and when this is the case, and it can be lifted in small masses, it will be found advantageous to make use of it as the building material. The same description of mortar may be used as above described, and the walls should be about eighteen inches thick, and ten feet high. If, however, the whole house be not built of stone, it is desirable, in all cases, that the chimnies should be constructed with it or brick, not only for the sake of durability, but as a security against fire.

Timber-Framed Houses may sometimes be put up near town at a less cost than either of the two houses above-named, but they are not so well adapted for those at a distance, on account of the expense of carting the materials; and as they cannot be so well constructed without the aid of a carpenter, we

think it better that the immigrant should, in the first place, content himselt .with a building of a more temporary character, but lay the foundation for a ston& house, the building to be continued from time to time, as opportunity offers. These framed houses are put together with quartering, or small pieces of timber about three inches by four. The lower plates are spiked down upon small posts sunk a foot or two into the earth, and rising about twelve or eighteen inches above it. The studs or upright timbers forming the walls of the house are then morticed into these plates below, and into a series of plates above. They are placed at a distance of two feet apart, and further secured by a few diagonal ties, proper openings being left for doors and windows. 'I he flooring joists, which should be two inches by six, with their ends resting on the lower plates, at the same distance apart as the studs ; and the rafters, which support the roof, are the same size as the joists, and placed at intervals of the same distance, 'I he floors are then laid with inch boarding, and the sides with weather-boarding, which should be three-quarters of an inch thick, and laid with a one-inch lap. A few small battens are laid across the rafters, and the roof may then be covered with shingle or broad paling. Doors and windows can always be obtained ready-made, at half the price at which they could be made in the Colony. When the whole is completed, an outside coat of paint is necessary, in order to preserve the wood from the effects of the sun, which would otherwise very soon cause it to open.

The Canvas-Framed House is merely a tent, brought into the form of a house, by means of a timber framing, on which the canvas is stretched. Its structure is simple, and, if the frame be built substantially at first, it can afterwards be covered with broad paling or weather boarding, and converted into a wash-house or kitchen. The frame is made nearly in the same way as abovedescribed for a wooden house ; but if the studdings were placed farther apart it would answer quite as well. The materials for a two-roomed house, made in this way, would not cost more than from twenty to twenty-five pounds, and a couple of workmen will put one up in two days. The sum named above includes the price of a small stove and iron chimney, also a few bricks for the hearth, and cartage of the materials.

The whole should be covered with navy canvas, the canvas being sewn together previously to being laid on. It should be fixed with large tinned tacks, which will not rust, coarse tape being inserted beneath the head of the tack. The inner room, should be lined with stout baize or drugget, especially in winter; and it will add greatly to the comfort of the inmates to sling a large sheet of canvas or tarpauling over the house, but at a suffi-

cient height to allow a free current of air to pass between. This wards off the sun in summer, and keeps off much of the rain in winter. Caro should he taken to keep the tent well aired throughout the day, especially in damp weather, as, if the moisture l»e confined and then heated by the stove, serious effects are sometimes the result, and show themselves in the form of fevers, colds and agues. In those cases where a few shillings is an object, the boarded floor may be dispensed with for a time. The floor may then be raised a little above the level of the ground outside, and a strip of broad paling placed all round to keep it in. It may then be covered with a coating of small broken stone, earth, and wood ashes, which, if occasionally sprinkled with water, becomes, in the course of a short time, almost as hard and compact as stone. It mav afterwards be covered with Indian matting, and this makes a very comfortable floor. The outside should be banked up with earth, to keep away the water during the winter season.

Corrugated Iron Houses may be obtained for about fifty pounds, containing two moderate-sized rooms : and though they possess the properties of portability and durability in a considerable degree, they are by no means to bo recommended. It is thought that they are equally undesirable in summer and winter, inasmuch as they seem to concentrate within them the most intense heat in the warm weather, and during the wet season they tend so entirely to retain and confine the moisture of the atmosphere, and the various noxious gasses, which in any other kind of building would either be absorbed or find their escape insensibly, that we conceive they must bo injurious to health.

The Log IIut of the Americans, and many other useful modes of construction, we have left unnoticed. Those only have been alluded to which appeared best adapted to meet the case of the Australian immigrant settling within a few miles of a market town. And here we may observe, that, though wo have throughout assumed for Melbourne the position of a capital city, and supposed the immigrant to have located himself within an easy distance of its markets, yet we by no means intend by this to confine our remarks to this particular spot, as we believe that there are many other centres of production, which may offer an equally profitable field around for the development of our resources. Such, no doubt, are Geelong, and several of the ports along the southern shores of the Colony. Some of the inland townships, also, appear destined to attain positions of greater importance. This will follow as a necessary consequence upon the introduction of railways, as they will enable llie population to spread itself over a larger area; and when it thus becomes extended, new

centres of trade, and, consequently, markets for colonial produce, will be imperatively needed. But the people must bo first located in tbe country, before any flourishing townships can bo established : till then, they will exist only on paper ; and though thousands of pounds bo given for the land on which these towns are laid out, still this does not increase its intrinsic value to the community.

In returning to our subject, it is expedient to offer one or two suggestions as to the size which it is most desirable to adopt for that class of buildings of which we have been speaking.

In the first place, then, it may be observed, that in a climate such as this the utmost care should be taken to obtain, at all times, a pure supply of air, for the purposes of respiration. This is even of more importance by night than by day, and yet there are many who habitually sleep in an atmosphere surcharged with gasses highly injurious to human life, or, at any rate, to the healthy discharge of its important functions. Wo would strongly recommend, therefore, that the rooms should be made as large and as lofty as the means of the settler will possibly admit. As we have already stated, the walls should not be less than ten feet in height, nor tbe rooms less than ten feet square; this is, however, tbe minimum for size ; from twelve to fourteen feet square will bo found to answer far better, especially where there are children. Indeed, in that case, there should be at least three rooms—one a living-room, and two bed-rooms. In order to insure sufficient ventilation, window casements must be provided for each room, and these should bo kept open as much as possible during tbo day, but especially in the morning.

Cellars are at all times an exceedingly useful addition to a bouse ; but so soon as farming operations have commenced, a cellar of some kind or another is absolutely necessary. Without some cool place wherein to place the milk, butter, and other articles of produce, it would not be possible to preserve them during tbo summer months. The milk would become thick and sour, and the butter would melt away. A cellar may be easily made, in the following way :—Tbe side of a bill, having a southern aspect, is best as a site, but this is not of much conséquence. Sink a pit about five feet deep, and say in size six by eight or ten feet. Lay all round the outside large pieces of timber, or the trunks of small trees, properly secured at the angles; across tbo whole lav a few strong poles or spars, and cover with bark; over the bark a layer of saw-dust may be laid; but if none of this is at band, a few leaves will do as well. Top the whole up with the earth taken out of tbe pit, and plant a few geraniums or other plants upon the surface of the mound. An

entrance must lie provided at one end, a descent being obtained by means of steps cut out of'the earth itself, and which may bo afterwards preserved from injury by means of a few pieces of wood laid down upon them. Means must be taken to obtain a thorough ventilation; without this nothing would be gained. Tho best plan is to leave a small opening at cncli end secured with open lattice work, to prevent tho entrance of small animals.

Wells and Tasks.— The greatest drawback for the farmer in tho Australian colonies is the want of water. It is in very few localities that, an abundant supply can bo obtained, unless tho farm be situated on the bank of a river. In most cases, therefore, it is needful to obtain it by artificial means. If the whole of tho rain water falling upon tho roof of the dwelling-house bo secured by proper guttering, the supply will generally be sufficient for domestic purposes; but in order to preserve a sufficiency lor the summer months, it is necessary to provide a largo tank, which should be sunk into tho earth, for the purpose of keeping the water cool. They may bo constructed of iron or brick-work, laid in cement; but as this in somo eases would bo found too expensive, large barrels may bo used as a substitute. A little charcoal thrown in will servo to preserve the water, and if it bo afterwards passed through a filter, the quality will bo as good as could be desired. But where there are cattle to bo watered, other means must be adopted. In India large tanks are trequently contracted for receiving the natural drainage of tho surrounding country. They are generally formed by excavating tho ground to a iew feet in depth. The earth that comes out is then thrown up so as to form an embankment round tho sidos of tho reservoir, and the whole is afterwards lined with puddle. The puddle is made of fine clay, well worked by the feet of men or animals until it becomes impervious to water. The mmenso quantity of water which may bo obtained in Ibis way is truly Burprising, especially if the situation of tho tank be well chosen, so that it may receive the drainage of tho largest possible extent of country. For the purpose of watering cattle it is desirable to have a second tank, into which tho water may bo admitted from the larger one, which latter should bo strongly fenced so as to prevent contamination. The smaller tank, into which the cattle aro admitte 1, should, if possible, bo paved, or, at any rate, a por ion of it, which bitter should be fenced oil’ from tho other part, in order to keep the cattle within tho smallest possiblo limits. A gentle slope should be cut on one side, so as to give an easy approach to the water.

We aro of opinion that it would bo highly advantageous to tho public, and, at tho same time, a desirable course for tho go-

vernment, if they would construct a few reservoirs of til's description, at intervals, along the principal lines of road, and also in such districts as suffer from an inadequate supply of surface water. The improved value it would give to the land would fully compensate for the outlay. In sandy and porous soils, however, this plan could not be carried into effect, the water being so fully absorbed as to render but little surface drainage possible. In this case the only plan is to sink a well. This may be accomplished either by digging or boring. In sinking a well, great care should be taken that the sides do not fall in ; where the earth is loose, it is frequently necessary to stein the well, or line it with brick-work ; but if this be not done, timber curbs must be provided in all cases when there is the least appearance of danger. The surface springs are frequently brackish, and if these be met with, it is best to stop out the water by brick-work, well puddled behind, and proceed with the digging as before. If the upper springs be not intercepted in this way, the water which ilows from them, however small the quantity, is apt to deteriorate the quality of the spring below, as there would be a continual trickling of water down into it.

Artesian wells may, to a certain extent, be considered as artificially-formed springs. The water is obtained by boring; which, where great depths have to be reached, is much cheaper than sinking a shaft. When the spring is touched, the water frequently rises to the surface and overflows ; in other cases it only rises to an intermediate distance, from which it must bo raised by means of a pump.

It requires a considerable amount of experience and ability to determine on the spot best calculated to supply the water in abundance, and at a reasonable depth; therefore, no one should undertake such work without first securing the services of a competent person. To prevent the evaporation of water from tanks or reservoirs, it is necessary that they should be protected from the direct rays of the sun, which produces evaporation and decomposition of the water. The branches of trees are sometimes used for this purpose, but this is a bad plan, as the decayed leaves, falling i nto the water, are sure to affect its purity, change the color of it, and render it astringent and bitter to the taste. The cheapest substitute is a piece of oiled canvas, but a roof of good broad paling would be still better.    _    _

As we have already observed, the water used for drinking should always be filtered ; nevertheless, it should be clearly understood, that the filter only cleanses the water from mechanical impurities, but does not in any way remove those having a chemical affinity with it. For this reason brackish water cannot be

rendered sweet by means of a filter, neither will it remove the juices of noxious plants which may have been mingled with it. Care should therefore be taken in the selection of the water in the first instance, and regard should be had to its subsequent purification as far as possible. In some cases mere boiling of the water has the effect of rendering it, in some degree, pure and wholesome, but this, at the expense of its palatibility, unless it be intended for making tea or other warm beverages.

Filters may frequently be purchased at a moderate price in Melbourne, and money cannot be better laid out than in the purchase of one. The small ones, however, are of but little service, and soon get out of order. It is better to buy a large one at first, or else to make use of a, substitute. There are many ways of making filters, for home use, which might be mentioned; but the following plan will answer as well as any of them. Take a ten or fifteen gallon cask; about six inches from one end fix a false bottom of perforated iron, covered with a piece of coarse canvas over this introduce a layer two or three inches thick, composed of small pebbles or broken stone ; over this another course may be laid of the same material, but of smaller size ; above this a layer of charcoal, nine inches thick, should be laid, first coarse, and then fine; on the top of this layer a piece of thick flannel. The flannel should be taken out and washed once a week, and the charcoal and gravel should be renewed about three or four times in the year, or at any rate thoroughly cleaned. The sediment, which will from time to time require to be washed away, will be sufficient to convince any one of the importance of this process. Barrels and casks, previous to being used, should they require it, may be cleansed by filling them with water mixed with meal and bran, and letting them stand till fermentation takes place. This will effectually clean them, and the mixture may afterwards be given to the pigs.

Stables.—In this climate horses will do as well in the open air as in a stable during the greater part of the year ; and as the construction of a proper stable is an expensive affair, the paving and draining of the floor being essential to the health and comfort of the horse, when confined in it, we are inclined to recommend that the animal should be kept in an open yard, provided with a shed, to which he might resort for the purpose of shelter, whether from the cold and wet, or from the rays of the sun. A. horse treated in this way will be much hardier than one more carefully attended to in a stable. The shed should be closed on three sides, which, together with the roof, may be covered with paling, bark, or any other material within the means of the settler. 'I he floor should be made upon a slope, and covered with

a, coating of 1 roken stone or shingle. Tho provender should he kept in an adj oining shed, and by no means over tho stable, as the liny thus loses its sweetness, and is almost rendered unfit for use.

Hen Houses should be made as largo as possible, and may be constructed with great ease by means of a few upright posts let into the ground, and others fixed above for tho roof, the whole being covered with canvas or stout calico. A coat of boiled oil or paint will render them very durable, and also render the canvas impervious to rain. Proper roosts should be provided at a sufficient height from the ground, and so fixed that one shall not be Under another. The nests should be so placed as not to be crowded too much, and scrupulous attention should be paid to cleanliness. Small rice or flour barrels, laid horizontally, make excellent nests: they should be supported on a pole, and another pole be fixed a little before them, for the hens to fly upon before going into the nest. The straw should be frequently changed, the floor regularly swept out, and afterwards strewed over with lime, wood-ashes, and sand. If a solution of chloride of zinc, or even tobacco water, be occasionally sprinkled over the place, it will have the effect of keeping away the vermin and noxious insects so dangerous to poultry.

Ducks, Geese, Ac., should bo provided for in a similar way; but they may be placed nearer the ground, as damp is not injurious to them, and their habits are different to other poultry.

Piq-stys may be formed in tho following way ;—Take large slabs of gum wood, six feet long, and, having marked out tho position of the sty, dig a trench all round it, two feet deep. Set up the slabs on end, along the trench, keeping the edges of the wood as close as possible : then throw in the earth and ram it well. The top may afterwards he further secured by courses of stout hoop-iron nailed along either side. A small shed should be provided at one end of the sty for the shelter of the animal by night. The size of a sty, intended for a couple of pigs, should bo about five feet by seven feet and a half; and if a greater number than this ho kept, it is better to increase the number of styes than the size of them.

Seed and Root Store.—An enclosed shed or granary should ho erected near the garden for the purpose of preserving the seeds and roots required for the season following, and for tho occasional storing of various fruits and vegetables, such as potatoes, onions, apples, Ac. This is the more desirable, inasmuch as it will generally he found inexpedient to force into tho market at one time too great a quantity of any particular article. Most artioles of garden produce which will bear keeping will pay for

keeping ; indeed the value very generally doubles within throe months, or so, after the season is supposed to have passed. All producers should pay particular attention to such matters, for it is by watching the markets, that many farmers of otherwise inferior ability, often succeed, where others of superior skill have failed to realise a competency. Beirs, racks, and bins should be fixed round the inside of the store, and at one end of it a small shed should be placed for the reception of the gardening tools. A verandah, however small, would be found very useful for drying herbs, and other plants requiring a free current of air, together with protection from the rays of the sun. In winter it will also ba found useful, as affording shelter to a few green-house plants not sufficiently strong to bear entire exposure to the weather.

Barns.—It is of frequent occurrence, that the smaller class of Australian farmers entirely dispense with these buildings. In the case of very small farms, it is usual to make use of a large sail for the purpose of a floor for thrashing out the corn; and though some portion of the grain is generally scattered in the process, it goes towards the fattening of the poultry, and thus but little real loss is sustained. It is only, therefore, on farms of ten to fifteen acres and upwards, that we could recommend the erection of a barn. On larger farms it is indispensable ; but, since the introduction of machinery for thrashing and winnowing, the barn has been chiefly used as a storehouse for the grain. Where the thrashing is done 1 y hand, it is necessary to lay the floor with great care; it should be very solid, and the boarding grooved and tongued.

Before closing this chapter, we would again impress upon the immigrant the necessity of promptitude and vigour on his arrival in the Colony. Above all things, let it be his first and chief endeavour to secure to himself and family the blessings of an independent home, where he will be able, without prejudice or fear, 1o reap the full fruit of his labor, and fulfil those uses to society, for which by nature he may be 'nest adapted.

Every day that passes renders it more obvious, that the time has arrived for the general cultivation of the soil. This must bo o-oneinto at once, or a crisis is at hand, such as few have any idea of. The natural resources of this country are as yet wholly undeveloped, and yet we continue from year to year to import articles, the produce of distant lands, which might readily he produced at a lower price, and of better quality, from our own soil. It is supposed that the value of imports into this Colony for the first six months of 1854 was nearly double the amount of exports; and in 1853 the imports exceeded the exports by nearly five millions sterling.

The following table shews the quantity and value of certain articles imported into this Colony in 1053, most of which we should now have been in a condition to produce for ourselves, had proper attention been bestowed upon the culture of the soil, and the formation of the roads.




Boer aud Cider - - -

2,988,549 gals. 649,472 bushels


Bran ....


Bricks - - - -

7,060,418 No.


Butter and Cheese - -

3,417 tons


Candles - ... -

1,126 „


Corn Meal ...

441 „


fish - - - -

10,000 packages


Flour and Bread - -

37,147 tons


Fruit ......

j 1,008 tous (dried) ) ( 48,107 bushels (green) j


Grain—Barley ....

1,532 tons


„ Maize - - -

98,402 bushels


„ Malt - - -

32,915 „


„ Oats - - -

837,703 „


„ Peas - - -

201 tons


„ Wheat. - - -

00,504 bushels


,, Other ...

5,104 „


Hay ■■ - - - -

7,409 tous


1 ,ard ....

139 „


Leather - - - -

l ,442 packages


Lime ....

117,423 bushels


Oatmeal - - - -

3,198 tons


Onions ....



Potatoes - - - -



Provisions ...

10,300 packages 3,426 tons




Soap ....



Spirits—Brandv - -

951,122 gallons


Whiskey - -

113,089 54,371 No.




Palings - -



Laths - - -



., Posts aud Rails -



Shingles - -

11,250,015 „ 36,057,129 feet


„ Sawn ...


Tobacco - - - -

1,830,179 lbs.


Vegetables ...

114 tons


Vinegar - - - -

86,410 gallons



28 cwt.



815,015 gallons

Total ...



From the above it will be seen that imports to the value of above six millions sterling have been admitted into Victoria within the space of one year, the greater part of which could be raised with equal facility within our own borders. This affords a grand aud comprehensive view of the field now open for the com-

bined efforts of skill, capital and labor. It bolds out to us the prospect of a never-failing market; and while the land calls aloud for the genial action of the plough, and presents to our view the prospect of abundant harvests, the husbandman may feel assured of an ample recompense for his labor.

It is not only in the neighbourhood of the city that such prospects present themselves. Many of the districts surrounding our various gold-fields present, in some respects, even greater inducements for the cultivation of the soil. All articles of consumption are, at present, far higher in price throughout these localities than in Melbourne, in consequence of the enormous cost of distant carriage. All this might be remedied by opening up the country in the immediate vicinity of the various markets, and thus we should get rid of an anomaly, such as the world has rarely seen, viz:—hay and corn carried from the city to the country, instead of from the country to the city. The ground waits to open her bosom and to reveal her stores of wealth, stores which increase the more we dig for them ; and which, in future generations, will be found, as now, inexhaustible. Let us hesitate no longer, but at once accept her proffered gifts ; and thus, while ennobling ourselves, shall we raise the Colony to a lofty position in the scale of nations, and avert calamities of fearful import. But this is not all. Of the various products enumerated above, it is not only needful that we raise a sufficiency for our own consumption; it is equally desirable that we produce them for exportation. Are wool and gold ever to continue the only articles of export? Let us turn to a neighbouring Colony, and see what has been accomplish there. In South Australia, the inhabitants having full faith in the productiveness of the soil, applied themselves to agricultural pursuits. The results are before us. They not only supply themselves with bread, but their neighbours also. Let us follow the example whioh they have set, and the poorest man in the country may soon become prosperous and happy.

It is true we have had here to contend with the withering, the paralyzing influence of an imbecile government most of whose measures have tended to retard the progress of the Colony. But let us hope that this day of corruption and mismanagement is at an end; and see that we do not permit the baneful example of governmental inactivity and procrastination to exercise a permanent influence upon our social character.


Live Stock.—Though the quantity of stock to be kept upon a ten or twelve acre farm, such as we have been contemplating,

would be very small, ifc is, nevertheless, desirable that attention should bo given both to the breeding and management of the various kinds of stock, however small the number which may be kept. Indeed, the amount of care and attention bestowed will altogether determine the question of profit or loss. It is universally admitted, that a farm upon which no stock is kept can never be made to pay so well as one which is made to support a proper amount of animal life. The principal thing is to discover the due medium between too great or too small a quantity. This question, however, is neither so important or so difficult of solution here, as in an older country, as the districts comprising the waste lands of the Colony are in some localities so extensive as to enable the farmer to run his cattle entirely upon them, and thus relieve the demands upon the farm.

Near town horses, pigs, and poultry will be kept with most advantage; and cattle a few miles further out. The scarcity of feed near Melbourne is such, that the keeping of cows, unless it be made a distinct business, will seldom be found remunerative upon a small farm. This, however, does not apply to one or two, but where several are kept.

The Horse.—It has been proved, beyond all doubt, that horses of unrivalled excellence can be produced in these colonies; and the demand for horses being now considerable, and constantly on the increase, it has become highly important that more attention should be paid to this description of stock. Unless care be observed in the selection and crossing of the several breeds, there is evidently a tendency to degenerate—the progeny acquires a wiry, lank appearance, which is said to be peculiar to the Australian horse. But this is not the case. Any horses, with the same amount of blood, if allowed to run half wild in a warm climate such as this, acquire the same appearance, especially in those cases where the increase is left entirely to chance. The great want of this Colony is a thoroughly good breed of draught horses. The Clydesdale and the Suffolk punch are perhaps the best, upon the whole; and we should give the preference to the latter. In Van Dieman’s Land and South Australia considerable care has been bestowed upon the subject; and at the present time we are greatly dependent upon those colonies for our supplies. Some of those imported from Van Dieman’s Land are particularly worthy of praise ; but for one good horse to be seen, there are nineteen or twenty of inferior quality.

Much has been accomplished in the neighboring colonies by an association of capital for these purposes; and though the results, in a pecuniary point of view, have, from various extrinsic causes, not proved satisfactory to the shareholders, yet much real

good lias been effected in the improvement of the different breeds; and it has had the effect of arousing ihe attention of others to the importance of the subject. The frequent periodical shows, which produce so much excitement in the other colonies, have also had a favorable influence in determining the relative value of particular breeds, and by furnishing an incentive to improvement.

The breeding of horses in these colonies is, however, more within the province of the large farmer, and will pay best upon an extensive scale ; we have more to do in the present instance with the selection and subsequent management of the horse, as adapted to the requirements of the smaller settler.

Perhaps the kind of horse most serviceable for farm work, considering all the purposes to which he may be applied, may be best described by adverting to some of the principal features of the Suffolk punch. He is thick set, and very compact, short upon the legs, which should be clean, and firmly placed; broad in the chest, deep in the girth, neck short, but moderately thick and tapering, with a small head, bright and prominent eye, and short pointed ear. He should not be too long in the body: the shorter the back the better he will stand his work ; and care should be taken to see he is well ribbed up,” that is, that the ribs should l>e continued to within a hand’s breadth, or so, of the hip joint. The most usual color is a light bay or chestnut.

The first thing to be ascertained in purchasing a horse in this Colony, is the title of the vendor. By a reference to the daily papers it will be seen that horse-stealing is one of the most prevalent crimes with which the Colony is inflicted. It often happens that a horse changes hands several times after having been stolen, before it again gets into the hands of its lawful owner. A person purchasing a horse under these circumstances places himself in a painful position, inasmuch as it is by no means uncommon for individuals to make their appearance at our police courts on a charge of horse-stealing, who have paid the full value for the animal, and have also the receipt to show for it. The mere fact of having a stolen horse in possession is considered sufficient to warrant a suspicion of the crime; and the least penalty they incur is the forfeiture of the horse.

In purchasing at an auction, the auctioneer is required to refund the purchase-money, upon proof being afforded that the horse was stolen. This gives a certain amount of protection; but something further is yet required. A proposal has recently been made, to which we yield an unqualified assent, viz., to establish a general registry for horses; also a register of transfers from one owner to another. Each horse might be distinguished


by a particular number in the books, besides the common description, by which be would otherwise be known. This would tend more than anything else to check the evil, and some such enactment is imperatively called for.

It is further advisable, before purchasing a horse, to obtain a trial. If the horse be really staunch, the owner will seldom object. A warranty should also be obtained as to soundness and adaptation for the particular kind of work be may be required to perform. If a horse be well made, good tempered, and true to the collar, many other good qualities must not be looked for, as it is a well known fact, that but few horses are ever properly broken to their work in this Colony; others are stupified by cruelty and ill-usage : he may be awkward and imperfect in his paces and bearing; but it will be found that regular work and gentle discipline will very soon tend to correct these minor defects.

When the horse has been purchased, a particular description of his color, brands, or other marks, should be carefully recorded and preserved; and great care should subsequently be taken that lie be neither lost nor stolen. It is better to keep the horse always in hand, as it is called, than to let him out to graze : and though this may appear to involve an extra expense, a saving is effected in the long run by the additional security which is obtained.

Shoeing is another matter to which considerable attention should be paid. Some of the colonial smiths exhibit a large amount of carelessness in this department of their trade; and many a colt is injured for life by the inexperience or negligence of the farrier. The long droughts, occasionally experienced in Australia, tend greatly to try the horses’ feet, and if care he not taken frequently to change the shoes, the animal som becomes crippled : the nails are also more liable to fall out than in England, and therefore should be carefully secured.

As respects the mode of feeding, it may perhaps be necessary to observe, that the farm horse, if plentifully supplied with sound oaten hay, will not require much else to maintain him in proper working condition. A small quantity of corn will, however, be necessary, especially when he is more heavily worked than usual. At the Cape of Good Hope it is customary with the farmers to feed their horses with the corn unthrashed. A bundle is taken out of the stack, and cut up into short lengths, by a machine adapted for the purpose; the upper half, containing the ears, is placed before the horse, and tbe remainder thrown under him for Jitter. The usual food is barley, and when given in this way is found to answer remarkably well. We describe this plan of feeding here, because it is well adapted to meet the circumstances of

the cottage farmer, and will be found to Have ranch trouble and expense.

Swine.— Various breeds of this animal have been at different times introduced into this Colonv : but ho littio attention has been paid to classifieat on, that it is now difficult to distinguish between them. The best mode of selection is, therefore, to refer back to the original points of the breed most admired, aud to make choice of the one nearest to it.

The limits of this littio treatise will not admit of a dissertation upon the different varieties ; this may readily bo obtained front works already published. Our object is to throw out a few hints which may be useful lor guiding the inexperienced in making a selection ; and as it would be useless to point out the peculiarities of certain kinds of stock, not likely to be met with in the Colony, we will, in a few words, deseribe the animal wo would recommend, ns being best adapted to satisfy the requirements of the small farmer or market gardener, and leave him to select, as nearly as he can, according to the description given. In the first place, it should be noted, that, on the whole, the small breed will ho found the most profitable, as they are fa tened much more speedily, and take considerably less to keep them in oondilion. The best color is said to be black. The body should be broad and deep, high in the fore china, witli short bony legs, small head, and a fine smooth coat, which may, however, be either long or short, accoruing to fancy.

With proper attention, a sow will have five litters in thecourso of two years. On this account, it lias been often observed, that the most profitable investment, which a poor man can make, is in the purchase of a how. Pigs attain to maturity, in this Colony, when about twelve months old, and the number generally produced at a litter is from eight to twelve; but sometimes it is more than this. Pea and barloy meal should be given to the sow after littering; the sty should also be kept quite clean, and well supplied with straw, for the young to nestle in.

” lien about ten days old, the young pigs may be allowed to run abroad with the mother, and they should bo weaned when ubout two months old. For the fortnight after this they will require attention, and should be fed oil oat and barley meal, swill, &c. If the sow should die, tho young ones can be brought up on meal mixed with a littio milk and warm water, which should bo given in small quantities at a time. For bacon, they should bo put to fatten at the age of eighteen months; for porkers, when from nine to twelve months old; for hams, it is best not to wait till they are quite fat, and tho sides should bo reserved for pickling. The earliest month to commence fattening is February,

and the latest time to kill, for pork or bacon, is the middle of August. When first put up they should be but scantily fed, and a small quantity of sulphur, mixed with their food, will assist the process. The feeding may be regulated as follows:—

First fortnight—Potatoes, raw and boiled, with other vegetables. Second fortnight—The same, with a small quantity of meal. Third fortnight—The same, with the addition of 1 lb. sugar daily.

Fourth fortnight—The same, with split peas and beans.

Fifth fortnight—Meal alone, mixed up as porridge, and given in small quantities at a time. Bean, pea, maize, or barley meal may be used, and it should, if possible, be mixed with milk or curds. A small quantity of water should also be given twice or thrice a day.

The best time of the day for slaughtering is after sunset, and the carcase should be cut up before sunrise on the following morning. The hair or bristles are best removed by singeing, which is generally done with straw, one side first, and afterwards the other; but care must be used not to bruise the meat. Fine, settled weather should be chosen for the occasion, and precaution taken not to expose the carcase to the rays of the moon, which will sometimes produce decomposition in a few hours.

After the meat has been cut up, it should be placed in a clean water-tight vessel, perfectly sweet: and each piece gently rubbed with salt. On the second day the salt should be well rubbed in again, and each piece turned. This process may be repeated for four or five days successively; the bottom pieces being removed to the top, and the position of each changed as much as possible. The brine may be saved for boiling down, and may be afterwards used as pickle.

The following receipts will be found useful:—

American Brine.—

6 gallons water    3 lbs. sngar

1 gallon molasses    3 oz. saltpetre

9 lbs. salt (coarse and fine) 1 oz. pearl ash

Boil all together, and skim till tolerably clear, and apply when cold.

Berkshire Brine (for Hams and Bacon).—Rub gently three days with common salt, and three days afterwards with one ounce of saltpetre; after which the following brine may ba added the quantity given being for one ham :—

1 lb. bay salt    £ lb. common salt

1 lb. coarse sugar    5 pint vinegar

The whole to be boiled together, and rubbed iu hot.

For small pieces of pork, intended for immediate use, the following will be found to answer :—

14 oz. common salt    1£ oz. coarse sugar

2| oz. bay salt    J oz. saltpetre

To ho rubbed in for five or ten days, according to the size of the pieces. For pickled pork, the best size is from five to seven pounds weight for each piece. They should be packed closely in the harness cask, with layers of salt between, and afterwards pressed down by means of heavy weights placed upon the lid. The pickle should be poured in immediately after packing; and, if the pork be intended for keeping, may be made as follows:—

4 gallons water    1 lb. bay salt    2$ oz. saltpetre

5 lbs. common salt    1 lb. brown sugar

W elsh Pickle (for curing Hams or Bacon).—

13 lbs. common salt    1£ lbs. brown sugar 3 lb. black pepper

1J lbs. bay salt    £ lb. saltpetre    2 oz. juniper berries

These ingredients must be well mixed and pounded in a mortar; then thoroughly heated in an oven. The hams having been drained and wiped dry, must be well rubbed over with this mixture, and then covered over with common salt. In a week afterwards pour over them about two pounds of treacle, and rub them well every day for three weeks, taking care to turn them each time. A month may, however, he required for a ham weighing eighteen or twenty pounds. The receipt given above will be found sufficient for about eighty pounds of meat.

In smoking, care must be taken not to let the ham or bacon be brought too near the fire, or the fat may be melted; neither should it be too far off, or the bacon will become rusty. The object to be attained is, thoroughly, but not too rapidly, to dry the meat, and neither to harden or separate the rind. The pieces should be hung up to drain for two or three days, according to the weather, and then rubbed over with some dry and heated bran, before the smoking is commenced. When the bacon is thoroughly smoked, it may be placed upon a rack for a week or ten days, and then packed closely in cases, with dr}-, sweet bran.

The whole of the fat from the under part of the animal should be converted into lard, which is a valuable commodity here, and very acceptable for outward-bound ships. The curing of meat for exportation might be rendered a valuable source of trade for the Colony, and its pastoral capabilities are so great that it would be difficult to set a limit to the production. This is, in fact, one of the many industrial pursuits, at present, almost wholly unattended to, but which would certainly amply repay the capital and labor bestowed upon it.

The Cow.—We liave already stated tliat it will seldom suit

ille cottage farmer, residing near town, to keep any considerable number of cows, though it might answer his purpose to purchase one or two for his own use. The reason of this is, that the natural herbage of the country is so very deficient near Melbourne, and the commonage so restricted in extent, that it is rarely that cows can be fed throughout the whole year, without resorting to artificial means of producing the food. This may do very well in town, where grains can be purchased at a moderate price from the brewer; but artificial feeding, except to a very limited extent, indeed, will not pay for the necessary outlay in the country districts. Therefore, unless the small farmer happen to be living in a district where feed is abundant, and a run to be obtained at a moderate expense, it were better not to attempt the establishment of a dairy.

Cattle thrive much faster in this country than in England, and with a much smaller amount of attention. Indeed, the climate appears to be, in all respects, admirably adapted for them. Some care has been bestowed upon the breeding; but, notwithstanding this, the greater number of cattle found in the Colony exhibit signs of extreme inattention in this particular. The selection of cattle requires considerable judgment and experience. The Durham cow is, perhaps, on the whole, best adapted to meet the requirements of the Australian settler. They are tolerably hardy, good milkers, of quiet disposition, and fatten more quickly than anv other breed. The following description may assist an inexperienced person in his selection. The coat should be fine and silky, and the tail long; the head small, with a clear black eye ; the back perfectly straight along the top, and the chest deep ; the legs short, and well set, but fine boned ; wide across the back and loins; and, lastly, a fine thin udder, which, after milking, is reduced to the smallest size.

Cattle here do not yield so much milk as in England, especially in the latter part of summer, but this is owing to the dryness of the climate. It is,however, a well-established fact, that though there may be a deficiency in quantity, this is amply compensated by an improvement in the quality ; at least this is the case where access is given to abundant pasturage. It is also to be observed, that cows fed on the natural herbage of the country yield a milk of far better quality than if fed upon fodder of artificial growth. The quantity generally obtained from one cow is from six to eight quarts at each milking, or double this quantity per day. Twenty-four quarts is, however, by no means an uncommon yield in the remoter districts of the country, where the feed is abundant. To make good, quiet milkers, the best plan is to remove the calf

from the cow as soon after the calving as possible, and to bring it up by band. For this purpose a bottle of warm milk and water, with a small quantity of meal, is used; and though the calf may not grow so fast as if permitted to run entirely with the mother, still it will do much better than one allowed to associate with the cow, 1 ut, at the same time, prevented from sucking, or only allowed the smallest possible quantity of milk. Animals treated in this way seldom thrive, and the cow is always uneasy and troublesome. Milch cows and, indeed, all cattle should be treated with as much gentleness as possible; they should never be frightened or otherwise excited, as this invariably tends to injure them, they should, if possible, always be milked by the same persons, and always at an uniform hour. Care should also be taken to milk them thoroughly, or, in other words, not to leave any portion in the udder after milking, as this is said to be injurious to the cow.

The best time for making butter is before sunrise : for, if the sun be up, or the weather very hot, great difficulty will be experienced in the preparation. The barrel-churns are the most convenient, but butter may be made upon a small scale, for home use, by beating up the cream with a wooden spoon. Considerable attention is required, in order completely to extract the buttermilk. Repeated washing in pure cold water will be found absolutely necessary, for if any portion be left in the butter, the latter very soon becomes spoiled, and unlit for use. A small quantity of salt should be mixed with butter, even if intended for immediate use ; it tends to keep the butter cool, preserves it, and improves the flavor. Potted butter requires a larger quantity of salt, and the addition of a small quantity of saltpetre.

The butter-milk, by some, is considered an excellent article of diet; by others it is not esteemed; but if it be not consumed in the bouse, it may always be given with great advantage to the pigs.    '    _

Most of the cheese hitherto made in this Colony has been of inferior quality ; yet samples have been produced, so excellent in flavor, that it is certain, additional care and attention only are required, in order to compete with any other part of the woild.

The Goat.—There are several varieties of this animal in the Colony : the best is perhaps the Cashmere goat. Few animals are, on the whole, more useful than the goat. They yield a large quantity of milk—the best varieties are furnished with a valuable coat of hair—and the flesh of the young kid is an excellent substitute for other meat. They are also very prolific, one goat having been known iu South Australia to bring forth eleven

kids in tlie space of one year. They are hardy, thrive upon the coarsest food, and are but little liable to disease of any kind. A goat will yield, generally, about a quart of milk per day, and requires but little attention, beyond that which may be necessary to keep them out of mischief. The tendency of the goat to trespass upon enclosed ground renders them very troublesome in some neighbourhoods, especially if permitted to run entirely at large. Precautions have, therefore, to be taken, in order to guard against this evil.

Poultry.—The space allotted for these papers will not permit us to enter into any minute particulars respecting the different varieties of domestic fowls; we shall therefore make a few general observations only, which may possibly serve as a guide in purchasing a stock of poultry, and in their subsequent management.

In the selection of poultry, of whatever kind, the hens should be young, with the breast well formed, a clear eye, short sharp beak, and a plump body, with short legs.

The domestic fowl thrives remarkably well in these colonies ; they lay nearly all the year round, and there are but few difficulties in rearing the young broods. Young fowls for the table, as also the eggs, fetch a high price in the Melbourne markets, and on this account a poultry-yard yields a better return for outlay and attention than perhaps any other investment. Children can attend to them as well as grown-up persons, and they are, in very many respects, peculiarly adapted for the purposes of the cottage farmer, inasmuch as, on a pinch, he can at all times make sure of provision for a wholesome meal at home ; besides which, both eggs and poultry are always of ready sale. Pullets selected from a young spring brood are said to be the best for laying. Chickens intended for fattening should be put under a coop when about three or four months old. One cock to every eight hens is sufficient, and to prevent deterioration of the breed, it is advisable to introduce new blood at least once a year, or as opportunity offers. Much of the sickness and loss among the poultry, of late, is supposed to result from inattention to this point. We have already offered some suggestions as to the construction of a hen-house, and the necessity of its being kept in a state of cleanliness ; there is, therefore, no occasion to add anything further to what was then recommended. It may, however, be observed, that the eggs should be collected every day. They must be carefully handled, if intended for sitting, and should be laid in a basket or tray, which should bo kept in a cool place. Each egg should be marked with the date ; for in this Colony it is not advisable to sot a lien on eggs more than three weeks old; but the newer the

better; and in a large yard this can be managed without difficulty, Prom eleven to thirteen eggs is sufficient for birds of ordinary size; if more than this be placed under them, they are seldom brought to maturity, and do more harm than good. Twenty-one days is the period for incubation, and as the chicks are hatched they should be placed in a basket, in the sun, or near the fire. When all are hatched they can be returned to the hen, who should be kept under a coop for the first fortnight, or until the chickens are strong. If wet, the hen should have a board to sit upon, and something might also be laid over the top of the coop, so as not to exclude the light and air, but at the same time throw off a portion of the rain. The garden is the best place for the coop, as the hen, being confined, can do no damage, while the young ones may possibly find food more congenial to them than elsewhere.

Whilst sitting, the hen should be well fed and watered, and also after she has brought forth her brood; for the better the condition she is in, the better will she be able to shelter, and impart the necessary warmth to her brood. Bruised oats or corn, and boiled rice or grits, are all equally suitable for the young chickens, as they should not be supplied with hard food until one or two weeks old.

Fowls kept for store may be allowed to run about anywhere but in the garden. If intended for the market, they should be put into an enclosed yard, surrounded by net workA to prevent escape. They may he fed with any kind of appropriate food. Corn of various kinds, and rice, the sweepings of stores, mills, &c., may often be obtained at an almost nominal price. Indian corn or maize, crushed, is also an admirable food for fowls, and they fatten on it very quickly. Cabbage and lettuce leaves, cut up, and given occsionally, in small quantities, will also be found useful. A small proportion of greaves, from the candle makers, mixed with their food, facilitates their fattening, and increases their bulk. Pure water and gravel should also be given them. When a fowl is once fat, it should be killed, or it will soon lose flesh. It is a disputed point whether it be best to sell the fowls alive, or after they have been killed; perhaps the latter is the best, as the feathers may then be saved.

It may perhaps be expected that we should offer some remarks upon the different breeds met with in the Colony. These are, however, few in number, and in some cases have been so mixed as to render distinction difficult. The breed most in favor at the present time is the variety known by thé name of

Cochin China.—These birds grow to a large size, and seem to thrive remarkably well in this Colony. They are good mothers,

snd, on the whole, a very desirable fowl, though we have not been able to ascertain whether they are more hardy than the common variety. We have known six guineas offered and refused for a pair of these fowls, and though they are not now so valuable as formerly, we doubt not that they will be found more profitable than any other kind of poultry. The true color of these fowls is yellow, but the plumage of the male bird is darker, and sometimes approaches a golden hue. The wings are small in proportion to the size of the bird, and the tail short. They are said to be thoroughly game, though they differ essentially from the game breed as propagated in England.

The Poland variety is also much admired, but seldom met with here. They are very fine birds, though they do not attain so large a size as the Cochin China ; the plumage is black, with n handsome white top-knot, on the head. The common variety is too well known to require description; and is the only other hind usually met with in the Colony, excepting the bantam, and other game fowls. These latter, however, are not recommended to t lie workingman, being altogether unsuitable for general purposes, and not so profitable as other breeds. There may, however, be particular cases where fancy birds will repay the attention bestowed upon them.

That we are not exaggerating the value of poultry keeping, as an occupation for the family of a small landowner, or farmer, we may mention, ns a fact, that a single individual has been known to realize several hundred pounds per annum from this source alone.

Pucks.—Those are a valuable description of birds, especially fortlie small cottager and market gardener. They require less care in feeding than domestic fowls, and are not so particular in what they eat. If put into a garden for a few hours they will do hut little injury, and will prove themselves of the greatest use in clearing away slug's, locusts, grasshoppers, and all other kinds of destructive insects. In order to keep them in health it is desirable that they should have access to water. If there be no natural stream or pond in the neighbourhood, the best plan is to dig a pit, so placed as to receive the drainage from the high road, or from any other direction', where a plentiful supply is to he obtained. Young ducks, in winter, or when the weather is cold, are better if restrained from continuing too long in the water, as they are apt to get cramped. If plentifully supplied with food, ducks will continue to lay the greater part of the year; but as they are seldom good mothers, it is usual to place the eggs under a common hen, who hatches them, and afterwards pays the greatest attention to the young brood. When ducks are intended for

tlie table ¡greater cave should be paid to ihe feeding of them than when merely hept for laying. In ibis cape they should be kept within an enclosure, and regularly supplied with meal and water. Chopped greens or roots may be give u them tlie first fortnight, with tallow chandlers' greaves chopped up jn their food : afterwards they should be fed with meal alone. rl he flesh will then be sveet and firm, and the flavor agreeable, without being rank or strong’.

Chi rr.— If there happen 1o he abundant pasturage in the neighbourhood of the homestead, or in cases where a small field or paddock can he enclosed for the nurpose, the keeping of geese may be recommended; but as cattle have a decided disinclination to feed upon pastures which have been overrun by geese, they mav (ovnetimes prove more hurtful than otherwise. 'I here is always a ready sale both for ducks and geese in the Melbourne market; therefore, in localities where no particular objection offers, they may he considered a very desirable investment for the poor man.

Geese are good layers, and careful sitters, in which duty the gander takes a part. The period of incubation is about four weeks. After the goslings are hatched, the goose should be confined for a few davs, or until the brood acquire a tolerable degree of strength. Geese commence laying early in the year, and if the first hatch comes off in August, and the goose is well ted, she will hatch an additional brood the same year.

Any green food, or roots of vegetables chopped small, with oats, will fatten them well ; hut barley is too heating. If there he no pond or other open water at hand, a small water-hole or tank is absolutely necessary. Loose leaves of cabbages, and other garden plants should he occasionally given them, hut especially in summer, when the grass and herbage are dried up. Geese live to a, great age, and the flavor of the bird is said to attain its greatest perfection at the age of six or eight years. They may, however, ho killed when quite young, when they are denominated green geese.

Turkeys.—The turkey is by no means a hardy bird, much greater care being necessary in rearing it than any other description of poultry. Allhough so long domesticated, the turkey is possessed of a roving disposition. Alter the young ones are hatched, the old bird should, therefore, be confined under a crate or shed, and well supplied with food and water. Though fond of roving, however, they seldom or never forsake their home, especially if regularly fed. The young poults, as they are called, being particularly susceptible of cold or damp, should he well taken care of iu wet weather. Turkeys fetch a high price when

sold, and, under favorable circumstances, may be made to pay re* mark ably well; but, as a general rule, they cannot be deemed so profitable as other poultry, and are not therefore recommended for the small cottager. Maize is perhaps the best grain on which to feed them, but they will thrive on any description of corn. Other varieties of birds, such as pea fowls, guinea fowls, &c., being more for ornament than use, do not require notice here. Pigeons, however, may be mentioned as an exception : they are not only highly ornamental, but also exceedingly remunerative, when kept in large numbers. In some of the midland counties of England the farmers keep a considerable stock of pigeons, and the profits realized from the sale of the young birds in the London markets are very large, and form, in fact, an important addition to the general income.

Rabbits.—These little animals form a very valuable addition to the stock of the cottage farmer, especially where there are two or three lads in the family to attend to them. They not only serve to occupy and amuse the young people, but, if properly managed, will be found to be exceedingly profitable. They are very prolific, the doe usually having six or eight litters in a year, and six or eight young ones at each litter. The young rabbits, if fattened at six or eight months old, are fit for the table, and will fetch in Melbourne from seven-and-sixpence to ten shillings. The place in which they are kept should be surrounded by a fence formed of slabs, sunk in the ground a depth of at least three feet, to prevent escape by burrowing. Within, a small house should be erected, divided into compartments, all having a ready communication with the outside. A sufficient quantity of light should be admitted, and the hatches should be kept particularly clean. Rabbits may be fed on almost any garden produce, outside cabbage leaves, parsley, &c., and on this account cost but little to keep, where there is a garden. When supplied with green food, they require no water, but the addition of a little bran is desirable.

Bees.—No gardener should be without a few hives of bees. They require but little attention, and form a valuable addition to the stock of the working man. The honey, indeed, is exceedingly useful in the family, and bees would be well worth keeping, if only for domestic convenience. The hives should be protected against high winds and rain in winter, and against heat and insects in summer. For this purpose it is desirable to place them under a small shed, open on one side or in a shady and sheltered place. Ants are particularly destructive, but by placing the hives upon a stand, and the legs of the stand in water, they may be effectually guarded against. The value of a good hive of honey and wax is

not short of three pounds, and when we consider that the production of this costs the cottager nothing but a little time and attention, we may sufficiently estimate their importance.

It may be added, that the honey obtained in these colonies is particularly fine. Many of the indigenous plants, and especially those of the Eucalyptus class, afford abundant supplies of sac-harine matter; indeed, the blossoms of some varieties of this tree are filled with a considerable quantity of juice, having the taste and consistency of honey, and forming the staple food, at certain seasons, of several varieties of the parrot tribe. We need hardly inform the reader that bees are met with, in their wild state, in all parts of the Colony. The climate is, therefore, eminently adapted for them, which is further shown by the frequency with which they swarm. The limits to which we are confined will not admit of our entering into a description of these useful insects, or of the mode of managing them. We may, however, state that a method has recently been proposed for preserving the bees, instead of destroying them, to obtain the honey. This plan is not only the most advantageous, but the most humane; but, for particulars we must refer the reader to works which professedly treat upon the subject.

There are two kinds of wax, the bleached and the unbleached : the last is as it comes out of the hive. After the honey has been taken out of the comb, the remaining part may be put into a pan with some water; it should be melted over a moderate fire, and then pressed through a piece of flannel, or a linen cloth, to strain it. Take the scum off before it is cold, and pour it into moulds. The wax is bleached, or rendered white, by spreading it into thin cakes, and exposing it to the air both night and day.

With reference to the various domestic animals referred to in this chapter, though they are all more or less recommended to the attention of the colonist, yet, it is not to be supposed that any single cottager would find it either convenient or practicable to keep them all. He must, therefore, make choice of such as seem best adapted to his peculiar position and circumstances. It is very necessary, if we are desirous of securing the advancement of our adopted country, that considerable attention should be paid to the rearing of stock, as well as to the cultivation of the soil.

He who enters boldly upon a country life, and, fully depending upon the natural productiveness of the soil, devotes himself wholly to his new pursuits, will not only best promote his own interests, but also become thereby a benefactor of society. If we had a trumpet whose sound could enter into every house and cottage, then should its voice be heard unceasingly calling upon all to bestir themselves in time, and, without hesitation or delay,

to come forth like men, and enter upon a plan of providing directly for themselves and for their children, instead of living upon one another, and depending on supplies from distant regions. It is only by thus stopping the present drain upon the resources of tho Colony, that its prosperity can ever be established on a solid foundation. L *t every one, then, do all that in him lies to turn the stream in our favor, and in those cases in which it is practicable, let him apply himself to some reproductive employment. Thus, and thus only, will the Colony be saved.

C Id APT lift IV.



Kitchen Garden.—As crops are cleared off and exhausted, the stalks or haulms should be pulled up and left on the ground to dry, and be dug in when the whole of the ground is prepared for another crop. In a large plantation of cabbages, where renewals are constantly made, it is a good plan, as each row is cleared off, to lay on some manure, and after the ground has been dug up to plant a fresh row. The ground, being thus stirred up and exposed to the atmosphere, is of great benelit to the adjoining rows. Beans and peas may be similarly treated, and all succession plants should now be transplanted, including brocoli, celery, savoys, cabbages, leeks, and onions. Sow white and yellow turnips, cabbage, winter spinach, endive, peas, beans, French beans, and radishes; and let the sowing be done, if possible, in wet weather. If the weather be dry, plants and seed beds should be watered of an evening, after sunset; weak liquid manure should also be applied as often as possible between the rows. Hoe turnips, and clean and earth up potatoes. Seeds of different kinds should be gathered ; the best time of day being at, or soon after, sunrise. Many herbs are now fit for gathering, and should be got in as soon as the dew is off them in the morning.

Nursery Orchard.—The earth should occasionally be stirred up round the trees, when not planted in the borders ; but care must be taken not to injure the roots. Dead twigs should be broken off, and when young branches become twisted, or cross each other, they should be cut off, or guided into the right direction, by means of forked sticks or list. All kinds of fruit trees or choice shrubs may now be budded, as well as rose trees for standards, after which they should be securely fixed to stakes driven into the ground. The vineyard should bo cleared of woeds and insects.

Flowfr Garden.—The flower beds and borders should be cleared of weeds, by frequently raking and hoeing the surface. Plants past flowering should have the stalks cut off; and now is the time to lay pinks and carnations.

Agriculture and Stock Farming.—In the colder and more lofty districts of the Colony, the harvest is generally delayed till the present month. The ground should be ploughed up as soon as possible after the harvest has been got in, and before the sun has had sufficient power upon it to render it hard. If there should be any pigs upon the farm, they may, however, be first permitted to have the run of the field for a few days, to clear off the surplus grain. Fallow ground should now be cross ploughed, so as to expose it as much as possible to the summer sun, which, in this climate, has nearly the same effect in mellowing the soil, as the frosts are known to possess in England. The hop and maize plantations should be cleared of weeds, the lower leaves of the latter being stripped oft’, so as to admit the air more freely. The tobacco crop is generally gathered in this month, and, being adapted to the climate, bids fair to become a valuable production of the Colony.

Feurua r y.

Kitchen Garden.—Cucumbers should now be watered, if dry ; the best plan is to water the ground well, about a foot off, so as not to wet the leaves of the plant. The only proper time is late in the evening; watering in the morning will do more harm than good. Sow succession crops of early cabbages, brocoli, &c., and transplant where necessary. Gather seeds of all sorts, as they may become ripe, and look to the store onion beds; if drooping, or getting withered, bend the leaves down. All the beds should be looked to, and carefully cleared of weeds, before they come to seed, after which any vacant ground may be turned over, in order to derive the full benefit from the light and heat of the sun. Continue to clear and earth up potatoes; prick out celery, endive, lettuces, &c., taking care to select the best heads ; hoe well between the rows, and top dress, or water with liquid manure, occasionally. This is a good time for making walks.

Nursery and Orchard.—The vineyard should be well looked to now. Carefully remove all surplus shoots and spurs, and cut the tops off those that are too high and straggling. lithe foliage is too abundant, remove those leaves which prevent a free admission of air and light to the bunches. Stocks may now be budded; the operation should be performed late in the evening, or on a day when the sun is not too powerful. If the sun should afterwards be very hot, the part can be protected by moans

,of a loaf, or other covering; and if it bo windy, the stocks must bo tied to a stake, to prevent injury to the bud.

Flower Garden.—But little can be done with the flower garden during this month. If the weather should happen to be showery, perennial and biennial plants may be transplanted, the borders should also be kept clear of weeds, and the plant# trimmed, as may bo required.

Agriculture.—Barley ripens at the commencement of this month in the late districts. The maize crop should now be well attended to, and the tobacco crop may still be got in. Turnips, Capo barley, and potatoes may now be sown. During this month the hops will be fit for picking. The vine should be cut off about twelve inches from the ground, and the poles drawn up and stacked. The hops should bo picked off clean, free of rough leaves or branches, and may then bo dried in the sun, hut a kiln is more expeditious. Their ripe state may be known by their changing from a very light green to yellow, and by the flower closing up, and becoming more firm and compact, the inside boing lull of a yellow fragrant dust.


Kitchen Garden.—Transplant succession crops. Continuo watering to cucumber and other plants, as may be required. This is the latest time for planting celery; if longer deferred the plants will not be sufficiently strong to stand the weather. Spinach beds must bo weeded and forked, and a little top dressing added. The main crop of onions should now bo pulled, roped, and hung up, and the various seeds collected as they ripen. Lay strawberries eighteen inches apart, in the rows, and tvvelvo inches between eacli plant. Sow onions, cabbages, turnips, early frame peas, carrots, radishes, beets, French peas, and small salads of different kinds, and other vegetables intended for early use.'

Nursery and Orchard.—The seeds of most indigenous trees and shrubs may now bo sown, and this is the most certain method of propagating them. Wall and espalier trees require considerable attention, in order to keep the branches in order, and prevent them being loosened by the wind. As the fruit ripens, trees of this description, and vines, should be well looked to, to see that the sun and air be not excluded, in order to accomplish which it is needful to remove all surplus leaves.

Flower Garden.—Keep the flower beds and borders in good order, by removing decaying plants or weeds, and tying up those that require it. Sow seed of the several biennial and perennial plants, and towards the latter part of the month propagate the various fibrous rooted plants and herbs, such as heartsease, southernwood, &c.

Agriculture.—Maize ripens towards the end of the month. After the cobs have been gathered in, the stalks may bo given to the cows. Attend to the sweating and curing of tobacco ; after each sweating it should be hung up in small bundles, under a shed, where the air will have free access, but the rays of the sun are excluded. After the first process has been completed, the coarse fibres and stalks should be removed from the leaf; but in those cases where the grower is not acquainted with the mode of treatment, the best plan is to obtain the assistance of an experienced person. Sow mangelwurzel, also, towards the end of the month, wheat, rye, Cape barley, or vetches may be sown for early fodder; and it is sometimes desirable to mix the different seeds, as this increases the weight of the crop.


Kitchen Garden..—Manure all vacant ground with good compost. Plant out lettuces, and sow onions and radishes, also early peas, brocoli, cauliflower, cabbages, turnips, dwarf beans, &c. Transplant cabbages, cauliflowers, and savoys, also carrots, parsnips, beet, &c. Celery plants must be earthed up, but not too much, as the mould should not fall into the head of the plant. Earth up plants sown last month, and thin the winter spinach. Asparagus seeds will now be ripe, and the stems, after the seeds are gathered, should be bent down, to decay, or cut off, and left on the bed. Dig potatoes.

Nursery and Orchard.—Gather apples and pears as they ripen. The stocks budded in February should be looked at, and all shoots appearing below the bud removed. The trees producing stone fruit will throw out suckers; these should be carefully taken up, and the trees examined. Decinuous and evergreen trees may be planted, the same being propagated by cuttings or layers ; and the seeds of the various trees will now be ready for gathering.

Flower Garden.—Greenhouse plants may now be again put under cover. The borders should be well dug up, and the edgings set; also the various bulbous plants may be replaced, care being taken to prepare the ground well before-hand. Shrubbery plantations should now be made, and if some of the indigenous plants be intermixed with those of foreign growth, the general effect is improved.

Agriculture.—The wheat and other cereal crops may now be put in. It is important to change the seed frequently, and the greatest possible care should be taken to obtain the finest that can be procured. Its quality may not only be determined by the clearness and plumpness of the several grains, but


perhaps, best of all, by the weight, which seldom deceives; the heaviest grain being invariably the best in quality. The price should not be too much studied in such cases, especially if the sample be free from intermixture with other grain. To prevent smut or blight in wheat, it is recommended to pickle the seed before sowing. This is done by soaking the wheat for a few hours in brine of sufficient density to float an egg; after which the water should be drained off, and the grain spread out to drv, over which a small quantity of lime may be sprinkled, and afterwards mixed with the corn, which facilitates the germination. On an average, one bushel to the acre will be found sufficient, but this depends upon the quality of the soil, the peculiarity of the grain, and the time of sowing. In those cases where the soil is rich, and the sowing early, a somewhat less quantity than this may be used. Potatoes and maize crops, not fully ripened during the last month, may now be secured.


Kitchen Garden.—Gardening operations of the past year are now brought to a close, and the vacant ground finally prepared for the future crops of the succeeding year. Those sown for early pulling will have to be carefully looked to. This is one of the busiest seasons in the Australian garden, and a period requiring considerable energy and attention. The days now shorten fast, and are frequently succeeded by cold and even frosty nights; the great contrast between the temperature at night and day being often fatal to the young plants. Manure and compost heaps should now be turned over previous to being used upon the land, and others should be prepared for future use. Fern, or unbruised wheat straw, perfectly dry, Bhould be laid down in the store for packing and preserving the various roots, such as potatoes, carrots, &c.; or where these cannot be got, broad palings may suffice, if placed between every four or five rows. Turnips, carrots, parsnips, beet, and potatoes should be thoroughly dried before being placed in store, and in most cases it will be desirable to cover them over entirely with straw, or light rubbish. When these crops are got in, it will be a good plan to divide each sort into two classes, after having selected the best for seed. The finest should be stored for market, and the remainder kept separately for home use, and for the feeding of the various domestic animals. This is a good month for planting out cabbages and onions for seed,If the summer has not been late; but care must be taken, especially where bees are kept, not to plant them too near each qther, as the flower may otherwise become inoculated. Artichoke.

beds must now be looked after, and if the weather be at all chilly at night, a covering of straw should be laid over the heads. Rhubarb and sea-kale should be dressed with good manure, and the latter covered up to blanch. Jerusalem artichokes may now be planted, and it has been recommended to plant them side by side with horse radish, as both these plants are difficult to eradicate, and do well together.

The spinach beds should be thinned out, and the earth well forked; atop dressing of lime may be employed if the weather be wet, but if otherwise a small quantity of liquid manure may be used with advantage. When early asparagus is required it should now be forced; this is done by protecting it with a frame and thin canvass Covering, which should be taken off, or slightly opened, on a fine sunny day. Celery plants should be earthed up, and all weeds should be carefully looked after and burned. The herb beds should be trimmed and the plants tied up. Continue planting cabbages, cauliflowers, brocoli, and lettuce; also, sow the earlier sorts of peas, beans, carrots, turnips, radishes, mustard, cress, and spinach, a small quantity of each, and select for the purpose the warmest beds in the garden.

Nursery and Orchard.—Sow seeds of all the European fruit trees. Plant out young trees, protecting those that are tender with a covering of matting. Most of the fruit-bearing trees will now be fit for pruning, but care must be taken not to cut the wood until it be quite ripe. The ground between the rows should now be well dug and manured

Flower Garden.—Continue the planting of the different herbs and bulbous roots; also, a selection of biennial and perennial plants. Trim the shrubs, and clear the borders of weeds and rubbish. Transplant native shrubs, and strike cuttings of roses and geraniums, etc.

Agriculture.—Continue to sow wheat, and do not defer the sowing unnecessarily. English barley should also be sown in this month. If the ground be tolerably dry the seed may be ploughed in, otherwise it must be harrowed. The ground should now receive a deep ploughing for peas, and also a good dressing of manure. Turnips, which may be fit for use, should be reserved for next month. The ground being generally softened by the rain, which falls at this season of the year, the grubbing of trees may be commenced with advantage. After the tree is down, the hole should be at once filled up, and the tree disposed of; as it is much easier either to split the wood for fencing, or saw and cut it up for firewood, immediately after being felled, than at any other time.


Kitchen Garden.—Sow a principal crop of early peas, ancl^ also, of Windsor and inazagon beans. If the weather be dry, earth up artichokes, celery, beans, etc. Sow two crops of cauliflowers, mustard and cress, early horn carrots, prickly spinach, and cabbages. Transplant cauliflowers, onions, leeks, cabbages, eschalots, artichokes, etc., and give a winter dressing to the latter. All vacant ground should be manured and trenched, or, at any rate, turned over, to sweeten the soil.

Nursery and Orchard.—All fruit trees may be pruned during this month, but if the weather be mild, the vine cutting may be deferred till next month. Remove or transplant fruit trees, and trim the hedges, selecting genial weather for the former operation. Soils which have become exhausted should be enriched with a fresh dressing of manure. The cuttings from many of the trees may now be struck.

Flower Garden.—Plant cuttings of geraniums, fucias, cacti, etc., and plant Cape and other bulbs. Divide the roots, and otherwise propagate the various kinds of herbaceous plants. Greenhouse plants should now be removed to fresh pots, and fresh earth prepared for them.

Agriculture.—Fallow land, intended for turnip Crops, should now be cross-ploughed a considerable depth, and new ground prepared for maize. Sow spring barley in well-prepared soils. This is a good time for digging out sub-soil drains and water-courses, as the ground is generally soft, without being springy. White and yellow turnips are now in perfection, and come in very advantageously at this time for the feeding of pigs.


Kitchen Garden.—A full crop of the larger kinds of beans may now be sown, such as Windsor, Sandwich, and toker. Sow a full crop of spinach early in the month. A crop of parsnips and carrots may be sown towards the end of the month; also, radi h, lettuce, and endive seeds. Transplant lettuces sown last month. Draw earth to the formerly planted crop of cabbages, and plant a fresh bed of the early kinds. Finish the winter dressing of asparagus, artichoke, and sea-kale, and the operation of blanching may be continued with the latter. Sow successive crops of mustard and cress, also, early cucumbers and melons, peas, cabbages, Cape brocoli, onions, leeks, and celery. Strawberry beds should now be manured and forked up, and the surplus vines cut off.

Nursery and Orchard.—Finish pruning currant, gooseberry, raspberry, and other small fruit trees, and make plantations of same, in rows seven feet apart, and from five to six feet

between the trees. Vines, figs, and other trees, the pruning of which was not completed during last month, should receive immediate attention; and no time should be lost in planting out all trees which require to be transplanted. Apples and pears should now be graAed.

Flower Garden.—Finish the planting of the various bulbs, and, as those which have been previously planted begin to appear, dig up and otherwise prepare the flower borders for the sowing of the different seeds. Prune and cut away all dead wood in flowering shrubs, and plant native shrubberies and indigenous creepers.

Agriculture.—The preparation of land for the tobacco crop should now be attended to. As this is a very exhausting crop, the ground requires to be well worked and thoroughly manured. " Burnt earth and wood ashes form an excellent dressing for this plant. The seed should be sown towards the end of the month ; a small bed of very finely prepared soil being selected for the purpose, and every precaution taken to protect the young plants from the effects of frost. Wheat, barley, and maize may still be sown, but this is the last month for wheat. Land intended for potatoes should now be ploughed, and the planting of them commenced. This is one of the best months for malting and brewing; it is, also, the best time for salting beef and pork.


Kitchen Garden.—Continue making fresh plantations of the various kinds of cabbages, and draw earth to those crops formerly planted. Make also plantations of Savoys, Scotch kale, Brussels sprouts, and red cabbage. Sow more cauliflower seed, and transplant those remaining in the seed bed. Plant a good square of early potatoes, of the ash-leaved, or other kidney varieties. Select and plant out some of the best-formed plants to produce seed. Plant out the various pot-herbs, and earth up beans and peas. Sow cucumbers, melons, onions, leeks, carrots* parsnipsana celery; kidney, broad,and French beans, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, brocoli, turnips, radishes, parsley, small salads, and kitchen herbs.

Nursery and Orchard.—Dress apple trees affected with the American blight, by washing them with a strong solution of 6oap and soda, or by anointing them with spirits of tar ; and, having removed the ragged or dead bark, scrubbing the trunks and branches with lime water. Plums, peaches, apricots, and cherries should now be grafted, and the exact time for grafting is indicated by the budding of the stocks. Sow stones of the

different kinds of trees for raising stocks for grafting. Plant out rows of suckers, and transplant layers, shrubs, and forest trees.

Flower Garden.—Dig, dress, and manure the flower beds not previously prepared ; sow seeds of the various hardy annuals, and, towards the end of the month, those of a more tender description; taking care, for the latter, to select the warmestbeds.

Agriculture.—Continue the operations of last month. As turnips are removed, plough up the ground, and sow with English barley, about three bushels to the acre. Rye may also be sown, and the wheat crops should be rolled. Hops will now require cutting and dressing, and the sets should be planted upon land which has been previously trenched.


Kitchen Garden.—Cabbage and brocoli seeds of all kinds may now be sown, to produce a supply for the next summer and following winter. Sow a full crop of onions, turnips and spinach ; sow also celery, beans, peas, carrots, parsnips, beet, small salads, pot-herbs, radishes, lettuces, cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, vegetable marrow, tomatoes, and asparagus. Plant out cabbages, cauliflowers, lettuces, leeks and eschalots, and make fresh plantations of lettuces, horse radish, asparagus, and Jerusalem artichokes. Give the old asparagus beds a spring dressing, using a three-pronged fork for turning up the ground. Earth up peas and beans, and look to the various plants transplanted last month. The young onion and spinach beds should also be thinned and weeded.

Nursery and Orchard.-—Grafts and buddings must now be looked after, and all young shoots removed which may make their appearance below them. The pruning of fruit trees, and the planting of the different kinds of shrubs, must be completed during this month. Make permanent plantations of the best description of vines ; also, continue the planting of raspberry, currant and gooseberry trees. Clear waste ground, and keep down all the weeds.

Flower Garden.—Finish the planting of herbaceous plants and flower roots, as dahlias, piones, etc.: make fresh plantations of rue, mint, lavender, sage, etc., by means of slips and cuttings; protect tulips, and other tender bulbs; continue the sowing of annuals ; transplant perennials and evergreens, and plant rose trees, carnations, renunculus, and anemones.

Agriculture.—The sowing of barley should be finished as quickly as possible; maize, Swedish turnips, and all kinds of artificial grasses may also be sown. A full crop of potatoes should now be set; and the present month is the best season for

sowing lucerne. This is a very valuable production in Australia, on account of its power of resisting drought, and the number of times which it will yield a supply of hay. It continues green ana flourishing during the whole of the summer, and is fully as ornamental as it is useful. The ground should be prepared by digging, or ploughing, at least twelve inches deep, and the seed may be sown in drills, about fourteen inches apart. Winter vetches are now ready for cutting.


Kitchen Garden.—The Garden will now require watering, and this should be carefully attended to, when the weather isdry. If a system of irrigation could be introduced, it would save much labor and expense. In those places where water is procurable by sinking, there can be no difficulty, as a sufficient quantity may be collected every morning, in a reservoir or trench, for the use of the succeeding evening. The most elevated spot in the garden should be selected for the purpose, and the water may then be conducted, without difficulty, to all parts of the ground, as may be required. A good pump would be an important addition to the well. Sticks will now require to be fixed, on which to train the peas and scarlet runners. This may be effected by means of wattles entered into the ground, and arched over above, so as to shade the young plants. Tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, nesturtians, Chili pepper and capsicums, should now be sown in warm situations. Caref ully weed and clear the onion, carrot, and parsnip beds; the small onions, after being thinned out of the bed, should be re-set in ground previously prepared. Sow a full crop of turnips and peas of all kinds, also dwarf kidney beans, onions, celery, leeks, small salads, and land cress. Plant out pumpkins, vegetable marrow, cabbages, garlic, and eschalots.

Nursery and Orchard.—Examine trees newly budded or grafted, and replace the clay where it may have fallen off. Remove shoots appearing below the wraft or bud ; and, on the examination of other fruit trees, all straggling or unnecessary branches should be removed by pruning. The vineyard should be again forked over, and the vines trimmed. Rub off all useless buds, and one of any two-eyed bud; leaving the strongest in every case. Keep down the gooseberry and currant trees; thin the fruit on apricot, peach, and nectarine trees, and clear the stocks from insects.

Flower Garden.—Finish sowing all kinds of flower seeds, and cut up all weeds, as they make their appearance in the borders, choosing the finest weather. Remove from the pots, and set out into the borders, the more delicate plants, such as fucias, hydra-gias, geraniums, &c.

Agriculture.—The tobacco plant, in warm situations, will now be ready for planting out. The watering of this plantation must be carefully attended to every evening, and the young plants protected from the rays of the sun during the heat of the day. The planting of potatoes and maize is sometimes deferred till the present month, but will be too late in many situations. The latter grows luxuriously in rich soils, and it will be found economical to sow a crop of melons between the rows, as the shade afforded by the maize is of great advantage in such cases. The leaves, when dry, form an excellent substitute for straw, if they are not superior to it, for the packing and preserving of the various fruits and vegetables in store.


Kitchen Garden,—The watering of plants, as directed during the last month, should still be coniinued. Vacant beds to be”forked up, and the ground prepared for fresh plants. Young plants should be earthed up, and fresh plantations made of cauliflowers, cabbages, savoys, and brocoli. Chili pepper and capsicums should be transplanted into a fine rich mould, prepared for the purpose, with a warm but sheltered aspect; and, as they grow, they should be propped up with sticks, as may be required. Asparagus will now be ready; and in cutting, care must be taken not to sever the underground shoots, or tubers. Artichokes are also ripe for cutting. Rhubarb will now be fit for pulling ; by giving a sudden downward jerk, the stalk will break off without injuring the plant. Young and tender plants, such as scarlet runners, should still be protected, as much as possible, from the heat of the sun. The strawberry beds should be cleared of weeds, and the runners removed, by pinching them off. Weed, thin, and stir with the hoe, the seedling beds of carrots, onions, parsnips, beet-root, &c,, and tie up lettuces to blanch. Stake the tall growing peas, and nip off the head of beans that are in blossom, to prevent them from running too high. Sow seeds for the various succession crops, as directed during the last month, including lettuces, endive, celery, cucumbers, turnips, peas and beans ; and plant out lettuces, leeks, eschalots, and celery.

Nursery and Orchard.—Remove all superfluous wood and off-shoots from the various fruit trees. Raspberry bushes will require topping, and strawberry vines should be cut oft if too abundant. The composition round the grafts should be loosened, and the band round the buds taken off. After pruning, tie up such branches as require support.    .

Flower Garden.—Cut up all weeds as they make their appearance; transplant young seedling flower roots, and finish transplanting the different kinds of annuals, biennials, perennials,

and herbaceous plants. Take up such bulbs as have ceased flowering, and where the leaves have decayed, and lay them in store till autumn.

Agriculture.—Finish ploughing new lands. Continue the collection of manure; and as the country is now in the best state for the passage of drays, opportunity may be taken for laying in a supply of timber for fencing purposes, and stone for building. Attend carefully to young tobacco, and clean the ground. The hop plant will also require to be looked after. Useless vines must be removed, and others secured. Sow Swede turnips towards the end of the month. Hay-making commences during this month in some parts of the Colony. Sheep washing and shearing are now proceeded with in the pastoral districts, which call a large number of hands into requisition.


Kitchen Garden.—If the weather be very dry, water late in the evening all seed beds and new plantations. Finish cutting asparagus, and plant out selected cauliflowers and cabbages for seed. The more the earth is stirred and forked up the better, so that the sun may act upon it, especially in 'low situations. Keep down all weeds with assiduity, for, if destroyed before seeding, much mischief may be avoided. Clean and thin the crop of onions and beet-root. Transplant leeks, if not already done last month. Plant celery in trenches, to blanch, and set out a full plantation of savoys for autumn and winter use, Gather medicinal and other herbs, such as mint, balm, chamomile flowers, savory, pennyroyal, peppermint, thyme, -wormwood, &'c. ; and if there should be any moist weather, sow peas, York and sugar-loaf cabbages, brocoli, cauliflowers, dwarf beans, and spinach, of the round-leaved kind. Keep up successive crops of radishes, and hoe and thin turnips formerly sown,

"Nursery and Orchard,—The pruning and training of the different fruit trees should be continued. Newly-planted trees, especially those in exposed situations, must be secured by means of supports, to prevent injury from the wind. Young shoots now grow in such profusion, that if not kept under the fruit may suffer for want of sap. All spurs and shoots on the vine should bo rubbed off as soon as detected, and the fruit protected from the ravages of slugs and other iusects.

Flower Garden.— Tender annuals, kept under glass, should now be watered two or three times a day, and plenty of fresh air admitted. Also water regularly the more curious kinds


©f annuals in pots, such as cock’s-combs, globe amarantbus, edge plants, &c. Thin flowers when they have been too thickly sown and clear away all weeds before they attain maturity.

Aoiucolture.—Barth up the potato, hop, and maize plantations. Finish the sowing of Swede turnips; when in rough leaf, the ground should be rolled and harrowed, and the plants afterwards thinned with the hoe, the plants being left at wide distances apart. The tobacco crop must be attended to by pulling out suckers, topping, and stripping the superfluous leaves. In warm districts the wheat and barley harvest is commenced during the present month, and the hay-making is generally finished.

We now present to our readers an alphabetical list of some of the principal culinary plants; especially those which are considered best adapted to the Australian climate. A complete classification, or lengthened list, of the different vegetables now grown, with their endless varieties, would be foreign to the purpose for which these pages are written ; but we will endeavor not to omit any of real importance, or which may appear to require a special consideration.

Artichoke.—There are two distinct plants known under this name, one being distinguished as the globe artichoke, and the other as the Jerusalem artichoke. Both plants thrive remarkably well in Australia, and are much esteemed by some persons, but yet they are not used so universally as many other vegetables. The globe artichoke belongs to the same family of plants as the thistle, hut the Jerusalem artichoke is grown for the sake of its tubers, which are used much in the same way as the potato,

Asparagus.—There are three varieties of asparagus in cultivation; the Middlesex, the Battersea giant, and the Battersea premier. The first is a very hardy plant, and comes on early, hut does not grow to a large size ; it is, however, very suitable for cultivation by the general gardener, The two last named are very similar to each other, and grow to a large size, but are best adapted for a main crop. Asparagus, after the first year, requires but littlo attention. The ground should, in the first instance, bo well trenched ; the beds formed about three ieet wide, and raised with well-worked earth, and a rich compost, to a level of about twelve inches higher than tiro natural surface of the ground ; thus forming a soil of nearly three feet in depth. The seed should be sown or. the surface of the bed, and the whole covered over with fine-sifted earth, and a coat of ashes should finally bo strewn over it, when it may be flattened down with the back of the spade.

Beans.—Of this vegetable there are two distinct kinds, known as broad beans and French beaus; we will first speak of

the former. Of the hroad beans there are seven different varieties in general cultivation, which are named as follows :— the early Lisbon, the dwarf mazagan, the early long pod, the green long pod, the niazagan, toker, and broad Windsor. The three first-named are good early beans; the fourth and fifth are useful for successional crops; but the two last are best calculated for the main crop. Beans are a very exhausting crop, and should, therefore, be grown on strong rich land, The seed should be drilled in rows ranging north and south, about three feet apart, and three inches deep. Between them may be planted a row of early cabbages; and when the latter are taken off, the ground should be well forked up between the rows, and a small quantity of manure may then be added, should the ground require it. The seed should be sown in a double row, and with a broad drill, and when the young plant shows its first blossoms, it is time to commence sowing for a succeeding crop. Beans are often blighted by a small black insect, known to gardeners as the black dolphin ; which, if it appear at all, begins its ravages when the plant is about a foot high, and before it is in full flower. The tops should be pinched off and burnt when the plant comes into blossom; and if occasionally treated with a little liquid manure, they thrive very rapidly. A cold wet soil will not do for beans] unless it has been first well trenched, dressed with lime, and fallowed for a season ; but, if sown on a good soil, the vield will be from forty to fifty bushels per acre, though thirty bushels is in many places considered a fair crop. Immediately after the crop has been removed, the ground should be again trenched, and cabbages planted as a rotation crop. Beans, if they follow beetroot, will do well, but they must not be succeeded by carrots or turnips. They form an important article of food for stock, but they should be first bruised before being used. They are not so good for porkers as for bacon hogs, and should, if possible, be mixed with a fair proportion of pea or barley meal. A bushel . of beans should weigh about 45 lbs., and is supposed to contain not less than 68 per cent, of pure nutrition,

French Brans.—There are two classes; the dwarf beans and runners. Among the former, we may mention the negro, the Fulmer's early, the cream colored, the dun colored, and the white dwarf; of the latter, the scarlet runner is the best known, and is so called from its brilliant color and climbing habits. The two first named are best suited for early sowing, but do not yield so abundantly as the other sorts, though they have the advantage oi being hardy and quick of growth. The third and fourth are very prolific, and in all respects suitable for the main crop. The wk.te dwarf or haricot, is grown for pickling, and is also well

adapted for stews and hashes. The scarlet runner Is a heautif u plant, and very prolific in its yield. It is, therefore, calculated as well for ornament as use, and affords a delightful shade for arbours and verandahs. All this class of beans succeed best in newly trenched ground. The dwarf beans should be planted in rows about two feet and a half apart; while the scarlet runners may bo sown alongside of the walks, to climb up wattle poles, and hano- over the top, thus forming a shady walk, or in any other way"the gardener’s fancy may dictate. They are generally planted for their succulent pods; these being gathered before the seed is fully formed. The dwarf beans are the tenderest when cooked. These last contain more nourishing matter than any other vegetable. A bushel weighs 54 lbs., and is said to contain 84 per lent, of nutritive ingredients. The seed should be soaked in water for twenty-four hours before being sown, and in drv weather the drills should hrst be watered.

Beet Boot.—Of beet root we have the red and white varieties. The red sort is occasionally variagated with white, and the foliage is sometimes varied. The deepest red, however, is the mostesteemed for culinary purposes. There is another and a larger kind, which is cultivated for cattle, and from which sll<rar is manufactured, but requires good deep soil, and the ii(filter the better, provided it be rich. It impoverishes the land but little, and is, consequently, a good substitute for a fallow. In sowing, the rows should be about two and a liali feet apart, two or three seeds should be dropped into holes a foot or fifteen indies apart, and about three inches deep. When the plants are well up, and more than one seed has vegetated, draw all up but one reserving the others for spaces where the seeds have missed. But little care is now required, except to keep them free from weeds; a little top dressing and forking up twice or thrice, between the rows, will assist the growth of the young plants It liquid manure be used, it should bo very much diluted, or there may be a danger of destroying the crop. It requires six months to bring them to maturity. They should be dug with a fork ; and after exposing them to the sun for a day or two, rub off the soil and fibrous roots, and store them away as elsewhere directed. The finer leaves may bo given to the pigs, and the remainder left upon the ground. In cultivating the beet for cattle or for simar the richest and most friable soil should be selected, and it should be manured with old, well-rotted dung ; and it the ground has not been trenched, ridges should be made about six inches limber than the natural surface of the ground, and about foot or eighteen inches wide. Liquid manure may be applied hi the trenches; and the leaves, when they begin to fade and

droop, may lie given to the cattle. The fattening qualities of the beet are very great, so much so, that milch cows should be sparingly fed upon them. But when chopped up, they form an admirable food for horses and pigs ; ducks and geese also thrive upon them. It is also a very profitable crop, and it has been computed, that a piece of land which will produce three tons of hay, or six of potatoes, will produce fourteen tons of beet. The small-Bized roots, or those which do not weigh more than from one to two pounds, contain the greatest quantity of sacharine matter, and are, therefore, the best adapted for sugar making. Five tons of beet have produced 160 lbs. of refined sugar, and 64 lbs. of an inferior quality ; but in some cases, as much as four per cent, is obtained.

Brocoli.—There are three varieties of this plant in cultivation, and are termed the early purple, the late purple, and the royal protector, Brocoli is generally considered a great impoverisher of the soil, and, from the length of time which they require to attain maturity, are not considered a very profitable crop for the market gardener. They should be planted in rows, a yard apart ; and while the plants are young, lettuces may be planted between them. As a vegetable, they are very much esteemed, and must not, therefore, be entirely neglected,

Brussels Sprouts.—Of this plant there is only one variety, which may be cultivated in the same way as brocoli. In gathering the sprouts, they should be broken off sharply, and at an early hour in the morning. The seed of this plant is difficult to obtain pure, in consequence of its tendency to become inoculated when other plants are in proximity to it; but the seed, when once procured, preserves its vitality a number of years.

Cabbage,—The varieties of the cabbage are very numerous; we have, however, thought it sufficient to select the following, as being best adapted for the Colony:—Early York, sugar loaf, varnack, Brompton, nonpareil, and red. The first two are early cabbages, and, though they do not attain the size of some other sorts, are profitable on account of their quick growth and hardy nature. The Brompton cabbage is the largest grown, and the red, as is well known, is usually kept for pickling. The cabbage is an exhausting crop to the soil, and, whatever the nature of the ground may be, there should be a plentiful application of good stable manure. The plants should be drawn carefully from the seed bed, and transplanted immediately. The best time is the evening, and water should be poured into the hole. The failure of this crop may generally be traced to defective or careless planting. The cabbage is an excellent preventative of scurvy and other cutaneous diseases, and is an exceedingly nutritive and

wholesome vegetable. Cattle, pigs, and ducks thrive upon it, and it is in season all the year round.

Carrot.—The early horn and large orange are the two principal varieties of this valuable plant. The first is a hardv but small-sized carrot; but even for these considerable depth pf soil is necessary. Ground that has borne a crop of cabbages, after being trenched two feet deep, and allowed to lie through the summer, will be found to answer best. Although the soil must be rich to grow carrots of a large size, still, freshly manured ground tends to rot the root; and, if the soil is not deep, the carrot will certainly be forked. Top dressing may, nevertheless, be applied when the young plants are well up, but it should be done with care. If the ground has not been trenched, the plants may be sown in ridges, as recommended for beet root. Carrot seed will vegetate, if not more than three or four years old ; and a fine dry day should be selected for sowing. The seed should be well rubbed and mixed up with fine sand or ashes before sowing, in order to separate it. When the plants are up, they should be well thinned, and the ground hoed over every two or three weeks. The roots should be left about six inches, and the rows about eighteen inches, apart. Carrots may be considered ripe and ready for storing, when the leaves and stems dry up and wither. They should be taken up with a fork, and laid on the ground for a day or two to dry ; the tap root and top should then be cut off, but not too near the crown, after rubbing off the mould that may adhere to the root. They should be packed away in layers, with strong straw or palings between them, so as not entirely to exclude the air. Carrots are considered as among the best articles of food for milch cows, and also for horses. They are said greatly to increase the supply of milk, vrhen given to the cow, and to be of equal benefit to the horse, not only by imparting a fine glossy appearance to the coat, but by improving his wind. If given to pigs, the best plan is to cut them down the centre and steam them. The produce on a good rich soil will be from twelve to fourteen tons to the acre.

Carraway.—This plant somewhat resembles the parsnip. It is commonly grown for the seed, and is in every respect suited to the Australian climate. It grows best upon a rich strong land, and should be sown in the month of August, in drills about a foot apart, and afterwards thinned so as to leave a space of about nine inches between each plant. The seed ripens about January or February. After being gathered, and before the seed is beaten out, it should be laid on cloths and exposed to the sun. It may then be separated from the umbells, carefully sifted, and again spread out to dry, but only for a short time.

The crop, if the season he favorable and the soil good, may be estimated at thirty-five hundred weight per acre, worth about thirty shillings per cwt. The crop may thus be considered a very profitable one, as the labor attending it is but light. It is an exhausting crop, but may bo advantageously followed by potatoes.

Cauliflower.—This is one of the most delicate plants produced by the gardener. The two varieties recommended are the royal white, and the Walcheran. They require a rich soil, and should be treated in the same way as the brocoli,to which they are very nearly allied.

Celery.—The Manchester early white, the Manchester red, and the superb red, are the sorts most usually cultivated. The first should be planted at the commencement of the season, and the two latter may be sown as successional crops. The seed may be sown in a wooden case about six inches deep, and filled with a rich mould, a layer of small stones or pebbles having been first laid on the bottom. The seed may then be strewn on the surface, and covered over with a small quantity of sand, or very light earth. The box should be kept under a shed, and the soil sprinkled with water every morning and evening. When the young plants begin to show themselves, the box may be removed into the open air, but should be taken in at night, especially in cold or frosty weather. To prepare for planting, a well manured border should be selected; a trench may then be dug about twelve inches deep, and nine wide, and, having placed a small quantity of rich compost in the bottom, and well-stirred it up with a fork, so as to produce a good rich mould, the young plants may be set out at a distance of about one foot apart, if intended for early use ; but if for a main erop, they should be about eighteen inches asunder. If the nights are frosty, the plants should be protected with canvas or matting; and, in about a month after planting, it will be time to commence earthing them up. This must be done gradually, and from time to time, according to the growth, If the weather is dry, they should be watered every evening.

Chicory.—Chicory, or wild endive, is a perennial plant, and has a large tap root, somewhat similar to the parsnip ; it produces large succulent leaves, and a pale blue flower. It is grown extensively on the continent of Europe, as a substitute for coffee, and the dried root is from thence imported into England, at the rate of above two thousand tons annually. The leaves are eagerly devoured by cattle, but, from their strong aromatie flavor, are not suitable for milch cows, as they give to the milk and butter au unpleasant taste and smell. The bitterness of the

leaf may, however, be overcome by blanching ; to effect this, the root should be taken up in autumn, and then cleared of the top leaves; afterwards, the roots should be planted in a box half filled with sand, and kept in a damp dark cellar. Fresh leaves will soon spring up, white and crisp, having a delicate flavor, and very agreeable as a winter salad. Chicory seed should be sown iu drills in a finely worked bed, and in a warm corner, about July or August. As the plants grow up, they should be thinned to about six inches apart, to allow for forking; if any of the plants should run to seed, the flower should be broken off. About midsummer, the tops should be entirely cut off, and, in a day or two afterwards, the roots should be taken up with a three-pronged fork, and laid out in the sun to dry. They are then washed and scraped clean, split and cut into lengths of about two inches, after which they may be put into an iron pan, and placed over a slow fire of charcoal; they are submitted to this action until thoroughly dried, and of a light brown or chocolate color. Two pounds of lard should be roasted with each cwt., and the root loses in drying from 25 to 30 per cent. It is sometimes cut up a second time into smaller pieces, and again dried or roasted, preparatory to its being ground for use. Chicory is an exhausting crop, and requires a rich, deep and mellow soil; for, as the young and early roots only are used for commercial purposes, if the soil be poor, and the root does not ripen till Autumn, it will be found to have lost some of its most valuable properties, the prolonged action of the summer sun tending to render the root both tough and stringy. Liquid manure, if applied so as not to touch the root, accelerates the growth, and improves the quality of the plant. The average yield of an acre is reckoned at twenty thousand roots, which, if taken at two lbs. each, will give forty thousand lbs. as the produce of a single acre ; and, allowing; 25 per cent, for the process of drying, we have a total of thirty thousand lbs. weight, which, at4d. per lb., will realise £500 stg. The actual expense of growing would not probably exceed £50. As soon as possible after the crop has been removed, the ground should be manured and dug up, preparatory to being planted with cabbages, which again should be succeeded by peas or beans.

Cress.—We have the curly-leaved and plain cress, the land, or American, and water cress, all in cultivation. The two former are used with mustard as a salad, and the two latter as condiments for the breakfast table. The curly cress is not so quick of growth as the mustard, and should therefore be sown a week before it. It grows nearly all the year round, if watered, and on almost any soil. The American cress is grown when water-cress is not. obtainable; it is esteemed for its pungency, and grows very

readily in this climate. Water-cress, also, thrives admirably if planted on the edge of a creek, or other place, where water is abundant.

Cucumber.—Of this plant the long-prickly, the short-prickly, and the Southgate, are the most esteemed. The first and last-named are both very hardy, but, if sown early, must be protected at night. The short-prickly is better adapted for pickling than either of these.

To obtain early produce, a frame must be made, which can easily be done with broad paling and stakes; and, if covered with oiled paper or calico, it will do as well in this climate as glass. Some well-rotted manure should be laid inside, and fine earth sifted over it. The seeds should be sown in circles, ten or twelve in each ring; and, when they come up, they can be thinned if too thick. After the plants are up, let in the air gradually ; should the bed be too dry, water all round of an evening, and set a pan of water within the frame, which, by the process of evaporation, will tend to preserve the necessary degree of moisture. When the runners are sufficiently long, they should be regularly trained by means of forked pegs, inserted into the ground; and imperfect buds or rotten leaves should be removed.

Endive.—The sorts most commonly grown are known as the early-white and curly-green. They may be sown and will grow all the year round, and the mode of treatment is similar to that observed in the culture of the lettuce.

Flax.—This plant is an annual, and is indigenous to Australia. Though not grown to any extent in these colonies as yet, we consider it well worthy of attention. There are several varieties under cultivation, but that most in favor is a plant growing from two to two and a-half feet in height, and bearing a small blue flower, which is succeeded by a shelly vessel, or capsule, containing the seed.

This plant is grown both for the sake of the fibre and the seed. The former, as is well-known, is extensively used in textile manufacture; from the latter is expressed a fine oil, and the residue, which is of great value for fattening cattle, is known in the market under the denomination of oil cake.

Flax should be sown upon a rich, deep, and well-worked soil, and may succeed any plantation of succulent roots, The manure most suitable for this plant is a mixture of lime and humus, which may be followed by an abundant application of liquid manure. Beds about five feet wide should be prepared, and the seed sown in drills, which may afterwards be sprinkled with wood ashes, in order to prevent the attacks of insects. The


plants should he well hoed and weeded; to effect this properly the rows should be about a foot apart, and six inches between the plants. In some situations they will require support ; this may be managed by means of stakes driven into the ground, at distances of three or four feet from each other, and a line strung across in such a direction as to resist the effects of prevailing winds. About February or March the stem assumes a bright yellow color, when both fibre and seed will be ready for the hook. The seed branches should be taken off first, and placed on a sail cloth, and the stems should then be carefully tied up in bundles, and stacked in heaps, about seven or eight feet high. When the capsules are dry they may be shelled, and the seed put away in bags. Potatoes do well after flax, provided they have not preceded it. The roots should be pulled up, which, with the haulm, should be burned, and equally strewn over the ground before it is turned over. Flax should not be grown oftener than once in five years on the same soil; and, on good land, the crop will then average from twenty to two-and-twenty cwt. to the acre, inclusive of the seed.

Leek.—The London broad-leaf, and the Cambrian, are the best varieties for general cultivation. A light soil—rich, deep, and friable—is best for leeks. The seed is generally drilled in rows, about six inches apart. The bed should be strewed over with powdered ashes, and a small proportion of rock salt; it may then be levelled with the rake, and be afterwards flattened with the back of a spade. When the young plants are about six inches high they should be transplanted into newly-manured ground, and which had been previously well-worked. They should be planted nine inches apart, and two feet between the rows. In two or three weeks after planting, the earth should be drawn towards the roots, and the ground between occasionally hoed and turned over with the fork, after which a little topdressing may be applied.

Lettuces. — The sorts best known to gardeners are the black-seeded green-cos, the grand admiral, the brown Dutch, the Bath-cos, and the Hammersmith hardy green. The two first are best adapted for spring sowing, the two next answer generally as main crops, and the last grows well in the winter season. They grow quickly, and may be sown in any part of the garden. When well up they should be planted out in rows of from nine to twelve inches apart, each way. A constant succession should be maintained ; and, for the purpose of blanching, the outer leaves should be drawn together with bass.

Melon.—There are three species of melon grown in Austra-

lia ; the sweet melon, the water melon, and the pie melon ; and these again are divided into numerous varieties.

The sweet melon is commonly used for dessert, and in England is cultivated by artificial means; in this climate, however, it grows well in the open air, hut requires a warm situation. The green-flesh melon is the one most esteemed, and is by many considered to be equal in flavor to any other fruit whatever. The water melon grows to a larger size, and generally weighs from six to twelve pounds. The climate of Melbourne is considered rather cold for this plant; but, as it thrives admirably in the neighbouring colonies, we consider it worthy of a more extensive trial. The flesh is of a pink color, and the juice is highly refreshing on a hot day. They should be gathered before the sun rises, and as soon as the fruit is ripe; this may be ascertained by examining the tendril growing out of the stalk; when this becomes withered the melon is ripe.

The pie melon has the advantage of the other sorts as respects its adaptability for keeping. They may be kept for winter use, and, though not fit to be eaten in their raw state, are excellent when boiled with sugar, and flavored with cloves, or other spice. When plentiful they are used for feeding cattle, pigs, or geese, for which purpose they answer exceedingly well. The pie melon, from its appearance externally, can only be distinguished from the water melon by competent judges. The inside, however, is very different, the flesh of the water melon being usually of a pink or red color, while the pie melon is uniformly white.

A light, well-worked soil is best for melons. New manure, of any kind, should not be used, as it is decidedly hurtful, and, if allowed to come in contact with the seed, will altogether prevent its growth. A well-prepared compost should, however, be used, especially i-n poor land. The seeds should be sown nine inches apart, three in number, so as to form a triangle, and at a depth of about three inches. Each of these triangles should be about two feet apart if for water melons, and somewhat nearer for sweet melons. If the nights should be frosty the young plants will require to be covered ; and, as they grow, the runners should be carefully trained, so as to cover the ground uniformly. Lettuces may be planted in the vacant spaces while the plants are growing, but must be moved as may be required, in order to make way for the melons.

Onion.—The varieties most strongly recommended are the early Strasburg, the white Spanish, the brown Spanish, the white globe, and the royal silver-skinned. The first is adapted for early use, or for pulling green. The two kinds of Spanish

are very fine onions, and grow to a large size ; but the white globe is best for a general crop. The silver onion only attains a small size, but is much esteemed for pickling. A rich, light soil is best suited to the onion, which should be sown in drills, so as to be easily weeded; if for early drawing the rows should be nine inches apart; if for store, eighteen inches at least. The mould should be well prepared, and very fine; and, after sowing, ashes should be sifted over the bed, which should then be beaten down. The beds should be about three or three and a-half feet wide, with a narrow path between, for the convenience of thinning and weeding; and the ground should be frequently stirred with a narrow hoe, care being taken not to injure the bulbs. Manure taken from the stock-yard or piggeries, well mixed with earth, is best for onions.

When nearly ripe the stems must be bent down level with the ground, but without breaking them, or disturbing the root. When the stems are completely withered, draw the onions up, and range them in the centre of the bed : these should be turned, over every day till perfectly dry ; those that are at all damaged being set to one side for immediate use. Care should be taken not to rub off the outer skin, however loose it may be, as it keeps the onion dry, and protects it from contact with other onions. One acre of land has been known to produce nearly five tons of onions ; this must, therefore, be considered as a highly remunerative crop.

Pa rsley.—This plant may be sown or planted all the year round ; there is the curly-parsley and the garnishing-parsley, both of which may be planted in a border, as an edging, or in any part of the garden.

Parsnip.—The two best known varieties are the hollow-crowned, and the long-white. The culture of the parsnip is so similar to that of the carrot, that the reader is referred to the article under that head. In storing the root it may be kept under ground, as in northern climates, or between layers of pure sand.

Peas.— We would recommend the following varieties as best suited for Australia :—Bishop’s early-dwarf, the early paragon, or Charlton, the dwarf-Prussian-blue, the dwarf-green-marrowfat, and the blue scimitar. The first and second in the list, as their names will show, are best suited for early crops. The two next are good yielding peas, butthe scimitar is apt to exhaust the soil more than the other kinds, on account of the quantity of bine it makes, and the height to which it grows. It is, however, a very fine vegetable. A soil of good average quality, but not too rich, is best for peas. They should be sown in rows, of from two to two and a half

feet a part, according to the variety ; the dwarf kinds being sown somewhat closer than the climbers. The rows should range from north to south, and the seed should be sown rather thickly than otherwise. When well up, the earth should be drawn to the root of the young plant; and the stakes should be fixed before the blossom makes its appearance : else the plant may be injured in the operation.

The pea, whether in its green or ripe state, is unquestionably a very valuable and wholesome vegetable. It contains a large proportion of farinaceous matter, and next to the French beaVis said to be the most nutritious vegetable grown. A bushel of peas weighs about 54 lbs., and contains 75 per cent, of nutriment. If peas are intended for cattle, they should succeed an exhausting crop, as rich land causes the plant to throw out too much haulm. Peas, especially when ground, are an excellent food for fattening pigs. On an average soil, they will yield from thirty-five to forty bushels per acre ; the haulm, when dry, makes good litter, and, when cut up with hay for chaff, is greedily eaten by cows or horses.

Potato.—Of this valuable plant, the asli-leaved kidney and the early-Shaw are best for early planting; but the Irish-red and the Lancaster are better adapted for the main crop. There are other varieties which have been introduced into these Colonies, and which have, in some instances, entirely changed their original character. This is to be accounted for as an effect of soil and climate, and is particularl y observable in the sort known as the Brown’s river potato, of Van Dieman’s Land than which, a superior potato could not be produced : it grows to a moderate size, is of a brown color, and the skin inclined to be rough.

Ground of every description will suit the potato, provided it be well worked and drained. The land should be trenched, and thoroughly exposed to the sun’s rays for a couple of months before the planting. The rows should be about two and a half feet apart, and from nine inches to a foot may be left between the sets, as planted in the row.

It has been a matter of discussion, whether it be best to set small potatoes without cutting, or the cuttings of the large ones. It is admitted, on the one hand, that in many cases where the crops have failed the sets have been cut from large potatoes; while at the same time other crops in the neighbourhood have produced largely, where the sets have been composed of whole potatoes. But by the other party, it has beenproved at when both crops are healthy, the largest and finest crop as been returned by the produce of cuttings from the larger tubers. We

should therefore be inclined to recommend the finest potatoes to be used for setting, as this appears to he the best mode of preventing deterioration in the quality of the root. To prevent disappointment, we may caution the cultivator not to plant the potatoes too soon after cutting; it is this which in most cases causes a failure of the crop, and is produced by excessive bleeding. The cuttings should be quite dry, and an artificial skin, as it were, formed upon the part which has been cut, before it is planted.

The blight, which affected the potato in every other part of the world, is, as yet, unknown in Australia. The origin of this disease has never yet been satisfactorily determined; and though the immediate or operating agency has been traced to the presence of animalculae, we have no reason to suppose this to be the primary or originating cause. Either one, or all, of the following circumstances may have had something to do with the matter, as tending to predispose the plant to be affected by the blight of insects, aud by atmospheric changes, or by so detracting from the vitality of the plant, as to leave it incapable of propagating itself in the usual way. In the first place, the practice of planting the same seed in similar ground for several successive years, which was by no means uncommon, was alone sufficient to account for the blight; as it is well known among farmers, that, in order to prevent a falling off in the quality of the crops, it is necessary to exchange the seed produced in one district for that of another. Secondly, it is well known, that in very many cases, the same ground was sown year after year with a similar crop; no rotations being attended to, or fallows thought of. Such a system as this would end in the annihilation of any kind of husbandry, and the wonder is that the visitation did not manifest itself sooner than it did. Thirdly, the practice of constantly producing the plant from the tubers, instead of from the true seed, is by no means unlikely to act prejudicially upon the plant; as, in most cases where the experiment was made, it was found that young potatoes, raised in this way, were not affected as the old stock had been, or, if at all, to a very small extent. With these evidences before us, it is desirable that wo should use such precautions as are most likely to ward off a similar attack. Up to the present time we have been saved by reason of possessing a new and virgin soil, not easily exhausted without successive cropping.

Potatoes should, from time to time, be well eartked-up, and the blossoms plucked off as they appear. When the leaves and stalks begin to wither, the potatoes are ripe, and they should be carefully taken up with a four-pronged fork; after which they may be exposed to the sun and air for a day or two, aud, when

sufficiently dry, they should be stored in a shed or pit, or packed for market, in bags containing one hundred pounds each. The smallest should be picked out and reserved for feeding pigs and poultry. The ordinary produce of an acre, if the soil be good, is about five tons, but we have known a yield of twelve tons iu

Van Dieman’s Land.    t

Pumpkin.—This is one of the most important vegetables grown in Australia : it grows to a very large size in this country, ¡frequently exceeding one hundred pounds in weight. It possesses an advantage over most other vegetables as respects its quality of keeping: its uses and value are however but little appreciated; and this may easily be accounted for by the circumstance of the plant being but little cultivated in England, and its valuable qualities almost uuknown. Of the pumpkins there are very many varieties, differing from each other more in the size, shape, an d color of the fruit, than in the flavor, or adaptability to culinary purposes. Some are oblong and others nearly round; some are yellow, and others green; some rough, and others smooth ; but all have nearly the same properties, and it is not easy to discern1 a difference between them after being cooked. The mode of cultivation is similar to that of the melon, but they do not require so hot a climate to bring them to perfection, and are, therefore, better suited to the climate of Victoria. In all the warm countries of Europe, and in South America, the pumpkin is much cultivated, and in some parts ot the American Continent it forms a staple article of food. The best mode of using it is for stews, where it is employed in a similar way to the potato, and requires no water in cooking. In some cases it is cut up, and 6tewed with sugar, and, having been flavored with cloves, is eaten cold, with the addition of milk or cream. I he gourd, though not a true pumpkin, is noticed here, simply as being of little worth, and as not deserving a place in a garden, where everything is grown with a view to profit.

Radish. — This plant may be grown all the year round. The 7nost common varieties are the early-scarlet, the early-short-top, the scarlet-turnip, and the white-turnip. Almost any kind of soil will answer for the radish, but sufficient space should be left in the beds for keeping up a succession of crops. The teed should be drilled, not very thickly, and the rows left about nine inches apart,    > <    .

Rhubarb.—There are four very fine varieties of this useful vegetable, aud are designated Eltord’s superb, royal Victoria, Sussex, and royal Goliah. The three first are all hardy, useful plants: but the latter attains a very large size, is long in the stem, and has a wide, spreading leaf. A sheltered spot, with

, rich, deep soil, worked with a large proportion of compost, is requisite for rhubarb. It is generally planted in trenches, a few inches below the surface of the garden, so as to admit of bein°-earthed up from time to time, as may be required, in the same way as described for celery. After the season is over, the dead leaves, and seed stems should be removed; and in severe weather the roots should be protected by a covering of dry litter.

Savoys.—We have the green-savoy, the yellow-savoy, and the dwarf-imperial. This vegetable does not grow so quickly as the cabbage, but requires a richer soil. It is cultivated in a way precisely similar to that vegetable, and is very much esteemed, both for its delicacy and flavour, and as being firmer in the heart.

Sea-Kale.—This vegetable has, hitherto, been little cultivated in the Colony ; but, from its wholesome, purifying, and nutritious qualities, and easy culture in this climate, we would strongly recommend it to the general gardener. It is cultivated from seeds, or slips, and should be planted in separate spots, three or four together, and at about two feet apart, to allow for bleaching; but, as this does not affect the flavor, and may not be required, they may be placed nearer. The plant does not come to perfection till the second year. The ground best suited for the sea-kale is a rich loam, trenched about two feet deep, and well manured. The bed should be forked over, and dressed at least twice a year, and afterwards strewn over with sand to the depth of half an inch or so. The plants, if treated carefully, will last for several years. It is a very delicious vegetable, and said to be exceedingly well suited to consumptive persons, and invalids in general.

Spinach.— The best varieties for cultivation, are the round-seeded, the Flanders, and the prickly-seeded. An ordinary soil will do for this plant. The seed should be sown in drills, about a foot apart, and when well up the earth should be hoed up slightly towards the roots of the plant. This vegetable sells well in the Melbourne market, and is much sought for by foreigners; it is, however, not generally in use, except at the tables of the rich.

Tomato.—The tomato, or love-apple, as it is sometimes called, is an exceedingly useful plant, though its value is but little known in England, as the fruit is but rarely used, except for the manufacture of sauces. It is, however, from its agreeable acidity, found to be more acceptable in a warm climate, such as this, than in colder latitudes. It may be used as a pickle when green, and when ripe it attains a bright red color, and may then be em-

ployed, either for the purpose of flavoring stews and hashes, or as a preserve.

The tomato is propagated from seed, and requires a fine light soil. It is ornamental, and may he readily trained up stakes or walls, but will do well in almost any situation.

Scotch Kale.—There are two varieties of this plant, the curly-green-giant, and the Canadian dwarf. They are very similar to each other, excepting in size. The leaf is crimped or crumpled in such a way as at once to distinguish it from other greens. It will grow in any soil, but thrives best in rich ground, It is very hardy, and, therefore, of great value to the practical gardener, as it bears without injury the alternations from excessive heat to cold. The seed should be sown somewhat thickly, and a finely-worked bed selected for the purpose. When ready for transplanting, they should be set at a distance of about three inches apart, and, in about two months afterwards, they should be transplanted finally into the permanent bed, each plant about eighteen inches apart, and the rows three feet apart. When they become rooted, the earth should be hoed up to them, or additional soil laid on.

Tobacco.—The tobacco plant grows well in this climate, and, though manufacturers have not succeeded in producing a good marketable article, this probably arises from the imperfect mode of preparing the leaf, and the want of proper machinery for the purpose, rather than from any defect in the soil or climate. There are two varieties at present introduced into these colonies, viz :—the Turkey and the Virginian. The former produces a small leaf, pronounced by connoisseurs to be mild, but of fine and delicate flavor. The Virginian grows to a very large size, and yields by far the most profitable crop. A rich deep soil is essential for tobacco ; and, as it tends greatly to exhaust the land, it is necessary to use a large proportion of manure, except in those cases where the soil is naturally prolific. It pays well here, even when grown for sheep-waslnng, for which purpose it is equal to any other tobacco. The process of cultivation has been already described in the Calendar ; it will therefore be unnecessary to add more here, further than to observe, that the Tobacco crop requires constant attention in order to keep down shoots and suckers, and the growth of weeds.

Turnip. — The four varieties of turnips most commonly grown are the early Dutch, the Norfolk white, the white stone, ami the Swede. A well-worked, light soil is best for turnips, but almost any soil, if tolerably dry, will be found to answer. They should be sown in drills about twelve to fifteen inches apart, and must be constantly hoed and thinned. The addition F

of liquid manure will improve both the size and quality of the plant. The ground, however, should be well trenched, and thoroughly drained, or the turnips will be hollow and wiry. The Swede turnip, as is well known, is used in general for feeding cattle ; but it is also valuable for the table, as being in season when other turnips are not to be obtained.

Vegetable Marrow.—This plant grows well in this climate, if not too much exposed to the hot-winds; it requires a good soil in order to secure a rapid growth, without which the fruit is not considered fit for the table, as it is esteemed entirely in proportion to the softness and delicacy of the rind. Unlike other vegetables of the same character, it is cut while green, and long before it has time to ripen; the aim of the grower being to produce the largest fruit within the shortest time.


We propose here to describe a few of the principal herbs, all of which possess useful qualities, and are, for the most part, easily cultivated. The ordinary garden soil, worked to a sufficient depth, and moderately dry, will do as well as any. Where an apiary is kept, an herb garden is of great value, as it tends very much to improve the flavor of the honey. Most of the smaller herbs look well if .introduced as an edging for borders ; but if grown with a view to profit, should be cultivated in a systematic manner. The following is an alphabetical list of the herbs usually grown; but we shall confine our remarks only to a few of them :—

Aniseed, balm, basil and sweet basil, borage, camomile, chives, coriander, fennell, horehound, hyssop, lavender; pot, sweet, and knotted marjoram, spear-mint and pepper-mint, pennyroyal, rosemary, rue, saffron, sage, saxifrage, summer and winter savoury, and thyme.

Boreage is propagated by dividing the roots, or by transplanting young suckers, or it can be raised by seed, and even slips will grow. This is an excellent herb for bees.

Camomile is a valuable herb, but is chiefly used for medicinal purposes. It is invaluable as a tonic, and for fomentations.

Chives are raised by dividing the roots in autumn. They are substituted for onions when the latter are scarce for salads, or for seasoning. They command a ready sale, and are not an unsightly edging for borders; but they are generally grown in


Hyssop, Thyme, and Sago are all propagated by slips and seeds, and the two latter are in constant request.

Horehound is a valuable herb, possessing medicinal virtues of a high order, and especially valuable in pulmonary complaints.

Pepper-mint is well known for its excellent stomachic qualities, and does not require remark.

Pennyroyal acts as a stimulant to the digestive organs, and is considered to be a useful plant.

Sage is extensively used in cookery, and, when made into tea, is said to be serviceable in many complaints, especially for children.

Saffron is often used for the sake of its coloring properties; it also possesses several medicinal qualities.

Savoury is used, as a condiment with peas, and forms an excellent seasoning. It is much used, as is also mint, for counteracting flatulency, and other complaints of the stomach.

There is another herb which, perhaps, should be mentioned, though not used for culinary purposes ; this is the House Leek, which is employed as a cure in cases of burns and scalds. After being newly gathered, it is pounded up with a small proportion of cream, and applied as a salve, from time to time, as may be required, or until relief is obtained.

In collecting roots for medicinal purposes, the fall of the season or early in the spring is best. Herbs should be gathered when the plants are nearly, but not quite, in full bloom. Blossoms should be gathered when full blown; but if it should happen, as in the case of camomile flowers, that some of the blossoms are ready sooner than others, these should be carefully tied up in a fine netting, so as to dry gradually, and the flies kept off,



We do not intend to enter into a full or critical examination of the different kinds of fruit-trees known to the gardener ; we merely purpose to describe, generally, some of the commonest varieties, and oiler a few suggestions as to the mode of culture to be adopted.

Fruits of every description find a ready sale in the Melbourne markets. Perhaps no city in the world, possessed of such a population, is so badly supplied with fruit. This, no doubt, is in pari owing to the sudden increase of the population, and the very limited extent of land brought under cultivation. There

is,    consequently, a fine opening for those inclined to enter upora the profitable and pleasing occupation of the fruit grower.

Those possessing only a small plot of ground may find it inconvenient to set apart a portion of the land exclusively for this purpose ; in these cases the fruit trees may be planted round the garden so as to protect and shelter it from hot or cold winds ; and others may be advantageously distributed throughout the garden, chiefly at the corners of the beds and along the walks. In such situations peach trees afford a valuable shade, and are highly ornamental. The following is a mode of planting which is strongly recommended as having been adopted with success in South Australia; and though it may appear to be unnecessarily laborious, it should be considered that we have here to do for the most part with a soil as left by nature, and the surface of which has never been broken. Dig a hole two feet six inches square, and three or four feet deep; at the bottom of the hole lay some rubble stone ; over the stone lay some well-rotted manure; then throw in the best of the soil which has been taken out to within a foot, or so, of the top. The young stock is then placed in the centre of the hole, the small roots and fibres being carefully spread out, and the hole filled up with any rich soil. If the stock is high, it should have a stake, driven firmly into the ground, for its support. As thrf earth is put in, it must be trodden down firmly, or, when it becomes dry, the sun will crack

it,    thus loosening the hold of the stem, and admitting too freely the action of the atmospheric air. In laying out an orchard, however, it is necessary that the whole of the ground should be trenched about two feet deep.

The autumn is the best season for budding, but for grafting the winter should be selected. In lieu of the mixture of clay and cow-dung usually employed for this purpose, the following composition is recommended:—tallow, one pound; bees-wax, two pounds, and resin, four pounds. The tallow should be perfectly pure, and to secure this it must be clarified. This may be done in the following way : after melting it, drop it into a vessel containing cold water ; the pure tallow will float on the top in thin scales, which should be removed. The fine tallow may then be melted in an earthen pipkin over a slow fire, adding the ■kees.wax afterwards ; this should be kept constantly stirred, and when the wax and tallow have become thoroughly incorporated, the resin mey be added. After cooling, it should be worked up into round balls, ready for use ; the quantities given above being sufficient for twenty grafts. From the inflammable nature of the ingredients, great care must be taken in preparing it. After the «raft is wrapped round with a piece of bass, the mixture should

fee laid on about a quarter of an inch thick. This will stand the hottest summer without cracking, whilst the old mixture will crack and become useless, after a few days exposure to the sun.

As already directed in the Calendar, the young stocks will have to be looked after repeatedly, and all shoots below the grafts should be rubbed off as they appear; otherwise the graft will be deprived of a great part of its nourishment. Sap must find its exit somewhere, and if there are no shoots, it will exude into the graft, and thus cause a union. Stocks must be grown from seed, for crabs d.o not grow here; they will be fit for grafting by the third year.

The wood grows so luxuriantly here, that pruning can hardly be carried to too great an extent, except, perhaps, in the bearing branches. If too much wood is allowed on the tree, the sap will be consumed in supporting the superfluous wood, to the detriment of the fruit. All cross branches should be cut off, or trained by cords. The boughs of stone fruit trees should be trained so as to leave the tree hollow inside ; the fruit is then more easily gathered, and the sun and air have equal access to the whole tree, which is of importance. If the trees are not planted in the borders, the ground should be forked-up at least once a year, and weeds thoroughly kept down. The orchard should be manured about once every two years.

Apples, Pears,Plumbs, and Cherries attain a remarkably fine growth, and though the crops are not at all times very certain, they frequently bear a luxuriant crop.

Peaches, Apricots, and Nectarines are grown as standards, and, with the exception of frequent pruning, they require but little attention; the fruit is sometimes so abundant as to render it necessary to thin them down to one-half or a-third.

Loquats, Pigs, Pomegranates, and Mulberries may be almost said to grow wild. The Almond ajid Olive trees are great ornaments in a garden, and also thrive remarkably well.

Most of the trees enumerated above bear fruit in three or four years, and are in season about December to March ; if, however, the weather be fine, and the season early, Apricots are ready in N ovember.

Loquats are Chinese fruit, and come into season about September, and Pigs and Mulberries by Christmas.

Olives, though they do not arrive at perfection for twelve or fifteen years, commence bearing fruit at a much earlier period.

The Olive is cultivated by slips or suckers; when these are struck, they should be removed to the nursery, where they must remain four years; they should then be transplanted to their permanent bed, and in three or four years more they will bear

fruit, but it will be next to worthless till the‘tree attains the age of about fifteen years. Being a slow grower it lives to a great, age, and bears fruit abundantly for many years. The trees should be planted fifteen or sixteen feet apart every way, or about one hundred and twenty to the acre. In very dry seasons the olive is attacked by a worm peculiar to itself. A wet or cold season, especialy if it be frosty, is equally injurious. The wood must be two years old to bear, and it has been a matter of discussion, whether it is best to prune each tree partially, and thus secure annually a certain quantity of fruit, or fully to prune every two years, thus having a full crop every alternate year. The former plan is recommended, as it is considered too great a hazard to depend so entirely upon a single season out of three. When the olive attains maturity its yield will be about five gallons per tree. There are five varieties in cultivation, four being used for oil, and the fifth, “LaReine,” is reserved for pickling, that fruit about the size of a damson being considered best. The wood of this tree retains its vitality for a considerable period, posts, which have been laid aside for months, having been known to bud and grow luxuriantly soon after being fixed.

The mills used for expressing the oil are similar to those used in England for linseed. The fruit is allowed to remain in the air for a fortnight; it is then placed in the mill vat with boiling water. The oil is allowed to run over into a stone cooler, from which it is removed into jars, containing one hundred gallons each. When the oil is intended for culinary purposes it is pressed into cold water instead of hot.

We have seen oil of the finest quality produced from trees the growth of Australia, and, as they appear so admirably to to adapt themselves to the climate, it is very desirable that efforts should be made to introduce them more extensively into the Colony. We need scarcely add, however, that it is not the fruit for the poor man, as the period of bearing is too remote to admit of his waiting so long:—nevertheless, a few trees might be planted in the garden with the best effect; and, as vegetables grow well under them, but little space will be wasted.

Oranges and Lemons would grow as freely in the northern parts of the province as in Sydney or Adelaide ; but the neighbourhood of Melbourne is considered too cold to produce the fruit in perfection. They grow best when planted together in clumps or groves, so as to afford a natural shelter for each other.

Currants, Gooseberries, Raspberries and Strawberries, on the other hand, are found to thrive better in the cooler climate of Van Diemen’s Land, There is, however, a

Wild raspberry, which grows here in perfection ; and there is no doubt but that all these fruits would thrive in elevated situations.

Chestnuts and Walnuts would do well in this Colony, and might be advantageously cultivated, not only for the sake of the fruit and timber, but on account of their ornamental character.

The Almond grows as luxurantly, and produces fruit as abundantly, in this climate as in the south of Europe. The tree comes into full bearing when seven years old, and will then yield about two bushels of almonds. It is hardy, requires but little attention, and will repay the labour expended upon it.

We may here offer a few remarks on transplanting. The greatest possible care should be taken not to injure the roots or fibres by breaking, tearing, or cutting off more than can be prevented. The roots and fibres are the organs by which the tree derives its nourishment from the ground, and if these are injured the growth of the tree will be proportionably impeded, or may be altogether hindered. First loosen the earth with a pick; then carefully remove the soil with a shovel, until the whole is cleared round the stem, and nothing remains attached to the tree but the tap root, which should be cut off. If, by any accident, the roots be injured, they must be severed with a sharp knife, and, in proportion as these are reduced, so must the tree itself be cut down, that the demands of the tree may not exceed the means of supply ; this remark applies, however, rather to standard trees than to stocks which have been lately grafted or budded.

Trees or stocks should not be allowed to remain too long in 4be open air before they are planted. But if they cannot be planted immediately, they should be protected by moss or hay, and wrapped up in matting. The Dutch have a method of manuring old trees which may be worthy of note: they bore a few holes round the tree, with a two inch anger, to the depth of three or four feet, and at the distance of about a yard apart. Into these are introduced from time to time, a dilution of liquid manure, which is repeated until the tree exhibits symptoms of improvement.


Though the vine does not properly belong to the orchard, we may introduce it here, as being the fruit of all others the most important for cultivation in the Australian provinces.

The best aspect for a vineyard is that which ranges from north-west by west, to north-east by east. The best mode of planting is, not in parallel rows, but in oblique or diagonal lines, so that the sun’s rays may not be intercepted, but that heat and

light be transmitted alike to every tree, without any intervention whatever, or so that the sun may penetrate in its course each tree in succession. The rows must also be sufficiently wide apart to allow a free circulation of air, as much depends on this.

In selecting a site for a vineyard, it is desirable to obtain ground which has a considerable rise towards the southern boundary. A hill-side that can be terraced is admirably suited to the cultivation of the vine, and is favorable to the ripening of the fruit.

In terracing a hill-side, it is best to commence at the bottom, and the width of the bed must depend upon the slope of the hill; it should not, however, be less than six feet wide. The ground should be trenched to a depth of from two feet six inches, to three feet, and should receive a good coating of manure, lime, and sand, as may be required ; and, if it should be deficient of vegetable substances, or require mellowing, barley and oats may be sown upon it, which, when nine inches high, should be turned over with the spade or plough ; after this, it may be planted with beet or cabbages, and when these are off, it will be ready, after another dressing, to receive the canes. These should be transplanted about August or September,

A terrace, six feet wide may be planted with two rows of vines, but so placed as that those vines which are planted in the outer row shall not be opposite those of the inner row, but at intermediate distances between them. Thus, if the rows be three feet apart, and the vines in each row planted at nine feet apart, this would give an actual distance, on the diagonal line, of at least six feet between every tree. This will afford a free passage for the air, and no impediment will be offered to the action of the sun.

It sometimes happens, that, in terracing a hill, the surface represents the segment of a circle, and, as the influence of the sun is most powerful at mid-day, that part of the vineyard having a northern aspect will derive more benefit from its influence than those portions of the ground which only receive in full the morning or evening rays. Attention should, therefore, be paid in planting vines, to select the more forward and hardy sorts for the afternoon or morning aspects, reserving those of a more delicate and less forward kind for the noon-day aspect.

The first two years’ treatment of the vine is very simple. All under shoots, or underground offsets, must be broken off. The tendrils and branches must also be nipped off, and the top shoots not allowed to grow too high. About four feet high is sufficient for any vine, but three feet is more generally recommended; this* however, must depend upon the strength and thickness of the vine-.

About January or February, slips from the cane, from ten to twelve inches long, should be set in a nursery bed, and next spring those that may have shot or taken root may he removed to another bed till required for the vineyard.

It may here he remarked, that the process of terracing will he seldom necessary in Victoria, as this is only needful where the hill-side is too steep for ordinary cultivation ; in all cases, however, provision should he made for drainage, as nothing is so injurious to the vine as the continued saturation of the soil by water. In dry seasons, even, the application of water in moderate quantities is seldom recommended; for, though it increases the quantity of wine, this will always he at the expense of quality.

It is a most pleasing fact, that the vine will grow on land which, from its position and properties, is unsuited for general cultivation. Thus the vine thrives luxuriantly on the hillside, where the culture of other plants would be next to impossible ; and, provided the soil be light and porous, its component parts are of little consequence. To obtain good dry wines, it is desirable to have a proportion of chalk or lime in combination with the soil; but, if it be impregnated with a fair proportion of feruginous matter, the vines will be strong and healthy, and the fruit improved in flavor. It is difficult, however, to account for the difference in the quality and growth of fruit produced in different localities from soil possessed of nearly similar properties. Experience alone can guide the cultivator with certainty as to the peculiarities of his own district, so as to direct him in the planting of such varieties as are best calculated to produce a wine of the desired quality. Certain soils will best produce some particular kind of wine, or are best adapted to a particular grape; this should be ascertained as soon as possible, and the future planting should be regulated accordingly. There are certain grapes which are only suited for wine making, and others which are better adapted for the manufacture of raisins. For the latter purpose a large fleshy grape, such as the muscat, is alone suitable.

I hat the culture of a vineyard is one of the most profitable occupations in which the husbandman can be engaged there can be no doubt. The trees, if planted in suitable soil, will generally bear well after the fourth year, and will continue to yield a remunerative crop for one hundred years. Wine cannot, however, be produced in perfection from a young vineyard, several years being necessary to bring the tree to full maturity. But we will for thepresent confineour remarks to the culture of the vine for the sake of its fruit only, as applicable for market purposes.

rl o cultivate grapes with a view to profit, the ground must be exclusively reserved for the vines. The praotice, which sometimes

prevails of planting vegetables between tbe rows, should be discontinued, as tending to exhaust tbe soil, and draw from the vine the nourishment it requires. As already stated, chalky soil is the best for grapes; but, nevertheless, the tree is known to grow luxuriantly on other soils ; as, for instance, in Western Australia, where the very finest grapes are produced from soil almost entirely composed of sand. In other districts, stony and rocky soils are found to answer well; but a rich, fatty soil, though it produces a fine grape, will seldom yield a fruit from which good wine is made.

The ground should be frequently turned over and exposed to the summer sun, and, as it becomes exhausted, should be replenished with an occasional dressing. In order to provide for this, a compost heap should be prepared, which may be done in the following way ; throw together a large quantity of sand and road scrapings, lime or plaister rubbish, cow and stable dung, well rotted, but not new; the leaves of trees and decayed plants. This heap should be well turned over and incorporated at least six months before it is put upon the land, and may be applied every spring and autumn. But the least expensive and perhaps the best manure that can be used is the cuttings of the vine chopped up small and dug into the ground.

Nothing is so important to vines as to keep the ground well stirred, and perfectly free from weeds; a small shovel or Dutch hoe may be used for the weeds; but in stirring up the mould a spade should not be employed, but a four-pronged fork, as the fibrous roots of the vine are not so subject to injury, as when the former tool is used. In the sugar plantations of Jamaica a tool is in use, having three strong forks, which are bent downwards at right angles with the handle, and is used in a similar way to the hoe or mattock. There is no reason why this instrument should not be introduced into the vineyards of this country. The advantage gained by using a fork is, that, although it may tear some of the roots up, it does not cut or break them. The ground near the vines should not be touched, or at least for a circuit of six inches ; and the earth should be a little raised round the stem, say to the height of three inches.

In addition to the compost mentioned above, there are several other manures and dressings, which are equally efficacious. Sea sand, when the soil is stiff and difficult to work, is a valuable manure, but cannot easily be obtained, except in the neighbourhood of the coast, in which case, road or pit sand may be substituted. Bullocks’ blood forms a very rich dressing, and is considered excellent for the production of table grapes. Soap suds, the refuse of the candle and soap factories, and wood ashes, are of

important use in some cases, in consequence of their alkaline properties. Bone dust, and liquid manure, are also serviceable, but the latter must be applied with caution, and in a diluted state. Gypsum, or plaster of Paris, are powerful stimulants, and, in some soils, are even better than lime. This plaster, which is produced by the heating of gypsum, may frequently be purchased in a damaged state, and at a merely nominal price.

Vine stakes are easily procured from young wattles, or two inch quartering will answer the purpose well, and last for several years.

Fruit will appear in abundance the second year; but, with the exception of one or two branches reserved as a sample, the vine should not be allowed to bear, and all the tendrils should be pinched off. On the third and fourth year, however, a full crop may be gathered.

The pruning of the vine is of more importance than is generally imagined; on this, in a great measure, depends the healthy state of the vine, and the quantity as well as quality of its fruit. If the branches are cut too low down, or too near the ground, the porosity of the cane allows a small insect to enter, unless the part newly cut be protected by a knot, or covered over with a composition such as this;—gum, wax, and the white of an egg, properly amalgamated. Should the insect effect an entrance, it lays its eggs, and, in due course, a grub is produced, which, eating its way out, leaves a hole in the root, which will soon cause decay, and may ultimately kill the vine-

There is great diversity of opinion relative to the pruning of the vine. Some recommend four or five bines, and only three or four bunches on each ; others recommend one main stem to be allowed to bear all the fruit, and the remainder to be kept barren as a reserve for future seasons, allowing the bearing stem to have rest on the following year. The first plan appears to be tbe more preferable one, where the fruit is grown for the table.

The yield of a vineyard depends upon the climate, soil, and age of the vine, as well as on the particular kind grown. As a general rule, a vine, when in full bearing, should not be allowed to ripen more than from twenty to twenty-five pounds of grapes.

The trimming and thinning of the fruit when full-sized bunches and large berries are required, is absolutely necessary ; and if intended for exhibition, one bunch, or two at the most, should only be allowed to grow on each cane. The thinning must be carefully done, with a sharp-pointed, and long, narrow-bladed pair of scissors.    *

The foregoing observations are almost entirely applicable to the produce intended for market; and we will now very briefly

offer a few suggestions on tlie culture of the vine intended for making wine.    .

The vineyard may have the same aspect as that previously described, and a similar soil is also suitable. The system of manuring is the same in both cases, with this exception only, that where the produce is intended for wine, it must be used more sparingly. The same care in weeding, and turning over the soil, is also necessary, and should he carefully attended to.

And here, in the first place, we may recommend that the different varieties of grape should not be mixed together in the same vineyard ; where more than one sort is grown it is desirable that separate portions of the vineyard be allotted to each, which will prevent trouble and confusion in gathering the fruit, and will also prove advantageous in maintaining the purity of the wine. It is true that different kinds of grapes are sometimes mixed in the manufacture of particular wines, but even when this is resorted to, it is better that they should be grown apart, as this allows the proper quantités of each to be employed. In the south of France much attention is paid to the training of the vine. In some instances, especially in the smaller varieties, the vine is trained upon an upright stake only; in other cases it is trained as an espalier; but the latter plan is generally adopted for raisin and table grapes. At the Cape of Good Hope, no support, of any kind, is used. The method of pruning is a very simple one, and if, in the making of the wine, a few of the lower bunches were rejected, the plan would be a good one, as involving but little trouble or expense. To each stem, three branches only are allowed. The new wood annually produced from these branches is removed by pruning every year, one knot only of young wood being left to each, which is so managed as to form a continuation of the old branch, and always tends upwards. In the spring, if the young vines appear to be shooting up too fast, they are topped off at about four feet from the ground with a strong switch, which is considered better for this purpose than a sharper instrument.

In almost every wine growing district, and certainly in every country, different methods of training and pruning are in use. It will not be necessary to consider these critically in the present treatise, but a few observations may not be out of place.

In pruning, a plan very much resembling that in use at the Cape is also adopted in the celebrated vineyards of Hungary. In that country, however, the vines are uniformly trained on stakes provided for the purpose. From the first period of the vineyard, the vine is cut short, say from three to four inches above the level of the ground, and afterwards always olose to the

stump, which is thus gradually formed by a system of short pruning.

Fine, dry weather should be selected for the gathering in of the fruit; for, if the grapes be gathered in wet weather, the wine will be of inferior quality. In preparing the grapes for the press, they should be carefully sorted; those which have became dried or withered, and such as may be soiled by contact witli the ground, should be excluded. In many places, they are still trodden with the feet, as in ancient times; in other instances, implements are brought into requisition for accomplishing the same purpose; but it seems probable, that the operation could be more effectually, and perhaps economically, performed by the aid of machinery. After the process of expressing the juice is completed, the refuse, including the stalks, the skins, and the seed of the grape, are used for the manufacture of brandy, which spirit is that best adapted for the strengthening of the wine. Foreign brandy would alter its flavour, and probably otherwise injure the quality of the wine. A very small quantity of the spirit, however, is sufficient to insure the stability of the wine. When the juice, or must as it is called, is put into the casks, it will be well not entirely to fill them. The casks themselves should be kept in the open air, but not exposed to the rays of the sun, a shed or verandah being the best place for them. They should then be carefully watched; and, when the fermentation ceases, should be filled up with wine of similar quality, and in a sound state; and, with the addition of a very small quantity of spirit, should be bunged up, so as entirely to exclude the atmospheric air. They may then be placed in a dry, clean cellar, with a uniform temperature of from 50 ° to 60 ° Far., and, being placed on wooden bins, raided a little above the floor of the cellar, the wine should not again be disturbed,until it is racked off or bottled, which should notbe done till the wine is perfectly clear, a fine day being chosen for the purpose. The richer the wine, the longer will be the time required in fermentation ; and the larger the casks are, the better the wine will keep, as the temperature is not so readily affected.

Raisins are prepared by dipping the bunches in a weak solution of alkaline or barilla, and afterwards spreading them out in the sun to dry upon a bed of clean straw, laid upon poles or rods, secured to stakes driven into the ground. This insures for them a fair supply of air, and a complete exposure to the sun’s rays. They must be taken in every night, and when re-placed in the morning they should be carefully turned. In a week or ten days they will be ready for packing.

It is pleasing to contemplate, that the difficulties which sur-

round the wine grower on the continent of Europe are scarcely ever experienced in this climate; the mildness of the winter here forming a delightful contrast to the rigours of the corresponding season in Europe. And if we have less frost and cold in winter, we have also a smaller liability of being inflicted with hailstorms, or a continuance of wet weather at the period of vintage. Indeed, the mildness and salubrity of the Australian climate seem to point it out as being more completely adapted to the cultivation of the vine, than perhaps any other region in the world. In other respects, also, the culture of the vine is especially suitable to this country, as requiring but a small amount of labour after the first year or two, when it becomes light, healthful, and inexpensive; whilst the returns continually increase, at least for several years. Mr. Wekey, in his work recently published on the cultivation of the vine, confirms the view we have taken. He remarks as follows: In the onward progress of our vineyard cultivation, I see no reason why this Colony should not look forward to the possibility of coming into successful competition in the general market of the world with the most favoured of the wine countries of Europe. The only question with capitalists, then, under such circumstances, is as to the comparative profitableness of the employment. Calculations made with great care and consideration, where a wide range of colonial experience entered into the account, and every precaution taken against contingent sources of error, were found to authorise the following statement: if ten acres of uncleared land appropriated for vineyard cultivation, purchased at the rate of two pounds per acre, be cleared, trenched, and planted, with sufficient skill, it will be found, at the end of the third year, the produce of the vineyard may be made to cover the yearly outlay with the interest of the capital embarked in the undertaking. That at the end of the seventh year, it is capable of reproducing the original capital vested in the concern, with interest, and all antecedent outlay : thereafter it is calculated to yield a clear and constant profit of one hundred and fifty per cent, on the annual expenses of management.”

We are happy to se9 that an association has been formed in Victoria for the cultivation of the vine upon an extended scale. Such an institution may be eminently useful to the Colony by introducing into it the several varieties in general esteem elsewhere, in testing the adaptability of the soil and climate to the growth of particular kinds of grape; in experimenting upon the best modes of culture and the various methods of winemaking ; and, lastly, in diffusing such information as will enable the public generally to adopt the system most likely to insure success.



It is of the first importance to man to understand well the nature of the soil on which his daily subsistence depends, and the best modes of treating it; otherwise, as population increases, he may find himself reduced to a sate of want, or even famine.

The soil is formed, for the most part, from the rocks of which the crust of the earth is composed. By the action of air and water these rocks crumble, and. by this disintegration, form the primary bases of our surface soils. To these are added, the remains of vegetable and animal organization, which, as they decay, add greatly0to the fertility of the soil, and, indeed, prepare it for the development or sustenance of higher orders, both of plants and animals.

There are three leading kinds of soil known to practical men : that formed by the crumbling of limestone is termed calcareous ; that produced from sandstone a sandy soil: and a hard clay, or slate, when it decays, forms the basis of the clay soils. The marly, or calcareous soils, contain much limestone, chalk, or other matter, known by chemists as carbonate of lime. The sandy soils are distinguished by consisting chiefly of quartzose, or siliceous sand, another form of flint, and rock crystal, or the substance which the chemists call silica. The clay soils are so termed, as abounding in clay, a compound substance, consisting chiefly, besides silica, of a substance to which the chemists give the name of alumina. But in addition to the silica of the sandy soils, the alumina of the clays, and the lime of the marly soils, many other substances are incorporated with them, and, occasionally, in large proportions; the principal of these are potash, soda, magnesia, oxide of iron, sulphuric acid, and phosporic acid. If some, and, indeed, nearly all of these ingredients are not present, either in large or small proportions, it is not possible that healthy vegetation can exist. And it is for this reason that if any one plant be grown for a succession of years upon the same land, the soil will gradually lose those properties, which, in the first instance, rendered it peculiarly adapted for the purpose. The only remedy for this is, either to add those chemical substances of which the land has been deprived, or else introduce some other plant, principally depending for its growth on ingredients of a different character.

It is the same with the organic as with the inorganic sub-tsances; they may be present in quantities too large or too small to suit the requirements of particular classes of vegetation; and it is ou this account that plants which prefer a sandy soil will not

always thrive therein; clearly showing, that it is necessary, not only that the requisite proportion of mineral substances should not be wanting, but that the necessary organic food should be also present. If, then, we introduce, in an available form, those ingredients of which the soil is deficient, vegetation will soon display itself in unmistakable verdure and luxuriance.

The best mode of ascertaining the constituent proportions of mineral and vegetable matter composing any particular soil is as follows:—Having first thoroughly dried a sample of the soil intended for experiment, weigh off, say one pound, with great care, and expose this to the action of a red heat. If thus treated in the open air, the vegetable, or organic, portions will soon be consumed, and fly off, leaving a sensible difference in the weight of that which is left. This difference will indicate the proportion of organic matter contained in the soil. The natural qualities of the soil, in any particular district, partake more or less of the properties of the neighbouring rocks; and the depth of the soil will, in a great measure, depend upon the decomposibility of the rocks on which it stands, and is generally deeper in the valleys than on the table lands ; for, in the natural course of things, as the mountain torrents bring down the sedimentary deposits, so are the lower cavities filled; the heavier particles lodging first, and, by degrees, those which have been held in a state of solution. Chemical and atmospheric influences produce further changes, and plants begin to appear, which, in their decomposition, are followed by the higher orders of the vegetable kingdom; thus the once sterile land and desert is turned into a field of exuberance and plenty. One order of beings follows another, in quick succession, and, lastly, lordly man steps forth and claims the spot as his own.    _

The formation of the soil may thus be summed up in a few words;—Chemical and mechanical decomposition, atmospheric and igneous agency, and sedimentary deposit. The soil, before it becomes productive, must, either by these agencies, or by the hand of man, become reduced to the condition of loam ; at least this is the best form in which it exists for the purposes of cultivation.    _

Carbonate of lime ..................... 26

Siliceous earth ........................ 30

Alumina ................................. 27

Organic matter ........................ 17

i Sir Humphrey Davy considered the following to be a fair sample of what should consitute a rich loam :

The oxides form a principal constituent of the organio substances, and are absolutely essential to vegetable life.

Soils are sometimes distinguished by their relative position ; thus we have the upper and lower soil, and tli<> subsoil; or, omitting the intermediate designation, the surface soil and the substratum. The mould, or surface soil, usually differs considerably in depth varying, frequently, from four or five inches to as m ny leet; but in the selection of soil for agricultural purposes, it should not ba less than twelve inches in thickness.

The chemical changes of the soil aro principally produced by the agoncy of air and water. No soil can be in a healthy state which does not allow a free circulation of these elements ; light and heat also operate powerfully, but their influence is of a more subtle character, and not so easily described. Different soils absorb and radiate heat in different ratios, which circumstance is well worthy the notice of the farmer.

t Much, every way, depends upon tho nature of the subsoil, which should claim iho careful attention of tlmso ¡ Lout to purchase land for cultivation. The properties of this stratum are in fact, of as much importance as that which covers it. Independently of the adaptability, or otherwise, of its constituent parts to tho nourishment of vegetation, it may possess two peculiarities either of which would render profitable cultivation difficult even* with the best surface soil. In the first place, it may be of such a retentive character as entirely to prevent the percolation of water, or it may be so porous as to absorb it loo readily. Iu cases where a subsoil exists thoroughly impervious to water, Iho effect will be, that the surface soil will become charged with tho greater part of the rain which falls upon it, and in winter, when evaporation is slow, and almost imperceptible, tho surface ’of tho ground will bo, as it wore, saturated with water, which, as it has tho effect of preventing the genial action of the sun and air retards vegetation and, as it is termed, “kills” the soil. When the summer sun, however, begins to act upon it, the water hold within it is soon evaporated, and as there is no moisture in the subsoil from which to draw a supply, it soon becomes dried up as though it had been baked, and, being as hard as a brick, is al’i’co unyielding to tho action of tile plough or spade. When on'tho other hand, tho subsoil is of a too porous nature, tho rain which falls, instead of being retained within tho ground, instantly passes through, and leaves the upper soil as dry and unproductive in the summer season, as that above described.

Of the two evils, perhaps tho first is that from which the farmer suffers most in this country. The only way in which it oai> a

be remedied is by underground drainage, while the lack of water is best provided for by a system of irrigation. It must, nevertheless, be admitted, that it may be some years before the outlay necessary for such works would be warranted by the prospect of a corresponding remuneration, unless, indeed, it be in soma exceptional cases. On this account it is of the more importance that the greatest caution should bo observed in the choice of a farm in this Colony. We would recommend every intending purchaser, before closing his bargain, to try well, by actual experiment. the quality, not only of the upper surface of the soil, but of that also which is below. A few holes should be dug to tha depth of from two to three feet, and, if in the winter season, these may be readily filled with water, when the time required for it to disappear, or to diminish, may be considered a fair criterion of the absorbing powers of the soil. In making selection at any period of the dry season, if the ground should have suffered, during the winter, from a superabundance of water, this will usually be quite evident from the footprints of animals, now become indelible, and from the hard and tenacious character of the surface.    t _

A moderate and uniform temperature of the soil is of the utmost importance to the successful cultivation of plants, and it is principally for this reason that the degrees of moisture should also be duly regulated, the absorption and radiation of heat depending greatly upon the condition of the soil as respects the quantity of water which it contains. Land which retains too large an equivalent of water will be several degrees in temperature below that necessary for the maintenance of vegetable life, and the transition of temperature, in passing from day to night, or from night to day, will be so considerable as still further to check the progress of vegetation.

But the nature and quality of the soil itself will alter greatly its uniformity of temperature. Stiff, clayey soils are very slow absorbents, and, when heated, cool very soon. Limestone soils retain the heat very long when dry, but are slow absorbers. Ferruginous soils absorb heat quickly, and are slow radiators ; but soils containing a large proportion of vegetable matter are the quickest absorbers of heat, and, at the same time, the quickest radiators. These are facts which should be carefully retained, and also, that the drier the soil the more quickly it will be heated. Independently of the water which falls upon the earth in the form of rain, a large quantity of moisture is attracted and absorbed during the night, being supplied by the condensation of yapour, which, as dew, settles upon the surface cf the ground.

The quantity of moisture thus attracted and retained, differs exceedingly in different earths. Yegetable matters absorb more moisture than clay, or the compounds of clay and sand, and these more than the carboniferous soils. It is only by a proper admixture of earths, when this has not already been accomplished by natural causes, that a proper condition of the soil, for the retention of the necessary degrees of heat and moisture, can ba secured.

It is desirable in all large and important purchases first to obtain an analysis from a practical chemist, which will, under any circumstances, be useful in the economical cultivation of the soil. Hundreds of pounds may thus, in some cases, be saved in the cartage of manures of a description not calculated to correct the actual defects of the land; and, on the other hand, much may be lost by a deficiency of crops, where, by proper treatment, and the addition of a small quantity of the necessary stimulant, an abundant harvest might have been reaped.

A careful experimental investigation into the true nature of the soil is of greater consequence in Australia than, perhaps, in any other part of the world ; and this is supported by the fact, that a stranger, however good a judge he may be of land in his native country, will find it not only difficult, but absolutely impossible, in all cases to determine with precision the true character of the soil, and its relative capabilities, in this Colony. Land which, from its color, and other indications, would appear to be good, is oftentimes useless; while that which has the appearance of being hungry and sterile, is not unfrequently found to be the most productive. Local observation and experience can alone guide the cultivator, and point out to him the best course of procedure.

It is difficult to account for this satisfactorily, but several suggestions have been offered on the subject. Persons newly arrived are often mistaken in the nature of the soil by the vegetation which they find upon its surface. Fine trees are supposed in many cases to indicate a proportionably fertile soil, but in this it is easy to be mistaken. There are some of our largest trees—the stringy-bark for instance—which are seldom or never found upon a good soil. The quality of the surface is, however, frequently indicated by the presence and growth of several of the smaller species of trees, while the gum and other large forest trees, though they frequently furnish an indication, by the degree of perfection to which they arrive, as to the nature of the sub-soils, seldom afford any criterion for judging of the surface. The grasses and other smaller

varieties of plants are often referred to in forming a judgment as to the relative qualities of the soil. An inexperienced person is, however, as likely to be mistaken by these indications, as by any other. In Australia it often happens that the best land is not only entirely bare of trees, but in its natural state it will frequently be found almost altogether denuded of grass. Thebest soil, however, usually produces natural grasses of a finer texture than are found upon.less fertile soils; the coarser varieties of grass being generally met with upon land of an unproductive nature. But this rule is not of universal application, as many of the coarser grasses are sometimes found upon the best soils ; while, it must be observed, that those of a superior description are Beldom produced on barren land. On the other hand, the quantity and apparent luxuriance of vegetation is often much more remarkable upon indifferent soils than upon those of a better class. It must, however, he understood, that we are here speaking of land in a state of nature; and these anomalies will bo lsss striking in proportion to the approaches of civilization. Not only cultivation, but even the continued grazing of cattle, will greatly modify the appearance of the country;—the natural grasses gradually disappear, and are generally replaced by those more nearly resembling the European varieties.    _    _

The varieties of good soil usually met with in "V ictoria are not very numerous: and, with a view to assist those who have not vet had much experience on the subject, and dealing with it in a practical point ol view, we will endeavour to classify them under their principal he ads, which are as follows :    •    _

1.    Rocky and stoney lands with but little surface soil.

2.    Cold clayey lands.

S. Sand, with a small proportion of vegetable matter.

4.    Mixtures of sand and clay, iu various propoitions.

5.    Black clayey loam.

6.    Black sandy loam.

7.    Feruginous loam.

The rocky or stoney lands, as above named, are seldom to be met with except in mountainous regions. Sometimes, little else but the bare rock is exposed to view; in other cases, the surface appears to be broken up, and a small proportion of sod, generally clayev, but not unfrequently of a lighter character, is to be met with. The stringy-bark tree generally flourishes upon this soil, its roots penetrating far into the rocky strata of t ie mountain, while the head, perhaps, towers two hundred feet above. Upon some of these lands it is possible the vine might flourish ; but it would only be those of the hardy varieties, as, at such eie-

vations, the climate is usually much colder than on the plains.

The aspect, however, will do much to correct this.

The cold clayey lauds are also very generally' found to he confined to the mountain districts. The color frequently approaches that of pipe-clay; and a more unprodr,ctive soil, in its natural state, can hardly be conceived. On this land we also find the stringy-bark tree, but only in the elevated regions: at inferior levels we find the blue gum and other varieties of Eucalipti.

The sandy soils of Australia are very extensively diffused. They are most generally met with near the sea shore, and large tracts of the interior are also overspread with sand. Such deserts are usually covered with a thick and, sometimes, an almost impenetrable scrub, which cause them to be generally avoided by the settlers. It will probably be ages before many of these districts are reclaimed for the use of man. That they are capable of improvement, however, and may, with care and diligence, be rendered productive, we have but little doubt, as the majority of these soils contain a considerable proportion of decayed vegetable matter, and are found to be by no means unsuitable for the growth of vines ; cabbages, melons, and perhaps other plants, would also, in some instances, be found to answer equally well.

By far the most considerable portion of the settled districts of the Colony consists of soils partaking both of the nature of clay and sand, being composed of both these ingredients, though in different proportions. Much of the land around Melbourne partakes of the same character, and, though better than either a pure sand or clay, is usually found to be unproductive in its natural state. The absence of organic matter is supposed to be the principal cause of this ; it may also be in part attributed to the absence of limestone, or other ealcarious substances. On this account it is, that most of the land in the immediate neighborhood of the capital yields but a poor return, unless abundantly manured. The best and most economical manures for such soil have yet to be determined ; large supplies of stable dung and other ordinary dressings are, however, readily obtained within the city, and this is a supnly that will probably never fail. In some instances it will be found that an upper layer of soil will exist, about three inches thick, containing a fair proportion of organic matter, this being indicated by its darker color. So thin a stratum, however, will be of little avail when mingled with that which is below it, and the substrata must, therefore, in. these cases, chiefly determine the productive value of the soil. It will occasionally he found that the particles of clay and sand are combined in about equal proportions; in other cases the clay

and sand will preponderate, according to the district in which it occurs. Sometimes there will be more clay upon the surface, and less below it, or vice versa; and the sand is often distributed in the same way, being found in unequal proportions in the upper and lower strata.

_ The black clayey loams of this Colony most usually occur in the volcanic districts, and are to be met with extensively as forming the surface of many of our large open plains. It is found of different qualities, according as it approaches the character of clay or loam. During the winter months it is almost impassable for drays or carts, in consequence of its great depth and tenacity, and the readiness with which it absorbs the water. In summer it cracks readily, and is very friable. It is then more easily cultivated; it requires, however, to be well drained and manured, when it becomes a very productive soil. The addition of a small proportion of lime or sand will add greatly to its value, as rendering it capable of cultivation in the wet season; and, if exposed to a summer’s fallow, after being well turned up, the best effect will be produced.

The black sandy loams are to be distinguished from the above by the large proportion of sand which they contain, and the presence of alluvial matter. Such soils are usually found only on the banks of rivers, or in the bottoms of ravines and valleys. They are entirely due to sedimentary deposits of a recent date, and are, on the whole, far superior to the clayey loams, as being readily worked at any season of the year, and as being highly productive in their nature, requiring but a small quantity of manure. All kinds of garden produce thrive well on such lands; but, in making a selection, care should be observed to secure that which is of the greatest depth.

The ferugi nous loams are lastly to be described. They differ but little in quality or appearance, being always of a reddish color, and of a very fine texture; the relative value of thesoil being determined more by its depth, and the nature of the subsoil than by any other consideration. From the quantity of iron oxides which it contains, it is among the most fertile of our soils, and is not only admirably adapted for the growth of cereal crops, but also for orchards, vineyards, and, in fact, all the higher departments of cultivation. It is also less easily exhausted than other soils, and requires for the first few years but little or no manure. We have not observed any specimens of this soil in the immediate neighborhood of Melbourne; but in the interior of the country, large districts are to be met with, in which it is extensively distributed. Some excellent tracts of such land have been noticed in the neighborhood of the

Ovens, and we have ourselves observed it in many other parts of the Colony. It is to be as frequently met with on the tops or sides of hills as in the plains; but, wherever it is found, the cultivator may depend upon its productive qualities.

In addition to the various soils named above, we might have referred to the marshy lands in the neighbourhood of swamps, and the beds of rivers, which, though they are often formed of the richest vegetable mould, are generally useless until they have been drained. There are, doubtless, many localities where the description of land will not, in all respects, correspond with any of the divisions given above; in event of which it will be found, on examination, that, for the most part, they are either simply modifications of one or other of these classes, or else form an intermediate link between two of them. The gravelly, peaty, and calcarous soils are so rarely seen, that we have not deemed it necessary particulary to describe them; the latter, however, is, in some distant parts of the Colony, more frequently to be seen than either of the others, when it is usually found in association with the sandy soils, or the black clayey loams :—to the latter it sometimes forms the substratum, and, in ploughing the land, the limestone, in an apparently decomposed state, is frequently turned up, which must greatly assist in mellowing the soil. Under similar circumstances, traces of limestone are often discovered in the neighbourhood of Melbourne, and which are usually mistaken for marl.

We here offer a few remarks upon some of the principal townships and other districts of the Colony, which may be found useful in determining the intending settler as to the choice of a locality.

Though we have traversed a considerable portion of the Colony, and visited some of the principal localities, yet there are several important districts which we have not seen ; and for this reason, we are disposed to render our remarks as general as possible, inasmuch, as, in drawing comparisons between one place and another, the reader might readily be misled as to the relative fertility and capability of particular districts, unless the full merits of each were fairly and adequately represented. Our object is not to raise the reader’s estimation of one part of the Colony at the expense of another, but to give such a comprehensive view of all as will serve as a guide to the intending settler in making a selection for himself. Probably there is no part of the Colony which is not favored with peculiar advantages; and for this reason, it is always best for every one to judge for

himself, having previously stored his mind with the fullest amount

of i »formation within his reach.

We will commence with the south-eastern road. The first place arrived at is St. Kilda, The soil here is for the most part light sandy loam ; and, with proper care, might be rendered very productive, as is proved by many of the gardens now in cultivation. 1 lie land here, however, is at present too expensive even for market gardens; and, therefore, if this direction be selected, it will be advisable to go out somewhat further towards Brighton, which is a large and important township, of a rural character, end, at the same time, enjoying a magnificent frontage to the Bay. The site of this township, which occupies several thousand acres, was formerly known as Dendy’s special survey. The land is, tor the most part, light and sandy; some parts are too sandy for any cultivation except that of the vine; but in portions ot the district, though there is a large proportion of sand in connection with the soil, it is by no means deficient of other ingredients of a fertilizing character, and, with the aid of manure very fine crops have been produced upon it. It vs from seven to ten miles from town, which is a convenient distance for a market gardener, as the produce can he readily disposed of. The price of land here varies considerably ; not so much in proportion to the quality of the soil, as in respect of its oosition with regard to particular localities. Very fair land may be purchased in the immediate neighbourhood of the township at from twenty to sixty pounds an acre. This may appear high, but, considering the numerous advantages of such a position, it is by no means exorbitant, as compared with prices demanded in other districts. We are happy to see that there is a prospect of obtaining speedily a railway communication between Melbourne and Brighton. All the residents should support such a scheme, as it will tend greatly to increase the demand for their produce, and will enable them, probably, to dispose of the gteater part of it on the spot, in consequence of the influx of the mercantile community of Melbourne, which would then undoubtedly he directed to this favorite watering-place. Hereabouts, there, are several excellent springs; there are others, however, which are slightly brackish, and which should be treated according to the directions given in a former chapter. It may,however,he observed, that the greater the quantity of water drawn from such springs, the better will he clie quality. In the direction of Brighton, the land is well wooded, and continues to he so, all the way to Dan-denong.    _    ,

Dandenong is a small village about ten miles beyond Brighton,

The land is rather thickly timbered, but the soil is very fair end, with attention, yields large crops. The distance from the market, however, is a great drawback, if occupied by a market gardener. For the general farmer the distance is, on the contrary, very convenient, and the road is, for the most part, a very good one, being macadamized about half the distance, and the remainder, which is sandy, is not liable to become boggy in winter.

Proceeding further onwards, in the same direction, we arrive at the Western Port district. The greater part of this district is under water in winter; and the soil is, for the most part, a cold clay. It is true that there are a few ridges of sandy land intersecting the country in various directions; these are capable of cultivation, and are the sites usually chosen for homesteads and station buildings. During the spring and early part of the summer, cattle thrive well, and are quickly fattened; after which, they must be immediately withdrawn, as otherwise they would rapidly lose condition, with little probability of its being again recovered.

The Gipps Land district, which is the most distant territory in this direction, ¡3, in many respects, a very fine country. It is intersected by numerous streams descending from the Alpine ranges, in the north. Some parts of this district, near the sea, are barren, and unfit for cultivation ; and there are extensive plains occasionally liable to inundation ; but others, again, are naturally, well drained, and the soil, being good, abounds with grasses of the finest description. For the most part, the surface of the land is gently undulating, and intersected bv belts of forest trees, which afford shelter for cattle. The hot winds are but little felt here, as the mountain ranges of the interior, which rise to a height ol upwards of 5,000 feet, tend, in a great measure, to intercept their progress, or, rather, to modify their temperature. Nearer to these ranges, and to the northward of them, some very fine table land has recently been explored. The distance of these places from Melbourne would, however, preclude the cultivation ot the district, at present, with a view to the supply of that market; yet, it is very desirable that steps should he taken to colonise it as soon as possible ; for it is, piobably, from its situation, the most congenial climate to the European constitution of any in Australia. -

1 o the eastward of Melbourne, is the township of ITawthorne, and parish ot Boroondara. Much of the soil in this direction is exceedingly good, and well suited for market gardens; it is well timbered, and is watered by the river Yarra, the Gardiner’s

creek, and several small streamlets. The surface of the country is undulating, and is suitable for cultivation for a distance of about ten miles from Melbourne, when the stringy-bark forest commences. Most of the land is light and sandy, and much care is requisite in making a selection for garden purposes. Some parts, however, are distinguished by a stiff clayey soil, suitable for brick making. Beyond Boroondara, is the parish of Waran-dyte, nearly the whole of which is valueless in an agricultural point of view. South of the parish of Yearing, at a distance of about twenty-five miles east of Melbourne ; there are a few thousand acres of superior soil, much of it being composed of a rich red loam, suitable for any description of cultivation.

Taking a direction north-easterly from Melbourne, passing through Collingwood, we arrive at Heidelberg, where may be seen some of the best gardens in the vicinity of Melbourne. The land there is exceedingly rich and productive, and as there is now a good road to that locality, we would strongly recommend the intending settler to examine the country well in this direction, before making his final selection. The district beyond this is watered by the Plenty river, which empties itself into the Yarra. Some of the flats in the neighbourhood of this river are very fertile, and there is still much good land to be obtained in this vicinity. The district is generally hilly, but, nevertheless, well suited for agricultural purposes.

The northern or Sydney road first passes through the villages of Brunswick and Pentridge. Much of the soil round these localities is a stiff clayey loam, and is shallow, cold, and hungry, requiring much labor to bring it into cultivation. It requires, generally, a good mixture of sand and farm-yard manure to render it productive A few miles beyond this, the country improves considerably, the village of Somerton being situated in the centre of a fine agricultural district. The whole of the land on the eastern side of the road, as far as Malcolm’s creek, is very good,and would grow excellentbarleyand wheat. From Malcolm’s creek to the rocky water holes, the soil is very shallow, rocky, and sterile, and will require much labor to make it yield well. Wood of every kind is very scarce, and the water generally indifferent. From Kalkallo, or the rocky water holes, to Kil-more, the land is variable in quality, and, excepting a few choice spots, is generally worthless.

The Kilmore district is about forty miles from Melbourne, and the soil strong and clayey, requiring much expense to bring it into cultivation. Fine wheat crops are, however, grown upon it.

From hence to Seymour, on the Goulbourn, the soil gradually Improves. The Goulbourn is a fine river, capable of being navigated between this place and the Murray. The land along its banks, for some two or three miles back, is of a very prolific nature, from its source to its exit into the Murray ; and in the immediate vicinity of each of its tributaries the soil is equally good. Seymour, itself, which is about sixty miles from Melbourne, is a thriving little township, and will, no doubt, from its situation on the river, become, at a future day, a place of considerable importance. The soil, which is a rich loam, is generally very deep, and rests on a good subsoil. It is suited for every description of husbandry ; but the principal drawback at present is the want of good roads to convey the produce to market. Good water is to be obtained at a moderate depth by sinking, and excellent timber is supplied from the adjoining ranges.

Benalla is a fast rising township, situated on the banks of the Broken River, and is about one hundred miles from Melbourne. The river is a tributary to the Goulbourn, and runs through a rich alluvial flat, the soil being of the most productive character. It is well suited for grain crops, and, if well watered or properly irrigated, would grow potatoes and turnips well, and yield a large return. The country between this and the township of Wanga-ratta is well adapted for grain crops, and is abundantly supplied with wood and water. The town is well situated on the Ovens river, which is a tributary of the Murray. It is about one hundred and sixty miles from Melbourne. All the land through which the creeks run is suitable for agricultural purposes ; but the want of a railroad, or other suitable means of communication, is severely felt; and we hope the time is net far distant, when, instead of wheat and flour being supplied to these districts from a distance, they will, on the contrary, contribute to the resources of the country by a large exportation of agricultural produce, or, at any rate, produce sufficient to supply their own requirements and that of our mining population.

Returning to Kilmore, and keeping the left-hand road in the direction of Heathocte, we are led into a district containing fine agricultural soil, of a rich loamy nature, very deep, and well watered, and but little of which has yet been offered to the public. The country lying to the westward of this road, with the exception of that immediately adjoining the Coliban and Campaspie rivers is, however, of a very inferior quality.

Proceeding from Melbourne in a N. N. E. direction, we first passthrough the little townships of Flemington and Essendon, which are respectively three and five miles from Melbourne, and

possess several good spots of ground for the market gardener or small farmer. At about six miles from Melbourne, the road branches off to the right and left, to meet again at Gisborne, a spot formerly known as the site of the Bush Inn. The right-band road passes through the Deep creek and Jackson’s creek, and traverses some excellent land, though not generally of great depth. It appears to be mostly well suited for barley ; though we have seen good samples of wheat produced in this neighbourhood, and potatoes of the very finest quality.

Not one-thousandth part of the available land here is under cultivation, and but a small portion has been even fenced, which is to be the more wondered at in consequence of its proximity to Melbourne. It must be admitted, that this part of the country is inadequately watered ; but, by the sinking of wells, and the construction of tanks, this defect might very soon be remedied. It is seldom, indeed, in a new country, that wc shall find a natural provision for every want; an energetic and enterprising spirit must he brought to bear upon the question, before we can expect to realise, as a fact, the complete and adequate settlement of the Colony.

Keilor, so far as the township itself is concerned, is a poor place; nor is the soil much better, except in the gullies or sides of some of the slopes, where the land is tolerably good. Much of it, however, is so shallow as to be almost valueless for agricultural purposes, and is, moreover, very indifferently supplied with timber. The plains beyond Keilor consist, for the mo«t part, of a variable soil, and, though in many places not adapted for cultivation, we have no doubt but that other spots might be selected which would answer well for wheat or barley; and, though the situation is much exposed, and an entire want of shelter would be experienced, we are convinced, that the crops would not suffer on this account, as much of the wheat grown in South Australia is the produce of extensive plains which are, in almost all respects, similarly situated. The hot winds are, doubtless, very injurious, but they do not affect the wheat much, unless they happen to prevail when the plant is in flower; but this stage of its growth is generally past before these winds begin to blow with any degree of intensity. If the crop should, unhappily, be so much injured as to affect materially the probable yield of grain, the best plan is, to cut it down, while green, for hay, and immediately plough up the land for a summer fallow. It will then be in fine condition for the succeeding crop. It may here bo remarked, that a failure of crop here is less frequent than in England, and that, in no case, has it ever been known to be of a

general nature. Those districts suffer least from the hot winds which are protected on the northern side by a chain of lofty hills, or which are themselves situated at a considerable elevation above the sea.

The soil round Gisborne is very rich, and, when cleared and deeply ploughed, yields a large return. From this to CarlsrliUQ little can be said of its capabilities, as it is, for the most part, dense forest land, the quality of the soil not being sufficiently good to pay for clearing.

Carlsrhueds surrounded by a cold, swampy soil, very unproductive, and not, by any means, suited for farming purposes.

The township of Kyneton, which is about forty miles from Melbourne, is situated on the Campaspie river, and is a thriving place. The soil, on both sides of the river, is a black clayey loam, which appears to be very productive, but requires considerable labor to render it pliable, and otherwise prepare it for the growth of crops. But little of the land is at present under cultivation in this district; the want of good roads, and the distance from the nearest market, have hitherto been the chief drawbacks. But, with the improved state of the roads, and the establishment of a steam flour mill, we might soon expect a great improvement in the aspect of affairs; the surrounding country being -well wooded, and water plentiful. And here we would remark upon the advantage which would result from the establishment of mills throughout all the agricultural districts. It would save a vast amount of labor and expense in carriage ; and, in fact, reader the growth of wheat a profitable concern, where it could not otherwise be attempted, on account of distance from market, and the utter impossibility of getting it ground.

The soil in the vicinity of the Back creek consists of good, sound arable land, and, if sold in moderate quantities, would bring in large returns to the small farmer, its proximity to the diggings being a great consideration. Here is an abundance of spring water, and the soil is deep and sufficiently clear of limber.

The townships of Malmsbury and Elphiuston have been, as yet, but imperfectly settled. The soil is generally of inferior quality, though particular spots might be selected not unsuited for agri-tur&l purposes.

Castlemaine is situated on Forest Creek : the hanks of this creek consist, for the most part, of a rich alluvial soil, and tho same maybe said of Barker’s and Campbell’s creeks, which run through some of the finest loam in the Colony. The available land is, however, in many places extremely narrow. The hills run iu ridges parallel with these creeks, being, with few exceptions, stoney and unproductive; and, wherever the spurs from these ranges approach more closely to the creeks, the flats at these points proportionally diminish in width ; and indeed, in some instances, they are completely severed, the creek in such cases actually skirting the foot of the hills. These hills are generally thickly timbered, the summits being usually crowned with stringy bark. To the west of Castlemaine there is a tract of fine undulating country, for the most part lightly timbered, the soil being good, and very suitable for tillage. The supply of vegetables at the various diggings has hitherto been so scanty, that the cultivation of them for this market would, doubtless, be found exceedingly profitable.

The river Loddon takes its course from a range of hills almost three miles west of Kyneton. It has many tributaries, which all run through fine alluvial valleys of rich black loam. We trust that the now regulations for the sale of Crown lands, which we may look forward to with confidence, will be a means of throwing open these lands to the public, in lots of suitable sizes, and on terms sufficiently easy, to enable the immigrant farmer forthwith to locate himself upon the soil, and reclaim it from its state of nature.

Bendigo, or Sandhurst, as it is termed by Government, is situated on the Bendigo creek. The land here is not so fine as that in the neighbourhood of Castlemaine. There are, however, several extensive fiats which are all suitable for garden purposes; and, in the vicinity of Bullock creek, the land is of superior quality. Beyond this, in the direction of the Murray, is an extensive scrub, unfit for cultivation, and not at present adapted to any useful purpose.

Starting again from Melbourne, in a north-westerly direction, we cross the Saltwater River, either at Footscray, or somewhat higher up tho river, opposite Flemington. The road passes near Keilor, and traverses the extensive plains stretching out in that direction. The Saltwater river is deep, and, being of a tidal character, is navigable for vessels of large burthen for some miles above its junction with the Yarra Yarra. Tho land on the banks of this river is very prolific, and, in all respects, admirably adapted to the market gardener. The finest carrots brought to the Melbourne markot have been produced in this locality.

The plains above referred to, and which extend for many miles in a north-westerly, westerly, and south-westerly direction, are composed of a soil chiefly of volcanic orign. No trees are anywhere to met with, except a few in tho beds of some of tho creeks and water courses. A large proportion of the soil is covered, or rather partially covered, with boulders of a basaltic nature. These are admirably adapted for building purposes, and they are often used for the erection of boundary walls. The soil on which they are found is a black clayey loam, requiring much industry to bring it into a good state of cultivation, but, nevertheless, possessing a considerable amount of stamina, A light red loam is met with in other spots, which are sometimes of considerable extent. In some cases this soil is very deep, and, we have no doubt whatever, would produce good grain crops. The position is one much exposed to the prevailing winds ; but, as we have already noticed, we do not consider this an impediment to the successful cultivation of wheat or barley.

This road crosses the "Werribee and Moorabool rivers, on the banks of which the soil is of a superior quality. In proceeding on to Buninyong and Ballaarat, we pass through Bacchus Marsh and Ballan. These are both increasing places; and, as much of the land is very rich, excellent opportunities offer for the profitable cultivation of the soil in these localities, the principal inducement being the proximity of the Ballaarat diggings, which, for years to come, will, doubtless, prove to be an unfailing market. In the neighbourhood of Buninyong as much as from 40 to 45 bushels of wheat have been producee from a single acre, without any attempt at forcing the crop by artificial means ; which proves, incontestibly, the splendid results which might be looked for from the introduction of a superior system of culture.

The Wimmera district extends for a considerable distance beyond, and in a direction a little more northerly, than the localities above referred to. In this district we have the little townships of Glenorchy and Horsham, and in the vicinity of which the land is of very fair quality. But the greater part of this district, in consequence of the retentive nature of the subsoil, is wholly unfit for cultivation. It is timbered throughout, and, being very level, many miles may be traversed without once obtaining a glimpse of any distant object. For this reason, the general aspect of the country is monotonous in the extreme, and, except on the immediate banks of the river, decidedly unfavorable to the efforts of the husbandman. Most of the sheep in this district are affected with foot-rot, which is entirely traceable to the want of drainage and the impoverished condition of the soil.

Beyond this district, in the vicinity of the South Australian border, there is a very fine tract of country, some or the land we have seen there being really splendid. But the great distance from town will render it necessary, for many years to come, that these

remote localities be left in the undisputed occupation of the grazing farmer, or squatter, as he has hitherto been termed.

In a direction west of Melbourne we again pass over the Derrimut and Py wheitjork plains, above referred to, and thence, through the county of Grant, we enter the Portland Bay district. This is tor the most part a magnificent tract of country, skirting the sea coast from Cape Otway to the boundary of South Australia, and having several ports for the shipment of produce, the principal of which are, Port Fairy, Portland Bay, and Warrnambool. The northern part of the district is mountainous, the Grampians and Pyrenees being the principal ranges ; and from which many streams descend to fertilize the plains below.

The 1 and in the neighbourhood of Warrnambool, and the banks of the Glenelg, besides many other places that might be named, is beyond all praise; suffice it to say, that this splendid district, like Gipps’ land, is well worthy of becoming a separate and indépendant settlement.

South-west of Melbourne is the Geelong district. Geelong is the second town of Victoria; it numbers a population of nearly forty thousand, including the suburbs, and commands a magnificent view of Corio Bay, on the western side of Port Philip, which has been frequently likened to the Bay of Naples. The entrance to the bay, which was naturally shallow, lias been recently deepened by means of a steam dredge, and vessels of large tonnage can now come up to the Geelong wharf, the town being situate on the very shores of the bay. The land in the neighbourhood of Geelong, and on the banks of the Barwon, is particularly rich, and, considering the large population of the district, every thing should he done to encourage the breaking up of the soil, and its conversion to agricultural purposes.

The railway, now in formation between Melbourne and Geelong, will, it is hoped, afford a vast impetus to the cultivation of the extensive district situate between these two places. But wa should not wait for it; now is the time to put our baud to tha plough ; further delay will be most disastrous.


The most important consideration for the farmer, after having ascertained the constituent properties of the soil he has to deal with, is to determine the quantity and quality of the manures to be employed in fertilizing it; so as to obtain the greatest results, with the least expenditure of capital and labour. A correct knowledge of the former, however, enables us readily to supply the latter.

In a new country such as this, where we have to deal with a virgin soil, and where all kinds of vegetable and animal manures may be obtained merely for the expense of cartage, it is not, we presume, essential that elaborate processes of chemical science should be brought into play in order to produce in state of absolute purity the precise description of salts specially required for the growth of a particular plant; it is sufficient for our present purpose practically to describe the different kinds of manure in ordinary use, and the proper mode of applving them, so as to supply in the best possible maimer the requirements of particular soils, or such as are most generally to be met with in the Colony.

But first of all, we must not lose sight of the fact, that a great proportion '^of the nourishment required by the soil, in order to compensate for the loss arising from the exhausting properties of the several plants which have been raised upon its surface, is continually derived from the atmosphere. Not only are large quantities of oxygen perpetually imbibed by the soil itself, but no inconsiderable amount of ammonia is deposited by every shower of rain. From close observation of these facts, a modern husbandman has proved, beyond all controversy, that, by a constant digging, or otherwise stirring up of the surface of the land, the use of artificial manure may altogether be dispensed with. However, the value of labor, even in England, is too great to warrant a resort to this mode of farming, and it would, therefore, be obviously out of place here ; but the fact is an important one, as shewing the advantage to be derived from a frequent turning over of tho Boil; for by this means not only are fresh ingredients of a fertilizing quality introduced into its bosom, but the soil itself is mellowed, and rendered more suited by its texture for the purposes of vegetation.

Another mode of farming has been proposed, and is now much acted upon in England, with a view, in a great measure, to dispense with the necessity of manuring the land: that is, by a system of deep ploughing, to bring to the surface a soi’l from below but little impoverished by the crops which have been produced, and to turn underneath it the exhausted soil from the surface. This system, however, though a very good one in rich deep soils, or where the subsoil is of a tractable nature, would not answer generally in Victoria; at any rate, it would not altogether supersede the use of manures; for, even in England, it has not been found to effect that object, and, therefore, this mode of ploughing is only resorted to once in three years, and in some parts, H    

usually, not so frequently : nevertheless, in 'most cases, hut especially where fruit trees are to he planted, it is of much consequence to loosen the subsoil as much as possible; and, where fine crops of vegetables are not immediately required, it might, with some advantage, be thrown upon the surface.

We have already, in the preceding pages, offered several suggestions on the application of manures ; and, therefore, it is not our intention to dwell at any great length upon the subject here; we would, however, remark, that much care and discrimination are requisite in the use of artificial stimulants, and a considerable amount of experience necessary in order to obtain the most favorable results. This will be evident when we consider that the modern cultivator of the soil has frequently to apply himself to the cultivation of vegetable productions, differing from each other, not only in their character and composition, but as to the climate and soil in which they are naturally produced ; almost every quarter of the globe contributing to the general stock of plants and vegetables. The individual wants of these’varied products of the vegetable kingdom have all to be considered, and must be supplied by a judicious admixture of earths, and by the addition of manures and composts, composed of such substances as may be considered the actual food of each particular order of plants.

Natural stimulants are to be found almost everywhere ; by which we would indicate, that, in those instances where we find a soil unproductive, in consequence, either of a superabundance or deficiency of some particular ingredient, then it will very often occur, that the peculiar earth best calculated, by admixture, to supply the deficiency, will be found, on examination, at no great distance from it, and, in other cases, to be actually in juxtaposition.

Thus, where we have a sandy soil to deal with, it will be advantageous not only to add the manures ordinarily in use, but we should endeavour to improve its productive qualities by the addition of a little loam, or even clay and marl, which, when decomposition takes place, and they become thoroughly incorporated with the sandy particles, tend greatly to maintain the stability of the soil. But, on the other hand, where we have to contend with stiff, wet clay, and a yet stiffer subsoil, we shall find that nothing but a thorough drainage will do to reclaim successfully so unpromising a soil. After this, however, has been effected, and the subsoil broken up, a good coating of lime, or limestone, should be spread upon the ground, the surface of which should be pared off and burned; sand and ashes should then bo added, and the whole

ploughed in as speedily as possible. After the first crop lias been taken off, an addition may be made of short, well-rotted farmyard dung, which should be ploughed deeply into the ground. By a proper rotation of green and other crops the land will soon be rendered tractable; and the oftener it is turned over, and exposed to atmospheric action, the sooner will this be brought about.

In the observations already offered upon soils, we have endeavoured to describe both the retentive and the filtering properties of certain soils, as compared with others, and the degree in which they assist or retard the evaporation of water. From those remarks it may have been deduced, that the soil should, in order to be in the most favorable condition for promoting the growth of plants, possess both the properties of retentiveness and porosity in a moderate degree. It will also have been seen that sand possesses too much of the one, and clay too much of the other; in consequence of which, in the dry weather, it becomes consolidated into a hard, compact mas3, which cannot be penetrated by the tender roots and fibres of plants ; and, in the winter season, from the saturation of water, and the consequent low state of the temperature, is wholly unfitted for the sustenance of life. Thus the importance of an admixture of various soils, each of which maybe themselves barren —but which, by fusion, become in the highest degree fertile— will at once be seen and admitted.

For practical purposes, it is sufficient that we notice the various kinds of manure under the three following heads : viz., animal, vegetable, and mineral. Such a classification is not in agreement with the chemical analysis of bodies, by which all substances are reduced to their final elements; but it is a mode of division readily comprehended by those unacquainted with scientific definitions.

Of Animal Manures blood is excellent, especially for the vinery, as is also blubber and oil, but in most cases it should be mixed with other substances; and if used on heavy soils, road-scrapings may be added with advantage. When a compost heap has been made of earth, farm-yard manure, and lime, the addition of blood will enrich it greatly: this is done by digging a few holes in the top of the heap, and afterwards pouring the liquid into them, when they should be immediately covered up with soil. This manure ought to be employed previously to the ploughing of the land; as, when freshly laid on, if brought into immediate contact with plants, it would have the effect rather of retarding than of accelerating their growth. Plants im-merged in pure blood or oil immediately die. Blood, refuse» meat, and offal, can be bad without charge, from the slaughterhouses in the vicinity of Melbourne ; and, together with hair, feathers, and curriers’ refuse, are among the richest materials that can be obtained for the fertilization of the soil.

Fish, and all fishy substances, may be applied with considerable advantage to soils containing but little volatile matter. The quantity of gelatine contained in the skin, and the readiness with which even the bones become decomposed, when submitted to the action of the compost heap, if taken in connection with the large proportion of oil or fat which they contain, point them out as one of the most desirable of manures that can be applied to light friable soils. It is undoubtedly best if used after being properly decomposed; but in moist, cool weather, it is sometimes laid on when fresh from the sea side, the ground being immediately ploughed in, after which unprecedented crops have occasionally been obtained. There is a species of molusca, or jelly fish, as it is termed, occasionally found in large quantities upon our coasts, which might be used in this way with great ad» vantage.

Carcases of animals should be taken before decomposition has commenced, and, having been removed to a convenient spot, should be covered all over with a coating of lime; over this a layer of earth should be thrown, at least from nine to twelve inches thick, and well beaten down with the spade. In a few weeks the decomposition will be complete, and a large proportion of the animal matter will have become incorporated with the earthy crust, which should then be removed, and the remnant covered over afresh. When all the flesh, gristle, &c., has disappeared from the bones, the latter should be laid to one side, to be either crushed or ground as may be required. There is no unpleasant odour arising from this process, and consequently the health of the population would not be injuriously affected, as at present, by the noxious gases continually evolved from such sources,    e

Bones of animals are greatly used as a top dressing for succulent plants, and as a manure for light sandy soils; the best means of reducing them is by crushing and grinding; mills for this purpose are in extensive operation in Europe, and considering the large quantity of bones always to be obtained for the cartage in this Colony, it is to be regretted that means have net yet been provided for rendering them available for the purposes of agriculture. Bones are said to contain,—

Davy, however, states that the proportion of the phosphate of lime, contained in the hones of different animals, differs considerably. The powerful effect which bones have as a manure is chiefly due to the large quantity which they contain of this substance, and which is a principal ingredient in the composition of vegetable substances. For the Australian soil no manure can be used with greater advantage ; a top dressing of bone-dust if applied in the ratio of about thirty bushels per acre, lasting for some years; but it should be renewed about every three years, at the rate of twenty bushels per acre.

Solid cartilage, gelatine, and oil ........

.. 61 per


Phosphate of lime.........................

,.. 38

5 >

Carbonate of lime........................

... 10


Phosphate of magnesia ..................

... 1



Guano is a very powerful manure, as containing a large proportion of ammonia; it has not been introduced here in largo quantities as yet; neither do we consider it necessary that it should, while we have such large quantities of manure lying about in all directions, and not only unemployed, but, what is worse than this, actually deteriorating the atmosphere and endangering the lives of the people. The contents of cesspools, as obtained from all the large towns, if not too much diluted, forms the most powerful manure next to guano, which can be applied as a stimulant to the soil. It must, on no account, be used without being first mixed with a large proportion of earth, and should, even then, be applied but sparingly. If employed in a populous district, or near a town, it should be burned before being used; but where opportunity offers, the following plan is recommended for converting it into a compost heap. Let a pit be dug to the depth of, say, three or four feet; at the bottom of this, throw in a layer of saw-dust about six inches deep, and three inches of wood ashes over this. Afterwards the other materials may be added in the proportion of four loads of earth to one of the other, laid on in alternate layers. When the pit i3 full, an embankment of earth should be made all round; a layer of charcoal and wood ashes should be again laid on, and old sacking, or worn out gunny bags, on the top of this; tlie whole should bejmcurely covered, and well rammed with solid earth. After a few days the contents of the pit may be thrown out, and turned into the middle of a compost heap of lime, earth, and saw-dust, or, what is better, tanners’ refuse bark. This heap should remain for eight or nine months.

and should he well watched; and if any of the gas should escape, plaster it well over, as these ammoniacal vapors are of the greatest value, if retained in the composition. This kind of compost is much prized for every kind of garden soil, hut more particularly for the lighter kinds; and, when its heating properties have been thoroughly deadened, it makes a good dressing for all succulent roots, or for cabbages.

Stable or farm-yard dung is more generally in use than any other description of manure, and, for general purposes, answers extremely well. The manure, however, taken from the cow-yard should, if possible, be kept separate from that taken from stables where horses are kept; the former being best suited for light soils, while the latter is better adapted to stiff, cold, clayey lands. Again, the former decomposes more rapidly than the latter ; indeed, in manuring wet soils, the straw should not be too rotten, whilst for those of a lighter description, the more rotten it is the better. From the more lasting qualities of stable dung, it is best adapted for gardening purposes when laid upon the permanent beds, whilst the lighter description of farm-yard manure will be found best suited for flower gardens and borders.

Compost heaps, under any circumstances, should be covered over with earth as carefully as possible, so as to prevent the escape of the volatile salts. When properly fermented, the manure becomes reduced to half its original mass ; it should then be turned over, and thoroughly mixed, and, upon fermenting a second time, should be laid upon the ground and ploughed in as quickly as possible. Such manure should not, however, lie placed in immediate contact with plants, otherwise its stimulating qualities may at first force the plant too rapidly, and, by its being soon exhausted, the plant will deteriorate, and, in some cases, even perish for want of nourishment. For this reason, pig, fowl, and pigeon dung should be kept separate, as they are too powerful for most plants, and should only be used, as occasion may require, after having been well mixed with a due proportion of sand and ashes, the whole being pulverised and mingled in equal proportions. In this state it is invaluable as a top dressing for flowers and herbs, and should, if possible, be applied a short time before the occurrence of rain. Manure taken from the piggeries, and containing but little straw, is useful for sea kale and rhubarb; and when mixed with farm yard dung is recommended as a manure for asparagus.

Liquid manure, which includes all the drainings of the farm yard and stables, is not to be surpassed as an invigorator of the soil, as it can be used at certain seasons, and under circumstances, which would not admit the application of solid manure. There are cases, also, in which even a top dressing would be useless, in consequence of the dry state of the weather, when liquid manure could be used with great advantage ; but it is particularly valuable for grass plots, and for all such land as does not require to be disturbed. The large amount of ammonia contained in liquid manure is the cause of its extraordinary productiveness ; but on this account, it is desirable that^it should be sufficiently diluted before being used, and in applying it, care should be taken to protect the plants as much as possible from direct contact with it; as, except with a very weak dilution, this would decidedly tend to injure them. It is almost needless to add, that every gardener and farmer should have his tank upon the premises. The liquor obtained from gas works and tan-yards, if near at hand, will repay the cartage ; soap-suds are of great value, from the alkaline properties of the soap, and would be especially useful for the vine.    _

Of the Vegetable Manures we have already incidentally noticed the straw taken from the farm-yard, as being serviceable under certain conditions ; and in a former page we have adverted to the advantages of turning in the green crops, in some cases, as a means of preparing the land for particular systems of culture. We have also noted the great benefit to be derived from the cuttings and dressings of the vine, and other plants, when employed for the purposes of manures. All vegetable substances, in fact, whether it be the leaves of trees or plants, or the stalks of plants, if collected and decomposed, form the basis of vegetable manures, and, when mixed with garden mould, form an excellent compost for flower beds. Cabbage stalks, however, should be dug in at once after the heads have been cut off; and noxious weeds, if there is any probability of any of them having ripened their seed, should be carefully burned, and the ashes, only, reserved for the compost heap.

Tanners’ bark, after having been used, is an excellent manure, if applied to light, loose soils; but in most cases it is best to ferment it first. This is not, however, very readily accomplished; lime and a portion of rotted dung considerably aids the process, but its best qualities consist in its mechanical rather than its chemical properties, as it lasts for years; and for soils that permit too freely the filtration of water it is admirably adapted.

Sea-weeds, sponges, &c., are very plentiful on these coasts ; most of them are composed of substances of a gelatinous nature, hut they do not contain an atom of ammonia. This manure should he used quite fresh, and is of a very transient nature, not lasting beyond a crop. It requires no fermentation, and decays without being heated; and therefore, if not immediately duoin, a great proportion of its properties are lost.

Of the Mineral substances used as manures, we have already noticed the advantages derived from the commixture of various soils, and the use of- lime in particular. Indeed, so much has been already advanced upon this subject, as to render it unnecessary that we should add more than a word or two in this place. Lime is a powerful regenerator of the soil; in all wet and clayey soils it is a valuable stimulant, and has a peculiar effect on soil overcharged with manures, rendering it sweet and mellow, and in all respects suitable for the nourishment of the tender fibres and roots of plants. The greatest advantage, however, derived from the use of lime is when applied to the compost heap, where it powerfully assists in the decomposition and amalgamation of the various substances brought into contact with each other. Lime is also serviceable in drying certain soils after being drained. Damaged saltpetre and plaster of Paris are often to he obtained in this market; but we have already referred to the valuable qualities of these substances, when properly applied.



Australia, from its great extent, and consequent diversity of climate, is capable of producing every kind of fruit or vegetable required for the sustenance of man. The Colony of Victoria, forming the most southern portion of the continent enjoys the eoolest climate, though, at the same time, it must be admitted to be the most changeable. The prevailing wind in winter is from the north, but in summer it is from the south, or southwest, which sets in as a sea breeze almost daily, when not interrupted by the northerly wind. This breeze tends greatly to modify the heat of summer ; and when it immediately succeeds a hot wind, by the delightful contrast which is experienced on these occasions, it is heartily welcomed by the colonists. During (lie winter season, however, this wind is usually accompanied by rainy or 6tormy weather. During the winter months a northerly wind is attended by agreeable weather, and is often cool and refreshing. The north, or north-westerly winds, in the summer season, are generally hot, and, while they prevail, are exceedingly distressing to the human frame, especially if exposed immediately to their influence. The temperature of the atmosphere when removed from the direct action of the sun’s rays has been known to rise in Melbourne to 112 ° Far., and in the sun to 136°. It is a happy circumstance that these winds are not of long duration, seldom lasting more than three or four successive days, and throughout the summer months, extending, on an average, only, over from twenty to twenty-five days. It often happens that the wind changes suddenly, and when this occurs the thermometer has been known to fall twenty degrees in as many minutes. On these occasions it is of consequence to avoid exposing oneself too freely to the influence of the atmosphere, as it is by inattention to this that many serious forms of fever are contracted.

Capt. Sturt penetrated into the centre of this continent, reaching the 24tli degree of south latitude; and discovered nothing at this distance but an arid sandy desert, destitute of herbage, without any sign of animal life, and, to all appearance, impenetrable. The hypothesis drawn from this is, that the air becomes highly rarified by the retraction of the sun’s rays, and in this state rushes towards the cooler regions of the south. In Adelaide these hot blasts are most severely felt when blowing from a point due north; in Melbourne the wind from N. N. W. is the hottest, while at Sydney the heat is greatest with the wind from the north-west. At Moreton Bay it is only felt on rare occasions, and is but seldom experienced at Port Macquarie ; the former is in latitude 27 degrees south, and the latter in 31 degrees.-

The heat of the summer in Victoria is greatest about the first week in February, which answers to the month of August in the northern hemisphere, and the hot winds are most severely felt during this month, as the ground is generally more completely dried up at this period of the year than at any other. Rain often falls towards the latter end of the month, after which, as the ground becomes moistened, the intense heat of the wind is modified, and it assumes a milder character.

Here we would take the opportunity of recommending the colonists, but the newly arrived immigrant in particular, to be exceedingly cautious not to expose himself too freely to the sun

during the mid-day heat of summer. At the Cape of Good Hope, where a somewhat similar climate prevails, it is customary to retire from out-door labour of every kind, during three hours in the day, and make up for lost time by working an hour or two earlier or later, when the sun is no longer felt; and a dress suitable to the climate is generally substituted for the blaek garments in fashion on the continent of Europe; indeed 6uch was the case in Australia until within the last few years. But the absurdity of adopting the costume of London or Paris, in a climate so different in all respects to that of those places, must be obvious to every one.

Victoria, as we have already noticed, is the coolest of all the Australian colonies; which is to be accounted for, not only as resulting from its more southern latitude, but from the fact of its being more generally intersected by mountain ranges than the other colonies, thus giving rise to numerous streams and rivers, and inducing a larger proportion of moisture than would otherwise exist. In many parts of the country, especially where shelter is obtained from the hot wind, the climate is very fine, and at some seasons of the year it cannot be surpassed. The autumn is especially agreeable; the vegetation which springs up at this season of the year, after the first showers which succeed the heat of summer, is very refreshing to the eye ; and is often so vigorous as to resemble a second spring; indeed, so far as the garden is concerned, it must be so considered, for every vegetable grows as luxuriantly at this period of the year as during the spring months.

we are able to convey :—

Fine cloudless days .............................. 17

Fine weather, with light clouds ............... 130

Dark clouds, but no rain ........................ 39

Light showers....................................... 64

Heavy showers .................................... 87

Continued rain .................................... 19

Rain, with hail or sleet........................... 9

The following table, taken from a diary of the weather, kept during the year 1852, together with others, which we shall submit, will afford as distinct an idea of the climate of this Colony as

During the same year the average diurnal temperature in the shade by Far. thermometer was—


102 degrees .

..... 1 i


100 to


..... 1

90 to


53 •

80 to


...... 35

70 to


33 *

..... 47

GO to


33 *

..... 82

50 to


..... 105

40 to


33 ‘

..... 62

35 to


..... 18


’ 35

33 *

..... 3



This table gives the result of observations taken at Seymour, which will account, in a great measure, for the number of days noted as being below the temperature of 40°, a condition of the atmosphere but seldom experienced in Melbourne.

The following table gives the mean thermometer for each month at Melbourne and London, respectively, by which the reader will be able accurately to compare these climates, the one with the other. The corresponding months are placed in juxtaposition, so as to facilitate comparison, and as the observations were taken at 8'30 a.m., at 2-30 p.m., at sunset, and at 9 p.m., every day throughout the year, the mean of these may be considered to be as nearly correct as possible.

Melbourne.    London.

January .............

...... 67-94

July ................

February ..........

...... 67-31

August .............

March .............

..... 63-92


April ................

..... 60-56


May ................

..... 54-91

November ..........

..... 4312

June ................

..... 51-00

December ..........

July ................

..... 49-34

January .............

August .............

February ..........


March .........

4 2-05

October .............

..... 5897


November ..........

May ................

December ..........

..... 66-29

June ................



This shows a mean annual excess of nearly ten degrees in Melbourne above the temperature of London, but it must be observed, that while the difference between the mean temperature of the hottest and coldest months in London is 27°, in Victoria it is only 18°.

The following table shows the mean fall of rain, being the average of five years’ observations in London and Melbourne:—■ Melbourne.    London.

Inches.    Inches.

January .................. l-30 July........................ 2-44

February.................. 0 95

March ..................... 1‘60

April .................... 3T3

May........................ 367

June....................... 2-41

July........................ 2T8

August..................... 361

September ............... 3-27

October .................. 2\54

November ............... 4-27

December.................. 186

August .................. 2-37

September ............... 297

October .................. 2-46

November.................. 2'58

December ............... 1’65

January .................. 1'5G

February.................. 1'45

March ..................... 1'30

April ..................... 1*55

May........................ 1-67

June........................ 1'98

Mean ............ 2-57

Mean ............ 2 00

This gives a total of 30 85 inches for Melbourne, and 24-06 in. for London ; or an excess of 6'79 in., taking the whole year. The average for all England, however, is almost 30 inches, which agrees in a remarkable degree with the fall of rain in Victoria.

In a country enjoying such a soil and climate, as we have shown to be possessed by this Colony, it is deeply to be regretted that greater exertions have not been made to avail ourselves of such superlative advantages. The report recently issued by the Chamber of Commerce is at least one step in the right direction, and, if this be followed up as it should be, there will be no occasion to complain much longer of the non-cultivation of the soil. Wo may here be permitted to remark, however, that the sum of five shillings per acre, proposed as a fixed price for Crown lands, is too low ; and as it is now known that the Chamber by no means wish to insist upon this amount, we^ may the more freely offer an opinion upon it. The grand object is, to settle the people upon the laud, and, generally, to afford suoh

facilities for tliis purpose, as will enable even the man who has only a few pounds at his disposal, to assist in developing its resources. This, however, is to be done, not by reducing the price of the land indefinitely, but, by the issue of agricultural leases, renewable for ever, under certain restrictions, and with a right of purchase at any period, at the option of the lessee. Tho amount of rent should be determined by the value of the land, which should be ascertained by competent valuators, before the granting of the lease, and should be in the proportion of a certain per centage upon the declared value of the estate, as fixed by such valuation. The rent should be made payable in advance at intervals of six months, and we are inclined to think that six per cent, would be a reasonable rate, at which to fix the rent-charge. We would also recommend that the occupant should have the privilege of paying off any portion of the purchase money, at such periods as convenient to himself, and that then the rent should be diminished in the same proportion. An applicant should be allowed to select his land in any locality that suits him best, and he should be put in possession with as little delay as possible.

Assuming the average value of such land to be £3 per acne, the rental in such case, computed at the rate of six per cent, per annum, would be 3s. 7d. per acre, a very moderate sum indeed, and one which would be hardly felt by the bona fide cultivator. It would, however, be more than the mere speculator would like to pay for unproductive land. On the other hand, if the purchase money were to be fixed at so low a rate as five shillings an acre, we opine, that large tracts would at once be taken up by monied speculators, who would then retail it to the public, as the Government have done, either in large or small quantities, as might suit their purpose best, and at such prices as the wants of the public might enable them to exact. Besides, there are many industrious men, having sufficient funds at their command, to warrant them in commencing the cultivation of a farm, where they would have only Is. 9d. per acre to pay down as the six months’ rental for the land, who could not pay so much as 5s. even, by way of purchase, without slightly crippling their resources.

As the argument is sometimes advanced, that farming will not pay at the present high price of labor, it may be well to remark, that such a supposition is wholly unfounded. When the wages of the farm servant was ten shillings per week, with rations, th# price of wheat was seldom more than four shillings per bushel, and farmers were contented when they obtained this price. Now, the highest wages quoted are thirty shillings per week, showing an advance of two hundred per cent, in wages, while the price of wheat is sixteen shillings per bushel, or three hundred per cent, in advance of former prices. But supposing the relative value of labor and of produce, at the period alluded to, and at the present time, to be the same ; or in other words, that farmers were now compelled to pay £2 per week, in lieu of thirty shillings, then, the profits, as deducible in each case, would be as follows :—

If the produce of an acre be taken at twenty-five bushels, this, at four shillings per bushel, will realise £5 ; and if the profit be taken at fifteen per cent., this will give us fifteen shillings per acre, as the clear gain under the old system. Let us again take the yield at twenty-five bushels; this, at sixteen shillings, gives ¿£20 as the total value of the produce ; and if, as before, we allow a net profit of fifteen per cent., then the proceeds will be £3 per acre, an amount just three times more than could have been obtained under the previous conditions.

We would finally observe, that the cultivation of the soil is absolutely essential to the amelioration of the climate. The draining of swamps, and the collection of water in suitable reservoirs, where the evaporation would be reduced, perhaps a thousand fold, would no doubt add greatly to the comfort and health of the population; but the general cultivation of the soil would be productive of still more important results, as respects the condition and temperature of the atmosphere. The radiation of heat would, in a great measure, be prevented, and thus, the hot wind, to a considerable extent, rendered less hurtful and obnoxious :—a more equable state of weather would also be induced, the climatic changes being less sudden, and their violence abated.


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