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GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

OP

OCEANIA,

COMPRISING A DETAILED ACCOUNT

OF THE

AUSTRALIAN COLONIES

AMD A BRIEF SKETCH OF

IJtalansia, Australasia, ani} ijclmiesia.

I

jfor lijc ©sc of Softools.

BY A. IRELAND,

ITEAD MASTER OP dlALMERS* SCHOOL, nOBART TOWN.

f a s tit a it i a:

W. FLETCHER, PRINTER, ELIZABETH STREET,

HOBART TOWN;

s SOLD BY ALL THE PRINCIPAL BOOKSELLERS IN THE

AUSTRALIAN COLONIES.

1861.

S



!


P R E F A C E.

Wiptle the Youth of these Colonies are being made familiar with the Geography of other countries, it is to be regretted that they remain in comparative ignorance of their own. The fact, that no satisfactory treatise on the Geography of Australasia has yet been published, although several excellent and elaborate maps of this portion of the world have now made their appearance, has induced the Author to attempt the compilation of this little Manual. He has made the attempt from no other motive than a hope that he may be of service to, at least, his own pupils, and perhaps to Australian youths in general ; and that by his labours he may in some degree facilitate the study of the Geography of this important and most interesting portion of the Colonial Empire of Britain. In the preparation of this work, the author is indebted for some of its details to Hull's Guide and Fairfax's Hand-book to Australasia.

The physical and political facts are distinctly classified under their respective heads; and as this Manual is designed to be merely an appendix to other geographies, the mathematical and geographical definitions are purposely omitted.

To enable pupils better to understand what is stated respecting the Physical Features and Natural Productions of the different Colonies, and to inspire them with a taste for those branches of education, the Author has introduced a brief outline of the sciences of Geology, Botany, and Zoology.

^    .. -¿a: ,

vr ^—S.X/A

l


CONTENTS.

tags

1

3

4 12 12

13 14.

14 16 46 63 83

109

121

127

132

148


OCEANIA ......................................................

Malaysia......................................................

Polynesia ...................................................

Australasia ................................................

Papua........................................................

Chatham Islands..........................................

Auckland Islands.........................................

Norfolk Island............................................

Tasmania ..................................................

Australia ..................................................

New South Wales ......................................

Victoria.....................................................

South Australia ...........................................

Western Australia ......................................

Queensland ...............................................

New Zealand...............................................

Outlines of Geology, Botany, and Zoology

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE FOLLOWING WORK.

Arch® ..........Archipelago.

B................Bay.

Bet.............Between.

C................Cape.

G>.; cos........County ; counties.

Chan..........Channel.

Cap. ............Capital.

E................East.

Ft................Feet.

G................Gulf.

Gt................Great.

Harb..........Harbour.

lit................Height.

I................Isle or Island.

In................Inches.

Is................Isles or Islands.


L................Lake.

Lat...............Latitude.

Long.............Longitude.

M.; sq. m.....Miles ; square miles

Manuf..........Manufactures.

Mt.............Mountain.

Mts.............Mountains.

N................North.

Pen...............Peninsula.

R................River.

S................South.

Sd................Sound.

Str.............Strait.

Trib.............Tributarj'.

W................West.


The number after the name of a mountain shows its height in feet,— after the name of a township, its distance from the capital,—and after the name of a river, its length in miles.

Errata.

Tagc 73, line 37, for “ It,” read Sydney.

Page 72rdine 38, for “ Sydney,” read It.

Page 91, -omit the first sentence.

OCEANIA.

Oceania, the fifth great division of the earth's surface, includes the numerous islands scattered over the great ocean which extends from the south-eastern shores of Asia to the western coast of America. It is separated from Asia by the Str. of Malacca, the Chinese Sea, and the Chan, of Formosa; and from America, by a broad belt of ocean comparatively free of islands. It naturally divides itself into three great sections Malaysia, Australasia, and Polynesia;—the aggregate area of which is estimated at upwards of

4,000,000 sq. m.

Pace.—Dr. Latham, Cuvier, and other celebrated ethnologists of the present day, have reduced the five primary varieties of mankind to three—the Caucasian, Ethiopian, and Mongolian (holding the American and Malay to be only sub-varieties of the Mongolian); or, as Dr. Latham terms them, the Japetida?—embracing all the chief nations of Europe, and the various states and colonies established by them; the Atlantidie— the tribes of Africa, Syria, and Arabia; and the Mongolida)—the nations of Asia, Oceania, and America.

The variety Mongolida?, which is by far the largest division, is subdivided into various groups, one of which, the Oceanic Mongolidae, embraces the inhabitants of all the islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with the exception of the Mauritius, Isle of Bourbon, Ceylon, Maldives and Laccadives, Japan, and adjacent islands.

It exhibits two types—the Malay, or brown eom-plexioned and straight-haired race; and the Negrito, of a sooty black colour, with hair sometimes straight, in other cases frizzv, or even woolly.

B

Tlie Negritos extend over New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, New Ireland, the islands between it and New Caledonia, and, according to some, the Fijis.

The brown division occupy the rest ol the Oceanic area:—Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Moluccas, Polynesia, Ac. Each of these divisions falls into a great number of sub-divisions.

This division takes its name from the Malays, who are the principal inhabitants, and includes the arch®, immediately adjoining the south-eastern coasts of Asia, generally known as the East India Is. It lies between lat. 12° 40' S. and 20° N., and long. 95° and 134° E., and consists of minor clusters and chains, intersected by straits and channels. Area, 750,000 sq. m.

Physical Features, Soil, and Climate.—The islands are throughout of a mountainous nature, the highest point being Mt. Ophir (13,050), in Sumatra; and the arch®, is traversed by several lines of volcanic action, which exhibits itself in the burning craters of Luzon, Java, Ac. There are few extensive plains ; abundance of jungle and unhealthy swamps, but no arid deserts ; and, where not cultivated, the better land is generally covered with forests of stupendous trees, and with shrubs and aromatic plants of the most luxuriant growth.    Winds.—Monsoons, N.E. and

S.W., N. of the Equator; S.E. and N.Mr., S. of the Equator; typhoons in the N.

In consequence of their tropical position, these islands are characterised by a great uniformity of climate, and of animal and vegetable productions.

Prouucttoxs.—Malaysia is rich in every species of tropical produce.

The indigenous Animals are—the elephant, rhinoceros, babyrousa, tapir, tiger, buffalo, bat, pongo,

ourang-outang, and other quadrumana.* Birds.— Cassowary, bird of paradise, parrot, parroquet, cockatoo. Reptiles.—Crocodile, python, and chameleon.

The forests of Malaysia abound in wild animals. The frugivorous hats of Java measure (> ft. from tip to tip when the wings are expanded. The birds are remarkable for the brilliancy of their plumage. In Java and the neighbouring islands, are found the swallows which build the edible nests so much prized by the epicures of China.

The Animal Products are ivory, wool, hides, furs, pearls, tortoise-shell, whale-oil, ambergris,    & c.

A egetable Products.—Trees : Palms (cocoa-nut, sago, and cabbage palms), camphor-tree, sandal-wood, and ebony-trees, teak, bamboo, and upas-tree. The delicious Fruits are—the mango, guava, &c.

Sumatra yields pepper ; Java, rice, sugar, coffee, and teak-timber: Moluccas, cloves; the Bandas, nutmegs and maize; and the Philippine Is., tobacco.

The Upas, or poison-tree, is found in Java. Its juices are so powerfully poisonous as to cause almost instant death, if brought into contact with the blood of any creature. The pitcher-plant and the Rajflcsia&re among the most singular vegetable productions of Malaysia. The former is so called on account of certain pitcher-like appendages attached to the end of the leaves, covered with a lid, and holding a quantity of a limpid fluid like water. The Rafflcsia, a parasitical plant, or rather, flower, consisting, in fact, of only the flower and its flower-stalk, by which it is attached to the tree on which it grows, is the largest of all flowers, being ft. in diameter, weighing 15 lbs., and having petals as large as cow's horns.

Minerals.—Gold, tin, antimony, copper, iron, coal, diamonds, and other precious stones.

Borneo is rich in diamonds, gold, and antimony; and Labnan I. (established as a British colony in 1810), near the N.W. coast of Borneo, contains valuable coal mines.

Keligion.—The more advanced of the Malays, especially those that live on the coasts, profess Mahometanism, which was introduced in the fourteenth

Inhere are only three species of ape strictly deserving the appellation anthropoid (man like) the ourang outang (peculiar to Romeo and adjacent islands), and the chimpanzee and gorilla, inhabiting portions of the W. coast

ot Africa within the tropics. Of these three, the last,—viz. the gorilla_

recently discovered, bears the greatest resemblance to man. It measures uhen full grown, from 5ft. Sin. to oft. in height, is very muscular, lives on fruits and vegetables, is gregarious, has green eyes, and is altogether a very formidable looking creature. They are particularly fond of suirar-canes • uJi


~    hey are particularly fond of sugar-canes ; and

when they discover a plantation of this luscious grass (forsugar-cane is nothing more), not content with filling their stomachs on the spot, they break off thy canes, and tie them up in bundles' previously to carrying them awav. When

or.e of their number dies, they inter the corpse under a heap of leaves and loose earth collected for the purpose. When disturbed in their remote haunts, the females with a young one in arms climb up the trees; while the males, having hastily provided themselves with cudgels, furiously attack the intruder, whom they quickly dispatch.

century; but the superstitions of the wilder tribes in the interior very much resemble those of the Polynesians.

Pace.—Of the brown type of the Oceanidie, the Malays are the most energetic and enterprising; and of these the Javanese are the most advanced in civilisation, having a native literature, and possessing considerable skill in boat-building, and in the working of gold and weaving of silk.

The food of the people of Malaysia is mostly rice in the W. and sago in the E.

Principal Islands.    Chief Toicns.

Sumatra, in the N.AV\... Padang',Bencoo'len, Acheen'.

Ja'va, S.E. of 1-Bor'neo, X. of


C Bata via, Samarang', Soura-(    bay'a, Souracar'ta.

_ C Bor'neo, Sarawak', Potia'na,

( Sambas.

Cel'ebes, E. of.......Ylaardingen.

Moluc'oas or Spice Is., ) Amboy,nil) Ter'nate.

Philippine Is., N.E. of) Manilla Borneo.    )

Straits.—Str.of Malacca,bet. Sumatra and Malacca (a territory of about 1000sq.m, belonging to the British); Str. of Sunda, bet. Sumatra and Java; Str. of Macassar, bet. Borneo and Celebes; Molucca Passage, bet. Moluccas and Celebes.

Population.— 20,000,000.

Polynesia includes the numerous groups of islands scattered over the Pacific Ocean within 110° on both sides of the Equator, and between the meridional lines of 133° E. and 109 W. long.

The following are the principal groups:—In the Northern Hemisphere :—The Carolines, including the Pelew Is. in the AY.; The Marianne or Ladrone Is.,

-S. of-; the Marshall and Gilbert Is., E. of the

Carolines; Sandwich Is., N.E. of-; and the

numerous reefs and coral islands scattered over the .Northern Pacific, and designated Micronesia.

In the Southern Hemisphere:—The Fijis, in the AY.; the Friendly Is., including the group of the Tonga Is.,

E. of-; the Samoan, or Navigator’s Is., N.

of-; Herveys group, E. of Friendly Is.; the

Society Is., including the Georgian or Tahitian and

Austral Is., E. of-; the Low Is. or Dangerous

Arch0., including the Gambier or Mangareva group,

E. of-; the Marquesas, N. of--; Pitcairn’s

I., S.E. of Low Is ; Easter I., E. of-.

These islands are divided into two classes as to their natural structure: the mountainous, which are mostly of volcanic formation; and the coral, which are mostly low reefs, only raised a few feet above the level of the sea, and appearing as long narrow reefs, circular reefs enclosing lagoons, or barrier reefs encircling inner islets from which they are separated by deep narrow channels. The mountainous islands, or those of volcanic structure, are the Sandwich, Ladrone, Society, Marquesas, and some of the Fiji, Friendly, Samoa, and Hervey Is. The coral islands, or those which partake of the character of reefs, are the rest of the groups and single islands.

Soil and Climate.—The soil is exceedingly fertile, unless when composed of undecomposed lava or basalt. Owing to their insular position, these islands, though situated within the tropics, enjoy a delightful climate.    Winds.—Land and sea breezes, with

occasional hurricanes.

Productions.—The indigenous quadrupeds are the hog, dog, and rat; the ox and horse have been imported.

The Birds are numerous, consisting of poultry, pigeons, turtle-doves, as well as parrots and other tropical genera.

Vegetable Products.—Bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, banana, pandanus, plantain, and a variety of tropical fruits; the taro, yam, batata, and other farinaceous roots.

The fruit of the bread-fruit tree affords the natives a nutritive food; the trunk supplies them with timber for their buildings and canoes; it exudes a gum, which serves for pitch ; and from tne inner bark is manufactured a substantial cloth.

The cocoa-nut, next to the bread-fruit, supplies them with meat, drink, cloth, and oil, and sometimes clothing.

The sugar-cane is indigenous to the Sandwich Is.

Polynesia is deficient in minerals.

Religion.—The chief characteristic of the religion of the Polynesians seems to be a sort of hero-worship, their principal gods having been renowned men, who still exercise an influence over the affairs of this world, appearing in the form of some living creature, through the medium of which they exert their power. With this is associated throughout the islands a firm belief in spirits or demons, and in sorcery. Many of these islands have been visited by American and European missionaries, who have instructed the natives, not only in the doctrines of the Christian religion, but in many useful mechanical arts and other improvements of civilised society.

Language.—Dispersed as the Polynesians are,yet it is evident that the different dialects are derived from one common language. The dialects of Polynesia and Malaysia closely resemble each other. Considering the state of civilisation in which the people have been found, their language is remarkably comprehensive, clear, and exact, especially in its grammatical structure ; and so philosophical as to convey the impression that it must have descended from a people possessing a higher degree of civilisation than those by whom it is now spoken. The vowel sounds predominate ; and this peculiarity in the Polynesian language, which expresses almost every syllable by a single vowel, ora consonant and vowel, and invariably terminates every word with a vowel, renders it, when spoken, remarkably euphonic, flowing, and easy. The softness of the language is also increased by the rejection, throughout all the dialects, with the exception of that spoken by the Samoans and Fijians, of all sibilants and sounds produced by double consonants.

REMARKS.

The CAROLINE Is. form a very extensive chain spreading-over a space of not less than 7 degrees of lat. and 40 degrees of long., the western extremity being the group of the PelewIs. For several years past English and American whalers have resorted in great numbers to these islands, the effect of which has proved very disastrous to the native population.

The LA DRONES, discovered in 1521, were so called from the thievish disposition of the natives. Since the end of the seventeenth century they have been occupied by the Spaniards, who have all but extirpated the once numerous native population.

E. of the Carolines is a large cluster of low coralline islands,—the northern portion called Marshall's and the southern Gilbert’s,after their discoverers.

The SANDWICH Group (discovered by Capt. Cook2 1778) consists of ten volcanic islands (the principal Hawaii, with an area of 4,500 sq. m., Maui G20, Oahu 530, Kauai 500), situated between 18° 51' and 22° 2' N. lat., and 155° and 101° \V. long., about 1,800 m. from California, the nearest continental country to them. They are all mountainous. Hawaii rises majestically in grand unbroken lines from the ocean, crowned with three massive mountain peaks—Mouna Ron, Mouna Kea, and Mouna Huararai,—the snow lying on the two former during the greater part of the year. Vast craters crown the summits of the loftiest mountains: amongst these, the Kirauea, on the E. side of Hawaii, about 4,000 ft. above the sea, contains a crater 9 m. in circumference, with perpendicular walls 1,000 ft. deep, covered at the bottom with a lake of liquid boiling lava. In 1813, two new openings were formed on the summit of Mouna Roa, 13,000 ft. above the sea, from which, during six or eight weeks, the burning lava poured forth, forming three rivers live or six miles in width, and extending between 20 and 30 m. towards the sea; and in 1855 another crater opened near the summit of the same mt., and for ten months continued to pour forth burning lava, which formed a stream 70 m. in length, from 1 to 5 m. wide, and from 10 to several hundred ft. in depth. Although entirely volcanic, the shores of these islands are protected by coral reefs ; and each island possesses several harbours, some of them spacious and secure,—as Hilo, or Byron’s Bay, on the E., and Kealake’kua, on the W. side of Hawaii; Lahaina, in Maui; and Honolulu, in Oahu, which is the best in the islands, and the resort of the greatest number of vessels.

The climate, considering that the islands are within the tropics, is remarkably healthy, being generally dry, and the temperature varying with the elevation. At the sea level, the neatest heat is about 90» n?ih.) least heat, 60°; general range, 70° to 80-: and average temoerature, 75°. The general course oi the wind is N.K.

In the mountainous districts, the soil, which consists of lava in various stages of decomposition, is otten sterile; but where the la\a is ancient and disintegrated, U covered withforests.«r m.cn„r verdur*


stages of decomposition, is often    .    .

disintegrated, is covered with forests or interior ^ while the plains and valleys are often exceedingly fertile. 500,000 acres are supposed to be suitable for tillage, and halt of this tor the production of sugar. All the islands, with the exception oi some parts of Hawaii, are well-watered.    .

I'eoductioss.—The only animals found by (.apt. took in the islands were hogs, dogs, and rats. Capt. \ ancouver some years afterwards, left there a breed of cattle, which resorted to the mountains in the interior, where they soon became numerous. The natives used to shoot them, or take them bv digging pits near pools of water; and some years ago the Spaniards came over from California, with horses trained for the service, to hunt them, chiefly for the sake of their hides, so that had the Government not interfered and prohibited the slaughter of these animals, they would soon have been exterminated. Tame cattle, horses, mules, and goats, have since been introduced, as well as poultry.

The indigenous vegetable productions used as food are cocoa-nut, bananas, bread-fruit, sugar-cane, yams, arrow-root, the convolvulus batatas (sweet potato—the kumera of the New Zealanders), and several varieties ot esculent arum (taro), which is extensive!} and carefully cultivated, and forms the chief support of the natives. The forests abound with large and valuable timber, chiefly hard and durable. Sandal-wood was formerly exported in large quantities, but is now' exhausted. Many valuable fruits and vegetables, as well as grain, have been introduced, and appear to thrive well: grapes, manges, coffee, pine-apples, and melons being the most important ot the fruits; pumpkins, potatoes, and cabbages, ot vegetablesj and wheat

and maize, of grain.    .

The Sandwich Islanders are physically one ot the tmest races m the Pacific, bearing in many points a close resemblance to the New Zealanders. (See Geography of New Zealand.)

Polygamy prevailed among the chiefs, and the women were subject to all the humiliation of the tabu, a system of prohibition common throughout Polynesia; infanticide was practised to some extent, the children destroyed being chiefly females ; and human sacrifices were slain on several occasions, and vast offerings presented to the spirits supposed to preside over the volcanoes, especially during actual eruptions. Their idolatrous rites were cruel and bloody; and the apprehensions of the people with regard to a future state were undefined, but fearful, the lower orders expecting to be slowly devoured by evil spirits or to dwell with them in volcanoes. The objects of worship were grotesque and repulsive wooden figures, animals, and the bones of chiefs. Saerod inclosures (Marai), or places of refuge, however, had existed from time immemorial, to violate the sanctity of which was one of greatest crimes. Those who fled into these inclosures in time of war, or from any violent pursuer, were safe.

In consequence of the proximity of these Is. to the whaling grounds, and their geographical position,—the natural centre of the commerce between South America, India, China, California, and Australia,—they

Lave been more frequently visited by foreigners: and since the introduction of letters, and the reception of the Christian religion, the inhabitants have continued steadily to advance m intelligence, resources, and civilisation, presenting at the present time a degree of improvement unsurpassed during a corresponding period in any other part of the world. Houses are built in European style and of durable materials; good roads connect the different parts of se\eral ot the islands ; a great part of the inhabitants are well clothed and are possessors of money or property; improved and productive agriculture has been adopted ; and the whale fishery is successfully prosecuted, their whaling fleet now numbering 15 vessels. Lhe cultri at ion <>l t he cane for the munufacture of sugar was commenced in Oahu in 1^25 ; and there are now extensive plantations of sugar and codec, "Inch jield a good return.

There are numerous churches, capable of accommodating eac h from 300 to 3,000 persons, there being *22,000 natives throughout the islands in church fellowship. Besides the common native schools, 300 in number, containing nearly 9,000 scholars, there are 3 high schools, between 10 and 20 schools for teaching English, as well as a royal school for educating the sons of the chiefs. A college, also, has been recently established. A number ot presses exist, issuing regularly several newspapers in English, and one or more in Hawaiian, besides school-hooks and other works connected ¦with education and religion. There arc many large commercial establishments, public odices, and a considerable number ot professional men.

The imports in 1857 amounted to £235,118, of which £227,913 w ere entered at Honolulu. Salted beet, flour, potatoes, pumpkins, vegetables, and fruits ot all kinds, are annually furnished to merchant

and whaling-ships.    .    ..

Tamehamaha, the chief who succeeded the king ruling m Hawaii at the time of Cook’s visit, acquiring by degrees a small navy and superior weapons (fire-arms) from foreigners, made himself undisputed sovereign of the whole group. This energetic and successful ruler died (1819), leaving his kingdom to his son, a mild and good-natured prince, but destitute of the energy of ins father, which, however, was in a great measure supplied by Karaimoku, one ot his councillois. One of the first acts of the young king was to abolish the tabu throughout the islands. In the year 1821, the King and Queen embarked on a voyage to Great Britain, where they died the same year. Kauikeoli,* the brother of the king, was unanimously acknowledged as his successor, under whose protection the missionaries who had arrived in 1820 continued to establish schools, plant churches, and train native teachers and missionaries. The independence of the Sandwich Is. was guaranteed in the year 1811; and the Hawaiian Government has since been regularly organised, most of the principal offices being filled by foreigners, chiefly Americans, who have become Hawaiian subjects.

The Revenue amounts to about £70,000 per annum, and thS Expenditure is not materially different.

The FIJI Group, lying between 15° 30' and 20° 30' S. lat., and between 177° E. and 178° W. long., was first seen by Tasman m 1613. The pure Fijians seem to form the connecting link between the Negritian and the Polynesian races. They practise the manufacture of pottery, and manifest great ingenuity in their mats and

B 5

clothing, in their ear-rings and other ornaments, as well as in their articles~of dress and arms, and in the construction of their dwellings. They worship no images, but are exceedingly superstitious; and cannibalism with them was a regular custom. In 1851, Thacombau, the powerful king of Mbau, made a public profession of Christianity, and this facilitated the spread of religion among the people. The missionaries now number 00,000 hearers and 7,000 church members. Population, 150,000.

The TONG AX or FRIENDLY Group lie about 300 m. S.E. of the Fiji. It comprises three clusters, \ avau being the principal island ot the northern cluster, Tonga of the southern, and Hapai and Lefuka he largest of the central. They were discovered by Tasman (1713), and visited by Capt. Cook bet. the years 1773 and 1777, who, in consequence of the attention he received, and the profuse hospitality and apparent amity of both chiefs and people, designated this group the “Friendly Is” In 1830, the king of the Hapai Is. was baptised; and (1831) worship was established at the islands of Hapai and Yavau clusters, while most of the natives of Tonga adhered to their ancient idolatry and heathen practices. War has occasionally broken out bet. the heathen and Christian portion of the community.

The SAMOAN or NAVIGATOR'S Group, situated between 15° and 3(>° S. hit. and 173° and 168° 18' W. long., covers a surface of 2,000 sq. m. Like the Society Is., the members of this group appear to be of volcanic origin, and are generally surrounded by coral reefs, with occasional openings, through which vessels may pass. All the higher hills and mountain-peaks are volcanic. This group consists of eight islands : Savuii, the most westerly, is above 100 m. in circumference ; Tutuila, the most central, with its highly romantic scenery, is nearly 50 m.; and Upoltt, 30 m. W. of Tutuila, far exceeding all the rot i:i population, beauty, and fertility, is 70 u\. in circumference. 1 i the year 1830, Messrs. Williams and Bartf visited this group ; the labours of the press were commenced 1839; the greater part of the pwpul turn have renounced heathenism ; schools, both common and of a higher class, have been established; and an Institution fm* training native teachers has also been maintained in great eilh i noy.

The HEHVEY group, situated between : >;. 18° and 22° S.. and lung. 157° and 100° W., was discovered by C •.;> . t ook 1773-77. The members of this group are of did' :t struct .ire. Rarotonga, the largest, being volcanic and mount;dr. . u . su.v mule i by a reef of coral. Others consist of ancient coral f a ." ¡as,rai d from 20 to 60 feet above the sea, some of them lower, a. i ail surrounded by live coral reefs. Rarotonga is about 25 \:. in ciivmi.iercnee, with a mountain about 4,000 ft. in height. This i hind is well watered and fertile; but such was the feru. i . :.n • hi./: v. of the natives, when the missionaries visited them in !;<• 3, that the native missionaries durst not remain amongst them. A . w ye: rs afterwards they were visited by European missionaries, whose Christian efforts were so remarkably successful that the w.u.i ¦ island i:i a tew years became an educated, industrious, and Christian community.

The SOCIETY Is. extend from about 1G° to 22" S. lat. and from 151° to 152° \V. long. One of the group, Bor.r era, has a lofty douh! '-peaked mountain near the centre. The three principal Is. Iiuaiiin*-. Raiatea, and Borabora—have always been politically indepemient of narrow, and very steep ranges of hills, with deep gullies, through which flow several streams, two of which have formed, bv the accumulation of soil between the sea and the hills, a narrow strip of level ground on which the settlement stands. The general elevation is about 400 ft. above the sea, while in the N.W. the double summit of Mt. Pitt attains the height of 1,200 ft.

Soil and Climate.—The soil, consisting of decomposed basalt, is everywhere extremely rich; even on the higher parts it is fertile, and in the valleys the vegetation is most luxuriant.

About 1,080 acres are cleared for agricultural purposes, and about

1,000 acres for pasturage.

Productions.—All sorts of domestic poultry thrive here ; bees, horses, horned cattle, sheep, and pigs, have also been introduced.

The principal tree, the Norfolk Island pine, grows on all parts of the island, and attains in some places a height of 200 ft., and a circumference of 80 ft. Maple, ironwood, a small species of palm called the Norfolk Island cabbage-tree, and a fern having a height of 40 ft. and fronds 11 ft. in length, also grow in abundance. The underwood of the forests consists chiefly of lemons and guavas ; and many plants originally exotics now grow wild here. Bananas, yams, sweet potatoes, and arrowroot, though tropical plants, flourish on the island ; and oranges, coffee, maize, and rve may be raised.

'    >11; L, originally uninhabited, was first visited by Capt. Cook

in 17. Vanil in 1787 was occupied partly by convicts and partly by y '    ' n N. S. Wales ; but in 1810 it was abandoned, and ail

¦    • buibb-rrs destroyed. In 1825 it was again used as a penal

' a : imi the establishment was finally broken up in June 185(5, v I; : the inhabitants of Pitcairn’s 1.,* the descendants of the

The orpin and present condition of this small community are unique. 1 heir whole stock of knowledge and instruction was derived from a common -eanmn, who was able to read and write, and, being in possession of a Bible, u. (iortook to teach the children of the original mutineers, of whom he was • lipt survivor. These people have thus grown up, living peacefully and happily, in obedience to the precepts of religion, but at the same time destitute, from want of experience, of the knowledge and skill of other civilised communities. Tl’.ey have a magistrate, two councillors, and a chaplain; and they are now under the authority of the Governor oi \\ S. Wales. They are affectionate, simple, and unsuspicious; but are ignorant of the use of the plough, and of the most necessary trades.

mutineers of the Bounty, 194 in number, were established on this island. Excellent roads have been made across the island in various directions, and bridges across the streams; while extensive farm buildings of a solid nature have been erected in various places.

TASMANIA3

PHYSICAL FACTS.

Tasmania is bounded on the N. by Bass’s Str.; and on the E., S., and W. by the South Pacific Ocean. It is situated between 40' 40' and 43° 40' S. lat., and between 144° 30' and 148° 30' E. long.

Its length from Cape Grim to Cape Pillar is 240 English miles ; and its greatest breadth on the northern side is 200, and on the southern, reckoning from Cape Pillar to S.W. Cape, 100, or from Tasman’s Head to S.W. Cape, G5 miles.

Its area, including the islands in Bass’s Str., is estimated at 16,890,000 acres, or 26,400 sq. m.; and the extent of its coast line is about 720 m., exclusive of the openings into the land.

The shores of Tasmania are in general high and rocky, except on the N., where they are chiefly characterised by low sandy beaches; to the S.E. they are deeply indented and bordered by islands ; to the S.W. they are abrupt, and present a barren and rugged aspect.

Bays and Gulfs.—On the N. Coast:—Duck B., Sawyer’s B., Pebbly B., and Freestone Cove, indenting Wellington; Emu B., Preservation B., Port Fenton, Port Frederick, Port Sorell, Devon; Port Dalrymple, bet. Devon and Dorset ; Kingarooma B., Dorset. On the D. Coast:—Bay of Fires and Anson’s B., Dorset; George’s B., N.E. of Cornwall; King’s B. and Oyster B., Glamorgan ; Oakhampton B., Prosser’s

B., Carrickfergus B., Marion B., and Cockle B., Pembroke; Eeidle B., E. of Maria Is.; Monge or Pirate’s B., N.E., Port Arthur and Maingon B., S., Wedge B.. W., and Norfolk B., N. of Tasman’s Peninsula ; Frederick Henry B. and Pitt water, bet. Pembroke and the southern part of Monmouth; Ealph’s B., W. of the southern part of Monmouth; Storm B.,4 bet. Brimi I. and Tasman's Peninsula; Adventure B. and Trumpeter B., E. of Bruni 1. ; Port Esperance and Southport, Kent. On the S. Coast:—S. Cape B. and Louisa B., Kent. On the JV. Coast:—Port Davey and Bathurst Harbour, Kent; Macquarie Harbour, between Franklin and Montgomery ; Studlaiul B., W. of Wellington.

D'Entrecasteaux Chan, is a continuous line of land-locked harbours: on the cast side, Great Cove, Little Cove, Isthmus Ik, Great Ik and Barnes’ B.; on the western side. Recherche B. (so called by the French Admiral after his ship), Muscle lk, Esperance lk, Estuary of the Huon, and N. W. Bay.

Oyster Bay opens into Great Swanport, at the head of which is an extensive lagoon called Moulting B., the resort of numerous black swans.

Port Arthur, the eastern shores of which are formed by a perpendicular wall of basaltic columns and ironstone rock, has been for a considerable time a penal station for prisoners of the worst class. The prisoners’ barracks, at Safety Cove, are extensive and strongly built. A guard of soldiers and a line of dogs posted at Eagle Hawk Neck (the isthmus, only 120 yds. across, which connects Tasman’s Pen. with the mainland) cut oil'all possibility of escape.

Macquarie Harb., the principal haven on the W. coast, extends inland in a S.W. direction for about 30 in., forming at its head Birch’s Inlet, and Kelly’s Basin. Sarah 1., situated on the S.E. of Macquarie Harb., was formerly a penal settlement.

Straits.—Bass’s Str., separating Tasmania from Australia; Bank’s Str., bet. Dorset and Clark I.; Armstrong’s Chan., bet. Clark I. and C. Barren I.; Franklin Inlet, separating C. Barren I. from Flinders’

I. ; D’Entrecasteaux Chan., separating Bruni I. from Buckingham and Kent; Ceographe Str., bet. Schouten

J.    and Freycinet’s Peninsula; Eobin’s Passage, bet. Eobin’s I. and Wellington.

Capes.—On the JST. Coast:—C. Grim,f N.W. of Wellington ; Circular Hd., Eocky C., Table C.,

Wellington; Sorell Pt, Flinders’ C., Devon: Low lid., Waterhouse Pt., C. Portland, Dorset. On the E. CoastC. Naturalist and Eddystone Pt., Dorset; St. Helen’s Pt., Cornwall ; Long Pt., C. Lodi, Glamorgan; C. Tourville, S. of C. Lodi; C. Forestier, N.E. of Frevcinet s Peninsula ; C. Bailey, N.E., and C. Bougainville, E. of Pembroke; C. Boulanger, N.E., C. Mistaken, E., and C. Bald, S.E. of Maria I.; Crayfish Pt. and C. Peron, S. ot Maria I.; C. Frederick Hendrick, N.E., and C. Surville, E. of Forestier5s Peninsula; C. Pillar, S.E., and C. Kaoul, S. of Tasman’s Peninsula ; C. Contrariety and C. Direction, S. of Monmouth; C. Frederick Henry, S. of N. Bruni; Fluted C., X.E., Tasman’s Hd., S., and Bruni Hd.,5 S.W. of South Bruni. On the S. Coast:—S. E. Cape, S. Cape, and S.W. Cape, Kent. On the W. Coast:— Kocky Pt., Pt. Hibbs, and C. Sorell, Montgomery; Sandy C. and Ordnance Pt., Eussell; W. Pt., Wellington.

Islands.—The islands in Bass’s Str. consist of several groups at the eastern and western entrances. At the eastern entrance, Furneaux group, including— Flinders’ I.f (130m. in circumference), Cape Barren

I. (22 m. by 7 m.), S. of--; Chapelle Is.,

W. of---; Vansittart, N. of Barren I.;

Hummock I., W., and Sisters’ Is., N. of Flinders’; and bet. Flinders’ I. and Wilson’s Promontory, Kent Group (chief Deal and Erith, Hogan Is., Curtis’s Is., and Moncoeur Is.). At the western entrance, King’s I. (35 m. by 15), midway bet. C. Grim and C. Otway; Hunter Is. (principal Barren, Three Hummock,J Kobin’s, Walker’s, and Albatross),|| bet. C. Grim and King’s group ; Swan I., N. of C. Portland.

Judging from the position and elevation of the islands at the E. and \V. entrances of Bass’s Str., it would seem that those on the E. are the visible links of a chain connecting Wilson’s Prom on ton' in Australia with C. Portland in Tasmania; and those on the W., C. Otway with C. Grim.

These islands were first inhabited by a class of seamen called sealers, who were placed on the different islands for the purpose of catching seals ; the oil and skins of which were prepared for the vessels to which they belonged. Many of them became so attached to their wild mode of life, that they preferred remaining behind when the vessels left, and by the native women, whom they carried off from either shore, became the progenitors of a mixed or half-caste race that now forms the resident population, called Eastern or Western Straitsmen, according to the islands they have appropriated. Since the kangaroo, wallaby, seal, and sea-elephant, have been almost entirely destroyed, they occupy themselves chiefly in catching petrels and mutton-birds, which visit the islands annually in countless swarms. The feathers are carefully cured, and sent to Launceston for sale.

No aborigines were ever found on any island in Bass’s Str.

The other islands are—Schouten I., S. of Ereycinet’s Peninsula; Maria I., E. of Pembroke; Bruni I., S.E. of Buckingham; Betsey’s T. and Iron Pot I., E. of the jSt. part of Bruni I.; 13e Witt’s I., S. of Kent.

Peninsulas.—Circular lid., X. of Wellington; Freycinet’s, E. of Glamorgan; Eorestier’s, ¡3. of Pembroke ; Tasman’s, S. of Eorestier’s.

Lighthouses6 have been erected at the following places :—Iron Pot, Storm Bay ; C. Bruni, D'Entrecasteaux Channel; Low Head, Port Dalrymple ; Goose I. and Swan I., Banks' Str. ; and Deal, the most easterly of the Kent Group.

GENERAL VIEW OF THE MOUNTAIN ANI) RIVER

SYSTEM.

The watershedf of the country, as indicated by the courses of the larger rivers, runs, generally speaking, S.W. and N.E., the country on either side of it gradually sloping towards the N.W. and S.E. The south-eastern declivity includes the basinsj of the Derwent, Huon, Coal, and other rivers ; and the north-western, those of the Gordon, King’s B.,

Pieman's E , Arthur E., and of all the rivers emptying themselves into Bass’s Str. The range forming the watershed is evidently a prolongation of that which runsS. and then S.W. through New South AVales and Victoria to Wilson’s Promontory, where its continuity is clearly indicated by the chain of isles and islets on the eastern entrance of Bass’s Str. Emerging from the Sea at C. Portland, the dividing range runs S. by E. towards St. Patrick’s Hd. (2227), Cornwall, then S.W. to L. Toom ; from L. Toom it proceeds westward towards St. Peter’s Pass, then northward, dividing L. Sorell from L. Arthur, and, arriving at Dry’s Bluff (4257), Westmoreland\ makes a semicircular bend in its course towards Western Bluff, or Alt. Humboldt (5,520). Prom this point it runs S. and then S.E. till it reaches 8. Cape.

Its chief summits are Alt. St. John (2550), AH. Tooms (2222), Glamorgan ; Eadden Tier (2144), St. Vincent’s Hill (2000), Table Alt. (3596), Somerset ; Alt. Penny (3782), Brady’s Look-out (4497), Ironstone AH. (4736), Westmoreland ; King AVm.’s Al t. (4360), Lincoln ; Alt. Hobhouse (4031), Wyld’s Craig (4390), Franklin; La Perouse (3806), Kent.

In its course it throws off spurs at all angles. The first branches off at the source of the Eingarooma K., chief summit Alt. Cameron (1S08), Dorset; the second stretches westward as far as George Town, chief summits Alt. Horror, Alt. Barrow (4644), Alt. Arthur, Alt. Direction (1212), Alt. Koval, Dorset ; and the third, crowned by the elevations of Ben Nevis (3910), and Ben Lomond (5002), Cornwall. Another spur separates Spring Hill from the Clyde, chief summit Wood’s Quoin (3033), Monmouth. At Dry’s Bluff a spur is thrown oft* which encircles L. Arthur, crowned by Barren Tier (3889), Westmoreland ; and bet. Dry’s Bluff and Western Bluff, one branches to the northward, chief summit Quamby’s Bluff, Westmoreland ; and several to the southward, which divide the lakes from the tributaries of the Derwent.

At Western Bluff a spur is thrown oft* to the N.E., separating the Aieander from the Alersey ; two to the N., the valleys bet. being drained by the Alersey,

Forth, and Leven, the chief summits Black Bluff (-1381), and Mt. Boland (4047), Devon; one to the N.W. towards C. Grim, called in different parts of its course the Hampshire and Surrey Hills; several to the W.—one stretching through Bussell, separating Arthur 14. from Pieman’s II, another (the Eldon Bange) separating Pieman’s 14. from King's 14.

S. of L. St. Clair two remarkable spurs are thrown off: one which divides King's 14. from Gordon’s

14., and is crowned by the Frenchman’s Cap (4756), Franklin : the other separates the Derwent from the Huon, chief summits Field West (4721), Collins’ Bonnet (4131), Mt. Wellington (4166), JBuckingham.

Minob Ranges and isolated Mountains.—Row Tor (3393), Mt. Pearson (1203), Jforsct; Mt. Victoria (3964), Mt. Nicholas (2812), St. Paul's Dome (3368), Cornwall; Lvne’s Sugar-loaf (1777), Snow Hill (3475), Mt. Connection (2930), Glamorgan: Prosser s Sugar-loaf (2195), Thumbs (1805), Gordon’s Sugar-loaf (1350), Brown Mt. (2598), Pembroke; Field East (4105), Mt. Nelson (1191), Grey Mt. (2715), Buckingham; Adamson’s Peak (4017), Bathurst Range (2020), Berry I Id. (2132), Kent; Mt. Pieton (4340), Arthur Range (3008), De Witt Range (2415), Wilmot Range (3-183), Arthur; Junction Range (1210), Mt. Direction (2409), Montgomery; Cradle Mt. (5069), the loftiest mountain in Tasmania, Lincoln ; Miller’s Bluff (3977), Mt. Franklin (3587), Mona Tower (1050), Somerset: Black Tier (2514), Dromedary (3245), Monmouth; Brady’s Sugar-loaf (3301), Blue Hill (2922).

Plains. — Patterson’s Plains, E. of Launceston ; Longford Plains, W. of Perth ; Epping Forest and Henrietta Plains, bet. Campbell Town and Perth ; Salt Pan Plains, S. of Boss ; Cross Marsh, bet. Lovely Banks and Jericho ; Brushy, Mosquito, and Prosser’s Plains, Pembroke; Clarence Plains, in the S.E. of Monmouth ; Huon Plains, in the W. of Buckingham.

Salt Pan Plains, so called from two large salt marshes situated therein, the one about 40 and the other about 20 acres in extent, form extensive flats of excellent pasturage. In winter these marshes are tilled with rain, which, being evaporated, leaves the surface covered with a thin layer of fine white salt. These plains are terminated on the south bv woody hills, among which is a defile called St. Peter’s Pass.

WATER SYSTEM.7

Bivers draining the    South-Eastern Slope:—

The Derwent (120) rises in L. St. Clair, in Lincoln, flows S.E., separating Buckland from Cumberland and Monmouth, and tails into Storm B.: it receives on its left the Nive (35), separating Lincoln from Cumberland: the Ouse (GO), flowing S.through Cumberland; the Clyde (50), separating Monmouth from Cumberland; the Jordan (50), flowing circuitously through Monmouth; and on its right, the Florentine (35), flowing N. bet. Franklin and Buckingham. Little Swanport E. (30) rises in Mt. Seymour, flows E. bet. Glamorgan and Pembroke, and falls into Oyster B. Prosser’s K. (20) from Mt. Hobbs, flows E. through Pembroke, and falls into Prosser's B. Coal E. (25) from Mt. Hobbs, flows S. through Monmouth, and falls into Pittwater. Huon E. (100), rises in L. Edgar, flows eastward, separating Buckingham from Arthur and Kent, and falls into D’Entrecasteaux Chau.

Draining the North- Western Slope.—The E. Gordon (90) rises in L. Eichmond, flows S.E. through Franklin, then westward, separating Franklin from Arthur and Montgomery, and falls into Macquarie Harbour. King E. (50), from Lincoln, flows westward bet. Franklin and Montague, and falls into Macquarie Harbour. Pieman’s E. (50), from the Eoekv Alts., flows westward bet. Montague and Bussell. Arthur E. (50), from Surrey Hills, flows westward bet. Eussell and Wellington.

The remaining Streams belonging to this Divisio?i fall into Bass's Str.—The E. Cam (25) rises in the S. of Wellington, and flows As. by E. through Wellington; E. Emu (25) rises in Valentine Peak, and flows N. through Wellington and Devon; B. Leven (30) rises in Mt. Cattley, and flows AC by E. through Devon ; E. Fortli (40) rises in Bugged Alts, in Lincoln, and flows N. through Lincoln and Devon; B, Alersey (40) rises in L. Adelaide, and flows N. bet. Lincoln and Westmoreland, E. and then N. by W. through Devon; the Tamar (40), formed by the junction of the N. and S. Esks, flows N.AV. between Devon and Dorset; the N. Esk (GO) rises in Ben Nevis, flows westward bet. Cornwall and Dorset, and unites with the S. Esk in forming the Tamar. The iS. Esk (110) flows circuitously through Cornwall, and separates Cornwall from Somerset and Westmoreland : it receives on its right, the Is ile (25), from Ben Lomond; and on its left, Lake It. (30), from the S. of Westmoreland, with its tributary the Macquarie (70), from the S.E. of Somerset, and the Meander (50), flowing jN\ through AVestinoreland, and then E. bet. Westmoreland and Levon.

Tasmania, owing to its insular position and the peculiar conformation of its rugged surface, is in general well-watered. The more important of its rivers taking their rise in the Lake Country, though subject to sudden increase of volume, are not, like the Australian rivers generally, liable to be dried up in the summer months.

The Derwent is navigable for large ships to Hobart Town, and by smaller vessels to New Norfolk, a short distance above which the channel is barred by a ridge of rocks, chiefly under water, over which the river flows swiftly in a broken current, forming what is locally called “the Falls.” The Falls in the upper course of the river (before the accession of the Dee) form, during the rainy seasons, a really magnificent cascade, the water precipitating itself in an unbroken volume over a ledge of rocks of considerable height.

At Bridgewater it is spanned to a length of 2,300 ft. by an earthern causeway; and the length of the bridge, from the end of this to the northern shore, is 1,010 feet; the whole length of the work being 3,310 feet, or nearly three-quarters of a mile. The navigation of the river is preserved by means of a moveable platform near the northern shore. This causeway was begun in January 1818, and opened in April 1849 : cost, L'7,580.

The Derwent has two entrances—Storm B., the eastern; and D’Entrecasteaux Chan., the western.

The N. Esk, one of the tributaries of the Tamar, forms a pretty waterfall at Corra Linn, about 7 miles from Launceston; and the S. Esk, about half a mile before its junction with the Tamar, when in full volume, presents a rather imposing cataract.

The Tamar estuary is navigable for large ships as far as Swan Point; but, owing to its unequal depth, and the bar a little below Launceston, only vessels of small draught can reach this port.

The Huon estuary extends 7 miles N.by \Y. and N. by E. tonearly the the same distance. A beautiful islet (comprising about 3(X) acres) divides its entrance, about 3 in. wide, into two passages, of which the western is the broadest, but has, in the centre, a small dangerous rock, conspicuous only at low water. Five miles up the Huon is a beautiful bay, named Swan Port.

Lakes and Lagoons.8Hobb’s Lagoon,in the AT. of Pembroke; L. Tiberias, in the N. of Monmouth;

L. Barker and L. Fenton, both in the X.AY\. and L. Edgar in the S.AW of Buckingham; L. Pedder and L. Maria, in the E. of Arthur; L. Kufus and L. George, in the E. of Franklin ; L. St. Clair, L. Adelaide, Clarence Lagoon, L. Ina, and L. Fergus, in theS. and E. of Lincoln; Gt. L., in the S.W and L. Augusta, in the A\r. of Westmoreland ; L. Adda, in the S.W. of L. Augusta ; Arthur s L., in the S.E., and Western Lagoon, 1S .E. of Gt. L.; L. Echo, towards the A. AW, and AVood's L., in the A\E. of Cumberland ; L. Sorell, in the AY. of Somerset; L. Crescent, S. of L. Sorell; L. Dulverton, bet. Somerset and Monmouth ; Toom’s L., bet. Somerset and Glamorgan.

The Gt. L.. whence issues the Shannon, is about 15 in. by 5. but, from the deep and continuous indentations of its shores, is nearly 150 m. in circumference. Its surface is studded with live wooded islets, which render it highly picturesque. Its lee-shore is protected from the fury of the winter winds by a natural breakwater, which is nearly as regular as if constructed by masonic art.

L. Echo, lying immediately to the S. of Gt. L., is rendered peculiarly attractive by its gently waving shores, fairy islets, flowery banks, and clear blue waters.

L. St. Glair, in which the Derwent originates, occupies the valley bet. Mt. Ida and Mt. Olympus. It is remarkably deep (in some places 550 ft.), and is bordered by steep and lofty mts. crowned with masses of igneous rock. It was formerly believed to be the crater of an extinct volcano; but, from recent geological surveys, it appears to have been produced by the formation of a dam or wall of greenstone extending across the southern extremity of the valley.

The following table shows the estimated areas of the principal lakes and their respective heights above the sea:—¦

LAKES.

Area in Acres.

Ft. above i the Sea.

The Great L., very deep .................................

60,000

3,822

Arthur’s L., shallow.......................................

15.000

3,388

L. Sorell, very deep .......................................

15,(XX)

3.000

L. St.Clair, very deep ....................................

10,000

3,230

L. Crescent, shallow.......................................

6,000

3,000

L. Echo, shallow ........................................

5,000

3.000

L. Tiberias, shallow.......................................

3,(XX)

1,300

Wood’s L., deep ..........................................

2,500

3,000

L. Pedder. deep.............................................

2,500

2,000

L. Edgar, deep ............................................

1,120

1.800

L. Barker, deep.............................................

1.100

1,800

L. Petrarch, deep..........................................

960

3,200

L. Richmond, deep ......................................

200

3.000

Climate.— The climate is naturally very salubrious.

This is proved from the fact, that the average rate of mortality for the whole island is much less than that of England ;—the rate of the latter being from 22 to 23 per thousand per annum, while that of the former is only about 16 per thousand.

By separating the high mortality of Hobart Town and Launceston from the whole, and comparing the average rate of rural mortality with that of the healthiest registration district in England and Wales, the result shows that the rural mortality of our island is less by 3£ per thousand per annum than that of England. The summer quarter of our year is the most, and the winter quarter usually the least, fatal to human life: aridity and heat being the predominant causes of those epidemical diseases, diarrhoea and dysentery, which have proved very fatal, especially to infant life. The intense power of the sun's rays during the summer months is considered by some to add very much to the mortality by inducing various brain diseases: hence the propriety of having the head protected with suitable coverings when exposed to the solar rays. The variations of temperature in Tasmania are not so injurious to health as is commonly supposed. Opthalmia and diseases of the lungs are the most prevalent maladies.

The temperature seldom rises above 95° (Fall.) in summer, nor often sinks much below 40° in winter. Mean summer temp. (Dec.—Feb.), GO2 ; winter (June—Aug.), 44° ; autumn (March—May), 54° ; spring (Sept.—Nov.), 52°.    The prevailing winds from

April to October are from the N. and N.AVand during the other five months from the S.E. Ivain-fall, 39.07 in.; mean lit. of bar., 29.73 in.

Of the four principal quarters of the compass, the northerty and southerly furnish the greatest number of winds. In winter, tho polar winds in Tasmania are to the equatorial as 1:4; and in summer the polar are to the equatorial as 1: 1‘8. During the latter period hot winds are occasionally felt, but neither so frequently, nor, when they do occur, are they so intense, as in Australia. Coming as they do from Victoria, although very much modified by their passage across Bass’s Str., yet, during their continuance, which varies from a few hours to two or three days, all nature appears to languish, vegetation withers, and in the human frame they produce great uneasiness and exhaustion. During winter in the interior, particularly upon high and exposed situations, frosts are sometimes severe, and at times a good deal of snow falls; hut seldom does the appearance of either frost or snow bust throughout the day. The weather in spring is usually bright and clear, with occasional rain and high winds. Autumn forms by far the pleasantest season,—the air being then clear and bright, the sky generally free from clouds, and the nights cool and refreshing. The longest day is 15 hours, the shortest 8 hours.

Soil.—The soil is very varied: in some places a rich alluvial mould ; in others, sandy and argillaceous. The valleys, consisting chiefly of alluvial soil formed of disintegrated igneous rocks, are very fertile, producing crops for successive years without being manured, c

Its productiveness, however, would be considerably increased by the adoption of a comprehensive measure, projected by His Excellency Sir H. E. F. Young, for turning to advantage the vast natural capabilities of the country for Irrigation.*

The chief agricultural districts are:—the valley of the Tamar,f comprising the rich districts of Morven, Norfolk Plains (the garden of Tasmania), Westbuiy, and Deloraine; the valley of the Derwent, which is composed of the valleys of the Jordan, Ouse, and Clyde; the vale of the Pitt water, including the Coal R. basin; and the vale of the river Huon.+ Besides these, several minor vales, on the northern, western, and eastern coast of the island, deserve to l>e noticed:—Port Sorell, Emu Bay, with the Hampshire Hills behind, Circular HiL, and Woolnorth, to the W. of Port Dalrymple. To the east are the Hat-bottomed, marshy, scrubby valleys of Forestier, Bubiala, and Anson's rivers, which offer every inducement to agriculture.

The extensive pastoral territory, which presents either the alternate fall or rise of a smooth undulating surface, or one broken and riven, is characterised by the growth of the Eucalyptus, which uniformly covers its surface. In some parts the vegetation is luxurious beyond description, and extends from the level of the sea to the highest altitudes.

By far the greater portion of the recently explored district is mountainous and barren, and, from its elevation, subject to great severity ot climate : only a few patches bordering on the streams are considered suitable for pastoral purposes.

PRODUCTIONS.

Animal.—Quadmpeds.—The following are the principal quadrupeds, the greater number of which belong to the marsupial § or pouched species :—Kangaroo, native hyaena, native devil, wallaby, kangaroo-rat, bandicoot, porcupine of two varieties, opossum, tigercat, wombat, otter, platypus or ornithorynchus. All the common domesticated animals have been introduced ; and these, especially sheep and oxen, have thriven amazingly.

The.fi,rst Practical measure for irrigating any portion of the Island was projected by t ol. Cotton, whose plans and specifications are now in the Survey Office.

t Its length, from the head of the Macquarie to George Town, is 100 m., arul its average breadth 30 m.; and its superficial extent may be estimated at *vS<k m* ias miles inland navigation for vessels of GOO tons, and tfie best macadamised roads cross it in every direction. Its sides are prominently indented with bold, erect ranges of greenstone, which, under the process of disintegration, are yielding to its soil the most valuable elements ot production. I- rom the nature of the drift, the eligibilities of the land and water communications, and particularly from the position of the valley relatively to L. Arthur, which lies above it at an elevation of 3,700 ft., forming f “at^ral. rcserVoi>* for irrigation, the valley of the Tamar constitutes as important a portion of the island as the valley of the Hunter does of N. S. Wales.

remarkable lor the density of its forests, and for its potatoes, qu... titles of which are sent to the adjoining colonies. Its climate is moist ¿inri congenial to vegetation

I rom the Latin marsupium, a purse or pouch.

PBODrCTIOXS.

07

«-) I


There are at least 38 species of Mammals indigenous to Tasmania of the order Cheiroptera, 3 ; Carnivora (seals), 3; Cetacea, 5; Rodentia, 6; Marsupiala, 19; and Monotremata, 2.

The hyaena, though it flies from man with the timidity of a hare, is very destructive among flocks. It sometimes measures 6 feet from the snout to the tail. It is striped transversely with black and white on the back, and the belly and sides are of a grey colour. Its mouth resembles that of a wolf, with huge jaws, opening almost to the ears. The legs are short in proportion to the body, and it has a sluggish appearance; but in running it bounds like a kangaroo, though not with equal speed.

The native devil is extremely ugly, with a head somewhat resembling an otter's, but disproportionate to the si/.e of the body; the mouth is supplied with three rows of teeth ; the legs short, with teet like the feline race; the tail short and thick ; and the skin of a sable colour. When provoked, it gnashes its teeth with great violence, making at the same time a noise not unlike that of a bear. It can exist a long time without food, and is perfectly untameable. It frequents rocky hills, whence it issues at night in search of its prey.

The Phascogales, found on the mountains, and in the unsettled districts, are small insectivorous animals.

The other animals enumerated above, not being peculiar to Tasmania, are described under Australia.

Birds.—The feathered tribes of this island are numerous : some of them are very handsome ; but few can be considered melodious. The principal are—the emu, eagle, six or seven varieties of hawk, three or four species of owl, cockatoo (both black and white), parrots of many varieties, wood-pigeon, snipe, quail, wild-duck, and teal. The black swan, formerly very common, has now' retreated to the unsettled districts, where it is undisturbed by man. Pelicans, cormorants, penguins, gulls, and cranes, line the sea-shore and margin of lakes and rivers.

A species of wattle-bird, about the size of a snipe, and which is considered a great delicacy, is the only bird peculiar to Tasmania.

Insects.—Amongst insects are—moths (some as large as a wren), bottle-flies, gnats, mosquitoes, a great variety of beetles, ants (some very large, a purple sort an inch long), grasshoppers, tree-locusts, crickets, tarantula, spider, mantis, common flies, and other insects well known in England.

The bee has been introduced with great success; and a considerable quantity of wild honey is now obtained in all parts of the country, produced by bees that originally escaped, and are now rapidly increasing in numbers.    •

Eeptiles.—The reptiles are—snakes (the most common kinds being a large black snake, the diamond

snake, and a smaller brown sort, all armed with poison-fangs), iguanas, lizards (very common, and perfectly innoxious), frogs, scorpions, and centipedes.

Fish.—Fresh-water fish are limited to very few species: of these the most in favour is the so-called herring, or mullet, a small fish weighing four or five ounces, which appears to be migratory, and is identical, or nearly so, with the English smelt. Eels of an immense size, a sort of bream, barracouta, fiatheads, king-fish, trumpeter, flounders, gurnet, cod, salmon-trout, mullet, gar-fish, plaice, perch, silver-fish, pike, blue-heads, and skates, are the principal at present known and eaten. A fish found in the bays and on the shores of the island, and supposed to be a species of toad-fish, is a strong poison. Large sharks, porpoises, and whales (black and sperm), abound in all the Australian waters. Of shell-fish may be mentioned o) sters, muscles, cockles, periwinkles, wilks, mutton-fish, crabs, prawns, and Cray-fish.    Coral and sponges are also

abundant.

Not only do tlie Tasmanian waters abound with the species of fish enumerated above, many of which arc admirable as articles of food, but there is every reason to believe, that, were the fisheries zealously prosecuted, and extended beyond the shallow water at the mouths of our rivers and bays, many more would be procured, and in sufficient abundance to form a valuable export.9

Vegetable.Trees.—The forests of Tasmania are of unsurpassed grandeur. All the trees are evergreens; and some of them, particularly the Acaciao, put forth very rich blossoms in spring. The most common genera are the Eucalypti, Acaeiae, and Casuarinse. The Eucalyptus includes the peppermint, stringy-bark, iron-bark, the different varieties of gum-trees, <fcc.; the Acacia, the dark and pale varieties of lightwood, the dark and silver wattle, &c.; and the Casuarina, the forest-oak, she-oak, swamp-oak, &c.

The tulip-tree ranks among the most handsome of the shrubs. The geranium grows into a bushy shrub, and is used for hedge-rows. The castor-oil plant yields the well-known medicine. There are several native grasses, of which that called kangaroo-grass is the principal.

The cypress, or native cherry (e.rocarpns), has a small red ovalshaped fruit, of a sweet taste, the seed or stone being on the outside.

The roots and hearts of several descriptions of ferns, as well as the inner leaves of the grass-tree, were formerly roasted and eaten by the. aborigines.

The Norfolk I. pine, which has been introduced into the colony, towers to a great height, and in figure very much resembles the Norway spruce-tir.

Lightwood is so called from its boating in water, while most of the Tasmanian woods sink.

Uses.—For Ship and House Building, <$v.—Stringy-bark, peppermint, and the different sorts of gum-trees. Shingles split from stringy bark and peppermint are used in place of tiles and slates on houses; Celery-top pine for masts and spars. For Cabinet work: —Myrtle, sassafras, swamp and forest oak, 1 »lackwood, cedar, Huon pine (also boat-building), musk, honeysuckle, laurel, box-wood, and cypress. For Turnery :—Black-wood, iron-wood, and laurel. The gum of the string}*-bark and wattle-tree is medicinal; the bark of the silver-wattle and honeysuckle is used for tanning; and white-wood is fit for engraving. She-oak (a corruption of the aboriginal word shiak) is used for fuel.

Grains.—Barley, buckwheat, Cobbett’s corn, oats, rye, tares, wheat, <fcc.

Fruits.—Apples, pears, peaches, nectarines, oranges, lemons, quinces, filberts, cherries, medlars, apricots, plums, damsons, raspberries, gooseberries, currants, (red, white, and black), Cape gooseberries, strawberries, walnuts, almonds, iigs, grapes, green-gages, melons, hazelnuts, &c.

The climate is in some places too cold for grapes and cucumbers, but apples, pears, quinces, mulberries, and walnuts succeed better than in England.

Native Fruits (Edible).—Cherries (exocarpus), blackberries, kangaroo-apple ('solan-urn), cranberries.

Minerals.—The minerals are valuable, and some of them abundant:—Coal, iron, copper, lead, gold, blacklead, limestone, granite, marble, and various other sorts of building stone, are all found to a greater or less extent.

The two principal coal-bearing localities are the Jerusalem and South Esk basins: the former includes the Derwent valley as far north as Hamilton and Both well, together with the Richmond and Coal R. valleys ; the latter, the Avoca and Break-o’-day district, together with the country watered by the Macquarie and Blackman’s Rs, Coal mines are now worked at the Mersey, the Douglas R., Port Arthur, New Town, and in the Schouten Is. Limestone is found in almost every part of the island; granite on High Tor (near the Eldon Range),Ben Lomond,and Frenchman's Cap; and freestone, in the N.,the centre, andtheS.of the Island: the beautiful white sandstone found at Bellerive (Kangaroo Point), being of a firm solid nature, and containing an enormous proportion of silica.

Marble also abounds. No metallic mine« are as yet worked, those of Fingal excepted, although specimens of iron, lead, zinc, and copper ores have been occasionally met with.

The produce of the gold mine« at Fingal amounted (1859) to 485 oz., valued at £1805, a yield very insignificant when contrasted with that of the Victorian diggings.

Petrified remains of wood (sometimes in large trees), and other vegetable productions, converted into siliceous matter, and capable of the finest polish, are occasionally met with in different parts of the island, especially on High Plains and above New Norfolk.

Geology.—The geological character of the island is decidedly volcanic.

Granitic and metamorphic rocks abound in the south-western, central, north-eastern, and northern parts of the island; the other portions being chiefly formed of intersecting ridges of greenstone, enclosing plains or valleys of palaeozoic age. In some cases the more massive greenstone is evidently anterior to the palaeozoic fonnation ; while in others, sandstones of the palaeozoic formation, often broken through by basaltic and other igneous rocks, are capped by immense masses of greenstone. Quartz rock is found at Fingal, Frenchman’s Cap, &c. With the exception of the Eldon Range and surrounding districts, recently explored by the expedition under Gould, little is yet known of the geological-character of the Western Country. The district then examined lies W. of a line drawn from Cradle Mt. to the southern part of L. St. Clair, and does not exceed 40 m. by 30. The rocks occupying this area are granite, greenstone, and basalt, igneous rocks; and up per paheozoic, lower palaeozoic, and metamorphic, stratified rocks. The greater portion of the district is occupied by metamorphic rocks, consisting principally of mica schist, and quartz. The lower palaeozoic beds were found resting upon the the metamorphic. They occur at the base of the western portion of the Eldon Kange, and were observed to extend southwards to the Collingwood Valley. The upper palaeozoic beds lie for the most part horizontally upon the upturned edges of the formations already mentioned, and form the covering of the spurs of several of the loftier and more important ranges; while in the eastern portion of the district, and in the instance of the Barn and Cradle Mts. and Eldon Range, these upper palaeozoic beds are capped by greenstone. Granite is met with only in one locality,— the High Tor, a hill about 6 m. in length and m. in breadth, being one mass of granite, resting upon metamorphic schists.

ABORIGINES.

Tasmania, when visited by early navigators, was comparatively thickly peopled by several thousands (at the lowest estimate from 4,000 to 5,000) of a dark-coloured aboriginal race, differing in some respects from the aborigines of Australia, though, in common with them, belonging to the Oceanic group of the Mongolidae. Their limbs were attenuated, and their hands and feet small; the upper jaw in children projected considerably beyond the lower, but fell back with age; in the adult it was nearly in the same line. At Adventure Bay, the males had their bodies tattooed, and their hair powdered with ochre. Both sexes went entirely naked, except during the winter season, when kangaroo-skins were occasionally worn. Their habitations consisted of three sticks stuck in the ground, and meeting in a point at the top, whero they were fastened by a cord of bark, the sides interlaced with wickerwork, and the whole covered with bark or with long grass, dlousehold titensils were unknown. The canoe consisted of a few pieces of wood lashed together like a catamaran. Their spears were composed of a piece ot wood pointed by a sharp stone, and hardened bv tire, which was obtained by the rapid friction of touchwood.

The French naturalist Labillardiere describes them as being a simple, harmless, contented, and healthy race; gentle and affable in their manners; and altogether the reverse of what they afterwards became—covered with sores, wasted by want and vice, or animated with revenge.

The men are described as indolent, harsh in their treatment of the other sex, and employing themselves only in hunting the kangaroo; while upon the women devolved the toil of the journey and of the encampment, as well as the task of catering10 for the men and the children; yet they were notallowedto partakeof what they had provided until the men were satisfied.

There were four distinct tribes, known as the Oyster Bay, the Big River, the Stony Creek, and the Western, divided by dialects and well-established boundaries.

The untameable fierceness, treachery, and revenge, that latterly characterised them were fearfully developed by the circumstances of their position. The brutal treatment they received from bushrangers, and often trom settlers, the occupation of their hunting-grounds, the destruction ot their tood, the abduction of their women, and other causes, all conspired to arouse their cruel and indiscriminating resentment. In 1K30 it became absolutely impossible to permit the desultory warfare between the isolated colonists and the wandering aborigines to continue. A plan was therefore adopted of forming a line of troops, convicts, and colonists across the island, with the intention of driving them on to Tasman’s Peninsula ; but, owing to the rugged and broken nature of the country, they escaped to the rear of their pursuers.f

When the uuited efforts of the Government and of the colonists had failed in effecting the capture of the aborigines, Mr. Robinson’s conciliatory method proved wonderfully successful. Through his instrumentality, upwards of 200 were captured, and (1833) removed to Flinders’ Island. There they remained till 1847, when, their number having diminished to 45, this remnant was removed to Oyster Cove, JD' Entrecasteaux Chan., about 30 miles from Hobart Town. They now (I860) number only 10; and so rapidly is that unfortunate race disappearing, that in a few years they will have become extinct.

POLITICAL.

Tasmania is divided into IS counties, of which two are northern counties, viz., Devon and Dorset; one is northwesterly, Wellington; four westerly, Franklin, Montagu, Montgomery and Kussell; one south-westerly, Arthur; one southerly, Kent; three easterly, Cornwall, Glamorgan, and Pembroke ; six central, Buckingham, Cumberland, Lincoln, Monmouth, Somerset, and Westmoreland.

COUNTIES WITH TOWNSHIPS SETTLED OR PARTIALLY SO.

Wellington in the JST.W.—Stanley, on the Pen. of Circular Hd.

Devon S.E. of-—Exeter and York, both on the

E. Tamar; Burgess and Torquay, on Port Sorell; Tarleton

and Latrobe, on the E. Mersey.

Dorset, E. of-.—George Town (160), near the

mouth of the E. Tamar.

Comte all, S. of-.—Launceston (121), on the E.

Tamar ; Perth (112), S. of-—; Evandale, E; of-;

Ealmouth, on the E. coast; Fingal (120), S.AV. of .

Glamorgan, S. of--.—Swansea and Bicheno, on the

coast; Llewellyn, in the H.AV\

Pembroke, S. of-.—Buckland, in the middle;

Triabunna, on the E. coast; Lewisham and Sorell (27), both on Pittwater.

Monmouth, W. of-.—Bothwell (46) and Hamil

ton (43), in the W., on the Clyde; Pontville, Brighton, and Eichmond, in the S.; Bagdad, Green Ponds, Picton, and Apsley, near the middle.

Buckingham, S.E. of-.—Hobart Town (cap.),

Hew Town, O’Brien’s Bridge, Bridgewater (11), and Hew Norfolk (21), all on the Derwent; Victoria and Lovett, on the E, Huon ; Kingston, on Brown’s Kiver; and Margate, in the E.

Kent, S. of-.—Franklin (21) and Adelaide, on

the Huon ; Folkstone, Hythe, and Eamsgate, in the E. ; Bathurst Town, in the W.

7Vestmor eland, S. of Devon.—Longford (110), on L. Eiver ; Chudleigh, Deloraine (120), and V estbury (120), in the N.

Somerset, S.E. of-.—Oatlands (50), in the S. ;

Cornwallis, N. of-; Tunbridge, N. of-; Eoss,

H. of--; Campbell Town (SO), N. of-; Cleveland, H. of-; Newstead, in the S.E.

The rest of the counties have only township reserves.

Hobart Town rises from the verge of an indentation of the Derwent called Sullivan’s Cove, gradually ascending up the slopes ot seven modo-rately elevated hills, and is magnificently hacked in its western aspect, at the distance of 3 or 4 miles, by the loft}' Mt. Wellington.

The city fair of Hobart Town,

“ How beautiful she stands !”

Embosom’d 'midst her own green hills,

Queen of the Southern Lands.

It covers an area of over 2 sq. m., and contains a population of about 20,000. On the southern side of its noble harbour stands the Prince of

Wales Batten *: on the S.W.. at a somewhat greater distance, the Military Barracks; on the X.W., the Custom House (including the two Houses of Parliament); and on the X., the Government Domain (Queen s Park), in which are situated the new Government House, the Queen a Battery, the Magnetical Observatory (estab. by Sir J. Boss, 1840), and the Botanical Gardens. The streets are tolerably wide andairy, and cross each other at right angles ; some of them contain splendid buildings, both public and private. Hobart Town is in lat. 42° 53' S.; long., 147° 25' E.; in time, 9 h. 49 m. 39 s. before London. It is W. of Sydney nearly 4°, or in time, 15£ m.; E. of Melbourne, in time, 10 m. 38 s.; and E. of Adelaide, 34 m. 18 s.

Launceston, the northern capital, is situated on the R. Tamar, 40 miles from its entrance, in a valley, enclosed on the E. and W. by two hills; and, both from the river and surrounding elevations, its appearance is highly picturesque. It covers an area of 1^ sq. m., with a populationot about 8,000.

Both Hobart Town and Launceston are lighted with gas and well supplied with pure water.

New Norfolk, or Elizabeth Town, is built upon an eminence called Richmond Hill, which slopes gently towards the Derwent. It is the centre of a very productive district, and possesses a commodious and admirably constructed Lunatic Asylum.

POLICE DISTRICTS,


ACRES.


ELECTORAL DISTRICTS.


Agricultural.

Hobart Town, in the S.E ...

Launceston, in the N..........

Brighton, ............midland

Longford,.................. ,,    ...

Morven................... ,,    ...

New Norfolk ............ ,,    ...

Westbury, with)

Deloraine.....j ....... ”

Richmond, with Sorell, in    S.

Pastoral.

Bothwell, ......midland......

Campbell Town, ,,    ......

Hamilton............ ,, ......

Fingal, in the N.E.............

Glamorgan, in the E..........

Horton, in the N.W........

George Town, in the N.....

Thickly Timbered.

Franklin, in the S.W........

Kingborough, in the S.E.... Port Sorell, in the N........

Pastoral and Agricultural Oatlands, midland ..........


658.000

437.000

133.000

590.000

260.000

125.000

571.000

593.000


299.000

492.000

415.000

1.807.000

677.000

2.574.000

792.000


1,164,000

2,864

561.000

448.000


HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY LEGISLATIVE COI N


Northern.


Launceston ... George Town

Westbury ......

Deloraine......

Devon...........

Norfolk Plains

Ring wood......

Morven.........

Selby............

Campbell Town . Fingal...........


Northern.

j Tamar.....

1


Meander


j

j Longford.....

j North Esk .. 1 South Esk ..


Sub-Police Districts. Pastoral.

Spring Bay, in the S.E...A Agricultural.

Clarence Plains, in the S. E. J


300,000


Southern.

Hobart Town Queenborough

Glenorchy......

Kingborough ..

Franklin........

New Norfolk.. Cumberland ...

Oatlands........

Brighton .......

Richmond.....

Clarence ........

Sorell.............

Glamorgan .....


Southern.


Hobart,


j Buckingham

}

}

}


Huon


Derwent.


J ordan


j Cambridge .. j Pembroke....


1


1


1


1


15


* Originally Mulgrave Battery, but, having been considerably altered and enlarged about the time of the birth of the Prince of Wales, it then received the name of Prince of Wales Battery.

c 5

Agriculture.—The objects of cultivation are the different sorts of grain (wheat, oats, barley, pease, beans, &c.), grasses (English and colonial), potatoes, turnips, onions, mangold wurzel, &c.

The settlers are extensively employed in pastoral pursuits, for which purpose the soil and climate possess vast capabilities. Wool and wheat, both of a superior quality, form the two great staple productions. Sheep-fanning is carried ou to a great extent, about 2,000,000 acres being occupied by the settlers under grazing licenses, while upwards of 140,000 are under cultivation:—60,314 being cultivated for wheat; 36,209, for oats; 7,506, for barley ; 7.777, for potatoes; and 29,394, for colonial hay. Many of the agricultural implements and machines in use at home have been introduced. The pastoral grounds may be estimated to occupy about 5,000,000 acres, and the agricultural 2,000,000 ; much of the latter, especially in the northern districts, being of the highest productive power.

Live Stock.—In 1859 there were 20,559 horses, 79,950 horned cattle, 1,697,199 sheep, 32,008 pigs, 2,819 goats, &c.

The Agricultural and Horticultural Societies are:—the Southern Tasmanian Agricultural Association, Gardeners’ and Amateurs' Horticultural Society, Hobart Town; and Vail Diemen s Land Agricultural Company, Northern Tasmanian Agricultural Association, Horticultural Society, Gardeners’ and Amateurs’ Horticultural Society, Launceston.

The Royal Society’s Botanical Gardens, Hobart Town, are situated in the Queen’s Park, and extend over 20 acres.

The Manufactures are numerous, but unimportant; none of them being carried on to any great extent. The principal articles are—ale, candles, leather, lime, malt, soap, starch, vinegar, &c.

Among the manufactories established may be noticed—breweries, tanneries, founderies, potteries, and timber and dour mills (by steam, wind, and water); ship-building, coach-making, and every description of cabinetwork are extensively prosecuted ; in short, almost all the trades of the home country are represented and in active operation.

Commerce.Exports.—The    principal    are—wool,

timber, oil, agricultural produce, fruits, flour, horses, &c.

The total value of these amounted (1859) to £1.193,898: shipped at Hobart Town, £554,547; at Launceston, £639,351. Of this amount, £289,805 were sent to Gt. Britain, £187,412 to Victoria, £36,970 to New South Wales, and £28,015 to New Zealand.

Wool and oil are exported chiefly to Gt. Britain; flour, timber, fruits, potatoes, horses, &c., to the other Australian colonies.

Imports.—The principal are—drapery goods, sugar, live stock, hardware, clothing, &c., tea, oilmen’s stores, spirits and wines, beef and provisions, tobacco, and coal.

Total value (1859), £1,163.907 : entered at Hobart Town, £662,397; at Launceston, £501,510. Of the whole amount, £360,560 were imported from Gt. Britain; £47,5*20, from New South Wales; T1G4.7SO, from Victoria; £46,688. from Mauritius; £23,455, from China.

Tea is obtained chiefly from China, live stock from Victoria, coal from Newcastle (N.S. Wales), sugar from the Mauritius, whalebone and oil from the Southern Fisheries, and the other articles enumerated chiefly from Gt. Britain.

The following are the principal countries with which the trade is carried on, arranged in the order of the extent of such trade:— Gt. Britain, Victoria, New South Wales. Mauritius, China, New Zealand, S. Australia, S. America, Southern Whale Fisheries, &c.

The commerce of Tasmania is conducted chiefly by Colonial and British vessels. The mercantile navy of this colony consists^ of 231 vessels, carrying 22,793 tons, of which 27 are engaged in the fisheries; there are besides 16 steamers. The number of vessels built in the colony up to last returns is 390, carrying 22,300 tons.

Besides duty and wharfage rates, which are different on different articles, there are pilotage rates:—for every coasting-vessel, 9d. per registered ton in Hobart Town, and Is. in Launceston; for every steam-vessel, 6d. in Hobart Town and 8d. in Launceston.

As light-dues, every steam-vessel and coaster entering inwards, Id. per ton ; every other vessel, 9d; harbour-dues, one penny per ton.

Principal Ports.—Hobart Town, in the S. ; Launceston, in the N.

In 1859, 835 vessels, of an aggregate burthen of 130,906 tons, arrived,— of which 387 were entered at Hobart Town, and -418 at Launceston; 897 vessels, of 125,089 tons, departed, of which 403 were cleared at Hobart Town, and 454 at Launceston. This department has declined of late years,—the aggregate tonnage of vessels entered at the ports of Hobart Town and Launceston in 1858 being 147,947, cleared 146,864; in 1857, entered 164,008, cleared 167,058.

Currency.—The amount of coin in the Colony (exclusive of that in general circulation), £287,443: the assetsot the several Banks, £1,903.242 ; liabilities, £1,132,590. Bank of Van Diemen’s Land, Commercial Bank, and Bank of Tasmania are Colonial; Bank of Australasia and Union Bank of Australia, London Banks.

The Population, according to the recent returns, amounts to 85,908 (exclusive of the military).

The population receives annually considerable additions by the arrival of bounty immigrants introduced into the colony at the public expense, (in 1859, 721, at a cost of £9.430). By means of bounty-tickets issued by the Colonial Government, any resident in Tasmania can have immigrants conveyed thither by paying a specified sum in aid of the expenses incurred by the Government in bringing them out. Upon their arrival, the immigrants are lodged in the depots provided for their reception, where they may remain comfortably accommodated and provisioned for at least 15 days at the expense of the Colonial Government.

Army.—The military troops number only 340, but there are numerous volunteer corps.

In all the Australian Colonies (New Zealand excepted), on martial law being proclaimed in any district, the authority passes outol the hands of the civil Governor into those of the Commanding Oflicer.

Reyente.—The public income is derived, as in other colonies, from custom duties, licences, rentsand sale of crown lands, etc. The estimated revenue for 1861 is £293,626— £S6,2S0 being the Land, and £207,346 General Revenue ; and the estimated Expenditure, £279,000. The debt ot the colony, on 30th Sept., 1859, was £295,660, for which debentures, secured on the Land Fund and General Revenue, have been issued.

Government.—The Colony is governed after the model of the British Constitution, the Governor representing the Sovereign, and, in conjunction with the Legislative Council and House of Assembly, forming the Legislature. The Executive consists of the Governor and his responsible advisers. The Legislative Council consists of fifteen members, five of whom retire every three years, but are eligible for re-election. The House of Assembly consists of thirty members, elected for five years: no judge of the Supreme Court, or minister of religion, is eligible. Both chambers are elected by the ballot.

Religion.—During the first years of this colony, religious matters were much neglected both by the state and the settlers themselves. The spiritual interests of the community were confided to clergymen of the Episcopal Church, who, to their clerical functions, united the business of agriculture, and also acted as civil magistrates.

The Rev. R. Carvosso, a Wesleyan, touched at Hobart Town on his way to Port Jackson ; and, by the accounts he transmitted to the Wesleyan Mission in London, directed their attention to Tasmania. The Rev*. Mr. Horton arrived the following year (1821). The Rev. R. Knopwood, who arrived with the first settlers, was long the sole chaplain. He was superseded as principal chaplain by the Rev. W. Bedford (1822).

'Die Presbyterian Church was founded the same year by the Rev. Arch. McArthur.

The first Roman Catholic priest established at Hobart Town was the

Rev. P. Conolly.

The first Sunday school was established on the 13th May, 1821.

At first the Government did not recognise the title of any except the Anglican clergy to the patronage of the crown ; although other sects, notwithstanding, were favoured with sites for their churches, and, in some instances, with assistance in erecting them. As, however, the number of adherents of the Presbyterian and other denominations began rapidly to increase in consequence of free immigration, the title of the Episcopal Church to exclusive support was disputed. After much discussion, it was agreed that all sections of the Christian Church were equally entitled to participate in the revenue appropriated to religious purposes. Since the establishment of a Legislative Council, the sum of £15,000 per annum has been granted, of which the Church of England receives £9,360; Church of Scotland, £3,070; Church of Rome, £1,755; Wesleyans, £600 ; Jewish Church, £150.

The Crown erected the Australian Colonies into a See (1836), and Dr. Broughton was consecrated first Bishop.

The Rev. Wm. Hutchins emigrated to Tasmania along with Sir John Franklin, and in his favour the island was erected into an Archdeaconry. In 1842, shortly after his death, the diocese of Tasmania was established, and Dr. Nixon, who arrived in 18-13, constituted first Bishop.

It was arranged fry Earl Grey that the Protestant clergy should take rank before the Roman Catholic.

The following is a list of the religious sects, with their respective number of members, as shown by the census of 1857 :—Professing themselves to be members of the Church of England, 47,714; Church of Scotland, 7,220; Church of Home, 16,852; Wesleyan body, 4,721; other Protestant denominations, 3,820; Jews, 429; Mahomedans and Pagans, 46.

The religious and charitable institutions are numerous. Of the former there are the Auxiliary Bible Society, City and Colonial Mission Societies» &c. Hobart Toicn; and the London Missionary Society, Cornwall Aux-Bible Society, Town and Colonial Mission Societies, &c. Launceston. Of charitable institutions, there are tl>e Colonial Hospital and St. Mary’s Hospital, Hobart Toicn; and the Cornwall Hospital and Infirmary, Launceston. In addition to these, there are several Benevolent Societies.

Education.—Education has been for some years a matter of primary consideration with the colonists. There are no records prior to the year 1828, but from thence to 1835 Government schools gradually increased till they numbered 29. Die schools were, however, exclusively Episcopalian until 1838, when the British and Foreign system, intended to comprehend all denominations, was adopted,—the schools established on this plan being subject to a Board nominated bj’ the Crown. This system was opposed by many of the Episcopalian clergy, but, notwithstanding, continued in operation until the commencement of Denison’s administration, when it was abandoned. Instead thereof, Governor Denison, at the suggestion of Mr. Secretary Gladstone, granted a fixed sum per head to denominational schools, and appointed as inspector the son of the illustrious Arnold, Head Master of Rugby School. The Government, or public schools, 87 in number, are at present (1860) under the direction of two-boards, the southern and northern (established 1854), and under the inspectorship of Messrs. J. J. Stut/.er, M.A., and Stephens, B.A. The Queen’s Orphan School, New Town, is supported by British and colonial funds,—the orphan children of convicts being maintained entirely at the expense of the British Government, and those of free persons being charged to the Colonial treasury.

Private education is also well promoted. The principal educational establishments are Christ’s College, Bishopsbourney opened 1846, (not at present in operation); High School (established 1847), and Hutchins’ School (opened in 1846), Hobart Town; Church Grammar School, Launceston; Horton College, Loss; and a great number of private schools.

The Sunday schools are numerous.

There are Mechanics’ Institutes at Hobart Town and Launceston, besides the Royal Society (estab. 1843), with its Museum, the Parliamentary Library and Tasmanian Public Library, and several Circulating Libraries, Hobart Town; and the Public and Theological Libraries, Launceston.

Means of Communication.—There is steam communication bet. Launceston and ports on the N.W. coast; bet. Hobart Town and Kangaroo Pt., New Norfolk, the Huon, and places on the E. coast; bet. Launceston and Melbourne (in 30 hours); bet. Hobart Town and Melbourne (in 40 hours); and bet. Hobart Town and Sydney' (in 3 or 4 days).

A well-macadamised road runs between Hobart Town and Launceston, by Bridgewater (crossing the R. Derwent at Bridgewater), Brighton, Green Ponds, Oatlunds, Ross, Campbell Town, Cleveland, and Perth (121 ui.).

Another run» from Launceston to the Western District, by Garrick, West bur)' (20 m.), and Deloraine (30 m.). At a point of the main line 8 in. from Launceston, a cross road branches oil to the eastward by. Evandale and Lymington. At Perth, a branch road turns ofi to Longford, Cressy, and Bishopsbourue. in the district ot Xorfolk Plains. From Campbell Town, a cross road runs to the E. coast by Avoca, Fingal, Cul-lenswood, and Falmouth. From Hobart Town one runs X. to Xew Xorfolk (21 m.), and another S. to the settlement on Brown's River, and thence to the settlements on the Huon.

Coaches run bet. Hobart Town and Launceston, passing through Brighton, Green Ponds, Campbell Town, Oatlands, and Perth ; bet. H. T. and Green Ponds ; bet. H. T. and Xew Xortolk ; bet. H. T. and Richmond; bet. H. T. and Brown's K.; and bet. H. T. and X.W. Bay : from Launceston to Longford and Perth, to Patterson’s Plains, to Carrick, Westbury, and Deloraine, and to Xile Bridge and Evandale.

There are two lines of Electric Telegraph : one between Hobart Town and George Town, by Launceston; the other between Hobart Town and Mt. Xelson.

HISTORY.

Tasmania was discovered (1642) by the Dutch navigator Tasman, who named it Van Diemen's Land, in honour of Van Diemen, Governor-General of the Dutch possessions in the E. Indies, from whom he had received a commission to explore Xew Holland, and to ascertain how far it extended towards the Antarctic Circle. It was afterwards visited in succession by the navigators Marion (1772), Fumeaux (1773), Cook, accompanied by Clarke (1777), Cox (1789), Bligh (1788 and 1792), Bruni D’Entrecasteaux, in the Recherche, accompanied by Huon Kermandee, in the Esperance (1792), and Hayes (1794).

In 1798, Mr. G. Bass, surgeon B.X., hating obtained a six-oared whale-boat from Capt. Hunter, Governor of X. S. "Wales, explored 600 miles of the Australian coast, and discovered the strait that now bears his name. To test this discovery, Bass and Flinders obtained a small sloop from Governor Hunter, in which they sailed round this island. The French vessels Geopraphe QJidXaturaJiste were the next to visit Tasmania. They surveyed the eastern coast, and discovered the strait that separates Schouten I. from Ereycinet's Peninsula,

The establishment of a settlement in this island was at first chiefly intended to relieve Port Jackson, where, from the vast numbers of convicts that were from time to time being transported thither, and from the want of prisons or places of punishment, all efforts on the part of the Governor to restrain vice and maintain order proved unavailing. The first party from Port Jackson arrived in 1803, and landed at a place on the Derwent since called Kisdon (Restdown).

Port Phillip was discovered (1799) by Capt. Murray, surveyed (1802) by Plinders, and occupied (1803) by a party of prisoners and a few settlers under Lieut.-Governor Collins. The spot selected being considered unsuitable, they removed to Van Diemen’s Land.11 They arrived in two divisions on the 30th Jan. and 16th Peb., 1801, at Sullivan’s Cove, and established their head quarters on the spot where Hobart Townf now stands, the locality at llisdon having been disapproved of. Col. Patterson, with a second party from Port Jackson, formed a settlement at the mouth of the Tamar, and named it York Town ; but the spot was abandoned (1806), and the greater part of the new establishments removed to another site, since called Launceston. J

The first Governor-in-Chief of Van Diemen's Land, and the third of Yew South Wales, was Philip Gidley King.

David Collins, Esq., was the first Lieut.-Governor of this island. The northern settlement under Col. Patterson was not under the government of Hobart Town until 1S12. The removal of the settlers from Norfolk I., occupied in 1788, took place in 1808. The greater number of the settlers, on their arrival from that island, located themselves in that beautiful district which they (‘ailed New Norfolk. Little or no attention whatever being paid to agriculture, the colony was rendered almost entirely dependent upon other countries for supplies.

Considerable quantities of grain had occasionally been imported from Port Jackson, but the dreadful inundation of the Hawkesbury, to the neighbourhood ot which river the farming district of N. S. AY ales was then almost exclusively confined, not only subjected that colony to severe privations, but also involved the Tasmanian settlements in great difficulties. The colony was thus thrown on its own resources; and the prisoners being sometimes permitted to disperse in search of kangaroo, many of them absconded, and a foundation was laid"’for those12 lawless habits which afterwards brought the colonv to the verge of ruin. Governor Collins12 died 24th March, 1810.

Lieut. Edward Lord, of the Royal Marines, Capt. Murray, and Lieut.-Col. Geils, of His Majesty’s 73rd reg., successively filled his place, until the arrival (4th Eeb., 1813) of Lieut.-Col. Davey as Lieut.-Governor.

Capt. Murray, was honoured with a visit from Macquarie, the Governor-in-Chief, who, during his stay, traced the future city, and gave names to what are now the principal streets.t

During the administration of Col. Davey, the welfare of the colony was greatly retarded by the depredations ot the numerous bushrangers. The colony, notwithstanding, rapidly advanced: the ports were opened for general commerce (June 1813); the whale fisheryJ was extended; the plough introduced; corn exported; the foundation of St. David’s Church was laid (Eeb. 1S17) ; and the first number of the Hobart Town Gazette and Southern Reporter was published (June 1st, 1816). In the same reign, also, Capt. Kelly discovered Macquarie Harbour and Port Davey, and Capt. Florence found a new species of pine. Col. Davey relinquished his office, and lived for some time as a settler; he finally returned to England, where he died May 2nd, 1823.

William Sorell, Esq., third Lieut.-Governor, landed April 8th, 1817. llis great efforts to put down the bushrangers succeeded in securing comparative safety to the colony. Macquarie again visited the colony (1S21). On this occasion he gave names to the townships of Perth, Campbell Town, Oatlands, Sorell, Elizabeth, Brighton, and several other places. Gov. Sorell was much beloved by the people, and his administration was reckoned very successful. The settlers, to express their regard, agreed to give him a testimonial of £750 value ; and, upon his being recalled (1824), he received a pension of £500 per annum from the colonial revenues, which amounted to £11,500. He died 4th June, 1848.

George Arthur, Esq., the fourth Lieut.-Governor, arrived 12th Jan., 1824. He had formerly been Superintendent of Honduras, and was a man of inflexible and energetic character. Though his sentiments and objects for the most part were just, yet the rigorous measures that he adopted to suppress immorality and restore social order and decorum tended to excite feelings of irritation and resistance. The establishment of a court was followed by an outbreak of disorder and violence ; and many prisoners, making their escape from confinement, for a long period pillaged the colony, and kept the settlers in a continual state of alarm, until, by the unsparing sacrifice of the bushrangers and robbers that were captured, the colony was restored to comparative safety.

Tasmania was declared independent of X. S. Wales Dec, 3rd, 1825, by General Darling ; Arthur then received the title of “ Excellency” instead of “ Honor.”

The island was divided into police districts, subject to stipendiary magistrates (1827). This arrangement brought the prisoner population under the more direct control of the Government, and greatly improved the internal discipline of the colony.

In his reign several banks were established,—some of which are now extinct, and the principal newspapers of the colony took their rise. The Gazette, the first permanent newspaper, was established in 1824, the Colonial Times in 1825, and the Courier in 1827 ; but neither the Australian press, which was established 1803, nor that of Tasmania, was liberated from all Government restrictions until the year 1824. At present there are in the colony eight newspapers, of which two are daily, one tri-weekly, one bi-weekly, two weekly, and one monthly.

Among the public institutions we may mention the Mechanics’ Institute, organised in 1827, and the Queen's Orphan School, established in 1828.

The erection of the New Wharf, the making of the Richmond Road, and the planning of the Bridgewater causeway, are marks of the enterprise and skill of Arthur.

The Van Diemen’s Land Company was also formed about the commencement of this Governor's administration. It was among their objects to relieve Great Britain from dependence on foreign wool, and to improve the quality of the Australian flocks.13 They obtained several extensive blocks of land in the N.W. part of the island, at almost a mere nominal price :—100.000 acres at Woolnorth, in the N.W. of Wellington; 20,000 at Circular Hd. ; Emu Bay Block, 50,000 ; Hampshire Hills, 10,000; and the Surrey Hills, 15,000, (occupying the eastern portion of Wellington and the western portion of Devon) ; Middlesex Plains, 10,000, in the north of Lincoln ; Robin’s I., 24,450 ; and Walker’s I.,    1,740. Although this Company

eventually failed in its objects, yet it was the means of benefitting the country, inasmuch as it is to that establishment that the colony is indebted for the first encouragement of free emigration, and the importation of sheep and horses of great value. The tide of free immigration began to set in about the year 1831. In the same year public meetings began to be held for the purpose of petit ioning the Home Government for a Legislative Assembly and trial by jury.

Upon the recall of Colonel Arthur, Lieut.-Colonel Snodgrass was appointed acting Lieut.-Governor till the arrival of Sir John Franklin, who did not assume the Government till Gth Jan., 1837. Franklin was assiduous in his endeavours to reconcile parties, and to improve the system of education. He increased the number of magistrates, threw open the doors of the Council Chamber to the public, promoted free immigration, and, in company with Lady Franklin, penetrated the western district, with a view to ascertain the fitness of Macquarie Harbour for a penal station. The quarrel between Sir John and Mr. Montagu, the colonial secretary, resulted in the latter being dismissed from office, avIio, in return, by misrepresenting to Lord Stanley Sir John’s conduct and government, effected his recall.

About the year 1838, colonial distillation was prohibited, in order to increase the revenues. During the years 1841-4, the colony suffered great distress from depression of trade and commercial embarrassments, owing to a variety of causes ; among others, Lord Stanley’s system of probation, by which the condition and prospects of free workmen were almost completely ruined by convict competition.

Sir J. Franklin14 was succeeded by Sir John E, Eardley14Wilmot, August 21st, 1843. The advantages of agriculture, and the importance of an independent tenantry and an industrious peasantry, were topics that AVilmot advanced and urged upon the attention of the public at the commencement of his government. Charged with the development of the probation system, and trammelled in his administration by the want of material resources (the burden of the police and gaol establishments, occasioned by transportation, having been thrown upon the colony, which it could not and would not bear.) his attempts to follow out the impolitic and impracticable measures of Lord Stanley resulted in his recall (1847).

He died soon after his retirement from office, and, until Sir W. Denison’s arrival, the administration was conducted by Mr. Latrobe.

Among the principal events of Dexisox’s Government may be mentioned, the public petitions to the Queen for an Assembly. Different plans were proposed, and at last the Privy Council’s Report,15 which recognised all the great principles of the British Constitution, was adopted ; and the Bill, called the Australian Colonies Bill, passed (August 5th, 1850).

Its arrival iu Tasmania was celebrated by public rejoicings, and welcomed chiefly as the instrument by which transportation would eventually be destroyed.

Prom this time forward, and for many years, the only topic that absorbed the public attention was the abolition of transportation. The celebrated League of the Australian colonies was formed (1851), which protested against transportation, and resolved to oppose every measure that might be suggested or attempted for perpetuating or introducing the convict system in any of the colonies. The many and protracted conflicts with the British Government maintained by the Tasmanian abolitionists, and the noble stand they made against the resolute opposition of Sir Win. Denison and his party, entitle them to the reputation of patriots.

Their urgent remonstrances at length compelled the Home Government, in 1853, to abandon the transportation of convicts to the shores of Tasmania. The proceedings of Governor Denison were exceedingly unpopular ; but be was rewarded for bis preference of imperial to local interests by bis removal to tbe government of New South AVales (8th Jan., 1855).

He was succeeded by Sir H. E. E. Young, from South Australia, who had much to contend with in assuming the reins of government ; but being a man of great moral courage, tixed determination, and high principle, he is exercising an important influence over the colonists, and has already been the means of effecting much good to the community.

The Constitutional Act, passed on 1st November, 1S54, by the Tasmanian Legislature, received the Queen’s assent in 1855 ; and in 1850, a Legislative Council and

House of Assembly, both elective, were chosen.

•/ 16 16

SUCCESSION OF GOVERNORS, See.

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS, &C.


From


To


Lieut.-Col. 1). Collins, R.M

Lieut. Edward Lord.........

Capt. Murray, H.M. 73rd. lleg. j

Lieut.-Col. Geils.....do...............

Lieut.-Col. T. Davey, R.M..........

Lieut.-Col. W. Sorell.................

Lieut.-Col. George Arthur .........

Lieut.-Col. K. Snodgrass (acting)

Capt. Sir J. Franklin, R.N..........

Sir .1. E. Eardlcy-Wilmot, Bart... Charles Joseph Latrobe (acting)... Sir \V. T. Denison,16 Knt. Cap. K.E. Sir H. E. F. Young..................

Feb.

16th,

1804

March 24th

1810

May

24th,

1810

Feb.

1812

Feb.

1812

Feb.

4th,

1813

Feb.

4th,

1813

April

9th,

1817

Apri

9th,

1817

May

14th,

1821

May

14th,

1821

Oct.

30th,

1836

Oct.

31st,

1S36

J an.

5th,

1&37

Jan.

6th,

1S37

Aug.

21st,

1843

Aug.

22nd,

1843

Oct.

13th,

1846

Oct.

13th,

1846

Jan.

26th,

1847

Jan.

26th,

is 17

Jan.

8th,

1855

Jan.

8th,

1855

alia.

Australia, the largest island in the world, is bounded on the W. and N.W. by the Indian Ocean; on the N. by the Arafura Sea, G-. of Carpentaria, and Torres Str. ; on the E. by the Pacific Ocean ; and on the S. by Bass’s Str. and the Pacific.

It lies between the parallels of 10° 45' and 38° 45' S. lat., and the meridians of 112 20 and 153° 30' E. long. Its greatest length (from E. to W.) is 2,227, and its breadth (from Cape York to Wilson’s Promontory) 1,680 geographical miles. Area, 2,690,810 sq. m.

Coast.—The coast-line, which is estimated at 8,000 geographical miles, is marked by deep gulls, fine bays, and capacious havens.

Principal Openings.—On the N, G. of Carpentaria, with York liar, or Endeavour Str. at its N.E. entrance, Melville B., Castlereagh B., Port Essington, Van Diemen’s G., Queen’s Chan., and Cambridge G. ; on the N.TV., Admiralty G., York Sd., Doubtful B., Xing’s Sound, Exmouth G.; on the TV., Shark B., Ereycinet Ilarb. ; on the S., King George’s Sound, Fowler’s B., Spencer's G., St. Vincent’s G., Encounter B., Portland B., Port Phillip, and Western Port; on the E., Twofold B., Jervis B., Botany B., Port Jackson, Broken B., and Moreton B.; on the N.E., Hervey B., Port Curtis, Keppel B., Port Bowen, Shoalwater B., Edgecumbe B., Halifax B., Bockingham B., Trinity B. A umerous roadsteads exist between the Gt. Barrier Beef and the coast.

The G. of Carpentaria extends inland 600 m., and lias a breadth of 100, its coast line measuring 900. The shores are almost invariably low; the sheltered spots, particularly at the head of the gulf, are covered with mangroves : while trees (palms of considerable height) are found on some elevated places: but barrenness is the general character of the surface.

Port Essington, in 11° 6' S. lat., and 132° 12' E. long., is 7 miles wide at its entrance, and extends inland about 18 miles in a S.S.R direction, forming at its southern end three spacious and secure harbours. In 1838, a British settlement was formed on the western side of the port at about 16 m. from its entrance, but abandoned (1850), owing to the unhealthiness of the climate and the sterile character of the surrounding country.

Spencer's G., bet. Eyria and Yorke Pen., stretches into the land for nearly 300 m. At its entrance, it is about 57 m. wide, but becomes quite narrow and shallow at its head, and appears at one time to have communicated with L. Torrens.

St. Vincent’s G., E. of Yorke Pen., is about half the size of Spencer’s G., which it resembles in the swampy nature of the shallow water at its head. Kangaroo I., lying across its entrance, effectually protects it from the heavy swell of the Southern Ocean.

Capes.—On the N.E., C. Capricorn, C. Palmerston» C. Hillsborough, C. Flattery, C. Melville ; on the AT., C. York, in 10° 40' S. lat. (the most northerly point of Australia), C. Arnhem, Pt. Dale, C. Van Diemen ; on the JST.W., C. Londonderry, C. Leveque, isorth-west C.; on the JV., C. Cuvier, C. Naturaliste, C. Leeuwin (the S.W. point of Australia) ; on the &, Pt. D’Entrecasteaux, C. Badstock, C. Catastrophe, C. Spencer, C. Jervis, C. Otway, Wilson’s Promontory ; on the if., C. Howe, C. Hawke, Smoky C., C. Byron, Sandy C.

Straits.—Bass’s Str. (190 m. wide), bet. Tasmania and Victoria; Investigator's Str., bet. Kangaroo 1. and Yorke Pen.; Cockburn Sd. and Apsley Str., bet. Bathurst and Melville Is.; Dundas Str., bet. Melville I. and Coburg Pen. ; Brown Str., bet. Wessel Is. and Pt. Dale ; Torres Str., bet. Papua and York. Pen. (the northern part of Queensland).

Torres Str. is one mass of islands, reefs, and shoals. The beautiful light of the tropics is increased by the reflection of the nearly colourless bottom, covered with various mulluscie, some perfectly transparent, others of various hues. Fish, of all sizes, shapes, and colours, are seen; the voracious shark eagerly pursuing his prey, the turtle rolling along in his unwieldy shell, and sea-snakes of large dimensions and of glowing lustre may be traced in their rapid gliding movements as clearly as if they were flying in the air.

Islands.—On the $., Tasmania, with Furneaux and King’s Groups, at the S.E. extremity, and Kangaroo 1. near St. Vincent’s G. ; on the AT., Melville I., Bathurst

I., Wessel Is., and English Comp.’s Isles, with Groote I., Wellesley Is., Pelew' Is., in the G. of Carpentaria; Gt. Sandy I. on the E.; and exactly opposite it, on the W. coast, Dirk Hartog’s I.

The Barrier Beefs on the N. and N.E. coasts of Australia form a vast submarine buttress which skirt

the shore, and, in the instance of the Great Barrier Beef, extend from Breaksea Spit, in 24° 30' S. lat., to Bristow I. on the coast of New Guinea, a distance of about 1,100 geographical m. This reef has a breadth towards the S. of from 40 to 50 m., but becomes narrower towards the Nand the distance of its outer edge from the land varies from 10 m. on the S. to 100 on the X.

Outside the barrier, and separated from it by a channel of from GO to 100 m. in width, are numerous detached reefs, of greater or less magnitude, extending from Torres Str. to New Caledonia.

There are therefore two passages for vessels sailing from Sydney by the N.K. route to Singapore, China, or India, via Torres Str.: the inner passage, between the mainland and the (it. Harrier; and the outer, bet. the Gt. Barrier and the detached reefs and coral islets.

Coral rocks are divided into—circular, enclosing lagoons; barrier, extending in straight lines in the front of a continent or large island, or encircling smaller islands ; and fringing reefs, which are always narrow, and skirt the coast at a greater or less distance therefrom, according as the land slopes gently or abruptly under the water.

Coral17 is the name of a calcareous rock entirely the secretion of certain marine animalcules of the order Porifera belonging to the classi Zoophytes (animal plants), so called from their external resemblance to plants.£

The coral insect consists of a little oblong bag of jelly, open at one end. The mouth of the bag is surrounded by the insect’s tentacula or feelers, which are generally six or eight in number, and dart in all directions. Myriads of these minute animals live close together, and unite to form a common stony skeleton called coral, in the minute openings of which they live. When they are under water, they protrude their mouths and tentacula to seize and receive their calcareous food; but the moment they are apprehensive of danger, they withdraw into their holes. These animalcules, selecting for their residence some submarine ledge of rock, commence with singular instinct to make their structure perpendicular. As each successive generation perishes, another takes its place, to increase the elevation of their habitations; and the coral wall, where the winds are pretty constant, first reaches the surface of the ocean to windward, so that the insects may have shelter from the wind and surf to carry on their operations leeward. Sponges, sea-eggs, cockles, and other substances, soon till the crevices of the reef: sand accumulates ; sea-birds make the bank a place of incubation; soil is formed ; the seeds of shrubs

and trees, which constitute the food of some birds, are deposited on the island, which soon becomes a mass of living verdure,—thus forming new habitations for man.

Peninsulas.—York Pen., E. of G. of Carpentaria ; Coburg Pen., N. of Arnhem Land ; Peron Pen., bet. Freycinet and Hamelin Harbours ; Eyria Pen., on the AY., and Yorke Pen. on the E., of Spencer's Gulf.

GREAT PHYSICAL FEATURES OF AUSTRALIA.

As far as the country is known, a long mountain chain runs along the whole eastern coast, crossing Bass's Str. into Tasmania, and running under Torres’ Str. to the shores of New Guinea, a distance of about 2,400 geographical miles ; its submarine continuation in Bass’s and Torres’ Straits being indicated by a line of steep, rugged, and often peaked islands.

It is nowhere, so far as is known, a single mountain ridge, but is made up of many masses of various character,—sometimes peaked and serrated ridges—sometimes detached hills rising from slightly elevated ground—sometimes great table-lands, often ending towards the sea in nearly perpendicular declivities—and sometimes having on one side or other gently sloping plains furrowed by innumerable precipitous gulleys and ravines. From the central portion of the chain, large lateral spurs often diverge on either hand, assuming in many places the appearance of separate and independent mountain masses.

Plains.—On the landward or western side of this chain are great plains, declining gradually to the AY., but at first often broken by detached hills or groups of mts. Still farther AY. appear immense desert plains, which seem to extend from the sea-coast round the G. of Carpentaria on the N. to that of the Gt. Australian Bight on the S., and to stretch along the N. AY. coast from N.AY. Cape to Collier B.

The interior of these plains is characterised by the Gt. Stony Desert, and by sandy ridges or dunes which traverse it in a northerly and southerly direction.

As Minor Features may he mentioned—the spur stretching westward through Anctoria from the main dividing range ; the mt. chain of 8. Australia, running N. fromC. Jervis to the singular horse-shoe-shaped depression of L. Torrens; the high land of AYestern Australia, running N. from Pt. D’Entrecasteaux and King George’s Sound

D

to the neighbourhood of Shark B.; and the high land which forms the coast from Collier’s B. to AVickham’s Victoria B., and seems to stretch in an E. and AV. direction across the interior of Arnhem Land, south of Port Essington, to the western shores of the G. of Carpentaria.

Biters.Draining the Landward Slope.—The Bs. Murray and Darling, with their tribs. on the

S., discharging their waters into L. Aictoria or Alexandrina ; the Aictoria B. (and perhaps some others) in the centre, which drains into Sturt’s Central Desert, and in seasons of flood probably reach L. Torrens ; and several small rivers which, on the A'., run into the S. E. portion of the Gr. of Carpentaria.

Draining the Outer or Seaward Slope.—In New South Hales, the Hawkesbury, Hunter, Manning, Macleay, and Clarence; in Queensland, the Burnett, Eitzroy, and Burdekin; falling into the G. of Carpentaria, the Mitchell, Gilbert, Nicholson, and Boper ; in Arnhem Land, the South Alligator, and AVickham's Victoria; in Western Australia, the Gascoyne, Murchison, Swan, and Blackwood.

The water-courses of Australia have in general a peculiar character. They spread out into marshes or reed-beds, lagoons, and muddy ponds, covering large tracts in the rainy seasons; and at other times forming merely a string of deep ponds or water-holes, or becoming altogether dry. Temporary channels of this nature are called creeks. The stagnant surface-water retained in the water-holes is, in the level country, the only resource of man and animals in the dry season.

Lakes.—Australia is remarkably destitute of large fresh-water lakes: L. Aictoria, the principal, is merely a brackish lagoon. There are, however, numerous small salt lakes sprinkled over its southern portion.

Climate.—The climate of all the colonies and all the coasts of Australia is remarkable for its dryness and for its long droughts.18 Though great rains fall occasionally, they are irregular and partial. The only large rivers tit present known are those draining the western slope of the Dividing Bange ; and of these the only one having a

permanent stream is the Murray, from the only mt. summits (the Australian Alps19) that are permanently covered with snow. Excepting, however, on the N. andN. W. coasts, which partake of the unhealthiness of a tropical region, the atmosphere being infected by vegetable miasma, the climate of the whole territory is remarkably salubrious. The general direction of the winds, on the W., S.W., S., and S.E. coasts, being from the sea, the temperature is delightful. On the Blue Mountains in New South Wales, and on the Australian Alps in Port Phillip, snow falls in winter, and it freezes there for several months.

Australia may be meteorologically divided by its inter-tropical parallel of 2f>° S. lat. into Tropical and Temperate; for although this line is 3° «!<19’ S. of the Tropic of Capricorn, still the influence of the tropical winds • and rain ascends even higher than this parallel.

Atmospheric and Oceanic Currents.—’The southern half of Australia lying within the region of the S.ll . extra-tropical winds, the northern halt within that of the S.K. trade-winds, and the northern coast and adjacent chan. a\itnin that of the monsoons, the prevailing winds in these regions are respectively a S.W., S.E., and, from Torres Str. to C. \ an Piemen, the S.E. and N.W. monsoons alternately, tlie S.K. from March to Nov., and the N.W. during the remainder of the year. In winter, the trade-winds are confined to the Tropics, and blow all along the north-eastern and the northern coasts of Australia. The S.E. trade-wind, in its westward course, is lifted by the ascending current that rises from the heated plains of the interior, and does not descend to the sea again on the N.W . till after it has passed heyond them ; calms and light variable winds prevailing at that season all along the N. W. coast for the distance ot 200 or 300 m. In summer, the sun draws the trade-wind 4 19s. fai S. as 30 or 35°, so that easterly winds prevail all along New South W ales, and frequently blow through Hass’s Str. At that time, the sun, being vertical to Northern Australia, heats it to such an extent, that instead ot mere calms on the N.W. coast, the wind (called the N.W. monsoon) rushes irom the NAV. to the land, and occasionally gales and winds irom the W . and N.W . prevail all along the northern coast. The S.E. trade-wind, being partially drained by its moisture in passing over the Dividing Range, and being heated and rarefied in its passage over the burning deserts ot the interior, becomes capable of absorbing more moisture, instead of being condensed and obliged to part with that which it possessed. 1 lie N.W . monsoon,f though not similarly intercepted and

partially drained by any mt. range along the coast, is also greatly rarefied on reaching the burning plains, and no l>enefit is derived from the moisture with which it is loaded. During the summer season, hot winds blow occasionally from the interior ot the continent, and are supposed to derive their heat from the immense tract of burning desert which they traverse : during their continuance, the thermometer rises to 100° or even 115° in the shade, and to 125° when exposed to their influence. They are generally succeeded by southerly squalls, accompanied by a sudden fall of the thermometer (sometimes 40c), which seldom last longer than half-an-hour, and are followed by heavy showers of rain and frequently thunder20 The same general law which influences the barometer in Europe operates in Australia; the mercury rises with the polar,+ and falls with the equatorial wind.

The Aurora Australis is frequently visible.

The great Equatorial Current of water, which flows constantly from E. to W., for about thirty degrees on each side of the equator, strikes upon the E. shore of Australia, proceeds along the N.E. coast to Torres 5>tr., flows through that Str., and thence along the X. coast into the Indian Ocean, to be continued in its westward course round the C. of Good Hope. On the S.W. coast, a light current, following the direction of the prevailing winds, which in that quarter are from the S.W'., strikes upon that coast, and divides into two parts, at C. Leeuwin : one sets E. along the 8. coast; the other X. along the W. coast, and joins the great equatorial current

Soil.—The general character of the soil of the northern, north-western, and central portions of Australia is sterile and arid. (Por soil of the colonised districts, see N. S. Wales, &c.)

According to Strzelecki, Australian soils}; of the highest productive power contain in every 100 parts about 55 of silica, 15 of vegetable and animal matter, 10 of alumina, 3 of peroxide of iron, and 4 of carbonate of lime. Fertile soils also absorb more than double the quantity of moisture absorbed by the sterile, contain 3 times as much of vegetable and animal matter, and 4 times the quantity of soluble constituents. W'hen the absorption of solar heat is to its emission as 5.70 : 1, the soil is highly favourable to agriculture; when in the ratio of 2.34 : 1, it is the reverse.

Its being wholly surrounded, with but few interruptions, by a mountain belt varying from 2,tHX) to 0,500 ft. in height, which intercepts the showers from the surrounding ocean, the presumed absence of any large mountains in the centre of the island, the great distance of that centre from the ocean, the sandy formation of the country, and the saline qualities of the soil, all contribute to the belief that the interior of this insulated continent will not eventually be found available for the support of civilised man.

Geology.—The mountain ranges on the E. coast, from Bass’s Str. to 19° S. lat., consist, with few exceptions, of vast strata of sandstone ; between the parallels of 19° and 14°, of granite ; and X. of that, sandstone again predominates. In Victoria, the higher country is composed of granite and other igneous rocks ; and the lower is occupied by the tertiary formation, containing beds of limestone. The rocks of which the main range of S. Australia is composed belong to the oldest of the primary strata; while the rocks of the plains abound in fossil remains, and evidently belong to the tertiary. In Western Australia, the Darling Range consists of granite below, covered by metamorphic rocks ; and, bet. it and the sea, is a plain composed of tertiary beds. Jn Northern Australia, there is a great sandstone plateau, rising to 1,800 ft. above the sea, and probably of palaeozoic age; whilst on the immediate shore, and round the G. of Carpentaria, are beds supposed to belong to the tertiary period. Similar substrata have been found in the Central Desert, and probably are continuous throughout the centre of the island.

From the total absence of rocks of the oolitic and cretaceous ages (all the high lands being of palaeozoic age, and the low and level plains tertiary), and from the present Fauna and Flora being the representatives of those that lived during the oolitic period,21 it is inferred that after the deposition of the palasozoic rocks, what is now Australia was upheaved and remained dry land during the oolitic and cretaceous periods; and that during the tertiary periord it was partially submerged, and by far the greater portion of its surface covered by a sea of no great depth, in which were deposited the beds of limestone and ferruginous sandstone and the loose and incoherent sands of which the tertiary plains are composed; whilst the high lands on the coast rose like groups of islands from the shallow sea. This geological history accounts for the present physical features of the island, and the specific difference detected under the generic resemblance of the Fauna and Flora of its different parts.

The mountain chains of the paheozoic rocks, having for ages been exposed to the disintegrating influences of the weather and the wearing action of the sea, have acquired a rugged and furrowed character, and their deep erosions into valleys and ravines; while the tertiary rocks, having been elevated in a mass and at a comparatively recent date, * present a level or gently undulating surface. The plants and animals of these localities, though everywhere of the same order and family, still differ in species, and sometimes in genera.

The geolog}' and natural vegetation of Australia, like those of other countries, appear to be intimately connected. In Australia the rock which forms the basis of a district may be known from the kind ot tree or herbage that flourishes on the soil above : tor instance, the eucalyptus pule., a dwarfish tree, with glaucous leaves, growing mostly in scrub, indicates the sandstone formation; while those open, grassy, and parklike tracts, altbrding good pasturage, and thinly interspersed with the eucalyptus mannifera, characterise the secondary ranges of granite or porphyry : the limestone formation bears trees of lofty growth and vast size; while large umbrageous shrubs, the cupressus callitris and casuarina occupy the sandstone ridges.

PRODUCTIONS.

Zoology.—The original Fauna of this island is altogether anomalous. With the exception of the three carnivorous species of the genus Dasyurus (native dog or dingo, tiger-cat, and native cat), two or three species of bat (Nyctophilus and Scotophilus), and several species of the genus Rodentia, all the quadrupeds are marsupial, or carry their young in pouches, the common forms being the kangaroo (macropus), wombat (phas-colomys), opossum (plialangista), bandicoot (perameles), &c. The Ornithorhynchus and Echidna are also peculiar forms of the mammals of Australia and Tasmania.

Of the 48 species of Mammals indigenous to Australia, 3 are of the order Cheiroptera; 2, IP era ; 8, Glires ; 3, Carnivora; 5, Cetacea; 6, Rodentia; 19, Marsupialia ; 2, Monotremata.

The dingo has some resemblance to the English fox in its appearance and predatory habits, and is the dread of the sheep-farmer. I t is supposed, however, uottobe indigenous, but, with the butfalo, which is found on the northern coast, to have been brought by the Malays, who cross over to fish for trepang from the Is. of Malaysia, as it exhibits very little specific difference from the jackal of these countries. The dingo is not found in Tasmania.

The tiger-cat and native cat are similar in their habits and appearance to the pole-cat and ferret of Britain, and about the same size. They are very destructive to poultry, and occasionally to lambs. The native cat varies a good deal in colour—some being black with white spots, though the general and prevailing colour is a greyish yellow with white spots. These, with the dingo, are the only carnivorous animals found in Australia.

The bats are in general about 13 inches long, and of a brownish colour. The face is moderately hairy ; the fur of the body is rather long, thick, and very soft,—that on the upper parts being conspicuously bi-coloured, black for uearly twq-thirds of its length, the remainder being olivo brown. The genu* in Tasmania differs remarkably from those of Australia, both in size and colour,—being only 9 inches in length, and having fur everywhere short, perfectly devoid of lustre, and unicoloured.

Of the Roden lia, two species consist of creatures that seem to unite some of the peculiarities of the dormouse, rat, and beaver. A new species, the flat-tailed rat, builds a very large and strong nest of branches. The rabbit-rat, which climbs trees like the opossum, is described as having feet resembling those of a pig : the marsupial opening downwards, instead of upwards, as in the kangaroo: and about the size of a rabbit, but without a tail. Two species of mice (both peculiar) also belong to this order.

Of the kangaroo, the chief varieties are the forester (which is the largest), the brush, and the wallaby. The bound of the kangaroo is prodigious, sometimes exceeding twenty paces. The abdominal pouch which this singular animal possesses seems to have been designed by nature as a substitute for a burrow or nest to the young. The tail is of an immense strength and thickness. The kangaroo feeds on grass, and is a timid inoffensive creature, unless when hard pressed for life. They are considered admirable food, and are in much request as a delicacy, being almost the only indigenous animal eaten by the settlers. They are also valued for their skins, which not only form a valuable export, bui the leather made from them is manufactured into superior boots and shoes. The kangaroo-rat and mouse arc two varieties of the same species: the former is about the size of a rabbit, and the latter is considerably smaller. They are night animals, sleeping during the whole day, even when domesticated.

The wombat of the natives, or the native badger or bear of the colonists, when full grown, is about 32 inches in length and 2(3 in circumference, and weighs from 4l) to 50 lbs. The head is large and flat, the neck thick and short, and the back arched. The legs are extremely short; the ears sharp and erect; the eyes small and sunken, but lively : the feet are formed like those of a badger; and the mouth resembles that of a rabbit. The fur is thick, strong, and of a light sandy or dark grey colour. The flesh has the flavour of that of the kangaroo, but is far more delicate. It is of a gentle disposition, but bites hard when provoked. It is a herbivorous animal, of the sloth kind; it burrows, and, in common with many of the Australian quadrupeds, is a night animal.

There arc three species of opossums, the black and grey, the ringtail, and the flying opossum-squirrel, which usually take up their abode in the hollows of decayed gum-trees, and emerge at night to feed on the young foliage or grass. They are valued in the colony on account of their skins.

There are two kinds of moles, called the rat and rabbit bandicoot, which burrow undfcr ground and live on roots. There is also an opossum-mouse, which lives on a substance called manna.

Of the Monotrcmata, the genera Ornithorhi/nchus and Echidna approach the marsupials in possessing the abdominal bones of that order, though they have not the pouch; and they approximate mammals to birds, in possessing a common cloaca.

The platypus, or ornithorhynchus, unites with the body, the fur, and habits of a mole, the webbed foot and bill of a duck ; it is 18 inches in length, ovoviviparous, and has the internal formation of a reptile. It is very shy, and leads a burrowing life in the mud of rivers and swamps. The latter genus Echidna, which has also a bill-formed mouth, consists of two species of porcupine,—one entirely covered with thick spines, the other clothed with hair in which the spines are half hidden. Their natural

food is ant-eggs.    .....

All the larger indigenous mammals are rapidly diminishing; and the extinction of several species, particularly in Tasmania, may soon be anticipated.

Ornithology.—The list of Australian birds presents but two orders wholly peculiar, viz :—the Syndactyles, of which the most beautiful are the sacred king-fisher, the bee-eater, and the trochilus or humming-bird; and the Scansores, consisting of parrots, paroquets, cuckoos, cockatoos, Ac., which are very numerous, and adorned with every variety of gorgeous plumage.

Of the order Accipitres, a species of vulture, white eagle, the cream-bellied falcon, the orange-speckled and the milk-white hawk, are common varieties. The order Dentirostres includes a beautiful bird having the habits of the red-breast, several varieties of the thrush—one of which is sometimes called the u laughing jackass” a description of field-lark, and the wattle-birds. Swallows and goat-suckers, of the order Fissirostres, are numerous.

Pheasants, quails, and pigeons, (Gallince,) are in considerable numbers: of the latter, the most remarkable variety is the bronze-winged. The cassowary or emu (Crrallcej is found in nearly all parts of Australia. There are also some species of bustard, curlew, ibis (some of a glassy rifle-green), herons, avocets, rails, snipes, spoon-bills, &c.

Falmipedes.—The black swan is found here, and gannets or boobies are numerous, especially on the north coast, where penguin, petrels, and ducks also abound. The ccrcopsis somewhat resembles the goose. Conirostres.— There are several magpies and crows of this order, and beautiful birds of paradise; but the latter, like the various species of Epimachi, are confined to Northern Australia.

Of the 335 species of Aves, 25 are of the order Raptores; 202, Insessores ; 31, Rasores ; 33, Grallatores; 44, Natatores.

The Emu is the largest of the Australian feathered tribes: it stands from 4 to 0 ft. high, and is nearly allied to the ostrich in form and habits; its covering has more the appearance of hair, or rather thin strips of whalebone, than feathers; its eggs are of an elongated form, and of a green colour : the flesh, though coarse, is eatable, especially that of the young. It is s wild creature, and runs more swiftly than an English greyhound. It is now fast disappearing.

Keptilia.—The reptiles of Australia consist of two or three genera of turtles; as many varieties of alligators; a considerable number of lizards and serpents, both venemous and harmless. The great Lacertce, as alligators, &c., do not appear to have been found in Western Australia. The land-lizard, and the crimson-sided snake (coluber porphyriacus), are of extraordinary beauty. Serpents also, of different species, have been seen floating upon the water, in chase of the curious penguin. Frogs are numerous. A variety of lizard (the chlamydosaurus Kingii) is remarkable for a frill behind the head and above the shoulders.

The Reptilia and Amphibia number about 116 species.

Insecta.—The insects are very numerous; and many of the butterflies, moths, and beetles are brilliant and beautiful. Locusts abound in the hottest season. In swampy places mosquitos are extremely troublesome, but they are scarcely known in the upper lands. Scorpions and centipedes are found among dead wood. Flies, especially the blow-fly, are numerous in some districts. The gum-grub, an insect about 6 inches long, is esteemed by the natives a great dainty; and there are various species of ants, some of which are provided with wings. Ant-hills have been found measuring 13 feet in height and 7 at the base, tapering gradually to the summit. Wild bees swarm in many places, depositing their delicious honey in the hollow trees.

These bees were originally derived from the hive introduced into Tasmania by Dr. T. B. Wilson, It.N., in the year 1831.

Ichthyology.—Large fish of the perch tribe abound in the southern, eastern, and western streams; the dugong (a species of Cetacea), in the rivers and harbours of tropical Australia; and scaled fish and Crustacea?,— many of them edible, a few poisonous, and others of the most brilliant colours,—in the seas. Of the Mollusca inhabiting the shores, several are very beautiful, and many highly interesting in a geological point of view; some forms, now abounding in the Australian seas, being only known in the old world as occurring in a fossil state. Of

n 5

the Echinodermata, the star-fish and sea-urchins are the most numerous. The j.icalephcc, Polypi, and Infusoria also abound.

Flora.22—The indigenous vegetation presents a few features of interest, the most valuable being the Auraucaria or Norfolk I. pine; various species of Eucalyptus,f known as iron-bark, blue-gum, butted-gum, stringy-bark, &c.; the apetalous Acacia, of which there are more than 100 species; the cedar and turpentine tree; varieties of Casuarince, as forest-oak, swamp-oak, &c.; the sassafras, curragong or cordage tree; and others yielding gums, balsams, and manna.

The Castuirina and the Eucalyptus furnish excellent timber for ship-building, and for all the purposes of domestic furniture and agricultural implements; the gum of the Eucalyptus is medicinal, and that of one species might be employed as pitch. The bark of a tree (acacia dealbata) is known to be more efficacious in tanning leather than the oak-bark. The Eucalypti or gum-trees^ shed their bark annually instead of their leaves; while the latter hang vertically from the branches, instead of horizontally, as in most English forest-trees: and the Causuarina or she-oak trees have the joint articulations of Hippuris instead of leaves. There are at present between 6,U00 and 7,000 known species of Australian plants. The first botanical investigation was made by Sir J. Banks and Dr. Solander, in 1770. Brown, Cunningham, Ross, Gunn, Hooker, Backhouse, Mitchell, and Stokes are among the principal botanists who have added to the collections of discovered plants of Australia.

Of the native Gramma the kangaroo-grass is the most conspicuous, affords nutritive pasture, and generally occupies the better soils. The pig’s-face (solatium lacinatum) grows like a thick and fleshy grass, with its three-sided leaf, and star-shaped pink and purple dower, and usually occupies a rocky or clay light soil. The kangaroo-apple, produced by a hush or small tree, is of a sweetish flavour, but is not greatly prized. The grass-tree and the fern abound in many localities.

ABORIGINES.

Notwithstanding a partial inferiority of shape in some of the details, the aborigines of Australia possess, on the whole, a well-proportioned frame. Their limbs, less fleshy or massive than those of a well-formed African, exhibit all the symmetry and peculiarly well-defined

7nuvular developemeni and well knit articulation and roundness which characterise the negro : hence, compared with the latter, the Australian is swifter in his movements, and in his gait more graceful. His agility, adroitness, and flexibility, when running, climbing, or stalking his prey, are more fully displayed : and when beheld in the posture of striking, or throwing his spear, his attitude leaves nothing to be desired in point of manly grace. Their stature, however, is below' the average of the European race ; the colour of the skin varies from a dark bronze to jet black, aud their features arc hideously ugly :—flat noses, w ith wide nostrils; eyes, large, wide apart, and deeply sunk in the head; hair black, straight and clotted; and mouth extravagantly w ide, with thick prominent lips. They add to their natural ugliness by sticking with gum to their hair the teeth of men. sharks, or kangaroos, jaw-bones of fish, &c., by daubing their faces and bodies with red and white clay, and by scarifying the skin in every part with sharp shells. The most prevalent complaints are rheumatism and cutaneous diseases, resulting from continual exposure to the weather, and their filthy habits. The tribes on the sea-coast live principally upon fish, turtle, and shell-fish; while those in the interior hunt the kangaroo, emu, and wallaby, with their boomerangs, spears, and waddies, climb the trees for the opossum, and dig up tuberous roots. In short, they do not hesitate to eat almost any descript ion of animal or vegetable ; lizards, snakes, ants,grubs,and even the unio.form palatable diets to these attenuated savages. An instinctive good sense, accompanied by quick perception and a retentive memory, seems to be all that is thoroughly developed in the mental endowments of this race. The speech of this people possesses, in the composition of its words, all those felicitous combinations of syllables which constitute a highly euphonious language. Their enunciation of words, however, is not clear, being somewhat marked by a twang. Little is known of their religion and government. One fact appears certain,—they recognise a God, though they never name him in their vernacular language, but call him in English “ Great Master,’’ and consider themselves his slaves. They believe in an immortality, or after-existence of everlasting en joyment, and place its locality in the stars. They do not dread the Deity: all their fears are reserved for the evil spirit who counteracts the doings of the “ Great Master” ; and consequently, it is to the evil spirit that their religious worship is directed. There are three distinct classes or social gradations observed amongst them. These are attained through age and fidelity to the tril>e ; but it is only the aged few who compose the last or third class that are initiated into the details of the religious mysteries, and that possess the occult power of regulating the affairs of the tribe. Every tribe is subdivided into families, and each in its family affairs is regulated by the authority of the elders. The customs and ceremonies observed on the occasion of births, marriages, sickness, funerals, and festive meetings, arc traditionary, and are rigorously attended to. Possessing an inherent sense of the rights of property, they seek redress and revenge for their violation. Thus, if the territory of one tribe has been trespassed upon, in hunting, by a neighbouring tribe, compensation or a reparation of this insult is asked for: if such is refused, war ensues. Migration, the chase, fishing, and occasional war, alternated by feasting and lounging in the spots best adapted to repose, fill up the time of an Australian. They use no clothing of any description, except square rugs made of opossum-skins, neatly stitched together, and thrown loosely round the body. In the coldest winter nights, when ice is formed, and rain or hail is pouring

down upon them in torrents, they will, for greater protection, prop up a few boughs and pieces of the bark of trees. The different tribes are fast diminishing, and the extinction of one after another is very much accelerated by diseases consequent upon excesses arising out of their intercourse with the whites. The whole of the settled districts ot X. 5$. Wales, once thickly peopled, may now be said to be entirely abandoned to the whites, with the exception of some scattered families in one part, and of a few straggling individuals in another. The state of the aboriginal inhabitants in Western Australia is far superior to that attained by them in any other Australian colony, owing chiefly to the personal character and conduct of the early settlers (of whom an unusual proportion belonged to the better classes of society), and to the judicious policy pursued by the local government. Many ot them are employed about the farms as herdsmen and messengers, and occasionally in reaping and harvest-work ; but no wages will induce them to forego any amusement, or to settle permanently in one place. They are a merry, harmless, idle, good-natured race.    ^

Schools have been established for the children, whose quickness of apprehension, as shown in the facility with which they learn reading, writing, arithmetic, &c., is said greatly to surpass that of the white child ; hnt. with puberty, the inherent idleness and the restless longings after the wild and wandering life of the bush are developed.

In 1838, a chief protector and four assistants were appointed for the tribes of Port Phillip. In the same year the Wesleyans formed a mission at Buntingdale, and in l&K) had four additional reserves in different quarters of the district and homesteads established to facilitate intercourse with the natives. In 1841, a corps of native police was embodied from among the Melbourne and Western Port tribes. In 1846, an aboriginal school for children of both sexes was established by the efforts of private individuals. In 1851, two Moravian missionaries established themselves at Lake Boga, near the It. Murray, resolved to ascertain what improvement their peculiar system could effect in the habits of the natives ; and finally, in 1853, the Episcopalians commenced a mission which is now in operation.

HISTORY OF DISCOVERY.

The first attempt to explore this island is unquestionably due to the Dutch, whose vessels, during the period 1616-22, discovered the west coast from 35° to 22° S. lat.,    and (1627)    1000 m. of the S. coast,

which they named Nuyt’s Land. The first English navigator who appears to have seen any part of New Holland is the celebrated William Dam pier, who in 1686, and again in 1699, explored the N.W. coast.

Capt. Cook, in 1770, explored the whole E. coast, from C. llowe to C. York, not minutely entering into the details of every part, but laying down a correct general outline. To Capt. Flinders we owe the completion in detail of the survey of the coasts of New Holland, with the exception of the AY. and N.W. coasts, which he was prevented from accomplishing by the loss of his ship. In 1837, the anchorages and harbours in the immediate vicinity of the Swan li. settlement were correctly laid down; and detailed charts of the coast from King George’s Sound to Melville Harbour were furnished by Wickham, who was entrusted with the duty of conducting a minute survey of all the Australian coast which Hinders had left unsurveyed. He was succeeded in 1839 by Mr. Stokes, who continued zealously employed in this important duty until 1843. The result of their investigations was not only a considerable addition to natural histor}r, but a complete topography of the bays and harbours on the 7s .W. and northern coasts ; besides the important discovery of four rivers of considerable magnitude, the largest of which (the Victoria) Stokes explored towards its source for a distance of 140 m.

Explorations in the Interior.—In 1813, Mr. Evans prosecuted two successful journeys across the Blue Mts., to the distance of about 300 in. W. of Sydney, and discovered the Bathurst Plains, and again, in 1815, traced the course of the Macquarie 115 m. from its source. In 1816, Mr. Oxley extended the discoveries of Evans, and (1823) surveyed the districts of Moreton B., Hervey B., and Port Curtis. In 1824-5, explorations were actively pursued to a like distance southward by Messrs. Hovell and Hume, who passed over a most extensive range of country, from the junction of the Murrumbidgee and Yass rivers to the north-eastern shore of Port Phillip. In 1825, the indefatigable but unfortunate botanist Allan Cunningham prosecuted a successful exploration up the valley of the Hunter, travelled (1827) over the beautiful table-land known as the Liverpool Plains, traversed a tine grazing country called New England, and discovered the verdant prairie-lands of Darling Downs. Sturt, by his researches (1828-31), discovered the Darling, and ascertained that instead of the Darling, Lachlan, and other streams that run to the westward, falling into a great inland sea or extensive marsh, as was conjectured, their united waters constitute a large river, which, under the name of the Murray, was found to turn to the southward, and empty itself into an exteusive estuary. About the same period, several expeditions under Capt. Banister, Capt. Grey, and others, were prosecuted in Western Australia. Sir T. Mitchell surveyed (1S32-6) the Darling and its tributaries, and explored Australia Felix (Victoria). Strzelecki made a successful journey on foot (1840-5) through New South Wales and Tasmania, to ascertain their physical and geological character. In 1840, Eyre travelled through the territory called Nuyt's Land, and (1841) conducted an expedition towards the interior from Spencer s Gulf, when he discovered L. Torrens. Capt. Sturt (1844-5-6), from Adelaide, penetrated due north into the very centre of the island ; and his account of the desolate stony region he found in the interior proves, beyond a doubt, that Central Australia is a desert,—a second Sahara. In 1844, Dr. Leichardt, a botanist, crossed overland from Moreton B. to Port Ess in gt on; and (1846), Sir T. Mitchell, in his search for a good practical line of road to the nearest part of the Indian Ocean, to the westward of Torres Str., toward the G. of Carpentaria, discovered a river which he named the Victoria. Mr. Cunningham, who accompanied this expedition, having diverged from his companions, fell into the hands of the natives, by whom he was barbarously murdered.

Mr. Kennedy, while prosecuting (1848) the survey of that part of tropical Australia situated between C. Yorke and Rockingham B., was massacred by the natives; and Dr. Leichardt, in his attempt (1848) to penetrate to the westward across the great desert to the settlement of Swan River, also perished.

The principal expeditions that have since been undertaken for exploring the interior are—the North Australian Expeditions of 1856-8, and Stuart’s (from S. Australia) and the Victorian, of the present year (1860).

POLITICAL.

East of 141° E. long, lie Victoria in the S., New South Wales N. of--, and Queensland N. of---—. The other colonies are—South Australia, W . of Victoria, New South Wales and the southern part of Queensland; and Western Australia, comprising all that portion of the island W. of 129° E. long.

Supposing the island bisected longitudinally by the 26th parallel of lat., and latitudinally by the meridional line of 132° E. long., we have the four divisions of South-Eastern, South-W estern, North-Western, and North-Eastern Australia. The first-named section, South-Eastern Australia, hounded on the W. by 129° E. long., on the X. by the parallel of 26° S. lat., and on the S. and E. by a coast-line of about 2,000 m. in extent, contains the three principal colonies,—Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, and the southern part of Queensland (Moreton Bay district). A belt of country extending along the coast from St. Vincent’s (}. on the W. to the northern boundary line, having an average breadth of 150 m., and an area of 220,000 sq. m., or about three times the superficies of England, comprises nearly the whole extent of the settled portion of this section.

NEW SOUTH WALES.23

Boundaries.N., Queensland ; E., Pacific Ocean ;

S., Victoria; W., S. Australia.

A line commencing at Pt. Danger, about 28° 8', and following a tortuous course W. by S. till it reaches long. 149°, and thence along the 26th parallel to the 141st degree of E. long., forms the boundary-line between Queensland and New South Wales. A straight line drawn from C. Howe to the head of the R. Murray, near Mt. Kosciusko, and thence along the course of that river to the eastern boundary of S. Australia, forms its divisional line from Victoria.

Area.—Upwards of 250,000 sq. m.

Coast.—Its coast-line (including the principal openings) is about 730 m.

Owing to its exposure to the tremendous surge of the S. Pacific, the coast is bold and rugged, but indented with numerous hays and excellent harbours, the entrances to which are mostly narrow, and only visible when a vessel nears the land.

Seas and Gulfs.—Twofold B., Auckland ; Bateman B., Wreck B., Jervis B., St. Vincent; Port Hacking, Botany B., Port Jackson, Cumberland; Broken B., bet. Cumberland and Northumberland ; Port Hunter, bet. Northumberland and Gloucester ; Port Stephens,

Farquhar Inlet, Gloucester ; Harrington Inlet, bet. Gloucester and Macquarie; Camden Haven, Port Macquarie, Macquarie ; Trial B., Dudley ; Shoal B., Raleigh.

Capes.—C. Howe. Green C., Auckland; C. St. George, St. Vincent; Pt. Bass, Camden : Sugar-loaf Pt., C. Hawke, Gloucester; Smoky C., Macquarie; C. Bvron, Raleigh.

Islands.—Montague I., off co. Dampier; Seal I.. off co. Gloucester; Solitary I., off co. Kaleigh.

Mountain System.From Mt. Kosciusko24 (6500)— the highest of the Australian Alps—situated 120 m. N.W. of C. Howe, the dividing range (the watershed of which is from 50 to 100 m. distant from the sea) is differently named in different parts,—as the BlueMts., in the vicinity of Sydney ; Liverpool Range, in its northerly, and Australian Alps, in its southerly extension. The chief summits of the Dividing Eange are—Mt. Oxley, Alt. McArthur, Buckland ; Corricuday, Tayan Pk., Hunter; King’s Table Land (2790), Alt. Walker, Alt. Clarence, Ait. Tomah (3210), Alt. Hay (2425), Alt. Victoria (2607), Alt. Aork (3441), Cook; Alt. Alurrum, Westmoreland; Alt. Litton, Alt. Dixon, Alt. Chaton, King; Alt. Murray, Buccleuch ; Alt. Kosciusko (6500), Wallace.

Large lateral spin’s, which, especially on its seaward side, appear like separate and independent mountains, often diverge from the central chain. Such are those, which, on the western or inland side, divide the head waters of the Kivers Alurray, Alurrumbidgee, Lachlan, and Macquarie, the Asamoy, the Gwydir, and the Karaula; and, on the eastern or seaward side, separate the respective basins of the districts of Gipp’s Land and Twofold B., the Shoal haven K., the Hawkesbury and Hunter Kivers, the Port Alacquarie basin, that of the Clarence K., and that of the district of Aloreton Bay.

Minor Ranges and Isolated Mountains.—Wanderer Eange and Ait. Imlay (3000), co. Auckland; Alt.

Ainslie, Murray; Cullarin Range, King; Mittagong Range (2454), Razorback Range, and Little Forest Hill (1923), Camden ; Mt. Blaxland, (3256), WestmorelandProspect Hill (3275), Cumberland ; Mt. Marsden, Roxburgh; Mt. Cannoblas (4610), ¡Bathurst; Corricudbv Range, Hunter; Mt. Sea View (6000), in the N. of Hawes; Mt. Mitchell (4160), Eresham ; Mane’s Range and Nackie Nackie Hill (2242), Murrumbidgee District; Taylor’s and Goulburn Ranges, and Mt. Stewart and Peel Range, Lachlan; Harvey’s Range, Summer Hill (3010), and Guantewan (1410), Wellington ; Mt. Harrison, Rligh ; Hardwick’s Range and Mt. Lindesay (5700), in the S. of Gwydir District; Ben Lomond, Mt. Mitchell, Bald Hills, Gwydir; Chandler’s Peak (3288), New England ; Warning Range (3300), Clarence R.

Plains.—The Goulburn and Breadalbane Plains in the S., the Bathurst in the W., and the Darling Downs in theN.of Argyle; IllawarraPlains, in Camden; Maneroo Plains or Brisbane Downs (including 7 counties), from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. high, bounded on the E. by a coast range of mts., and in the W. by the Australian Alps; Bullan Plains, Lachlan District; Wellington, Cannil, and Baird Plains, Wellington District ; Canning Downs, Cecil, Peel, and Waterloo Plains, Darling Downs District.

Rivers.—Draining the Eastern Slope.—The Richmond R., formed by numerous tributaries from the Dividing Range, flows S.E. and then N.E., separating Rouse from Buller and Richmond. The Clarence25 R. flows southward, forming the western boundary of Richmond, then eastward through Clarence, and falls into Shoal B. The Bellenger R.,t flows E. through the N. part of Dudley. The NumbuccaJ R. flows E. through Dudley. The Macleay R., with its tributary the Apsley, flows eastward into Trial B. The Hastings R., with its tributaries the

Vtaria and Wilson, flows eastward through Macquarie into Port Macquarie. The Manning B., from the Liverpool Eange, flows E. through Hawes, separates Gloucester from Macquarie, and falls into the sea by two mouths called Farquhar and Harrington Inlet. The Hunter E., formed bv numerous streams from the Blue Mts., flows S.AV., then S.E., separating Durham and Gloucester from Brisbane, Hunter, and Northumberland, and falls into Port Hunter. The Ilawkesbury B.,26 called in the upper part of its course the Nepean, rises in Camden, flows northward, forming the western boundary of Cumberland, and then E. into Broken B.: it receives the AVarragamba (a continuation of the Wollondilly), from the S., with its tributary the Cox, the Cole from the W., and the Macdonald from the N.AV. The Parramattaf and the George E. fall into Botany B. The Shoalhaven E.,J separating St. Vincent from Argyle and Camden, falls into Shoalhaven B.|| The Clyde flows S. through St. Vincent, and tails into Bateman's B. The Moruya E. flows eastward between St. Vincent and Dampier, and falls into Moruya B. The Snowy E. rises in the Australian Alps, flows southwards through the western portion of Maneroo Pis., and then S. through co. Coinbermerc (Victoria).

In N. S. Wales, there are occasional floods of a most disastrous character, when the rivers, especially if opposed by a gale from the eastward, widely overflow their banks.

Draining the Western Slope.—The Murray E., 2400 ra., of which 2,000 are navigable, rises in Mt. Kosciusko, flows \\r. by N. separating Victoria from New South Wales, W. and then S. through S. Australia, and reaches the sea through L. Victoria into Encounter B. : it receives on its right the Coates and Murruinbidgee (with its tributary the Lachlan), and the Darling ; on its left, the Mitta Mitta, Ovens, Goulburn, Campaspe, and Loddon. The Murrumbidgee E. rises in the Australian Alps, and after receiving the Yass, Coodrabidgee, Tumut, and several smaller streams, flows westward, and falls into the Murray in the AYi miner a District. The Lachlan It., from the Blue Mts., flows NAY. and then SAY., and falls into the Murrumbidgee l id E. long. The Darling B., formed by numerous streams from the Dividing ltange. flows SAY. and then S. into the Murray : its chief tributaries are the Balonne, from the McPherson Itange ; the Nammoy or Peel It., from the Liverpool Itange ; and the Castlereagh, Macquarie, and Bogan, from the Blue Mts.

Lakes.—L. Bathurst,* in Argyle co. ; L. George,* Murray co. ; L. Macquarie, Tuggerah Lakes, Brisbane Water, co. Northumberland; L. Junes, Queen's, YYatson, and Taylor’s Ls., co. Macquarie; Campbell’s and Regent’s Ls., Ijachlan District.

Climate.—The climate is varied, but highly salubrious, particularly in the inland districts.

The warmer localities and poorer soils of the seaward slope differ greatly from the rich lands and cooler atmosphere on the western watershed, and the almost tropical climate of the northern districts from that of the Maneroo Plains in theS., elevated ‘2,000 ft. above the level of the sea, and situated at the base of the Australian Alps, covered with snow. In the latter region, the gooseberry and the apple flourish in the frigid atmosphere, and coarse-woolled sheep are reared ; while in the former, the pine-apple and the banana grow luxuriantly in tlie open air, and slice]) of the finest-wool led merino thrive. The most prevalent diseases are dysentery, organic lesion of the heart, opthalmia, and influenza, which last occasionally visits this and the other colonies as an epidemic. The average mortality is lf5 to 1000 of the population. The healing quality of the climate is beneficial in pulmonary consumption. The heat in summer is excessive (mean at noon 80°); but along the coast, this great heat is tempered by the sea-breeze, which sets in regularly about 0 a.m., and blows with considerable force till about 6 or 7 p.m., when it is succeeded by a land-breeze from the mountains.

Spring and autumn are brief but well-defined, and the winter is of a bracing coolness, the evenings and mornings chilly, and the nights cold ; hoar-frosts frequent, severest in the interior. In the spring months, the cold sensibly moderates; the weather, upon the whole, is clear and pleasant, with occasional showers.

* The sites of Ls. George and Bathurst are r.ow under cultivation. L. George is stated to have been, in 1828, a sheet of slightly brackish water, 17 m. by 7; and L. Bathurst to have been once 5 m. by 3, and inhabited by an animal about 3 ft. long, resembling a seal.

The average temperature of spring, 66° 5' (Fall.) ; of summer, 72°; of autumn, 66°; and of winter, 5(5° : ht. bar. 29.9 in.; rain-fall, 48 in. The prevailing winds in spring are from the X.E.; summer, from the S.E. quarter; hot winds from N.W.; autumn, E. and A\r.; and winter, S.W.

In winter, on an average, the polar winds are to the equatorial as 3 : 1; in summer, as 1: 2.

Soil.—The character of the soil is very diverse, there being lands of the very best, and others of the very worst description : but, generally speaking, the lands on the eastern streams are inferior in quality, both for agriculture and pasture, to those on the western rivers ; the latter consisting of a rich black mould and dry soil, covered with luxuriant herbage, on which the herds and Hocks of the settlers graze. A belt of laud, 5 or 6 miles in width, skirting the coast, is comparatively bleak and barren, the soil being composed mainly of driftsand, bearing trees and shrubs of stunted growth. There is, notwithstanding,    even on the eastern

slope, abundance of land of the richest description, which is attested by the fact, that many farms have been annually cropped for twenty years without manuring. The Eucalypti, by shedding their bark annually, furnish an ample supply of alkalies to the soil: and, besides being impregnated with carbonic acid gas and mineral salts, the waters of the colony pass through calcareous rocks, and carry with them lime in solution ; they are therefore very valuable for irrigation, which may be extensively and usefully practised in Australia.

The agricultural districts of New South Wales are—the valley of the Karua; the valley of the Hunter, composed of the confluent valleys of the Goulhurn ; Page’s, Paterson, and Williams' rivers; the valley of the Parramatta; the Hawkesbury, South Creek, Mulgoa Creek, the Nepean, and the Wollondillv ; the district of Bathurst, the rivers Macquarie and Campbell, the Wellington valley, and the heads of the Belubula river. The average production of wheat on good soils is from 20 to 30 bushels per acre; but, in many instances, from 50 to 85 bushels per acre have been obtained. The potatoe gives two crops in the year, and green peas are gathered in winter as well as in summer.

The general features of the surveyed districts are alternate hills and valleys, mountains and plains. The country W. of the Dividing liange is occupied by grassy plains, declining gradually to the W. (the average fall being 9 ft. per mile), but broken in the immediate vicinity of that range by detached hills or groups of mountains. On the seaward slope, the country within 70 miles from the crest of the Dividing Range is occupied by groups of isolated hills or small and broken ranges branching out from the main ridge and intersected by deep gullies drained by rapid streams; the average fall being 48 ft. per m. The remaining space bet. the mountains and the coast presents a gently undulating surface, covered in some places with stately forests, in others with dense scrub.

PRODUCTIONS.

Animals.—For the indigenous animals, see Australia.

Imported Stock, Poultry, &c.—Horses, horned cattle, sheep (mostly of the line merino breed, but on the elevated downs the Leicester breed crossed with the merino27), pigs, goats, Timor ponies, camels (but hitherto have not thriven). The kangaroo is the only indigenous quadruped fit for food.

Birds.—Domestic fowls of every description, game birds, including the quail, snipe, land-rail, water-rail, duck, pigeon, and the native turkey or bustard of the plains, parrots, cockatoos, and lyre-bird.

Fish.—Fish are plentiful in the bays along the coast, but are not so abundant in the rivers. The fresh-water cod, however, in the Murray It., are of a large size, weighing sometimes as much as 701bs., 301bs. being common. Eels are also caught in the marshes and lagoons, of 12 and even 201bs. in weight. The salt-water fish are numerous, the principal are—schnapper (the best and largest fish in the Australian seas, with the exception of the trumpeter at Hobart Town), rock-cod, flat-heads, taylor-fish, mackerel, soles, and guard-fish, cray-fish, crabs (of the most beautiful colour, but not edible), prawns, shrimps, muscles, oysters, &c.

Vegetable.—From the great extent of the territory of N. 8. Wales, embracing as it does the Maneroo Plains in

S., elevated 2,000 ft. above the level of the sea, and the Clarence Fiver district in the X., the vegetable produce is very various. The agricultural products comprehend all the cereals grown in Europe, and many which are confined

to tropical countries. Of the former, wheat, barley, oats, and rye, with hay, lucerne, and other kinds of fodder for rattle and horses, comprise the farmer’s list; ot the latter, maize, tobacco, and cotton, in the northern districts. The culinary vegetables of Europe are of large size and excellent flavour :—potatoes, cabbages, carrots, parsnips, turnips, onions, peas, beans, cauliflowers, lettuces, cucumbers, pumpkins, artichoke, Ac., besides sweet potatoes, yams, and plantains, thrive abundantly.

Fruits.-—Peaches, apricots, nectarines, loquats, oranges, grapes, pears, plums, figs, pomegranates, raspberry, strawberry, mulberries, and melons of all sorts, attain the highest degree of maturity in the open air. Added to these, the northern districts produce pine-apples, bananas, almonds, guavas, lemons, citrons, and other tropical fruits.

Excepting on the hiarh mountain districts to the westward and southward of Sydney, the climate is not so favourable to the production of the apple, strawberry, currant, gooseberry, and cherry. The olive thrives well. Grapes of every variety, and of the finest quality, are produced in great abundance, and are now being dried as raisins, as well as manufactured into brandy, wine, and vinegar. The quantity of wine annually made from the produce of the vineyards is estimated at about 140,000 gallons. The fig yields two crops annually; and the produce, which is of the finest flavour, is now largely exported.

Minerals.—The principal mineral products are gold, coal, iron, and copper. A highly bituminous coal exists in several districts.

The real practical discovery of gold in Australia was made by Mr. E. H. Hargraves, a N. S. Wales colonist, who, having been for sometime in California, returned to the colony for the express purpose of searching for gold, which he discovered in the Bathurst district, west from Sydney, in the spring of 1851. The Gold-fields are the Western (the most productive), the Southern, and the Northern. The Western are—Sofala, Louisa Creek, Bathurst, Tambaroora, Mud gee, Orange, Stony Creek ; the Southern—Goulbourn, Tumherumha, Gundagai, and Meragle; and the Northern—Rocky River, Nundle, Tam worth, and Timbarra. Sofala and Ijouisa Creek are the most productive of the western, Braidwood aud Tumut of the Southern, and Nundle of the Northern. The quantity of gold received by escort from the gold-fields (1850), was 287,797 oz., valued at AT,103,009. The gold is found by washing thesurf ace-detritus of the water-runs and digging holes into the strata overlying the so-called pipe-clay. Another source is the quart/, rock, which is now crushed to extract the gold. Large masses of pure gold are sometimes found embedded in the quartz.

The principal coal-bearing locality extends over the Hunter R. basin, —the coal measures of that locality occupying an area of at least 200 sq.

m., in which there is a known series of 4 or 5 seams, making an average of from 19 to 20 ft. of coal. Between the coal-beds are strata of sandstone and bed28 of clay-slate with vegetable impressions. In these strata, there is embedded abundance of argillaceous iron-ore, appearing for the most part in the form of petrifactions of trees and branches. Number of mines, 17 ; 2 at Berrima. 1 at Hartley, 0 at Newcastle, 3 at Wollongong, 4 at Maitland, 1 at Raymond Terrace.

Iron.—Iron abounds in various parts of the colony. Most of the smaller streams and fossil-trees lately discovered are strongly impregnated with it. The fields or rather rocks of ironstone surrounding the Fitzroy ironworks in the neighbourhood of Camden, about 70 m. distant from Sydney, spread over a large area. The ore is of such extaordiuary richness that it can at once be manufactured at the forge.

Copper is obtained in the mountain ranges around Bathurst.

Freestone is obtained in the vicinity of Sydney, the tract between the Blue Mts. and the coast being occupied by extensive plains of sandstone, lying nearly in a horizontal position; whinstonc or basalt, with which the roads are metalled, from the Blue Mts.; beautiful grained marble (greatly in request for chimney-pieces, Ac.), in Argyle county ; potters clay and rock porcelain, X. of Sydney harbour.

ihe coast of N. S. Wales presents in general bold perpendicular cliffs of sandstone, lying in horizontal strata; the cliffs being occasionally interrupted by sandy beaches. The country E. of the Blue Mts. is in general of a sandstone formation, and that on the W. granitic. The stratified rocks of N. S. Wales occupy but a small area, being to the crystalline as 1 : 3. Of the crystalline rocks, granite, sionite, and quartz predominate. The greater part of the Dividing Range and the elevated terraces W. of it are granite, which is supposed to extend far into the interior, covered by tertiary.

POLITIC A L.

The settled part of the colony is divided into cos., and a large cxtent.of the

rest of the territory into districts These districts are from time to time l>eing erected into cos., as the population spreads, and land is in demand for purchase.28 V ntil the separation of Victoria, the colony comprehended within its present boundary only 20 cos., (termed cos. proclaimed by Letters Patent), which with their their chief towns, are as follows :— '

COUNTIES PROCLAIMED BY LETTERS PATENT.

Maritime.—Macquarie, in ilie N.E.Port Macquarie (278), Bailengarra, Kempsey, Mariaville, all on the coast.

Gloucester, S. of-----.—Raymond Terrace (100), in

the S.W.; Carrington, in the 8., on Port Stephens; ¡Stroud (30), on the Karuali 11.

Northumberland,t S.W. of-.—Newcastle (80),

Ilexham, Morpeth, E. and W. Maitland (127), and Singleton, all on the R. Hunter; Wollombi (93), near the middle; St. Alban’s and Gosford (35), both in the S.

Cumberland, S. of-.—Sydney,29 on Port Jackson;

Parramatta (15), W. of-; Pitt Town, Windsor

(35), Kichmond (39), Castlereagh (39), Penrith (33), and Xarella, in the W.; Campbell Town (33), Appin (45), Longbottom, in the S.

Camden, + 8. of-.—Berrima (SG), near the middle,

on the K. Berrima ; Camden (40), in the X.; Kiama (88), and Woollongong (04), on the E. coast; Picton (52), and Wilton (40), both S. of Camden; Murrumba, in the

s.w.    .

St. Vincent, S.of-.—Braidwood (lG4),IIuskisson,

Ulladulla, Broulee, Farnham, all on the coast; Tianjarra and Xariga, on the K. Marlow, in the W.

Inland.—Murray, W. of--Queanbeyan (182),

near the centre; Bungendore, X.E.of-; S. Yassand

Larbert, in the E.

Argyle, N. of-.—Goidburn (125), near the

middle ; Marnlan (109), E. of-; Bungonia (117),

S. of-; Teralga, in the X.

V'estmor eland, N. of-.—O’Connell, in the X.

Cook,X W. of-.—Hartley (78) and Bowenfells

(80), in the W.; Emu (30), in the S.W.; Wilberforce, in the X.W.

Hunter, N.W. of--Jerry's Plains (190), in the

X.; Colo, in the S.

Durham,K.jE. of-.—Patterson, Seaham, Clarence

Town, Dungog, Hinton, Merton, Camberwell, all towards the S. : M us well brook, in the V.

Brisbane, W. of-.—Murrurundi, in the N.E. ;

Scone, St. Aubin’s, and Aberdeen, all in the E.; Ivermein, near the middle; Merrima, towards the S.

Phillip, S. W. of--.—Cooyal (150), in the N.

Boxburg, S. of---Kelso, in the S.; Sofala, in

the IN’.; liylstone (161), in the K.E.; Kydall (36), E. of Kelso.

Georg iana, S. W. of Westmoreland.—Bingham and Cook’s Vale, near the centre.

King, S. W. of--.—Gunning (131), in the E.;

K Y ass, in the S.

Bathurst, N. of--.—Bathurst30 (121), in the N.E.;

Carcoar (145), and Blaney (136), near the middle.

Wellington,f K. of-.—Mudgee (171), in the

K.E.; AY ellington (231), in the N.A\r.; Tamberoora, near the middle; Molong, in the S.AV.; Cooyal (150), in the N.

Bliqh, Ar. of-.—Cassilis (245), near the middle ;

Coolak, in the K.

'l'lie districts N. and S. of these cos. (the Maneroo on the S., and the McLeay, Clarence River, and Moreton Bay, on the N.), with portions of others, have since been erected into 17 cos., of which 11, together with the pastoral districts of Darling Downs, Maranoa, and the northern part of Gwydir, have been given to the new colony of Queensland, leaving a total of 5G (including the 20 cos. first established) to N. S. Wales.

SOUTHERN, KORTHERX, AND WESTERN COUNTIES.

Southern.Jlfaneroo District.—Buccleuch, E. of

Wynyard, Tumut (2-1!)); Coicley, E. of-, Ainslie ;

Beresford, S.E. of-, Cooma (254), Runyan; Wallace,

SAV .of-,Moama; Dumpier,ft. of Beresford, Moruya,

on the coast; Auckland, S. of-, Eden (350), and

Boyd (240), on Twofold B.: Wellesllu, W. of-,

Bombalo.

Xortherx.—McLeay River District.—Haices, W. of

Macquarie, ch. t. Tobin; Vernon, X. of-,Henderson,

(ch. t.), Waicha; Dudley, X.E. of-, Chapman

(ch. t.)    <

Clarence Diver District.Raleigh, X. of Dudley,

Grafton, Coutts; Gresham, W. of-•, Xewtonboyd;

Drake, X. of-, Whitmore; Duller, X. of--,

Wilkin ; Rous, E. of-, Eawcett ; Richmond, S.

of-, Ogilvie, Gain.

New England District.Sandon, W. of Dudley,

Arinidale (ch. t.), Dumaresque ; Inglis, S.W. of-,

Bendemer (ch. t.) ; Hardinge, X.W. of Sandon, Bocky

Eiver (ch. t.), Bundarra ; Gough, X. of-,

Wellingrove (ch. t.), Dundee.

Western.—Liverpool Rlains District.Parry, S.W. of Inglis, Tamworth (275), HangingBock ; Duckland, W.

0f-, Breeza (ch t.); Pottinger, W. of-, Mokai

(ch. t.) ; Napier, S.W. of-, Balaro (ch. t.) ; Goicer,

W. of-, Conabarabram(ch.t.); Lincoln, S.of-,

Dubbs (260).

Wellington District.Gordon, S. of-, Xurree

(ch. t.) ; Ashbv/rnham, S. of--, Burree (ch. t.).

Lachlan District.Monteagle, S. of-, Murringa;

Harden, S. of-, Jugiong (230), Binalong, Bookham ;

Clarendon, W. of-, Gundagai (255.)

Murrumbidgce District.Wynyard, S. of-,

Tarcutta, Bago ; Selicyn, S. of-, Tama ; Goulburn,

X. W. of-—, Albury.

commissioners’ districts.31

Mummbidqee Squatting District, situated bet. Murray R. on tlie S. and Murrumlndgee on the N., and W. of Maneroo District (area

12,000,OCX) acres),f is one of the finest and largest tracts in the colony, Extensive plains and thinly wooded uplands, which increase in elevation towards the Australian Alps, occupy its surface.

Lachlan District, N. of-, (10,000,000 acres), and bet. the

Murrumbidgee and Lachlan Rs., is occupied chiefly by undulating grounds and extensive plateaux (such as Euryalean and Molle plains).

The Lower Darling District, N.W. of Murrumbidgee and Lachlan districts, though affording good pasturage in the vicinity of the Lachlan K., becomes less fertile towards the \V.

Wellington District, N.E. of-, (10,000,000 ac.)

Sligh District, E. of-, (5,000,000 ac.), affords excellent pasturage,

and is well watered.

Liverpool Plains, (10,000,000), X. of-, and bounded on the S.

and E. by the Liverpool Range, is excellently watered by numerous rivers and creeks, and forms the tinest pastoral district in the colony. The Australian Agricultural Company hold within the boundaries of this district 562,898 acres of their grant of 1,000,000 acres, the remainder (•137,109 ac.) being in co. Gloucester.

G-icydir District, N.E. of-.

JS'etc England District, (5,000,000 ac.), E. of-, an elevated

district, but forming one of the best sheep-pastures in Australia.

McLeay District, (2,000,000 ac.), E. of--: at Dongai Creek, near

the McLeay R., there are several limestone caves full of stalactites.

Agriculture.32—The objects of culture are—wheat, maize, hay, potatoes, oats, barley, vines, sorghum and imphee, rye, tobacco, millet, Ac.

Amount of land granted, sold, or leased, 27,G63,3G5 acres, of which 27,438,360 are said to be uncultivated, and 247,542 in crop :—for wheat, 115,928 acres, producing 1,005,353 bushels ; for maize, 49,500 ac., 1,602,030 bush.; for hay, 45,92-4 ac., 60,873 tons; for potatoes, 8,839 ac., 20,537 tons; for oats, 5,844 ac., 90,2i3 bush. ; for barley, 4,229 ac., 03.411 bush.; for sorghum and imphee, 1,151 ac., 16,298 cwts.; for rye, 336 ac., 3,641 bush.; tobiicco, 253 ac., 3,194 cwts.; millet, 116 ac., 1862 bush.; vines, 1,354 ac., producing 96,100 gallons of wine, 1,322 of brand}', and 490 tons of grapes for table use.

Of the agricultural districts, the Illawarra, co. Camden, the Hunter, and Hawkesbury basins, the Vale of Clwyd, W. of the Blue Mts., are the most fertile. The pastoral grounds are very extensive, especially W. of the Dividing Range : about 17,000,000 lbs. wool are annually obtained from the flocks.

Live Stock.—Horses, 214,684; horned cattle, 2,190,976; pigs, 119,701; sheep, 5,102,671.

The Manufactures are in a flourishing condition ; the principal are—flour, sugar, tallow, wine and brandy, woollens, tweeds, soap and candles, tobacco, butter and Cheese, leather, &c.

Of manufactories there are—177 for grinding and dressing grain; 2 sugar-refining, producing 174,000 cwts. ; 5 woollen, 83,980 yds.; 27 candle, 32,768 cwts. of soap and 14,799 cwts. of candles; 11 tobacco, 1.979 cwts. ; 7 boiling-down establishments, 11,105 cwts.; lard, 1800 lbs. : breweries, tanneries, brass and iron founderies, reaping and thrashing machines, steam saw-mills, Ac.

Towns famous for their woollen manufactures:—Sydney, Parramatta, Penrith, and Hartley.

Fisheries.33—18 vessels employed. Produce:—522 tuns of oil, value £21,870 ; whalebone 87 cwts, value £745 ; 4,403 lbs. of tortoise-shell, value £3,873 ; total value of fisheries, £26,288.

Commerce.Exports.The principal are :—gold (in coin, dust, and bars), value £1,705,774; wool,+ £1.482,343; coal.i £132,984; live stock, £92,734; grain, £123,876 ; provisions, £22,662; hides and leather, £98,542 ; oil (sperm and black whale, seal, and dugong), £63,720; timber, £57,743 ; tallow,|| £37,275 ; wine, £19,969.

Total value £5,800,926:—£3,715,248, the produce and manufacture of the colony, the remainder being imports re-exported; exported sea-ward, £4.768.049; via Albury, £-18,939; live stock over-land to Victoria, £983,938.

Imports — The principal are an immense variety of British manufactured goods; sugar, value £765,168; tea, £501,330; spirits, £264,274; gold, £261,246; hardware, £250,201; grain, £197,645 ; wool, £146,819 ; wine, £141,009 ; tobacco, £134,960.

Total value, £6,772,049£6,597,053, sea-borne; £171,900, overland.    .

Principal countries with which the trade of the colony is earned on : Victoria, Gt. Britain, New Zealand, Tasmania, China, United States, S. Australia, India, South Sea Is.,—rather more than three-fourths of the trade being carried on by British and Colonial vessels, one-ninth by American, and the remainder by foreign.    _

Total number of vessels built in the colony 602, tonnage 27,862; registered 2,279, tonnage 127,830 : vessels built in 1859,—15, tons 789 : 60 vessels registered, 7,200 tons.

Principal Ports.—Sydney, Newcastle, and Eden.

In 1859, 1,238 vessels, carrying 358,376 tons, arrived:—entered at Sydney—776, tonnage, 264,071; at Newcastle—453, tonnage 91,908 : at Eden—9, tonnage 2,379 ;—departed—1287, tonnage 383,100; cleared at Sydney—746, tonnage 268,372; at Newcastle—532, tonnage 268,372; Eden—9, tonnage 2,565.

Currency.—The amount of the paper currency (the notes of the several Banks) in circulation, £893,860. The average amount of coin and bullion in the Mint,34 Treasury, and Military Chests, and the several Banks for 1859,    £1,618,431. The coins in circula

tion are—the coins of Gt. Britain, and the sovereigns and half-sovereigns of the Sydney Brahch of the Royal Mint, all of which are current at their sterling value. Importations of gold dust or gold bullion,f for coinage, from 1,000 oz. standard upwards, are subject to a charge of 34 p. c. for converting the same into coin ; under that amount, 1 per cent.

Population.—336,572.    Immigrants arrived (1S59),

21,729 ; of whom, 6,911 were brought out at the public expense. Total outlay for immigration purposes, ¿£81,605.

Army.—Troops allotted to N. S. Wales, 906 ; gross Imperial expenditure, £127,361.

Forts.—Dawes’ Battery, Fort Macquarie, Fort Denison, Kiribilli Pt. and Macquarie Pt. Batteries, Middle Hd., South Hd., Victoria Barracks, Newcastle. The number and calibre of the guns in these forts are— mounted, 71; dismounted, 8; unserviceable, 9. Of these, 10 are 42-pounders ; 33, 32-pounders; 15, 24-pounders; and the rest smaller. Weight of shot, 154,080 lbs. Besides the above, there are in reserve 53 iron and 50 brass guns.

Revenue.—£2,339,490 ; jExpenditure, 1,858,166.

Public Debt.—£3,519,530, for which Debentures (of these £810,000 were sold in England), secured on the Consolidated Revenue Fund, have been issued.

The principal sources of revenue are—Customs, arising chiefly from a duty on the importation of spirits, tobacco, wine, tea, and sundry other articles; Licenses, Postage, Fines, Fees, <Ac\; Territorial Revenue, including licenses and leases to occupy crown lands ; and Revenue derived from gold.

Government.35—For several years the adminstration of government and of justice was despotic and imperfect, the authority resting solely in the hands of the Governor. In 1821, a council, consisting of the officer in command of the troops, the archdeacon, the colonial secretary, the treasurer, and the attorney-general, wasappointed to aid and control him in the exercise of his authority. On 30th July, 1842, a Legislative Council of 36 members was created, of whom one-third was nominated by the crown, and two-thirds by the colonists, on whom an elective franchise was conferred. These privileges were still farther extended 1850 ; and in 1855 the government was vested in a governor and his ministers (fonning the Executive), and a Parliament consisting of a Legislative Council of 43 members and a Legislative Assembly of 54 members. For the sole administration of the laws, there is a supreme court, over which preside a chief and two puisne judges. There are also courts of general and quarter sessions, and courts of requests for summarily and finally determining claims not exceeding £‘30. A very vigilant police has been established throughout the colony, and juries sit both in civil and criminal cases.

Religion.'!'—There is a variety of religious sects ; but all classes, of whatever creed, are on an equality, and enjoy equal rights. One-seventh of the land was formerly appropriated to the support of the Episcopal church; it is still applicable to the general purposes of religion and education, but without any distinction of sects, all of which participate equally in the government fund. The Episcopal church was formerly included in the diocese of Calcutta, but is now divided into two dioceses, subject to the resklent bishops of Sydney and Newcastle. Of the £42,968 devoted to religious purposes (1859), the Episcopalians receive £22,292 ; Roman Catholic, £12,633; Presbyterian Church, £4,698; Wesleyan Methodists, £3,109 ; Jews, £233. The other denominations,—Presbyterian Free Church, Independents, Baptists &c.,—are supported by voluntary contributions.

Education.—Great efforts have been made in New South Wales to promote education among all classes, and numerous excellent seminaries have been established.

Number of scholastic establishments, including University, &c., 740: of which 217 are Denominational Schools, 125 National, educating 22,605 children, and receiving from Government £40,832, from voluntary contributions £22,172.

The University of Sydney, founded 1S30, and inaugurated lltli Oct., 1852, is established on liberal principles, with regard to the exclusion of religious tests, and the advantages extended alike to all religiousdenoin-inations. The degrees conferred by this University are recognised in all similar institutions of the British Empire.

The Australian College, where the youth of the colony are taught the ancient languages, English literature, and the rudiments of the sciences, was instituted 1830. St. Paul’s College (episcopalian), was opened 1857 : St. John’s (Roman Catholic) has been incorporated ; and vigorous movements have been made by the Presbyterians and Wesleyan Methodists towards the establishment of Colleges within the University for the members of their respective creeds.

A Normal School for secular education only, Sydney GrammarSchool, and many excellent seminaries, including private, national, and denominational schools, are well attended.

There are also 2 orphan schools (1 Protestant and 1 Roman Catholic), and 1 asylum for destitute children.

There are 313 Sunday Schools, attended by 163,890 scholars: 37 of these being Presbyterians, 65 Episcopalians, and 65 Roman Catholics.

Means of Communication.—There are several railways, roads, and electric telegraphs, constructed under the authority of the Government of N. S. W ales, the expense being defrayed out of the General Revenue.

Railways.—The lines are,—the Gt. Southern, from Sydney to Picton, by Newtown, Petersham, Ashfield, Burwood, Homebush, Parramatta, Fairfield, Liverpool, Campbell Town, and Menangle, 52 m. ; the Gt. Northern, from Newcastle to Singleton, by Honeysuckle Pt., Waratah, Hexham, Maitland, and Lochinvar, 40 m.; and the Gt. Western, from Parramatta to Penrith, 18 m.

Roads.—The Gt. Northern, Gt. Southern, Gt. Western, Mudgee, Ramlwick to Long Bay, and numerous minor roads.

Electric Telegraphs.—The Inter-Colonial Line (2nd wire), connecting Sydney with Albury (a border town of N. S. Wales and Victoria), Melbourne, Adelaide, &c.; the Northern ; and the Western.

Bridges.—Numerous substantial bridges have been erected throughout the colony : principal—Albury, Gunning, Jugiong, and Falbrook.

Steamers.—There is every facility of internal intercourse by means of stage-coaches, railways, &c.; while numerous steam-vessels leave Sydney and ply along the coast to the different sea-ports, and also to Melbourne and Hobart Town. Fast and commodious steam-boats ply daily, morning and evening, bet. Sydney and Parramatta, and ferry-boats cross the Harbour every few minutes to Balmain, Pyrmont, North Shore, &c.

H I S T 0 R Y.

It was after the separation of the United States from Gt. Britain that it was first proposed to establish a colony for the reception of British convicts on the eastern shore of Australia.

On the 13th May, 1787, a fleet, having on board 757 convicts, with 200 soldiers and their families, arrived at their destination in the end of January, 1788. Capt. Arthur Philip, B.N., was appointed the first Governor of the colony. Botany B., where it was proposed to fix the settlement, was found ill adapted for that purpose. In seeking for a more eligible situation, Capt. Phillip entered the inlet, to which Cook had given the name of Port Jackson.

The history of the colony during the administrations of its early governors presents little of sufficient consequence to be detailed. The privations endured by the colonists, the insubordination and immorality of the convict population, the outrages practised on the natives and the retaliation produced, and the unavailing attempts made by the successive governors to maintain order and suppress vice, are the characteristic features of the infant colony. During the severe scarcity of 1790, to lessen the consumption, upwards of 200 convicts and soldiers were sent off to the fertile Norfolk I., where they probably would have perished, but for a providential supply of aquatic birds, wffiich they caught in vast numbers (from 2,000 to 3,000) every night. The arrival of a regiment for the colony, called the N. S. AVrales corps, and of capitalists and other free settlers from England, during the administration of Capt. Hunter, R.N., imparted new incentives to industry, and an improved tone to society. Gov. Hunter was succeeded by Capt. Philip King, whose administration was distinguished by the rebellion (1804) of the convicts stationed at Castlehill, about 20 m. from Sydney. Having armed themselves with pikes, they prepared for resistance ; but were defeated alter a brief contest by the troops at Vinegar Hill, a few miles from Parramatta. The despotic rule of Capt. Bligh met the deserved opposition of the colonists, and he himself was inconsequence deposed by the officers and men of the N. S. Wales corps, after a short reign of 18 months. During the administration of Governor Macquarie, great progress was made : population, free and bond, increased ; public buildings were erected at the expense of the British Government; roads were constructed by means of convict labour; government farms were established ; and the Bathurst country explored.

Governor Macquarie wras succeeded (Dec. 1S21) by Major-Gen. Sir T. Brisbane, K.C.B., during whose administration the liberty of the press was recognised. Sir Richard Bourke, though rather a popular governor, was embarrassed in his proceedings by the vexed question of convict discipline, and the vehement opposition of the free colonists to the conferring political and social rights upon the emancipists. His successor, Sir Geo. Gipps, assumed the reins of government (23rd Feb. 1S3S) ;—one of his first acts was to throw open the proceedings of the Legislative Council to the public and the press.

On the 7th Jan., 1839, the minimum price of the Crown land was raised from os. to 12s. per acre; an act for regulating the occupation of Crown land, known as the Squatting Act, was passed (March 22nd, 1839); and on the 20th Oct. Sir Geo. Gipps announced the determination of the Home Government to discontinue transportation to X. S. Wales. Early in 1811, a great public meeting was held in Sydney, for the purpose of adopting petitions to the Queen and British Parliament for a representative Legislature.

In 1842, two very important measures came into operation,—the incorporation of the cities of Sydney and Melbourne, and the adoption of AVakefield’s system of bounty emigration.

On the 1st Jan., 1843, the Governor received the Constitutional Act, by which a Legislative Council was constituted, partly elective, partly 11011-elective.

During the same year, the colony experienced unusual embarrassment, the most prominent causes being,— excessive speculations; the sudden cessation of transportation, and the consequent diminution of Government expenditure ; the introduction, on a large scale, of the bounty system of immigration, the land fund being drained thereby; the fall in wool 50 per cent, below its former prices ; and the destruction of the crops by two years drought. The value of cattle and sheep was so depressed, that their conversion into tallow by the “ boiling-down process” was had recourse to. Tallow has since formed a staple article of export; and during the last few years, extensive candle manufactories have been established in all parts of the colony.

e 5

Sir G. Gipps, towards the conclusion of his administration, made several attempts to bring in the Crown Lands' Occupation Act, in which he was strenuously opposed by the Council, and the colonists generally.

He was succeeded (2nd Aug. 1S46) by Sir C. A. Fitzroy, the period of whose administration is full of important incident. Early in 1850, the N. S. Wales association for preventing the revival of transportation was formed, but which was dissolved by union (Jan. 1st, 1851) with the Australasian League. On 12th Feb., 1S51, the Bathurst gold-field was discovered ; and, 1852, despatches arrived announcing that Her Majesty’s Government had determined to place at the disposal of the Governor and Legislature of N. S. Wales (and also of Victoria), the fund arising from license fees and royalty on gold, with the power of framing the necessary regulations.

The other important features of this period are—the introduction of the uniform twopenny postage rate ;36 the commencement of ocean steam communication with India and Europe ; the incorporation, endowment, and inauguration, of the LTniversity of Sydney, with its affiliated Colleges and Grammar School ; the turning of the first sod of the Gt. Southern Bailway ; the laying of the first stones of the sites of the Fitzroy Dry-dock and Sydney Exchange ; and the establishment of the Sydney branch of the Boyal Mint.

Intelligence of the Boyal assent to the passing of the Constitution Act of N. S. Wales, which maybe regarded as the great act of Fitzroy’s reign, did not arrive here until his departure.

The political features in the administration of his successor, Sir W. Denison, have as yet been those necessarily attending the establishment and inauguration of the new form of government. In other departments, religious, educational, scientific, literary, and social, the administration of Sir W. Denison has been one of marked progress ; new churches, schools, colleges, and scientific institutions and societies, have arisen, and are rapidly advancing.

SUCCESSION OF GOVERNOE3.


From


To


Captain Arthur Phillip, R.N..................

Captain Francis Gross (Lieut.-Gov.).........

Captain Paterson, New South Wales Corps

(Lieut.-Gov.)....................................

Captain Hunter, R.N............................

Captain P. G. King, R.N......................

Captain W. Bligh,' R.N.........................

Major-General Lachlan Macquarie .........

Major-General Sir T. Brisbane, K.C.B......

Colonel Stuart, 3rd Regiment., or Butt’s

(Lieut.-Gov.)....................................

Lieutenant-General Ralph Darling .........

Colonel Lindesay, C.B. (Lieut.-Gov.)........

Major-General Sir R. Bourke, K.C.B.......

Lieutenant-Colonel Bennett Snodgrass

(Lieut.-Gov.)....................................

Sir George Gipps.................................

Sir M. C. 0‘Connell..............................

Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy..................

Sir William Denison37...........................


I


•Tan. 26, 1788 Dec. 10, 179372 Dec. 11, 1792 Dec. 14, 1794

Dec. 15, 1794 Aug. 6, 1795


...Aug. 7, 1795 Sept. 27,1800 ... Sept. 28,1800Aug. 12, 1806 ... Aug. 13,1806 Jan. 26, 1808 ...Jan. 1, 1810 Dec. 1, 1821 ... Dec. 1, 1821 Nov. 30, 1825


| Dec. 1, 1825 Dec. 18, 1825

... Dec. 19, 1825Oct. 21, 1831 ... Oct. 22, 1831 Dec. 2, 1831 ... Dec. 3, 1831 Dec. 5, 1837

j Dec. 6, 1837 Feb. 23, 1838


Feb. 24, 1838 July 10, 1846 July 11, 1846 Aug. 2, 1846 Aug. 3, 1846 Jan. 17, 1855 Jan. 17,1855    -


VICTORIA,t

Boundaries.—N., N. S. Wales ; W., South Australia ;

S., Southern Ocean and Bass’s Straits; S.E., by the Pacific Ocean.

Victoria comprises the extreme southern portion of Australia, bet. the parallels of 34° and 39° S. lat., and the meridians of 141° and 150° E. long.

Extent.—Its greatest length from E. to W. is 500 m., and greatest breadth from N. to S. 300 m.

Area.—55,571,840 ac.: 80,831 sq. m., or nearly equal to the united area of England, Scotland, and Wales.

Coast.—The coast-line embraces a range of GOO m.

The coast is in some parts indented by picturesque bays and capacious havens, in others extremely monotonous—as, for instance, the long tract extending bet. C. Howe and L. King, locally termed the “Ninety-mile Beach,” which is almost unbroken by any inlet whatever.

Bays akd Gulfs.—Discovery B., Bridgewater B,r and Portland B., co. Normariby ; Port Fairy, Lady B. (harbour of Wamambool), Villiers ; Childer’s Cove, Port Campbell, Ileytesbury ; Port Phillip, S. of Bourke, and separating Momington from Grant ; Western Port, Momington \ Anderson’s Inlet, Shoal Lag., Bass; Befuge Cove, Sealer’s Cove, and Corner Basin, X. of Wilson's Promontory ; Corner Inlet, entrance into Corner Basin ; Port Albert, indenting Douro.

Port Phillip B. is 40 m. Ion# and nearly as broad, having an area of 900 sq. m. : the entrance between the heads is 2 ra. across. This bay contains two large and excellent barb. :—viz. Hobson's B. and Corio B., the ports respectively of Melbourne and Geelong. It was discovered by Lieut. Murray, R.N., Jan. 1802, and shortly after surveyed by Capt. Flinders. There are numerous sand-banks about the middle of the harbour, which break the force of the sea when the wind is from the S., and afford a smooth anchorage near Melbourne, the eastern passage to which, along the bay, is the deepest and safest.

Western Port, so named by its discoverer, Mr. Bass, from its being the limit of his exploration (1798) to the westward, contains two great bays,— the inner being a circular basin 18 m. across, with an island (French I.) in its centre ; and the outer lying bet. French and Phillip Is. Phillip I., 15 m. in length, stretches across the outer bay, and completely shelters the harbour, leaving a navigable channel for large vessels on its western extremity.

Capes.—C. Bridgewater and C. Nelson, Normanby ; C. Otway38 and C. Patton, Bolwarth ; Port Phillip lids., (the western Lonsdale Pt., and Pt. Nepean the eastern); Shortland’s Bluff, on the western side of Port Phillip ; C. Shanckf and C. Patterson, Momington ; Pt. Grant, western extremity of Phillip I. ; C. Li pt rapi anc^ Wilson’s Promontory,|| Bass ; C. Conran, Combenncre ; C.Everard, in the S., and C. llowe, in the E., of co. lloice.

Islands.—Lawrence and Lady Percy's Islets, in Portland B.; Phillip I. and French I., in Western Port ; Glennie and Cleft, W., Bodonto Bock, S, and Seal and Babbit Is., E. of Wilson’s Promontory; Snake I., at the entrance of Corner Basin ; Sunday I., at the entrance of Port Albert; Baymond I., bet. L. King and L. Victoria; Gabo, near C. Howe.

Mountain System.—The eastern portion of Victoria is occupied by the Australian Alps (the Warragong or Snowy Mts.), a continuation of the Dividing Bang© of N. S. Wales. This chain, running from N.E. to S.W., extends to Wilson’s Promontory, and K continued in a chain of islands to Tasmania. A great spur, thrown off at the sources of the B. Goulbourn, and continued westward in the Julian, Mt. Macedon, Buninyong (2800) or Brisbane, and Pyrenean ranges to the Grampians, about 142° 207 E. long., forms the great watershed, running nearly parallel to the coast, and at a mean distance therefrom of about 70 m.

The Grampians consist of three parallel ranges,—the Grampians Proper, the central; the Victoria, the western ; and the Serra, the south-eastern. Of the Grampian ridge, the chief summits are Mt. William, the central and highest ; Mt. Zero, the extreme northern; and Mt. Sturgeon, the most southern. Mt. Abrupt (1,700), is the chief summit of Serra range. The Pyrenees lie 30m. E. of the Grampians, chief summit Mt. Cole; the Buninyong or Brisbane range, 50 m. E. of the Pyrenees; the Mt. Macedon range, about 35 m. N.JS’.W. of Melbourne, chief summit Mt. Macedon (3,000).

Minor Ranges and Isolated Mountains.—Mt. Buller (5,500), Mt. Pinnabar (4,100), Bogong Bange (7,000), the Cobboras (5,000 to 7,000), Mt. Bullock (2,160), Mt. Gibbo, May-day Hills (1,700 to 2,500, near Beechworth), Mt. A alentia (3,000 to 4,000), Corranworabul (2,500), Murray District ; Mt. Wellington (5,269) and Mt. Gisborne (5,269), Rruce ; Mt. Bawbaw (5,062) and Ben Cruachan (2,912), Haddington; Mt. Wilson (2,500), Wilson's Promontory ; Mt. Byng or Mt. Alexander (3,290) and Mt. Campbell, 21. of Mt. Macedon; Mt.

Hope and Pyramid Hill, N. of Mt. Byng, Loddon District; Mt. Arapiles, N.W. of Mt. Zero, Wimmera District; Mt. Dundas (1,288), co. Dundas ; Rifle Eange and Mt. Napier (1,444), Normanby; Mt. House (1259), Villiers; Marrack Hills, along the coast E. ot C. Otway; Strzelecki Hange, in Bass ; Arthur Seat, Mt. Martha, and Mt. Eliza, skirting the eastern shore of Port Phillip; Station Peak, co. Grant; Mt. Disappointment, 35 m. N. of Melbourne.

The Australian Alps, with their numerous spurs and peaked summits, render the greater portion of the E. part of the province very rugged and sterile, excepting the neighbourhood of L. Oineo and a part ot the

Mitta Mitta valley.    .

The other ranges of importance in Victoria assume the direction (N. and S.) of the principal mt. ranges of Australia,—viz., the Grampian ranges, —covering a surface latitudinally 54 in. and longitudinally 20 m. in extent; and the Pyrenean, Brisbane, and Mt. Macedon ranges.

Mt. Macedon, which is covered to its very summit with trees, chiefly the black butt and blue gum (Eucalypti), 6 or 8 feet in diameter, and towards the S. with the tree-fern, musk, &c., forms, with Mt. Campbell and Byng, the figure of a triangle : the former, Mt. Macedon, being the apex ; the latter, the extreme points of the base line, Mt. Campbell to the N., and Mt. Byng to the N.W.

Mt. Abrupt contains a crater 446 ft. in breadth, with an average depth

of 80 ft.    A _    .

Mt. Hope was so named by Sir T. Mitchell, who, after having spent several months in traversing the dead levels of the interior, hoped from its summit to obtain a prospect of the country bet. him and the sea.

Pyramid Hill is so named from its appearance, being an isolated mt., rising about 300 ft. above the surrounding plain in the form of a

triangular pyramid.    ^    „ .    _    ,

Station Peak, 15 m. to the north of Geelong, is a well-known landmark to vessels in the harbours of Port Phillip.

Plains.—The country (generally speaking) is low and level; for, while the eastern and central portions are varied by hills and mt. ranges of moderate height, those on either side of this hilly district are occupied by extensive plains, occasionally interrupted by inconsiderable hills. Vast plains compose the greater part of the Wimmera District, and extend eastward to co. Rodney, and beyond the Goulburn ; bet. the rivers Plenty and Hopkins are plains of moderate extent; Barney Plains, GippsLand.

River System.—The Gt. Watershed, running E. and W. through the centre of the province, divides the waters flowing northward to the Murray from those flowing southward to the sea. The Murray (2,500 m. in length, of which only 2,000 are navigable) is the largest known river of Australia, draining portions of the three colonies of 1ST. S. Wales, Victoria, and S. Australia.

Draining the Northern Slope.—The Mitta Mitta and the Ovens, in the Murray district; the Goulburn, forming the eastern, and the Campaspe, forming the western boundary of Rodney ; and the Loddon, in the Loddon district,—all fall into the Murray. The Avoca, the Avon, and the Wimmera, terminate in lakes, which have no outlet in the Mallee Scrub.

Draining the Southern Slope.—The Genoa R., in Howe; the Snowy R., in Combermere ; the Tarnbo or Thomson, in Abinger, the Nicholson, bet. Abinger and Bruce, and the McArthur or Mitchell R., in Bruce,—all flowing into L. King ; the R. Dunlop and the R. Avon, in Bruce, falling, the former into L. Victoria, and the latter into L. Wellington. The Latrobe R. rises in Mt. Bawbaw, Hows E. through Haddington and Bruce, and falls into L. Wellington. The Anderson R., in Bass, falls into Anderson Inlet. The Yarra Yarra R. flows W. through Evelyn, S.W. through Bourke, and falls into Port Phillip ; it receives the Plenty, from the Julian range, and, near its mouth, the Merri Creek. The Warribee flows S.E. bet. Bourke and Grant, and falls into Port Phillip. The Barwon rises in the mts. near C. Otway, flows N.E. through Polwarth, N. bet. Grenville and Grant, E. and then S.E. through Grant, and enters the ocean by L. Konewarre, a few miles to the westward of the entrance of Port Phillip ; it receives the Moorabool and the Yarrowee or Lee from the Buninyong or Brisbane range, which flow S., the former through Grant, and the latter between Grant and Grenville. The Hopkins from the Pyrenees flows S. through Ripon, and then separates Villiers from Hampden and Heytesbury ; it receives on its left the Taylor R., flowing southwards through Hampden. The Eumeralla flows S. bet. Villiers and Normanby. The Glenelg R., from the Grampians, flows W. through Dimdas, then S. separating Eollet from Dundas and Normanby; it receives the Wannon, which rises on the eastern slope of the Grampians, and, after winding round the southern extremity of this mt. range, flows westward, receiving in its course the Wando and several other tributaries.

The Murray, until its junction with the Murrumbidgee (in E. long. 113° 56' 27")» ^ noted for the depth of its channel, and the varied scenery of the extensive regions through which it passes; but from thence to its junction with the Darling, it passes through a barren country, consisting of boundless plains of sandy soil covered with salsolacae. On its left bank, W. of the confluence of the Darling, are flats of considerable extent, covered with nutritious herbage, and backed bj* a succession of lagoons; but the plains to the northward preserve the same sandy and barren character for many miles. On the right bank is the ana-branch or old channel of the Darling; a little to the E. of which are the lakes Victoria and Bonney, which receive the surplus waters of the Murray, by means of their respective channels, the Rufus and the Hawker. (For further description see S. Australia.)

The K. Goulburn rises on the N. side of the Australian Alps within a few miles of the source of the Yarra, and drains an extensive tract of diversified country. The upper part of its course, down to the township of Seymour, the crossing place of the Sydney road, is tortuous and highly picturesque, but unnavigable; from thence to the Murray, a distance of 350 m., it can be rendered navigable at a very trifling cost. The whole river abounds in fish (chiefly the Murray cod, lobster, prawn), wild fowl (various species of duck, also teal, wild goose, black swan, shag), and an almost infinite variety of waders and other land birds. The amphibious platypus and water-rat are frequently met with; and the opossum, native-cat, and kangaroo, are found in great numbers on the banks of the river.

The R. Wannon forms in its course two romantic cataracts, one being 100, the other 140 ft. in lit.; the latter, when the river is swollen by the rains, presents a really magnificent spectacle, precipitating its waters over a projecting precipice into a gorge apparently the crater of an extinct volcano.

Victoria, though, upon the whole, better watered than X. S. Wales, is deficient in permanent springs and watercourses. In the wet season, the river basins are full, the plains become swampy, and marshes expand into lakes ; but in the dry season the rivers are generally reduced to small streams, or to a string of water-holes, and many of the lakes become dry or salt.

Lakes.—L. Corangamite, bet. the cos. of Hampden, Grenville, Heytesbury, and Polwarth ; L. Repose and

L. Linlithgow, in Villiers ; L. Timboon, L. Gnarput, in Hampden ; L. Boloke, bet. Hampden and Ripon; L. Manifold, in the N. of Heytesbury ; L. Hindmarsh, L. Banynong, L. Bael Bael, L. Tyrell, and'L. Boga,inthe Wimmera district; L. Wdietsto, L. Burrambeet, in Talbot; L. Colac, in Polwarth; L. Konewarre, L. Modewarre, in the S. of Grant; L. Wellington, L. Victoria, L. King^ L. Reeve, and L. Bungo, in the S. of Bruce.

L. Corangamit-e (litter water), 90 m. in circumference, is a saltwater Jake: very shallow towards the S., but deep towards the X. In the vicinity of this lake are many smaller ones, also salt, with the exception, however, of Ls. Colac and Burrambeet, situated near its southward extremity, which are fresh. The former (L. Colac) measures 7 or 8 m. in length, and from 2 to 3 in breadth ; while the latter, of a circular form, is 4 m. in circumference, surrounded, except at 2 or 3 points, by precipitous banks, and much frequented by water-fowl, is supplied by springs underground, and contains water of an excellent quality and ot an unknown depth.

Modewarre L., 14 m. S.W. of Geelong, is surrounded by banks formed into regular terraces, indicating that the water had once stood at a much higher level than it usually does now. It is of a circular form, very shallow, and about 6 m. in circumference.

L. Hindmarsh, an expansion of the Wimmera R., is about 30 m. in circumference.

Climate.—Victoria, from its position (the extreme S. of Australia), enjoys a cooler atmosphere and a more regular fall of rain than N. S. Wales, the long-continued droughts, so destructive to the crops and live stock of the neighbouring colony, not being experienced in this. Mean annual temperature at Melbourne, 59°; spring, 57° ; summer, 69° ; autumn, 01°; and winter, 50°. Maximum temp, in shade, 109.2 ; minimum, 29.7 ; mean temp, of dew-point, 49° ; rain-fall, 29 in., the rainy months being March and April, Sept, and Oct. In autumn and winter, the equatorial winds exceed the polar, and in spring and summer the polar exceed the equatorial. The hot winds (from the N.N.W.) generally commence about the middle of Nov., and recur at intervals throughout the summer, until about the middle of March.

Soil.—Notwithstanding that some portions of the country are boggy, and a proportion rocky, sandy, or barren, the country generally may be described as exceedingly fertile. A great part of the colony being of volcanic origin, a soil formed of decomposed lava covers large tracts of great fertility, and eminently suitable for horticultural and agricultural purposes. The palaeozoic ranges are said to possess great capabilities for growing the finest description of grapes, and a vast extent of land is suited to the growth of cereals. To the W. of Port Phillip, a belt of land 200 m. in length, and of an average breadth of 25 m., having a chocolate-coloured soil (of which whinstone and other allied rocks form the basis), is admirably adapted for agriculture and vineyards, yielding rich crops of wheat, oats, maize, Ac.; while the level districts X. and xS .W. of the watershed consist chiefly of sandy or meagre clay-soil, covered with rigid plants and shrubs, interspersed with salt bushes. Extensive tracts, bearing dwarfish Eucalypti (“ Mallee Scrub”39), are found in various parts of the colony.

Iu the Gipps’ Land district, the soil along the coast and on the higher mts. is poor and sandy, covered with dense scrub; the back country towards the base of the rats, that hem in the district, open forest, forming good pasture land: the alluvial soil bordering the rivers, and a belt of country from 5 to 20 m. in breadth, generally along the lakes, from the I ambo R. to Alberton, are of the best quality for cultivation.

PRODUCTIONS.

The productions are similar to those of N. S. Wales.

Animal.—Cattle and sheep of a larger size than those of Aew39 South Wales are reared and fattened upon natural herbage, so abundant in many districts, particularly that lying bet. Geelong and L. Colac on the E., and the E. Glenelg on the W., where the soil is unsurpassed in point of fertility, and where the rains are regular and the country not subject to drought.

Vegetable.—From its situation, (the most southern, and consequently the coldest section of Australia), the fruits and other vegetable products, though similar to those of X. S. Wales, are nearly restricted to those of European growth. The Flora is exceedingly beautiful : the wild geranium, a diminutive plant bearing a tiny pink flower ; two lovely creepers—one bearing a brilliant scarlet flower not unlike the laburnum in shape, the other having tufts of a blue colour resembling the double violet ; the golden and silver wrattle (Mimosce) ; the brunonia, bearing a flower in colour like ultramarine; the indigenous hyacinth and musk-plant ; the English pelargonium and fuchsia; and the daisy, buttercup, and violet,—all grow in great profusion.

Minerals.—Gold, coal, copper, cinnabar (sulphuret of mercury), and salt.

The chief gold districts are—Ballaarat, Mt. Alexander, Bendigo, Maryborough, Ararat, Sandhurst, and Beechworth. Total population upon gold-fields, 201,42402, of these 26,041 are Chinese. Total number of Kuropean males engaged in mining (Dec. 1859), 100,591, of whom 15,342 were quartz miners, the remainder being employed in alluvial mining. Number of steam-engines employed in alluvial mining, 285 ; total horsepower, 3,821; in quartz mining, 296 ; total horse-power, 4.357V. Produce of the gold-fields (1859), 2,285,675 oz. 13 dwt.; estimated value. £9,120,971. Total produce of the gold-fields from 1851 to 1859 (both inclusive),

22,000,000 oz.

Coal exists at Western Port, C. Patterson, and Lout it B., near C. Otway, copper iu the mt. ranges, and cinnabar near Portland Bay.

Salt is obtained in abundance from the interior lakes. The summer heat haring evaporated the water, the bed is found covered with salt to the depth of 3, 4, or even 6 inches.

Limestone is found at Pt. Nepean and N. of All>erton; and lime of very fine quality is made from oyster and cockle shells, of which extensive beds are found around Port Phillip B., and on the bunks of the Mitchell R. (20 m. from L. King).

Crystallized limestone exists near Mt. Macedon ; aud the whole of the coast from the Glenelg K. to Port Fairy (80 m.) is of limestone formation.

Geology.—Of the surface of Victoria, upwards of or 60,000 acres, are occupied by rocks of the tertiary formation, lying nearly horizontally on the older rocksand occasionally interstratiiied, especially in their upper portions, with extensive sheets of basaltic and other recent volcanic products; 20,000 by the palaeozoic, which are generally considered the equivalents of the silurian and devonian of England ; and the remainder by igneous rocks.

Iqncotis Hocks.—The Australian Alps (including the numerous spurs to the N.W.), from Mt. Kosciusko to Wilson's Promontory, the islands in Bass’ and Banks’ Strs., forming the submarine continuity of this irrupted chain, Station Peak, Mts. Byng, Hope, and Pyramid, the Pyrenees, the country around Weelbong (60 m. N. of Mt. Cole), and many of the rocks in the upper part of the Glenelg R., are all granite ; Mt. Kosciusko, sienite and quartz rock resting upon granite; Mt. Macedon, sienite. Vesicular lava or basalt occur between Mts. Byng and Cole, and between the latter Mt. and the Grampians ; a heavy liornblendic trap or lava abounds in the country around Melbourne and Geelong; hills of lava stud the extensive tertiary tract W. of Geelong ;40 near the Wando R. are found gneiss, granular felspar, &c; and on the banks of the R. Campaspe, and m the neighbourhood of that R., clay slate.

Palaeozoic.—The Grampians consist of ferruginous sandstone: the country around Melbourne and Geelong, of beds of sandstone inclined at angles of 20° or 30°, or even, as at St. Kilda, 45°, upon which, at various points, rest beds of tertiary formation, interrupted at intervals by the recurrence of igneous rocks.

The carboniferous series is largely developed in many parts :—the Barrabool Hills, C. Otway, Western Port, C. Patterson, part of Gipp’s Land, and probably in the Grampians.

Tertiary.—Generally speaking, all the low grounds X. and S. of the great watershed are of this formation.

The auriferous rocks appear in the form of quartz veins, from the smallest thread to many feet in thickness, intersecting the palaeozoic rocks. Gold is also found in tertiary sands and gravels overlying the other formations.

POLITICAL.

Victoria is divided into 0 Districts :—The Murray District, in theX.E.; the Wimmera, in the N.W.; the Loddon, l>et. the Murray and Wimmera Districts ; Gipp's Land, in the S.E.; Portland Bay District, in theS.W.; and the Western Port District, bet. the two. Prior to the erection of this district into the province of Victoria, there were only 3 cos.,—Bourke, Grant, and Nonnanby, with their respective towns, Melbourne, Geelong, and Portland. Since that period, 21 have been added, making a total of 24.

COUNTIES AND TOWNS.

Gipp’s Land (3,624).41Howe, in the E.

Combermere, TV. of--.

Abinger, TV. of-.—Bruthen and Tambo, in the

S., on the it. Tambo.

Bruce, TV. of-.—Jones, in the S.E., on the B.

Mitchell ; Seacombe, in the S., on L. Wellington; Stratford, in the S.W., on the It. Avon.

Haddington, TV. of-.—Sale and Giffard, in the

S.W.

JDourOy S. of-.—Port Albert (112), Tarraville,

Victoria, and Alberton, 'all in the S. ; New Bruthen and Buckley, N.E. of Alberton, on the coast.

Western Port District.Bass, TV. of Haddington and JDouro.

Mornington (2,661), TV. of-.—Erankston, in

the W. ; Dandenong, partly in Bourke; Cranbourne, Packingham.

Evelyn (2,591), N. of JHornington and Bass.—Eltham, Little Eltham, St. Andrew’s (gold-field), Anderson’s Creek (gold-field).

JBourJce (133,476), W. of-.—Melbourne, near

the mouth of the Yarra Yarra. Its suburbs are— Collingwood, on the X.E.; Richmond, on the E.; Toorak, Prahran, Windsor, St. Kilda, and Brighton, on the S.E.; Emerald Hill, on the S. ; Sandridge, on the S.W. ; Elemington and Eootscray, on the W. and N.W.: and Carlton and Brunswick, on the N. Beyond the suburbs are—the hamlets of Moonee Ponds, Yorthcote, Heidelberg, Kew, Borondara, Caulfield, Ac. Williamstown, on the pen. forming the southern side of Hobson’s Bay ; Hawthorn, Pentridge, Blackwood (gold-field). The other towns are—Gisborne, Bacchus Marsh, Campbell-lield, ^ Essendon, Lyndhurst, Preston, Donnybrook, Lancefield, Pliillipstowii, Thomastown, Broadmeadows, Elsternwick, Greensborough, Ballan, in the N.W., partly in Grant; Alphington, Oakleigh, Epping, and Wyndham.

Grant (13,576), S.W. of--.—Geelong, on Geelong

Hr. (Corio Bay); Buninyong and Stieglitz, in the 'S.W.; Shelford, AVinchelsea, Inverlee, all partly in Grenville; Batesford, Queenscliffe, Port Arlington, Pt. Henry, Ceres* Meredith, Kensington, Clifton, Teesdale, Corduroy.

^ Grenville (18,503), W. of-Ballaarat,' in the

K.E. ; Bokewood and Cressy, near the middle; Downing Eorest, Carngham, Emu Hill, Pitfield, Chepstow.

Polwarth, S. of-.—Middleton, in the S., near C.

Otway ; Colac, in the S., on L. Colac.

Talbot- (48,434), JSf. of Grenville and Grant.— Castlemaine, partly in the Loddon District; Creswick and Daylesford, in the S.; Maryborough, in the H.W. ; Amherst and Lexton, in the W.; Carisbrook, A\r. of Castlemaine; AYallbrook, Hampstead, YTewstead, Guild-lord, Wombat, Harcourt, Elphinstone, Tarradale.

DaThomie (10,208), E. of Talbot.—Kilmore, in the S.E. ; Kyneton, in the W.; Heathcote, near the middle; Malmesbury, in the W.; Carlsruhe, A\roodend, Broadford.

Anglesey, E. of-.—Seymour, in the S.W. ;

Merton and Avenel, both in the S., partly in the Murray district.

Portland Bay District.—lleytesbury (574), W, of Tolwarth.

Hampden (1,861), N. of--.—Camperdown, in the

S. ; Hexham, partly in Villiers ; Skipton, partly in Ripon; Darlington, in the middle ; Northlake, Lismore, and Terang.

Villiers (311,1S9), TV of-.—Belfast, AYamam-

bool, and Yambuck, all on the coast; Dnnkeld, in the X. ; Framlingham, in the S.E., partly in Hampden; Woodford, and Kirkstall.

JNormanby (5,913), TV. of-.—Portland, on Portland Bay ; Bridgewater, AY. of--; Nelson, in the

AVr., on the Glenelg R.; Ileywood, E. of-; Hotspur,

in the centre ; Branxsholme, N.E. of-; S. Hamilton,

in the X.; Digby, and Merino.

Dundos (2,475), JY of--.—X. Hamilton, in the

S.E.; Coleraine, near the middle ; Cavendish, in the E.; Balmoral, in the X.

Toilet (510), TV. of Dundas and Normanby.—Casterton, in the E.

Ripon (6,818), T. of JDundas.—AVickliffe, in the S.AY.; Raglan, in the N.AY.; Cathcart.

Murray District (393,920), in the N.T.—Beechworth,

towards the X".; Bel voir, X. of--; AYangaratta, AY.

of Beecliworth ; A'iolet Town, Euroa, and Longwood, all S.AY. of-; Buckland, and Indigo Creek.

Rodney co. (1,819), TV. of--.—Echuca, Rochester,

and Runnvmede, all in the AY. ; Murchison, Rushworth, and AYhroot (gold-fields).

Loddon District (54,796), TV. of--.—Sandhurst

and Lockwood, in the E.; S. Dunolly, X. Dunolly, Avoca, Alaldon, Eagle Hawk, Campbell’s Creek, partly in Talbot; and Muckleford.

Wimmera District (5,144), TV. of-.—Glenorchy,

in the S.; Crowlands, in the S.E.; Horsham, X. of-;

Harrow, in the S.AY ; Navarre, St. Armand, Castle Donnington.

REMARKS ON TIIE PRINCIPAL TOWNS.

At BRUTHEN (60 m. from Livingstone Creek), the main road forks northward to Omeo, and eastward to the Maneroo district, N. S. Wales.

SALE is the principal town of the upper district of (lipps’ Land.

SCHNAPPER Ft. (38), on the eastern coast of Port Phillip, is famous for its stone pier, which completely shelters the harbour, audits beautiful

scenery, commanding from the top of Mt. Martha a view of the whole of Port Phillip Bay and the surrounding country.

At EYRE, 18 m. S. of Sohnapper Pt., limestone abounds, and several kilns are in operation.

The City of MELBOURNE (metropolis), incorporated (Aug. 1842). and erected into an episcopal see(1848), is situated on the Yarra Yarra, about m. from Hobson's B., and contains a population of 50,000. The principal streets are each 99 ft. wide : the lowest, Elizabeth-st., which is at the foot of the two principal hills upon which the town is built, divides it into E. and \V., and is often during the heavy rains impassable to foot-passengers. The principal bridges across the Yarra are—PrinceY-bridge, founded 20th March, 1846 ; the iron tubular bridge, connecting Richmond and Prahran ; the Johnson-st. and Studley Park bridges, connecting Collingwood with Kew and Borondara ; and another at Hawthorne.    .

The principal buildings are—the Parliament Houses, Treasury, Public Lands Office, including the Meteorological Observatory, and the Survey, Railway, and Geological Depariments ; Public Library, Hospital, Benevolent Asylum, City Court, County Court, Gaol$ and Police Barracks, Military Barracks, Exhibition Building, Banks, Custom House, Churches, and Chamber of Commerce, together with the massive stores and offices of the merchants.

Among the places appropriated to public recreation, may be mentioned —the Botanical Gardens ; the Military Hill, adjoining the Gardens ; the Richmond Paddock, and the Zoological Gardens, on the X. side of the Yarra, opposite the Botanical Gardens; the S. Park, bet. Emerald Hill and St. Kilda; Fit/.roy Square, on the Eastern Hill; and the Carlton Gardens, to the X.E. The gardens attached to the University are also open to the public.

Melbourne and its suburbs are lighted with gas, and well supplied with water. The gas-works are very extensive, situated on the X. side of the R. Yarra. adjacent to the city. The water is conveyed by iron piping from the Yan Yean Reservoir, one of the largest artificial sheets of water in the world, situated 19 m. X. of the city, at the foot of the Plenty Range, in the parish of Yan Yean, and covering an area of about 1300 acres, 9 m. in circumference, 2£ m. across at its widest point, of a maximum depth of 25£ ft., and having a capacity of 6,500,000,000 gallons. The valley forming the reservoir is nearly surrounded by the natural elevation of the ground, its only depression being filled up by an embankment 3159 ft, in length, and 31 in height at its highest point. This lake is the accumulated drainage of an area of 45,250 ac. (exclusive of the area of the reservoir) ; the R. Plenty, conveying this drainage into the reservoir, having been connected with it partly by an open cut, and partly by a tunnel 440 yds. in length, carried through one of the hills surrounding the reservoir. To prevent an overflow, a bye-wash has been constructed, by which the surplus water escapes, and is returned through a channel into the R. Plenty. Total cost of water-works, £664,452.

WILLI AMSTOWN possesses two stonopiers and two wooden wharves, one of the latter being 1200 ft. long ; a fort at Gellibrand’s Pt. ; a telegraph-office, on which stands the time-ball staff ; an observatory, adjoining the telegraph-ofiice ; a government and a private patent slip; a government marine yard ; mechanics’ institute ; Beveral churches and hanks, &c. A floating dock (the only one in Victoria) is moored off Williamstown ; and since 1856 the convicts have been stationed in hulks on the X. side of Hobson’s B. The soil around the town is very

’¦SSSScs MARSH (34), on the Melbourne and Ballaarat road, contains a population (including that of Pentland Hills), ot about 1,500.

BALLAX (46) is situated on an eminence on the banks of the Werribee K., on the main road from Melbourne to Ballaarat. It enjoys a salubrious climate, and carries on an extensive traffic bet. the W estern gold-fields and Melbourne.

’ GEELONG (40), with a population of about 25,000, is situated on the ground sloping towards the bay, and on the left bank ot the R. Barwon. A bar extends across the entrance to the harbour, which, howe\er, has been cleared to a certain depth by a dredging machine.

The principal buildings in the town are—the Custom House, Post Office, Telegraph, Supreme Court, Police Office, Mechanics’ Institute, Town HallAlall of Commerce, Theatre Royal, and numerous churches and schools, including two grammar schools.

A Botanical Garden, covering an area of nearly 700 acres, has been tastefully laid out at the K. end of the town; and two bathingestablishments •have been erected, one fhi the eastern, and the other on the western beach. A pleasure garden, called “ Montpelier,” has recently been opened, situated in a highly picturesque and fertile spot,on the highest point of the Barrabool Hills, W. of the Barwon.

BUXIXYONG (89), is situated on the Geelong and Ballaarat road, having the Buninvong and Ballaarat gold-fields on the S. and W. It possesses many fine buildings, both public and private. The volcanic soil is of the richest and most productive nature, and fresh-water springs abound.    .

ST1EGLITZ, 25 m. X. of Geelong, on the eastern side of the Mooraboo1 1C. possesses some rich quartz reefs. The soil is barren and dry, but the

air salubrious and invigorating.    .    .    .    ,,.

BALLAARAT (78), the centre of the most extensive gold-field, and the capital of the cos. of N. Grant and N. Grenville, is divided by the Yonowee Creek into two townships, W . and h. I he town contains handsome stone and brick buildings, several banks, theatres, concert-halls, churches, chapels, «fee., and a hospital capable of accommodating *¿*.0 patients. The largest natural piece of gold in the world was found on Bakery Hill, Ballaarat, 180 feet from the surface, weighing 1217 ozs., called'the “ Welcome Nugget.”

CASTLEMAINE, the central point of the gold-fields and of the colony, is situated at the junction of Forest and Barker’s Creeks, thence named Campbell’s Creek (a tributary of the R. Loddon). The town possesses a hospital (established 1853), and numerous substantial edifices—churches, a mechanics’ institute, town-hall, hotels, and many other public buildings. AMHERST, or Old Daisy Hill, is noted for its highly picturesque

scenerv and rich gold-fields.    r . v

WARANDYTE (14), on Anderson s creek, on the S. bank ot the larra Yarra where there is a punt, is a Government township, at which place is now erected the Local Court or Court of Mines for the St. Andrew s district, of which Caledonia and Anderson’s Creek are component parts.

C'AR ISBROOK (99) is situated at the junction of the Tallaroop and McCallum’s Creeks, in the midst of fine agricultural land.

TAltADALE (62) possesses fine agricultural land and rich quartz

reef».

KILMORE (36), the capital of the cos. Dalhousie and Anglesey, being situated on the main Sydney road, is on the direct route to the Ovens, Me Ivor, and Goulbonrn gold-fields. The soil of this locality, being ot volcanic origin, is highly productive, and the lands are in consequence becoming rapidly settled.

SEYMOUR, on the main line of road from Melbourne to Beechworth, is the principal township on the Goulbourn. Two commodious punts for the conveyance of passengersandgoodsacrosstlieriver, ply close to the township.

BELFAST, situated at the mouth of the R. Moyne, and laid out in the form of a quadrangle, contains some fine buildings : the banks of Australasia and Victoria, the Wesleyan and Presbyterian churches, Ac.

WARNAMBOOL (170), on Lady Bay, carries on an extensive trade with the western gold-fields (distant 70 m.), with which it is connected by a macadamised road. The climate is invigorating, and the land in the vicinity alluvial and very fertile.

PORTLAND (234), situated in lat. 38° 2(V S., and 141° 40' E., at the head of the bay of the same name, is the oldest settlement in the colony, and owes its present position chiefly to the influence and enterprise of t lie Henty family. The entrance to the hay is rendered highly picturesque by the lofty (bet. 200 and 300 ft.) precipitous rock called the Julia Percy

I., and the Lawrence Rocks, also precipitous, the former 20 m. and the latter o m. from town. There are two jetties, the old one 000 ft. long, and the new 910 ; and the harbour, if sheltered by a breakwater during the south-easterly gales, would form one of the safest on the coast. The town is well supplied with water from permanent springs and a lagoon in the neighbourhood, which abounds with wild fowl. Northward, is the “ Nine-mile Forest,” a dense wood from 50 to 60 m. in length, through which a tramway has been made at a great expense.

The principal mail-roads from the capital run through HAMILTON (184), and branch off in all directions, to the westward, to Adelaide, and the northern settlements. The land in the neighbourhood possesses great capabilities for agricultural purposes, and within a few miles of the township are the Wannon Falls.

ARARAT (134), co. Ripon, is the centre and principal town of the western gold-fields. The land in this vicinity is auriferous, the air clear and invigorating, but good water is scarce. Population of Ararat district, about 22,(XX).

BEECHWORTH (166), the capital of the Murray district and of the Ovens gold-fields, is situated on an eminence 1,725 ft. above the level of the sea, and distant from the Murray 25 m. It possesses an Athemeum and Chamber of Commerce, and contains extensive stores and many public buildings, at once substantial and elegant—the banks of Australasia, New South Wales, and Victoria; the court-house, town-hall, hospital,’ churches, telegraph-office« and post-office. The climate is remarkably healthy, and the air pure and dry; but there is little agricultural land: the population are principally employed on the surrounding gold-fields.

BELVOIR, or WOLONGA, on the R. Murray, opposite Albury.

ECHUCA, an inland port, situated near the junction of the Campaspe and Murray, and one of the most flourishing towns in the interior, possesses a large trade, supported chiefly by the overland stock traffic, ami is surrounded by some of the best pastoral country in the colony. The electric telegraph has been extended to the township ; and a pontoon bridge, 354 ft. in length, has been built across the Murray, and a span bridge across the Campaspe, 120 ft. long.

¥

OMEO (also included in the mining district of Beechworth), is the most eastern of the Victorian gold-fields. In ¿onsequence of its elevated position (3,000 ft. above the level of the sea), its enjoys a remarkably healthy climate. The Omeo gold-field, which takes its name from L. Omeo (now dry), being difficult of access from the mountainous nature of the surrounding country, has, as yet, been but imperfectly prospected. Height of the Omeo table-land, 3,100 ft.

MARYBOROUGH (103), the chief town of the trans-Loddon or northwestern gold-fields, co. Talbot, situated on the Castlemaine road, is the centre of the district for coaching, postal branches and arrangements, and for gold-buying and banking business, and contains many substantial stone buildings. The land in the immediate vicinity is not of a fertile nature; the heat in summer is excessive, and water very scarce, but the air is remarkably dry and healthy.

SANDHURST (97), the centre of the Bendigo gold-field, situated 60 m. from the Murray R., was erected into a municipality, 10th Jan., 1856. The country in and about Sandhurst consists of bold ranges and extensive * gullies, the latter alluvial, and many of the former containing rich quartz reefs. The town contains a mechanics’ institute, handsome and substantial churches, an excellent pottery, a soap and candle manufactory, a steam and flour mill, and a tannery,

WOOLSHED (170) is a division of the mining district of Beechworth, bounded by the rivers Murray and Ovens, Indigo and Hodgson’s Creek, On Woodshed are laid out the towns Chiltern, Black Dog, and Barn a wart ha; Wahgunyah, a port on the R. Murray, is distant from the Woolshed 26 m.

YACKANDANDAH (177), bet. Beechworth and the Murray, is on the direct route to the Snowy Creek, Mitta, and Omeo. The population is principally eugaged in mining pursuits.

WANGARATTA (144), situated on the Ovens R. and on the Sydney road, possesses very rich land.

BEN ALLA (119), on the Broken R., en route to Beechworth, Albury, and Sydney, is the head quarters of the police district of Wangaratta, Mansfield, Shepparton, Mulwaley, Violet Town, and Euroa. In winter it enjoys a delightful climate, but in summer the heat is excessive. The inhabitants are principally employed in agricultural pursuits, the land in the neighbourhood being well adapted for the production of grain and the fruits of the temperate zone, especially grapes.

GOLD DISTRICTS AND DIVISIONS.

Ballaarat (57,900).—Ballaarat, Buninyong,Steiglitz,Crcs\vick, Symth’s Creek, Blackwood.

Castlemaine (30,523).—Castlemaine, Hepburn. Tarrangower, Fryer’s Creek, Taradale, St. Andrew’s.

Maryborough (49,645).—Maryborough, Avoca, Korong, Dunnolly, Amherst.

Ararat (13,290).—Ararat, Pleasant Creek, Raglan.

Sandhurst (21,930).—Sandhurst, lieathcote, Waranga, Kilmore.

Beechworth (28,134).—Spring Creek, Three-Mill Creek, Snake Valley, Woolshed, Yackandandah, Omeo, Buckland.

The Ballaarat, Mt. Alexander, Anderson’s Creek, and Bendigo goldfields, were discovered in 1851 ; the Ovens in 1862; the Mclvor and Goulbourn in 1853 ; and the remainder in 1854.

In each district there is a Mining Board, consisting of 12 members elected for the term of 1 year by the miners residing in the several

divisions, each Board being empowered to make bye-law.«; for regelating mining operations throughout its own district ; a staff of Wardens for adjudicating disputes arising out of mining operations ; Chinese Protectors, &c.; and a Court of Mines presided over by a judge, and held periodically in various parts of the district, for hearing appeals that may be made from the decision of a Warden.

Agriculture.—The principal objects of cultivation are—wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, hay; minor crops— peas, beans, millet, mangold wurzel, sorghum, carrots, parsnips, cabbages, onions, Ac.

Total number of acres in the colon)’, 55,571,840, of which nearly

I    is pastoral, and nearly £ both pastoral and agricultural, the remainder being auriferous or unavailable {i.e., land not explored, scrubby, or ill-watered).

Breadth of land under cultivation—208,900 ; acreage for wheat, 78,321 acres, producing 1,503,112 bushels; oats, 77,526 ac., 2,100,357 bush.; barley, 5,322 ac., lio,G19 bush.; potatoes, 30,020 ac., 108,466 tons ; hay, 86,102 ac., 113,542 tons. Minor crops (exclusive of those cultivated in gardens) did not (1859) extend over 1,000 acres: of which 647were occupied by vineyards.

In the western districts kangaroos and wallabies, since the diminution in the number of aborigines, and the extinction of the native dogs by the settlers, have multiplied greatly, and now commit dreadful havoc among the young crops. In Gipp’s land the crops are sometimes destroyed by myriads of caterpillars, from l to l£ inches in length ; while, throughout the colony generally, the crops suffer from the effects of blight (aphis) and hot winds.

The Botanical Gardens, in which have been erected a palm-house, an orchestra, pavilion, aviary, and a small menagerie (containing chiefly marsupial animals and water-birds), are situated on the left bank of the Yarra, about l£ m. above the city, and contain several thousand species of plants.

Live »Stock (1859).—Horses, 69,288; cattle, 683,534; pigs, 62,310; sheep, 5,794,127.

Manufactures.—Number of manufactories, works, Ac.,—407, of these 59 are saw-mills, 31 tanneries, 20 fellmongers, 48 coach-factories, 18 soap and candle manufactories, 6 potteries, 11 iron and 4 brass founderies, 41 agricultural implement manufactories, 22 machinists, 1 ship and 5 boat-building establishments, 46 breweries,

II    wine-presses.

Commerce.Exports.—Total value of exports (1859), £13,807,859 : the principal articles being—gold, value £9,122,037 ; wool, £1,753,627 ; hides and skins, £173,389; live stock, £138,689 ; tallow, £10,354; grain, £6,524; leather, £9,926.

Exports, shipped to Gt. Britain, N. S. Wales, Sweden, Mauritius, Calcutta, China, S. Australia, Ta»smania, Ceylon, and New Zealand.

Imports.—Total value, £15,622,891 ; the principal being—drapery, clothing, &c., grain, specie, Hour, building materials, sugar, tea, &c.

Imports, chiefly from Gt. Britain, United States, N. S. Wales, S. Australia, Tasmania, Mauritius, Calcutta, Hong Kong, Ceylon, New Zealand, and Manilla.

Principal Ports.—Melbourne, Geelong, Port Albert, Portland, AVarnambool, and Port Fairy.

Number of vessels arrived, 2,026, tonnage 63-1,131; entered at Melbourne, 1687, tonnage 577.103 ; at Geelong, 2UO, tonnage 33,250 ; at Port Albert, 87. tonnage 14,173; at Portland, 39, tonnage 7,838 ; at Warnambool. 8, tonnage 1.089 ; at Port Fairy, 5, tonnage 678. Number of vessels departed, 2,056. tonnage 658,518 ; cleared at Melbourne, 1,716, tonnage 603.111; Geelong. 198, tonnage 35,545 ; Port Albert, 88 tonnage, 14.242; Portland, 24, tonnage 4,525; Warnambool, 22, tonnage 3,126; Port Fairy, 8. tonnage 969.

liioirrnousES.—Lighthouses have been erected at C. Otway ; on Gabo I. (Flinders* Light); two at Shortland’s Bluff'; at C. Sclianck ; Wilson’s Promontory ; and Pt. Gellibrand. There are also two lightships— the Upper Lightship, at the N. end of W. channel, and the Swan Spit Lightship, at the S.W. end of Swan Spit, Fort Fhillip ; besides harbour lights and beacons at the different ports.

Population.—Estimated population (1859), exclusive of the military, 530,262, of whom 43,3S5 were Chinese. Poviug aborigines, estimated at 1,760.

'Hie great mass of the population of the colony consists of persons born in Gt. Britain and Ireland,—England having directly contributedthirty-six per cent.; Ireland, sixteen; Scotland, thirteen of the total population. Immigrants (1869), 30,583, of whom 3,151 were brought out in part at the public expense ; emigrants, 19,418. Total number of immigrants from 1836-1859, both inclusive, 630,819, of whom 114,859 were assisted immigrants.

Army.—The amount of military force allotted to Victoria by the Home Government, 888 ; total Imperial expenditure for military purposes, £41,663 ; colonial expenditure, £94,029. There are besides, volunteer corps, numbering 10,000 men. The naval force consists of Her Majesty’s Colonial steam-sloop Victoria, 587 tons, 150 horse-power, crew 50, stationed inHobson’sB.,Melbourne.

Sydney was the head-quarters of the General Othcer commanding the troops in the Australian colonies until Aug.1854, when, in consequence of the rapidly increasing importance of the colony of Victoria, the British Government directed the removal of the head-quarters of the troops to Melbourne.

In 1854, an Act was passed, authorising the raising of Volunteer corps, to co-operate with Her Majesty's troops in case of emergency.

The war-vessel Victoria, brought to the colony (3lst May, 1856), acts as au armed despatch vessel, under the orders of the Hon. the Chief

Secretary, for the protection of the interests of the public, and is always kept ready for sea on telegraphic notice.

Finance.—Revenue and expenditure (1859), each about £ 1,000,000; debt, upwards of £1,000,000, obtained by sale of debentures.

Currency.—The principal Banks are—Bank of Australasia, notes in circulation not bearing interest, £44)2,538; Anion Bank of Australia, £282,326 : Bank of New South Wales, £301,609 ; Bank of Victoria, £396,536 ; London Chartered Bank of Australia, £135,260 : English, Scottish, and Australian Chartered Bank, £51,929 ; Oriental Bank Corporation, £168,012 : Colonial Bank of Australasia, £145,069 ; National Bank of Australasia, £67,248.

Number of banks and branches (1858), 56 : total liabilities, £8.218.938 : assets, £10,795,053; reserved profits, £1,228,317. Savings banks, which are separate institutions under the management of load trustees, are now established in Melbourne, Ballaarat, Portland, Belfast, Beechworth, and Maryborough.

Government.—Until 1st July, 1851, this colony was a dependency of N. S. Wales, and was governed by a superintendent, amenable to the governor and executive council of that colony, and had the privilege of sending 6 members to the legislative council. As a separate province, it obtained a lieut.-governor, an executive, and a legislative council, on the same model as the older colony; and finally, in 1855, a new constitution was granted, establishing ministerial responsibility. Since the introduction of the new constitution, tlie Government has consisted of the Governor and the Parliament. The Parliament comprises the Executive and Legislative Councils and Legislative Assembly. The Executive Council is composed of such persons as the Governor may call upon to advise him, it being understood, that, when they cease to command confidence and support as a ministry, they will resign their seats in the Executive Council. The Legislative Council consists of 30 members, representing 6 provinces, each province contributing 5 members ; and of these, the one who received the lowest number of votes in each district, vacates his seat at the expiry of two years, and each other seat is vacated in rotation. The Legislative Assembly consists of 60 members, returned by 37 electoral districts ;—with this Assembly originate all bills for the appropriation of the revenue and for imposing taxes. Both the Legislative Council and Legislative Assembly enjoy privileges equivalent to those of the British House of Commons. The members of both Houses are elected by ballot.

Religion.—All the denominations of the Mother-country are represented nearly in the same proportions as at home. Grants of public money are made to assist in erecting places of worship and paying the clergymen, and are divided among the different sects in proportion to their numl>ers. The same religious equality exists among the various denominations here as in N. S. Wales.

The Church of England is under theepiscopate of the Right Rev. C. Perry, who was consecrated Bishop of Melbourne on St. Peter’s day, 1847, when the see of Melbourne was created, embracing within it the whole colony of Victoria. Before that date, the Church of England in Australia had hut »me Bishop (the late Bishop Broughton); but in the year 1847, three new sees were created,—viz., Adelaide, Newcastle, and Melbourne.

Total number (1859) of places of worship (including the private dwellings used by the Wesleyans for divine service), 622, capable of accommodating 143,485 persons.

According to the census of 1857, the number of persons professing to be Episcopalians, are 175.418; Presbyterians, 65,935; Wesleyan Methodists, 28.305; Roman Catholics, 77,351; Jews, 2,208; and Mahomedans and Pagans, 27.254.

Education.—Number of schools in operation (1859), 772: of which 452 were denominational, giving instruction to 31,869 scholars ; 153 national, 10,492 scholars ; private 167, scholars 3,904.

'Fhe other educational establishments are—the Melbourne University (with its Museum and Library), established 22nd January, 1853, and having an annual endowment of £9,000; the Scotch College, Melbourne, instituted for the purpose of furnishing an education of the highest order to the youth of the Colonies, and of preparing them for the University, learned professions, or mercantile pursuits; the Clmrch of England Grammar School, Melbourne, built by members of the Anglican Church, aided by the Government, and opened April 1858 ; the Geelong Grammar School, established 1855, and transferred to the present building 1858, Total government expenditure for educational purposes, £119,629, including the University endowment.

Means of Communication—Steam Communication.—Steamers run from Melbourne to Sydney, Hobart Town, Launceston, Adelaide, New Zealand, the Murray, Geelong, Port Albert, Portland, Belfast, Warnam-bool, Queenscliffe, Schnapper Pt., &c. The European mail from Southhampton, England, to Melbourne by Malta (where the mail vid Marseilles is received) and Alexandria, thence overland to Suez (where the mail is re-shipped), thence by Aden, Mauritius, Kangaroo I., where the mail to Adelaide is trans-shipped.

Railways.—The Melbourne and Hobson’s B. line (completed Sept. 1854), with a branch to St. Kilda, including a pier running 1,746 ft. into the bay at Sandridge, and capable of accommodating vessels of the largest tonnage that have ever entered Hobson’s B.; the Geelong and Melbourne line, with two branch lines, ono to Williamstown, and the other to Ballaarat, the former joining it about 2£ m. from the railway pier, Williamstown, and the latter branching from it at a distance of about 2 m. from Geelong and 42 m. from Melbourne ; the Melbourne and Suburban line, from Melbourne to Prahran (with a branch from Richmond to Hawthorne), and continued by the Brighton and St. Kilda Railway; the Melbourne and R. Murray line, via Castlemaine and Bendigo.

Telegraphs.—The telegraphic line from Melbourne to Queenscliffe, by Williamstown and Geelong, with a branch from Geelong to Ballaarat, where it joins the inter-colonial line running bet. Sydney and Adelaide; the Melbourne and Sandhurst line, by Gisborne, Kyneton,and Castlemaine; the Melbourne and Portland line, by Warnambool and Belfast; &c.

Roads.—In addition to the railways, there are 4 principal thoroughfares out of Melbourne :—the northern, to the R. Murray, by Sandhurst; the north-eastern,to Sydney; the north-western, to the l*yrenees, by Ballaarat; and the south-eastern, to Western Port and Gipps’ Land. There are besides many hundred miles of road formed, and several hundred bridges built throughout the colony, by the Government, irrespective of those accomplished through the instrumentality of district road-boards.

HISTORY.

Lieut. Murray, E.N., in Feb. 1802, first discovered Port Phillip; and on 27th April, of the same year, Lieut. Flinders made an accurate survey of its waters. Early in 1S03, Sir P. King, then Lieut.-Governor of X. S. A\ ales, sent the Surveyor-General Grimes to examine the bay, when he discovered the river at its head now called the Yarra. In 1802, Lord Hobart, Secretary for the Colonies, projected the formation ot a new settlement at Port Phillip, and accordingly commissioned Lieut.-Col. Collins to transport thither a body ot convicts, accompanied by a party of soldiers and free settlers. They arrived 10th Oct, 1803, but removed soon after to the Derwent. (See History of Tasmania).

In 1834, the Messrs, lienty, of Launceston, formed a whaling establishment at Portland: this was the iirst permanent settlement in Victoria.

In 1835, six colonists from the same town formed themselves into an association with a view to colonize the shores of Port Phillip, and to transport their live stock to the unoccupied pastures. Owing, however, to the delay occasioned bv the necessitv of procuring a vessel from Sydney suitable for the purposes oi wie expedition, they were forestalled in their objects by one Batman, from Parramatta, who entered Port Phillip (May 1835), and landed on its western shores, when, by means of 7 civilised natives who had accompanied him from N. S. AVales, he entered into a preliminary arrangement with the aborigines to cede to him a tract of country for the pasture of his sheep and cattle. He then crossed over to Tasmania, formed an association with 15 Hobart Town colonists, returned at the head of this party, and prevailed upon some of the native chiefs to make over two extensive tracts, one of which lay chiefly around the southern and western shores of the harbour of Geelong, and the other around the lower course of the Yarra and adjacent rivers and Hobson’s B., comprehending together about 600,000 acres, for a stipulated quantity of flour, blankets, &c., to be paid as an annual tribute, amounting in value to about £200 per annum.

In Nov. of the same year, the Launceston association, headed by J. P. Fawkner, entered Port Phillip heads, and, notwithstanding the threats of Batman, sailed up the Yarra, landed their live stock and stores, encamped on the site of the present city of Melbourne, took possession of a lar^e tract of country obtained from the aborigines by contract.42 and commenced cultivating the ground. Sir G. Arthur, Governor of Tasmania, was anxious to annex the new colony to that island ; but Sir It. Bourke, Governor of N. S. Wales, considering the Port Phillip district within his own jurisdiction, despatched Mr. Stewart, a magistrate of N. S. Wales (1836), to take possession of the territory in the name of King William IV.

lie next sent (Sept. 1836) Capt. Lonsdale as Police Magistrate, with a party of soldiers aud convicts, and a few officials, when the settlement was formally placed under British rule. The extraordinary progress of the settlements induced Sir li. Bourke to make a tour of inspection, when he found (April, 1837) a population of 450 colonists, with a pastoral stock of 140,000 sheep, 2,500 horned cattle, and 150 horses. During his visit he gave names to llobson’st Bay, Williamstown,J Melbourne,§ and Geelong||; made arrangements to put up portions of the surveyed allotments to public sale ; and, after having seen something of the interior, returned to Sydney. The first land sale was held on June 1st, 1837, and the second on 1st JN ov. of the same year. The town allotments, which were then sold at from £30 to £100 per acre, realised, in 1839, enormous sums, varying from £5,000 to £15,000. This extraordinary rise in the value of property, and the equally extravagant prices of live stock, provisions, and all sorts of manufactured goods, is attributable partly to an increased influx of population from the Mother-country and the neighbouring colonies, consequent upon the glowing description given of the green pastures and beautiful scenery of Australia Felix by Sir T. Mitchell, in his narrative of the discovery or that territory, but chiefly to the almost unprecedented extravagances in business of the settlers.

This state of affairs continued until it reached its climax in 1811, after which a rapid decline in the soundness of commercial transactions followed, until, in 1812, the factitious prosperity of the colony resulted in an almost universal insolvency, thus demonstrating the ruinous extent to which speculation had been carried, and the inroads which the extravagance43 oi the period had made upon the funds of the colonists. 1 he monetary depression, however, was of short duration : the colony still possessed her true source of wealth in the rich agricultural and pastoral lands. The difficulties of the squatters, by leading them to adopt the boiling-down system, was the means of adding a valuable arrticle ol export to the staple commodity of wool ; and the colony soon arrived at even a more flourishing condition than it enjoyed before.

The produce of the rich pasture lands formed the sole exports, and yet in 1850 the annual export of a population of 70,000 amounted to £1,042,000 ; imports, £745,000.

A mere police establishment being found insufficient for the requirements of the rapidly advancing colony, measures were taken by the Sydney authorities to establish a local administration. Mr. La Trobe was gazetted (80th July, 1839) as superintendent, and (30th Sept.) entered on his duty. On the 30th Dec., 1840, a public meeting of the settlers was held to take measures for the separation of Port Phillip from the government of N. S. Wales, on account of the mal-appropriation of t lie revenues of the former province by the government of the latter. The excess of the Port Phillip revenues above its expenditure then amounted to upwards of £150,000 per annum ; this balance was appropriated by N. S. Wales to its own purposes, Port Phillip losing to that extent. At the unanimous and enthusiastic meeting alluded to above, a petition was adopted, requesting the Imperial Government that, at the earliest possible period, the separation of Port Phillip, as a distinct colony, should be effected. On 1st March, 1811, a second meeting was held for a similar purpose; but the result of their efforts proved that Sydney influence was paramount for the time in Downing-street.

About this time the Port Phillip settlers explored and occupied Gipps544 Land, made known only 3 years previously by the exertions of Strzelecki. The first resident Judge of Port Phillip was the eccentric Mr. J. Walpole Willis, whose suspension from office (1843) by Sir G. Gipps, was the cause of much disturbance, until the Home Government declared the act of the Governor illegal. Melbournef was erected into a corporation (1st Dec., 1842), and (June 1843) a partially representative system of government came into existence.

Immigration^ having ceased in consequence of the late commercial depression, the Home Government, taking advantage of the dearth of servants that in course of time began to be felt, determined on making the colony a place of secondary punishment for their convicts, and accordingly imported by the Royal George (1844) the first cargo of these exiles to the colony. Mr. La Trobe, at the request of the citizens of Melbourne, refused to allow any more such arrivals to take place, and at length the attempt was abandoned by the Imperial Government.

The publishing (1844) of the “ Squatting Regulations ” by Gov. Gipps roused that class of the community to the necessity of defending their own interests; and so successful was the defence they made of their so-called political rights, that the “ Orders in Council ” were issued (9th March, 1847) by the Imperial Government.

These regulations divided the crown lands into three sections—the settled, the intermediate, and the unsettled districts,—and conferred on the squatter a pre-emptive right according to specified terms.*

The political and social inequality created by the long leases and pre-emptive right of the squatter, has, from the very commencement of the system, produced a growing discontent amon<r the other sections of the community. The agitation of the great politico-ecclesiastical question of voluntaryism, the petition for the removal of Mr. La Trobe from the oilice of Superintendent, the nomination of candidates for seats in the Legislative Assembly, and the emigration and separation movements, were the absorbing topics of ISIS. By the strenuous efforts of Dr. Lang, and the society for the promotiou of emigration formed by some members of Parliament, several arrivals of the right class of immigrants, both British and German, took place during the years 1819-50. Among the events of 1849 may be mentioned,—the discovery of gold in this province, the incorporation of Geelong on the same terms as the city of Melbourne, and the contentions between the Anglican and Roman clergy for precedence in titular rank.

On intelligence of the gold discovery in the Bathurst Mts., Ar. S. 7Fairs, reaching Victoria, all industrial pursuits were abandoned by the majority of the population ; vast crowds flocked by sea and land to the new El Dorado; and a reward of 200 guineas having been offered by public subscription to the first discoverer of a remunerative gold-field within the province, reports soon arrived of such discoveries in various localities; and at length the Ballaarat, Mt. Alexander, and other diggings, of extraordinary richness, filled the minds of all with astonishment and expectation. The fame of these discoveries attracted adventurers of every class from all quarters, not excepting S. America anil California. The vast immigration that took place may be estimated by the fact, that, when at its height, 10,000 immigrants were in one week landed at Melbourne. Consequently, the arrival of so many immigrants at the towns of Melbourne and Geelong, where there was insufficient house accommodation, increased the social confusion, and raised the necessaries of life to famine prices. The extravagance and excesses of the diggers, among whom were the representatives of all nations, Germans, French, Italians, Chinese, Americans, and old Californians,are indescribable. Life became a riot, and its courtesies in a great measure disregarded.

Intelligence arrived (Dec. 11th, 1850) of the passing of the Australian Colonies Bill; and, in 1851, the Australian League against transportation was inaugurated (1st Feb.). TheGthof the same month (“ black Thursday”) will be memorable in the colony for the desolations of fire that swept the country, destroying property and lives. The 1st July being the day appointed by the home authorities for the act of separation to take effect, Mr. La Trobe assumed the title of Lieut.-Governor of Victoria. The new Assembly was at first composed of two-thirds elected members, and one-third nominees of the crowm. This form of representation in a single house continued till Nov. 1856, when a new form of government by double chambers wras brought into operation.

Mr. La Trobe having resigned, J. Foster Esq. acted until the arrival of Sir Charles Hothain, who found the affairs of the colony iu a very critical state. At the commencement of his administration he experienced great embarrassments, from the lavish expenditure of the revenue of former years. At Ballaarat, in consequence of the general dissatisfaction and irritation produced in collecting the license-fee (80s. per month for a claim of 12 ft. sq.) and other causes, a rebellion broke out (1851), and several skirmishes took place between the armed diggers and the 12th and 40th regiments. At length, upon the appointment of a lioyal commission to examine into the condition of the gold-fields, a complete change in the administration of their affairs, the imposition of a duty upon gold instead of the license-fee, together with other improved regulations, this and other mining districts were restored to quiet. The tide of Chinese immigration had set in about the commencement of 1S54, and in a short time the number of Chinamen in Victoria amounted to 50,000, so that, as a restrictive measure, a poll-tax of £10 was levied on every Chinese entering the province.

At Ballaarat, a newspaper in Chinese was established in May, 1856; and in Sept, they erected a Joss-house on Emerald Hill, Melbourne.

Sir C. Hotham died 31st Dec. 1855; and until the arrival of Sir H. Barkly (Dec. 1856), Major-General Macarthur acted as Lieut.-Governor. The latter opened the first free parliament of Victoria (25th Nov., 1856).

Among the measures of the New Constitution may be mentioned,—the consolidation of local self-government by erection oi municipalities, the passing of the Crown Lands Bill, and the discussion of the State Aid question.

LIST OF GOVERNORS AND LIEUT.-GOVERNORS.

From

To

Mr. LaTrobe, Lieut-Gov.........................

J. V. F. S. Foster, Esq. (Acting Gov.).........

Sir C. Hotham, K.C.B............................

Major-General M 'Arthur (Acting Gov.) ......

Sir H. Barkly, K.C.B...............................

July, 1, 1851 May, 5, 1854 June 21,1854 Dec. 31, 1855 Dec. 23, 185GÌ

May, 5,1854 June, 21,1854 Dec. 31, 1855 Dec. 23, 1856

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

Boundaries.—N., the 26th parallel; E., the meridional line of 141° E. long. ; W., that of 132° E. long. ; and S., the Southern Ocean.

The tract of country lying between South and Western Australia, or between 132° and 129° E. long., and S. of the 26th parallel, though at present a sort of no-man's land, naturally belongs to this colony ; au application has therefore been made to the Home Government for permission to include it within the jurisdiction of the South Australian Government,

Extext.—Its greatest length from X. to S., 830 m.; breadth from E. to W., 700 m. Area, about 300,000 sq. m., or nearly 200,000,000 acres.

Coast.—The coast-line, owing to the irregularity of the shore, exceeds 1,600 m. in extent.

Bays and Gulfs.—Beginning at the W.—Fowler’s B., Denial B., Smoky B., Streaky B.; Anxious B., bet. Waldegrave I. and C. Radstock ; Collin B., Avoid B., Sleaford B., S. of Eyria Peninsula ; Spencer's G. (300 m. in length), E. of Eyria Peninsula; Port Lincoln (with its three branches, Spalding Cove, Port Lincoln proper, and Boston B.), Franklin ILarb., and Port Germein, on the western, and Port Victoria and Ilardwicke B. on the eastern shore of Spencer’s G.; Sturt's B., S., and St. Vincent’s G., E. of York Peninsula; Torrens' Inlet, Holdfast B., Deception B., Aldinga B., Yankallilla B., on the eastern shore of St. Vincent’s G.; Encounter B., connected witli L. Victoria by Goolwa Chan. (Port Pullen) ; Lacepede B., Guichen B., Rivoli B., D’Estaing B.

Capes.—Beginning at the W.—Pt. Bell, Pt. Brown, Pt. Westall, C. Radstock, Pt. Drummond, Pt. Sir Isaac, Pt. Whidbey, Pt. Avoid, C. Wiles ; C. Catastrophe, S. of Eyria Peninsula; Pt. Donnington, Boston I Id., and Pt. Lovely, on the western, and Pt. Riley, Pt. Pearce, and Corny Pt., on the eastern shore of Spencer’s G.; C. Spencer, the extremity of York Peninsula; C. Jervis, S.W., and Rosetta lid., S. of co. Hindmarsh ; C. Bernouilli, N.W. of co. Robe; C. Xorthumberland, S. of Grey.

Straits.—Thorny Passage, bet. Thistle I. and the mainland ; Investigator’s Str., bet. Kangaroo I. and York Peninsula; Backstairs Passage, bet. Kangaroo I. and C. Jervis.

Islands.—Kuyt’s Arch, (comprehending Isles of St. Peter and St. Francis, and Olive I.), S.E. of C. Bell; Investigator’s Isles, S. of Anxious B., principal—Flinder’s I. and Waldegrave I. ; Williams’ I., S. of C. Catastrophe ; Neptune Is., S.E. of-; Thistle I., S.E. of

Eyria Peninsula ; Gambier Is., S.E. of--, (chief,

Wedge I.) ; Sir J. Banks’ Group, N.E. of Port Lincoln ;

Torrens’ I., near Port Adelaide ; Kangaroo I., S. of York Pen.; the Pages, in Backstairs Passage.

Peninsulas.—The Eyria Pen., AY., and York Pen., E. of Spencer s Gulf.

Physical Features.—The western (which forms part of the Gt. Australian Bight) and northern portion of the province partake of the character of Central Australia, while the north-eastern is occupied by the Gt. Stony Desert. The best part of the colony is that lying between St. Vincent's G. and the Murray. The middle of this tract is a hilly region, which stretches from the Willunga northward into the interior. The plain of the Lower Murray is destitute of watercourses. A singular feature in S. Australia is L. Torrens, which sweeps in the shape of a horse-shoe for 400 miles round the north end of the mountain district above mentioned. It is connected with the top of Spencer’s G. by a boggy depression, and is in many parts rather a desert basin than a lake. In its centre are sheets of salt water and black mud soil, and towards the edges sand and mud sprinkled with samphire bushes.

Mountain System.—The Art. Lofty Range stretches from C. Jervis along the E. shore of G. St. Vincent, to the northward, for about 40 m., there attaining an elevation of 2,334 ft. At this point it divides into two main branches :—one runs N.N.E., chief summits Razorback (2992), Alt. Bunyan (3012), and the Black Bock Hill (2750) ; while the more western branch, called Blinders’ ltange, stretches northward along the eastern side of Spencer’s G., then nearly parallel with the inner shore of L. Torrens, and terminates in Alt. Hopeless. The other principal peaks of Flinders’ Kange are—Alt. Serle (3000), Alt. Deception (3000), Alt. Arden, Alt. Brown, and Alt. Remarkable ; Alt. Barker (2334), and Alt. Wakefield Ranges, E. of Alt. Lofty Range; Barossa Range, 30 m. to the N.E. of Adelaide (chief summit, Keizerstuhl).

Ix the Eyria Peninsula.—Mt. Olintlius (2000), W. of Franklin Harh.; Mt. Middleback, N. of Mt. Olintlius ; Mt. Hill (2000), W. of Dutton B. ; Marble Range, about 30 m. N.W. of Boston Bay; Mt. Albert, N., and Mts. Dutton and Greenley, W. of Marble Range. To the N. of Eyria Peninsula,—Gawler Range; Baxter Range, E. of Gawler Range; Stewart and Turret Ranges, to the W. of the X. part of L. Torrens; Mts. Gambier and Schanck (1000), both volcanic cones containing large craters, at a short distance from the coast near the Glenelg R.; Mt. Burr Range (1G00), N.W. of Mt. Gambier.

Rivers.—Tho Alurray, which has a course of from 200 to 300 miles within the province, with an average breadth of 175 yards, runs first \V\ and then S. through a valley cut into an immense fossil formation, and enters L. Victoria, a brackish lagoon, connected with the sea bj shallow channels.

In 3-1° S. lat., and about 139° 40' E. long., the river makes the decided bend (commonly termed the Great Bend, Angle, or Elbow) to the southward. Its banks are characterised by a broad line of scrub called the Murray belt, composed of a thick brush of slender trees, shrubs, and bushes, with a stripe of open ground usually intervening bet. the brush and the valley of the river, covered with grass and salsolaca*. N. of the Great Bend, the brush almost wholly disappears, and the open ground spreads out into enormous plains. The hills and cliffs of either bank rise sometimes close to the margin of the river, sometimes at distances of 1 or 2 miles from it, to an elevation of about 300 ft. The rise and fall of the river are both gradual;—receiving the first addition to its waters from the eastward in the month of July, it rises at the average rate of an inch a day until Dec., in which month it attains a height of about seventeen feet above its lowest or winter level, filling as it rises all its lateral creeks and lagoons in succession. The shifting sands and the heavy ocean surf at its mouth render its entrance dangerous and almost impracticable. The navigation of the Murray commenced in 1853 ; and now many steamers and barges are plying on its waters as far as Albury, 1,750 m. from its mouth. The South Australian Custom-house officers collect duties on goods entering the river intended for consumption in New South Wales or Victoria, in accordance with the scale of dues imposed in those colonies; the amount thus received being paid in equal proportions to the Treasuries of those two colonies.

Minor Streams.—Inman, Ilindmarsh, Finiss, Angas, and Bremer, falling into Encounter B. and L. Victoria ; the Yankalilla, Curricalinga, Myponga, Onkaparinga, Sturt, Torrens, Upper and Lower Para, Gawler, Hutt, Light, Wakefield and Rhine, falling into or running towards G. St. Vincent; and the Broughton, Dutton, and several small streams, falling into or flowing towards Spencer’s G. Although the streams, as in Australia generally, are reduced in the dry seasons to a string of water-holes, yet the colony is not so deficient in water as it might seem ; it can generally be found by digging to a greater or less depth.

Lakes.—L. Victoria or Alexandria, the receptacle of the Murray 11., in the X. of Encounter B. ; connected with L. Victoria—on the S.E., L. Albert, and on the S. the Coorong, which runs parallel with the coast for a distance of 90 miles, with an average breadth of 2 miles ; the Torrens, encircling the northern extremity of Flinders liange ; L. Gairdner, North of Eyria Peninsula ; L. Younghusband, N., and L. Hart, N.E. of L. Gairdner.

Climate.—The climate is very salubrious.

From the latitudinal position of S. Australia, and the absence of snow-clad mts., the average temp, is high ; but the cool and refreshing southerly winds from the Pacific, which prevail for the greater part of the year, have a most exhilarating influence ; and the extreme dryness of the atmosphere renders the heat much less oppressive than would be supposed by persons unacquainted with the climate.

Maximum temp, at Adelaide, 110.5° ; minimum, 32.3° • Mean temp, for the year, 02.7° ; spring, 76.5° ; summer45 87.4°; autumn, 74.9°; winter, 59.0°. The prevailing winds are from the S. ; hot winds from the X. Average rain-fall, 18.3 inches, (rainy season, May—September) ; minimum lit. of bar., 29.32 ; maximum, 30.407.

The hilly districts45 receive a much more bountiful supply of rain, and enjoy a cooler atmosphere than Adelaide, which, from its low and inland situation, has a temp, ranging as high as that of Sydney.

The hot winds in S. Australia are much more intense, and of longer duration (sometimes 9 days), than in the other colonies, owing, it is supposed, to the proximity of the central desert, and to the fact that the mountain chains, from having a direction parallel to the course of these winds, afford little or no shelter from their influence. Dysentery is tho most prevalent disease,—none are endemic.

Soil.—The soil varies considerably, even throughout the available districts; that in and around Adelaide equals the best soils of Australia, producing fruit rich in flavour, and corn of a greater specific gravity than that of England.

The greater portion of South Australia, however, has been found a barren waste. The Eyria and York Pens, are, at the best, indifferent forest-land, with small patches of alluvial soil, the great mass being barren and worthless.

The available portion of the colony lies for the most part to the E. of St. Vincent's Gulf, of which region the mica slate formation furnishes a great variety of pastoral districts ; while the best agricultural lands are confined to the alluvial slopes of the Mt. Lofty range, and the plain to the W. of it.

The tract of country, bounded on the W. and N. by the R. Murray, and on the E. by Victoria, is suitable for pastoral purposes, and is occupied chiefly by sheep-farmers and stock-holders.

Productions.—The Animal and V egetable productions are similar to those of the other colonies. The Murray abounds in fish ; the “ Murray cod,” weighing from 15 to 70 lbs., at one time formed a valuable export. The native heaths and shrubs are surpassingly beautiful.

Minerals.—Copper, lead, iron, gold; precious and ornamental stones,—chalcedony, cornelian, jasper, opal, &c.; also asbestos and grammatite.

The length and breadth of some of the lodes of copper surpass anythin * of the kind, even in S. America. At the Burra Burra mines, the enormous mass of oxidated and carbonated copper-ore lay on the surface in a kind of hollow, and was found to be connected with a vein afterwards worked in the rock below. Lead also has been found cropping through the surface ; the ore of one mine sent to England yielded 75 per cent, of lead, and 30 of silver, to the ton of ore. Gold mining to a small extent has also been carried on in the hilly district, where the rivers Torrens and Onkaparinga take their rise. There are 59 copper mines ; 3 copper and lead ; 6 lead ; 2 silver and lead ; 1 gold (the Victoria mine). Of the total number, there were (1859) only 15 working—13 copper, 1 silver and lead, and 1 copper and lead, which, with their distance and direction from Adelaide, are as follow :—Copper—Appeanilla Mine, 12 miles N.K. by E.; Bon Accord, 90 m. N. by E.; Bremer mines, 25 m. E.; Burra Burra Mines, 90, N. by E.; Karmantoo, 35, N.N.E.; Kapunda, 50, N.N.E. ; Kaikulta, 74, N. by E.; Mochatoora, 288, X.; Mt. Deception, 290, N.; Mt. McKinlay, 310. X.; Mt. Samuel, 270 X.: Sarah Wheal, 25, E.S.E.; Silver and l^ad—Ellen Wheal, 28, S.E. by S.; Copper and Lead— Chamber s mine, 10, S. Some oxeellent copper and smelting works have been established about 20 m. S. from the Burra mines.

The metals are found chiefly in the primitive limestone when combined with clay slate ; and the precious stones in hornstone (a compact quartz).

The Value of mineral produce, exported during the past 10 years, amounted to upwards of £3,000,000. Claims have been recently ‘made for leases of no less than 136 sections of supposed mineral land on York Ben., to which part of the province attention has been attracted by the discovery and successful working of most extensive lodes of copper-ore at the W allaroo mines, situated only 5 in. from a shipping place. There are also aoont io applications for mineral leases, chiefly situated XT. of Mt, Remarkable,

Geology.—The rocks of which the main range is composed belong to the oldest of the primary strata, which have been forced out of their horizontal position by subterranean action ; while the upper strata composing the plains are of tertiary age, lying horizontally on the older formations, and abounding in fossil remains, many of which are nearly allied to the species now existing in the adjacent seas.

The vast fossiliferous strata (dotted here and there with low' granitic hills) which extend from about the meridian 139° towards the western boundary of the province, and eastward from the hilly district, consist of a succession of layers of limestone, generally containing a large proportion of sand, some of the lower beds passing into indurated sandstone; while the upper stratum consists of beds of oyster-shells, under which are mixed coral and other marine shells, deposited in beds of sand, limestone, and selenite, alternating with other bods of sand without shells. Beneath these are remains; of fish, teeth, and nautili.

The rocks of the principal range consist of strata originally deposited on the unstratified rocks, and generally found in the following order :— the 1st, or uppermost stratum, quartzosc sandstone, traversed by veins of quartz, frequently accompanied with ironstone: 2nd, dark-coloured «¡late, with veins of quartz, and occasionally laminated specular iron; 3rd, limestone beds, passing into slate and slaty sandstone, and containing the ores of iron, copper, lead, &c.; 4th, slate (mica, chloric, and hornblendic), passing frequently into sandstone, and containing precious stones and the ores of metals; 5th, gneiss, which is also metalliferous, and frequently contains garnets. Below these are granite and other igneous rocks.

Primitive limestone (white marble) abounds in the mts. E. of St. Vincent’s G.; the western slope of the Barossa Range being entirely composed of it, some of which is as line-grained as that of the celebrated Carara in Italy.

The lower slopes of all the mt. ranges are chiefly composed of slate (in the Mt. Lofty range, generally transition) ; and in the immediate vicinity of Mts. Gambier and Schanck are large accumulations of cellular lava and basalt.

The Stony Desert in the N.E. consists of solid dark ironstone (fragments of quartz), rounded by attrition.

POLITICAL.

The settled portion is divided into counties, hundreds, and districts. The division of greatest political importance is that into districts, the ratepayers of each having the power of levying rates on land and buildings, of granting licences to public-houses and pounds, and also for slaughtering cattle, depasturing, and timber cutting on the Crown lands. The funds arising from these sources are applied to forming and keeping in repair the roads of the district. The hundreds and counties arc divisions of minor importance, chiefly serving for electoral purposes, and the convenient mapping out the territory forming the province.

0( tho 13 counties into which the seuieu districts iiavo Deep divined, 8 were erected in 1845. These oocupy that part of tho country bounded on the W. by St. Vincent’s G.; E., K. Murray ; N., Broughton ii.; S., Encounter B.

COUNTIES AND TOWNS.

Maritime.—Hindmarsh, opposite the eastern part of Kangaroo I.—Groolwa, on Port Elliott; Strathalbyn and Macclesfield, both in the N.

Adelaide, iYof---.—Adelaide,46 on the E. Torrens,

and Port Adelaide, on Torrens’ Inlet, both in the W. ; Glenelg, Brighton, Sturt, Clarendon, Morphet Yale, Xoarlimga, Aldinga, and Willunga, all S. of Adelaide, on the coast; Salisbury, X.E. of Adelaide ; Lyndoch Valley, in the X.AV.

Gaicler, X. of--.—Gawler, in the S.E. ; Port

Wakefield, in the X.W.

Stanley, X. of--.—Stanley, in the S.E. ; Armagh,

in the middle.

Inland.Burra, E. of---.—Kooringa and Ked-

ruth, in the W.

Light, S.W. of---.—Kapunda, near the middle;

Greenock, S. of Kapunda ; Tamunda, in the S.W.

Eyre, E. of-.—Moorundle, in the E., on the

Murray It.; Truro and Barton, in the W.

Sturt, S. of-.—Nairne and Staughton, in the

S.W.

The remaining 5 cos. are—Bussell, E. of Encounter B. ; Kobe and Grey cos. (chief settlements, ltobe Town and Grey Town), situated in the S.E. of the colony ; Frome, E. of the extremity of Spencer’s G.; Flinder’s (Lincoln, the only settlement), Eyria Pen.

Agriculture and Horticulture.—The objects of cultivation are—wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, hay, maize, vines, fruits, &c. N umerous fruit-trees, and some of the choicest shrubs, timber-trees, and flowers, lately imported, thrive admirably; the climate, however, owing to the heat and long-continued drought of summer, is not so well adapted to the growth of succulent vegetables, bush fruit, or of chestnut, walnut, and plane-trees.

Total number of acres under cultivation, 301,881: wheat, 218,210 ac., producing 2,103,411 bush. ; barley, 13,504 ac., 174,490 bush.; oats, 3,858 ac., 71,050 bush. ; potatoes, 3,156 ac., 4,301 tons ; hay, 55,210 ac., 50,097 tons.

A Rotanical Garden, situated close to the city, and covering an area of 20 acres, is supported by Government.

The districts of Mt. Darker, Gumeracha, Strathalbyn, and Macclesfield, are the centres of fanning operations ; and farther S., those of Morphett Vale, Willunga, Noarlunga, and Yankalilla, are also eminently productive.

Live Stock.—Horses, 40,471 ; horned cattle, 79,950 ; sheep, 1,097,199; pigs, 43,273.

The Manufactures are—wine, leather, butter and cheese, soap and candles, flour, &c.

Of the manufactories may he mentioned—breweries, tanneries, coachbuilding establishments, founderies. potteries, saw-mills, Hour-mills, &c.

Commerce.—Exports.—The    principal    are—wool,

value £181,977 ; bread-stuffs, grain, &c., £554,200; copper and other minerals, £411,018.

Total exports, £1.655,876 ;—£1,502,165 being the produce of the colony.

Imports.—The principal are—sugar, tea, wool, live stock, drapery goods, hardware, spirits, Ac.

Total value (1859), £1,507,404.

The principal countries traded with are—Victoria, X. S. Wales, (it. Britain, Tasmania, New Zealand, Western Australia, China.

Principal Ports.Port Adelaide, llobe, Elliot, and Goolwa.

In 1859. 383 vessels, of an aggregate burthen of 121,058 tons, arrived ;—• entered at Port Adelaide, 338 ; at Kobe, 8; at Elliot, 1; at Goolwa, 3 ; and at other ports, 33: 36(5, of 84,947 tons, departed ;—cleared at Port Adelaide, 310; at Kobe, 8; at Elliot, 8; at Goolwa, 9 : and at other ports, 36.

Currency.—Average amount of coin and bullion in the colony, £294.314; average amount of notes, £226,684. Principal banks—South Australian Banking Company, Bank of Australasia, Union Bank of Australia, National Bank of Australasia.

Population.—119.000 (exclusive of the military). Immigrants (1859), 4,869, of which 2,011 were introduced at the public expense,—expenditure £10,878.

Army.—Imperial troops, 91; volunteer military force, 2,143 ; number of militia liable to serve, 14,330.

Finance.—The revenue for 1859 was £511,927; expenditure, £620,756.

Means of Communication.Roads.—Of the main roads formed and thoroughly macadamised, there are from Adelaide—to Port Adelaide and the North Arm, 9 m. ; to the Bay and Brighton, 9 ; S. to Willunga, 30 ; E. to Mt. Barker, 24; N. to Gawler, 26; N.K. to Gumeracha, 30.

Steamers run from Adelaide to Port Lincoln and Port Augusta, to Guichen B., to Melbourne, and to the It. Murray.

Railways.—There are two lines—the City and Port line, by Bowden, Woodvilie, Albert Town,—7$ m.; the North line, to Gawler, by Dry Creek, Salisbury, and Smithlield,— 25 m.

There are two lines of Telegraph—one between Adelaide and Gawler ; and the other, the great intercolonial line, connecting Adelaide with Melbourne and Sydney.

Government. Prior to Oct. 1856, three different forms of government had successively been in operation, each having existed for a period of seven years. The first was a purely official government; the second official and non-official or nominee administration combined, but without the representative element; the third, inaugurated by Sir H. Young (20th Aug., 1S51), executive and legislative government, with the principle of popular representation included. In Oct. 1856, another form was adopted : the Legislature is entirely elected by the people, and the Executive is responsible for its actions to the Legislature.

This constitution embraces two chambers (Upper and Lower), members all elective; and five responsible ministers. The Upper House, consisting of 18 members, returned by persons possessing a small property or paying a reutal of £25 per annum, cannot be dissolved, but one-third ot its meml>ers retire every -1 years. The duration of the Lower House, which consists of 36 members, returned by universal suffrage, is limited to three years.

Religion*.—From the very foundation of S. Australia as a colon}*, the ordinances of religion have been appreciated by the settlers. This province is now the seat of an episcopate of the Church of England and of the Church of Rome. The Church of England bishopric was endowed in 1847 ; and the Local Government has granted sites for churches to the various denominations, and contributed towards the maintenance of their ministers according to certain regulations. Number of churches and chapels in the colony, 319 (besides 168 rooms used for public worship), capable of containing upwards of 60,(XX) persons.

Education.—The government system of education now in operation was commenced in 1852. It comprises a Central Board of Education, in connection with which are two Inspectors of Schools. District councils are authorized to act as district Boards of Education, in subordination to the Central Board.

Number of schools to which government aid has been afforded (1859), 198 ; scholars, 9,282 ; amount expended by Government, £18,240.

The aided day-schools comprise not more than three-fiiths of the pupils under instruction.

Of literary institutions there are the South Australian Institute, with a library containing 7,356 volumes, Adelaide; and several mechanics’ institutes in other towns.

HISTOU Y.

South Australia was founded on AYakefield’s principle, the cardinal point of whose theory was -that land without labour is valueless; and that, to ensure a constant supply of labour, the land must be sold at a “ sufficient price,” the proceeds of the land-sales being applied to the introduction of labourers.

In consequence of the highly favourable report given by Sturt of this province, and the corroboration of his statements by subsequent explorers, measures were adopted for forming a settlement there, to which it was agreed that no convicts should be sent.

Accordingly, after certain preliminary arrangements had been made, Col. Light was sent out to suggest the site for the capital. He arrived in Aug. 1836; and after examining Nepean Bay, Port Lincoln, and Encounter B., decided upon stands.

establishing the capital where it now


Capt. Hindmarsh, the first governor, arrived at the close of the same year, and proclaimed the colony on the 28th Dec.    .

The colony since its establishment has passed through many vicissitudes. The short career of office of the first two governors was characterised by numerous inconveniences ; and the reckless and imprudent expenditure47 into which Col. Gawler, the third governor, launched, resulted in an almost universal bankruptcy, from which the colony was saved only by the rigidly economical measures of his successor Capt. Grey.

The immigrants, consisting mostly of surveyors, architects, clerks, and professional men, with traders and adventurers of every description, had been chiefly employed for the first three years in the fictitious and temporary business of land-jobbing and building speculations on a most extravagant scale, living chiefly on imported capital, and neglecting the cultivation of the soil. In 1840, out of a population of 14,610, there were 8,489 in Adelaide, and only 6,121 in the country. The exports for the year were £15,650; imports, above £273,000; revenue, £30,199; expenditure, £169,166.

During Capt. Grey’s administration the province made considerable progress in material prosperity. By a course of strict retrenchment lie reduced the expenditure in two years to £29,842. Hundreds left the town and betook themselves to agriculture, thereby not only rendering the colony self-supporting, but enabling it to export grain, wool, tallow, and beef; and the discovery (1842) of copper opened up a new source of wealth to the colony. The more recent discovery of gold in the adjacent colonies proved, in the first instance at least, very adverse to South Australia, inasmuch as it was thereby drained of almost its entire male population. The industrial operations of the colony were brought to a stand still, the coin was leaving

the colony , and the bank reserves were rapidly disappearing.

In this emergency, the Governor (Sir H. E. F. Young) specially summoned the Legislative Council (28th Jan., 1S52). when the well-known “ Bullion Act was hastily produced. At the same time an overland escort was established, which brought over from the Victorian goldfields the fruits of the successful mining operations of the 8. Australian diggers to a very large amount, and the monetary system of the colony was thus preserved from utter ruin. At length numerous emigrants to Victoria returned to the colony, the pursuits of copper and lead mining and agriculture were again taken up, and a steady career of prosperity has since been reported.

Every year enlarges the area of land under cultivation; the wool exports are increasing in a most cheering manner; and the mineral resources show no sign of abatement. Great attention is now given to the drying of fruit and the making of wine. These wines are displacing second-rate foreign wines, and a demand for them has already arisen in the English market.

Among the public works that mark the progress of the colony may be mentioned—the formation of macadamised roads, telegraphs, and railroads; the construction of the Adelaide water-works, of a jetty at Gleuelg, and of numerous bridges, at once elegant and substantial ; the deepening of the harbour at Port Adelaide, and the approaches to it; and the erection of light-houses at ('. Borda, on Kangaroo I., and at C. Northumberland.

Lieut.-Governors of S. Australia, according to the Dates of their being

proclaimed in the Colony.f

(.’apt. Hindmarsh, R.X.................................

Dec.

28th

1830

Lieut.-Col. Gawler.............................

Oct.

12th

1838

Capt. Geo. Grey ..........................................

May

10th

1841

Major Kobe............................................

Oct.

1 -it h

1845

Sir H. K. F. Young.................................

Aug.

1st

1848

Sir Richard Graves McDonnell.........................

June

7th

1855

* By this act, ingots of gold, stamped by authority, were made a legal tender throughout the colony.

t The two acting-Govemors were George Milner Stephens, Esq., who succeeded Capt. Hindmarsh, and It. T. Finnis, Esq., who succeeded Sir II E. F. Young.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

Boundaries.—N., parallel of 13“ 41' S. lat. ; E., meridional line of 129° E. long.; W., Indian Ocean ; S., Southern Ocean.

Extent.—1,280 m. long from N. to S., and 800 m. broad from E. to W.; area, 1,000,000 sq. m.

The Swan River settlement embraces only the S.-western corner, or that portion which is to the southward of the 30th parallel and westward of the 120th meridian, and extends about 400 m. in length by about 250 m. in breadth.

The Victoria or Port Gregory district, situated between the rivers Murchison and Irwin, was first discovered by Capt. Grey, but was not settled until after the discovery of the Geraldine mine by Messrs. Gregory.

Seas and Gulfs.—On the 2V, Cambridge G.;-oh thelV, W., Admiralty G., Montagu Sd., York Sd., Brunswick B., Port George IV., Doubtful B., Colier B., Cone B., King Sd., Carnot B., Roebuck B., Lagrange B., Desault B., Nichols B., Exmouth G.;—on the IP., Shark B., including the Hamelin and Freycinet Harbours, Gantheaume B., Champion B., Breton B., Peel Inlet, Leschenault Inlet, Geographe B.;—on the S., Flinders’ B., King George’s Sd., Doubtful I. B., Esperance B.

Capes.In the N., C. Domet, C. Dussejour, C. Londonderry;—on the W. IP, C. Bougainville, C. Voltaire, C. Pond, C. Torrey, Pt. Hall, C. Levéque, C. Baskerville, C. Latouche Treville, N. West C.;—on the IF., C. Farquhar, C. Cuvier, C. Leschenault, C. Bouvard, C. Naturaliste, C. Hamelin;—on the S., C. Leeuwin, Pt. D’Entrecasteaux, Pt. Nuyts, C. Knob, C. LeGrande, C. Arid, C. Parley, Pt. Culver, Pt. Dover.

Islands.— On the N.W., Bigge I.; Byam Martin I. ; Augustus I.; Buccaneer Arch0-» at the mouth of King Sound ; Dampier Arch0-; Barrow I.;—on the W., Berneir and Dorre Is., at the mouth of Shark B.; Eaure, in Hamelin Harbour; Dirk Hartog I., at the mouth of a

Ereycinet Harbour ; Houtman’s Abrolhos (situated between the parallels of 28° and 30° including Wallabi, Easter, and Pelsart groups), forming the upper surface of the great western coral bank ; Eottnest, Garden. Peel’s, and Carnac Islands, at the entrance of Swan E.;—on the S., Eecherche Archipelago.

Straits.—Mermaid Strait,between Dampier Arch°. and the mainland ; Geographe Channel, the northern, and Xaturaliste Channel, the southern entrances into Shark B. ; Geelvinck Channel, between Iloutman's Abrolhos and the mainland.

Mountain System.—A belt of hilly country of an average breadth of 40 m., runs X. and S. for a distance of 500 m.: its western crest, the Darling Eange (chief summit Mt. William, 3000 ft., in S. lat. 33°), runs nearly parallel with the W. coast, at a distance therefrom of about 20 m., and is continued northward in the Smith and Gairdner Eanges. Herschell Eange, X.E. of Gairdner Eange; Mt. Eliza, near Perth; Toolbrosnap Hills, chief summit Mt. Kovkyunarup (3500), in Plantagenet co., X. of King George's Sound.

Plains.—Bet. the Darling Eange and the sea, extends a gently undulating plain 20 m. in breadth. The great Australian Bight extends from the W. side of Port Lincoln Peninsula to the neighbourhood of King George’s Sd. The A.W. coast from the neighbourhood of Dampier Archipelago to Eoebuck B., is, according to all accounts, an absolute flat, scarcely raised above the level of the sea, and fronted bv liues of sand dlimes running along the beach.

Etters.—The rivers are numerous, but of little use for navigation. The Salt E. rises in the X. of Hay, flows S.E. through Hay and Kent; the Kalgan flows S.E. and then S. through Plantagenet, and falls into King George’s Sd.; the Kent flows S. through Stirling; the Forth rises in Goderich, flows S.W. through Goderich and Stirling; the Blackwood rises in Mt. Hilman, co. Wicklow, flows S.W. through Wicklow, westward through Xelson, and S. \V. through Sussex into Flinder’s B ; the Murray rises iu the X.E. of Wicklow, flows W. through the X . part of

Wicklow, N.W. through Murray, and falls into Peel Inlet. The Swan B., called in the upper part of its course the Avon, rising in the salt lakes about 60 m. E. of co. Minto, and flowing N.W. through Minto and York, and then S.W. through Perth,—the Moore, rising in the N. of co. Melbourne, and flowing S. and W. through Melbourne, and S. through Twiss,—and the Arrowsmith, from Mt. Homer, S. of the Port Gregory district,—fall into the Indian Ocean. The Murchison, from Mt. Gould, follows a south-westerly course into Gantheaume B.; the Gascoyne, with its tributary the Lyons, from Mt. Gascoyne, Is. of the Gregory district, flows W. into Shark B.

Lakes.—L. Moore, in the N., L. McDermott in the centre, and Cow-Cowing L., in the S. of Grey; L. Brown, in the S. of Caernarvon; Gt. Inland Marsh, E. of Port Gregory district.

Climate.—The climate of the Swan Eiver settlement

is of acknowledged salubrity.

Fully one-half of the territory of Western Australia may he considered within the intiuence of the torrid zone. Near Perth the climate is dry and warm, but along the S. coast the temperature is lower and more rain falls.

Mean winter temp, at Perth, 58° ; summer, 76°; hot winds from the E. The summer commences about the middle of Nov., and continues till about the end of April.

Western Australia is not subject to the droughts which prevail on the E. coast, and the climate of the Swan River settlement is more conducive to health than that of the other colonies of Australia.

Endemic and epidemic diseases are unknown.

Soil.—Very various: there are many extensive wastes, but there are also numerous rich alluvial flats.

The limestone and coralline sandy strata on the Quartania Plains, when irrigated, yield good crops ; but the extreme dryness of the climate and the summer conflagrations throughout the forest lands, prevent that ' accumulation of mould from decayed vegetation which characterizes virgin soils generally.

Productions.—Animal.—(See under Australia and New South Wales.)Vegetable.—All the heavy timber of Western Australia belong to the genus Eucalyptus, but the species are very numerous. The ornamental woods of the colony are also very numerous, and many of them very beautiful ia grain and colour.

The sandal-wood and the excellent ship-timber, some of which (the jarrah) is proof against all marine insects, are largely exported. A forest of the jarrah, at a distance of 18 m. from Perth and 20 from the sea, extends over a tract of at least 140 m. from X. to S., with a known width of 4 m. from E. to W.

The tuart ranks next to the jarrah in value, but is not nearly so abundant.

The white gum, the growth of which always indicates the predominance of iron-stone and clay in the soil, much resembles the tuart, and, in common with it, possesses the quality of shrinking but little in the process of drying.

The beautiful red gum, though of little value as timber, from its being subject to the dry-rot, is much used for spokes of wheels and fencing.

The great blue gum attains in some localities the ht. of 150 ft., and measures 50 in circumference.

There are, besides, the morrel, black butt, salmon gum, and many others.

The ornamental woods are—the sandal, ebony, raspberry or jamwood (so called from the odour of its timl)er)—an acacia somewhat resembling rosewood in grain and colour, the banksia, and various species of dryandria.

Grain is now more extensively grown than formerlj'; and the vine, olive, and tobacco thrive luxuriantly. The silk-worm might also be extensively reared, as the mulberry is well suited to the soil and climate.

Mineral.—Coal, copper, silver, lead, and iron. Coal, of an excellent quality, has been found in the vicinity of Champion B. ; and the coal-bed discovered on the Irwin B. is supposed to continue in a S.E. direction to the southern coast near Doubtful B., where coal has been found cropping out close to the coast.

The whole of the Port Gregory district contains minerals, which are now being exported. The number of mines actually known to possess ores are twelve ; of these four are lead and eight copper.

Geology.—The undulating tertiary plain W. of the hilly district is occupied along the coast by a belt of sand (consisting partly of calcareous and partly of quartz grains), with concretionary limestone, occasionally interspersed with masses of dendritic stalactites,48 and beyond that belt by red sandstone. The hilly country consists of granitic and metamorphic rocks. The N.W. coast is believed to be of tertiary formation.

E. of the hilly district tertiary sands, much resembling the white sandplains of the W. coast, but containing a much smaller portion of calcareous grains, stretch to an unknown distance into the interior ; and accumulations of the same formation occur at intervals along the coast S. of the hilly country. Near the Murchison and Irwin rivers is an elevated tract of new red sandstone, containing two seams of coal (one 5 and the other 6 ft. thick), interstratitied with red sandstone, black shale, and white clay.

POLITICAL.

The Swan River settlement is divided into 20 cos., of which 15 were laid out on the map at the commencement of the colony, arranged in compact sections of about 40 miles square, and extending from C. Leschenault to Pt. Hood; viz.:—

Twiss, Perth, Murray, Wellington, Xelson, Sussex, Lanark, Stirling, Plantagenet, Kent, maritime; and York, Grantham, "Wicklow, Goderich, Hay, inland. Subsequently the territory called Australind, to the X. and X.E., was divided into 11 cos.:—Melbourne, Glenelg, Grey, Caernarvon, Victoria, Durham, Lansdowne, Beaufort, Howick, Minto, Peel.

The principal townships are Perth,49 the capital, on the Swan K., Ereemantle (seaport of Perth), Guildford, Kelmscott, co. Perth ; Albany, Wyndham, Hamilton, Plantagenet; Busselton, and Augusta, Perth; York, Nor-tham, and Beverley, York; Peel Town, Peel; Bunburyand Australind, Wellington; Kumballup, Stirling; Wurrenup, Hag ; Bannister, and Williamsburgh, Wicklow ; Whitfield, Melbourne.

The best districts for settlement are the Avon, the Hotham, the Williams, Arthur, Beaufort, and S.E. rivers, with part of the country adjacent to the Swan, the Harvey, Brunswick, Preston, Capel, and Yasel.

Agriculture.—The principal objects of cultivation are—wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, rye, vines, maize, and olive-trees. The acreage for green crops and kitchen gardens is considerable.

Live Stock.—The number of horses (1859), 8,386; horned cattle, 30,990; sheep, 234,815; pigs, 11,430.

Manufactures.-—Unimportant.

Mining, sheep-farming, agriculture, and the preparation of timber for exportation, are the principal pursuits.

Commerce.—The principal Exports are—wool, 594,665 lbs., value £44,600; sandal-wood, value £17,260 ; copperore, value £14,122; timber, value £6,331; vegetables, &c., value £3,567; animals, value £2,750:—total value of exports (1859), £93,037 ; imports, £125,315.

Principal Port.—Freemantle.

Upwards of 80 vessels were entered, and about as many cleared at the Port of Freemantle (1857); 18 vessels belong to this port.

The Western Australian Bank, established 23rd June, 1831, has a capital of £‘20,000.

Population.—About 15,000.

The population is materially increased by the arrival, from time to time, of ship-loads of convicts.

Army.—365 ; total Imperial Expenditure, £30,296.

Finance.—Colonial    Revenue, £48,754 ; Colonial

Expenditure, £54,918.

Government.—The Government consists of the Governor and the Executive and Legislative Councils.

Relicion and Education are not so zealously nurtured in this as in the other colonies. The Anglican Church is under the superintendence of Bishop Hale ; and the government schools are under the direction of a General Board of Education. Besides, there are several private schools similar to those of the other colonies.

The religious denominations in the colony, 1859, were—the Church of England, 9,942; Roman Catholics, 3,354; Wesleyans, 835 ; Independents, 385 ; other Protestants, 270 ; Jews, Mahometans, and Pagans, 51.

HISTORY.

In Aug. 1829, Capt. Stirling who had previously explored the coast, arrived at the proposed site of the new settlement on the Swan K., to which he was appointed Lieut.-Governor.

The history of this colony, up to the year 1850, contains little of interest, being merely that of a disastrous early settlement, and of the subsequent struggle for a bare existence, with a scanty population, and with little capital to render available its natural resources. Among the chief causes of the slow progress made by the colony, may be mentioned the sheer carelessness and the most unaccountable want of forethought on the part of all concerned, coupled with the fact that the majority of the settlers were townspeople or small capitalists, unaccustomed to manual labour, and unfit under any circumstances to struggle with great difficulties. So little care had been taken to plan out the proceedings of the Government and the situation of the eolonv, that the entire material of a settlement—the official staff, settlers, property, and live stock—were hurried out to an unknown wilderness before one acre was surveved, and before one building had been erected. Upwards of 50 ships had arrived by March 1830, and nearly 2,000 immigrants with property to the amount of £100,000; while scarcely 20 houses had been erected for their accommodation. The confusion was complete;—several vessels were wrecked on the beach, which was crowded with masses of human beings, the victims of disease and starvation. At last a township was marked out on the Swan R., called Perth, and some degree of order began to appear out of the chaos, but not before many of the most energetic emigrants had either left for the neighbouring colonies or returned home to warn their fellow-countrymen from proceeding to the scene of these disasters. So late as the year 1S4S, things had reached such a state of general depression, that the colonist?, to save thcrnSClvCo fTCZl absolute poverty, requested the Home Government to make it a penal settlement. The request was granted (1850), and ever since the colony has been prospering.

Governors and Acting-Governors.

Capt. Sir J. Stirling, R.N., governor ..............

1st

Capt. Irwin Hill, 63rd (acting)........................

Capt. Daniel Hill, 21st (acting).......................

Capt. Sir J. Stirling, returned from England......

John Hutt, Esq., governor....................

2nd

Lieut.-Col. Clarke, K.H.........................

Major Irwin (acting) ...........................

7th

Capt. Fitzgerald, R.N., governor ................

A. E. Kennedy, Esq., governor..............

.Tune 1829 Sept. 1832 Sept. 1833 Aug. 1834 Jan. 1839 Feb. 1846 Feb. 1847 Sept. 1849 1854

QUEENSLAND.

Boundaries.—E. and N.E., Pacific Ocean ; W., G. of Carpentaria, and the meridional line of 141° E. long. ;

S., New South Wales.

Extent.—Greatest length, from N. to S., 1,300 m.; and breadth, from E. to AY., 770 Eng. m.

Area.—1,209,800 sq. m.

Coast.—1,760 geographical miles, exclusive of the

openings.

Seas and Gules.—Moreton B., E. of Moreton B. District;—on the AT.I?., Wide B., Hervey B., Port Curtis, Keppel B., Shoalwater B., Broad Sd., Edgecumhe B., Halifax B., Bockingham B., Trinity B., Princess Charlotte B., Temple B.;—on the IV., York Harbour, or Endeavour Str.

Capes.—On the IY.I?., Sandy C., N. of Gt. Sandy I., C. Capricorn, C. Bowling Green, C. Grafton, C. Bedford, C. Flattery, C. Melville, C. Weymouth;—on the N’., C. Y'ork (the most northerly point of Australia), Durham Pt., and Pera Hd., on the eastern shore of the G. of Carpentaria.

Islands.—Moreton and Stradbroke Is., in Moreton B.; —on the IV. j£, Gt. Sandy I., E. of Hervey B.; Curtis I., Northumberland Is., and Cumberland Is., bet. the Barrier Beef and the mainland ; Prince of Wales I., Horn

I., Mulgrave I., and Banks’ I., N. of York Pen.

Straits.—Whitsunday Passage, bet. Cumberland I. and the mainland ; Endeavour St., bet. Prince of Wales I. and York Pen.

Mountain System.—MTherson Bange, S. of Moreton B. District; Dawe’s Bange, S. of Port Curtis District;

Caernarvon Bange, AY. of--; Expedition Bange, N.

of-; Christmas Bange, AY., and Peak Bange, N.

of Expedition Bange; Mt. King, AY. of Caernarvon

Bange; Mt. Pluto and Mt. Playfair, W. of--;

Mt. Aludge (2247), N. of Alt. Pluto.

Plains.—Vervain and Calvert Pis., W. of AVide B, and Burnett District; Boan and Alacleay Pis., in the S.AV. The country AY. of the Dividing Bange descends gradually towards the AY.

Biver System.—Draining the Eastern Slope.—The Logan B., bet. Stanley and Ward; the Brisbane50 B.

flows S., separating Cavendish from Canning and Stanley, then E. through Stanley into Moreton B. Further N. are the Burnett, Fitzroy (with its tributaries the Dawson and Mackenzie), the Burdekin (with its tributaries the Suttor and Bellyardo), and the Kennedy R. The Warrego and the Barcoo, or Mitchell’s V ictoria R., flowing westward from the Dividing Range, lose themselves in morasses.

Falling into the G. of Carpentaria.—The Mitchell, Gilbert, Caron, and Flinders.

The Climate of this district is hot during the summer months, but is never subject to the extremes of cold or hot winds. During the winter months it is adapted for invalids, especially those afflicted with pulmonary consumption.

Soil.—The soil of the basaltic plains and valleys is very rich, and, were the country well-watered, might be rendered very productive. The sandstone ranges are comparatively sterile.

Productions.Vegetable.—All the tropical and subtropical fruits—pine-apple, banana, guava, lemon, citron, cotton, sugar-cane, coffee, cocoa-nut, are abundant; dye-woods, mulberry-trees, maize and wheat, &c., thrive admirably; and both soil and climate seem well suited to the cultivation of arrowroot, tobacco, and indigo. The indigenous timber is of great value, particularly the Moreton Bay pine, and the bunya-bunya tree.

Geology.—Limestone (paleozoic) and sandstone abound; also granite and clay slate. In lat. 21° 50', the hills are principally basalt or igneous rocks. Here and there a dark red porphyry is found.

The country bet. the Darling Downs and Peak Range is chiefly composed of sandstone, broken in several localities by basalt, the sandstone ranges being remarkable for their numerous and steep gullies and scrubby vegetation. N. of the Peak Range and Mackenzie it, and S. of the H. Lynd, the country is principally occupied by basaltic plains and open downs in the W., and on the E. by basaltic ridges, narrow plains, and abrupt sandstone ranges: an open forest covers this district, with the exception of some narrow belts of scrub on the sandstone ranges and along the R. Isaac.

POLITICAL.

COUNTIES AND TOWNS.

Stanley, W. of Moreton B.—Brisbane* (610+), towards the E., on the It. Brisbane; Ipswich, J in the W., on the K. Bremer.

Canning, N. of-.—McConnel, in the S.W.

March, N. of-.—Maryborough, near the centre,

on the B. Mary.

Lennox, W. of-.—

Fitzroy, IF. 0/-.—

Cavendish,    0/-.—Berthwick, in the N.;

Bonifont, in the S.W.    ,

Aubigny, W. of-.—Gambooya, in the S.E. ;

Drayton, N. of-; Dalby in the N.W.

Churchill, S. of Cavendish.

Merrivale, S. of-.—Warwick (532), in the S.W.,

on the Macintyre brook; Leybura, in the W.

Districts.—Darling Downs (chief town, Yandilla, on

the It. Condamine), W. of Moreton Bay District;

Maranoa Plains, N.W. of- ; Wide Bay and

Burnett, jS\ of Moreton Bay District; Port Curtis,

N.W. of—--. Projected cos. of Port Curtis District:—

Maritime—Liebeg,    Palmerston, Livingston, Deas

Thompson, Clinton, Flinders ; Inland—ltaglan, Pelham.

The Darling Downs, discovered by Allan Cunningham (1827), and communicating with the sea-coast by Cunningham’s Gap§ through Stanley co. to Moreton Bay, are 120 m. long from N. to S., with an average breadth of 60 m.; mean elevation above the sea, from 1,800 to

2,000. The greater part of the Downs forms a beautifully diversified landscape, composed of hill and dale, woodland and plain, and watered by the Condamine, Glen, Dumaresque, Boyne, Kaurala or Macintyre, Myall, and other streams. The chief eminences are—Mount Parker, McLeay, and Kerries ranges, and Mts. Sturt, Mitchell (4,100), Logan, 51 52 53 54 and Hay Peak. The principal plains—Darling Downs proper, Canning Downs, Cecil, Peel, and Waterloo Plains. The Maranoa Plains, N.W. of the Darling Downs, include the Fitzroy Plains. Doth the Darling and Maranoa Downs are for the most part characterised by a rich, black, dry soil, covered with luxurious pasturage: hence their celebrity as grazing districts.

Agriculture.—The country is more pastoral than agricultural; around Moreton B. is an extensive sqatting district, occupied by some of the first and now most wealthy settlers.

There are no Manufactures of importance. The seal and dugong fishery is extensively prosecuted,—the latter weighing from 200 to 700 lbs., and yielding from 2 to 18 gallons of oil. Turtle also abound.

Commerce.—The staple articles of export are coal and wool.

The wool exported in Dec. 1859, was valued at £48,410; the whole exports for Dec. 1859, £50,733; and imports for the same period, £15,563.

Principal Ports.—Brisbane and Rockhampton.

12 vessels, of an aggregate burthen of 4.745 tons, arrived (1859), of which 10 were entered at Moreton Bay, and 2 at Rockhampton ; 12 vessels, carrying 3,865 tons, „departed,—of which 10 were cleared at Moreton Bay, and 2 at Rockhampton.

Population.—Europeans, 17,082, of whom 10,494 are males and 6,588 females ; aboriginal blacks, supposed to number 12,000.

Army.—A volunteer corps has been established.

Finance.—Estimated Expenditure for 1861, £197,663; estimated Revenue for the same year, £182,200.

Government.—The Parliament consists of a Governor, Executive Council, Legislative Council, and Legislative Assembly. The first Parliament met 22nd May, 1860.

Religion.—Religion is aided by the State to the extent of £1,000 a-year, but almost the first bill brought into Parliament was one to abolish State-Aid to Religion.

Education.—The National and Denominational schools respectively receive £2,500 and £800. A bill has been brought into Parliament to establish a Board of Education of five members, to erect a High School, and to provide for public exhibitions tenable in England.

Means of Communication.—Steamers run bet. Brisbane and Ipswich daily, and between Moreton Bay and Sydney weekly.

HISTORY.

Queensland was erected into a separate colony 1st Dee., 1859, when Governor Sir George Ferguson Bowen entered upon office.

NEW ZEALAND.55

New Zealand is situated in the S. Pacific Ocean, about 1,200 miles eastward of Tasmania, between the parallels of 31° and 48° S. lat. and the meridians of 1G6° and 179" E. long. It consists of two large islands, the North and Middle, with a lesser one called Stewart’s I., and numerous islets scattered round the coasts.

Extent.—The extreme length, from N. Cape to S. Cape, exceeds 1,100 miles ; its breadth varies from 1 to 300 m., though 100 is the average. The Northern and Middle Islands are separated by Cook’s Straits, from 30 to 100 m, in width; and Stewart’s is separated from the Middle Island by Eoveaux Strait, 15 m. wide.

Area.—The united area of the three islands is upwards of 122,000 sq. m.: the North Island containing about 48,710 sq. m.; the Middle, 72,072 ; and Stewart’s, 1,800 sq. m.

Bays.—On the N. Coast—Gt. Exhibition B., Doubtless or Lauriston B., B. of Islands, Waitemataf Harbour, Hauraki G., Frith of Thames, Mercury B., Tauranga B., B. of Plenty. On the E. Coast—Open B., Tokomarua B., Tolago or TJawa B., Poverty B., Auckland; Hawke B., Hawke Bay I). ; Pegasus B., Port. Cooper, AkaroaJ Harb., Canterbury; Moerangi B., Otago Harb., Molvneux B., Otayo. On the S. Coast—Bluff llarb., Tewywys B., Preservation B., Chalky or Dark Cloud Inlet. On the W. Coast— Breaksea Inlet, Doubtful Inlet, Gaol Passage, Thompson Sd.,Charles Sd., Caswell Sd., GeorgeSd..Bligh Sd.,Milford Sd., Otago; Kawhia Harb., Aotea Harb., Whaingaroa

Harb., Manukau Harb., Kaipara Harb., Auckland. On Cook's Sir.—Massacre B., Blind B., Port Underwood, Cloudv B., Nelson ; Waimate Bight, Taranaki ; Port Nicholson, Palliser B., Wellington. Stewart's Island— Port William, Patterson Inlet, Port Adventure, Port Pegasus, on the E. ; Mason’s B., on the W.

Capes.—On the N. Coast—North C., C. Karakara, Knuckle Pt., C. Wiwiki, C. Brett, Bream Hd., C. Papai-otu, Rodney Pt., Colville C., Mercury Pt., Waikana Pt., Kunaway C., Lottin Pt. On the JE. Coast—East C., Table C., Auckland; C. Kidnappers, Hawke B.; Turnagain C., Castle Pt., Palliser C., Wellington; C. Saunders, Waipapapa Pt. Otago. On the S. Coast—The Bluff. Pallia Pt., Puysegur Pt. On the W. Coast—W. Cape, Otago ; Cascade Pt., Arnott Pt., Abut Hd., Bold Hd., Canterbury; C. Eoulwind, Kocks Pt., Nelson ; C. Egmont, Taranaki; Monganui Bluff, Reef Pt., C. Maria Van Diemen, C. Reinga, Auckland. On Cook's Straits—C. Farewell, Separation Pt., C. Jackson, C. Campbell, Nelson ; Terawiti C., Wellington. On Stewart's I.—Saddle Pt., in the N.; S. C. and S.W. Cape, in the S.

Mountain and River System.—The face of the country is divided between mountains and hills, extensive table-lands, alluvial districts, interspersed with fens, generally available by drainage near the sea-shore. The mountain ranges run nearly parallel with the coast, generally from N.E. to S. W. In the Northern I. these ranges vary from 500 to 1500 ft. in height, until they reach the centre of the I. near Mt. Pirongia (2,800), where the great central Rangitito chain commences, which, under the names of Ruahine (chief summits Tongariro, 0,200, and Ruapehu, 9,195) and Tarahua, extends to the southern extremity of the island, throwing off spurs in various directions to the coast. The highest peaks of the chain are capped with perpetual snow.

The mountains in the North I. do not form so continuous a chain, and, with the exception of a few detached peaks, do not attain so great a height as those in the Middle I. Tongariro, a volcano in active operation, and Ruapehu, an extinct volcano, lie close to each other, forming, with two or three lesser peaks, a magnificent mt. group near the centre of the island:—Mt. Egmont (8,270), in the W. of Taranaki ; Mt. Edgecumbe (2,575), S. of the Bay of Plenty ; Mt. lkauranga (5,535), and Mt. Hardy (3,700), N.E. of Mt. Edgecumbe.

The Middle Island has its northern shore skirted by a high crescent-shaped range of mountains, throwing out spurs towards the sea, and formiug the sheltered harbours with which that locality abounds. From this range arise a great central range, which runs through the island midway, taking a direction to the E., and the Southern Alps (chief summits Mt. Cook, 13,000, and Mt. Aspiring, 9,135), which skirt the western coast.

The mts. in this island seem to form coast ridges similar to those in the Northern Island, with a table-land in the interior.

Minor Ranges and isolated Mts. in Otago.—Black Peak (7,328), Pesa (0,426), Grandview (4,703), Eyre Mts. (6,084), Dome (4,505), Takituna (4,998), Hamilton (4,674), Lingwood (2,602), Ida (5,498), Kyebum (6,129), Hock and Pillaux (4,675), Benmore (6,111), Totara Pk. (5,876), St. Cuth-bert (4,962), Mt. Cargill (2,297), Mihinaka (1,895).

Plains.—Rua 0 Taniwa Plains, in the Hawke B. District; Wairarapa Plain, in the S. of Wellington; Waimea Plains in the N., and Wairau Plains, in the N.E. of Nelson; Great Southern Plains, in the E. of Canterbury ; Tokomariro, Clutha, andTaieri Plains, and Wairaki Downs, Otago.

Rivers.—Draining the Western Slope.—The Hokianga R. flows W. through the N. part of Auckland; Wairoa R. flows S.W. into Kaipara Hr.; Waikato R. rises in Mt. Ruapehu, in the N. of Wellington, flows N. through L. Taupo, then N.W. and W. through Auckland,—it receives the Waipa R. from the Rangitito Range; the Mokau R. flows W., forming the northern boundary of Taranaki ; the Kawatiri or Buller R. flows westward through Nelson ; Grey R. flows W. bet. Canterbury and Nelson.

Draining the Eastern Slope.—Waiau-toa, or Clarence R., flows N.E. through Nelson; the Waiau-ua R. flows E. through Nelson ; the Hurunui R. flows E. bet. Nelson and Canterbury; the Rakaia, or Cholmondeley R., Rangi-tata R., and Orangitairi, all flow eastward through

#

Canterbury ; ATaitanga R. flows eastward bet. Canterbury and Otago ; Molyneux, or Clutha R., flows S.E. through Otago.

Draining the Northern Slopes.—AVFakatare R. and Rangitieki R. flow N. into the B. of Plenty ; the AVaibo, or Thames, and Piako Rs., flow N. into the Frith of J hames ; the AVairau and Motueka Rs. flow N. through Nelson into Cook’s Str.

Draining the Southern Slopes.—The AVairarapa, Mana-watu, AVangahu, and ACanganui Rs. flow S. into Cook’s Str. ; the Matama, New, and ATaiau Rs. flow S. into Foveaux Str.

Lakes.—L. Taupo (greatest length 36 m., breadth 25 m., ft. above the sea, 1,337), in the S. of Auckland ; L. Roto-rua, N. of L. Taupo ; L. Arthur, and L. Howick, in the middle, and L. Ohou, in the S. of Canterbury ; L. Hawea, and L. A\ranaka (1,036 ft. above the sea), in the N. of Otago ; Greenstone L., S. of L. AVanaka : AVaiora L., E. of--.

Climate.—The climate is pronounced genial, and altogether remarkably healthy.

Owing to the immense expanse of ocean which surrounds these narrow islands, the variations of temperature are not so common as in the other Australian colonies ; and the extremes of heat in summer, and of cold in winter, are within very narrow limits.

The climate varies with the latitude, and may be compared with the S. of France in the N., and the S. of England in the S. The mean summer temp, of the central part of New Zealand is 61° ; winter, 45° ; spring, 56° ; autumn, 58°. Mean ht. barometer (at Nelson), 29.10 in. ; mean annual rain-fall, 34 V in. ; prevailing winds, north-easterly, westerly, and southerly.

There is no distinct rainy season; for although the greater quantity falls in winter and spring, it is rare for a fortnight to elapse without, at least, refreshing showers. Heavy dews are frequent ; fogs and mists rare ; snow falls occasionally on the Canterbury and Otago plains ; frosts occur on the table-lands of the interior, which affect such plants as acacias and potatoes; and the atmosphere, from its constant current, is remarkably pure and invigorating. No endemic diseases exist, but influenza appears epidemically.

At Wellington, the southern extremity of the Northern I., shocks of earthquake, of greater or less intensity, are not uncommon ; and from the B. of Plenty on the N.E. to the boundary of the New Plymouth province on the S.W., there runs a belt of county in which mighty subterranean forces are still at work.

Soil.—Generally fertile ; but, owing to the light and porous nature of the surface and subsoil, wet rapidly drains and percolates away.

The North I., with the exception of the peninsula N. of the Waitemata, which consists of poor and swampy land, is covered for the most part with a rich volcanic tufaceous soil, well adapted to the cultivation of the vine; while that of the Middle I. varies from barren rock, sand-hummocks, or clay-lands (unproductive until they have been manured or exposed to the fertilizing influence of the atmosphere), to the richest alluvium (alluvial deposits).

In consequence of the great humidity of the atmosphere, the vegetation is remarkably vigorous, even in places where only a thin layer of vegetable earth covers the rocks; and sandy places, which in any other country would be quite barren, are covered with herbage. On the cultivable portion all the usual fruits, grains, and other crops of Europe thrive well.

PRODUCTIONS.

Animal.—Indigenous.Quadrupeds.—Dog and rat. Mammalia, inhabiting the neighbouring seas,—whales (sperm, black, fin-back, pike-headed, &c.), and several kinds of seals. Birds.—Kiwi or Apteryx Australis, kuia, pukeko (a species of water-hen), kuhupa (a large wood-pigeon), weka (wood-hen), kaka (a species of parrot), 2 species of kakariki (parroquet), tui, several species of wild ducks, quail, 6 or 7 varieties of cormorant or shag, toria or oyster-catcher, 2 or 3 kinds of waders and sandpipers, or curlew, a small bittern (the matuku of the natives), a small bluish crane, 2 species of hawks, a small kingfisher, and many others, some not unlike the English crow, thrush, and starling; a great variety of small singing birds; and several species of sea-birds, the principal being the albatross, gannet, puffin or mutton-bird.

Bisects are very numerous, and many of them peculiar: the most common are—a large grasshopper, or locust, caterpillars, ants, small harmless centipedes, spiders, sandflies, mosquitoes (in and near the woods and low swampy places), blow-flies, &c.

Reptiles.—One species of bat, and several kinds of lizards.

Introduced.Quadrupeds.—Dog, rat, pig, cat, horses, n few asses and mules, cattle, sheep, and goats. Birds.— Canaries, bullfinches, and all sorts of poultry; also peafowl, guinea-fowl, &c.    Insects.—Bees.

The only quadrupeds previous to the arrival of Europeans were the rat and the dog. Pigs were introduced by Capt. Cook, and other valuable quadrupeds followed. There are about fifty varieties of land birds, and about a dozen of coast birds, of which the Kiwi is the largest and the most remarkable. It is somewhat less than a full-grown turkey, is nocturnal, covered with feathers similar to those of the emu, has neither wing nor tail, and feeds on worms.

The Tui, called the “ Mocking Bird,” from its singular imitative faculty, is, next to the ground-lark, the most numerous species of all the New Zealand birds. Its size is that of a thrush, and its plumage a beautiful glossy black, with two clusters of long white feathers hanging down from the neck upon the breast, resembling a pair of clerical bands, and hence it is called the “ Parson.” It feeds on insects, and can imitate exactly the note ot any other bird ; and when confined in a cage it learns with great ease and correctness to speak sentences, and, in fact, imitate every sound repeated a few times in its hearing.

The fossil remains of a gigantic bird (Dinomis, or Moa), twelve tofourteen ft. high, whose extinction must have been comparatively recent, are found in many places.

No snakes, frogs, or toads of any kind are found.

Fish.—The only sorts similar to those caught on the coasts of Britain are—the conger-eel, sole, plaice, and flounder. The principal other sorts are—the shark, dogfish, hapuka (an excellent fish of the cod kind, weighing from 20 to 112 lbs.), moki (somewhat resembling the dorey), kawai (resembling the mullet), barracoota, wareho, and others resembling the English herring, mackerel, cole-fish, ling, smelt, &c., oysters, mussels, cockles, cray-fish. The rivers abound in small fish, resembling the eel, grayling, white-bait, lampreys, &c.

Vegetable.—The most common trees of the forests are—the kauri, totara, puriri or New Zealand oak, kahikatea or white pine, mai or matai, rimu, and many others. The forests also abound in ornamental trees and shrubs :—tree-ferns, some of them with stems from 40 to 60 ft. high ; many species of laurels, fuchsia-trees ; and the beautiful mimosa, covered with clusters of yellow flowers.

The indigenous vegetation of New Zealand is very remarkable. The 'woods are almost impenetrably interwoven with lianes, or supple-jacks, which, with a dense growth of young saplings mixed with forest-shrubs, through which neither sun nor air can scarcely penetrate, give great trouble

to the explorer. Six hundred and fifty distinct species of trees and plants are indigenous, of which scarcely twenty bear even a general resemblance to any of our English plants; there are few annuals and flower-bearing plants, but a large number of parasitical plants, and of the beautiful fern and palm-tree family. Almost every vegetable production known in England has been successfully introduced into the Colony.

The forest-trees grow to a very great size. The largest, called the kauri, which belongs to the pine tribe, grows in some cases to the height of 80 or 90 ft. without branching, and the branches themselves may be compared to ordinary trees. The trunk is of an immense girth, and the wood tough and light, being admirably adapted for ship-building, or almost any other purpose. Another tree, called the totara, reaches a height of from 50 to (50 ft., and a circumference of 20 ft. Its wood is very hard, of a red colour, works easily, and, from its size and strength, may be applied to many useful purposes. The puriri, or New Zealand oak, is a tree of great hardness and durability, the wood being of a dark-brown colour, and capable of a beautiful polish. The phormium tenaor, or New Zealand flax, has a green thick leaf, from 6 to 10 ft. long, and grows in the greatest luxuriance throughout the country. The fibres of the leaf of this plant have been proved to admit of all the applications of European flax. The Kauri pine supplies splendid spars and masts. Other pines are useful for building purposes, furniture, Ac. A resinous gum is an article of export.

Minerals.—Copper, iron, and gold, have been found; coal is abundant in many places, and sulphur in the volcanic districts.

Coal has been found near theN. Cape, on tbebanks of the Waikato and Mokau Rs., at Massacre 15., and in the Canterbury and Otago settlements. Gold diggingsare being worked at Coromandel, near Auckland, andat Aorere, near Nelson; and gold has been discovered in the Matoure 15., in the Otago colony.

Geology^.—The fundamental rock is everywhere clay-slate, frequently containing dykes of greenstone, as at Port Nicholson, Queen Charlotte’s Sd., and Cloudy 13., the clay-slate near the dykes sometimes assuming the character of a roofing-slate.

On the banks of the rivers Wilonga and Waibo, and the sea-coast round C. Palliser, are terraces from 50 to (50 ft. high, formed of boulders of the oldest trap-rocks. Anthracite crops out in the small harbour of Wanganui, on the W. coast of Middle I. A thin seam of the same mineral is found in the hard grey sandstone on the E. coast, and crystallised limestone on the W. coast in the harbours of Kawhia and Whaingaroa, of the Northern I. Copper pyrites abound in the Great Barrier I., where they form veins m the clay-slate. The coasts are in many cases fringed with recent horizontal sedimentary deposits, consisting of loam, with fragments of wood, tree-ferns, &c.; in other cases, they are formed of volcanic conglomerates, iron-sand, shells, &c. In the North I. the coast is often formed of volcanic conglomerates, containing magnetic iron-sand near C. Egmont, and turritella and oyster-shells at the harbour of Parenga; near Tauranga, it is composed of decomposed tufa, containing lignite and shells of pectunculus, natica pyrula, aud ancillaria. The rocky islets oft’ the coast of the North I. are of trachyte, bearing marks

of wave-action to the height of 100 ft. above the present sea-level. The North I. is everywhere covered with ordinary volcanic productions, eject oil from the lofty central gToups of mountains, some of which are extinct, others still active volcanoes; and on the W. coast, sand, driven over the forests by the prevailing westerly gales, is fast accumulating. The mountain chains of the Middle I. are supposed to consist of primary rocks : quartzose sandstone and grauwacke are met with at the height of3,000 ft.

ABORIGINES.

Among the Maories, as they are called, there are evidences of two races, the brown and the negrito—the latter, until the introduction of Christianity, being held in a sort of slavery by the former. The superior race of the New Zealanders, the inhabitants of Easter I., as well jus those ot the Sandwich Is. (which possibly were peopled by descendants of the ancient Mexicans), have evidently a common origin. Their languages are radical^ the sjune; their physical characteristics, their carvings, sculptures, and manufactures, all bear a strong resemblance to each other; and the kutnera, or sweet potatoe, which is cultivated in New Zealand and the Sandwich Is., is indigenous to America.

Physically, the Maories are a fine race—vigorous, muscular, and active ; their countenances intelligent and expressive, and in appearance strongly resembling the Spaniards or Italians. Their temperament is warm and ardent; they possess much natural gaiety and wit; their ideas are full ot imagery ; and in acuteness of perception they far surpass Europeans. Unlike the wandering savages of Australiji, the New Zealanders are a people formed into communities, dwelling in fortified villages (pahs), owning great numbers of live stock of all kinds, but especially of horses, and in many districts of the northern island possessing cultivated lauds exceeding in extent and value those of the settlers. The children are gay, interesting, very inquisitive, full of observation, and frequently pretty. Apart from the deference to the Maories implied in the large physical forceretainedfortliepurposeof controlling them, every acreof land jicquired by the British is bought and paid for, instead of being delilx»-rately occupied, as is the case with other colonies. Each tract is made the subject of a special treaty, and a regular deed is prepared, signed, and witnessed, as formally as if involving a transaction between one white and another. Idol worship is little practised, their carved images of wood and greenstone being merely representations of their ancestors or warriors; but they believe in the existence of a multitude of spiritual beings, and in a future state, I hides (Reinga), whither the spirit at dejith takes its flight. The body of the deceased person is placed in a canoeshaped coffin, and hid in the forest, but, in the case of a chief, in a mausoleum erected within the pah. After the lapse of some time the bones are taken, scraped, and deposited in an elevated box in the centre of the village, or secreted in some place known only to the priests.

The priests (Tohunga) jire expert at carving and tattooing.56 Witchcraft is universal, and polygamy not uncommon, especially amongst the heathen chiefs. The women, though kindly treated, and possessing considerable influence with the men, perform all the drudgery. When friends meet they salute each other by a tangi, or cry of welcome; then follows the ongiy or pressing of noses. The practice of tattooing and many other peculiarities of the preceding generation are now rapidly passing away; and infanticide and cannibalism, the.worst features of the Maori savagery, have long been disused. They adopt the bush style of lighting, hiding amongst the fern and behind trees, and digging rifle-pits around their pahs.

The native dress, made of the flax-plant, and manufactured by the women, is at once durable, picturesque, and impervious to the rain, but has been in a great measure abandoned for the blankets and European habiliments procured from the settlers in exchange for pigs and agricultural produce. Their war-clubs, ear-rings, ad/.es, &c., are made of the greenstone or jade; and their weapons and utensils are cut out of hardwood with the greatest nicety. The flute, their only musical instrument, is simply a piece of wood with four holes ; sometimes it is made out of the leg-bone of an enemy.

Their food consists of the potatoe, maize, kumera, fern-root, heart of cabbage-palm, birds, flsh, Ac. Pigs are extensively reared.

The Maories are recognised as British subjects, and held to be amenable to the laws, and yet allowed to earn’ on war with one another without interference. Only when their quarrels seem likely to embroil the whites does the Government step in. They are nearly all converted to Christianity, and there is hardly a Maori that cannot read and write his own language. Since the commencement of British colonization in New Zealand, the Maori population has rapidly diminished in numbers. Out of a dense population, there remains now only about 56,000.

POLITICAL.

By the New Zealand Constitution Act (1852), the three islands were divided into six provinces, three in the Northern Island, viz.—Auckland, New Plymouth,57 and Wellington!; the remaining three are in the Middle, viz.— Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago. The Southern Island forms an appendage to the latter colony.

COUNTIES AND TOWNS.

Auckland, in the N of North I.—Auckland, near the

middle ; Onehunga, S. of-; Russell, on the B. of

Is.; Hobson’s Town, and Wangari, on the Wairoa R.

Hawke Bay, S.JE. of-.—Napier, in the E.

Wellington, S.W. of-.—Wellington, in the S., on

Port Nicholson ; Wanganui, at the mouth of the Wanganui R.

Taranaki, N.W. of-—New Plymouth, or

Taranaki, in the W.

Nelson, S. of Cook's Str.—Nelson, in the N., on Blind B; Collingwood, on Massacre Bay.

Canterbury, S. of-.—Christchurch, Lyttleton,

Kaiapoi, Akaroa, Timaru, all in the E.

Otago, S. of--.—Dunedin, and Port Chalmers, on

Otago Hr.; Invercargill, in the S., on Bluff Hr.

Al CKLAND is built on the northern side of the isthmus which divides the Waitemata from the Manukau. The land for several m. round the town is in a high state of cultivation.

NELSON.—The town, though small, is set out square, and surrounded by most picturesque scenery ; its close proximity to Massacre Bay, to which place a steam-vessel is continually plying,as also numerous small craft, will probably render it one of the most flourishing towns in the southern province. Pop. 7,000.

CHRISTCHURCH, the capital of Canterbury, is situated in a dry healthy site, in the centre of the agricultural district, and on the banks of the R. Avon, 7 m. from the sea, 8 m. from Lyttleton, and 2 m. from the R. Heathcote, where steamers and small vessels take in and discharge their cargoes.

LYTTLETON, situated on the N. side of Port Victoria, is the principal port-town, has a population of upwards of 800, and contains the custom-house, Union Bank of Australia, town-hall, hospital, &c.

KAIAPOI, the centre of a very rich agricultural district, and the shipping port of a large pastoral tract, is situated on the banks of the R. Wai Makariri, about 10 m. from Christchurch.

AKAROA, founded by the French (1840), is a small town on a harbour of the same name, Bank's Fen., and the resort of the whaling vessels that fish off the coast.

DUNEDIN, noted for the picturesque scenery of the surrounding country, is situated at the head of the Otago Harbour, which is 14 m. long, but divided by two islands into upper and lower harbour, with sandbanks in each of them.

Agriculture.—The objects of cultivation are—grass, wheat, oats, potatoes, barley, maize, &c.

Of the 141,000 acres, the total quantity of land under cultivation, 08,700 arc cultivated for grass, 13,710 for wheat, 12,600 for oats, 6,574 for potatoes, 3,000 for barley, 360 for maize, and 3,931 occupied by gardens.

Live Stock.—In 1858, there were in the possession of Europeans— 14,912 horses, 122 mules and asses, 137,204 horned cattle, 1,523,324 sheep, 11,797 goats, and 40,734 pigs.

The Manufactures are unimportant.

Commerce.Exports>—The    principal    are—wool,

timber, potatoes, oil, grain, &c.

£10.


The total value of these amounted (185S), to £335,694: shipped at Canterbury, £108,713 ; at Wellington (including Hawke Bay), £114,689 ; Auckland, £91,749 ; Nelson, £80,582 ; Otago, £47.344; Taranaki, £11,823 ; Chatham Is., £3,920.

Imports.—The principal are—ale, beer, cider and perry, drapery goods, spirits, sugar (raw and refined), tea, wine, &c.

Total value (1858), £1,141,273: entered at Auckland, £334,380; at Bussell. £3,312; at Mongonui, £3,683; at Nelson, £150,498; at Lyttleton, £216,383. Countries with which the trade of the colony is carried on:— N. S. Wales, Gt. Britain, Victoria, Tasmania, United States, South Sea Is.

Principal Ports.—Auckland, Wellington, Russell, Nelson, Otago, Mongonui, Lyttleton, Akaroa, Bluff Harbour, liokiango, New Plymouth, Chatham Is., Kaipara, and Wan ganui.

In 1858, 339 vessels, of an aggregate burthen of 90,118 tons, arrived,— of which 63 were entered at Auckland, 26 at Wellington, 35 at Russell, 50 at Nelson, 27 at Otago; 322 vessels, of 82,293 tons, departed, of which 63 were cleared at Auckland, 35 at Russell, 28 at Mongonui, 41 at Wellington, and 37 at Lyttleton.

Number of registered vessels belonging to the port of Auckland (1858), 153, tonnage, 5,179; port of Wellington 11, tonnage 480; Nelson 7, tonnage 206 ; Lyttleton 12, tonnage 497; Otago 6, tonnage 490:—total 189, tonnage 6,852.

A Lighthouse is in course of erection at the entrance of Wellington harbour.

The total deposits in the Savings Banks, £7,890,—of which £7,610 were deposited by Europeans, and £280 by Maories.

The Savings Banks are—The Auckland Savings Bank, estab. 1847 ; that of New Plymouth, 1850; that of Wellington, 1846; that of Lyttleton, 1865; that of Christchurch (a branch of the Lyttleton Savings Bank), «¦stab. 1858.

The Population, according to the recent returns, amounts to 115,377, of which 59,328 are Europeans and 50,049 Maories. Number of immigrants from 1851 to 1858, 15,791; emigrants, 8,735.

Army. — The military troops, with their families, number 1,896.

The Government consists of a Governor, Legislative Council, and a House of Representatives. Each province has a Superintendent and Provincial Council. The Superintendent and Provincial Council are elected for a period of 4 years, by a suffrage which is almost universal, but are prohibited from interfering with general legislation affecting the whole colony. The Legislative Council consists of 15 members, nominated for life by the Governor. The House of Representatives consists of 36 members, elected for 5 years, and can be dissolved by the Governor at pleasure. The Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Representatives, legislate for the whole colony, with the exception of matters of purely local interest, which are left to the Provincial Councils. The principles of responsible government are carried out as in England, both in the general and in the provincial governments.

Religion.—According to the census of 1858, of the total European population (59,328), 30,492 belonged to the Church of England ; 11,513 were Presbyterians; 6,592, Roman Catholics; 5,392, Baptists; other denominations, Primitive Methodists, Lutherans, Hebrews, <fec.

Education.—Number of children attending public schools (schools supported by government or public aid), 4,169 (exclusive of the 627 attending Sunday-schools only); number attending private schools, 3,659 (exclusive of 1,225 attending on Sunday only).

Principal Scholastic Establishments—St. John’s College, Bishop’s, Auckland Wesleyan College and Seminary, and Church of England Grammar School, Nelson School, Kelson; Canterbury College, Christchurch.

Means or Communication.—Steamers and sailing-vessels ply between Auckland and Sydney, and between Nelson and Sydney ; others ply between the different ports of the colony ; and first-class traders run regularly between London and New Zealand.

lioads.—A well-macadamised road runs from the wharves to Christchurch ; the (It. North and South Roads from Christchurch are good ; admirably constructed roads run from \\ ellington towards and through the AN airarapa Valley; the Gt. North-western road runs between Wellington and Wanganui (120 m.), through the fertile districts of Mana-rata, Rangitikei, and Taranaki.

HISTORY.

This country was first seen by the Dutch navigator Tasman (13th Dec. 1642) ; but as lie never landed, and supposed it to form a part of a great southern continent, the honour of its discovery belongs to Captain Cook, who sighted the land (6th Oct. 1769), and bet. that date and 1777 circumnavigated and roughly surveyed the two principal islands, gave his own name to the Str. by which they are separated, landed at various places, and took formal possession of the country for the King of Great Britain.58 Cook suggested the regular colonization of New Zealand ; and in the Parliamentary Debates which led to the establishment of N. S. Wales in 1788, New Zealand, owing to the dread inspired by its savage and cannibal inhabitants, narrowly escaped being made a penal colony. As early as 1793, the whaling-ships of different nations began to touch on the coast. Their intercourse with the natives was marked by great cruelty and injustice on one part, great treachery and dishonesty on the other, and revolting blood-thirstiness and a strong spirit of revenge on both. In 1814 the scenes of barbarism acted between the savages of both races had attracted general attention, and suggested to the Rev. S. Marsden, Colonial Chaplain of N. S. Wales, the project of establishing at the Bay of Islands a mission of the Church Missionary Society. In 1S14-15 this benevolent scheme was carried into effect by Mr. Marsden himself, under the sanction of the Government of IS . S. Wales, who issued a proclamation on the occasion, whereby he treated New Zealand as a “ Dependency of the territory of X. S. Wales,” appointed the first missionary, Mr. Thos. Kendal, “ resident Magistrate at the Bay of Islands,”59 and made three native chiefs who had visited Sydney, and who accompanied the expedition, also magistrates.

The first Wesleyan Mission was founded in 1823, at Wangaroa, N. of the Bay of Islands ; but it was not till 1828 that the head quarters of that mission were established on a secure footing. Two chiefs, Ilongi and Waikato, accompanied Mr. Kendal to England in 1S20 ; and at the University of Cambridge, by means of Mr. Kendal, they became acquainted with Baron de Thierry, French by birth, whom they led to entertain the hope of acquiring extensive territories and rights of chieftainship in New Zealand; and Mr. Kendal undertook to act as his agent for that purpose. This circumstance laid the foundation of the attempt made by the French Government in 1840 to establish a penal settlement in the Middle Island.    While the two chiefs were at the

University of Cambridge, Professor Lee, from their pronunciation, reduced the Maori or aboriginal language to a written form, and composed a grammar and dictionary. Some years later, printing-presses were introduced into the islands, when the Scriptures and other religious books were issued in the native language. During the residence of Ilongi and Waikato in England, their

attention was steadily directed to the acquisition of fire-arms.    Hongi had no sooner returned home

with Mr. Kendal, than he armed his own tribe and its allies with the weapons he had received in England as presents, and attacked the powerful tribes which inhabited the western coast of the N. Island between Kaipara and AVaikato. These, driven from their home, employed against weaker tribes the skill and hardihood which they had acquired in resisting Hongi. These weaker tribes again, headed by Kauperaha and joined by European sailors, crossed the sea into the Middle Island, and extended their ravages as far as Otago, almost exterminating the aboriginal inhabitants in their progress. Such a state of things required some remedy ; and Mr. Busby was accordingly appointed (1831) “ Resident Officer,605 but with no means at his disposal to maintain his authority, so that the wars of the natives, in which the white settlers joined, continued unabated, and European vices and diseases were spread among the diminished native population. At length, in 1835, another attempt was made to establish some kind of authority in New Zealand. Alarmed at the prospect of a French occupation projected by Baron de Thierry, the leading missionaries of New Zealand induced 35 chiefs to sign a paper, by which they declared the independence of the whole of New Zealand as one nation, and formed themselves into an independent state with the title of the “ United Tribes of New Zealand.’60 The new government was found so purely nominal, that various representations were now made to the Home Government, setting forth the evils of a continued anarchy. About the year 1827, some of the sealers from Bass’s Straits had engaged in the whale-fishery, and formed establishments for that purpose on the shores of Cook’s Str.

In 1837, a large class of merchants and gentry in G t. Britain formed a society called the New Zealand Company,60 which, after several unavailing attempts to induce the British Government to establish a sufficient authority in the islands, and to colonize them according to a plan beneficial to the natives, as well as to the settlers, sent out an expedition under the direction of Col. Wakefield, who was instructed to adopt the usual method of acquiring land from the natives. He sailed 12th May, 1830; and the body of the Company’s emigrants, before hearing of the proceedings of the preliminary expedition, followed Sept. 16th, and early in 1840 arrived at Port Nicholson, where they formed the settlement of AY ellington.* In August, 1839, Capt. Hobson received a commission as Consul, and ha\ ing been furnished at Sydney by the Governor, Sir Geo. Gipps, with a stall of civil officers and advances of money to commence operations, arrived (Jan. 1S40). Having with great difficulty obtained the sovereignty by treaty from the natives, he acted in several capacities as Consul, Lieut.-Governor,and Governor, duringthe periods extending from Jan. 1840 to Sept. 1842. In consequence of I lobson s illness, the govermnent was carried on from about a month after his arrival, until the accession of Governor l itzroy, Dec. 1843, by Lieut. Shorthand, the civil staff from Sydney, and Mr. Clarke, a missionary catechist, who had been appointed protector of Aborigines.

The precursors of a Drench penal settlement on Banks’ Peninsula sailed from Prance (Nov. 1839), but Major Bunbury had proclaimed the sovereignty of England in the South and Middle Islands in June, and Lieut.-Gov. Hobson in the Aorth Island a few weeks earlier; the British flag was hoisted, and British courts held for the first time only four days before the arrival of the Drench expedition.

Dr Selwyn, who was appointed Bishop of New Zealand (17th. Oct. 1814), arrived (29th. Oct. 1842) with a suite ol Clergymen, whom he appointed to reside at Wellington, A elson, and New' Plymouth. Capt. Ditzroy, E.N., sent 1843 to succeed Governor Hobson, who died in Sep. 1842, administered the ailairs of the Colony m a very partial spirit, until he was recalled in consequence of his financial absurdities, which transgressed against express instructions from the Colonial Office, and on account of his land-regulations, which infringed Acts of Parliament. His

* This company was finally broken up in 1851, and its debt of £200,000 has been thr^” ul^n the land revenue. To reconcile the colony to this burden, a joanot t. 00,000 has been guaranteed by the Imperial Government for the


purpose of local improvements.

vacillation and pusillanimity towards the natives had provoked an aggressive warfare on their part, in the course ot which the British troops sent from X. S. AYales were disgracefully worsted, the earliest British settlement at the Bay ol Islands was plundered and destroyed, and the out-settlers near \\ ellington attacked and robbed with some loss ol lile by parties of marauders directed by Kauperaha and Bangihaeata, the leaders of a band that had on a former occasion massacred a number of magistrates and others in the execution of the law at AVairau. Capt. (rrey, who had previously been Governor of S. Australia, succeeded 1 itzroy in 1845. He began his career by energetic measures for enforcing British law, and for holding in check the rebellious natives throughout the colony.61 He^ also displayed unceasing activity in visiting the diilerent settlements, and great anxiety to remedy in some measure the eivils which had accumulated under the mismanagement of his predecessors.

The example of the New Zealand Company was followed by an associat ion of gentlemen connected with the Church of England, who, in 1848, formed the Canterbury settlement; and the same year the Otago settlement was planted by gentlemen in connection with the Free Church of Scotland.

Mr. E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieut.-Governor, and arrived at AVellmgton in Aug. 1847. On the 1st. Jan. 1848, Governor Grey proclaimed the constitution granted to New Zealand (10th March), and fixed as the boundary between New Munster and New Ulster the parallel of 39° 46'. In April, 1848, of the same year, the Canterbury Association was formed.

GOVERNORS OP NEW ZEALAND.

Capt. Hobson .... Lieut. Shortland Capt. Fitzroy ....

Capt. Greyf......

Col. Browne......


29th Jan., 1840. 10th Sept., 1842. Dec., 184.'). Dec., 1845. 4th Sept., 1855.

OUTLINES OF

GEOLOGY, BOTANY, AND ZOOLOGY.

GEOLOGY.

The Globe, consisting originally of matter in a state of igneous fusion» assumed, by its rotatory motion, the form of an oblate spheroid, which it still retains.

By the gradual process of cooling, the surface of the earth became solidified, a thin skin of solid matter being first formed upon it, which, as the cooling continued, became gradually thicker, the increase of thickness being produced by more and more solidified matter collected on its inner surface. The thickness of this solid crust is, according to geologists, about 40 m., all the central part being in a state of fusion.

The earth's crust is divided into two distiuct portions,—the stratified, and the unstratified: their principal mineral constituents being lime, sand, and clay, existing in masses usually more or less intermixed with each other; but, in some cases almost free from such intermixture,— as in the case of chalk and of certain limestones, which are almost entirely calcareous; and in certain sandstones, which are almost entirely siliceous. The unstratified portion of the earth’s crust is distinguished by the total absence of all stratification, and by its calcareous, siliceous, and argillaceous constituents existing much more in mineralogical combination, the first being in much smaller proportion, and the general structure far more crystalline, than in the stratified mass.

The stratified rocks, composed of an extremely fine sediment, very slowly and gradually deposit«! from water, and hence termed sedimentary, besides being arranged in layers, called strata or beds, contain within them, embedded in almost every stratum, the organic remains of animals and plants in a mineralized state, every particle of animal or vegetable matter having entirely disappeared, and being replaced by mineral substances.

The relative positions of the stratified and unstratified masses is such, that, as a general rule, the former reposes on the latter. The superimposed strata, ascending from the unstratified igneous mass which rests immediately upon the matter in fusion within the terrestial shell, are, according to the order of deposition, the transition or metamorphic, the secondary and the tertiary, and the diluvial and alluvial layers of matter upon which the superficial soil is spread.

The igneous rocks, which consist almost exclusively of agglomerations of mineral masses in a state of crystallization, may be regarded as the original materials of which the entire crust of the globe is formed. Granite, the most common of the igneous rocks, is an agglomeration of the crystals of the three minerals, felspar, mica, and quartz.

The igneous rocks are sometimes divided into three great classes :— granitic, trappean, and volcanic. The granitic, occurring along with the primary and transition strata, comprise granite, sicnite, serpentine, and porphyry. The trappean 62 including basalt, greenstone, clinkstone, trachyte, &c., is of a darker and less crystalline structure than the granitic, ami occurs along with the secondary and tertiary. The volcanic include lava, scoriae, pumice, and tufa, which have been discharged by recent or active volcanoes.

Of the Stratified Rocks, the metamorphicy non-fossilifevents (containing no organic remains), or primary strata, consisting chiefly of gneiss, mica schist, and quartz-rock, are the lowest, and usually overlie the granite. Above these are the palceozoic rocks (oldest strata with organic remains), comprising several groups :—the Cambrian or Grauwacko system; the Silurian system, consisting of beds of slate and sandstone rocks, with limestones, containing impressions of corals, shells, &c.; the Carboniferous, or coal-bearing system, consisting mainly of the old red sandstone, the mountain limestone, and the coal formations,—the latter abounding in remains of plants, trees, insects, fishes, and reptiles.

The secondary formation, containing remains of reptiles, fishes, and a few mammals and birds, consists of the Saliferous (salt-bearing) or new red sandstone system ; the Oolitic system; and the Chalk formation.

The tertiary strata, containing many remaius of mammals, birds, fishes, and lower orders of animals, consist chiefly of limestone, marls, and clays. Above these are layers of Diluvium (beds of clay, with stones and remains of recent animals embedded in them); Gravel; Alluvium (river deposits); Peat; and Vegetable Soil,—the last consisting of the surface-rock disintegrated and mixed with vegetable and animal remains.

The great agents which have modified the earth's surface have been classified by geologists as degrading and elevating.

Degrading Forces.—The degradation or wearing down of the surface-rock is brought about by the chemical and mechanical action of air and water upon them, and by the mechanical force of wind, rain, frost, and running water. The matter thus worn otf the elevated parts of tho earth’s surface is washed down and deposited in the sea, bearing with it the remains of organic life, and there forming horizontal beds or strata, which subsequently become hardened into rock by heat and pressure.

Elevating Forces.—By means of volcanoes, earthquakes, and gradually elevating forces (all of which arc supposed to be produced by the intumescence of fluid lava, arising from the expansion of elastic gases in the interior of the earth), the stratified rocks have been thrown out of their original horizontal positions, the igneous rocks bursting through, sometimes spreading in between the strata, altering their mineral character by the great heat,—sometimes rising in vertical dykes or walls through the strata, at other times overrunning them after the manner of liquid lava.

BOTANY.

Botany is the science that treats of the arrangement of plants into groups, according to their forms and structure. Plants are variously divided, under both the Artificial63 and the Natural System, into classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties.

There are upwards of 100,000 species of plants. The primary arrangement is into Flowering and Flowerloss plants:—the former (PHANEROGAM I A) comprehending all the useful trees and shrubs, and the common ornamental garden plants—in short, all those that have distinct organs, as leaves, branches, flowers, and proper seeds ;—and the latter (CRYPTOGAMI A) embracing those plants in which the organs of reproduction are not apparent,—as the ferns, lichens, mosses, and seaweeds, which have, instead of flowers, fruit, and seed, little cases in which are lodged the minute reproductive spores.

The principal parts of plants are the organs of nutrition—the root, the stem and its branches, and the leaves ; and the organs of reproduction—flower, fruit, and seeds. Of the latter class, the flower consists of the calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistil; the two last being the male and female organs. The calyx, or flower-cup, is the green part situated immediately beneath the corolla. The corolla, or blossom, is the highly coloured part of the flower, and consists of several leaflets denominated petals. Within the corolla are the stamens, arranged in a circle around the pistil, and consisting of filaments or threads, bearing on their summits the anther, containing a fine powder called pollen. The pistil generally rises from the centre of the flower, and consists of oue or more carpels.

According to the Natural System, the Vegetable Kingdom is divided into 3 great classes: — the ACOTYLEDONES, or plants without any cotyledon* in theseed; the MONOCOTYLEDON ES, plants with one cotyledon ; and the DICOTYLEDON ES, those with two or more cotyledons.

The differences between these divisions are well marked, particularly in the leaves: those of the last-mentioned class being reticulated, while those of the Monocotyledones have the veins in parallel lines.

Dicotyledonousf trees increase by external layers, and are hence called EXOGENOUS; the Monocotyledonous, ENDOGENOUS (enlarging from within); and the Acotyledonous, ACROGENOUS (increasing only at tho top or growing point).

Dicotyledonous plants are eitherDICHLAMYDE2EorMONOCHJLJ-MYDEjE. The DICHLAMYDEJE are divided into 3 sub-classes

I.    Tiialamiflor;!*: (66 orders), in which the stamens and petals are all inserted in the receptacle.

II.    Caltciflorjb (77 orders), in which the stamens and petals are either inserted in the calyx or arise from the upper part of the ovary.

III.    Coroi.liflor-E (41 orders), in which the stamens are similarly inserted on the petals.

Thesub-classTiTALAMiFLORJE contains many genera of herbaceous plants (some of them gigantic aquatic herbs, such as water-lilies, Victoria regia,X &c.); a few timber-trees, the principle being sycamore and maple ;§ flax and cotton, &c. The principal products of plants belonging to this division are—cocoa and chocolate, tea, wine, oranges, lemons, maple-sugar, opium, several fruits, drugs, dyes, and oils; also cabbages, mustard, horse-radish, turnip, and other esculents.

The Calyc I floras are sometimes separated into two divisions, — Tolypetalce (so named from the petals being several and separated), and Monopetala (from their being so united as to appear single). 64 65 66 67

hf108*"8 t0 the f“™er ^vision arc—the

intiio-o tamarind    ie bean, pea, vetch, clover,-logwood, laburnum,

lieacb ' anrirot n^-t U*’ aiu .* lc acacla a»d mimosa ;    ,—almond,

pear ’uiim e    “ir"^ P UmL lerry- raspberry, strawberry, apple,

several “^, i Myr^f’ <ion?,st1'« of the Australian gum-trees, W afd S lT“8 edible fruits (guava, rose-apple, pomegranate, well-known ( si-ulont Ata V^110’ ^c*) > Cucurbitacea, furnishing the producing cochineid • ™cun,1fr-. u>elon, gourd, pumpkin, Ac.; Cactocea, L • Umi«?Zi^U.^T?ar<aC6®’ l>rw<lncmg gooseberries, currants, carrot bemh^k L.'    Bt. ?°,mmon. ^»era of which are parsnip, celery,

tribes • the    mcludme the elder and honeysuckle

whihwttet containing above 900 genera, the most common of

®2ac«c°RmM1,m°^(?mbi1*Ctl ,41 ordcrs' of which tll<! Principal are-embr irino- th i^ln£ beathworts, rhododendrons, &c.; Oleacea-JffiifflL ‘!‘C ohve * ash- manna-asl,,+ privet, lilac, Ac.; <WrutZT


mile, thistle, AcT*' lg° d> dandellon> lettuce, tansy, dahlia, chamo-

enibracim^the^ni'nt H "hicl1 are tb<feonvolvuliis, ipomma

',ll.e ‘'«"'“ms, justicia, &c. V ' ^    OtHLAI11 contain oo orders,

ithaL.    lavender, Ac.;

JH :'K)^0t LRDONES include palms, grasses, the hyacinth, cro-ous Ac., whose stems have no distinction of pith, wood, bark concentrir circles, ami medullary rays. The trees of this ilivis.bn are tiipS h™

the &TS? S1'e<'1CS: SU,ch aVhe ®TTiM* (passes), are found all’over the globe. Ihe principal products of this division are—cocoa-nut sairo

dirte areca betel-nuts and palm-oil; and wine, oil, w^ Zur su mr

Ip,*^    &c" are obtaincd from numerous species. ’

The AtOTYXiEDONES, CRYPTOGAMS, or ACliOGENS (Elowerless hints) include mosses, ferns, lichens, mushrooms    sea-weeds

and freshwater weeds (alga),Ac.    J

ZOOLOGY.

Moi n sTNintA,L prfGD0,M ,is divided ¡>.to Itililata, or Rayed Animals Vr»r™. 1 !l,lpy Aminals; Akticulata, or Jointed Animals; v ertrbeata, or backboned Animals.

--;----__-0_

from which olive oil is obtained.

manna-ash^ 1S * Saccharine cathartic> Procured by wounding the bark of the

and ^%o^m™toPr0dUCed by thiS ^ are the batatas or sweet-potato,

J lf-rT ^ quahty ofresisting well the action of water, it is used for piles —

I, The bark nf'th Ty °f the1 houses in Ara*terdam are built on alder piles, tai nini and f r , Corylacea 1S bitter and astringent, and is used for dyeing.

housc'f/uiWm^Ld impiemelXSI^ a"d ^    * USC<1r shi" aad

.uLmi^

cones or berries are used in the preparation of gin.    1    ’    ®

dry-rot 'the n.mmw'i!!!'; ,hC ",‘i0Uld cl,ee8e or stal° brca<1,hc substance called

hut r^trAnfSh*rust on coraarc au    -

The Radiata are divided into 5 classes:—Infusoria, which are microscopic animalcules; Phgtozoa, called also Zoophytes (plant-, animals), from their resemblance to plants, and Polypifera, consisting” of small polypes, such as the coral insects and sponges; Acalcpha; Entozoa; and Echinodermata, including star-fish, sea-urchins, and sea-slugs.

The Mollusc a comprise oysters, mussels, limpets, snails, slugs, Ac.

The Aeticulata,—worms, crustaceans, and insects.

The Veetebrata comprise fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

The class Fishes is divided into 9 orders, of which 3 are cartilaginous and 6 osseous. The Cartilaginous fishes comprise the lamprey, shark, * ray, sturgeon, &c.; and the class Osseous—the globe-fish, sun-fish, file*- ‘ fish, sea-horse, eel, cod, fiat-fish or tlounder-tribe, pike tribe, salmons and trouts, perch tribe, gurnard, flying-fish, mackerel, lavert-fish, mullet, rock-Cod, &c.    .    ’

Reptiles.—Tortoise, turtle, lizard, crocodile, iguana, chameleon, worm, serpent, frog, &c.    .

Birds.Eatatores, or Swimmers,—auk tribe, pelican, cormorant, gannet or solan-goose, duck, swan, gull, tern or sea-swallow, petrel, albatross; Grallatores, or Waders,—crane, heron, bittern, stork, snipe, woodcock, curlew, plover, bustard, turnstone; Ctirsores, or Runners,—• ostrich, emu, or Australian cassowary, apteryx (New Zealand); Rasores, or Scrapers, including 4 families,—pheasants, curassows, partridges, and pigeons; Raptores, or Birds of Prey,—fid cons, vultures, and owls; Insessores (Perching Birds), divided into 4 groups: —Coniro&trcs, including 5 families,—crows, starlings, finches, horubills, and crossbills; Bentirostres, 5 families,—shrikes, flycatchers, thrushes, warblers (such as the nightingale, redbreast, and willow-wren), and chatterers; Fissirostres,—swallows, goat-suckers, bee-eater, kingfisher; Scansores, or Climbing Birds,—woodpecker, cuckoo, parrot; Tenuirostres '(Slenderbilled Birds),—honeysuckers (which are confined chiefly to Australia), birds of paradise, humming-birds, including the sun-bird.

Mammalia, or Suck-giving Animals.Monotremata,* which are peculiar to Australia and Tasmania, consist of the species Echidna (spiny ant-eater), and Ornithorhynchus (duck-billed platypus); M(irsupiala,f including the dasyurus, opossum, flying-opossum, kangaroo ; • Edentata, including the ant-eater, armadillo, and sloth ; lnsectivora,—hedgehog, mole, and shrew ; Rodentia (Gnawing Animals),—squirrel, rat, beaver, porcupine, Guinea-pig; Chincliillidce,—chinchilla, hare; Cetacea,— whale, seal, Ac.; Ruminantia, or Ruminating Animals, comprising the tribes of antelope, goaf and sheep, ox, deer, camel; Pachydermata,— elephant, pig, hippopotamus, tapir, rhinoceros, ass, horse; Carnivora, subdivided into 4 famiBps,—cat, dog, weasel, and bear tribes ; Cheiroptera (Bats), divided inromsectivorous and omnivorous bats ; Quadrumanaor Four-handed Animals,—monkey tribe; Bimana, or Two-handed Animals,—man.

---»

* The Monotremata, so called, because, as in birds, the excretory openings aiis united into one, are ovoviviparous, mammiferous quadrupeds, i.e., they first hatch the egg within their body, then exclude the young alive, and suckle it: their structure is in many points similar to that of birds and reptiles.

t Of the Marsupial families, which, with the exception of the opossum found in America, are all confined to Australia and Tasmania, the dasyurus is carnivorous; the opossum, insectivorous; the flying-opossum, representing the fragivorous bats, fruit-eaters; and the kangaroo, herbivorous.

W. Fletcher, Printer, 45 and 47, Elizabeth street, Hobart Town.

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1

When the description of a place is left imperfect, the name of the

last-mentioned place is to be supplied : thus, Java, S.E. of-;

means, Java, S.E. of Sumatra.

2

This distinguished navigator was received by all classes of the people with the liveliest demonstrations of astonishment and delight. Offerings and prayers were presented to him by their priest in one of their temples near the bay in which his vessels anchored, and on the shore of which he subsequently fell by the dagger of a native in the year 1779. His bones were afterwards preserved by the priests, and continued to receive offerings and homage from the people until 1819, when the w'hole system of idolatry was abolished.

3

Throughout this work we have adopted the more popular term. Tasmunia, instead of that of Van Diemen s Land.

4

So named by Tasman, from the tempestuous weather he there encountered.

t Cape Grim, so called by Flinders, from its appearance,—a steep black head.

5

Previously to the erection of a light-house by Sir J. Franklin on Brun i Hd., numerous shipwrecks occurred on the shoais off this cape,—among others, that of the convict-ship George the Third.

f The abode for several years of the exiled Aborigines.

J Three Hummock received its name from three peaks on its eastern side.

|| Albatross I., when first visited by Bass and Flinders, was densely tenanted by seals and albatrosses.

6

Expenseof management(1859). £3,551; amount of dues received, £4,020. Eveiy coaster entering inwards must pay 4d. per ton, and every other vessel 9d., as lighthouse rates.

t The elevated land or ridge between the sources of the rivers which flow in opposite directions through a country is called the watershed.— Hugo Reid.    6

I The tract of country which sends its waters into any great river is called the basin of that river.

7

The great watershed, it must be remembered, lies between the S.W. and N.E.

8

The Lake Country—a plateau formed by lofty mountain ridges—is in the centre of the island. A circle, with a radius of 30 mM and having its centre in the southern part of the Great Lake, would enclose a space containing all the principal lakes yet discovered in Tasmania.

9

The Barracouta, which might be caught in the Tasmanian waters in any quantity, realises at Mauritius ¿1 per ton more than the Newfoundland fish, —thus offering a valuable addition to our exports, were there sufficient enterprise to open up the trade.

10

The females dived for shell-fish and hunted the opossum, t This is known as the Black War.

11

Previously to their leaving Tort Phillip, Buckley and two other prisoners made their escape. Buckley was adopted by a tribe of natives, with whom he lived .13 years, conforming to their barbarous customs, and forgetting his own language.

t So called by Collins, in honour of his patron Lord Hobart, then principal secretary of state. The county of Buckingham was called after the same nobleman, who had become Lord Buckinghamshire.

t The valley of Launceston and the It. Tamar, after a town and river of that name in Cornwall, in England, and both in honour of Governor King, whose father had been a draper of that town.

12

He was long Judge Advocate of New South Wales, and had been present with his father, General Collins, at the battle of Bunker’s Hill.

t I.iverpool-st., after the minister of that name; Macquarie-st., after himself; Elizabeth-st., in honour of his lady; Argyle-st., of their native county; Murray st., in compliment to the officer in command: and Mt. Nelson, where he ordered a signal-staff to be erected, after the vessel that conveyed him to and from Hobart Town.

J The vessel Britannia, the property of Messrs. Enderby & Sons, on doubling the S. W. Cape of Van Diemen’s Land, on her voyage to Port Jackson, first discovered a whaling ground in that vicinity.

13

The Australian colonies owe their pastoral wealth originally to the enterprise of Capt. Waterhouse, and the exertions of Capt. J. McArthur: the former conveyed to Australia the original stock; and the latter reared therefrom tho different breeds, the produce of which now form staple articles of export. The original stock of the Tasmanian flocks was introduced by Col. Patterson, and their quality improved by an importation of merino lambs obtained from the flocks of McAithur.

14

Franklin was entrusted with the charge of four expeditions for the purpose of making geographical discoveries with regard to the connection of the polar&nbnbsp;seas with the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The first in 1818, which proved unsuccessful; the second (1820) was an overland expedition to the Coppermine River in N. America; the third was undertaken in 1824; and the fourth (tho object of which was to discover the North West Passage) in 1845, in the prosecution of which to a successful issue he and all his party unfortunately perished. Notwithstanding that various expeditions were sent out in search of him, his fate remained a mystery until 1859, when the expedition under McClintock discovered the record of the Franklin expedition at Pt. Victory, on the N. W. coast of King Wm.’s Land, by whicli it appears that Sir John died 11th June, 1847, and the remainder of his party probably perished in their attempt to reach the Back or Great Fish River.

15

Tliis paper recommended a Legislative Council—one-third nominees, and the remainder chosen by the people.

16

SirW. Denison was the first Governor-in Chief, and received his commission as such a year or two before he removed to New South Wales ;—up to this time all our Governors held commissions only as Lieutenant-Governors.

t

17

There are numerous varieties of the coral animalcule?, each variety forming a coral of different shape, but still of the same substance. The recent branching-corals are solely in request for ornamental purposes, their value depending upon the size, solidity, and colour of the specimen,—black and red varieties being the most highly prized.

t Zoologists divide the Animal Kingdom into Provinces, Classes, Orders, Families, Genera, Species, and Varieties, each term in succession being applicable in a more and more particular way than the preceding : several varieties forming a species; several species, a genus, See.

1 The formation named Mountain Limestone is believed by geologists to have originated in the same manner.

18

In N S. Wales, periods of one, two, or three years have occurred in which not a drop of rain has fallen.

19

In the Southern Hemisphere snow is perpetual at 6,000 ft. above the sea. in Europe at 10,000 ft. This may be partly attributed to the great extent of ocean in the south, and the absence of any intervening land between the S. pole and Australia.

t The N.W. iponsoon, first originated by the heated surface of Australia, is strongest and steadiest in the Northern Indian Ocean S. of Java, and the other islands up to New Guinea, and is continued, with some modification by the influence of New Guinea, New Hebrides, Solomon Is., New Caledonia, &c., to the rijis.

20

The hot wind is often a steady breeze, blowing up clouds of dust and sand, and sometimes gritty particles, causing the lips to parch and the skin to tingle, and the leaves of trees to wither and shrink up under its scorching influence; and the cloudless sky assumes a hazy aspect, through which the sun glows like a copper ball.

t Winds from the northerly and southerly quarters are the most numerous: n winter, on an average, the polar are to the equatorial as 3 : 1 ; in summer, as 1 : 2.

I This remark is applicable to Tasmania.

21

Some of the marsupial animals of Australia, the species of plants Zamia, and Cycadete which abound in its forests, and the Mollusca, including Trigonue Phasiunella, &c., found on its coasts, are represented by the fossilised remains of similar productions found in the oolitic rocks of Europe.

22

There is a much greater proportion of dicotyledinousthan monocotyledinous. t The term Eucalyptus is derived from the Greek eu kaluplo, in allusion toa lid or covering over the blossom, which falls oil’ when the flower expands, exposing a four-celled capsule or seed-vessel.

t The popular term gum-tree has been given from the large quantity of astringent juice which most of the species contain ; several of these species also yield a sweet exudation, a sort of manna, of a pure white colour, which drop22 from the leaves during spring and summer.

23

So called by Capt. Cook, from its fancied resemblance to the South Wales of England.

24

So named by Strzelecki, in honour of his patriotic countryman, the distinguished Kosciusko.

25

A few miles above its mouth, is an island, containing an area of above 1500 acres, and many smaller ones higher up the river.

t In its vicinity the cedar and rosewood trees are found in great abundance. | The Coohali It., about 6 miles N. of the Numbucca, is the most southerly point at which the magnificent variety of Moreton 13ay pine is found.

26

The Ilawkesbury and Nepean Rs. are bordered by extensive plains of extraordinary fertility.

t Little more than an extension of Port Jackson, but very useful as affording the means of water communication between Sydney and Parramatta.

J On the high ground near its source, the temperature is so low that potatoes and gooseberries grow luxuriantly.

H So called from its entrance being choked with sand and the interior with banks of mud.

27

The breed thus produced thrives best, and gives a heavier carcase, with a greater quantity of wool, than the pure bred stock.

28

U is only within the boundaries of the cos. that land is sold : the unoccupied tracts within these limits are leased to holders of purchase-lands on certain terms.

t Northumberland co. possesses productive coal mines, and remarkably fertile districts on the Hawkesbury and Hunter Its.

29

Sydney is an Episcopal see, and the residence of the metropolitan of Australasia. It is built partly on a small promontory, and partly in a narrow valley, about seven miles from the heads of Port Jackson. The greater part of the city is enclosed on three sides by those portions of the harbour known as the stream on the N., Wooloomoolloo B. on the E., and Darling harbour on the W. It has several extensive public parks, the principal of which are Hyde Park (between the city and the suburb of Wooloomoolloo), and the Outer Domain ; the Inner Domain being the enclosed ground around Government House. In the vicinity of the latter are situated the Botanical Gardens, in which there are specimens of almost every tropical plant. The Government House, the Legislative and Executive Council Chambers, the Australian Mint, and the ltoyal Observatory, are the most conspicuous of its numerous public edifices. It is lighted with gas, and supplied with water by a tunnelled aqueduct. Sydney has many populous suburbs, including Wooloomoolloo, Surrey Hills, Paddington, the Glebe, New Town, Redfern, Balmain, Pyrmont, St. Leonard’s, N. Shore, S. Head Road, &c. Sydney and the neighbourhood are for the most part built of a beautiful white freestone.

t Co. Camden contains the Illawarra district (the garden of New South Wales), famous for surpassingly beautiful and romantic scenery and great fertility.

J Cook co. contains the vale of the Clwyd, famous for its rich soil and picturesque scenery, and elevated 2,4(J(> ft. above the level of the sea ; and the Victoria Pass over the Blue Mts., opened to the public 1834.

30

45^ m. W. of Bathurst Town is the celebrated natural tunmW, 900 ft. long, from 70 to 100 ft. wide, and from 50 to 100 ft. in height, containing beautiful stalactites and stalagmites of various forms.

t Wellington co. contains the beautiful and fertile Wellington valley, with its limestone caves.    .

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E

31

Officially termed Commissioners’ or Squatting Districts, each having a Commissioner of Crown Lands, who grants licenses to depasture certain lands (“ runs ”) on payment of annual fees. In 1813, when the cattle were likely to perish in consequence of a long drought, three adventurous individuals scaled the formidable barrier of the Dividing Range, and discovered those downs on the western slope yhich now form the great sheep-ranges of Australia. A practicable line of road was immediately constructed by convict labour, and the tide of occupation entered on the new and limitless expanse.

t The measurements given are those of the entire districts, including the cos. erected within them.

32

The Australian Agricultural Company was formed in London by royal charter 1S24, with a view to the breeding of horses on an extensive scale for the Australian and Indian markets ; the breeding of live stock; the growing of corn and tobacco for the supply of the colonists; the raising of coal at Newcastle, N. S. Wales; the manufacture of salt; and the introduction of hemp, flax, silk, wine, olive oil, opium, &c., to become in future articles of export. A grant of 1,000,000 acres was given by the home government to effect their purpose. This estate, situated bet. the parallels of 32° and 33°, consists of three extensive tracts,—the Port Stephens grant, eo. Gloucester, 404,640 acres; Liverpool Plains grant, N.W. of Port Stephens ; and the Peel River Grant, N.E. of Liverpool Plains grant.

33

The whale and seal fisheries of the Australian colonies have of late declined : the whales seem to have migrated to the N. Pacific Ocean, where, as in the southern seas, the American whalers nearly monopolise the trade.

t The importation of wool to Gt. Britain from the Australian colonies has not only superseded entirely the importation of German and Spanish wools, but France and other countries have become purchasers at the London sales of the Australian wools, which they consider superior to every other.

I The seams of coal are distinctly visible on the abrupt face of the cliffs at the southern entrance of Port Hunter, and may be traced southward for 9 miles, when they abruptly dip under the sea-level and re-appear at the S. entrance of L. Macquarie.

!! This manufacture originated in the commercial depression of 1842-3, when sheep having fallen from 10s. to 6d. or Is., and even at that price only received in barter or in payment of debts, many owners of large flocks determined to slaughter their fat sheep and cattle, and by the “ boiling-down ” process to obtain the largest quantity of tallow from the carcase, which as meat was useless. The mode of “ boiling down ” consists in steaming the whole carcase, except the hind legs, which contain but little fat, in a large boiler or vat, until all the fatty parts are extracted and received into casks.

34

The Sydney Mint (opened 14th May, 1855) had received for coinage (up to 31st. Dec., 1859), 1,380,964 oz., valued at £5,402,695, and issued in coin £5,064,000, and 71,268 oz. in bullion. The revenue of the Mint, drawn from gold, the produce of the Australian colonies and California, and other sources, £65,916.

t Gold bullion, in bars or ingots, are issued, if required, at £3 17$. 10M. per standard oz.

35

The Governor (Sir \Y. Denison) is Gov.-General of all Her Majesty's Colonics of N. S. Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, S. Australia, and W. Australia ; and Capt.-General and Gov.-in-Chief of N. S. Wales and its Dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same; and Gov. of Norfolk I., but without pay or emolument as such.

t The first clergyman of New South Wales was the Rev. R. Johnson, who erected the first chapel in that colony, and that too at his own expense; he was also the first who reared orange-groves there. Mr. Marsden, who succeeded him, drew the attention of the ministry to the spiritual necessities of the colony, so that additional clergymen were procured and schools established.

36

N. S. Wales was the first British colony which introduced tills system.

/

37

Sir W. Denison is about to leave, having been appointed Governor of Madras.

t Victoria, so called in honour of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, was formerly denominated Australia Felix, from the beauty of the scenery, by Sir T. Mitchell, who explored it in 1836.

38

About 10 m. W. of C. Otway, there is a remarkable cave, large enough to hold some hundred men, embellished by rich stalactites, formed by the dropping of water impregnated with carbonate of lime, and hanging from its centre like a chandelier.

t C. Shanck, a narrow projection of limestone formation, forms the southwestern extremity of a low promontory separating Port Phillip from Western. Port. Immediately off this cape lies a rock named Pulpit Rock, from its striking resemblance.

J C. Liptrap, 81 m. from Melbourne and 30 from Wilson’s Promontory, forms the western boundary of Gipps’ Land.

|| The most southerly point of Australia, consisting of a lofty mass of granite, 20 m. long, and from 6 to 14 wide, and connected with the mainland by a low sandy isthmus, bearing the appearance of its having only recently been left dry.

39

l 39ie term scrub is applicable to dense assemblages of tea-tree and other harsh, wild, dwarfish shrubs.

40

Stony rises, consisting of innumerable hillocks, or ridges of rocky fragments, varying in height from 10 to 50 ft., crowded together in a confused mass, often diversify the surface of this tract. They are of basaltic character, usually vesicular, and evidently produced from some subterranean force, which, at no great depth from the surface, has raised up and broken into fragments the covering of lava and other volcanic products which previously spread over a great extent of this part of the country.

41

The number immediately following the name of any district or county indicates the population of that district or county.

42

These contracts, formed between the squatters and blacks, were afterwards declared null and void by the Homo Government, and the claims of these pioneer settlers disposed of by granting them a compensation of £70,000.

t In honour of Capt. Hobson, who commanded the vessel that conveyed him from Sydney.

I In honour of the reigning sovereign William IV.

$ After Lord Melbourne.

¡) The native name of the locality where this town is situated.

43

Notwithstanding the high price of even the necessaries of life, all classes of people, from the wealthy merchant down to the common bullock-driver, indulged in the most expensive luxuries; and so great was the consumption of champagne, that Gov. Gipps remarked, after a personal visit to the settlement (1S43), that “ the neighbourhood of Melbourne was literally strewn with champagne bottle43..’'

F 5

44

Named after Governor Gipps, and noted for its fertile soil, salubrious climate, and sheltered situation.

t By this event, also, the “ town ” thenceforth became the city of Melbourne.

J The inequality of the sexes in the colony, being in the ratio of three to one, bad led to schemes for promoting female immigration.

Previously, each squatter could hold any quantity of land by the payment of

45

On Mt. Lofty (S. hit., 34° 58'; E. long., 138° 49'), situated 7 m. E. of Adelaide, the mean temp, is about 12c or 15c lower than that of Adelaide; rainfall, 32 inches.

46

Adelaide, named in honour of Queen Adelaide, is situated in the centre of a vast plain, about 7 m. S.E. of Port Adelaide. It is divided into N. andS. bv the it. Torrens, which is spanned by three substantial bridges. It is surrounded by numerous suburbs ;—on the E. Kensington, Norwood, Magill, Stepney, &c. ; on the S., Mitcham, Unley, Edwards Town, &e., and the marine townships of trlenelg, New Glenelg, and St. Leonard’s; on the W., Theberton, Hindmarsh, and Bowden; on the N.E. and N., Walkcrville, Payneham, Islington, and Enfield 1 ort Adelaide, which is connected with the capital by a railway, is situated on the eastern bank of Torrens’ Inlet, which runs nearly parallel with the coast for about 12 miles.

47

The debt, contracted chiefly by the extravagant public expenditure of Gov. Gawler, amounted to £405,433, of which £285,730 was defrayed from the British treasury, and the balance.left to be defrayed from the proceeds of the colonial lands.

48

These, in common with the limestone, are supposed to have been formed in the sand by the percolation of rain-water dissolving the carbonate of lime found in the sand, and (the water being evaporated) re-depositing it in a crystalline state, forming all the adjacent grains into a more or less solid stone.

49

35 m. N.N.W. of Perth are the stalagmite caves of Maidin, some of which are about 200 ft. by 45.

50

On the banks of which coal and limestone are found in largo quantities

51

Brisbane, the capital, situated on the R. Brisbane about 25 m. from it» mouth, contains the Custom House, Supreme Court, Survey and Land Offices, &c. There are also banks connected with the Bank of N. S. Wales, Union Bank of Australia, Australian Joint Stock Bank, and the Moreton Bay Savings Bank.

52

t 640 m from Sydney.

53

J Ipswich is a rising town, situated on the R. Bremer, and surrounded by limestone plains and soil of the richest description. At Ipswich there are blanches of the Bank of Australasia and the Bank of N. S. Wales.

54

A narrow pass over the Dividing Range.

55

New Zealand is most nearly of all countries the antipodes of Gt. Britain.

' tin reducing the Polynesian and Maori dialects to a written form, the Italian pronunciation of the vowels has been followed ; i.e., a represents the sound heard in far ; e, the name sound of letter a ; i, the sound of ce ; o, as in English ; and u, the sound of oo. The English sounds of the consonants are preserved.

t Akaroa was the site of the French settlement formed in 1840, and yet retains many of its original settlers.

56

The tattooing of the face, and various portions of the body, is commenced as soon as an individual arrives at manhood, and being a most tedious and painful operation, is carried on at a series of intervals; it consists in driving a little chisel, made of bone, into the flesh in the required pattern, the operator dipping it at each stroke into a mixture of carbonised resin ; after the inflammation has disappeared, the lines appear regular and distinct, and of a dark blue colour. In a similar manner, the women dye their lips blue, puncturing them all over with a bone needle, and then rubbing in charcoal; many women also tattoo the chin, and occasionally the breasts, arms, and ankles.

57

By an Act of the General Assembly, (1st Jan., 1858), the name New Plymouth was altered to Province of Taranaki.

t From the 1st November, 1858, Hawke Bay (which formed part of the province of Wellington), has been established as a seventh province, under “ the provision of the New Province Act, 1858.”

58

Cook’s second visit was made (March 1773) in company with Furneax, and his third in 177U-7.

59

Capt. Marion, who put into the Bay of Islands (1772), was, along with some of his men, cruelly murdered by the natives.

60

The British Government issued the New Zealand Company’s Charter (12th Feb. 1841). Besides the settlement of Wellington, the Company had founded in Feb. 1841, the settlements of Petrie, on the Wanganui R , and New Plymouth, near the Sugar Loaf Is., at which places they continued to colonize, and moreover, planted (Oct. 1841) a fourth settlement called Nelson.

H

61

In 1847 there were petty disturbances in Wanganui, after the suppression of which peace was preserved until the breaking out (1859) of a revot larising out of land-questions between the Europeans and the natives. The struggle then commenced still continues (1861), although the natives have received a considerable check.

t During Capt. Grey's absence in 1854, and again during the period bet. his final departure and the arrival of Col. Browne, the allairs of the Government were administered by Col. Winyard.

62

From trappa, a stair: so called on account of the step-like or terraced sides of trap bills.

63

The Artificial, sometimes called the Linnaan, from Linnaeus the gTeat Swedishnaturalist (1707-1778), is founded onthenumber, situation, proportion, and connection of stamens and pistils; the Natural, suggested by Jussieu (an eminent French botanist, who from 1789 to 183G was engaged in improving the nomenclature and arrangement of the vegetable kingdom), and improved by ProfTess or DeCandolle, of Geneva, is founded on the natural ailinities of vegetable63.

64

The Cotyledons, or seed-lobes, are immediately attached to the embryo or germ (whence the life and organization of the future plant originate), of which they form, properly speaking, a part; and, when the seed has sufficiently established its root, generally rise out of the ground, and form a kind of leaves.

65

f The Dicotyledones are sometimes divided into the apetalous, or those without petals: the monopetalous, those with one petal; and the polypetalous, those with several petals.

66

J The Victoria regia, or water-lily of S. America, is of unrivalled beauty. Its floating leaves are two yards across, each having a turned-up margin like a tea-tray. The flowers are a foot across, formed of hundreds of petals of the most delicate rose-colour, and exhale a delicious perfume in the evening as they expand.

67

From the sap of the maple, sugar is obtained ; and its timber, as well as that of the sycamore, is remarkably light and close-grained, and therefore much used in veneering and inlaying.