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A    WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS.

V1 I-------- ---

C O K li ESrONDENCE

RESPECTING

NEW HEBRIDES, AND IN THE PACIFIC.

Jiimnttrö to tiotfi iDousre of IJarltamntt ftp dominant of iftct* ittaiegtin

August 1883.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY EYEE AND SPOTTISWOODE.

To bo purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from any of the following Agents, viz., Messrs. Hansard and Son, 13, Great Queen Street, W.C., and 32, Abingdon Street, Westminster; Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, and Sale Office, House of Lords:

Messrs. Adam and Charles Black, of Edinburgh;

Messrs. Alexander Thom and Co., or Messrs. Hodges, Figgis, and Co., of Dublin.

[C.—3814.] Price










































TABLE OE CONTENTS.

Serial No. 1

From or to whom#

Date. 1

Subject.

I

1

Gov. the Marquis of Normanby (Victoria).

June 9, 1883. (Rec. June 9, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Reporting that his Government are of opinion that the annexation or protectorate of the New Hebrides and the islands up to New Britain is essential to the future welfare of the Australian Colonies, and they urge immediate action.

Gov. Sir W. F. D. Jervois (New Zealand).

June 9, 1883. (Rec. June 9, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Reporting that his Ministers strongly urge the adoption of prompt measures to avert the annexation of Pacific Islands by foreign powers.

o

Gov. Sir G. C. Strahan (Tasmania).

June 9, 1883. (Rec. June9,1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Reporting that his Government joins with those of the other Australasian Colonies in urging that steps be taken to prevent the annexation to France of islands from the New Hebrides to New Ireland.

4

Premier of New Zealand to Agent General.

(Rec. June 10, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Instructing him to urge upon Iter Majesty’s Government to take prompt measures for the purpose of preventing the annexation of Pacific Islands by any foreign power.

Ó

Gov. Lord A. Loi'tus (New South Wales).

June 11, 1883. (Rec. June 11,1883,) (Telegraphic.)

Stating that the Government of New South Wales would prefer that the South Sea Islands should be under British rule rather than that of any foreign power, but that they have no knowledge of intended annexation beyond a cablegram from Melbourne.

G

Gov. Sir W. C. F. Robinson (South Australia).

June 12, 1883. (Rec. June 12, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Stating that his Ministers favour the annexation of the New Hebrides and the adjacent islands.

t

The Premier of Victoria to the Agent General.

June 12, 1883. (Telegraphic.)

Giving the substance of a telegram from the Governor to Lord Derby, and requesting him to back the message up strongly and urgently.

8

The Colonial Secretary (New South Wales) to the Agent General.

June 9, 1883. (Received at C.O. June 12, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Requesting Agent General to urge upon Her Majesty’s Government that Imperial occupation would be infinitely preferable to the risk of foreign, but that lie has no knowledge of any foreign movements.

9

Administrator Sir A. IT. Palmer (Queensland).

(Rec. June 13, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Strongly urging, with the advice of Ministers, the annexation of the New Hebrides and islands up to New Britain.

10

Gov. F. Napier Broome (West Australia).

(Rec. June 18, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Submitting that Imperial policy, apart from interests of Australia, render desirable the annexations in the Pacific urged by the Victorian Government.

Page.

2

K 776 4. Wt. 7801.    ft 2

Serial

No.

From or to -whom.

Date.

Subject.

Page.

11

The Agent General for Queensland.

June 25, 1883.

Reporting receipt of a telegram from the Premier instructing him to support the annexation of Pacific islands.

3

12

Gov. Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).

July (», 1883. (Rec. July 6, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Reporting the receipt of a hitter from the Governor of New Caledonia with reference 1o the rumoured hoisting of the French flag over the New Hebrides, which appears to prevent any action inconsistent with the expressions exchanged between the two powers.

3

13

Reuter’s Telegraphic Agency.

July (», 1883. (Telegraphic.)

Reporting a rumour at Sydney that the French dag has been hoisted over the New Hebrides, and that the Queensland Parliament is expected to be dissolved.

3

14

To Foreign Office

July 9, 1883.

Transmitting copy of a 1 eh »grain from Rcut.er, and paraphrase of a telegram from the Governor of New South Wales, on the subject of the rumoured annexation of the New Hebrides by France, and requesting that Lord Lyons may be instructed 1o ascertain if the rumour is correct.

3

15

Foreign Office -

July 11, 1883.

Enclosing copy of an instruction to Lord Lyons in the sense suggested in C.O. letter of 2nd July, regarding the supposed understanding between England and France with reference to New Guinea.

3

16

Gov. the Marquis of Normanby (Victoria).

Rec. July 19, 1883. (Telegraphic.)

Reporting the reception of a deputation conveying the resolution of a large, influential, and representative meeting in favour of the annexation of New Guinea.

4

17

To the Agent General for Victoria.

July 19, 1883.

Stating that the expression of the opinion of the Victorian Parliament with regard to New Guinea will receive the careful consideration of Her Majesty’s Government.

4

18

The Agents General for New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, and Victoria.

, July 21, 1883. (Rec. July 24, 1883.)

Submitting reasons for the establishment by Her Majesty’s Government of a Protectorate over islands of the Western Pacific and the eastern part of New Guinea.

5

19

To Admiralty -

July 24, 1883.

Expressing the hope that provision will be made for the presence of a man-of-war on the coast of New Guinea for some time to come, and ■without any avoidable interruption.

16

20

Administrator Sir A. IT. Palmer (Queensland).

May 21, 1883. (Rec. July 25, 1883.)

Expressing the opinion that the action taken by the Queensland Government with regard to New Guinea was not only right and proper, but that it should have been taken long since.

16

21

Admiralty -

July 25, 1883.

Suggesting that Mr. Rom illy should proceed from Sydney to Fiji by any opportunity that oilers, and stating that the Commodore would then give him a passage to New Guinea in the vessel selected to proceed thither.

17 .

Serial

No.

22

23

21

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32


From or to whom.


Foreign


Office


Fate.


July 25, 1883.


The Agent General for    July 2G, 1883.

Queensland.


Gov. Sir W. F. 1). Jervois    June 1G, 1883.

(New Zealand).    (Ree. July 27, 1883.)


To Gov. Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).


Gov. Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).


The Agent General for


New Zealand.


Foreign Office -


Gov. Sir W. F. C. Robinson (South Australia).


Gov. F. N. Broome (West Australia).


To Foreign Office


Ditto


July 27, 1883, (Telegraphic.)


July 28, 1883. (Ree. July 28, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)

Aug. 1, 1883.


Aug. 4, 1883.


Aug. 9, 1883. (Ree. Aug. 9, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)


Aug. 10, 1883. (Ree. Aug. 10, 1883.) (Telegraphic.)


Aug. 10, 1883.


Aug. 10, 1883.


Subject.


Transmitting copy of correspondence between Foreign Office and the French Charge d’Affaires, and stating intention of informing the latter that Her Majesty’s Government consider the declaration of 1878 to be in full force.


Transmitting copy telegram from Premier of the Colony stating that French authorities now decline to apply for extradition of escaped criminals from Noumea.


Submitting the special reasons why the extension of Her Majesty’s rule over the New Hebrides and other Pacific islands would be most beneficial to the Australasian colonies.

“Instruct Romilly proceed Fiji instantly; Commodore will arrange passage New Guinea.”

Reporting the return of ll.M.S. Miranda, and that Mr. Romilly arrived at Fiji on July 9th.

Transmitting copy of a telegram from the New Zealand Government respecting the proposed annexation of unoccupied islands in the Pacific.

Pointing out that it appears unnecessary, in view of the statement made by Count d’Aunay that the French Government considered the agreement of 1878 to be still binding, to address that Government as to the rumoured hoisting of the French flag over the New Hebrides.


Reporting that an opposition motion in Parliament blaming Colonial Government for not joining other Colonies in urging annexation of the New Hebrides has been defeated.


Reporting that Legislative Council support proposed annexation of New Guinea.


Concurring in proposed reply to the French Charge d’Affaires to the effect that Her Majesty’s Government hold the declaration of 1878 to be in full force.


Transmitting copy letter and enclosure from the Agent General for Queensland, together with one from the Agents General of New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, and Victoria jointly, and suggesting that an immediate representation should be made to the French Government on the subject of escaped criminals from Noumea, and the policy contemplated with regard to that settlement.


Page.


18


20


20


oi


' 21


21


21


22


22


22


22


38

59

From or to whom.

Date.

Subject.

Gov. the i Marquis o£ Normanby (Victoria).

J une 27, 1883. (Fee. Aug. 13, 1883.)

Transmitting a letter from the Premier, Mr. Service, calling attention to certain considerations with regard to the annexation of the New Hebrides.

To Gov. the Marquis of Normauby (Victoria).

Aug. 18, 1883.

Stating that Secretary of State has read with attention Mr. Service’s letter and enclosure respecting the proposed annexation of the New Hebrides.

Foreign Office -

Aug. 27, 1883.

Transmitting copy of a Despatch to Her Majesty’s Minister at Paris instructing him to make a representation to the French Government in the sense of the C.O. letter of the 10th August respecting the transportation of relapsed criminals to New Caledonia.

Gov. the Marquis of Normanby (Victoria).

July 12, 1883. (Ree. Aug. 28, 1883.)

Transmitting copies of an address conveying resolutions of both Houses of Parliament, advocating the annexation of New Guinea and certain other islands in the Pacific.

To the Agent General for New Zealand.

Aug. 29, 1883.

Pointing out that the telegram from the New Zealand Government appears to have been based on a misapprehension of the intentions of ller Majesty’s Government, who are not prepared at present to receive contributions from the Colonies towards the cost of annexing any of the unoccupied islands in the Pacific.

Agent General for New Zealand.

Aug. 30, 1883.

Transmitting copy of a letter from Sir Julius Vogel, requesting that a correction may be made in the letter from the Agents General of the 21st July, which refers to a projected trading company for the Pacific.

To the Agents General for New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, and Victoria.

Aug. 31, 1883.

Replying lo their letter of the 21st July, and stating that Her Majesty’s Government are far from being satisfied that the assumption of the responsibilities which a protectorate over the New Hebrides and other islands would involve is necessary or justifiable.

Page.

23

30

31

31

32

32

33


Serial

No.

33

34

35

36

37

7


C 0 It It E S I’ 0 N D E N C E

RESPECTING

NEW GUINEA, THE NEW HEBRIDES, AND OTHER

ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC.

No. 1.

Governor the MARQUIS OF NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria), to the Right

Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received June 9, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

9tli June. My Government represent to me that there is a strong feeling here that the annexation or protectorate of the New Hebrides and the islands up to New Britain is essential to the future welfare of these Colonies. They strongly urge immediate action in the matter.

No. 2.

Governor Sir W. F. D. JERVOIS, G.C.M.G., C.B. (New Zealand), to the Right

Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received June (J, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

9th June. It is reported that foreign powers purpose appropriating Pacific Islands. Great anxiety felt here on the subject. My advisers strongly urge adoption of prompt measures to avert such a catastrophe from Australia. Looking to the future I concur in thinking it desirable.

No. 3.

Governor Sir G. C. STRAHAN, K.C.M.G. (Tasmania), to the Right IIon. the

EARL OF DERBY. (Received June 9» 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

9th June. This Government in view of a rumour that the French Government intends immediate annexation of islands from New lie brides to New Ireland desires to join the other Colonics in strongly urging that steps be taken in the interests of Australia to prevent such annexation.

No. 4.

The Premier of NEW ZEALAND to the AGENT-GENERAL (London). (Sent lo the Colonial Office by Sir F. D. Bell, June LO, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

Reported foreign powers propose appropriating Pacific Islands. Urge strongly Imperial Government prompt measures avert such catastrophe from Australasia. Act concert Victorian Agent-General.

It 77R4.


Wt. 5154.


A


No. 5.

Governor the Right Hon. Wales), to the Right Hon.


LORI) AUGUSTUS LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South the EARL OF DERBY. (Received dune 11, 1883.)

(T ELEGKAl’HIC.)

1 Ith June. New South Wales Government would prefer that the South Sea Islands should he under British rule rather than that of any foreign power. Have no knowledge of intended annexation beyond telegram from Melbourne.

No. 6.
Governor Sir W. F. C. ROBINSON, K.C.M.G. (South Australia), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received June 12, 1883.)

(T ELEGllAPHIC.)

12th June. In common with other Colonies mv Ministers favour the annexation of New Hebrides and the islands adjacent thereto.

No. 7.

The Premier of VICTORIA to the AGENT-GENERAL, London.

(Telegraphic.)

(Left at the Colonial Office by Mr. Murray Smith, June 12, 1883.)

Governor has sent to Derby following:—

[Here follows substance of telegram from Lord Normanby of Oth June.]

other Colonies join in representations ; back it up strongly and urgently; if authorities object to expense think Colonies would contribute.

No. 8.

The COLONIAL SECRETARY, New South Wales, to the AGENT-GENERAL,

London.

(Left at the Colonial Office by Sir Saul Samuel, June 12, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

9th June 1883. Observing suggestion England assuming Islands New Hebrides to Guinea urge Imperial Government’s occupation infinitely preferable to risk of foreign, but I have no knowledge here of any foreign movements.

No. 9-

Administrator Sir A. H. PALMER, K.C.M.G. (Queensland), to the Right Hon.

the EARL OF DERBY. (Received June 13, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

Have heard with alarm French annexation New Hebrides imminent. New Caledonia has been intolerable nuisance to us. The possession of New Hebrides and islands up to New Britain is of such immense importance to the future of Australian Colonies that I strongly, with the advice of Ministers, urge annexation.

No. 10.

Governor F. NAPIER BROOME, C.M.G. (Wi :st Australia), to the Right Hon.

the EARL OF DERBY. (Received June 18, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

I submit that Imperial policy, apart from the future and the commercial interests of Australia, render- desirable the annexations in the Pacific urged by the Victorian Government.

No. 11.

THE AGENT-GENERAL FOR QUEENSLAND to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Queensland Government Office,

1, Westminster Chambers, Victoria Street,

Sir,    London, S.W., June 25, 1S83.

i have the honour to forward, for the information of the Right Honourable the Earl of Derby, the following copy of a telegram I have received from the Honourable Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, Premier of Queensland:—

• Brisbane, 20th June.

“ Support annexation Pacific Island; admit Colonies should contribute expense.”

I have, &c.

(Signed) THOS. ARCHER,

The Under Secretary of State,    Agent General.

Colonial Office.

No. 12.

Governor the Right Hon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received July G, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

With regard to the rumour of the hoisting of the French flag on the New Hebrides I have received to day from the Governor of New Caledonia a letter dated 21st June, which appears to prevent any act inconsistent with the expressions exchanged between the two Powers.

No. 13.

REUTER’S TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY to COLONIAL OFFICE.

(Received July 6, 1883.)

Sydney, Friday. It is stated that French war steamer has hoisted the French flag over the New Hebrides. Queensland Parliament expected to be dissolved owing to defeat of Ministry on Railway Bill.

No. 14.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, July 9, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you, to be laid before Earl Granville, a copy of a telegram received in this Department from Reuters,* reporting that the French flag has been hoisted over the New Hebrides.

I am to request, that you will move Lord Granville to instruct Lord Lyons to ascertain whether there is foundation for this report.

1 am also to enclose a paraphrase of a telegram f from the Governor of New South Wales respecting the report that the French flag has been hoisted in the New Hebrides.

I am, &c.

(Signed) JOHN BltAMSTON.

The Under Secretary of State, Foreign Office.


No. 15.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, July 11, 1883.

I have laid before Earl Granville your letter of the 2nd instant, f communicating the Earl of Derby’s observations in regard to a remark made by Count d’Aunay in the course of conversation with Lord Granville in regard to a supposed understanding between England and France on the question of annexations in New Guinea, and I am

* No. 13.


t No. 12.

A 2


J Not printed.


10


now to inclose, for Lord Derby’s information, a copy of' an instruction which Lord Granville has in consequence addressed to Her Majesty’s Ambassador in Paris.

I have, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 15.

My Lord,    Foreign Office, July 7, 1883.

I have to inform your Excellency that I communicated to Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonial Department a copy of my Despatch to you, of the 20th ultimo, recording a conversation which I had had with Count d’Aunay on the question, among other matters, of the intentions of Her Majesty’s Government in regard to annexation in New Guinea, in the course of which the French Charge d’Affaires adverted to a supposed understanding between the Governments of England and France that neither country should adopt a policy of annexation in that quarter without previous notice and agreement.

The Earl of Derby has in reply called attention to the fact that Her Majesty’s Government are not aware of the existence of any such agreement or understanding with the French Government in the case of New Guinea, and suggests that it. may not be unlikely that the mutual assurances given by both Governments in 1878 in respect of the independence of the New Hebrides, may have been in Count d’Aunay’s mind when referring to New Guinea.

Although the matter has no practical bearing after the assurances given by M. d’Aunay, and afterwards by the President of the Council, that the French Government had no intention of interfering with the island of New Guinea, I have to request that your Excellency will take an early opportunity of putting this matter right with the Minister for Foreign Affairs.

I am, &c.

His Excellency    (Signed) Granville.

The Viscount Lyons, G.C.B.

&c.    &c.

No. 16.

Governor the MARQUIS OF NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria), to the Right

Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received July 19, 1883.)

Telegraphic.

Annexation Guinea and Pacific Islands. Am waited upon by Mayor, Melbourne and deputation; bring resolutions, large influential representative meeting, endorsing recent resolutions of Parliament in interest of natives as well as Australia; speakers were Justice Higinbotham, Honourable Vale Harper, Reverend Hamer Rentoul McDonald, Missionary.

No. 17.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the AGENT GENERAL FOR VICTORIA.

Sir,    Downing Street, July 19, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 12th instant,1 reporting that a resolution had been passed unanimously by both Houses of the Victorian Parliament, in favour of the annexation of New Guinea and other islands in the Western Pacific, or of the assumption of a protectorate over these territories, and informing his Lordship that the Government and Parliament of Victoria had expressed their willingness to contribute towards the expense of such an undertaking.

The expression by the Parliament of Victoria of their opinion on this subject will receive the careful consideration of Her Majesty’s Government.

I am, &c.

The Agent General for Victoria.    (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

o

No. 18.

THE AGENTS GENERAL FOR NEW SOUTH WALES, NEW ZEALAND, QUEENSLAND, and VICTORIA to LORD DERBY. (Received July 24.)

My I -iOud,    London, July 21, 188.1.

In accordance with the desire expressed by your Lordship on the occasion of our recent interview with you, we purpose now to place before your Lordship in writing' the representations which wc then submitted to you on the annexation or Protectorate of the Western Pacific Islands and the eastern portion of New Guinea.

It is no doubt well known to your Lordship that during a period now extending over more than 30 years, the Australasian Colonies have one after another pressed upon Her Majesty’s Government the expediency of bringing the Islands of the Western Pacific within the dominion or the protection of England. And we feel assured that the whole question will appear to your Lordship invested with a graver aspect, when for the first time the Governments of nearly all the Dependencies of England in Australasia come before Her Majesty’s Government to make a united remonstrance against the present state of affairs in the Western Pacific, and to ask from the Imperial authority the adoption of such a definite policy and purpose as they believe is essential to their future well-being.

It is true that fear of foreign intervention has been the immediate cause of this concerted action on the part of the Australasian Government; and this, we understood, seemed to your Lordship hardly adequate to justify a strong sense of present danger. We can assure you that our Governments would receive with a sense of great relief your Lordship’s assurance that there is no foundation for our fears. But it is not only the apprehension of immediate foreign intervention that has influenced our Governments ; nor would its removal change their opinion as to the necessity for making it impossible in the future. Other powerful reasons bring them together to urge upon the Imperial Government the necessity of a policy different from the one that has been pursued in the past; the conviction, indeed, that the state of things in the Western Pacific has at last become intolerable. We feel that we ought not to say this, without an attempt to trace the course of events that have led to so grave a declaration.

It was in 1848 that Sir George Grey, then Governor of New Zealand, first called the attention of the Imperial Government to a “ species of trade in the native inhabitants “ which had commenced in the Pacific,” and to the danger of foreign annexation; pointing out the necessity of providing against these in time. For many years successive appeals of the same kind, and from one Colony after another, were made to Iler Majesty’s Government to interfere, In the meanwhile, the constant repetition of outrages in the Pacific had become such a scandal to civilisation, that the Imperial Government resolved to make a vigorous attempt to repress them. The Foreign Jurisdiction Acts, which had been in existence in various forms since 1828, and the Pacific Islanders Protection Act of 1872, had proved insufficient to meet the increasing difficulties of the case. At last, in 1875, two Acts of Parliament were passed, amending the former law, defining more clearly the powers and jurisdiction of Her Majesty in the Pacific Ocean, and creating the office of High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. These were followed, two years after, by the promulgation of the “ Western Pacific Order in “ Council of 1877,” which established the High Commissioner’s Court, with elaborate provision for the government of the Western Pacific: and the new colony of Fiji, which had meanwhile been created in 1876, became the centre of the High Commissioner’s operations.

The humane intentions of the Imperial Government in these measures have always commanded the respect and sympathy of the Australasian Colonics : and if it had ever been possible to give them real effect, we should not be addressing your Lordship to-day. But there was an inherent difficulty, the result of which could hardly have been foreseen at the time, but which was certain to paralyse every endeavour to confer the benefits of law and order on the vast region, stretching from New Guinea across the Pacific Ocean, which those measures embraced. The Act of 1875, which created the office of High Commissioner, only empowered Her Majesty to “ exercise power “ and jurisdiction over Her subjects ” within the Islands, and expressly declared that nothing in the Act or in any Order in Council under it should “ extend, or be con-“ strued to extend, to invest Her Majesty with any claim or title whatsoever to  dominion or sovereignty ” over the Islands, or to “ derogate from the rights of the tc tribes or people inhabiting them, or of their Chiefs or rulers, to such sovereignty “ or dominion.” And although the powers of the Order in Council were apparently extended so as to include foreigners in a few specified cases, they' were practically

A 3

¡2


Sir A. Gordon, -July 16. 1881.


Sir A. Gordon, Kob. 26,

1881.


Sir A. Gordon, April


1881.


Sir A. Gordon, July 16, 188 I.


1 1 '    4 A i

Sir J\. ( ror-don, June 16, 188:.'.


Sir A. Gordon, Muy M,

1882.


(Commodore \\ ilson.

An 2.1880.


Governor Des Vœux, Vi'h. 2d 1882.


restricted to British subjects only, for no foreigner could be brought under the High Commissioner’s jurisdiction unless he could produce the consent in writing of the competent authority on behalf of his own nation,” a condition which, from the nature of things, could seldom if ever be fulfilled.

Nor did the Order in Council fully carry out the idea with which it had been originally devised. Though the Act was passed in 18/5, it was not till 1877 that the Order in Council under it was issued ; and it was not till 1878 that it could be brought into operation in the Pacific. Meanwhile the intentions of Her Majesty’s Government had undergone some change. Differences arose between the naval authorities and the Acting High Commissioner as to their respective powers. The work to be done was daily becoming more and more difficult, and the nature of the difficulty was becoming better known to Her Majesty’s Government. Hardly was the Order in Council brought into operation, when it was found to be too intricate and complicated an instrument, bristling as it did with technicalities and minute provisions in precise legal language, to be really workable. The High Commissioner described the position in which he was placed in the clearest terms. His jurisdiction being one extending over British subjects exclusively, he had no authority whatever to deal, whether judicially or in his executive capacity, with offences by natives of islands not under the dominion of the Crown. He more than once represented to the Imperial Government that unless such a jurisdiction were created as would be competent to take cognisance also of offences committed against British subjects, the infliction of punishment cn these for outrages against natives in the same regions, was certain to excite on their part a natural irritation, and a sense of being treated with injustice. But the reply to his representations invariably was, that “ in the “ opinion of the law officers of the Crown, insuperable obstacles existed to any assump- tion of jurisdiction by Her Majesty over others than British subjects, beyond the

limits of Her dominions.”

The High Commissioner could not with fairness be reproached for not having exercised a jurisdiction which he had been strictly forbidden to assume. Early in 1881 he reminded Lord Kimberley how often the attention of Her Majesty’s Government had been painfully called to the greatly increased frequency of the murder of Europeans by natives in the islands of the Western Pacific ; this he attributed (among other causes) to the “ far greater intercourse between whites and natives,” and to the possession of firearms by the latter, “ which had given them a confidence and boldness they did not “ before possess.” Later on he recommended that power should be granted for the trial of natives for offences against British subjects, where such a power might be conceded by the native Chiefs themselves ; but it would have been no easier to get the assent of the natives than that of foreigners. The High Commissioner regretted that so elaborate an instrument as the Order in Council had been in the first instance prepared ; and he represented that, of its 321 articles, by far the greater part were never called into use, that it was constantly found, in the remoter regions of the Pacific, impossible to comply with its directions, and that the powers intended to be conferred by it were therefore ineffectual. So things went on from 1877 to 1881.

Another year elapsed, and the evils only got worse. In the hope of lessening them, the High Commissioner appointed two officers, Captain Dale, R.N., and Captain Cyprian Bridge, H.N., commanding Il.M.S. “ Diamond” and “ Espiègle,” to be Deputy Commissioners. But the old difficulty reasserted itself at once, that there was no jurisdiction over foreigners ; the evil-doers of any nation had only to represent themselves as belonging to some other nationality, in order to escape control. In his instructions to the Deputy Commissioners, »Sir A. Gordon warned them that they would have difficulty in ascertaining who were British subjects and who were not, because many would seek to plead some other nationality, and that they would find caution to be essentially requisite, as they had no jurisdiction whatever over any foreigner unless he submitted to it voluntarily. There was never any doubt that this device of assuming other nationalities would be resorted to by criminals ; but it was hardly necessary to resort to it, for outrages in which foreigners were openly concerned took place. A boat from a vessel named the “ Aurora,” flying the French flag, had a collision with the natives of an island called Api in the New Hebrides group, in which the Chief of a small village was shot. The natives thereupon resolved to murder the first white man they could in revenge. An English labour vessel, the “ Dauntless,” went to the island shortly afterwards to recruit labourers ; her boat was decoyed to the beach, when the natives opened fire with rifles, killing the second mate and wounding the Government Agent. Complaints were often made of there being cases of kidnapping by French vessels at one island or another, and consequent threats of the natives that they would kill the first white man who went there. An inquiry was held at Noumea respecting the French vessel “ Aurora ; ” in her


case it was clearly shown that the crew had put in practice the worst form of kidnapping, such as staving in or running down canoes, capturing the natives, and shooting those who attempted to escape. Labourers were being apparently recruited by the crews of vessels nearly all of which flew foreign flags. The planters of all nationalities were greatly exasperated by the conduct of masters of labour vessels, both French and English, in enticing away their servants. Where the foreigner committed an outrage, he was not amenable to punishment; where he suffered injury, he could get no redress in the High Commissioner’s Court.

But if there was serious trouble by reason of there being no jurisdiction over foreigners, another trouble was growing up even more serious because there was none over natives. So far from outrages diminishing after the Order in Council was promulgated, they increased. In November 1880, Commander Bower, R.N., of H.M.S. “ Sandfly,” with a boat's crew, were put to death on a small island of the Solomon group under circumstances of much barbarity. The Governor of New South Wales reported to the Colonial Office that “ the atrocious murders lately committed by the South Sea islanders had “ caused and were causing a very deep feeling of pain and indignation.” The newspapers teemed with accounts of these outrages : it was said that “ no week passed without “ the announcement of another massacre in the Islands.” The exasperation predicted by Sir Arthur Gordon as certain to occur, was becoming greater every day. Early in 1881 Lord Kimberley, in a Despatch to the High Commissioner, deplored the “ unusual “ number of outrages-by natives upon white men which had recently been reported to “ the Colonial Office.” In the meanwhile stern reprisals had been resorted to. When the outrage took place at the Island of Api, in revenge for what had been done by the crew of a French vessel, the Commodore had gone down in H.M.S. “ Wolverene ” and landed a party of 100 seamen and marines, who destroyed four of the villages implicated, and cut down the fruit plantations in their vicinity. And now, after the “ Sandfly ” outrage, the Commodore felt it his duty to take even severer measures. In December 1880 he sent down Captain Maxwell, R.N., in H.M.S. “ Emerald,” to inflict punishment not only for the “ Sandfly ” murders, but for others that had been committed on crews of the vessels “ Ripple,” “ Esperanza,” “ Borealis,” and “ Anne Brooks.” The punishment was very severe. From bay to bay, from island to island, the villages were set in flames, the cocoanut and other fruit trees cut down, and the canoes destroyed. “ There was no more to be done,” said Captain Maxwell, “ in the way of hunting these wretched people .    . they have been hunted and worried till it will be long before

they settle again .    . I regret that my whole voyage in these islands has been one

of apparently ruthless destruction ; but no other course has been possible.” Nor was this enough. A few months afterwards a still stronger step was taken. Commander Bruce of H.M.S. “ Cormorant ” was sent to the Florida Isles by the Commodore to bring the perpetrators of the “ »Sandfly ” murders to justice; there he issued a declaration that “ In consequence of an English officer and boat’s crew being murdered by “ Florida men, the Queen of England declares war with the whole tribes of Floridas, “ unless the actual murderers are given up in 14 days ” ; adding that “ in case of any other white man being killed in the Floridas Isles, the whole of the Chiefs would be held responsible, and the Floridas Islands be considered to be at war with the Queen of England.” Bishop Selwyn, being then on the spot, humanely did all he could to save life. Writing to Commander Bruce, he says, “ I have acted as I have done,.because “ you, sir, as the representative of Her Majesty, have declared war against all the people “ of these islands unless the murderers are given up ; it appears to me to be my duty to save the people from such a calamity, by using what influence I possess to induce them to comply with Her Majesty’s demands.” The Commodore “fully approved of “ the ‘ Cormorant’s ’ action at the Floridas.” Thus it seemed that a naval officer, in reprisals for an outrage, might issue a declaration of war ” against entire tribes in the Western Pacific, and that what he required must be considered as being “ Her Majesty’s demands.” Surely it was not this which could ever have been looked for as the outcome of the scheme of 1875 for the government of the Western Pacific.


Commotion»

Wilson,

Fob. 26,

1882.

V-ilf»till 1L

Bridge,R.N Aug. 3, 1882.

Captain IIridge, R.N., Aug. 16,

1 OO.'»


Commodoiv

Wilson,

Doc. 2, 1880.

Lord A.

Loft us,

Doc. 28,

1 QQA

i '    \ • •

“ Sydney Tolograpli.”

Lord Kini-borloy, Jan. 16, 1881.


Commodore Wilson, Aug. 22. 1880.


u


u


u


u


u


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a


Remedies which were suggested.

It is no wonder that such a state of things should have caused serious anxiety to Her Majesty’s Government, or that the Secretary of State should have desired the High Commissioner to advise what was now to be done. That the Order in Council had failed was evident; “ an acknowledgment,” says Sir Arthur Gordon, “ that the present " system is a failure, and the consequent repeal of the Order in Council would have the merit of simplicity.” But the question was what should be put in its place. When

A 4


££


£ £


Captain

Maxwell,

Jan.

31. 1881.


Commander Bruce, May 15, 1 81.


Bishop Sel-WVli, May

17, 1881.

Commodoiv* Wilson, July 30, 1881.    ‘


Sir A. Gordon, »Tunc 16, 1882.

( Memorandum.)


Lord Kimberley , Oct.


1, 1881.


Sir A. Kennedy, Dec. 2.3. 1881,


Sir A. Gordon, June lb, 1882.


Sir A. Gordon, June Hi, 1882.

(Memorandum.)


the news came home of the events we have just described, Lord Kimberley sent a Despatch to the Governor of Queensland, saying that it was contemplated to invite the Naval Powers to agree to the appointment of a Joint Commission for considering the measures which should be taken for the regulation of the labour traffic, the trade in firearms, and the prevention and punishment of outrages of all kinds under the sanction of a Convention between Her Majesty’s Government and the other Powers. The Queensland Government immediately expressed their willingness to co-operate with the Imperial authorities for such a plan. The High Commissioner expressed his own concurrence. “ Some sort of international agreement,” he said, “ seems to me to form an “ essential part of any satisfactory arrangement.” He then went on to make several recommendations for improving the existing system, one of which was that the judicial powers conferred by the Orders in Council should be so extended by Act of Parliament as to render offences committed by natives against British subjects equally cognisable with those committed by British subjects against natives. But it would evidently have been useless to assume jurisdiction over the native people, and continue to except foreigners. Nor did the High Commissioner shrink from admitting this. “ To obtain,” he said. “ the power of dealing satisfactorily with the misdeeds of other whites than Englishmen, or of punishing attacks upon them, an international agreement, having the sanction of a treaty with France, Germany, and the United States, would be necessary. Such an arrangement would probably involve the substitution for the High  Commission of a Mixed Commission similar to the old Mixed Commission Slave “ Trade Courts.” And Sir Arthur Gordon then went on, with perfect truth, to touch the real kernel of the whole matter. “ It should be borne in mind,” he said, “ that the “ punishment of outrages, though at present forced into prominence, is not the only nor “ the most important matter which has to be dealt with in these seas ”; and he reminded the Secretary of State that the jurisdiction of the High Commissioner and his Court was one “ primarily created to bring law, both civil and criminal, within the reach of British “ subjects far from all other legal tribunals ; to check aggressive lawlessness ; and to  regulate the growth and development of British settlements in the Western Pacific.” This was wise language. But when such recommendations were made, it was difficult to escape the logical conclusion from them. Once let it be admitted that the Imperial Government can pass an Act such as was advised by the High Commissioner, and is there anything but the thinnest veil left between that and the assertion of the very right of “ sovereignty or dominion ” which it was the purpose of the Act of 1875 to forbid ?


CC


cc


(C


Sir A. Gordon, April 2.3, 1881.


It would not be fair if we did not refer to other remedies which were suggested by the High Commissioner. Early in 1881, after reciting the causes for the increased frequency of murder of Europeans by natives in the Western Pacific, Sir Arthur Gordon referred to two ways by which they could be prevented in future. “One is,” he said, “that “ which I know on good authority was seriously contemplated by Her Majesty’s “ Government some years ago, the establishment of a strong chartered company “ possessing an exclusive right to trade . . Another course would be to limit the

Sir A. Gordon, filine, l( ìòo~.


protection given for trading operations to those carried on at certain specified localities.” But Sir Arthur Gordon even then allowed that the time for any scheme of a chartered company had passed, and last year he proposed another plan to improve the working of the existing High Commission, the leading features of which, in addition to extending his jurisdiction by a new Act of Parliament, were the appointment of three Deputy Commissioners, the conferring of Deputy Commissioners’ powers on naval officers in command of II.M. cruisers, and the permanent employment of a vessel, not a man-of-war, in the service of the Commission.

Whatever might have been the recommendations some years ago, in favour of granting an exclusive right of trading in the Western Pacific to a chartered company, wc entirely agree with Sir Arthur Gordon that the time for any such scheme has long gone by. An elaborate plan was devised in 18/6 by Sir Julius Vogel, then Premier of New Zealand, and the present Premier of that Colony, Mr. Whitaker, for the establishment of a great trading company for the Western Pacific; but it fell to the ground, as any scheme of the kind now proposed must inevitably do. There are no circumstances in the Pacific similar to those which were held to justify the granting of a Royal Charter in November 1881 to the North Borneo Company; on the contrary, there are circumstances essentially adverse to any plan of the kind. But even if there were not, we may point to two things which alone ought now to dismiss it from consideration. In the first place, it would always have been futile to imagine that any grant of exclusive rights of trade to a company would be effectual even in the case of British traders; not only would they have traded in spite of it, but at no time after the promulgation of the Order

in Council could any such exclusive grant have been made without grave injustice to them ; while, as regards foreigners, such a right would not have affected the French,

German, and American traders, and if it was not to be respected by everybody, it must necessarily fail as a remedy. There are already French companies established in New Caledonia, whose operations extend over many of the islands, and there will certainly be several others. By what process could these companies be prevented from trading ?

The slightest attempt to do so would show how the question ever comes back to the same point; to the exercise, namely, of rights of “ sovereignty and dominion.” But, in the; second place, we feel sure your Lordship will allow that in any scheme for giving a chartered company exclusive rights of trade, the interests and the wishes of Australasia could not be left out of consideration. Now, the exclusive right to trade could not exist for a moment in the islands without some right to govern, and the Governments of Australasia could not be expected to acquiesce in any right of government being transferred from the Imperial authority to any other authority than their own.

Moreover, even if anything could be said for the palliatives which have been suggested as being applicable to the smaller groups of islands, it is certain that they would be utterly useless in the case of New Guinea. Sir Arthur Gordon has himself pointed out the only means by which the question of New Guinea can ever be settled. His opinion on this subject has long been familiar to your Lordship, but it is only now that it has become known. “ I am irresistibly compelled,” he said, “ to adopt a conclusion which Sir A. C5or-“ I should have wished to avoid, and which I was at first inclined to think mi edit be <1°", Nov. 22, avoided, namely, that the annexation by Great Britain of at least certain portions of ' '

New Guinea will speedily become inevitable, even if the necessity for such a step has not already arisen .    . Could I sec any other way of dealing satisfactorily with

such a state of things, I would recommend a resort to it; but I must with regret admit that, after the most careful consideration, I am unable to perceive any mode of meeting these difficulties except by annexation ; for it appears to me necessary that territorial jurisdiction should be assumed by Great Britain to enable us to deal with offences committed by foreigners associated with British settlers, or with those committed by natives, and unless such jurisdiction over them be assumed, I question the practicability of exercising it with the smallest degree of efficiency over British subjects ‘ themselves; and I must confess, therefore, that I see no middle course between annexation and the abandonment of all control over the acts of British subjects in New Guinea, involving a practical acquiescence in the establishment there of a reign of lawless violence and anarchy. This latter is a course which we cannot creditably adopt, and which, indeed, were we disposed to take it, we should after a time be forced to abandon. A greater or less degree of annexation, consequently, appears to me “ inevitable. Should there be any other method, unknown to me but known toller “ Majesty’s Government, by which such cases could be met, I need not say I should <l prefer its adoption.”

It is true that this opinion was given by the High Commissioner at a time when there was much excitement over the reported existence of rich goldfields in New Guinea, and when an expectation existed of a great influx of miners taking place there, which was never fulfilled. But though gold-mining on a large scale has not yet come to aggravate the evils described by the High Commissioner, other events have happened whose impelling force has not been less towards the same solution than would have been the presence of a large body of miners. To these we shall refer later on.


ii


a


a


a


a


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a


a


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a


a


a


Trade.


We have endeavoured to trace the events which have gradually but surely been pressing with ever increasing force for a new policy on the Western Pacific question.

We now turn from these to a matter just as pressing, namely, the constantly growing trade of all that region.

At the end of 1881 Commodore Wilson collected from the various customs officers Customs ro-somc valuable returns of the commerce between the Australasian Colonies and the ,un,1S: Western Pacific Islands ; from these we have taken out the following evidence of what n,‘“uo,'f, VVT the trade amounted to in the 10 years from 18/1 to 1880:—    1882.


The Commodore did not merely point out how large was, even at that time, the value of this trade ; he said significantly that “ as yet the sources of trade may be said to be “ in their infancy." He might have added that these customs returns only included, of course, the British trade, and took no account of foreign traders ; if the French, German, and American trade could have been added, the total would have amounted to a much larger sum than 6i millions. It is needless for us to point out that the greater part of the produce of the Western Pacific only passes through Australia, and really comes to England. That this produce will greatly increase is beyond doubt. The whole trade, indeed, of the Pacific is destined to undergo a great change whenever the Panama canal is made. It is then that will be seen the foresight of France in establishing herself at Tahiti and the Marquesas; and the Navigators, with the splendid harbour on Tutuila Island, will come into a new importance, while the Fiji group will become the nearest Colony of England in the Pacific.

Dr. Robertson, Dec. 29, 1882.


Victoria Year Hook 1883.


Marquis DM larcourt, Man. 18, 1878.

Foreign Office, Feb. 1, 1878.


Colony.

Vessels.

Tonnage.

Value.

Imports.

Exports.

Total.

New South Wales -

1,305

395,391

£

2,147,858

£

2,726,227

£

4,874,085

Victoria -

187

67,725

162,095

110,647

272,742

Queensland -

320

47.690

2,899

83,800

86,699

New Zealand

908

349,681

705,223

548,187

1,253,410

2,720

860,187

3,018,075

3,468,861

6,480,936


The pearl-shell and beche-de-mer fisheries alone amount to nearly a million sterling annually. The growth of sugar plantations is equally remarkable. Probably 1,000,000/. has been spent in Queensland alone in creating sugar estates where only a few years ago there was nothing but the wilderness : the actual produce of these estates is alrcadj19,000 tons, and in three years will probably be 50,000 tons. The great importance of this to Australasia will at once be seen from the fact that in the single year 1881 sugar to the value of close on 2,“00,000/. was imported into Australia and New Zealand, of which the import from Mauritius exceeded 1,500,000/. It is quite certain there will be a great extension of the growth of sugar in Queensland and Fiji, and in it a constantly larger amount of Polynesian labour is sure to be employed. Now the necessity of further regulations for the labour trade and traffic in firearms, by foreigners as well as our own people, is one of the things that have been most strongly pressed upon Her Majesty’s Government by the highest Imperial officers, and by every authority of importance in the Colonics concerned.

Foreign Intervention.

The chief difficulty we have in referring to this is that no one in Australasia really knows how far the ground is clear of foreign claims, or to what engagements Her Majesty’s Government is now’ committed. It is of the first importance to define with accuracy the political relation in which each group of islands stands to-day, whether to the Imperial Government or to any foreign powers. We therefore trust that we may ask your Lordship to enable us to place before our Governments a full statement of wiiat claims have yet been made by foreign powers, and of the extent to which such claims have been recognised by Her Majesty.

The sense of uncertainty and insecurity which prevails in Australasia on this subject may perhaps be best illustrated by what has happened in the case of the New Hebrides. That group was originally part of the Colony of New Zealand, under the charter of 1840. At some time, of which we are not aware, a rather vague understanding appears to have been come to with the Government of France that the New Hebrides should be relinquished as a possession of the Crown and their independence recognised. In 1878, upon reports coming to Europe of a French project to annex the group, the French ambassador declared that his Government had no intention to interfere with the independence of the islands, and asked for an assurance that Her Majesty’s Government would also respect it. Your Lordship, being then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, informed the French ambassador, with the concurrence of the Colonial Office,

17


that Her Majesty’s Government had no intention of “ changing the condition of inde-“ pendence which the New Hebrides now enjoy.” Upon a remonstrance being made by Sir George Grey, then Premier of New Zealand, the Secretary of State replied that the New Hebrides were no longer within the limits of New Zealand, and that the Imperial Government had no intention of proceeding in the direction of a political protectorate. In the Order in Council of 1877 the New Hebrides had (evidently by design) been omitted from the islands specified by name; nevertheless, the High Commissioner understood that his authority extended over them, for he appointed Captain Cyprian Bridge, R.N., to be a Deputy Commissioner there, and it was in that character that Captain Bridge went down to the islands. Now we venture to ask whether it is quite certain that after Her Majesty had once been graciously pleased to include the New Hebrides in the boundaries of New Zealand, the mere fact of new boundaries being afterwards fixed for that Colony was sufficient to make the New Hebrides cease to be a possession of the Crown P At any rate, if they have ceased to be so, and there is an understanding between the Governments of England and Prance to respect the independence of the group, the least that can be asked is that English and Erench subjects shall be on the same footing there. But it transpired, in a debate in the Chamber of Deputies on tiie 8th May, that a company had been formed at New Caledonia, by a planter who had acquired “ des terrains importants ” at Sandwich Island : and the “ Temps,” only a few days ago, announed that a company, composd of Colonists from New Caledonia, had succeeded in “ creating very important interests in ‘‘ the islands, had bought several of them, and had obtained large concessions in “ others ; ” whereupon that journal suggested that the “ best method of procedure would “ be to grant to the company rights similar to those recently accorded by the English “ Government to the North Borneo Company.” We venture to ask whether the agreement, whatever it is, which exists between the two Governments, would allow of any grant of that kind being made by Prance ?

Nor can the Colonists feel secure against some sudden act on the part of Prance in annexing other islands whose independence may stand on at any rate no worse a footing than that of the New Hebrides. It is only a few years ago since Commodore Hoskins reported to the Admiralty that a Prench ship of war had been sent to the Chesterfield and Bampton Reefs by the Governor of New Caledonia to proclaim those islands to be Prench territory, which “ was done with the usual formalities.” But the Governor of New South Wales had already granted a lease of the islets for working guano deposits : and it had to be arranged that the deposits should be worked jointly by Prench and English companies until the question of title was decided, as to which Sir Hercules Robinson had sent a telegram to the Colonial Office immediately on receiving notice of the annexation from the Governor of New Caledonia. Still less can the Colonists feel any security against other acts of which they have already complained. Early in 1880 a schooner arrived at Auckland from New Caledonia, chartered by tiie Prench authorities, bringing 11 political offenders, and nine convicts for criminal offences. Sir John Hall, then Premier of New Zealand, immediately telegraphed to all the Governments of Australia, asking them to join in urging Her Majesty’s Government to remonstrate with the Government of the Prench Republic against a repetition of that act. The Government of New South Wales stated that “batches of pardoned convicts from New “ Caledonia had on several occasions arrived there.” The Agent-General brought the case before the Colonial Office, and Lord Kimberley requested the Foreign Office to move the Prench Government to discontinue any shipments of convicts from New Caledonia to New Zealand. But convicts have often escaped from New Caledonia in open boats, and landed on the Queensland coast : more than 50 who came to Queensland were afterwards extradited, besides many others known to be Prench convicts from Noumea.

Again, by a “ reciprocal engagement ” entered into between England and Prance in 1847 respecting the Raiatea group of islets (to the leeward of Tahiti), both nations bound themselves “ never to take possession of the islands, either absolutely, or under " the title of a protectorate, or in any other form whatever.” But the Prench flag has been hoisted for three years on those islands, without, so far as we know, any consent or recognition having been ever given by Her Majesty’s Government.

Again, a scheme is being debated even now in Prance, which, if it is carried into effect, will be more disastrous for the Pacific than anything that has happened since the creation of the penal settlement at New Caledonia ; for it is nothing less than a well-matured design for transporting for life (transportation à vie) to New Caledonia, the Loyalty Isles, and the Marquesas Islands, great numbers of Prench habitual criminals {récidivistes et malfaiteurs d’ habitude). Pour proposals to this effect were before the

B 2


Colonial Office, Feb. 20, 1878.

Sir M. IT. Peach, ( >ct. 10. 1878.


Sir A. Gordon, »lune 1(>, 1882.


Commodore

Hoskins,

1 ,, I ,r 1 l I

r/ ia i y (/ i ,

1 0*70 10(0,


Sir J. Hall,

March 1880.


Sir J. Vogel, Feb. 24, 1880.

Premier of

Queensland,

Telegram.


Declaration, June 19,


apport

Sffnnb';nC;û-! <n re. 17

Mars 1883.

J ou ni ul Officiel. Séance (ht 1 Mai 1883.

Ibid., Scan ce du 8 Mai.


Projet de loi, An. i.

Jouni al Officit Seance du 7 Mai.

Ibid.


Journal Officie l Séance du 1 Mai.


Ibid.

Ibid., Séance du 7 Mai.

Ibid., Juillet 1883, Annexe 2002.


Lord Granville, fJ uly 10. 1883.


cc


(i


French Legislature, one of them a Bill brought in by the Government, They were all referred together to a committee, which reported that the Minister of the Interior had accepted certain modifications, and that there was no further difficulty. In the debates in the Chamber of Deputies, the reporter of the projet de loi (M, Gerville-Réache) stated that at least 60,000 could be sent to New Caledonia, and 2.3,000 to the Loyalty Isles, It was calculated that in the first year after the law came into force 5,000 convicts would be transported for life under it, and an oflicial estimate was presented of the probable cost of sending these 5,000 to the Loyalty Islands and the Marquesas. It was said by the opponents of the measure that the number of convicts transported would be 100,000; this was denied ; whereupon it was asked whether, since in the very first year 5,000 were to be sent, it could be expected that the number would not increase every year after ? The class to be sent was officially described by’ M, Gerville-Réache as dangerous, steeped in vice, debauchery, and crime {hommes dangereux, perdus de vices, uses par la débauché, souilles de tous les crimes). These criminals were to be transported for life (la relegation consistera dans l’internement perpétuel des condamnes) ; but were not to serve any term of punishment, and were to be free on arrival {en resume, le transporté à son arrivée dans la colonie sera libre). The object was to rid France of them {en débarrasser la patrie). The Government was to support them at first, till they could get work ; if they would not work, they must live how they coidd vivront comme pourront). The projet de loi appointed New Caledonia and its dependencies, and the Marquesas Group, as “ colonies ” to which the récidivistes were to be sent ; but it was openly proposed in the debate to include the New Hebrides, the Loyalty Islands, and the Isle of Pines, The Comte de Lanjuinais said it had been talked of to send the convicts to the New Hebrides {on avait parlé d!envoyer les transportes aux Nouvel!'esHéb tides). M. Richard Waddington, speaking officially as a member of the committee, said that the title to the New Hebrides was not settled {il s’agit d'une question de propriété; non encore déterminée), but that he thought the French title was good, and that the French flag-might very soon be hoisted on the islands {je crois que notre titre de possession est sérieux, et que dans un avenir très rapproche te pavillon de la France pourra y flotter) ; adding, however, that in saying so he was speaking for himself and not for the Government (eu engageant ma responsabilité seul et non celle du gouvernement). Another speaker went further, and said that in response to the supposed action of England in New Guinea, the New Hebrides would be seized by France (pour répondre d l'Angleterre,    si audacieusement vient de mettre la main sur    la Nouvelle-Guinee, nous saurons à notre tour nous

emparer des Nouvelles Hebrides). The Chamber of Deputies, after adopting most of the Government bill, sent it back for revision to the Committee, who returned it with very iittie alteration. They estimated that in the first four years the number of convicts to be sent would be 20,000. The Colonies to which the convicts might be sent remained the same, namely New Caledonia and its dependencies, the Marquesas, an island called Phu-Quoc, and Guiana. The Bill has passed the Chamber, but is not yet before the Senate.

Your Lordship will not be surprised at our Governments urging that this scheme for making the Pacific Islands the receptacle for the dangerous classes of France, is one deserving the serious consideration of Her Majesty’s Government. It is impossible for Australasia to look without the gravest apprehension at the prospect of any proposal of the kind receiving the tacit acquiescence of England. IVhat hope is there for the Pacific islands, if a great nation like France pours into them vast numbers of her dangerous classes, not as convicts under penal servitude, but free the moment they land, so long as they do not return to France ? or how can Australia and New Zealand be expected to hear with patience of such a law being passed ? There have been rumours of some proposal by which the Penal establishment at New Caledonia should be altogether given up by France, and the convicts transferred to the New Hebrides ; the inducement being that New Caledonia would then be opened to settlement by free colonists. We do not deny that there would be an advantage in freeing New Caledonia from the curse of transportation ; but the Bill before the French Chambers expressly retains New Caledonia as one of the places to which the récidivistes are to be sent ; therefore, as to the New Hebrides, all the Colonies trust that full effect will be given to Lord Granville’s assurance in the House of Lords a few days ago, that “ both Her Majesty’s Government and the French Government acknowledge in full the obligation which the understanding about the New Hebrides imposes upon both,” and that the group shall not be allowed to pass in any way under the dominion of France.

Nor is it only with regard to French policy that there is, in the opinion of the Colonists, cause for some apprehension. It is often said that Prince Bismarck has no desire to extend the influence of Germany to the Pacific, but what happened in the case of the

Navigators Group shows that idea to be a mistaken one. In the early part of 1880 a scheme was proposed in Germany for a great trading company to take over the property of Messrs. Godeffroy. In a communication to the Imperial Under Secretary of State, Prince Bismarck laid down the conditions on which the company was to receive a guarantee from the State of an interest of 4.V per cent, on its capital, not to exceed 300,000 marks a year, and to be for 20 years. The Chancellor referred to “ the interest “ which the State takes in the prosperity of German enterprise in the South Seas,” and justified the financial assistance he proposed giving to the new company, by reason of the Godeffroy firm having “got into difficulties which threatened the German South Sea “ Trade with the loss of their factories and plantations on the Samoa Islands.” A Bill to give effect to the Chancellor’s proposal was introduced accordingly, but rejected by the German Parliament in April 1880. Again, as recently as December last the Royal Colonial Institute called the attention of the Colonial Office to an article in the “ Allgc-meine Zeitung ” strongly advocating the annexation by Germany of Eastern New Guinea. The answer was that neither Lord Granville nor your Lordship saw any reason for supposing that the German Government contemplated any scheme of the kind: but we venture to ask that a more definite assurance should be obtained from that Government, which can hardly refuse to recognise the vital character of the matter to every Colony in Australia.

Before leaving the subject of foreign intervention, we submit that it would be expedient to settle more clearly the extent to which the independence of the Chiefs in the various islands is recognised, and their right to make treaties admitted. Where the treaty-right exists, is it quite certain that the Western Pacific Order in Council is in operation ? For instance, the Navigators and the Friendly Islands are among those specified by name in the Order in Council: but we understand there is an English treaty with the “king” of Tonga, and in the case of the Navigators there is a treaty with Germany, which Prince Bismarck communicated to the Reichstag in 1879. And we believe a treaty of some kind was made between Samoa and the United States, giving to the States the exclusive right of using the fine harbour at Tutuila as a coaling and naval station, the U.S. frigate “ Narragansctt ” thereupon saluting the Chiefs flag with 15 guns ; indeed, this treaty was afterwards the subject of a representation by Sir Edward Thornton to the Government of Washington. Again, several of the Powers have appointed Consuls to the Islands; Her Majesty has a Consul at Rarotonga, a Consul at Samoa, and a Vice-consul at Tonga, while Sir Arthur Gordon, the High Commissioner, is Consul-General for the Pacific Islands, the conduct of relations with native States and tribes being confided to him in that capacity under the control of the Foreign Office. As there is nothing that can be called laAV administered by the native States and tribes, it is difficult to sec how one day the same evils will not arise from conflicting consular jurisdictions, as have been so powerfully described by Lord Duflerin in the case of Egypt.

The new policy proposed.

The two things wrc set ourselves to show, were, first that the Western Pacific Order in Council could never be made adequate to do what is wanted without assuming a jurisdiction hitherto forbidden by Act of Parliament; and secondly, that the fear of foreign intervention which has existed in Australia was not without warrant. For this purpose we have relied not on assertions of our own but on official records, and with hardly an exception have only spoken of events that have happened in the last three years.

If we have established these two points, then the Imperial Government can hardly reject the consequences, that the time has come when complete jurisdiction ought to be assumed by England over the Western Pacific, as the only means of meeting the difficulties which beset alike the Imperial and the Colonial Governments, and of averting evils which threaten Her Majesty’s loyal subjects in all that region.

Vf e have rejoiced to see that such a policy has already received the almost unanimous support of the English press. Some opposition to it is perhaps only natural. We are sensible of the repugnance that exists to the idea of adding to the already vast responsibilities of England, a new and admittedly immense charge like that of the Western Pacific Islands. Yet it is difficult for anyone to avoid the conclusion that these islands, unless they arc meanwhile lost by foreign annexation, will inevitably belong to England in the end. The same impelling power, not of mere desires but of events, which induced the Imperial Government to do at last in Fiji what they had so often refused, is constantly at work, and incessantly being renewed and strengthened with regard to the Western Pacific. But it was not till Fiji had become the opprobrium of the Southern

B 3

Prince Von Bismarck, Uirzin, flan. 1. 1880.


Sir J. Vogel, April 30,

1880.

Royal (Colonial I nstil ui.e, Dec. 9, 1882.


Prince Bismarck, flan. 1, 1880.


Foreign Office List,

i 883.

Sir A. Gordon, fl uly 16, 1881.

Lord

Duflerin,

Rgyph No.

(5.


20

seas, that Iler Majesty’s Government would interfere. Surely they will not now inflict upon Australasia the hard necessity of waiting till New Guinea also, and perhaps other islands, become Alsatias as dangerous as Fiji once was, scourges to the peaceable subjects of Her Majesty, and a disgrace to civilisation ? For it is vain to think that the trade and intercourse between Australia and New Zealand and these islands can be suppressed. Settlement, both English and foreign, is spreading in every direction, yet of safety for life and property there is none. The High Commissioner himself has shown that it is quite impossible to do what is wanted by any Order in Council capable of being issued under the Act of 1875; in other words, impossible to do it without assuming the very jurisdiction which it was the purpose of that Act to forbid. Nor would an Inter-tcrnational Convention do it, for a convention could only extend to the nationalities concerned, and could not embrace the natives. England could not claim, in a convention with Foi’eign Powers, any jurisdiction over the native tribes, without herself asserting over them the same right of dominion as would be asserted by the policy the Colonies are urging upon your Lordship; nor could any convention be made at all, without first acknowledging that Foreign Powers possessed an equal right with England to exercise a right of dominion over natives, an acknowledgment against which every subject of Her Majesty in Australia and New Zealand would unite in making the strongest remonstrance.

Letters Patent, 42 Viet.


The case of New Guinea is very pressing, because whatever powers are given to the High Commissioner, they can, in the nature of things, be even less exercised there than in any of the other islands. New Guinea is in such close proximity to Queensland, that whatever is done there must affect Queensland more than anything that is done in the other islands could affect the rest of Australia or New Zealand. All the trade of Queensland with England and India by steam, passes through Torres Straits; regular steam communication is now established there; it is really indispensable not only that the Straits should be free to navigation, but that there should be no risk of a Foreign Power establishing a naval station there. Adventurous men are occupying portions of the New Guinea coast-line, and irregular settlement is sure to take place more and more. What has so often happened will happen again. Failing the colonisation of the great island under proper authority, adventurers will flock there who will neither show regard for the native inhabitants, nor be under any restraint among themselves ; the evils and dangers which existed in Fiji will repeat themselves, only on a larger scale, and Queensland, of all the Australias, will suffer from them the most. This has been stated over and over again, in speeches in both Houses of the Imperial Parliament, by the Governments and Legislatures of Australasia, by the Royal Colonial Institute, and by private persons of high rank and experience in affairs, till we are almost ashamed to repeat it ourselves ; yet it must be repeated, for the danger is not far off and a pretence, but imminent and a reality. Surely the Imperial Government cannot continue to refuse so reiterated an appeal ? But if, fearing the responsibility of assuming authority over a vast and inaccessible region of mountains and forests peopled by several millions of savages, the Imperial Government finally determine not to take full jurisdiction over all New Guinea east of 143", we trust that the same objection will not apply against establishing law and order along the coast where settlement is now extending. Let it at least exist over the fringe of the southern coast-line for the present, as was done the other day on the West Coast of Africa. No Act of the Imperial Parliament is necessary for this purpose, because Her Majesty has the same right now to assume jurisdiction over the southern coast-line of the island, as she had to assume it when the islands of Torres Straits were annexed; and if it were deemed more convenient, the same process as was adopted then might be adopted now, of giving power by Letters Patent to the Governor of Queensland to declare by proclamation that certain portions of the coast-line of New Guinea should be annexed, under such conditions as it might be. thought fit to prescribe.

We have referred to the irregular settlement that is even now taking place. We must Sir A. Gor- with all respect remonstrate against the doctrine laid down by the High Commissioner on don, Speech the New Guinea question in 1878, when he “ formally and emphatically declared that the ",t '    “ Imperial Government disclaimed all obligation to protect or interfere on behalf of

persons voluntarily placing themselves in positions ot danger m a savage country, and “ that those who entered on such enterprises must do so at their own risk and peril.” It is certainly not by colonists who have founded communities on the other side of the world whose trade already exceeds in volume the whole foreign trade of England at the accession of Queen Victoria, that this doctrine will ever be acquiesced in. It was by “ voluntarily placing themselves in danger” that English adventurers built up our Indian and Colonial Empire, and created a commerce which now is numbered by hundreds of

millions every year: nor is the colonising spirit which has done that work capable of being extinguished by the knowledge that the enterprise of founding new settlements involves risk and peril. 13ut at least it may be said that if the Imperial Government was not to interfere on behalf of English settlers, it should not interfere against them. It, surely can never be contended that an elaborate scheme of government was to be invented, whose sole object should be to punish a subject of the Queen for any wrong he might commit, while it denied him redress for any wrong that he might suffer.

Imperial Interest also concerned.

So far we may perhaps be said to have urged only points that specially affect Colonial interests, or at any rate do not closely touch Imperial ones. This may i)e true so long as Europe is at peace ; but the Imperial interest would spring up the moment any war broke out which involved England in hostilities with a European Power. The Imperial Government have called upon the Colonies to do their part in the defence of their own harbours, and our Governments have not only acknowledged they had a duty in that respect, but arc doing their best to fulfil it. They feel that they have a right, to ask in return, that the task shall not be more difficult for them than the Imperial Government can help, and that they shall not be exposed to the creation of fortified naval stations and places d’armes in the Pacific, which should shelter an enemy’s fleet and threaten their commerce, their coal measures, and even their safety. The nation will never permit that her naval supremacy in the Pacific shall be endangered : and it can hardly be contested that if France and other European Powers created new naval stations in the islands, the existing conditions in all that ocean would be changed, and everything relating to Her Majesty’s Australian squadron assume a new aspect and a new importance.

Concert between the Imperial and Colonial Governments.

But while we have thus represented what the Australian Colonies believe ought to be be done by the Imperial Government, they arc also ready to acknowledge what they ought to do themselves. Your Lordship stated in the House of Lords, that if anything was to be done, it must be done either by the Imperial Government itself, or by the Australian Colonies acting together in concert, or by the Imperial and Colonial Governments combined : and we assure your Lordship that our Governments will hail with the greatest satisfaction such an invitation to them to co-operate with the Imperial authority. There arc two immediate ways in which the Colonies can give their co-operation : by contributing to the cost of the policy the}7, are asking your Lordship to pursue, and by placing themselves in a position to act in union with each other and in concert with you.

As regards the first, whatever differences there were when Lord Carnarvon made his proposal of 18/6, there are none now. The Victorian Parliament has already passed an address, assuring ITer Majesty that Victoria will share in the cost of the policy which is being urged upon your Lordship ; the Queensland Government has assured your Lordship of its readiness to do the same ; and the other Colonies will also do their part. But it does not need for us to remind your Lordship that no Ministries can engage for the payment of indefinite sums, and that the assent of our legislatures to grants of money must be expressed in the usual way. Permanent appropriation will certainly be necessary ; and for this not only time is required, but consultation among the Governments, arrangement of the respective contributions of the Colonics, and the passing of the requisite votes; in the meanwhile, the first point for us to know is the amount which the Imperial Government would require to be provided for whatever action is contemplated by your Lordship.

As regards the other question of concerted action between the Imperial and Colonial Governments, your Lordship expressed your opinion to us at our interview with you in the clearest terms, and repeated it in the House of Lords. “ If,” you said, the “ Australian people desire an extension beyond their present limits, the most practical “ step that they could take, the one that would most facilitate any operation of the “ kind, and diminish in the greatest degree the responsibilities of the mother Country, “ would be the confederation of the Colonies into one united whole, which would be “ powerful enough to undertake and carry through tasks for which no one Colony is at “ present sufficient.” The large question of Federation which your Lordship has here raised, is one on which the Colonics have not made up their minds, and is one of too grave moment to be decided even under the sway of the strong feelings which now exist among them respecting the policy that ought to be pursued in the Western Pacific.

B 4

Bui there is nothing to prevent concerted action at once with the Imperial Government for that particular policy; and we acknowledge that your Lordship may justly require not only such concerted action, but joint engagements on the parr, of the Colonial Governments for the permanence and stability of the policy itself. This too requires time, consultation among our Governments, and probably legislation also; at any rate concurrent resolutions in the respective Colonial Assemblies. On the other hand, the Colonies will not imagine that your Lordship has invited them to a co-operation which is to be barren of results : and our Governments will feel assured that if they on their part pass the requisite appropriations, and combine for that concert with the Imperial Government which is necessary for any policy to succeed, they may rely upon the policy itself being adopted, and effect being given at last to the wishes which they have cherished for more than 30 years. In once more urging these wishes on Her Majesty’s Government, they have not come as suppliants for some light favour, but as Englishmen to whom their country has given a great destiny which must be kept from harm ; desiring no new territories for themselves, but asking that the Queen’s subjects may enjoy the blessings of peace and order where now the law has no terrors for the evildoer ; not seeking by a clearer policy to set new burdens on the English taxpayer, but willing themselves to bear its costs ; and welcoming with gladness an invitation to be associated with the Imperial Government in a work which must assuredly be done one day, and can as certainly be best done now.

We have. &c.

(Signed) SAUL SAMUEL.

E. I). BELL,

THOMAS ARCHER.

R. MUBRAY-SMITH.

The Right Honourable The Earl of Derby,

Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies,

&c.    &c.    &c.

No. 19.

COLONIAL OFFICE to ADMIRALTY,

Sir,    Downing Street, July 21, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 18th instant,* in connexion with the proposal for the annexation of New Guinea.

Lord Derby is glad to observe that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty intend to instruct Commodore Eskinc to take an early opportunity of sending one of II.M. ships to visit the coast of New Guinea, and trusts that provision will be made for the presence of a man-of-war on the coast of New Guinea without any avoidable interruption for some time to come.

I am to state that Lord Derby would be glad if their Lordships would cause him to be informed whether it is proposed to instruct Commodore Erskinc by telegraph, for in that case it will be necessary to communicate by the same means with Mr. Eomilly, a Deputy Commissioner under the Western Pacific Order in Council, who will be directed to proceed from Sydney to New Guinea, and it will doubtless be convenient that lie should be allowed passage in the vessel which will be detailed for the service above referred to, should there be no objection.

I am, &c.

(Signed) ROBERT G. W. HERBERT.

The Secretary of the Admiralty.

No. 20.

Sir A. II. PALMER, K.C.M.G. (Administering the Government of Queensland), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received July 25, 1883.)

Government House, Brisbane,

My Lord,    May 21, 1883.

I do myself the honour to enclose copy of a letter from Sir Thomas MeIIwraith, on the subject of your Lordship’s despatch of the 8th March lastt received since the departure of his Excellency Sir A. E. Kennedy.

* Not. printed.


f No. 49 in [C. 3617] May 1883.

I find on referring to his despatch, that Sir Arthur has expressed to your Lordship his full concurrence in the action taken by bis Ministry.

I have only to add my opinion that such action was not only right and proper, but that it should have been taken long since.

Had New Guinea been taken possession of by a foreign power, as was very likely, the consequences to Queensland would have been disastrous, and the navigation of Torres Straits, which may now well be called a highway of nations, imperilled.

I beg leave to remind your Lordship that the annexation of New Guinea has been constantly pressed on the attention of Her Majesty’s Ministers since 1871, not only by Queensland, but by New South Wales, and that in 18/5 the question had been reduced to merely one of expense.

Queensland in 1883 is in a very different position to that of 1875, and 1 have little doubt of her willingness to bear the whole of the expense; but so long as New Guinea is made an appanage of the British Crown, it appears to me to be a matter of little importance whether she is to be governed by Queensland or directly by the Crown.

The difference would be principally one of expense, and looking at the antecedents of Fiji, I have no doubt it would be governed as efficiently, and very much more economically, from Queensland.

I feel quite sure that any attempt to govern, as I see proposed by some of the English journals, by a federation of the Australian colonics, and the expenses paid by subscription from them, would be a failure.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Secretary of State    (Signed) A. II. PALMER,

for the -Colonics.

Enclosure in No. 20.

Colonial Secretary’s Office, Brisbane,

Sir,    '    May 18, 1883.

I iiavk the honour to acknowledge the receipt of a despatch, dated the 8th of March last, addressed to your Excellency’s predecessor in the administration of the Government, by the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonics, covering a letter to Lord Derby from the Agent General, on the subject of the annexation of New Guinea, and desiring an expression of Sir Arthur Kennedy’s own opinion on this question.

Although the question has already been anticipated in a despatch forwarded to the Secretary of State during last month, in which Governor Kennedy expressed himself in favour of annexation, I think that, considering your intimate acquaintance with the question in all its stages, it would tend considerably to assist Her Majesty’s Government in arriving at a right conclusion on the matter, if your Excellency would be good enough in your reply to Lord Derby to give him the advantage of your opinion also.

I have, &c.

His Excellency the Administrator    (Signed) Thomas McIhwuaith.

of the Government.

No. 21.

ADMIRALTY to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Admiralty, July 25, 18S3.

I\ reply to your letter of the 24th instant,* in continuation of correspondence respecting the proposed despatch of one of II.M.’s ships to the coast of New Guinea, I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to request you will state to the Earl of Derby that Commodore Erskine is at, or in the neighbourhood of, Fiji at the present time, and will probably despatch a vessel from there to New Guinea, and not from Sydney.

2. In these circumstances it would appear desirable that Mr. Roinilly should proceed from Sydney to Fiji by any opportunity that offers, and the Commodore would then give him a passage to New Guinea in the vessel selected to proceed thither.

* No. 19.

K 7764.


c

3. My Lords propose to instruct the Commodore by telegraph, to be forwarded from Sydney by the first opportunity, to send a ship soon to visit Port Moresby and the ad jacent coast of New Guinea to the eastward, and report any matters of interest, adding that Deputy Commissioner llomilly is to be embarked on arrival at Fiji.

I am, &c.

(Signed) EVAN MACGREGOR, The Under Secretary of State,    Pro. Secretary.

Colonial Office.

No. 22.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sin,    Foreign Office, July 25, 1883.

With reference to my letter of the 11th instant2, I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, to be laid before the Earl of Derby, copies of a correspondence, recording certain explanations which have taken place, between Lord Granville and the French Charge d’Affaires at this Court, with regard to the New Hebrides and New Guinea.

With reference to the allusion to the New Hebrides question, made in the last paragraph of the note inclosed in Lord Lyons’ Despatch, of the 17th instant, I am to add that Lord Granville proposes, if Lord Derby, concurs, to reply to the Note Verbale communicated by the French Chargé d’Affaires on the 9tji instant, to the effect that Her Majesty’s Government consider the declarations of 1878 concerning the New Hebrides as remaining in full force.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) T. V. LISTER.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure 1 in No. 22.

Le 9 Juillet, 1883.

Vers la fin du mois dernier, le Représentant de la France à Londres a entretenu le Principal Secrétaire d’Etat de la Reine de la démarche faite récemment par les colonies Australiennes en vue de provoquer la réunion à la Couronne de divers groupes d’îles du Pacifique et notamment des Nouvelles Hébrides.

En ce qui concerne les Nouvelles Hébrides la question avait été, dés 1878, posee dans les mêmes termes ; elle avait alors fourni l’occasion d’un échange de notes, dans lesquelles chacun des deux Gouvernements avait déclaré qu’en ce qui le concernait, il n’avait pas l’intention de porter atteinte à l’indépendance de l’archipel.

Il n’est survenu depuis lors aucun incident qui parut de nature a modifier cet accord de vues. Le fait meme que Lord Lyons a cru devoir, au mois de Mars dernier, remettre sous les yeux du Ministre des Affaires Etrangères à Paris le texte des notes susmentionnées attestait qu’à ce moment encore le Gouvernement de Sa Majesté llritanniquc y attachait la meme valeur et persistait dans les memes dispositions.

Cependant, dans le récent entretien, dont la démarche des colonies Australiennes a fait le sujet, le Principal Secrétaire d’Etat s'est borné à dire que le Gouvernement Anglais n’avait encore pris aucune décision relativement à la réponse qui leur serait faite. Les autres membres du Gouvernement qui ont eu depuis à traiter de la question au Parlement, se sont memes montrés plus réservés et n’ont fait aucune mention des déclarations

de 1878.    ...    .

Dès cette époque le Gouvernement Français avait fait connaître le prix qu’il attachait, en raison des rapports établis entre ses établissements de la Nouvelle Calédonie et les Nouvelles Hébrides, à ce qu’aucun changement ne fut apporté à la situation politique de ce dernier groupe d’Ilcs. Loin de diminuer l’importance de ces rapports, n’a, depuis lors, cessé de s’accroître ; ils présentent aujourd’hui pour notre colonie un intérêt de premier ordre.

Le Gouvernement de la République a, par suite, le devoir de s’assurer si les déclarations de 1878 ont pour le Gouvernement de la Reine, comme pour lui, conservé toute leur valeur, et d’insister, s’il y a lieu, pour le maintien de l’état actuel des choses.

Le Cabinet de Londres ne sera pas surpris qu’en présence du mouvement d’opinion auquel la démarche des colonies Australiennes a donné lieu et des manifestations qui pourraient en résulter inopinément de part ou d’autre le Gouvernement Français tienne a etre fixé, a bref délai, sur la manière dont la question estjenvisagée par le Gouvernement de Sa Majesté Britannique.

Enclosure 2 in No. 22.

My Lord,    _    Foreign Office, July 10, 188.3.

The French Charge d’Affaires called upon me this afternoon, and gave me the Memo, of which I enclose a copy.

He said he was instructed by his Government to ask for an explanation as to whether Her Majesty’s Government abandoned the understanding into which the two countries had entered in 1878 with regard to the New Hebrides.

I told Count d’Aunay that I was myself about to ask him for an explanation on the subject of a report that the French flag had been hoisted on one of that group of islands.

I was sure that the answer would be to the effect that the report was incorrect, on account of the agreement which he had just referred to, and which was considered by us to be perfectly valid.

Count d’Aunay said that in putting the question he had been instructed to ask, he had expected the same reply, because his Government also considered the agreement to be still binding.

I have, &c.

His Excellency the Viscount Lyons, G.C.B.    (Signed) Granville.

Enclosure 3 in No. 22.

My Lord,    Foreign Office, July 11, 1883.

The French Chargé d’Affaires informed me this evening in a private note that he was instructed to offer me M. Challemel-Lacour’s best thanks for the promptitude with which I had informed him of the views of Her Majesty s Government with regard to the New Hebrides.

I am, &c.

His Excellency the Viscount Lyons, G.C.B.    (Signed) Granville.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure 4 in No. 22.

My Lord,    Paris, July 17, 1883.

With reference to my Despatch of the 14th instant, I have the honour to transmit to your Lordship a copy of a Note Verbale which was sent to me last evening by M. Ch. Lacour in answer to that, which, in execution of instructions from your Lordship, I addressed to him on the subject of New Guinea.

The note states that the French Government, like that of Her Majesty, is unaware of any exchange of views having taken place between the two countries with regard to New Guinea.

It appears from it, however, that the French Government desire to receive a written answer to the Note Verbale respecting the New Hebrides which was given to your Lordship by the French Ch. d’Aff: on the 10th instant.

I have, &c.

The Earl Granville, K.G.    (Signed) Lyons.

Paris, le 16 Juillet 1883.

Le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères a l’honneur de transmettre à Son Excellence

O

l’Ambassadeur d’Angleterre la Note Verb, ci-jointe.

M. Ch. Lacour, Saisit etc.


C 2

Paris, le 16 Juillet 1883.

La note verbale que Son Excellence l’Ambassadeur d’Angleterre il Paris a bien voulu faire parvenir de 14 de ce mois au Ministre des affaires étrangères de référer il une conversation que le Chargé d’Affaires de France à Londres a eu le 20 Juin dernier avec Son Excellence le Cte. Granville, et dans laquelle il aurait fait allusion à une entente supposée entre les Gouvts. Français et Britanniques touchant la Nouvelle Guinée.

Pas plus que le Cabinet de Londres, celui de Paris n’a connaissance que la Nouvelle Guinée ait jamais fait entre les deux pays l’objet d’un échange de vues, et l’on s’expliqu

(P ;inf rmf moins le m ni entendu nui nnrnît s’être nrndnit dnns l’entretien sns-menfinnné que

par les deux Gouvts. au sujet de l’Archipel

Si quelque doute à cet égard avait pu rester dans l’esprit des Ministres de la Reine, il n’aurait pas manqué d’être entièrement dissipe par les termes de la note que le Ch. d’Affaires de France a remise, le 10 de ce mois, à Son Excellence le Cte. Granville, et qui était destiné à établir que les déclarations de 1878 conservaient toute leur valeur il nos yeux.

Les explications fournies depuis lors au Parlement Anglais nous donnent la confiance que la réponse du Gouvt. de Sa Majesté’ Britannique à notre dernière la communication le tardera pas à constater definitivement l’accord qui paraît subsister dans les intentions des deux pays relativet. à l’Archipel des Nouvelles Hébrides.

No. 23.

THE AGENT-GENERAL FOR QUEENSLAND to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Queensland Government Office, 1, Westminster Chambers, Sir,    Victoria Street, London, S.W., July 26, 1883.

I have the honour to forward you' the copy of a telegram I have received to-day from the Hon. Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, Premier of Queensland, for the information of the Right Hon. the Earl of Derby.

“ Can only extradite French escapees on application French authorities, hitherto they have applied but now refuse; three escapees Noumea discharged to-day through this; represent Minister.”

I have. &c.

The Under Secretary of State for    (Signed) THOS. ARCHER,

the Colonies.    Agent-General.

No. 24.

Governor Sir W. F. D. JERVOIS, G.C.M.G., C.B. (New Zealand), to the Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received July 27, 1883.)

Government House, Wellington,

My Lord,    June 16, 1883.

With reference to the telegram which I transmitted to your Lordship on the 9th instant,3 on the subject of the desirability of the establishment of British rule over the New Hebrides and other islands of the Pacific, I am desirous of laying before your Lordship the special reasons why it appears to me that such action would be beneficial to the Australasian colonies, and should be carried into effect without unnecessary delay, although, of course, much anxious consideration will be required before taking so serious a step.

2.    The distance between these colonies and the possessions of any other European power (with the single exception of the French island of New Caledonia) is at present one of the principal reasons for their comparative security from foreign attack. It is believed here that this state of things will in all probability ere long be changed, as more than one power is understood to be desirous of taking possession of some of these islands, which might, in the event of a European war, become a base for hostile operations, and at other times be a constant source of jealousy and inconvenience.

3.    The trade between the islands and Australasia is already considerable, and likely in all probability rapidly to increase. It is almost impossible that, in this event, the islands should remain permanently in the hands of uncivilised races, and the only alternative will be the occupation by England or some other maritime nation.

4.    Much inconvenience has already been felt (as your Lordship is doubtless aware) in these colonies by New Caledonia being used as a penal settlement. It is unfortunately too often the fate of French and other foreign colonial possessions to become convict establishments, and there is a fear prevailing here that the New Hebrides and other islands may be thus used, and that there will be an influx into Australasia of liberated and escaped convicts, the most undesirable of all immigrants.

5. I need hardly point out to your Lordship that these colonies, rapidly increasing as they are in wealth and population, would be well able in future to undertake "the management and protection of the islands. Indeed, I believe that having to do so would be beneficial to them, as encouraging a feeling in favour of federation, to which intercolonial free trade would be an incident, and making them realise more fully the fact of the necessity for their providing for their own self-defence.

I have, &c.
(Signed) WM. F. DRUMMOND JERVOIS.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,

&c.    &c.    &c.

No. 25.

The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor the Right Hon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales).

Telegraphic.

July 27, 1883.—Instruct Romilly proceed Fiji instantly; Commodore will arrange passage New Guinea.

No. 26.

Governor the Right IIon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales), to the Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received July 28, 1883.)

Telegraphic.

“ Miranda ” returned; Romilly at Fiji July 9th ; mail leaves for Fiji Monday 30th ; will forward telegram ; Commodore expected daily.

No. 27.

The AGENT GENERAL FOR NEW ZEALAND to COLONIAL OFFICE.

7, Westminster Chambers, London, S.W. Sir,    August 1, 1883.

I reg leave to transmit to you herewith the copy of a telegram I have received from my Government on the subject of the Western Pacific Islands, and I should be much obliged if you would lay the same before the Earl of Derby.

I have, &c.

The Under Secretary of State for the Colonies.    (Signed) F. D. BELL.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 27-

Telegram from the Premier of New Zealand to the Agent General, dated

July 31, 1883. (Received 31st July).

“ Assembly approves Government • action [respecting] annexation, [and] desires British rule [over the] unoccupied Islands [of the Pacific]. But the House [of Representatives] desires, before increasing taxation, [to have a] statement [from the] Colonial Office [of the] contribution required.”

No. 28.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, August 4, 1883.

I have laid before Earl Granville your Letter of the 9th ultimo.1' and its enclosures, respecting the rumour that the French flag had been hoisted over the New

* No. 11.

C 3

Hebrides, and requesting that Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris ¡nay be instructed to ascertain whether there is any foundation for this report.

My Letter of the 25th ultimo* enclosing with other correspondence a copy of Lord Granville’s Note to Lord Lyons, of the 10th ultimo, contains the record of Lord Granville’s conversation with the French Charge d’Affaires, in the course of which Count d’Aunay stated, with reference to the report that the French flag had been hoisted on one of the islands forming the New Hebrides group, that his Government considered the Agreement of 1878 in regard to non-intervention in those islands as still binding.

I am to request that you will state to the Earl of Derby that under these circumstances it appears to Lord Granville unnecessary to address the French Government again on this subject.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

No. 29-

Governor Sir W. F. C. ROBINSON, K.C.M.G. (South Austrauia), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received August 9> 1888.)

Telegraphic.

An opposition motion blaming my Government for not joining other Colonies in urging annnexation Hebrides rejected in Adelaide Parliament yesterday by majority of twelve for Government.

No. 30.

Governor F. N. BROOME, C.M.G. (Western Australia), to the Right Hon. the

EARL OF DERBY. (Received August 10, 1883.)

Telegraphic.

Legislative council wish wired their support proposal annexation New Guinea.

No. 31.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, August 10, 1883.

Charge d’Affaires at this


] am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 25th ultimo,* enclosing copies of correspondence recording certain explanations which have taken place between Earl Granville and the French court with respect to New Guinea and the New Hebrides.

I am to state that Lord Derby concurs in the reply which Lord Granville proposes to make to the French Charge d’Affaires to the effect that Her Majesty’s Government consider the declarations of 18/8 concerning the New Hebrides as remaining in full force.

I am, &c.

(Signed) ROBERT G. W. HERBERT.

The Under Secretary of State,

Foreign Office.

No. 32.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, August 10, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you to be laid before Earl Granville a copy of a letter}- from the Agent-General for Queensland forwarding a telegram from the Premier of the Colony, in which he desires that the attention of Her

Majesty’s Government may be called to the refusal of the French authorities in New Caledonia to apply for the extradition of criminals who have escaped from Noumea.

2.    In connection with this matter, I am to request, Lord Granville’s early consideration of the enclosed copy of a joint letter4 from the Agents-Gcneral of New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, and Victoria, on the subject of New Guinea and the New Hebrides, in which it is strongly urged that measures should be taken to prevent the consequences anticipated from the declared intention of the French Government to transport large numbers of the worst class of criminals to New Caledonia where they would be free on arrival.

3.    Considering the grave importance of this question to the welfare of the Australian Colonics it appears to Lord Derby to be necessary to obtain immediate explanations from the French Government as to the course contemplated (1) in regard to the number of convicts proposed to be sent out, and their position after arrival, and (2) the failure of the Government of New Caledonia in the cases just reported to demand the extradition of criminals whom they have permitted to escape; and Lord Derby will be glad to be enabled to assure the Government of Queensland that Her Majesty’s Government has not failed to give prompt attention to the serious representation which has been made to them, and has communicated with the French Government.

4.    I am also to request that Lord Granville may be reminded that in 1881 the Queensland Legislature passed a Bill to prevent the influx of foreign and other criminals into the Colony, which was the subject of correspondence between this Department and the Foreign Office. This Bill did not at that time receive Her Majesty’s assent, as objection was taken to the unequal incidence of certain of its provisions; but under the circumstances now reported, and having regard to the contemplated increase in the number of French convicts to be transported to the Western Pacific, it appears to Lord Derby that it will not be possible to continue to resist such legislation.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) R. II. MEADE.

Foreign Office.

• No. 33.

Governor tiif, MARQUIS OF NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria), to the Right Honourable the EARL OF DERBY. (Received August 13, 1883.)

Government House, Melbourne,

My Lord,    June 2“, 1883.

I have the honour to enclose a letter which I have received from Mr. Service, b\ which you will see that he is anxious to bring under your Lordship’s notice certain considerations with regard to the annexation of the New Hebrides group and the neighbouring islands.

This letter should have been sent by last mail, but from some oversight I did nol receive it until after the mail bags were closed.

I have, &c.

(Signed) NORMANBY.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure 1 in No. 33.

Premier’s Office, Melbourne,

My Lord,    June 18, 1883.

With reference to the interview which I had with your Excellency on the 9th instant, respecting the desired annexation or protectorate of the New Hebrides and neighbouring islands, I now have the honour to transmit herewith to your Excellency, for the information of the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies, certain documents bearing upon the subject in question.

The first is a letter from the Rev. D. MacDonald, a New Hebridean missionary, at present on a visit to this Colony, and (besides being interesting in itself) sets forth what,

I submit, arc cogent reasons why the British Empire should take possession of the islands in question.

I received the deputation proposed by Mr. MacDonald, and returned a reply, in substance the same as that contained in a newspaper report, which forms my second enclosure.

Enclosure No. 3 gives a list, asked for by me when receiving the deputation, of the various petitions, which have at different times been directly or indirectly addressed to the Imperial Government, (some from the natives themselves) praying for the annexation or a protectorate of the Islands; and No. 4 is a letter from the Itev. J. G. Baton, setting out the reasons for the desired course.

To the reasons contained in these documents, I trust Lord Derby will give the gravest consideration.

I will now add that the action of this Colony has been somewhat precipitated by the circumstance that it was reported in Melbourne a few days after my interview with the deputation, that the Ercnch Consul here had telegraphed to his Government an account of the matter, with a view to prevent British possession of the Islands.

It was at once felt by Ministers that it might prove a fault, to be ever deplored, but never to be remedied, if Australia, through supineness, were to allow these Islands, in the important strategic position which they occupy towards her, to fall without an effort into the hands of a foreign power.

I therefore at once communicated with the other Colonies, and they joined unanimously in this view.

I would ask your Excellency to be so good as to call special attention to the fact, that the desired annexation of these Islands stands altogether apart from any question as to a general annexation policy on the part of the Empire.

It is of the first importance, in order to apprehend the true bearings of the question, that it should be seen that this annexation has no connexion with any such general policy ; that, in fact, the unwisdom of such a policy may be freely granted, so far as it concerned, and the proposition still remains true, that it is an urgent necessity of Australia, that the possibility of these island-territories becoming the post for foreign guns and foreign ships, should, without delay, be placed beyond question, and beyond fear.

It undoubtedly prejudices the case, that it comes to be considered at a time when any such general policy is before the public mind, but I trust it may not be confused with it by the experienced statesmen who will have to deal with it.

As to the question of expense, I would point out that the course we advocate may yet prove to be the truest economy. To take and hold possession would be at present a very small expense, but what would be the expense, if, in the time of war, these islands should become points, from which foreign vessels could issue, to attack Australian ports, and harass British commerce.

And it must be recollected, that the great majority of the ships that trade to Australia are British-registered and of British owners.

But independently of this consideration, I feel sure that Australia would not wish the Mother country to be at the whole expense of the projected measure. I have communicated with the other Colonies, asking their concurrence in this, and there has not yet been time to receive their replies ; but 1 would ask your Excellency to be good enough to convey to Lord Derby my opinion that expense should not, and so far as an Australian subsidy is concerned, would not, be allowed to stand in the way.

It will probably be deemed equitable that if Australia shares the expense, she should be consulted as to the mode of governing ; but this is a matter of detail, which should not be allowed to hinder proceedings.

There is one other consideration of great importance, and that is, that Australia is, in this respect, fettered in her action, by her forming part of the British Empire. She cannot take the course which her truest interest dictates, without the authority of the Crown. She is, therefore, entitled to make request of the Imperial authority to do that for her, which her connexion with the Empire prevents her from doing for herself.

I have confined myself in this letter to the political aspect of the question; but, as well pointed out by the missionaries, there are questions of humanity and civilisation, which seem to add a clenching force to every other consideration.

In conclusion, I would ask your Excellency to be so good as to represent that there is no doubt that a strong feeling of dissatisfaction will spread throughout these Colonies, if England, while holding Australia back from acting in her own interests, at the same

time neglects to take a step which Australia deems essential to her future securitv and welfare.

I have, &c.

llis Excellency    (Signed) James Service,

The Most Noble    Premier.

The Marquis of Normanby, G.C.M.G.

See. Sec. See.

Enclosure 2 in No. 33.

4, Eamont Terrace,

Grey Street, East Melbourne,

Sir,    . May 31, 1883.

I have the honour to lay before you as briefly as possible the following statement:—

From a recent telegram we learn that the British Government, partly owing to the action of Queensland, supported as it has been by the other Australian Colonies, has annexed the southern part of New Guinea to the Empire, and has resolved to administer it as a Crown Colony. This is a result heartily to be rejoiced in.

But to annex merely the south-eastern part of New Guinea is not, considered from any standpoint, sufficient, whether in the way of protecting the Australasian Colonies from the danger that would arise from the establishment of an alien power in the neighbouring islands, or in the way of protecting the natives of these islands from the atrocities of the labour traffic, and so of conserving the honour of the empire while promoting the interests of its commerce and of civilisation. A glance at the map will show that the chain of islands, inhabited by the same race, extending from New Guinea to the New Hebrides, or rather to the Fijis, including New Britain, New Ireland, and the Solomons, forms a natural group, should be annexed together, and together put under the same administration.

As to the danger that might arise from the proximity of a great naval power in any part of this region of Western or Papuan Polynesia, the New Hebrides is exactly the same distance from Brisbane as New Guinea; Melbourne is somewhat, and New Zealand immensely nearer to the New Hebrides than to New Guinea. To the swift war vessels of the present day a few hundred miles is a very small matter. The climate of the New Hebrides is healthier than that of New Guinea or any other part of the region above-named, except Fiji, and it has by far the best harbours. The island of Efatc, or Sandwich, has two of the best harbours in the world, well supplied with fresh water. Finally, the natives of the New Hebrides group are more prepared for the reception of civilisation than those of any other islands in the Papuan Archipelago, with the exception of Fiji, and it would be easier to establish a civilised Government among them. If not so advanced as the Fijians when Fiji was annexed, they are more advanced than the islanders of the Solomons, New Britain, and New Guinea. Speaking of Fiji reminds us that it may be regarded as the outlying extremity of the chain of islands above named, being only 400 miles from the New Hebrides, which, again are only 1,000 miles from New Guinea. It is most undesirable that a foreign power should possess the New Hebrides and Solomons, lying between Fiji and New Guinea, and forming the very heart of our nascent South Sea empire, for it would be a standing menace to it as well as to the Australasian Colonies.

As to the protection of the natives from labour traffic atrocities, and conserving the honour of the British name, the necessity of doing which we have abundantly recognised by acts of the Imperial Parliament and otherwise, it is in the New Hebrides and Solomons that that protection is most needed. There the flag of England has been most foully stained, and there has been done to the helpless people most grievous wrong, for which we are nationally responsible. We owe, therefore, to them a national debt of reparation which we do not owe to the people of New Guinea, and the perpetration of that wrong is going on every day in these islands, whereas it has only begun in New Guinea. There is no other way worth trying of putting an end to these outrages and massacres that we are constantly hearing of, and many which we never hear of, but by annexing the islands and thereby making the islanders British subjects. Lord Derby and the home authorities recognise the need of new efforts to put a stop to them, or better regulate the labour traffic. (See his reply to a deputation in February

lust). Nothing short of annexation, and putting the Papuan islander as a labourer on a looting analogous to that of the Hindu coolie Avill avail. This, in fact, is a strong argument for annexation. 'The expenses now incurred, and they are considerable, for inefficient regulations would be applied efficiently under the new system ; the honour, the interests, and the safety of the Empire would be promoted, the natives protected, and commerce and civilisation permanently rooted and grounded in one of the fairest and most fertile portions of the globe.

There are four missionary societies at work in Papuan Polynesia, and only four, and the whole four are British, the Presbyterian in the New Hebrides, Church of England in the Solomons, Wesleyan in New Britain, and London Missionary Society in New Guinea. Of these missions, the Presbyterian in the New Hebrides is the oldest and largest; it has iioav 14 European missionaries, together Avith about 150 native Christian teachers and evangelists, who may be regarded as the hope of their race both as to Christianity and civilisation, and it is carried on at an annual expense of about 6,COOL of British, home, and colonial monev. Similar things might be said of the other missions. Already a considerable number of traders and planters have settled in the Ncav Hebrides, and most or nearly all of these are British subjects. All Avould hail annexation as a boon. The natives to a man are as much in favour of British as they are opposed to French annexation. There is not commercially a richer or more fertile or desirable group than the NeAV Hebrides, throughout the vast extent of the Pacific.

The Imperial Government can have no objection on principal to annexing these islands, since they have annexed Ncav Guinea and Fiji; and there can be no reasonable objection on the score of expense, as the same machinery that is necessary for Ncav Guinea and Fiji can be extended over the intervening islands, and the present expense of the abortive regulation of the so-called “ labour traffic ” will be available, and probably sufficient to cover any slight additional expense. And as soon as civilised government is extended over these islands in connexion Avith either of the established governments of Fiji or Ncav Guinea, as may be most convenient, the rapid commercial development and progress certain to take place in them Avill speedily secure more than the defrayment of their proportion of the expense of government; for these islands will become the Australasian Indies, and Avill yield cotton, coffee, and cocoanut oil, sugar and spices, and all other tropical products in large quantities.

Thus, generally speaking, it is exceedingly desirable to annex these islands along with Ncav Guinea and Fiji. Hitherto the British Government have not seen their Avay to annex the Ncav Hebrides, though frequently petitioned to do so ; but now that Fiji at the one extremity, and Ncav Guinea at the other, have been annexed, it is reasonable to expect that they would sec it to be their wisdom to annex the intervening islands also, attaching them to cither of the existing Colonics of Fiji or New Guinea, according to their proximity; and these islands not only lie betAvecn the two extremities of our South Sea Empire, but also form a chain that runs parallel to the Australian coast.

I therefore respectfully and earnestly suggest to you, as Premier of the Colony of Victoria, that, if you agree Avith these views, you take such steps as your long political experience may dictate to you to secure the co-operation of the other Australian Governments, in advocating the annexation to the British Empire of the New Hebrides, Solomons, and Ncav Britain, along with Ncav Guinea and the Fijis; and have much satisfaction in feeling that to none could so important a business be more appropriately committed.

May I request that you Avill be good enough to appoint a time to receive myself and a number of gentlemen avIio are deeply interested in this matter at }rour earliest convenience, to more fully explain their views on the subject.

I have, &c.

The Honourable James Service, M.L.A.    (Signed) D. Macdonald,

Premier of the Colony of Victoria.    Missionary New Hebrides.

Enclosure 3 in No. 33.

The South Sea Islands.

A large deputation, including a number of clergymen, waited on the Premier yesterday to urge him to do everything in his poAver to induce the Imperial Government to annex or accord its protection to the islands in the South Seas that are not at present under the dominion of any other poAA^er. Mr. Balfour, M.L.C., introduced the deputa-

tion, which was also accompanied by Messrs. Anderson, Minims, Gibb, and M. H. Davies, M.L.A.’s. The Minister of Justice was present with the Premier.

Mr. Balfour said that for many years those connected with the missions in the New Hebrides islands had seen the necessity for the annexation of those islands, or else for their being brought under the protection of the empire. The iniquitous labour traffic was really not under control, and it had had the effect of almost bringing Christianity and civilisation to a standstill. Movements in favour of annexation or protection had been repeated, but unsuccessful. He assumed that Great Britain would cither annex New Guinea or allow the Colonies to do so; and the present seemed a good opportunity to urge the annexation of the other islands, which could be advocated not only from a missionary’s but from a statesman’s point of view, for on these islands valuable products could be grown. Common 1 humanity demanded the suppression of the labour traffic, about which there were numerous official reports, and which had lately been commented upon by Mr. Morrison, an independent witness. The Wesleyan mission at New Britain was represented in the deputation. The missionaries there did not want annexation until the natives had been consulted. But the New Hebrides missionaries could speak confidently as to the desire for annexation of the natives there. Throughout these islands there- was a great dread of other powers, but a great desire to be annexed to the British Empire.

The Rev. D. Macdonald, Presbyterian missionary of the New Hebrides, said that the British had the most right to annex the islands, because they had spent more money there than any other nation. Moreover, precious British blood had been spilled there, and the British were more numerously represented than any other foreign nation. The annexation of the islands would be a reparation for the wrong done to them by the labour traffic by persons of British nationality more than any other. There was no other means than annexation of stopping the constantly occurring massacres. The New Hebrides were centrally situated, and were near to the Australian colonics, »and contained splendid harbours, the best of which was in the central island called Sandwich Island.

The Rev. J. King, of the Victorian Auxiliary to the London Missionary Society, said that he had spent 10 years on the Navigators’ Islands. The missionaries did not advocate annexation because they desired governmental patronage and help. They did not want British gunboats to assist them in evangelising the people. The greatest achievements of Christianity had been accomplished in the islands without such aid. He advocated annexation purely on humanitarian grounds. The British Government was the natural protector of these races. The long connexion of British people with the islanders in missionary work and commercial enterprise had led the islanders to look up to the British as their natural protectors. Samoa, over and over again, asked the British Government for a protectorate, but such requests had been declined, and now Germany and America had obtained very strong footing there. Unless the British Government soon stepped in, the New Hebrides also would soon arrive at a stage at which British annexation would be impossible. The French had a considerable interest in the Loyalty group beyond New Caledonia. In the past the English Government had signally failed in conserving native races, because it had not yet adopted the right policy.

The llcv. E. I. Watkin, President of the Wesleyan Conference, said he was not authorised to speak on behalf of the Wesleyan Church, but so far as he knew the opinion of her missionaries, it was that the case of the New Hebrides was not parallel with that of the Solomon Islands and New Britain. There had been a Presbyterian Mission in the New Hebrides for many years, and annexation was desired there. He was inclined to favour the establishment of a protectorate over the Solomon Islands and New7 Britain, with a view to annexation, should the natives desire it. There was already, it should be remembered, self-government in some of the islands. The natives had rights that should not be interfered with,. except for political reasons. »Such reasons justified the annexation of New7 Guinea, and on the same grounds the annexation of the New7 Hebrides, Solomon Islands, and New Britain might perhaps be justified.

The Rev. T. Nelson, of the New Hebrides Mission, said that the French strongly desired to take possession of those islands, the natives of which, however, strongly wished for annexation to Great Britain.

The Rev. J. G. Paton, missionary of the Free Church of Scotland, said that 20 years ago the Tanna Chiefs petitioned for British annexation, and such request had been since renewed. As to the expenditure that annexation of the islands would entail, it had been magnified, because some of the islands could be governed from Fiji, and the

K 7704.    £

others from New Guinea, when that was annexed. The natives hated and feared the French, hut they loved the name of Queen Victoria. If the French annexed the islands, the Protestant missions would be suppressed. All the islanders longed for British protection. It would be a pity if, after the expenditure of so much British money there, some other nation were to step in and reap the harvest. Me concluded by relating instances of atrocities perpetrated by the labour vessels.

Mr. Service said that he would like to be furnished with a short resume of all the appeals that had been made for the annexation of the islands and of other facts bearing on the subject. Every consideration pointed to the desirableness of the course so strongly recommended by the deputation. Unfortunately, humanitarian, civilising, and Christianising movements were often, if not antagonistic to political considerations, at all events not on the same line with them, but here every consideration pointed in the same direction. Politics, religion, commerce, civilisation, humanity all pointed to the absolute desirability of getting hold of these islands. As to New Guinea, he not only put himself in communication Avith the Agent-General, but requested the other Colonics to support the action of the Queensland GoATcrnment. But, in the steps lie took on that subject, he had not the slightest desire to encourage that labour trade Avhich the deputation had referred to in terms that Averc not half strong enough. The mission of England all along had been to elevate, Christianise, and civilise the dark nations of the earth. Of late years she seemed to have felt that she was getting too many dependencies, but he believed that that Avas a mistaken notion altogether. England AAras an immense moral poAver among the nations ; she OAved her position to her grand moral status, and it Avas a position that her military poAver Avould never gi\rc her. lie Avould immcdiatelv bring the matter under the notice of his colleagues, and Avould allow no delay to elapse in his efforts to bring about the' desired result. If the Australian Legislatures could be induced to pass resolutions in favour of annexation, that AA'ould tell very favourably with the Government and Parliament of England, Avho Avould regard such opinions as of more importance than mere Governmental action. He believed the Victorian Government Avould be unanimously in favour of prompt action.

The deputation withdrew, gratified Avith the statement of the Premier.

Enclosure 4 in No. 33.

Gotham Road, Kcav, June 8, 1883.

J)kar Sir,

I am sorry I could not sooner send you the required dates and memorials and petitions to the Queen for a protectorate and for annexation of“ the NeAv Hebrides Islands. I feel also sorry the following are so imperfect, as all such records are kept by Dr. Steel, the agent of our mission in Sydney, and now he is in Melbourne attending a conference, but they can be got from him on his return, but at present I forward all 1 have been able to get from blue books, though very imperfect, as a number are not noted in books iioav Avithin my reach.

In A.D. 1862, the Chiefs of Tanna sent a petition through me to Sir John Young, Governor of Ncav South Wales, for a protectorate. He did not forward it.

In A.D. 1868, a petition was presented to the Earl of Belmore by the Neiv Hebrides Mission for Her Majesty the Queen.

In A.D. 1868, a petition was presented to Lord Stanley by the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, for Her Majesty the Queen.

In A.D. 18/2, a petition Avas presented to Earl Kimberley, Secretary of State for the Colonies, by the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, for the Queen.

In A.D. 1874, a petition was sent to the Queen regarding the labour traffic, and implying a British protectorate, like all the above noted.

In November 1874, another petition was sent from Victoria regarding the “ slave or labour traffic ” and a protectorate.

In A.D. 1874 or 1875, a petition was sent by the natives of Etate, per Lieutenant Carey, of II.M. gunboat “ Conflict,” which Avas presented for annexation like Fiji, as they expressed it through Mr. Macdonald.

In A.D. 1877, the Presbyterian Church of Victoria, the Presbyterian Church of Ncav South Wales, and the Free Church of Scotland, and the missionaries all sent petitions to the Queen for annexation of the New Hebrides to Great Britain.

In A.D. 1882, a petition was sent from a conference which met in Sydney representing all the Presbvterians of Australasia, and others followed from Victoria, and South Australia, and Tasmania, and the New Hebrides Mission, and the natives, and

and in our Australasian Colonies which have been engaged in the work of civilising and Christianising the New Hebrides Islands.    "

the Free Church of Scotland, to the Queen, entreating the annexation of uie group to Great Britain.

The above wiil sIioav you that the subject has been long before the minds of the natives, the missionaries, and Europeans on the islands, and all the churches at home


In the conference of the Australian Presbyterian Churches which met in Sydney in April of last year, I pled for British annexation of the New Hebrides Islands on account of eight reasons, Avhich I have written out to you and enclose, and Avhich led to the six petitions being sent to the Queen as above referred to, for annexation to Great Britain.

Thanking you heartily for the cordial reception of our deputation, and wishing you every blessing in Christ Jesus.

I remain, &c.

The Honourable James Service,    (Signed) Joijn G. Baton.

Premier.

Enclosure 5 in No. 33.

Sih,

For the following reasons we think the British Government ought now to take possession of the New Hebrides group of the South Sea Islands, of the Solomon group, and of all the intervening chain of islands from Fiji to New Guinea.

1.    Because she has already taken possession of Fiji in the east, and we hope it will soon be known authoritatively that she has taken possession of New Guinea at the north-west, adjoining her Australian possessions, and the islands between complete this chain of islands lying along the Australian coast. Taking possession of the New I lebrides would not add much to her expenses, as her Governments on Fiji and New Guinea, with the visits of her men-of-war passing through the group of the New Hebrides and intervening islands on their way to New Guinea, would almost be sufficient for all her requirements on the islands between.

2.    The sympathy of the New Hebrides natives are all with Great Britain, hence they long for British protection, while they fear and hate the French, who appear eager to annex the group, because they have seen the way the French have treated the native races in New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, and other South Sea Islands.

3.    Till within the past tew months almost all the Europeans on the New Hebrides were British subjects, who long for British protection.

4.    All the men and all the money (over 140,000/.) used in civilising and Christianising the New Hebrides, have been British. Now 14 missionaries and the Dayspring mission ship, and about 150 native evangelists and teachers are employed in the above work on this group, in which over 6,000/. yearly of British and British-Colonial money is expended ; and certainly it would be unwise to let any other power now take possession and reap the fruits of all this British outlay.

5.    Because the Netv Hebrides are already a British dependency in this sense—all its imports are from Sydney and Melbourne and British Colonies, and all its exports are also to British Colonies.

6.    The islands on this group are generally very rich in soil arid in tropical products so that if a possession of Great Britain, and the labour traffic stopped, so as to retain what remains of the native populations on them, they would soon, and for ages to come, become rich sources of tropical wealth to these Colonies, as sugar-cane is extensively cultivated on them by every native of the group, even in his heathen state. For natives they are an industrious, hard-working race, living in villages and towns, and, like farmers, depending on the cultivation and products of the ground for their support by their plantations. The islands also grow maize, cotton, coffee, arrowroot, and spices, &c., and all tropical products could be largely produced on them.

7.    Because if any other nation takes possession cf them, their excellent and spacious harbours, as on Efate, so well supplied with the best fresh water, and their near proximity to Great Britain’s Australasian Colonies, would in time of war make them damrerous to British interests and commerce in the South Seas and to her Colonies.

8. The 13 islands of this group on which life and property are now comparatively safe, the 8,000 professed Christians on the group, and all* the churches formed among them, are by God’s blessing the fruits of the labours of British missionaries, who, at great toil, expense, and loss of life, have translated, got printed, and taught the natives to read the Bible in part or in whole in nine different languages of this group, while 70,000 at least arc longing and ready for the gospel. On this group 21 members of the mission families died or were murdered bv the savages in beginning God’s work among them, not including good Bishop Paterson, of the Melanesian Mission, and we fear all this good work would be lost if the New Hebrides fall into other than British hands.

9- Because we see no other way of suppressing the labour traffic in Polynesia, with

•    .    • 1    5    .    •    11    i    i    i    «1    11«    .    .    1^1    111    1

KJL ^iviwonig mm vuiiowuuioili^    wiuuuuiuj    A

experience proves that all labour laws and regulations, with Government agents and gunboats, cannot prevent such evils, which have always been the sad accompaniments of all such traffic in men and women in everv land, and because this traffic and its evils are a sad stain on our British glory and Australasian honour, seeing Britain has done so much to free the slave and suppress slavery in other lands.

For the above reasons, and others that might be given, we sincerely hope and pray that you will do all possible to get Victoria and the other Colonial Governments to help and unite in urging Great Britain at once to take possession of the New Hebrides group. Whether looked at in the interests of humanity, or of Christianity, or commercially, or politically, surely it is most desirable that they should at once be British possessions; hence we plead for your judicious and able help, and remain, your humble servant,

John G. Paton,

The Hon. James Service,    Senior Missionary,

Premier.    New Hebrides Mission.

I enclose this from Dr. Steel, Sydney.—John G. Paton.

“ Some 10 years ago, when an abortive effort was made by a number of private individuals to form a settlement on New Guinea, representations were made to some of the Colonial Governments on the importance of the annexation of New Guinea by the British Government. At the same period simultaneous efforts were made by Presbyterian churches to the Governments of Australian Colonies respecting the annexation of the New Hebrides, The labour traffic at that time excited great interest on account of its many inhumanities.

“ The Government of New South Wales, at the period referred to, formally agreed to recommend the annexation of New Guinea, the Duke of York Islands, New Britain, New Ireland, and the New Hebrides. Sir John Robertson, then Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, addressed a communication to the Earl of Kimberley, the British Minister for the Colonies, urging the importance of annexation. The answer of the Earl of Kimberley was unfavourable, but the correspondence, which was published by the Government of New South Wales, shows that this proposal is not now urged for the first time.

“ The population of natives in the New Hebrides is rapidly declining, and these islands will certainly be annexed by some power, as they are so well littcd to grow all kinds of tropical spices and other fruits. They were discovered for the most part by British navigators, traded with by British vessels, regularly visited by Her Majesty’s ships of war, and justice frequently administered by Her Majesty’s naval officers, and finally evangelised by the labours and munificence of British subjects.”

No. 34.

The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor the MARQUIS OF

NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria).

My Lord,    Downing Street, August 18, 1883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of the 27th of June,5 forwarding a letter from Mr. Service, with its enclosures, respecting the proposed annexation of the New Hebrides and the neighbouring islands.

I have read Mr. Service’s letter with attention.

I have, &c.

The Marquis of Normauby.


(Signed) DERBY.

No. 35.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Foreign Office, August 2“, 1883.


Suî,


I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, for the information of the Earl of Derby, a copy of a Despatch which his Lordship has addressed to Her Majesty’s Minister at Paris, instructing him to make a representation to the French Government in the sense suggested in your letter of the 10th instant,* respecting the transportation of relapsed criminals from France to New Caledonia.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 35.

Sin,    Foreign Office, August 25, 1883.

I communicated in. due course to the Colonial Office Lord Lyons’ Despatch of the 9th of May last, in which his Excellency reported that the “ Transportation of Relapsed Criminals ” Bill had passed the first reading in the French Chamber of Deputies, and that New Caledonia and its dependencies were included amongst the settlements to which relapsed criminals are to be sent.

The Earl of Derby has now brought under my notice, in connexion with this matter, a joint communication, annexed herewith in copy, which has been addressed to his Lordship by the Agents General of New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, and Victoria, and in which, inter alia,very strong representations are made with a view to the adoption of effective measures for preventing the serious consequences to be anticipated from the above-mentioned resolution of the French Government; by which large numbers of the worst class of criminals would be transported to New Caledonia, where, as it is stated, they would be free.

And with further reference to this subject, his Lordship has received from the Agent General of Queensland a letter, of which copy is also enclosed for your information, and which forwards a telegram from the Premier of the Colony, calling attention to the refusal of the French authorities of New Caledonia to apply for the extradition of criminals who escape from Noumea into Queensland.

It is clear that this question, being one which gravely concerns tiie welfare of the Australian Colonies, must command the prompt attention of Her Majesty’s Government, and I have accordingly to request that you will lose no time in placing yourself in communication with the French Government upon the subject, with a view to ascertain what is the course which they propose to pursue—in the first place, as regards the number of convicts to be sent out to the Western Pacific, and as to the position of such criminals after arrival; and, secondly, with respect to the failure of the Government of New Caledonia to demand the extradition of criminals whom they have permitted to escape, in the cases pointed out in the above-mentioned telegram from the Queensland Government.

The Hon. F. Plunkett, &c.    &c.    &c.


I am, &c.

(Signed) Granville.

No. 36.

Governor tiie MARQUIS OF NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria), to the Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received August 28, 1883.)

Government House, Melbourne,

My Lord,    duly 12, 1883.

Having reference to my telegraphic despatch of this day’s date,t I have the honour to transmit herewith six copies of the address which was presented to me conveying certain resolutions which were unanimously adopted by both Houses of the

* No.


32.


f No. 22 in [0.-3691.] July 1883.


Legislature advocating the annexation of New Guinea and certain other islands in the Pacific.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) NORMANBY.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 36.

To Ilis Excellency the most Honourable Geokge Augustus Constantine, Marquis of Normanby, Earl of Mulgrave, Viscount Normanby, and Baron Mulgrave of Mulgravc, all in the county of York, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; and Baron Mulgravc of New Ross, in the county of Wexford, in the Peerage of Ireland ; a Member of Her Majesty’s most Honourable Privy Council; Knight Grand Cross of the most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George; Governor and Cominander-in-Chief in and over the Colony of Victoria and its Dependencies, &c., &c., &c.

May it it please Y our Excellency :—

We, the Legislative Council and Legislative Assembly of Victoria, in Parliament assembled, respectfully request that you will be pleased to communicate the accompanying resolutions, which have been agreed to by both Houses of Parliament, to Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies.

President.

Speaker.

(1.) That it is essential to the future well-being of the Australasian Colonics that New Guinea and the Pacific Islands lying between New Guinea and Fiji, including the New Hebrides, should be annexed to the British Crown, or that England should establish a protectorate over them.

(2.) That concerted action on the part of the Australasian Colonies is desirable, in order to accomplish this result.

(3.) That this Colony is willing to contribute its proportion of the expense entailed by such annexation or protectorate.

No. 37.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the AGENT GENERAL FOR NEW ZEALAND.

Si a,    DoAvning Street, August 29, 1883.

1 am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 1st instant,* enclosing a copy of a telegram from the Premier of New Zealand, stating that the Colonial House of Representatives desires to be furnished with a statement from this Department of the contribution required from Ncav Zealand to meet the expenses incurred by Her Majesty’s Government in respect of unoccupied islands of the Pacific.

The telegram in question appears to have originated from a misapprehension as to the intentions of Her Majesty’s Government, and Lord Derby concludes that you will have explained to your Government, that Her Majesty’s Government are not now prepared to receive contributions from the Colonies towards the cost of annexing any of the Western Pacific Islands.

I am, &c.

The Agent General for New Zealand.    (Signed) R. H. MEADE.

No. 38.

The AGENT GENERAL for NEW ZEALAND to COLONIAL OFFICE.

7, Westminster Chambers, London, S.W. Sik,    August 30, 1883.

Advekting to a passage in the letter from the Agents General to the Earl of Derby on the 21st .1 uly last,'}* where allusion is made to a proposal of Sir Julius Vogel

for the formation of a trading company for the Pacific, I have received a letter from Sir Julius Vogel, of which I beg permission to enclose a copy, pointing out that it was not intended by that proposal to confer any exclusive right of trading on the company.

I should be very much obliged if Lord Derby would allow this correction to appear in any papers that may contain the letter of the Agents General.

I have, &c.

The Under Secretary of State    (Signed) F. D. BELL,

for the Colonies.

Enclosure in No. 38.

135, Cromwell Road, London, S.W.,

Dear Sir Francis,    August 29, 1883.

In the able document concerning the Pacific Islands to which your signature as well as those of other Agents General are attached, I find a slight error in relation to the South Sea Island scheme which my Government proposed in 1874. The importance of the error, however, is somewhat increased by the fact, that the misconception is made a ground of argument against the scheme, which I venture still to think it would have been desirable to adopt. The memorandum states, in effect, that it was proposed that the Chartered Company should be endowed with a monopoly of trading, and proceeds to say that if the granting of such a monopoly was possible, it was at least open to grave objection. Now it was not intended or proposed that the Government or Legislature should give to the company any other monopoly than that its own wealth and the largeness of its operations might secure for it.

I am, &c.

(Signed) Julius Vogel.


I am sure you will think it right to send the substance of this correction to Lord Derby, to whom the memorandum was addressed.

Sir F. I). Bell, K.C.M.G., Agent General for New Zealand.

No. 39.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the AGENTS GENERAL FOR NEW SOUTH WALES,

NEW ZEALAND, QUEENSLAND, AND VICTORIA.

Downing Street,

Gentlemen,    •    31 August 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st July 6 placing before his Lordship the representations with regard to New Guinea and the islands in the Western Pacific Ocean which you had promised during your recent interview. Lord Derby recognises the care and ability with which you have recapitulated the history of past transactions in that part of the world, and as his Lordship does not perceive that this department need take exception to any of the statements in the earlier part of your letter he will not at present examine them in detail. I am, however, to inform you that, as it contains many references to the acts and opinions of the High Commissioner and of Her Majesty’s naval officers, Lord Derby has transmitted copies to Sir Arthur Gordon and to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for their consideration.

2.    Turning to your inquiry as to the extent to which the claims of Foreign Powers in the Western Pacific have been recognised by Her Majesty’s Government, his Lordship is disposed to doubt whether there is really so much uncertainty or absence of information on this subject in the Australasian Colonies as you seem to apprehend.

3.    Referring, however, first to the islands of the Western Pacific which are most distant from Australia, the Navigators’ Islands, no Power has claimed or indicated any desire to obtain a paramount influence or protectorate over that group. The Consular Officers of Great Britain, Germany, and the United States have, jointly or separately, from time to time exercised influence over public and native affairs at Samoa; and this country, as well as Germany, has entered into treaties with the King and Government of Samoa. The group therefore forms an independent state, recognised as sueh by European diplomacy, and under these circumstances the question might possibly arise whether its annexation by any Power would not be a violation of international law.

4.    The Government of the Tongan or Friendly Islands is also recognised as independent, and this country and Germany have recently concluded treaties with the King of that group. The same argument therefore applies in this as in the former case.

40

5. Proceeding westward past Fiji, which, with the neighbouring island of ltotuina h, is British, we come to the New Hebrides : and your letter shows that you are aware of the understanding arrived at in 1878 between Her Majesty’s Government and the Government of France, in pursuance of which the independence of those islands has been up to the present time recognised and respected by both Governments. The Loyalty Islands, being close to New Caledonia, are to be looked upon as dependencies of the French Government in that island.

(). The foregoing brief statement may suffice to explain to you that the claims and interests of other countries constitute a very serious impediment to that “ complete jurisdiction ’’ which you represent that England ought now to assume over the Western Pacific, and that the best known and most frequented groups of islands have already such relations with Foreign Powers, in common with England, as cannot be summarily ignored. You do not specifically refer to the important islands or group of islands known as New Britain, New Ireland, the Solomon Islands, and the Santa Cruz Islands. They arc at a considerable distance from Australia, and are for the most part of great size, and inhabited by warlike and cannibal tribes. Her Majesty’s Government have not before them any evidence that the Governments of the Australasian Colonies have sufficiently considered the extent of the responsibilities which the annexation or protectorate of these islands would involve, and they arc far from being satisfied that the assumption of those responsibilities is necessary or justifiable.

7.    With reference to that part of your letter which treats of New Guinea, Lord Derby desires me to observe that he has at present nothing to add to the Despatch which lie addressed on the 11th July * to the Acting Governor of Queensland. His Lordship concludes that after receiving that Despatch the Governments of any Colonics desiring to bear the cost of any measures which, as indicated in the two last paragraphs of that Despatch, Her Majesty’s Government may be prepared to take, will confer together and make those united recommendations which have been invited, furnishing also an effective guarantee for such expenditure as may be incurred. They will, no doubt, at the same time consider whether they wish to make jointly any similar definite proposal with regard to other islands not already connected by treaty or otherwise with Foreign Powers.

8. I am to add that Lord Derby has read with attention your representations as to the inconvenience and injury which, unless great precautions are taken, might result from the continuance and development of the French Penal Settlements in New Caledonia and the adjacent islands, and that his Lordship is in communication with the Foreign Office on the subject.

I am, Gentlemen,

Your most obedient Servant, (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

The Agents General for New South Wales,

New Zealand, Queensland, and Victoria.

* No. 21 in [C.-3691] July 1883.

London:. Printed by Eyre and Spottiswoque3 Printers to the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty.

For Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

NEW GUINEA AND THE WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS.

C 0 U U E S P 0 N I) E N G E

ItESFECTING

NEW GUINEA AND 0TI1EE ISLANDS

AND THE

CONVENTION AT SYDNEY OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.

(In continuation of [C. 3814] August 1883.)

PrreentriJ to tot!) adottarsi of parliament f»i> (Gommanti of ¿iSaje»ttL

February 1884.

PRINTED BY EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE.

To he purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from any of the following Agents, viz., Messrs. Hansard and Son, 13, Great Queen Street, W.C., and 32, Abingdon Street, Westminster; Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, and Sale Office, House of Lords;

Mi >ssrs. Adam and Charles Black, of Edinburgh ;

Messrs. Alexander Tiiom and Co., or Messrs. Hodges, Figgis, and Co., of Dublin.

[C.-3863.] Price 2s. 4d,

Date.

March 1, 1883 (Rec. April 10,1883).

April 21, 1883.


April 30, 1883.


May 2, 1883.


May 9, 1883.


(Rec. June 18, 1883.) Telegraphic.


Aug. 6, 1883.


June 16, 1883 (Rec. Aug. 7,1883).

June 1, 1883 (Rec. Aug. 25,1883).


Sept. 1, 1883 (Rec. Sept. 1, 1883). Telegraphic.


Subject.


Calling attention to the proceedings of the French in the New Hebrides, and the detrimental effect thereof on the labours of British missionaries in those islands.

Transmitting copy of a letter from Messrs. Baton and Wilson, and suggesting that an inquiry into the circumstances should be made by the Admiral on the station ; also that a representation should be made to the French Government.

Concurring in the proposal contained in the Colonial Office letter of 21st April on the subject of the complaint of Messrs. Wilson and Paton, and enclosing copy of the instruction which has been issued to Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris in the sense of that letter.

Transmitting copy of a letter to the Admiralty in compliance with the suggestion contained in the Colonial Office letter of 21st April.


Transmitting copy of a letter from Messrs. Wilson and Paton, and of a correspondence with the Foreign Office thereon, and requesting that he will inform Messrs. Wilson and Paton of the action which has been taken in the matter.

Submitting that the future and commercial interests of Australia, apart from Imperial policy, render desirable the annexations urged by the Victorian Government.

Transmitting copy despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris inclosing copy note addressed by him to the French Government with regard to the supposed understanding between France and Great Britain as regards annexation of New Guinea.

Explaining grounds on which the Colonial Government has urged annexation of the New Hebrides.

Asking that the rights of the natives to the land of New Guinea may be protected, and that the labour traffic may not be introduced into the island.

Reporting that both Houses of Parliament have unanimously agreed to address the Queen, praying that effectual measures may be taken to prevent the annexation by foreign powers of New Guinea, or any other island between that and Fiji.


/.


From or to whom.


Date.


Subject.


11


To Administrator Sir A. H. Palmer (Queensland)


Sept. 3, 1883.


11


12


13


14


ÌÌ


16


17


18


19


Foreign Office


Ditto -


The Agent General for Victoria.


Governor the Marquis of Norman* by (Victoria).


Governor    Sir

W. C. F. Robinson (South Australia).

To the Agent General    for

Queensland.


Foreign Office


To Governor Sir W. C. F. Robinson (South Australia).


To Governor the Marquis of Nor-nianby • (Victoria).


Sept, o, 1883.


Sept. 6, 1883.


Sept. 10, 1883.


July 30, 1883 (Ree. Sept. 11, 1883).


Aug. 1, 1883 (Ree. Sept. 11,1883).


Sept. 19, 1883.


Sept. 21, 1883.


Sept. 21, 1883.


Sept, 22, 1883.


Requesting him to inform the Rev. J. Chalmers that the letter written by him and Baron Maclay has been attentively perused, but that Her Majesty’s Government are not prepared to enter upon questions relating to the land and natives of New Guinea at the present time.

Transmitting copy of a despatch from Her Majesty’s Minister at Paris, enclosing copy of a Note Verbale left by him with the French Government on the subject of the proposed transportation of habitual criminals to New Caledonia.

Transmitting copy despatch from Her Majesty’s Minister at Paris, enclosing copy of a memorandum left with the French Government, recording the fact that the English and French Governments mutually recognise as valid the understanding arrived at in 1878, as regards the New Hebrides.

Reporting the receipt of a telegraphic message from his Government respecting the despatch of two French war vessels to the New Hebrides, and expressing the opinion that any appearance of hesitation on the part of Her Majesty’s Government may have the result of losing these valuable islands.

Transmitting copy of a memorandum by the Premier, Mr. Service, on the annexation question, and remarking that the subject has commanded universal support in the Colony.

Forwarding copy of a memorandum by his Ministers on the annexation question.


Transmitting copy of a correspondence with the Foreign Office on the subject of the extradition of French criminals.


Enclosing copy of a telegram from Her Majesty’s Consul at San Francisco on the subject of the action of the Hawaiian Government in regard to annexation in Polynesia.

Observing that his Ministers are correct in supposing that an understanding was arrived at in 1878 between France and England, whereby the independence of the New Hebrides has, up to the present time, been recognised by both Powers.

Acknowledging Governor’s despatch of 30th July, but observing that it was written only a few days after the despatch to Queensland conveying the decision of Her Majesty’s Government, and that the Secretary of State will await the result of the meeting of delegates from the Colonial Govern meats in November.

s


0


8


s


18


18


19


19


y


45


20 j Foreign Office


Sept. 24, 1883.


21 To the AgentGeneral for Victoria.


Sept. 24, 1883.;


22 • Governo]’ Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).


Aug. 4, 1883 (Ree. Sept. 26, 1883).


Transmitting copy of a despatch from Her Majesty’s Minister at Paris on the subject of the presence in the Australian colonies of relapsed French criminals.

Stating that Her Majesty’s Government 20 are now awaiting the consideration by the Australian Governments of the despatch of the 11th July, and of the letter recently addressed to the AgentsGeneral in reply to their letter of 21st July.

Forwarding copy of a letter, with en- 20 closures, from the Premier, urging a reconsideration by Her Majesty’s Government of their decision on the question of the annexation of New Guinea, and expressing the opinion that the question of expense should be looked fairly in the face.


23 Governor Sir W. F. D. Jervois (New Zealand).


Aug. 11, 1883 (Ree. Sept. 26, 1883),


Transmitting copy of a Bill introduced 22 by Sir G. Grey on the subject of annexation and confederation in the Western Pacific, and resolutions moved in the Legislative Council.


21 i Governor F. Napier Broome (Western Australia).

25 Administrator Sir A. IT. Palmer (Queensland).


Aug. 16, 1883 (Rcc. Sept. 26, 1883).


Aug. 13, 1883 (Ree. Oct. 1, 1883).


Transmitting copy of an address from the 23 Legislative Council in support of the proposed annexation of New Guinea.


Transmitting copy of a note from the Premier covering a memorandum which has been laid before the Executive Council, on the refusal of the Imperial Government to confirm the annexation of New Guinea.


21


2G


The Agent General for Victoria.


27 To the AgentGeneral for Queensland.


Oct. 5, 1883. Requesting, on behalf of his Government, 26

>.to be informed on what conditions Her Majesty’s Government will consent to the annexation of the Western Pacific Islands, and whether an estimate can be prepared in the Colonial Office of the probable cost of the measures indicated by Lord Derby in his despatch of the 11th July 1883 to the Officer Administering the Government of Queensland as being necessary.

Oct. 5, 1883. Transmitting copy of a letter and in- 27

closure from the Foreign Office on the subject of relapsed French criminals in Australia.


28 Governor Sir G. C. Strahan (Tasmania).


Aug. 22, 1883 Transmitting copy of a correspondence 27 (Ilec. Oct. 8, 1883). laid before Parliament relative to the

annexation of New Guinea and other islands in the Western Pacific.


20 Foreign Office


Oct. 10, 1883. Stating that Lord Granville will be happy 31

to receive Lord Derby’s observations upon Commodore Erskine’s report with regard to the complaints of Messrs. Wilson and Paton.


From or to whom.

Date.

Subject.

To Administrator Sir A. H. Palmer (Queensland).

Oct. 13, 1883.

Stating that the important memorandum inclosed in Governor's despatch of the 13th August will receive full consideration by Her Majesty’s Government, but that, as Lord Derby’s despatch of 11th July had not reached the Colony when the memorandum was written, Her Majesty’s Government will await the consideration of that despatch by the approaching Conference at Sydney.

Governor Sir W. F. 1). Jervois (New Zealand).

Sept. 8, 1883 (Ree. Oct. 20, 1883).

Transmitting copies of “ The Confederation and Annexation Act, 1883,” which has been reserved for the Koyal assent.

To the AgentGeneral for Victoria.

Oct. 22, 1883.

Stating, in reply to letter of 5th inst., that Her Majesty’s Government are obviously not in a position at present to detail the conditions on which they could consent to annexation, neither can they estimate the probable cost of the measures indicated in Lord Derby’s Despatch of the 11th July to the Officer Administering the Government of Queensland.

To Governor Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).

Oct. 24, 1883.

Stating that Mr. Stuart’s letter has been read with attention by Secretary of State.

To H. R. Maclver, Esq.

Oct. 24, 1883.

Informing him that the contemplated operations of the “ New Guinea Exploration and Colonization Company” cannot be sanctioned by Her Majesty’s Government.

Capt. J. Kennerley

Oct. 24, 1883.

Observing that the purpose of the expedition is merely to acquire land in the most legitimate way from those entitled to sell, and asking for an interview with the Secretary of State in order that the promoter’« purposes may, be fully explained.

Governor Sir G. C. Strahan (Tasmania).

Sept. 4, 1883 (Ree. Oct. 25, 1883).

| !

Transmitting copies of a joint Address to Her Majesty from both Houses of Parliament, praying that steps may be taken to prevent the occupation of New Guinea and other islands by any foreign power.

The Baron de Miklouho-Maclay.

Oct. 27, 1883 (Ree. Oct. 27, 1883). Telegraphic.

Stating that the natives on the Maclay coast of New Guinea claim political autonomy under European protection.

To Governor Sir G. C. Strahan (Tasmania).

Oct. 29, 1883.

Stating that the joint address with regard to annexation has been laid before the Queen, and that the subject is receiving the earnest consideration of Her Majesty’s Government.

To Foreign Office

Oct. 29, 1883.

Observing that further information indicates that M. D’Arbel had purchased an island which was already the property of British subjects, but that the incident is now apparently closed, and suggesting that Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris should be instructed to inform the French Government of the further information which has been received on the matter since he WB9 instructed to make a representation.

I

Serial


o

&


Fi ohi or to whom.

Nov. 2, 1883.


40


41


Brigadier - Generili 11. II. Maclver unci Captain J. Kcnnerlcy.

To Brigadier-General il. il. Mac Iver.


Nov. 3, 1883.


Enclosing a draft- prospectus of the 36 intended Company, which now becomes a purely trading one, and asking for an interview.

Stating that his letter of the 2nd No- 38 vember and Captain Kennerley’s of the 24th October are under consideration, and that a further communication will be addressed to him next week.


42


The


Chamber

Commerce.


Glasgow (llec. Nov. 5, 1883.) Transmitting copy of memorial in favour


of


of the annexation of New Guinea.


38


To Governor Sir YYr. F. D. Jervois (New Zealand).


Nov. 6, 1883.


Stating that the “ Confederation and Annexation Act, 1883,” will receive the careful consideration of Her Majesty’s Government, but that Her Majesty will not be iinally advised with regard to it until after the approaching Conference at Sydney has been held.


39


44 To the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce.


Nov. 8, 1883.


Stating that Her Majesty’s Government will not fail to bear in mind the views of the Chamber, when the result of the deliberations of the approaching Inter-Colonial Conference at Sydney are known.


39


45


46


47


48


49


50


rdegra-


Reuter’s

phic Agency.


Nov. 9, 1883.


Governor F. Napier Sept. 20, 1883 Broome(YVestern (llec. Nov. 9, 1883). Australia).


Stating that the Governor of Queensland, in opening Parliament, had expressed his belief that a firm and united expression of opinion on the part of the Australian Colonies would lead to the annexation of New Guinea.

Reporting that YVestern Australia will be represented at the approaching Conference by the Hon. M. Fraser, Colonial Secretary, though the interest of the Colony in the annexation question is necessarily less than that of her eastern neighbours ; also transmitting copy of correspondence on the question with the Government of Victoria.


40


40


To Brig.-General II. II. Maclver.

Bri g ad ier-G en eral II. R. Maclver.


To Br i g.-G en eral 11. K. Maclver.


New Guinea Exploration and Colonial Expedition.


Nov. 9, 1883. Declining proposed interview


Nov. 12« 1883.


Nov. 15, 1883.


Nov. 1883.


Complaining of Colonial Otlice treatment of the scheme, and stating that unless an intimation is received from the Colonial Office to the contrary, the Company will assume that its operations will not be interfered with so long as they are strictly confined to trading.

Stating that the proposed expedition cannot be regarded as a trading company, and that if persons are induced to join it in the belief that they will be able to maintain themselves and their families in New Guinea they will be seriously misled.

Circular to applicant desirous of joining the expedition.


42

42


43


44


Vili


o


From or to whom


Nov. 16, 1883.


Subiect.


Admiralty


Brigadier - General Nov. 17, 1883. II . iv. Maclver.


Transmitting copy of a further correspondence between Commodore Erskine and the officer commanding the French Naval Forces, on the subject of the sale of the island of iririki, in Vila Harbour.

Transmitting a proof of the final and 17 complete prospectus of the Company, with a further resume of its intentions and objects, and stating that if the Secretary of State continues to withhold his approval the expedition will enlist only foreign applicants and sail under a foreign flag.


id Foreign Office


Nov. 20, 1883.


Stating, with reference to the complaint of Messrs. Patou and Wilson, that Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris has been instructed in the sense of the Colonial Office Letter of the 29th October, and that it is not proponed to take any further action in die matter.


50


> i Captain d ncrley.


Ken- Nov. 22, 1883.


Informing of his withdrawal from the New Guinea Exploration and Colonization Expedition, and enclosing a prospectus of the newlv formed “ New “ Guinea and Western Pacific Trading u Syndicate,” expressing at the same time the hope that Lord Derby will see no objection to the purposes of this company.


50


Foreign Office


Nov. 23, 1883. Transmitting copy of the Relapsed


<52


Criminals Bill,” and requesting it may be returned for printing.


that


,~>6 To Brigadier-Gen. II. R. MacTver.


Nov. 23, 1883.


To Captain J. Kenner ley.


Nov. 28, 1883.


Observing that Lord Derby can only repeat the caution contained in the Colonial Office Letter of loth November, and that the use of a foreign flag will not exempt the proceedings of the managers and promoters of the company from control.

Stating, in reply to his letter of 22nd instant, that Her Majesty’s Government are unable to approve of any project of which it is a feature that persons who are to be interested in the purchase of land should proceed to New Guinea from this country.


oo


oo


Do


The Baron deMik- Oct. 17, 1883 louho Maclay. (Ree. Nov. 29, 1883).


Enclosing an extract from the “ Sydney Morning Herald ” of 14th October, stating that 14,000 acres of sugar land in New Guinea have recently been bought for a Sydney Syndicate, the real owner being unaware of the transaction.


56


59


Thu Agent-Gcncral for Victoria.


Nov. 29, 1883.


60


Folcigli Office


Nov. 30, 1883.


Requesting to be furnished with the reply 56 of the French Government to the representation made to them regarding the number of convicts to be sent to New Caledonia, and with reference to the non-extradition of escapees.

Transmitting copy of a letter from the 56 Hawaiian Government enclosing a protest against annexation of Polynesian Islands by foreign powers.


62


63


61


6 o


66


67


08


69


70


O

- ^

61

From or to v:hom.

Date.

Subject.

läge

Agont-General lor

Nov. 30, 1883.

Ex,

daining the grounds on which i

is

38

New Zealand.


The Aberdeen Chamber oí’ Commerce.


Governor Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).


To Governor Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).


To the Agen [-General for Victoria.


Foreign Office


To Foreign Office


Governor Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).


To Foreign Office -


Governor Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).


Nov. 30, 1883.


(Rec. Dec. 3, 1883.) Telegraphie.


Dec. 3, 1883, Telegraphic.


Dec. 3, 1883.


Doc. 4, 1883.


Dec. 4, 1883.


Dec. 5, 1883 (Rec. Dec. 5, 1883), Telegraphic.


Dec. 5, 1883.


Dec/G, 1883 (Rec. Dec. 6, 1883) Telegraphic.


urged that renewed remonstrances should be addressed to the French Government with respect to the Recidivistc Bill.

Enclosing a memorial praying Her .Majesty’s Government to give their best, and, if possible, favourable, consideration to any representations on the subject of New Guinea which may be made to them by the Federal Council about to sit at Sydney.

Stating that the Inter-Colonial Conference consider it important to ascertain if there is any foundation for a telegram which states that the French Government has claims in the Pacific beyond the recognised area, as they are most anxious not to embarrass Her Majesty’s Government with France.

Asking what foundation there is for the statement in the “ Herald ” of 14th October as to an alleged purchase of land in New Guinea.

Transmitting copy of a letter from the Foreign Office respecting the representation made to the French Government on the subject of the number of convicts to be sent to New Caledonia, and observing that there is nothing further to communicate on the subject, though it is, of course, receiving continued attention.

Transmitting copy of a despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, forwarding copy of the note which he has addressed to the French Government on the subject of the sale of Iririki.


Enclosing copy of a telegraphic message from Lord Loftus relative to a telegram on the subject of French claims in the Pacific, and requesting that Lord Granville will ascertain from Iier Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris whether there is any truth in the telegram.


Transmitting, at the request of the Convention, the resolutions arrived at regarding the Pacific Islands.


Acknowledging receipt of a copy of the French Relapsed Criminals Bill, and transmitting copy of a letter from the Agent General for New Zealand, submitting objections to the Bill in its present shape.


Reporting that speculators have purchased land in New Guinea, and that a resolution annulling such purchases will probably be submitted to the Convention.


60


61


61


61


62


62


63


61


63


From or to whom.

Date.

Subject.

to

To Governor Lord A. Loft us (Now South Wales).

Dec. 7, 1883. Telegraphic.

Statin# that the resolutions of the Convention will receive early and careful consideration, and asking for number and particulars of escaped convicts from New Caledonia arrested in Colonies.

65

Administrator Sir A. II. Palmer (Queensland).

Oct. 9, 1883. (Ree. Dec. 7, 1883).

Enclosing copy of a letter from the Premier replying to the Secretary of State’s despatch of the lltli July, conveying the refusal of Her Majesty’s Government to sanction the annexation of part of New Guinea.

65

Foreign Of lice

Dec. 7, 1883.

Transmitting copy of a Despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, enclosing copy Note Verbale from the French Government in reply to the Memorandum addressed to them in August last on the subject of the Relapsed Criminals Bill.

68

Ditto

Dec. 8, 1883.

Transmitting copy of a Despatch from Her Majesty’s Consul at Noumea, enclosing a newspaper report on the proceedings of the “ Compagnie Calédonienne des Nouvelles Hébrides ” during the past year.

70

To the Aberdeen Chamber of Commerce.

Dec. 8, 1883.

Observing that Her Majesty’s Government will not fail to consider carefully the resolutions recently passed at the Inter-Colonial Conference sitting at Sydney.

71

Administrator Sir A. II. Palmer (Queensland).

Oct. 24,1883 (Ree. Dec. 11, 1883).

Transmitting extracts from the “Brisbane Courier ” giving the particulars of an alleged recent land sale in New Guinea to a Sydney syndicate.

71

George Palmer, Esq.. M.P.

Dec. 11, 1883.

Transmitting a letter from the Rev. W. G. Lawes respecting the alleged purchase of 15,000 acres of land in New Guinea by a Sydney syndicate for a merely nominal sum.

76

To Governor Lord A. Loft us (New South Wales).

Dec. 11, 1883. Telegraphic.

Stating that nothing is known in Paris of new French claims in the Pacific.

78

Ditto -

Dec. 12, 1883. Telegraphic.

Inquiring if he is sending any further telegrams respecting the Conference.

78

Governor Lord A. Loft us (New South Wales).

(Ree. Dec. 13, 1883.) Telegraphic.

Reporting the closing of the Convention, and that no further telegrams will be sent.

78

Governor Lord A. Loftus.

(Ree. Dec. 13, 1883.) Telegraphic.

Stating that 247 convicts from New Caledonia have landed in Australia since 1873, and that they are mostly inmates of gaols.

79

To Foreign Office-

Dec. 15, 1883.

Suggesting that the French Government should be requested to allay the constantly increasing apprehension in the Australian Colonies by an intimation that the Récidivistes will not be sent to New Caledonia, but to some other island, and observing that recent telegrams prove tliait the fears of the Australian colonies are not without foundation.

79

Xl


Date.

Dec. 15, 1883.


Subject.


Oct. 26, 1883 j (Dec. Dec. 17, 1883).!

Dec. 17, 1883.


Dec. 17, 1883.


Dec. 27, 1883.


Oct. 28, 1883 (Ree. Dec. 28, 1883).

Dec. 28, 1883.


Dec. 31, 1883.


Nov. 21, 1883 (Rec. Jan. 2, 1884).


Nov. 22, 1883 (Rec. Jan. 2, 1884)


Jan. 3, 1884.


Transmitting copy of a telegraphic correspondence with Lord A. Loft us on the subject of New Guinea and the Intercolonial Conference, and suggesting that the sixth resolution in Lord Loftus’s telegram of the 5th December, referring to the introduction of French convict,s, should at once be communicated to Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris for his information and guidance.

Reporting his intention to attend, unofii-cially, for the reasons stated, the approaching Inter-Colonial Conference at Sydney.

Acknowledging his letter of 11th Dec., and stating that Her Majesty’s Government will refuse to sanction the alleged land purchase referred to, or any similar transaction.

Transmitting copy of a correspondence with Mr. G. Palmer, M.P., respecting an alleged purchase of 15,000 acres of land in New Guinea by a Sydney syndicate.

Transmitting copy of a despatch from Lord Lyons enclosing copy of a Note to the French Government expressing the hope that no material increase may be made in the number of relapsed criminals to be sent to New Caledonia, and remonstrating against the application of the Relapsed Criminals Bill to that Colony.

Explaining his teiegram of the 27th October, and the reasons which led to his sending it.


Approving his intention of being present at Sydney during the sitting of the Inter-Colonial Conference.


Transmitting copies of the instructions to Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris in the sense of the Colonial Office letters of the 15th December.


Transmitting copy of a letter from his Government enclosing a paper presented to Parliament containing resolutions received from public meetings and municipal bodies in favour of annexation in the Pacific.

Transmitting copy of the instructions to the Hon. M. Fraser, who will represent the Colony at the Inter-Colonial Conference. with some “ Notes on under-“ takings of Federal importance in “ Western Australia,” which lie (the Governor) has prepared to be read at the Conference,

Requesting that the Baron de Miklouho-Maclay may be informed of the receipt by the Secretary of State of his letter of the 28th October.


c


79


80


83


83


83


85


86


86


87


113


117


97


98


99


100


101


102


103


Serial

o

94

36

From nr to vdiom.

Date.

Subject.

Foreign Office I

Jan. 8, 1884.

Transmitting copy of a further despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, forwarding copy of a Note to the French Government on the subject of the Relapsed Criminals Bill.

The Agent-General for Victoria.

Jan. 11, 1884.

Calling attention to his letter of 29th November, and asking that, for the reasons stated, the matter may again be brought under the notice of Her Majesty’s Government.

To the Agent-General for Victoria.

Jan. 18, 1884.

Observing that Her Majesty’s Government are in communication with the

o

to

a

11

118

118

French Government on the subject oi‘ the relapsed criminals to be sent to New Caledonia, and that the correspondence will be presented to Parliament as soon as it re-assembles.


To Foreign Office -


Jan. 18, 1884.


Governor Lord A. Dec. 6, 1883 Loftus (New (Ree. Jan. 19, 1884). South Wales).


To Governor F. Napier Broome (Western Australia).

Governor Sir W. F. 1). Jervois (New Zealand).


Foreign Office


Transmitting copy of a letter, dated 11th January, from the Agent-General for Victoria, with copy of the reply thereto respecting the French Relapsed Criminals Bill.


Transmitting


119


Jan. 19, 1884.


Dec. 8, 1883 (Ree. Jan. 19, 1884).


Jan. 22, 1884.


To Foreign Office- Jan. 22, 1884.


Governor Lord A. Dec. 13, 1883 Loi’tus (New (Ree. Jan. 23, 1884). South Wales).


a letter published in the “ Sydney Morning Herald ” from Mr. John Cameron replying to certain statements by the Press that he represented a syndicate of speculators in the recent purchase of land in New Guinea, which he states was made in the most fair and legitimate way.

Approving the terms of the instructions issued to Mr. Fraser.


Transmitting copy of a despatch from the Acting High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, forwarding an extract from a letter received by him respecting the action taken by a Mr. Lundon with reference to the annexation to New Zealand of the Samoan Islands, with a copy of his reply to the Acting High Commissioner, and a memorandum from the Premier on the subject.


Transmitting copy of a despatch from Lord Lyons reporting the language held by him to M. Jules Ferry on the subject of the Relapsed Criminals Bill, and stating that Lord Lyons has been informed that Her Majesty’s Government entirely approve his language.

Enclosing a Parliamentary Paper, published in Victoria, containing resolutions of public meetings protesting against transportation of French criminals to Pacific Islands.

Transmitting copy of a Minute from the Colonial Secretary enclosing information as to the number of convicts in the Australian Colonies who have escaped from New Caledonia, from which it will be seen that the greater part of these escapees were to be found among the criminal classes.


119


122


123


126


128


128


xm

From or to whom.

Date.

Subject.

Governor Lord A. Loftus (New South Wales).

Dec. 13, 1883 (Rec. Jan. 23, 1884).

1

Transmitting the official report of the proceedings of the In ter-Colonial Convention.

To Forcign Oflice -

Jan. 28, 1884.

Enclosing copy of a despatch from Lord Loftus on the subject of escapees from New Caledonia, and requesting that the particulars enclosed in it may be brought under the notice of the French Government.

Governor Sir G. W. Des Vœux

(Fiji).

Dec. 18, 1883 (Rec. Feb. 1, 1884).

Submitting an explanation of the circumstances under which he attends the Inter-Colonial Convention, and reporting the action taken by him at the sittings of the Convention.

To Governor Sir G. W. Des Vœux

(Fiji).

1

Feb. 8, 1884.

Informing him that his despatch of the 18th December, giving an account of his reasons for attending the Intercolonial Convention have been read with interest, and that Her Majesty’s Government fully approve his action.

APPENDIX.

l

9

Foreign Office

Feb. 1, 1878.

Transmitting copy of a communication received from the French Ambassador, respecting a movement in Australia for the annexation of the New Hebrides, and stating that Foreign Office propose to reply to the effect that Her Majesty’s Government have no intention of interfering with the independence of those islands.

To Foreign Office -

Feb. 20, 1878.

Concurring in the proposed reply to the French Ambassador on the subject of the intentions of Her Majesty’s Government with regard to the New Hebrides.

To the Governors

Feb. 28, 1878.

Transmitting copy of a letter from the

of the Australian

Foreign Office, with one from the

Colonies, Fiji,

French Ambassador, on the subject of

Tasmania, and New Zealand.

the New Hebrides.

(Circular.)

211

211

212








CORRESPOND ENCE.

No. 1.

Rev. F. R. M. WILSON and Rev. J. G. PATON to COLONIAL OFFICE.

(Received April 10, 1883.)

Your LoRDsmr,    Kew, Victoria, March 1, 1883.

Permit us to bring under your Lordship’s notice a matter of great importance to the cause of Christian Missions in the New Hebrides Islands, and involving the interests and properties of British subjects there.

We have been informed by one of the missionaries on the island of Efaté in the New Hebrides that the French are purchasing large tracts of land in Pango Bay in that island, and appear as if they intend to take possession of the whole island. The natives, though urged, would not sell to them, being afraid of them, from what they had heard of their conduct in New Caledonia, on the Loyalty Islands, and in Eastern Polynesia. The French then purchased • land from British settlers, and having thus trot a footing, compelled the natives to sell, or, in the event of their refusal, took possession. They profess to have purchased the small island of Iririki in Fille Harbour, which was bought many years ago by the missionaries as a mission station, and occupied as such for three or four years. Of this property the missionaries have the title deeds. The natives told the person who sought to buy it lately that they could not sell it, as it belonged to the missionaries ; but the man would not listen to them. He said he would throw the payment into the sea if they did not receive it, and would take possession.

A company has been formed in New Caledonia, with a capital of 22,000Z., which was subscribed within 24 hours ; the avowed intention of which company is to colonize the New Hebrides with Frenchmen, and “ force France to take possession of the group as “ Britain had to do in Fiji,” and also to be able, without interference from Great Britain, to deport the natives to New Caledonia and elsewhere, and make them work on their sugar plantations and in their mines.

We fear that, if this spoliation of British property be overlooked, none of our mission property on the islands will be safe ; and if France shall take possession of these islands, the results will be utterly destructive of the native population, as well as of our mission.

British missionaries have been labouring on these islands for over 30 years, and there have been expended on mission work over 70,00(V At present about 7,000Z. are spent annually on the support of the mission. About 8,000 natives on 13 islands have been brought under Christian instruction. Five thousand of these have been converted. The result of this instruction and of the influence of the missionaries has been to render life and property comparatively safe on most of the islands. The French, who have not expended a farthing in preparing the way, have now come in to reap the harvest from this expenditure of British money and Christian work.

We implore the protection of Great Britain for our mission and the property connected with it. Petitions were sent last year from five of the Australian Colonies, and one from the New Hebrides, to Her Majesty, asking for the annexation of that group of islands, or for the British protectorate over them. Her Majesty graciously answered these petitions, informing us that it was inexpedient to take steps to annex the islands. We trust that something may be done to protect the British missions and British property there. And we take the liberty of earnestly pleading with your Lordship that you would favourably consider the whole matter, and use your powerful influence to help us.

We beg to subscribe ourselves,

Your Lordship’s obedient servants,

(Signed) F. R. M. WILSON,

Convener of the Presbyterian Board of Missions, Victoria,

(Signed) JOHN G. PATON,

Senior Missionary, New Hebrides, and Mission Agent,

Presbyterian Church of Victoria.

To the Right Hon. the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

No. 2.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

SiR>    ..... Downing Street, April 21, 1883.

With reference to the question which is to be put on the 23rd instant in the House of Commons by Mr. A. McArthur, respecting the New Hebrides, I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you, for communication to Earl Granville, a copy of a letter* from Mr. Wilson and Mr. Paton, relative to the alleged intention of the French to take possession of the island of Efate, and the formation of a company in New Caledonia, having for its object the colonisation of the New Hebrides.

Lord Derby would suggest, for Lord Granville’s consideration, that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty should be requested to instruct the Commodore on the Australian station to cause an investigation to be made into the circumstances of which Mr. Wilson and Mr. Paton complain, whenever a vessel can conveniently be despatched to the New Hebrides; and that Lord Lyons should be instructed to request the French Government to take such steps as may be necessary, if these statements are correct, to restrain French subjects from interfering with the property of British subjects in the New Hebrides.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) EDWARD WINGFIELD.

Foreign Office.

No. 3.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, April 30, 1833.

I have laid before Earl Granville your letter of the 21st instant,f forwarding copy of a letter from Mr. Wilson and Mr. Paton complaining of French proceedings in the New Hebrides, and especially of the action taken by French citizens in the islands of Efate and Iririki, and I am now directed by his Lordship to state to you, for the information of the Earl of Derby, that he concurs in the expediency of instituting an investigation on the spot into the facts complained of, and that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty will accordingly be requested to instruct the British Commodore on the Australian Station to inquire into the circumstances of the case, and to furnish Her Majesty’s Government with a Report thereupon.

I am to add, with regard to the second suggestion contained in your letter, that Her Majesty’s Ambassador has been requested to make a representation to the French Government in the sense desired, and I am to enclose herewith a copy of the instruction in question for Lord Derby’s fuller information.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) T. V. LISTER.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 3.

My Lord,    Foreign Office, April 30, 1883.

With reference to my Despatch of the 25th instant, and to previous correspondence relating to the New Hebrides, I transmit to your Excellency herewith copy of a letter from the Colonial Office, forwarding copy of a letter from Mr. Wilson and Mr. Paton, complaining of the French proceedings iD the New Hebrides, and especially of the action taken by certain French settlers in the islands of Efate and Iririki.

Reports to a similar effect have reached this country from other quarters, and have attracted some attention both in Parliament and the Press.

t have under these circumstances to request that your Excellency will communicate the substance of this complaint to the* French Government so far as relates to the islands of Efate and Iririki, and inform them that inquiries into all the circumstances

* No. I.


t No. 2.

of the case will be instituted on the spot, but that pending the result of such investigation, Her Majesty’s Government trust that they will" take such steps as may be necessary, if the statements thus made should prove correct, to restrain French citizens from interfering with the property of British subjects in the New Hebrides.

I am, &c.

His Excellency the Viscount Lyons, G.C.B.    (Signed) Granville.

No. 4.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, May 2, 1883.

With reference to my letter of the 30th ultimo,* I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, for the information of the Earl of Derby, copy of a letter which has been addressed to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty in compliance with the suggestion contained in your letter of the 21st ultimof relative to the New Hebrides.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) ' T. V. LISTER.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 4.

Sir,    Foreign Office, April 30, 1883.

With reference to your letter of the 18th instant, relating to the New Hebrides, I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, to be laid before the Lords of the Admiralty, copy of a letter which has been addressed to the Colonial Office by Mr. Wilson and Mr. Paton, and which contains a complaint as to certain alleged proceedings of French settlers in that group of islands, and more especially as to their action in the islands of Efate and Iririki.

As their Lordships are no doubt aware, reports to a similar effect have reached this country from other sources, and have attracted some attention both in Parliament and the press, and I am, under these circumstances, to request that, if their Lordships should see no objection, the British Commodore maybe instructed to cause an investigation to be made upon the spot into the facts complained of by Mr. Paton and Mr. Wilson, whenever a vessel can conveniently be despatched to the New Hebrides, and that the result may be communicated to this Department.

I am to add that Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies concurs in the course proposed.

I am, &c.

The Secretary to the Admiralty.    (Signed) T. V. Lister.

No. 5.

The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor the MARQUIS OF

NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria).

My Lord,    Downing Street, May 9, 1883.

I have the honour to transmit to you, for your information, a copy of a letterj from Messrs. Wilson and Paton, of the Presbyterian Mission, Victoria, and of a correspondence§ between this Department and the Foreign Office respecting certain alleged proceedings of French settlers in the New Hebrides, particularly in the islands of Efate and Iririki, and I request that your Lordship will be so good as to inform Messrs. Wilson and Paton of the action which has been taken in the case.

I have, &c.

The Marquis of Normanby.    (Signed) DERBY.

* No. 3.


f No. 2.


t No. 1. A' 2


§ Nos. 2, 3, and 4.


Being of the opinion that a great number of injustices and wrongs could be prevented by a few measures taken in time, and knowing the natives of New Guinea cannot at present help themselves in claiming their own rights, we therefore thus appeal on their behalf to your Lordship and hope our application will not be without effect.

W p n n vp At p

(Signed) JAMES CHALMERS,

London Missionary Society, New Guinea.

The Right Hon. Lord Derby,    N. DE MIKLOUHO-MACLAY,

&c.    &c.    &c.    of the Maclay Coast, at New Guinea.

Enclosure in No. 9.

(From the “ Adelaide Observer,” of April 14th.)

The Papuans as Plantation Labourers.

The Mackay sugar planters are looking to New Guinea as a field for labour. The “ Mackay Mercury ” states “ that the brigantine ‘ Fanny,’ Captain Wawn, left the river on 19th March, and after anchoring for the night at Round Top, finally “ sailed on Tuesday morning at 6 o'clock. Her destination is New Guinea, where “ her enterprising owners, Messrs. E. S. Rawson & Co., are hopeful of obtaining a “ plentiful supply of labour. The question of labour is becoming such a really serious “ one, that it is with much pleasure we record this prospect of opening up new fields, “ and we hope to be in a position to announce the return, at an early date, of the “ ‘ Fanny,’ with a full complement of recruits.”

No. 10.

Governor Sir G. C. STRAHAN, K.C.M.G. (Tasmania), to the Right Hon. the

EARL OF DERBY. (Received September 1, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

Both Houses Parliament unanimously agreed to address to Queen, praying Her Majesty to take effectual measures prevent New Guinea or any unannexed island between that and Fiji from being taken possession by foreign powers, either as penal settlement or colony. Despatch, with address, by mail.

No. 11.

The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Administrator SIR A. H.

PALMER, K.C.M.G. (Queensland.)

Sir,    Downing Street, September 3, 1883.

I have received a letter,* a copy of which is enclosed, from the Rev. James Chalmers and Baron de Miklouho-Maclay, respecting New Guinea.

I request that you will cause Mr. Chalmers to be informed that the letter written by him and Baron de Miklouho-Maclay has been received and attentively perused, but that Her Majesty’s Government are not prepared to enter upon the consideration of questions relating to the land and natives of New Guinea at the present time.

Mr. Chalmers should further be informed, with reference to the statement made in his letter respecting the brigantine “ Fanny,” that telegraphic communication-]* passed between Her Majesty’s Government and the Government of Queensland on this subject, and that I infer from a telegram received from you on the 1st of June, that the allegations made in connexion with that vessel were not considered to be founded on fact.

I have, &c.

The Officer Administering    (Signed) DERBY. .

the Government.

* No. 9.


t Nos. 6 and 7 in [C. 3691] July 1883.

61

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, Septemoer 5, 1883.

With reference to my letter of the 27th ultimo,* I am directed bjT Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, for the information of the Earl of Derby, copy of a despatch from Her Majesty’s Minister at Paris, inclosing copy of a “ Note Verbale ” which he has left with the French Government, respecting the proposed transportation of habitual criminals from France to New Caledonia.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) T. V. LISTER.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 11a.

My Lord,    Paris, August 31, 1883.

On the receipt of your Lordship’s Despatch of the 25th instant, I drew up the Memorandum, copy of which I have the honour to enclose, explanatory of the anxiety felt in the Australian Colonies as to the serious consequences which the proposed French Law for the “transportation of relapsed criminals” to New Caledonia may entail.

My intention was to speak to M. Challemel Lacour in the sense of your Lordship’s instructions, and to leave the Memorandum with his Excellency only as a semi-official document.

I found, however, on calling at the Foreign Department this afternoon, that M. Challemel Lacour, who has been in poor health for some days past, has suddenly become so much worse that he is about to proceed at once to Vichy, and at that moment he was in conference with the President of the Council, arranging the temporary transfer of his duties to the latter.

I therefore placed the Memorandum in the hands of M. Marcel, the Chef de Cabinet of M. Challemel Lacour, and begged him to submit it to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in my name.

M. Marcel promised to call the attention of the Minister as soon as possible to the failure of the Government of New Caledonia to apply for the extradition of the three persons who had escaped from Noumea, as reported in the telegram from the Governor of Queensland, of the 26th ultimo.

I have, &c.

The Earl Granville, K.G.,    (Signed) F. R. Plunkett.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Note Verbale.

The Australian Colonies of Great Britain have made strong representations to Her Majesty’s Government with a view to the adoption of effective measures for preventing the serious consequences which they fear will result to them if the Bill now before the Chamber of Deputies for the transportation of relapsed criminals to New Caledonia and its dependencies should become law.

The Queensland Government, in particular, complain that the Government of New Caledonia now decline to demand the extradition of criminals who may have escaped from Noumea, and in the absence of such a demand on the part of the French Authorities, the British Colonial Authorities cannot act against these individuals.

The Governor of Queensland telegraphed on the 26th ultimo that the French Authorities have hitherto applied for the- extradition, but now refuse to do so, and that, consequently, he had just been obliged to discharge three convicts who had escaped from Noumea.

As the transportation to New Caledonia is intended to rid France of the worst class of her criminals who apparently are to be left free when they reach New Caledonia, and whose neighbourhood will be a constant source of danger to the Australian Colonies, Lord Granville would be glad to know what course the French Government propose to pursue as to the number of convicts to be sent out to the Western Pacific, and as to the position of such criminals after arrival at their destination.

* No. 3o in [C. 3814] August 1883. A 4

His Lordship would also be glad to learn what course the French Government propose to follow with regard to the failure of the Government of New Caledonia to demand the extradition of the criminals who escaped, as explained in the telegram from the Governor of Queensland above referred to.

August 31, 1883.

No. 12.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sm, .    Foreign Office, September 6, 1883.

With reference to your letter of’the 10th ultimo,7 lam directed by Her Majesty’s Secretary of. State for Foreign Affairs to transmit to you, to be laid before Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, copy of a despatch from Her Majesty’s Minister at Paris, inclosing copy of a memorandum left with the French Government, recording the fact that the Governments of Great Britain and France mutually recognise as valid the understanding relative to the New Hebrides, at which they arrived in 18/8.+

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) T. V. LISTER.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 12.

My Lord,    Paris, August 31, 1883.

With reference to your Lordship’s Despatch of the 25th instant, I have the honour to inclose herewith a copy of the note verbale, which I left this afternoon in the hands of M. Challemcl Lacour’s Chef de Cabinet, informing the French Government, on the part of that of Her Majesty, that Great Britain considers the Declaration of 18/8, concerning the New Hebrides, as remaining in full force.

1 have quoted in the note verbale the declarations lately made in the same sense by the French Government. M. Marcel promised to submit the document without delay to M. Challemel Lacour, who was at that moment engaged with the President of the Council.

I have, &c.

(Signed) F. R. Plunkett.

The Earl Granville, K.G.

&c &c.    &c.

Note Verbale.

On receiving the memorandum which the French Chargé d’Affaires placed on the 10th of July in his Lordship’s hands, Earl Granville replied verbally that he considered as perfectly valid the understanding into which Great Britain and France had entered in 18/8, with regard to the New Hebrides.

In reply to the memorandum which the French Minister for Foreign Affairs communicated to Her Majesty’s Ambassador on the 16th of July, repeating that the declaration of 18/8 preserves its value in the eyes of France, Mr. Plunkett has been instructed by Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to inform the French Government that Her Majesty’s Government likewise consider the declaration of 1878 concerning the New Hebrides as remaining in full force.

Her Britannic Majesty’s Embassy, Paris, August 30, 1883.

No. 13.

The AGENT-GENERAL FOR VICTORIA to COLONIAL OFFICE.

8, Victoria Chambers, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W., My Lord,    September 10, 1883.

With reference to previous correspondence on the subject of the annexation of New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and other islands in the Western Pacific, I have the honour to inform you that I have received a telegraphic despatch from my Government stating that their attention has been directed to the announcement which has appeared

t See Appendix.


in the French Press, to the effect that two war steamers of the Republican Navy have been lately despatched to the New Hebrides. It will be within your recollection that in the joint despatch of the Agents-General for New South' Wales, New Zealand, Victoria, and Queensland, addressed to your Lordship on the 21st of July,* particular attention was directed to the debate in the French Chamber of Deputies on the 7th of Mav last, in the course of which M. Waddington said that the French flag might very soon be hoisted on these islands. In a despatch which I had previously addressed to your Lordship on the 12th of July,f I also referred to “the uneasiness excited by “ French movements in the Pacific, which my Government are of opinion indicate “ danger to the New Hebrides group of islands.”

Parliament is now sitting at Melbourne, and Her Majesty’s Government there have, I am informed, been questioned on the subject, but, in the absence of any reply from your Lordship to the communications I have referred to, they are unable to give such an indication, as they would desire to be able to lay before Parliament, of the common policy which they very strongly feel ought to be now promptly pursued by Her Majesty’s Imperial and Colonial Governments ; anti I am instructed to say that they fear that any appearance of hesitation at the present moment may have the result of losing those valuable islands, which ought, in their opinion, to form part of the British Empire. I am also informed by Mr. Service that a Convention of all the Australasian Governments has been agreed to, and will be held in the month or November.

I have, &c.

(Signed) ROBERT MURRAY SMITH.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,

&c.    &c.

No. 14.

Governor the MARQUIS OF NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria), to the Right Hon. tiie EARL OF DERBY. (Received September 11, 1883.)

Government House, Melbourne,

My Lord,    July 30, 1883.

I have the honour to enclose, for your Lordship’s information, the copy of a memorandum which I have received from Mr. Service on the subject of the annexation of the New Hebrides.

The subject is one which excites very deep interest in this Colony, and I am bound to say that I have never known any question in Victoria which has commanded such universal support. It has received the unanimous approval of Parliament, and is advocated by the press of all shades of politics, and it has also been adopted by various large and influential public meetings. •

I have, &c.

The Right Honourable the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) NORMANBY.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 14.

My Lord,    Premier’s Office, Melbourne, July 27, 1883.

It becomes my duty to again address your Excellency on the subject of the annexation of Pacific islands treated of in my letter of the 18th ultimo.

Information has since that date reached me to the efleet that the Imperial Government has declined to sanction the proceedings taken by Queensland for the annexation of New Guinea. I have to request that your Excellency will announce to the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies the profound regret of this Government at that decision—a regret which I do not hesitate to say is echoed by the Governments and people of Australasia.

With reference to the annexation of the other    , the movement for which was

set on foot by Victoria, I desire to draw your Excellency’s attention to the position at which that question has now arrived.

Your Excellency has already received and telegraphed to the Secretary of State, the Resolutions of both Houses of Parliament, not only in favour of the measure, but also

* No. 18 in [0. 3811], August 1883.

Hi 8318.


B


f No. 23 in [C. 3691], July 1883.


guaranteeing our quota of the expense. Since then your Excellency has similarly received and telegraphed the Resolutions on the subject of a large representative and enthusiastic public meeting held in Melbourne; and further, within the last few days the question has commenced to he taken up by municipal councils. The Government are in receipt of resolutions from several such bodies, and from a public meeting at Horsham, expressing hearty sympathy with the action of the Government. I doubt not that this movement will be general.

I beg, now, to add that there is in favour of annexation or a protectorate unanimity amongst the Governments of these Colonies. South Australia must not be taken as an exception, as she only refrains from pressing immediate action, because she rests on a supposed assurance that Great Britain will prevent occupation by any foreign power. The newspapers announce, however, that the attitude of the South Australian Government in the matter, does not satisfy their Parliament, and I have little doubt that in a short time, it will be found that the voice of South Australia will join with the general voice of Australasia.

But the position of the matter so far is this :—

1.    On the policy of annexation or a protectorate, the Governments of Australasia are unanimous.

2.    The Governments of Queensland, Victoria, and New Zealand, have declared in favour of contributing towards expense, and in Victoria and New Zealand this has been formally endorsed by resolutions of both blouses of Parliament. New South Wales has probably expressed herself to the same effect, through the Governor or Agent General.

However, one half of the Colonies at least having already pronounced in favour of bearing the expense, I think we may fairly ask that this portion of the question may be eliminated from the discussion.

Indeed the question of annexing the Pacific Islands has evoked throughout Australasia so strong, unanimous, and patriotic a sentiment, that I feel it would be a waste of time on our part, as well as that of the Imperial authorities, to treat the question of expense as a point really in dispute. I make bold to say that Australasia will provide for the expense.

I must now point out that the danger apprehended of some other Power stepping in and anticipating us, has received illustration in the short interval since I wrote to your Excellency. I mentioned in my letter the rumour that the French Consul here was telegraphing to his Government on the subject. It is now reported that a strong agitation has sprung up in the French Colony of New Caledonia, the Governor being urged by petition and by press articles “ to lose no time in annexing the New Hebrides before “ Great Britain should have time to do so.” Immediately upon this the French war steamer “ Destrees ” left, with sealed orders to be opened when 20 miles from Noumea. It is almost certain that her destination is the New Hebrides.

I have regretted to observe, from reports of interviews with Lord Derby, that the danger of annexation by foreign powers has been treated by the Colonial Office as somewhat chimerical. The foregoing narration, however, evinces that the danger is more real and immediate than was supposed.

I desire now officially to urge what has already been brought under the notice of the Imperial Government viva voce by the Agent General for Victoria, namely, the objection which Australia must entertain to the planting of convict settlements in these parts, a course which is almost certain to follow the leaving of the Islands open for annexation by other nations. Surely it must be unnecessary to remind the Colonial Office of the action taken by us in years gone by to prevent the continuance of transportation to the then remote corner of Western Australia. And is it to be supposed that Australia can possibly tolerate from a foreign power that which she so strongly objected to when done by the mother country? It has been a serious and irreparable error to allow of French intrusion amongst us in New Caledonia, for New Caledonia has been constituted a convict settlement, and the expense of our penal establishments is already appreciably swelled by the re-convictions here of escapees and expirees from that Colony.

I attach an excerpt from the “ Argus,” indicating the difficulties with which the colonies are threatened by the establishment of convict settlements in these seas.

What France has done in New Caledonia she may do elsewhere, and other countries may follow her example. I would, therefore, through your Excellency, urge upon Lord Derby’s attention, that while we object to foreign guns on those islands, we object to foreign convicts there, with all the emphasis which respect for the mother country permits us to express. I feel that I should be misleading the Imperial authorities if I failed to make them aware of the depth and earnestness of Australian convictions on this subject.

The position of (lie native races in this question is a point that seems to have bee», quite mis-apprehended in some quarters. It has been supposed that the present movement. was in the interests of the oppressors of those people. A more signal error could not be made; and in proof I draw attention to the personnel of the movers in this matter. The political advantages of the annexation had long been apparent to me, and to other public men in these Colonies, but it was a letter from the Rev. D. MacDonald, a well Known ]New Hebridean Missionary, followed by a large deputation ■ of missionaries, clergymen, and other prominent philanthropic gentlemen, which formed by means of bringing to a focus the existing feeling on the subject. In order to make this point perfectly clear, I need only refer Lord Derby to the enclosure No. 2, in my previous letter of the 18th June, but I will now add the report, herewith enclosed, of the large public meeting held in the Melbourne Town Hall on the 16th inst., the resolutions passed at which have already been telegraphed by your Excellency to the Secretary of State. I append the report of this meeting, as shewing, alike the stirred public feeling on the question, and the truly philanthropic character of the movement as regards the aboriginal islanders. 1 am informed that a French Commission has just delivered a Report to the Governor of New Caledonia urging the annexation of the New Hebrides “ with a view to resuming the labour traffic thence.’’ It is to protect those weak races from this, as well as from unscrupulous persons of our own nation, that the missionaries earnestly desire Great Britain to take possession.

There is a weighty consideration which 1 am inclined to think has not yet attracted attention in this discussion. It has been assumed that Great Britain avoided responsibility by declining possession of these islands. It seems to me that the responsibility lies wholly in the other direction, and that if the united voice of Australasia declares that the annexation is a measure essential to our safety and welfare, there is a great responsibility in disregarding that voice. If Australasia guarantees the cost, and possibly the trouble of the measure, where is the responsibility except in refusing? If after this, these islands become depots for convicts, and posts for foreign guns, what then about responsibility ? In Australia’s determined resolve to keep her ports and her territories free from foreign convicts, who shall say what complications may not arise, and where will then rest the responsibility for those complications ?

But looking at the matter in the most practical light, there is really no ground for timidity in taking possession. The islands are rich and fertile, and will be a source of wealth instead of a burden. As to trouble or responsibility, I would repeat that the only cause for apprehension would arise from the opposite course to that which we advocate.

1 have therefore to request through your Excellency an early reconsideration of the decision of the Imperial Government as to New Guinea, and. to ask for a favourable decision upon our application as regards the other islands.

The intrinsic value of these territories, the important questions that arise from their contiguity to our country, together with the fact that the annexation is called for by the united voice of Australasia are considerations which I feel it would be very serious to either undervalue or ignore.

I have, &c.

His Excellency, the Most Honourable,    (Signed) James Service.

The Marquis of Normanby, G.C.M.G.    Premier.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Extract from the “ Argus” of July 26, 1883.

Escapees from New Caledonia.

[By Telegraph.]

[From our own Correspondent.]

Brisbane, Wednesday.

The thj'ee New Caledonian escapees, who have been repeatedly remanded for the production of evidence, were again brought up to-day, The French, authorities have been communicated with, but information has been received that they will take no steps to obtain the extradition of the men. It is believed that they cannot legally be any longer detained in custody.

The information is considered of so grave a character that the Government have telegraphed to the Agent-General to inform the Secretary of State for the Colonies that the French authorities in New Caledonia refuse to take back their criminals.

B 2

Extract from “Argus ” of July 17, 1883.

The Annexation Question.

Meetingat the Town-Hail.

A public meeting was held in the Melbourne Town Hall last night for the purpose of strengthening the hands of the Government in the matter of the request made by the Australasian colonies for the annexation to the British Crown of New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and other islands in the South Pacific. The Mayor of Melbourne (Councillor Dodgshun) presided, and he was accompanied on the platform by Mr. Justice Iliginbotham, Mr. W. M. K. Yale, Mr. Balfour, M.L.C.; Mr, Harper, M.L.A. ; Mr. Mirams, M.L.A.; and a number of clergymen. The body of the hall and the galleries were about half filled.

The Mayor announced the receipt of a letter from Mr. Jas. Campbell, M.L.C., excusing his absence, and expressing hearty sympathy with the object of the meeting. He then called upon Mr. Justice Higinbotham to move the first resolution.

Mr. Justice Higinbotham, who was received with loud and continued applause, said,—Mr. Mayor, ladies and gentlemen,—I have been requested to move the following resolution :—

“ That in the opinion of this meeting it is essential to the future well-being of the Australasian colonies, and to that of the native races of the islands themselves, that New Guinea and the Pacific Islands lying between New Guinea and Fiji, including the New Hebrides, should be annexed to the British Crown.” (Applause).

I do not anticipate that there will be a difference of opinion in respect to this resolution. It has been deemed advisable that the citizens of Melbourne should be invited to give their sanction and support in a public meeting, and in a direct ami express form, to resolution in nearly the same terms as that which I have read or as having been proposed by Her Majesty’s Government of Victoria, and as having been adopted unanimously by both branches of the Legislature. (Applause.) It is to this effect—that the interest of all these colonies requires that that long string of numerous islands extending along the north-eastern shores of Australia from New Guinea to the New Hebrides, and thence to Fiji, ought not to become the property of any other nation in the world than Great Britain. (Applause.) And in pursuance of' that resolve, it is expedient that Great Britain should exercise a right which is assumed to belong to all civilised countries. I do not exactly know the origin of the right—it might be hard to define and defend it—but it is a right claimed by all civilised nations to take possession of islands anywhere on the surface of the world which are not occupied by peoples who are recognised to be within the ranks of civilised nations; and that if it should be possible that England is unable from any cause to annex these islands, that it is then expedient that she should establish and exercise a protectorate over them all, in our interests and for their own protection. (Applause.) I am aware that there is a difference, and I believe in one respect even a conflict, of interest, between some of the colonies in this matter. But there are two grounds upon which 1 believe that a meeting of Victorian and Melbourne citizens will heartily unite in the opinion that the resolution which has been adopted by the Houses of the Victorian Parliament oueht to be carried into effect, and they are these. I believe that in the first place all Victorians will agree with all Australians that it is to the interest of us all to protect this continent from contact with imported crime. (Applause.) Now, it must not be forgotten that in this matter our own country has set an evil example to the world. It is just about 100 years ago since England first adopted that evil system by which, abandoning her own duty in the meeting and reforming of the crime that took place within her own borders, she selected this continent of Australia as a refuse heap upon which she should fling her criminals. About 30 years ago England was persuaded that that was a wrong act; wrong in itself, injurious in its consequences, leading to detriment and damage, and also a shame to all free Englishmen who arrived in these colonies. She promised to abandon that system, but the effect of a bad example was not removed as soon as the act was abandoned. Many of those whom I have now the honour to address remember so far back as 30 years ago, when we free Englishmen, Scotchmen, and Irishmen arriving in these colonies were made in various ways to feci what the effects of coming to a convict continent were in English opinion. Englishmen looked down upon us ; that is, having done us a wrong they really were disposed to despise us for coming to live in contiguity with a community that was criminal. Well, all that, so far as we are concerned, is happily passing away, and we can almost forget it now ; but the example spread just about 30 years ago, when England lirst promised to give up the system of sending her criminals to Australia. France took

possession of New Caledonia, as she had a perfect right to do, because it was on unoccupied country, and she had as good a right to occupy it as England had to occupy Australia. But the object of France, following the example of England, was to make New Caledonia a convict colony, and now we are told that France has a design—I don’t know whether it is a well founded report or not—of extending her territory for the purpose of extending the importation of European crime. Now 1 venture to submit to you that we are entitled to call upon England to render us her best assistance for the purpose of preventing any extension of the terrible system by which this continent was once made a depot, and now is placed in the neighbourhood of depots, of European crime. (Applause.) If we could avert this evil ourselves, we ought not to ask for the assistance of England; but we are unable to do so. Our own powers are confined to the limits of our own respective colonies, and unless England exerts her power and puts forth her energies to protect us from this evil, we shall be wholly unable to do anything for ourselves to prevent it. That is one ground upon which 1 ask you to support the resolution that I have read to you, and there is another. I do not believe that we Victorians are better than our neighbours, but I do believe that we are free from the temptation to which our fellow-colonists in Northern Queensland are exposed. You are aware that the colonists in Northern Queensland import labour from the islands of the Western Pacific and from the New Hebrides. I venture to believe that in that system which is now in operation there are the elements of the greatest danger that could threaten any country—I mean elements of the danger of slavery. (Applause.) The colonists of North Queensland tell us that the reports of the bad treatment of the labourers imported from the New Hebrides are unfounded, and their denial of the truth of these reports is confirmed by the statements of correspondents and of travellers, and it is also confirmed, it is right to remember, by the highest authority, I believe, that we could appeal tc on these matters, namely, the authority of Commodore Wilson, who was for a considerable time personally acquainted, and, in consequence of his position in the Pacific as the commodore of the Australian squadron, brought into personal contact with the labour traffic, and was able to express a well-founded opinion upon it. He combines with the Queensland people in telling us that in Queensland the labourers imported from the New Hebrides arc for the most part well treated. (Applause.) The same thing, if I am not greatly mistaken, was asserted by almost all travellers who visited the Southern States of America at the time that slavery was prevalent there. (Applause.) The truth is, men are better than their system, and humanity is not crushed even out of men who hold slaves. And then travellers do not see the worst evils of the existing system. (Applause.) The evils of slavery' are not brought out into the highways to the view of travellers, and our fellow-countrymen in America—because I believe I may speak of Americans in a matter of this kind as being as much our fellow-countrymen as Englishmen—(applause)—were willing to undertake the responsibility of incurring a bloody social war which lasted several years for the purpose of exterminating that slavery. (Applause.) But it is not in Queensland that we must look if we wish to find out the elements of danger in this labour traffic ; it is in the islands from which the labourers arc imported to which we must look. There have been several letters published in the Melbourne journals from correspondents, some of whose names are known and are apparently deserving of entire credit, telling us of evils connected with the labour traffic in the islands themselves, that do not differ very much from the worst evils reported to have existed in the African trade. (Applause.) If those accounts be true, and they are corroborated by the evidence of Commodore Wilson, the labour traffic is not inconsistent with events such as these. Women are entrapped, carried on board licensed vessels, and are kept there for the vilest of purposes; men are sold by their chiefs, or are enticed to go on board those licensed ships, and are carried against their will to Queensland, or in cases in which they have attempted to escape they have been shot by those who wished to retain them. Commodore Wilson describes in a passage which I will read to you the circumstances under which those imported labourers are returned to their own country, and these circumstances suggest a more horrible state of things than anything connected with their removal from the islands. According to the Queensland law, these imported labourers cannot be detained in the colony for more than three years. After that period they have to be returned to the islands, and to the villages from which they came. Commodore Wilson says :—

“ But the real and most distressing hardship lays in the way these unfortunate creatures are too often returned to their homes. The islands of the Western Pacific are but little known, the bulk of them are not surveyed; their coasts are in some cases not even delineated on the charts, whilst others are not named, or even marked on them. Such being the case, some estimate can be formed of the extreme difficulty of finding

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VI


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the exact island and village from whence each labourer was taken. But unless he is not only landed on his own island, but at his own village, lie is sure to be consigned to shivery, ¡1 not death, as well as the forfeiture of his hard-earned store of trade, in return for his three vears of labour and expatriation. .    .    . Not unfreqncntly, after a vain

search for some time, the unfortunates are landed anywhere, and have been seen gesticulating and wild with despair, as the boat pulls away leaving them to their fate.”

Again, I say I believe he is the highest authority on this subject when he arrives at a very unfavourable opinion on the whole system. This is what he says—

“ I can hardly imagine anyone not inteVested in obtaining cheap labour for a moment countenancing the labour trade, or the employment of natives by traders and others. Only a few years ago (1860-65) much indignation was felt in England because the f rench Government sanctioned what was known as the engagé trade between their colonies and Africa. Such was, I know from personal observation on the spot, nothing hut the slave trade under a new name; but I ask where is the great difference between the engaged African and the native labour recruited from the Pacific Islands ? I certainly can see none.” (Applause.)

Now, it is only Great Britain that can give effectual assistance to those who are desirous of crushing out the elements of slavery in Australia. The Queensland Government can do nothing. It is only a power upon the spot, on the islands, always present and exercising a constant supervision, that can prevent the vessels which I have described from carrying on an illicit traffic. Even if Great Britain took possession, the difficulties of so regulating this traffic as to insure that it would be consistent with freedom, will be very considerable. Already England has taken possession of Fiji, and she has established regulations, administered by the Governor or the officer, of the English Government in Fiji, for controlling and regulating the importation of labourers into that island. And yet Commodore Wiison says, in the same sentence as that in which he admits that the labourers in Fiji and Queensland are for the most part well treated, that the tendency of the system in Fiji, and also in Queensland, is to make the employer of labour desirous of treating the employes as his slaves. Commodore Wilson further tells us that the employer resists to the utmost of his power the efforts of the Governor to enforce the iabour regulations. He also says that the late Governor of Fiji, Sir Arthur Gordon—(applause)—who devoted himself to the enforcing of the labour regulations, had the honour of reaping for himself a harvest of abuse, vilification, and censure from the planters of Fiji. Well, so far as the importation of labour to Queensland and Fiji is concerned, are we not entitled, in the interests of Australia and humanity, to ask that England should put forth her efforts in an endeavour to regulate, if not to suppress, this thing ? (Applause.) On these two grounds, then, I invite you to assent to this resolution ; and if you do not think I am unduly trespassing upon your time—(applause)—I should ask your permission to say a word or two upon another subject, on which I am not at all so sure I will obtain your approval and assent. Assuming that we are entitled to ask the assistance of England in annexing these islands, or to establish a protectorate over them, in what spirit and by what means ought we to endeavour to press our claim ? I have heard or read expressions in connexion with this question which grated upon my feelings. I have heard it said that the hand of England should be forced in this matter, that England ought to be compelled to yield to the demand of the Australian colonies. The act of the Queensland Government, when on the 4th of April last she took possession by a magistrate of the island of New Guinea in the name of the Crown of England, appeared at first sight to savour of a desire to force the hand of England. We have, however, heard intelligence within the last two or three days which removes that impression, and we now see that the Queensland Government had no such design. We now know that that act of taking possession of New Guinea appeared to the Queensland Government to be required and necessitated by a report that a German vessel had left for Ne w Guinea with the intention of securing the island. We also know now that the Governor of Queensland wrote a despatch to the English Government about three weeks alter possession was taken of New Guinea, in which he distinctly expressed his warm approval of the action of the Queensland Government. (Applause.) Now, that is all very important, for this reason—the Governor of Queensland, the late lamented Sir Arthur Kennedy, occupied, as you are aware, a twofold position. He was the representative of the Crown independent of the Colonial Government, and was responsible to no living man by law in respect to the internal affairs of the colony over which he presided. He was also an officer of the Imperial Government, in which character he had nothing to do with responsible advisers, being simply under the

f

direct instructions of the Imperial Government. It was in the latter character—in the character of an officer of the Imperial Government—that Sir Arthur Kennedy wrote his despatch of the 26th April, in which he expressed to the Earl of Derby his entire satisfaction with the conduct of the Queensland Government in taking possession, of their own authority, of the island of New Guinea. Now, I think, these facts go far to remove the impression that the Queensland Government could have been influenced by any desire to force the hand of the British Government. If they had been, I think it would have been very deplorable; but when their motives come to be considered I believe they will probably have the effect of removing the impression which I regret to say appears to have been expressed by Mr. Gladstone, that the Queensland Government has unnecessarily, and without sufficient occasion or cause, taken a step which it certainly was not authorised by law to take, and which certainly will have no legal effect until it is ratified by England, but which will, if ratified by England, be found to have been called for by circumstances sufficient to show that no attempt was made to force the hands of the English Government. (Applause.) I think that in this matter it would be a deplorable thing if we attempted to resort to such things, or if we used hastily and improperly expressions of that kind. 1 am one of those who believe that to resort to force is proper when circumstances appear to justify it, and when circumstances justify the use offeree, I do not think we should be ashamed or afraid to use the language of force. No man need ever be ashamed to say that which he is ashamed to do. (Applause.) Victoria has used force. She has forced the hands of the English Government. I have been a party to an act by which the Victorian Government distinctly forced the hands of the English Government, and I am not ashamed of it nor do I regret it. (Applause.) It was in connexion with the question of transportation. Thirty years ago, as I have told you, just at the time when these colonies were receiving their systems of responsible government, the English Government gave a distinct promise to us all that the system of transportation should be immediately put an end to. Well, for 10 years and upwards England, or rather the English Government, failed to fulfil the promise, and when it was reminded of it, it showed a disinclination even then, to carry it into effect. The Victorian Government, then, acting not merely for itself, but tor all the Australian colonies, said to the English Government, If you do not stop transportation to Western Australia forthwith ”—for that was the only colony to which England continued to send criminals —“ we will withdraw the subsidy to Her Majesty’s mail steamers that call at the infected “ ports of that colony.” (Applause.) That was sufficient. It was called a threat by the English Government, and it was a threat. (Laughter and applause.) There may be other occasions and other circumstances in which it would be entirely justifiable, in my opinion, to use force, and to use the language of force also. I own that I entirely concur with the opinion of those politicians who think that it would be an act entirely just and right and highly expedient for all these Australian colonies to force the hands of the English Government for the purpose of preventing that Government from interfering, as it still does, in the domestic affairs of the Australian colonies. (Applause.) But, gentlemen, it is not uny question of that kind with which we are now dealing. We are not now dealing with the question whether the English Government fails to fulfil some promise, or has committed some acknowledged wrong. (Hear, hear.) We are at . present treating of a case in which the whole of our countrymen at home are most deeply interested; a case in which our countrymen at home may be involved by our demand in difficulties, the nature and extent of which we at present have very little knowledge. I must say, I believe that at no time in the history of our country were our countrymen at home and our Government at home—I care not whether it be a Liberal or Conservative Government; I speak of Government generally—more entitled to or more required the consideration and sympathy of all the members of the empire. (Loud and continued applause.) England is staggering and bending under the weight, not so much of the heavy resposibility connected with the administration of her home affairs, but of her vast and various empire all over the world. There is not a difficulty that can be brought to that empire which must not be felt by our countrymen at home ; not merely in the increased burden and weight of administration, but also in the increased burden and weight of taxation, already too great. (Applause.) There is not a square mile of territory that can be added to her dominions at any spot on the surface of the globe which may not involve a question of breach of treaty obligations or of those understandings and agreements which exist between Governments friendly to one another, which have the force of treaties so long as they exist, and which are very important aids to the carrying on of international interests and affairs. At the present time all the nations or Europe are in a condition most highly sensitive. They are watching one another with keen and jealous eyes, Every movement is watched, and

B 4

apparently the population of European countries, in accord with their Governments, are watching one another with the utmost jealousy, and each has a right to be inflamed against those who may be supposed to be taking advantage of them. Under these circumstances I think we are bound, in advancing this claim of ours, which may involve England in difficulties and differences with other countries, to remember that these differences exist, and that we must allow them to be dealt with and decided by the English Government, which alone is capable of dealing with and removing them. (Applause.) I venture to think that Australian Governments, when they press their claims, ought to bear these circumstances in mind. They will no doubt urge the claims strenuously and unitedly, and will continue to press them—as I hope they will—until they arc cither granted to us or sufficiently satisfactory reasons for not granting them be shown •, but. I hope that after they have done all that, they will not forget that they represent communities, which, after all, are only parts, though important parts, of a great empire, and that if our claims and our interests—urgent and great as they undoubtedly arc in this matter—should be found to be inconsistent with the greater claims and the larger interests of the great body of our fellow countrymen at home, our Governments and we shall, if not contentedly, at least resignedly, agree to abandon them. (Loud and continued applause.)

The Rev. 1). Jones Hamer seconded the resolution. He did so on the grounds, first, that the annexation of the Pacific Islands concerned us as Australian colonists, and, second, because that the welfare of the natives would be best secured by British possession. Although England was at present at peace with the whole world, the condition of affairs in Europe was not at all reassuring to thoughtful men ; and whilst there were in Europe 4,000,000 of armed men, war may break out any day. Now, therefore, was the time when, for our own sakes as Australian colonists, we should secure those strategical islands in the Pacific Ocean. We would receive scanty thanks from future generations if, when a time of crisis like the present arose, we did not take a firm, intelligent, and determined grasp of the situation. There were, indeed, times when the old proverb held good, that “a stitch in time saves nine.” England, too, was the only European power which could, without rightful suspicion, thus extend her empire. He (Mr. Hamer) regarded the matter from the point of view of an English liberal politician. He remembered when proposals were made for the rectification of the frontiers of Africa and India. These proposals came from the people and colonists interested, who, however, did not declare their intention of meeting any part of the burden of expense. The Australian colonists were acting very differently, and were not disposed to cast the whole burden of their enterprise on the shoulders of the British people. (Applause.) Apart, however, from the strategic and commercial value of the Pacific Islands, the annexation of them by Britain was desirable for the purposes of beneficence and for the good of humanity. (Applause.)

The resolution was carried unanimously.

Mr. W. M. K. Vale moved the second resolution, which was as follows :—

“ That this meeting expresses its great satisfaction that both Houses of the Victorian Parliament have unanimously agreed to resolutions in favour of attaching these islands to the British Empire, and expressing their willingness to contribute this colony’s share of the expenses of such annexation ; and, further, that this meeting rejoices in the unanimity which has characterised the action of all the Governments of Australia and New Zealand in regard to this question.’"

We had, he said, to look on this question not as a colonial one alone, but as one belonging to the empire. The colonies were asking the Imperial Government to carry out for them a measure of public policy which was bound to result to them in a profitable trade; and it was therefore but right and reasonable that they should undertake to share the expense and trouble of the proposed annexation. (Applause.)

The Rev. J. L. Rentoul seconded the resolution. The singular unanimity of the Australian people on this question indicated that they would agree to unite in the future on greater matters. The claims made by Australia in reference to the Pacific Islands were very just. If we showed that they were just, and that wre were ready to bear our share of the burden incurred by annexation, then Mr. Gladstone, who always had listened to the voice of the people, would be not only ready but glad to listen to the voices of the Australian people. In an article in the London “ Spectator ” M r. R. H. Hutton predicted that 50 years hence Australia would be one federated nation, and unless annexation took place she would be fighting for her gates and her waterway at New Guinea and the New Hebrides. The wisest thing was to forestall that dreadful alternative of war, and the best thing to forestall war was to annex—(laughter and applause)— so as to preveutany rapacious foreign power from getting hold of the islands. (Laughter.)

ti /UMBM


Three great arguments in favour of annexation were necessity, the interests of Australian trade, and philanthrophy. There was only one objection which he could see to annexation, and that was the hugeness of the British Empire. But it should be remembered that the same cry was raised when the annexation af Fiji was proposed, and yet it had never been found that that country added greatly to the burdens of Great Britain. (Applause.)

The motion was carried unanimously, and amidst applause

Mr. Robert Harrer, M.L.A., moved the third resolution, as follows:—

“ That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the lion, the Premier, with the request that he will transmit them by telegram to the Right lion, the Secretary of State for the Colonies and to the various Australian Governments.”

He believed that the speeches which had been delivered on this question in Victoria would have some effect in inducing the British Government to comply with the request made by Australia. (Applause.) The reasons urged in favour of annexation would induce more attention to the claims than had yet been given to them, and lie felt that what had been said by Mr. Justice Higinbotham as to the Queensland Government justifying its action would do much to remove the impression that the Colony had acted purely from motives of self-interest. New Guinea was only 80 miles from the northernmost point of Australia, and was only divided from it by a shallow sea, which many persons thought was rapidly filling up. He believed Queensland did the right thing in taking the first step towards annexation, whether she did it in the right way or not, and that the people of that country would in due time get credit for the motives which actuated them. (Applause.) New Guinea, so far as he could learn, would be a most valuable acquisition to the British Crown. The natives were much above the average intelligence and industry, occupying the intervals between hunting and fishing by attending to their farms. Their houses were well built, and they understood and acted upon the principle of co-operation. If we could take the first step of annexation, we should raise them to a higher civilisation. The resolutions passed that night would, he believed, be received with respect by Lord Derby, because that statesman had said to Mr. Archer, the Agent-General of Queensland, “ Your Government desire to annex “ this island, but what will your Parliament and people say ? ” The Parliament of Victoria had already expressed its opinion, and in that meeting the people were doing the same, both being in harmony with each other. (Applause.)

The Rev. D. Macdonald, formerly a missionary at the New Hebrides, seconded the motion. He stated that amongst the Pacific Islands the New Hebrides formed the most strategic group, that they were the most healthy, and most suitable for colonization by Europeans, and that they were the group most in danger of being seized by a foreign power, and turned into a receptacle for the confirmed criminals of France. The natives of them, too, had expressed themselves emphatically to the effect that they desired to become an integral portion of the British Empire. (Applause.) They had further a peculiar antipathy to their annexation by France. With respect to the labour traffic, he (Mr. Macdonald) gave the Imperial and Queensland Governments credit for good intentions, but that trade nevertheless remained a blood blot on the name of Great Britain. The fact was that the natives were left practically unprotected in the islands, and it was on the islands where they most needed protection, and where most outrages were committed. The trade had certainly improved of late, but even as it was carried on now it was a disgrace to us as a people. The only sufficient remedy was annexation by the British Crown. (Applause.)

The motion was carried.

On the motion of Mr. J. Balfour, M.L.C., a vote of thanks was accorded to the Mayor for presiding, and the meeting then terminated.

No. 15.

Governor Sir W. C. F. ROBINSON, K.C.M.G., (South Australia), to the Right I Ion. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received September 11, 1883.)

My Lord,    Adelaide, August 1, 1883.

1 have the honour to forward copy of a memorandum from my Ministers on the subject of the proposed annexation of New Guinea and the New Hebrides Islands.

I have &c.

(Signed) WILLIAM C. F. ROBINSON. To the Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 15.

Ministers respectfully request his Excellency the Governor to inform the Secretary of State for the Colonies that while they are favourable to the annexation of New Guinea, as intimated by cablegram, they have instructed their Agent General in London not to join the Agents General of the other Australian Colonies in urging the Imperial Government to take immediate action with reference to the New Hebrides and adjoining islands.

Ministers understand from statements made by Her Majesty’s Government in the Imperial Parliament that some agreement exists between England and France with respect to these islands and they would be exceedingly unwilling to press on the Imperial Government the adoption of any action which might lead to complications with other nations.

Ministers believe that no such objection can be urged against the annexation of New Guinea, and from its proximity to the Northern Coast of Australia it is extremely desirable that this island or so much of it as is not claimed by the Dutch should be placed under British rule.

Ministers would remind your Excellency that both Houses of Parliament in this Colony passed addresses to Her Majesty in favour of the annexation of New Guinea in the year 1875.

Reports that the French Government propose to obtain possession of some of the New Hebrides or adjoining islands for the purpose of establishing large convict depots there, having been circulated, Ministers would respectfully point out to the Imperial Government that the transportation of a number of criminals to any of these islands would be a source of serious danger to the welfare of the Australian Colonies.

Chief Secretary’s Office, Adelaide,    (Signed) J. C. Bray,

31st July 1883.    Chief Secretary',

No. 16.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the AGENT-GENERAL FOR QUEENSLAND.

Sir,    Downing Street, September 19, 1883.

With reference to your letter of the 26th of July,8 enclosing a telegram from the Premier of Queensland respecting the refusal of the French Authorities in New Caledonia to apply for the extradition of criminals who have escaped from that Colony, I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you copies of a letter from this Department to the Foreign Office, and of two letters f from that Department, with their enclosures, on the subject.

I am, &c.

The Agent-General for Queensland.


(Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

No. 17.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, September 21, 1883.

I am directed by Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to transmit to you to be laid before Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, copy of a telegram which has been received from Her Majesty’s Consul at San Francisco, on the subject of the action taken by the Hawaiian Government with regard to annexation in Polynesia.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) PHILIP W. CURRIE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 17.

Telegram.

Consul Stanley to Lord Granville, dated San Francisco, September 1883.

Wodehouse requests me telegraph Hawaiian Government notified him on 5th instant, that on the 29th of August they had sent you formal protest against annexation of any Polynesian Territories.

No. 18.

Tiie Right IIon. tiie EARL OK DERBY to Governor Sir W. C. E. ROBINSON,

K.C.M.G. (South Austuaeia).

Sir,    Dowing Street, September 21, 1883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of the 1st ultimo,* forwarding a cops' of a memorandum from your Ministers on the subject of the proposed annexation of New Guinea and ihc New Hebrides.

Your Ministers arc correct in supposing that an understanding was arrived at in 1878 between Her Majesty’s Government and the Government of France, in pursuance of which the independence of the New Hebrides has been up to the present time recognized and respected by both Powers.

1 have, &e.

Sir W. C. F. Robinson.    (Signed) DERBY.

No. 19.

1 HE


Right


IIon.


tiie EARL OK DERBY to Governor the MARQUIS OK NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria).


My Lord,    Downing Street, September 22, 1883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of the 30th of July last,f enclosing a copy of a Memorandum from the Premier of Victoria respecting the annexation of the New Hebrides and other islands, in the Pacific Ocean.

The representations made in this Memorandum will of course receive the fullest consideration of Her Majesty’s Government, but I observe that it was written only a few days after the date of my despatch of the 11th of July to the Officer Administering the Government of Queensland,J the full text of which, when received, will have explained the views of Her Majesty’s Government in regard to New Guinea, while the letter § addressed to the Agents-General of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and New Zealand (a copy of which is enclosed in my circular despatch of the 18th instant) contains similar explanations in respect to the New Hebrides and other islands of the Western Pacific.

I have also received your Despatch of the 12th July, || transmitting copies of jn Address from both Houses of the Legislature of Victoria advocating the annexation of New Guinea and the other islands ; and, as I am informed that a meeting of delegates from the Colonial Governments will assemble in November next to consider this matter, I shall await the result of that meeting, at which the whole question will no doubt be thoroughly examined.

I have, &c.

The Marquis of Normanby.    (Signed) DERBY.

No. 20.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, September 24, 1883.

With reference to the letter from this Department of the 5th instant,I am directed by Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to transmit to you, to be laid before Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, copy of a despatch relating to the presence in British Australian Colonies of relapsed French criminals.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) T. V. LISTER.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 20.

My Lord,    Paris, September 21, 1883.

I took an opportunity this afternoon of re-calling the attention of the “ Directeur Politique ” to the Note Verbale which I had left with M. Challemel Lacour on the 31st ultimo, respecting the anxiety caused in the Australian Colonies by the reported

§ No. 39 in [C. 3814] August 1883. % No. 11«.


,f No. 14. I No. 21 in [C. 3691] July 1883.

|| No. 36 in [C. 3814J August 1883.

C 2

intention of the French Government to transport their relapsed criminals to New Caledonia, and I inquired what steps had been taken with reference to the failure of the Governor of that Colony to demand as heretofore the extradition from Australia of some French criminals who had succeeded in cscaniiur there.

M. Billot, who admitted the grave importance of the question to the British Australian Colonies, said that the Foieign Minister had at once referred my communication to the Ministers of the Colonics and of the Interior, and recommended it to their early attention.

His Excellency was only waiting lor the answers of Ids two colleagues, and hoped to be shortly in a position to reply to a part, at least, of my communication.

The action of the Government in this matter must depend so much on the decisions of the Chamber, that it would be difficult to give a definite answer at present as to the intended places of transportation ; but with regard to the omission (if such existed) of the Governor to ask for the extradition of escaped criminals, explanations had been invited, and steps would, if necessary, be taken, to ensure in future that the extradition should be asked for.

Monsieur Billot seemed to have a notion that the failure to ask for extradition might have arisen from the many formalities which the Australian Colonics insist on before they will surrender a criminal. The papers which they require have sometimes to be sent for from France, a proceeding which necessitates both delay and expense.

M. Billot promised he would keep the matter in mind, and let me have an answer as soon as possible.

I have, &c.

The Earl Granville, K.G.,    (Signed) F. R. Plunkett.

&c.    &c.    &c.

No. 21.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the AGENT-GENERAL FOR VICTORIA.

Sir,    Downing Street, September 24, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letters of the 10th instant* respecting the proposed annexation of New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and other islands in the Western Pacific.

The letter! which has been recently addressed to you and the Agcnts-Gcncral for New South Wales, Queensland, and New Zealand will have explained to you that Her Majesty’s Government have given very full and careful attention to the views and proposals of the Australian Governments, and are now awaiting the consideration bv those Governments of Lord Derby’s Despatch of the 1 ltii July,J and of his letter to you and the other A gents-General above referred to.

I am, &e.

The Agent-General for Victoria.    (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

No. 22.

Governor the Right Hon. LORI) A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received September 26, 1883.)

My Lord,    .    Sydney, August 4, 1883.

1 have the honour to enclose to your Lordship, by the desire of Mr. Alexander Stuart, Colonial Secretary and Premier of this Colony, a letter with its enclosures which he has addressed to me, conveying the views of this Government on the subject of the New Guinea annexation.

2.    Your Lordship will observe that this correspondence is confined to the question of annexing New Guinea, and no mention is made of the annexation of the New Hebrides or other Pacific Islands.

3.    Mr. Stuart urges a reconsideration by Her Majesty’s Government of the question of the annexation of New Guinea, on the ground that there may be a danger, in consequence of the prominence now' given to the subject, of its being taken possession of by a foreign power, as a strategical point of importance in the future domination of these seas, which in the event of an European Avar, might prove disastrous to Australian and British interests.

t No. 39 in [C. 3814], August 1883. "I No. 21 in [C. 3691], July 1883.

4.    In his letter to Sir Thomas Mclhvraith, Mr. Stuart refers to the question of expense, and considers that it should lie fairly looked at and a division of expense suggested as to the proportions to be borne by the countries interested.

5.    In regard to the proposal of an Inter-colonial Conference to discuss the question of federation, Mr. Stuart states that if it be considered that the present is a fitting time he will gladly accede to the suggestion, and that such discussion should then take the form of putting forward the basis on which a Federal Government should be constituted.

I have, &c.

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) AUGUSTUS LOFTUS.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 22.

Mr. Stuart to Lord Augustus Loftus.

Colonial Secretary’s Office, Sydney,

My Lord,    August 1, 1883.

I have the honour to address you on the subject of New Guinea annexation with the view of inviting your Excellency to convey to the Secretary of State for the Colonies the views of this Government.

2.    I beg to enclose a copy of a communication* received from Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, with a minutef of the Executive Council of Queensland and of my reply thereto.

3.    I would respectfully urge a reconsideration of the question by the Imperial Government, because that, although I am not prepared to say that there was an imminent prospect of New Guinea being taken possession of by any foreign power, yet I do fear now that the prominence which has been given to the subject will of itself cause some nation to take it up, as a strong strategic point in the future domination in these seas.

4.    From its close proximity to the northern part of Queensland and from the control over that important highway of commerce, Torres Straits, which would be given to any possessor of the southern shores of New Guinea, its occupation by a foreign nation might be, in the event of European war, most disastrous to Australia, and therefore to British interests.

5.    I was at one time inclined to think that a protectorate of the southern coast would have been sufficient, and even yet it may be so if its effect would be to keep any other nation from obtaining a footing, but if a protectorate be inefficient for that purpose it would be better to accept the annexation, so that there might be no ground for the future disquiet arising from foreign settlements so close upon our shores.

I have, &c.

His Excellency the Eight Hon.    (Signed) Alex. Stuart.

Lord Augustus Loftus, G.C.B.

Colonial Secretary’s Office, Sydney,

Sir,    July 31, 1883.

I have the the honour to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 17th instant,* communicating to me the views of your Government as expressed in a minute of your Executive Council upon the refusal of- the Imperial Government to confirm the annexation of New Guinea.

In reply I desire at the outset to assure you that I deprecate as much as anyone that New Guinea should ever be taken possession of by any foreign power, as it not only would tend to cripple the trade in Torres Straits, which has proved a beneficial enterprise both to your Colony and to ours, but would at all times, and especially in any European conflict, be highly inconvenient and menacing to the whole Australian group.

Holding this view I had no hesitation in sending in April last instructions to our Agent-General to state to Lord Derby that this Colony viewed with the utmost favour the annexation of Now Guinea by the British Crown, in place of permitting any foreign power to take possession of it or obtain further footing therein.

* Not received.


f See Enclosure in No. 26.

While strongly holding these views, I am not altogether surprised at the attitude taken by Lord Derby, because it seems to me that while deeply impressed yourself with the danger to be apprehended of immediate foreign aggressive movement upon the island, you have not very definitely shown to Lord Derby the grounds for your fears, but have urged him to accept your strong feelings as evidencing the facts rather than submitted definite proofs of the facts themselves, or pointed out sufficient overt acts of any foreign poAver upon which he could come to the same comdction as yourself.

I take a somewhat different vieAV from you with regard to the expense of annexation. It is contrary to the English genius of colonization to be content with exhibiting the mere nominal symbol of her flag. When England annexes she must govern, she must ride. She cannot be content with the “ laisser faire ” system, which you point out as having been folloAved by the Dutch, not interfering with the aborigines, but Avaiting and simply holding the country as against any other power. It seems to me, therefore, to be unwise to brush aside the matter of expense as a mere fancy. It should, on the contrary, be fairly looked at, and a division suggested as to the proportions to bo borne by the countries interested; the Imperial interests are probably as great as the Australian, and the Colonics would doubtless respond to any liberal basis for its apportionment.

I have always looked upon the question of federation as one which would not probably assume a definite shape until the outward pressure of some common danger compelled the various Colonies to sink many minor differences and jealousies in the necessity for combined action for common safety. Whether such danger exists in the present refusal by the Imperial Government to recognise the action you have taken Avith regard to Ncav Guinea, I feel hardly called upon at present to decide, but I gladly accede to your suggestion that the question of federation should be discussed by the Colonies, and if it be considered that the present is a fitting time, then that such discussion should take the form of putting forward the basis on Avhich a Federal Government could be constituted.

This Government is also prepared to accede to your request to urge upon the Imperial Government that it is desirable that the question of annexation be reconsidered, and with that vieAv I have addressed a letter inviting his Excellency Lord Augustus Loftus to lay our vieAvs before the Secretary of State for the Colonics, and of such letter I beg to hand you a copy.

I have, &c.

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary of    (Signed) Alex. Stuart.

Queensland, Brisbane.

No. 23.

Governor Sir W. F. 1). JERVOLS, G.C.M.G., C.B. (Neav Zealand), to the Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received September 26, 1883.)

Government House, Wellington,

Mv Lord,    August 11, 1883.

W ith reference to my despatch of the 16th June last,* concerning Pacific Islands annexation, I have the honour to inform your Lordship that the subject is being considered by the Parliament of this Colony. 1 herewith transmit extracts! from the Parliamentary Debates bearing on the question.

2.    On the 26th June, the Premier, Mr. Whitaker, moved the, folloAving resolutions in the Legislative Council :—

“ That this Council approves of the steps taken by the Government, in conjunction with other of the Australian Colonies, to promote the establishment of British rule in certain islands of the Pacific.

“ That this Council undertakes, for its part, to give effect to any assurance that may be required by the Imperial Government that this Colony will, in common with the other Colonies of Australasia, bear a fair share of the necessary expenses.”

These resolutions Avere, after some debate, carried Avithoul a division.

3.    It having been discovered that such resolutions, if passed by both Houses, might involve the Colony in a technical difficulty, the Treasurer, Major Atkinson (who is the leader of the Government in the House of Representatives), moved in that House on the 3rd July, “ that a Select Committee be appointed to consider and report upon ” resolutions similar to those passed in the Council. This was agreed to.

t Not printed.


No. 24 in [C. .4814] August 1883.

4.    On the 4th July, a Bill on the same subject, which had been introduced by Sir George Grey (copies herewith9), was read a second time in the House of Representatives, and was referred to the Select Committee already appointed to consider the resolutions.

5.    On the ljth July, the Committee presented their report on the resolutions and Bill.

6.    This report was, after some debate, put into the form of (bur paragraphs, which were considered by the House on the 26th July. The paragraphs were as follows :

“ 1. That the steps taken up to this time by the Government, in conjunction with other of the Australasian Colonies, to promote the establishment of British rule in certain islands of the Pacific, be approved.

“ 2. That the British Government should, under existing circumstances, take steps for the establishment of its rule over all islands in the Pacific which are not already occupied by or under the protectorate of a foreign Power ; and that, on annexation of any island taking place, care should be taken that provision be made for preserving the individual rights of the inhabitants.

3.


That, in the event of the British Government making it one of the conditions of establishing its authority over any islands in the Pacific, New Zealand, jointly with the Colonies of Australia, should contribute its fair proportion of necessary expense, calculated on the basis of European populations of the British Colonies now comprised in Australasia, provided that the amount of such proportionate expenditure, when ascertained, does not exceed the means at the disposal of New Zealand.

4.


That the Confederation and Annexation Bill, with the amendment proposed by the Committee, be passed by the House, and that the papers named in the Schedule laid by the Colonial Treasurer before the Committee, relating to the annexation of islands in the Pacific, together with such other papers relating to the subject as Government can supply, be printed for the information of Parliament.”

7.    The general opinion appeared to be that the terms of the resolutions were too wide, partly because they included all the islands of the Pacific, and partly because they bound New Zealand to bear a share of the cost without defining how large a sum might be required. Resolutions 2 and 3 were, therefore, amended as follows :—

“ 2. That the British Government should, under existing circumstances, take steps for the establishment of its rule over such islands in the Pacific as are not already occupied by or under the protectorate of a foreign Power, and the occupation of which by any foreign Power would be detrimental to the interests of Australasia.

“ 3. That, in the event of its being made an absolute condition of annexation that the Colonies of Australasia shall each contribute a fair proportion of the cost, it would be necessary that a statement of the amount to be provided by this Colony should be furnished by the Imperial Government before Parliament was called upon to agree in a course which may involve a serious addition to the taxation of the Colony.”

Resolutions 1 and 4 were passed without alteration.

8.    On the following day Sir George Grey’s Bill was passed by the House of Representatives. It is now under discussion in the Legislative Council, and there appears to be no doubt but that it will be passed.

I have &c.

(Signed) ’\VM. F. DRUMMOND JEKVOIS.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,

&c.    &c.    &c.

No. 24.

Governor F. NAPIER BROOME, C.M.G. (Western Australia), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received September 26, 1883.)

Government House, Perth,

My Lord,    August 16, 1883.

At the wish of the Legislative Council of this Colony, and with reference to my telegram of the 10th instant,f I have the honour to transmit to your Lordship, herewith, copy of Address No. 23 of the Council, dated the 8th instant.

2. It will he seen that the Council request me to inform your Lordship that they are of opinion, “ That, for the reasons conveyed to Her Majesty’s Government by the “ Governments of the Australasian Colonies, the acquisition of New Guinea by the Imperial Government has become a matter of urgent necessity,” and that the Council “ wishes to accord its support to the proposal made for the annexation of “ that Island.”

I have, &c.

The Right lion, the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) F. NAPIER BROOME.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 24.

Address No. 23.

May it please your Excellency,

The Legislative Council has the honour of submitting to your Excellency the following resolution adopted this day :—

That an humble address be presented to his Excellency the Governor praying that he will be pleased respectfully to inform Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, that the Legislative Council is of opinion that for the reasons conveyed to Her Majesty’s Government by the Governments of the Australasian Colonies, the acquisition of New Guinea by the Imperial Government has become a matter of urgent necessity, and the Council wishes to accord its support to the proposal made for the annexation of that Island.

(Signed) L. S. Leake,

Legislative Council, August 8, 1883.    Speaker.

No. 25.

Administrator Sir A. II. PALMER, K.C.M.G. (Queensland), to the Right IIon. the EAHL OF DERBY. (Received October 1, 1883).

Government House, Brisbane,

My Lord,    August 13, 1883.

I have the honour to enclose, for your Lordship’s information, a letter addressed to me by the Hon. the Premier, covering a memorandum on the refusal of the Imperial Government to confirm the annexation of New Guinea, which has been laid before the Executive Council of Queensland.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Secretary of State    (Signed) A. II. PALMER,

for the Colonies.

Enclosure in No. 25.

Colonial Secretary’s Office, Brisbane,

Sir,    • August 2, 1883.

I have the honour to forward to your Excellency for transmission to the Right Hon. the Secretary of State for the Colonies, a copy of an extract from the Minutes of Proceedings of the Executive Council at a meeting held at Government House on the l/th ultimo, and to request that you will direct Earl Derby’s attention especially to the fact that the suggestion made in the first portion of the last paragraph has been enthusiastically responded to by the Australian Colonies ; the only exception to their unanimity, that of South Australia, being capable of such explanation as will not be likely to exclude that Colony from taking a share in future negotiations on the subject.

With regard to the next suggestion, that Her Majesty’s Government should be invited to move in the direction of providing for a form of federal government suitable for the Australian Colonies, I think it would be advisable to urge upon the Secretary of State, that if the Imperial Government regard the federation of these Colonies as a desirable end, the latter have now arrived at a point in their history more favourable than any occasion that has hitherto presented itself for the promotion of such federal union.

Tlie revival of the subject of certain necessary annexations, and the clear recognition that onlv through federal action can their desires in this direction he carried into effect, have suddenly brought the question of federation, which had hitherto been treated as an abstract speculation within the range of practical politics, and, together with the almost universal advocacy of the Press, constitute an opportunity of which Iler Majesty’s Government would do well to take prompt advantage.

1 have, &c.

(Signed) Thomas McIlwraitii.

Extract from the Minutes of Proceedings of the Executive Council of Queensland.

At Government House, Brisbane, July 17, 1883.

Ilis Excellency the Administrator of the Government in Council.

His E xcellency the Administrator of the Government, at the instance of the Honourable the Colonial Secretary, lays before the Council the following Memorandum by the Premier on the refusal of the Imperial Government to confirm the annexation of New Guinea, and recommends that the same be approved:—

Memorandum by the Premier of Queensland on the refusal of the Imperial Government

to confirm the annexation of New Guinea.

The decision arrived at by Her Majesty’s Government in reference to the annexation of New Guinea seems to me to justify some decided and concerted action on the part of the Australian Colonies. It is scarcely necessary to refer at any length to the previous correspondence on this subject, or to the repeated representations in connexion with it, which have been made to the Imperial Government.

It seems to me right that reference should be made to the various reasons assigned for this refusal. In 1875, Lord Carnarvon, while not discouraging the idea of extensive annexation, assigned as one reason why he could not act on the representations of the Australian Colonics, that the British tax-payer could not and would not bear the expenditure. Lord Derby advances the same reason now. He adds to this other reasons—the enormous extent of the territory, the unknown character of the interior, and the hostility of the natives. These objections may be easily combated. The expense need not be great, and we now know that the Australian Colonies will undertake this expense, or share it with Her Majesty’s Government, if required to do so. As for the natives, the Dutch have not interfered with the aborigines in that part of New Guinea claimed by them, and their claim costs them nothing. They wait, and simply hold the country as against any other Power. There would be no difficulty in our doing single-handed, in that part of New Guinea contiguous to our shores, a great deal more than the Dutch have done during the last fifty years in the North-Western portion of the Island. Queensland has simply been desirous that New Guinea should not fall into the hands of a foreign power, and that the requisite authority should be exercised over those adventurers who frequent the shores of that island. Experience in Torres Straits has already proved valuable in this respect. 1 he “beachcombers” who frequented the islands of Murray and Darnlev have taken themselves off since the annexation of these islands to Queensland territory. What was effected in Torres Straits could have been carried out with perfect ease on the mainland of New Guinea. All that was required was the acceptance of the proclamation. I still think that it ought to have been accepted, and I hope that the Australian Colonies will, by their several and united representations, urge upon Her Majesty’s Government a reconsideration of their decision.

But there can be no doubt that the refusal to annex New Guinea, together with the possible acquisition by foreign powers of some of the Pacific Islands contiguous to Australia, does raise very serious questions intimately connected with the future interests of the Australasian Colonies. If Her Majesty’s Government does not feel that the annexation of New Guinea, or of the islands adjacent to Australia, is of so much importance to the empire at large as it is to the Australian Colonies, let some means be devised by which those islands may be held and governed for the benefit of the Australian people. The step taken by the Queensland Government in causing a formal claim to be made over New Guinea, was done in the interests not only of Queensland, but of all the Australian Colonies, and in the interests of the natives of New Guinea, avIio ought to be protected by some lawful authority from contact with

Ri 8318.    D

the lawless adventurers who are too often a law to themselves. That also which is for the advantage of this country, is surely for the advantage of Great Britain. The middle island of New Zealand was won for Great Britain by a timely act of annexation. In the last century, similar timely acts of annexation won large portions of America for the Anglo-Saxon race. Why, then should not Queensland be permitted, with the sanction of Her Majesty’s Government, to assist in carrying out this national and beneficial policy? If, then, the real reason for the refusal to annex New Guinea be, not the expense, but the difficulty of providing for the government and protection of the native races, might not this be met by the sanction and authority of the united colonies ? Some justification, it has been often said, is required for federation—may it not be found in this exigency.

I submit that a ease has arisen which may be made use of to call into existence the higher forms of government required to give effect to this policy of annexation. The

Australian Colonies are now united bv sentiments of filial regard and devotion to the

• • • ^ # # #

British Empire, though they are not represented in the British Legislature. The

Imperial Parliament dominates the whole Empire, and the Colonies are nor, represented

in that Parliament, though their interests may be vitally affected by its decisions. It is

not possible to give authoritative effect to the wishes of the people of Australia in

anything beyond their own domestic interests, except through the intervention of Her

M ajesty’s Government.

The circumstances of the present case seem to point to a necessity for combination among the Australian Colonies—a combination for both legislative and executive purposes. Australian interests arc involved in securing the peaceful and progressive supremacy of Australian influences in the adjoining seas. In order to effect this it is necessary that there should not only be sentiments held in common, but that a form of government should be provided capable of giving expression to these sentiments. The federation of the Australian Colonies may thus be forwarded. Here is work for the united Colonics to do, if they can be got to unite. I suggest that a convention of delegates should be held to discuss the basis upon which a Federal Government could be constituted.

This, I believe, was the form adopted in Canada, previous to the constitution of the Dominion Parliament. May not this example be followed here ? The Dominion Government has added largely to the influence and the national integrity of Canada. It seems probable that a similar form of government adapted to the special requirements of Australia would give life to national aspirations here, without repressing the autonomous Governments of the respective Colonies. To it would properly belong the discussion of such measures as are necessary for the consolidation and security of Australian interests, as well as for the government of these outlying islands in the Pacific, which at present are not claimed by any civilised power.

I think, therefore, that there ought, in the first place, to be representations from all the Australian Colonies, urging upon Her Majesty’s Government a reconsideration of their decision as regards New Guinea; and, in the next place, Her Majesty’s Government should be invited to move in the direction of providing for a form of federal government suitable for the Australian Colonies. I propose that this memorandum should be embodied in an Executive Minute and forwarded both to Her Majesty’s Government and to the Governments of the respective Australian Colonies for their consideration, and for such action as they may deem expedient.

T. McIlwraith.

July 10, 1883.

The Council deliberate and advise, as recommended, immediate action.

A. V. Drury,

Clerk of the Executive Council.

No. 26.

The AGENT-GENERAL FOR VICTORIA to COLONIAL OFFICE.

8, Victoria Chambers, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W., My Lord,    October 5, 1883.

I havk the honour to inform you that I have received by the last mail, a despatch from the Honourable the Premier of Victoria, and that since its arrival I have received a further telegraphic despatch from Mr. Service, veiy strongly urging me to impress

upon your Lordship the sense of Tier Majesty’s Colonial Ministers that it is eminently to bo desired, in view of the Convention of the Australasian Governments which will assemble at Sydney next month, that a clear understanding with Her Majesty’s Imperial Government should be attained in respect to the conditions on which the Confederation of the Colonies as advised by your Lordship should proceed, and also the method in Avhich the necessary measures of Protectorate or Annexation in the Western Pacific should be approached. I am accordingly to invite your Lordship to state, for the information of my Government, on what general conditions Her Majesty’s Imperial Government will be prepared to give their assent to the annexation of the Western Pacific Islands which have been sufficiently indicated in previous correspondence. I am further to request your Lordship, having reference to your observation to the deputation of the Agents-General last June, that the annexation should be preceded by a Federation of the Colonies, to state Avhether, if the Colonies do become federally united, the Imperial sanction to the annexation Avill then be granted, or whether it Avill be granted on the Colonies simply agreeing to provide for the expense of the proceeding. In the telegraphic despatch to Avhich I have above referred, received only this morning, I am further instructed to ask your Lordship Avhether an estimate can be prepared at the Colonial Office, in anticipation of the meeting of the Convention, of the cost of those measimes, or, it may be, at least, of such as are indicated in the latter paragraphs of your despatch to the Officer Administering the Government of Queensland of the 11th of duly last.10

The brief period Avhich uoav remains before the assembly of the Convention, and the momentous decisions at which it is called upon to arrive, both in regard to the political constitution proper for the Australasian Dominion, and the extension of territory necessary to provide for it adequate and secure boundaries, Avi 11, I. hope, justify me in requesting your immediate and earnest attention to the questions which I am instructed by my Government to submit to your Lordship.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, (Signed) ROBERT MURRAY SMITH. &c.    &c.    &c.

No. 27.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the AGENT-GENERAL FOR QUEENSLAND.

8iii,    DoAvning Street, October 5, 1883.

With reference to your letter of the 26th of July last,f and to the reply from this Department of the 19th of September,): respecting the refusal of the French authorities in Ncav Caledonia to apply for the extradition of criminals avIio have escaped from that Colony, I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you a copy of a letter§ from the Foreign Office, enclosing , a despatch from Mr. Plunkett on the subject.

I am, &c.

The Agent General for Queensland.    (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

No. 28.

Governor Sir G. C. STRAIT AN, K.C.M.G. (Tasmania), to the Right Hon. the

EARL OF DERBY. (Received October 8, 1883.)

My Lord,    Government House, Hobart, August 22, 1883.

I have the honour to forward to your Lordship a Parliamentary Paper|| relative to the annexation of Ncav Guinea and certain islands in the Western Pacific which has been presented to Paidiament by the Premier.

Your Lordship Avill observe in a letter addressed by Mr. Giblin to the Premier of Queensland, the views of my Ministers on this question, which I venture to think Avill be regarded Avith approval by your Lordship.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) GEO. C. STRAIIAN.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 28.

TASMANIA.—House of Assembly.

New Guinea and Pacific Islands.

Correspondence relative to Annexation.

Laid upon the Table by the Premier, and ordered by the House to be printed,

'    July 24, 1883.    ‘

(Extracts.)

Sin,    Premier’s Office, Hobart, dune 29, 1883.

With reference to the proposal that Great Britain should take steps to prevent the Ncav Hebrides and other South Sea Islands from being taken possession of by any

O    1

’British Empire of these Islands, and should agree to defray the cost of their government.

It appears to me that any cost attending the maintenance of order in any islands which the ’British Government might think proper to take possession of, should be borne by the particular Colony to Avhicli they might be attached, and Avliich Avould reap any commercial or fiscal adA'antagc Avhicli might hereafter accrue from, the annexation. At any rate, as at present advised, I could not recommend the GoA’ern-ment of this Colony to accept any share of such a responsibility. I cannot help thinking that, under existing circumstances, it Avould be better for the Australasian Colonies to confine their representation to the preA'ention of annexation by any foreign poAver until the experiment of colonizing Ncav Guinea, and even of Fiji, shall have been more fully developed.

L have, &c.

Hon. James Service, Premier, Victoria.    (Signed) W. R. Giblin.

Sir,    Premier’s Office, Melbourne, July 11, 1883.

I have the honour to acknoAvlcdgc the receipt of your letter of the 29th June in reply to the communications addressed by this Government to that of Tasmania on the subject of the proposal for the annexation of, or the establishment of a Protectorate over, the Ncav Hebrides and neighbouring islands.

I feel greatly obliged for the frank expression of your vieAvs Avitli Avhicli you have favoured me ; but I am so impressed with the grave, indeed critical, importance of the question for this group of Colonies, that 1 venture to ask you to re-look at the matter before regarding it as finally disposed of.

As a ground for further consideration, I Avould point out that the proposal to which assent is asked is not quite of the character objected to in your letter. It is not that the islands, or either of them, should be attached to any particular Colony, in Avhicli case I quite concur Avitli you that it Avould be equitable that the Colony should bear the burden of the expense. The measure proposed, hoAvevcr, merely is that Great ’Britain should take possession of, or establish a Protectorate over, the islands ; and as this Avould be mainly, if not solely, in the interests of the existing Colonics, it seems only just that they should bear the cost, or, at the least, a part of the cost. The amount of this might be apportioned in relation to the population—or the revenue— of each Colony, and the burden thus divided Avould be not only small, bub, as compared with the advantages, infinitesimal.

1 shall be very glad if you Avill look at the question from this point of vieAv, for the purpose of, if possible, recommending your Cabinet to agree Avitli the other Colonies in sharing the expense of the proposed action.

In our futuro this question must exercise a considerable influence upon commerce, and it may prove that the matter of naval and military establishments Avill come to be almost governed by the favourable or adverse possession of these islands.

On all these grounds I Avould strongly urge the importance of all the Colonics joining in a unanimous utterance on the subject. The question forms a national one for Australasia, and one Avitli regard to which unanimity must greatly augment her dignity and her influence abroad.

I have, &c.

The Honourable the Premier, Hobart.


(Signed) James Service, Premier.

t No. 23 in [C. 3814], August 1883. || Extract onlyfprinted..,


Q

O


Telegram.

Melbourne, July 11, 1883.

Address to Queen passed both Houses Parliament unanimously, and emphatic speeches in support of annexation or protectorate New Guinea and Pacific Islands, and that Victoria willing contribute towards expense. On requisition signed by most influential persons of all classes Mayor, Melbourne, has convened meeting in support Government proposals.

Premior, Tasmania.    James Service, Premier.

Sir,    Premier’s Office, Hobart, July 16, 1883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, No. 170, of the 11th instant, and of your telegram of the same, as to the New Guinea and Pacific Islands question,

This Government is very desirous to act in harmony with the other Colonies in all matters of Australasian concern, and 1 will therefore willingly bring the matter before the Cabinet for re-consideration Avith a vieAV to see Iioav far avc can assist tho larger Colonies by asking our Parliament (Avliich meets on the 24th instant) to adopt an Address from both Houses urging Her Majesty's Government to take such steps as may be most effectual to prevent the acquisition of any of the islands referred to by any foreign power, Avhether those steps involved a protectorate or annexation, or some third course of action.

As to the question of expenses, I presume, in the case of a protectorate, they would be almost nominal; but if annexation iirvolves the governing, according to English ideas, of a considerable number of islands scattered over vast tracks of ocean, and inhabited by men speaking very various dialects, and of widely different degrees of civilisation, I confess myself unable to even approximate the cost of maintaining law and order on such territories and under such conditions. Nevertheless, as you justly suggest, if the cost Avere apportioned amongst the Australasian Colonics according to either revenue or population, our share Avould be but small as compared to the advantages Avliich might be expected to accrue to the Australasian group.

I have, &c.

The Honourable the Premier, Melbourne.    (Signed) W. It. Giblin.

Telegram.

Melbourne, July 25, 1883.

Have receiATed folloAving telegram from our Agent-General, and iioav forward it to you :—“ d oint Despatch presented yesterday, Avithout Adelaide, calling special “ attention outrageous measure iioav before French Assembly to transport habitual “ criminals to Pacific. I and other Agents in constant conference and accord. Will “ not relax efforts. Inform other Colonies.”

For the Premier—E. J. Thomas, Secretary.

Chief Secretary, Hobart.

Fonvardod to the Hon. the Premier.

Wm. Moore.

26. 7. 83.

Sir,    Colonial Secretary’s Office, Brisbane, July 17, 1883.

I h.we the honour to forward to you the enclosed copy of an extract from the Minutes of the Proceedings* of the Executive Council of this Colony of this date, embodying a Memorandum by myself on the refusal of the Imperial Government to confirm the recent annexation of the island of Ncav Guinea, and to request that you Avill be good enough to favour me Avith the views of your Government thereupon,

*


See Enclosure in No. 25.

D 3 and to take such steps as you may consider necessary to move the Imperial Government to an early reconsideration of their decision against the annexation of this valuable territory.

I have, &c.

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary,    (Signed) Thomas McIlwraitii.

Tasmania.

Forwarded to the Hon. the Premier.

Wm. Moore.

July 25, 1883.

Sir,    Premier's Office, Hobart, July 30, 1883.

( have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of yonr letter of the 17th instant, addressed to the Colonial Secretary, with reference to the proposed annexation of New Guinea, and enclosing a copy of a Memorandum by you on the subject, dated the 10th July, approved by the Administrator in Council on the 17th July.

I have perused with much interest yonr Memorandum, which deals with a subject which the Premier of Victoria has repeatedly brought under my notice during the past two months, although Mr. Service’s action appears to have been directed with a view to secure the annexation, not of New Guinea only, but of the New Hebrides and other Islands in the Pacific.

This Government is prepared to act in cordial unison with the- other Australasian Colonies in making all urgent representations to Great Britain to induce the Imperial Authorities to prevent the occupation of either South-Western New Guinea or any of the at present unannexed Pacific Islands by any foreign Power. The occupation of any of these places by a foreign Government as a Penal Settlement would be in the highest degree objectionable; and their occupation, even for peaceful colonisation, by any Continental Power would, in all probability, cause trouble to Queensland and New South Wales in the future. Now, the interests of the Australasian Colonies are so far linked together that even a probability of future trouble or danger to one Colony is a sufficient reason for united action on the part of all. But the real difficulty of the case, to my mind, lies in this : that the question of what measures are expedient, or even possible to be taken, is one the determination of which must be left to Her Majesty’s Ministers in England, and in coming to their decision they must necessarily be affected by larger considerations than those which present themselves to our minds, and their action may be limited by obligations of the nature of which we are uninformed, and of the extent of which we arc ignorant. The question, therefore, whether the end we seek,—viz., the prevention of annexation by any other Power,—is only to be attained by an act of annexation on the part of England, or whether it may not be attained by diplomatic representations, is one that only English Ministers can settle, and it should be left in their hands. It is perfectly obvious that the Australasian Colonies, standing alone, are in no position to enter upon a policy of aggression ; and that, apart from their position as a portion of the great English Empire, they could offer no effectual resistance to the occupation by France, Germany, or America of any one of the numerous islands which dot the Pacific, although the occupation of such island by a foreign Government might justly be deemed fraught with menace to the future peacefulness of these Southern seas. But if we are dependent upon England for any effective check to what we regard as foreign encroachment, is it wise, or even becoming, to assume a semi-hostile position to the Imperial Authorities because, on our first approach to the Queen’s Advisers, we do not at once get all we ask ? I cannot but believe, in view of the strong language that has been used as to this question of annexation, and of the impatience of control which the proposed action indicates, that the assembly of a Federal Council or Convention at the present time for the purpose of expressing more forcibly and more collectively our dissatisfaction with the decision of Her Majesty’s Ministers, and our opinion of the unwisdom of their action, would be the beginning of difficulties the end of which I do not profess to bo able to foresee.

The mere question of the expense of governing any new Dependency is, I venture to think, of secondary consideration. Shared among the Colonies it would not be burdensome, and probably Tasmania’s share would be comparatively trifling. My objection to the course suggested is rather that it appears to me that we are going too fast and too far; that wo are subordinating Imperial to Colonial interests, and

assuming an incapacity or an unwillingness on the part of Great Britain to defend us from the evils which we dread, for which there does not seem to be any sufficient warrant.

For these reasons this Government is not prepared to do more than to join in urging Her Majesty to take such effectual steps as the wisdom of her Advisers may suggest to prevent the occupation of New Guinea or the Pacific islands by any foreign Power.

I have, &c.

The Honourable the Premier, Queensland.    (Signed) W. R. Giblin.

No. 29.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, October 10, 1883.

With reference to the letter from this Office of the 2nd of May last,* I am directed by Earl Granville to request that you will state to the Earl of Derby that he has received from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty a copy of a letter from Commodore Erskine, of the 31st of July last, reporting the results of his investigations into the complaints made by Mr. Wilson and Mr. Paton in connexion with the proceedings of the Anglo-French Compagnie Calédonienne des Nouvelles Hebrides.

A copy of this report has, it appears, been also communicated to the Colonial Office, and I am to state that Lord Granville will be happy to receive any observations which Lord Derby may have to offer upon the various points referred to in it.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) T. V. LISTER.

Colonial Office.

No. 30.

The Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY to Administrator Sir A. II. PALMER.

K.C.M.G. (Queensland).

Sir,    Downing Street, October 13, J883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of the 13th of August,f enclosing a letter from the Premier of Queensland with a memorandum, which had been laid before the Executive Council of the Colony, on the subject of New Guinea.

This important memorandum will receive the careful attention of Pier Majesty’s Government, but the full text of my despatch of the lltli of July* had not reached the hands of your Ministers when the memorandum was written, and Her Majesty’s Government will now await the further consideration at the approaching Conference at. Sydney, of the subjects to which Sir Thomas Mcllwraitli’s memorandum refers.

I have, &c.

Sir A. II. Palmer.    (Signed) DERBY.

No. 31.

Governor Sir W. F. D. JERVOIS, G.C.M.G., C.B. (New Zealand), to the Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received October 20, 1883.)

Government House, Wellington,

My Lord,    September 8, 1883.

I have the honour to transmit herewith copies of “ The Confederation and Annexation Act, 1883,” which has been passed by both Houses of the New Zealand Legislature.

2. Although, as your Lordship will observe, the powers conferred by the Act are of a very limited character, the duty of the Commissioners for whose appointment it provides being merely to report to the New Zealand Legislature, and no action can be

* iNo. l.


f No. 25.


1 No. 21 in [C. 31591], July 1883.


taken on their recommendations without the consent of Tier Majesty, yet, as bearing on a matter of Imperial policy, 1 have decided, in accordance with the recommendation of my Ministers, to reserve the Bill for the Royal Assent.

L have, Ac.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, (Signed) AVM. E. DRUM!). JERVOiS. &c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 31.

New Zealand.

Quadragesimo Skptimo Victoul* Reginìe.

No. .

ANALYSIS.

Title.

Preamble.

1.    Short Title.

2.    Commissioners to make or receive proposals, and

to report to Legislature of NeAv Zealand.


| 3. Legislature of Ncav Zealand may signify approval 1    or pass resolution, and Governor to transmit

j    same to Secretary of State to give effect.

|

i


An Act to facilitate the Confederation with and Annexation to the Colony of' New Zealand of any Island or Islands in the lkacific, the Government or constituted authority of which may make proposals to that effect to the Government of New Zealand.

[K eserved for the signification of Her Majesty’s pleasure.]

Whereas it may from time to time become desirable for the Islands of New Zealand to confederate with or annex one or more islands in the Pacific not already belonging to or under the protectorate of any Foreign Power or Powers :

Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly of New Zealand in Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows :—

1.    The short title of this Act is “ The Confederation and Annexation Act, 1883.”

2.    AVhenever the Parliament of New Zealand may deem it desirable to confederate with or to annex any island or islands in the Pacific which shall not already belong to or be under the protectorate of any Foreign Power or Powers, and whenever the Government or constituted authorities of such island or islands may make proposals to the Government of New Zealand for such confederation or annexation, it shall be lawful for the' Governor to appoint a Commissioner or a Commission of such persons as lie may think fit cither to make proposals to or receive proposals from the Government or constituted authorities of such island or islands as to the basis upon vhich such confederation or annexation may take place, and to consider the same, and to conduct ali negotiations as may be necessary to bring about a definite arrangement as to the precise terms upon which such confederation or annexation might be satisfactorily concluded ; and, if a definite arrangement as aforesaid shall be arrived at, the said Commissioner or Commission shall, so soon as may be practicable, report such arrangement to the Government of New Zealand, accompanied with all papers and correspondence relating thereto, which report, papers, and correspondence shall, at the earliest opportunity, be laid before the Legislature of New Zealand.

3.    If such report contain recommendations for the confederation or annexation aforesaid, and the said Legislature shall approve of the same, or if, after such papers and. correspondence shall have been laid before the said Legislature, such Legislature shall deem it desirable to carry out such confederation or annexation, as the case may be, and shall express such desire by resolution, then and in either of such events the resolution or approval, together with the report, papers, and correspondence respectively aforesaid, shall be forthwith forwarded to the Governor for transmission by him to the Principal Secretary of State for the Colonial Department; and the Governor shall, when so transmitting such resolution or notification of approval, request that the determination, as the case may be, of the New Zealand Legislature may, if Her Majesty shall approve thereof, be given effect to either by Imperial statute or in such other manner as may suit the circumstances of the case.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the AGENT-GENEllAL FOR VICTORIA.

Sir.    Downing Street, October 22, 1883.

I am directed by rhe Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 5tli instant,* in which, at the request of the Government of Victoria, his Lordship is invited to state more fully the views of Her Majesty’s Government on certain questions connected with the subject of the proposed annexation of various islands in the Western Pacific Ocean.

You ask

(1.) On what general conditions Her Majesty’s Government would be prepared to assent to the annexation of the islands in question.

(2.) If the Australian Colonies were to become confederated, would the annexation of the islands be allowed, or would it be allowed on the simple agreement of the colonies concerned to provide for the expense of the proceedings.

(3.) Can an estimate be given of the cost of the measures indicated at the conclusion of Lord Derby’s Despatch to the Officer Administering the Government of Queensland of the lltli of July last.f

In reply to the first of these questions, I am to observe that it was explained in the letter addressed on the 31st of August* last to you, and other Agents General that there are obstacles to the annexation by Great Britain of some of the Western Pacific Islands, and {hat, with regard to others, Her Majesty’s Government are not of opinion that their annexation, with all its attendant expenses and responsibilities, is necessary at the present time. Her Majesty’s Government will, of course, be prepared to give their best consideration to the views of the Australian Governments after those Governments have more fully considered the whole subject at the approaching Conference; but it is obvious that Her Majesty’s Government are not now in a position to define any conditions on which they will be prepared to assent to annexation.

(2.) If the Colonies should decide, either upon confederation or upon united action in regard to this particular question, there would undoubtedly be much less difficulty than at present in arranging for the transfer to them of the obligations of this country in respect of neighbouring native communities, but it is not possible to say, without full consideration of the manner in which the confederated Colonies would propose to discharge their obligations, whether annexation could be agreed to. If the Colonies at the approaching Conference decide that the annexation of some of the islands is desirable, Her Majesty’s Government would be willing to discuss all details fully with the Agents-General or other Colonial representatives, and to consider whether and how far annexation would be justifiable and practicable.

(3.) With respect to the last point raised in your letter, it does not appear to Lord Derby to be possible to give an approximate estimate of the probable cost of strengthening the staff of the High Commissioner on the coast of New Guinea, as proposed in the last paragraph of his Lordship’s Despatch to the Governor of Queensland of the lltli of July.f

If the authority and protection of the High Commissioner is to be effectively extended over other important islands or groups of islands, as well as over the coasts of New Guinea, a considerable number of officers, with adequate provision for their safety and for means enabling them to communicate with some Australasian colony, would have to be maintained. The cost of such arrangements could hardly fail to amount to some thousands of pounds annually, even if the area to be supervised were limited ; but it is feared that any attempt to state it more precisely might tend to mislead.

I am, &c.

The Agent-General for Victoria.    (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

Hi 8318.


E


t No. 21 in [C. 3691], July 1883.

§ No. 21 in [C. 3691], July 1883.


No. 33.

The Right TTon. tiie EARL OF DERBY to Governor the Right TIon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales.)

My JiOnu,    Downing Street, October 24, 1883.

1 have 1 lie honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of the 4th of August,* forwarding a copy of a letter, with its enclosures, from Mr. A. Stuart, respecting the proposed annexation of New Guinea.

L have read Mr. Stuart’s important letter with attention.

I have, &c.

Lord A. Loftus.    (Signed) DERBY.

No. 34.

COLONIAL OFFICE to H. R. MacIver, Esq.

Sir,    Downing Street, October 24, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acquaint you that inquiry lias been made at this office respecting the projected “New Guinea Exploration and Colonization Company,” of which you appear to be the promoter, and a copy of your prospectus has been placed in his Lordship’s hands. Lord Derby has also seen the letter from you printed in the “ Times” of the 19th instant, and that from the Agent-General for Queensland, which preceded it in the same issue.

Lord Derby concludes that you must be aware that in 1875 a similar project was abandoned after its promoters had been made aware that Her Majesty’s Government strongly disapproved it; and also that you arc fully cognizant of the important proposals in connexion with Ncav Guinea which arc now under the consideration of the Australian Governments and of Her Majesty’s Governments.

If you had communicated with this Department, Lord Derby would have caused the objections to your scheme to be explained to you, and as his Lordship has now otherwise obtained information respecting your proceedings, he feels himself under the necessity of intimating to you explicitly and without delay that your contemplated operations in New Guinea cannot be permitted, and that if an attempt should be made to carry out the project described in your prospectus Her Majesty’s Government would be under the necessity of instructing the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific and the officer commanding Her Majesty’s Naval Forces on the station to interfere for the protection of the native inhabitants of the island.

I am, &c.

II. R. MacIver, Esq.


(Signed) EDWARD WINGFIELD.

No. 35.

Captain J. KENNERLEY to COLONIAL OFFICE.

58, Lombard Street, London, E.C.,

My Lord,    October 24, 1883.

In the. absence of General MacIver, I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of a 'letter-}- from your Secretary, written at your direction, and referring to our intended expedition to Ncav Guinea. Your Lordship’s communication lias had due and respectful consideration on our part, and Ave beg to reply thereto as folloAvs.

It is quite evident that your Lordship is under a complete misapprehension as regards the purposes of our expedition. We have no political purposes of any kind in this matter, our intention being merely to acquire land in the most legitimate Avay from those avIio are entitled to sell it, thereby procuring an outlet for a large number of families who at the present moment have no means of livelihood in this country.

We will not intrude upon your Lordship to-day by exposing in a long letter the peaceful manner in which we intend carrying out our project, but if your Lordship will grant us an interview we shall be pleased to explain fully our purposes, and are convinced that we shall be able to show your Lordship that, so far from our expedition foreboding evil to any of the natives, the success of our enterprise will, on the contrary, contribute towards their civilization and advancement.

I have, &c.

(Signed) J. KENNERLEY,

T1 ic Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    Second in Command of the Expedition.

Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the

Colonies.

No. 36.

Governor Sir (L C. STRAHAN. Iy.C.M.G. (Tasmania), to the Right Hon. tiie

EARL OP DERRY. (Received October 25, 1883.)

Government House, Hobart,

My Lord,    ’    1    ■ September 4, 1883.

In continuation of my Despatch of 22nd ultimo,* I have the honour to forward to your Lordship six copies of a joint address from both Houses of Parliament to Her Majesty, with reference to the annexation of New Guinea and the adjoining islands.

1 have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) GEO. C. STRAHAN.

&c.    &c.    .    &c.

Enclosure in No. 36.

To Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen.

May it please Your Majesty,

YVe, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Members of the Legislative Council and House of Assembly, in Parliament assembled, humbly pray that Your Majesty may be pleased forthwith to take such effectual measures as will prevent the Island of New Guinea, or any of the Islands of the South Pacific lying between New Guinea and Fiji (including the New Hebrides, New Ireland, and New Britain) from being taken possession of by any Foreign Power, either for the formation of a penal settlement or for purposes of colonisation.

Tuos. D. Chatman,

President of the Legislative Council. Henry Butler,

Speaker of the House of Assembly. Passed the Legislative Council, this (    .

thirty-first day of August 1883. J E. A. Nowell,

Clerk of the Legislative Council.

Passed the House of Assembly, this \

31st day of August 1883.    i

Fred. A. Packer,

Clerk of the House of Assembly.

No. 37.

The BARON MIKLOUIIO DE MACLAY to COLONIAL OFFICE. (Received

October 27, 1883.)

Telegraphic.

Maclay Coast Natives claim political autonomy under European protection.

No. 28.

The Right TIon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor Sir G. C. STRATI AN, K.C.M.G.

(Tasmania.)

Sir,    Downing1 Street, October 29, 1883.

1 have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of the 4th ultimo,* transmitting an address to the Queen from both Houses of 'Parliament, with reference to the proposed annexation of New Guinea and the adjoining islands.

1 have laid this address before ller Majesty, who was pleased to receive it very graciously, and I am commanded to inform you that the subject to which it relates is engaging the earnest attention of Her Majesty’s Government.

I have, &c.

Sir George Strahan.    (Signed) DERBY,

No. 39.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, October 29, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th instant,f respecting the complaints made by Mr. Wilson and Mr. Paton in connexion with the proceedings of the Anglo-French Compagnie Calédonienne des Nouvelles Hébrides.

The further information now supplied on the subject indicates that M. D’Arbel had unfortunately purchased an island which was already the property of British subjects, but that, as the Natives have, as far as possible, restored the consideration for the sale through the Commodore on the Australian station, the incident is apparently closed.

I am to enclose a copy of the “ Argus ” newspaper J of the 27th of August containing a paragraph (p. 9) on the subject.

Lord Derby would suggest, for the consideration of Earl Granville that Lord Lyons should be instructed to inform the French Government with reference to the Despatch, of which a copy was enclosed in your letter of the 30th of April, § of the nature of the particulars, which have been learnt since he was directed to make a representation to them on the subject.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) EDWARD WINGFIELD.

Foreign Office.

No. 40.

Brigadier-General H. R. MACIVER and Captain J. IyENNERLEY

to COLONIAL OFFICE.

58, Lombard Street, London, E.C.,

My Lord,    '    November 2, 1883.

Since the receipt of the letter from Mr. Wingfield,|| this matter has received most, anxious and careful consideration, with a view to meet your Lordship’s objections to the scheme as originally proposed by us, and we have determined to form a purely trading company. We beg to enclose a draft prospectus of the intended company, upon which we propose to base our proceedings, for your Lordship’s perusal, and we shall be obliged if your Lordship will faA'our us with an interview, when we shall be glad to explain our views in greater detail, and trust that they may meet with your Lordship's approval.

We are, &c.

The Right Mon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) HENRY R. MACIVER.

&c.


J. KENNERLEY.


&c.


&c.

Enclosure in No. 40.

The New Guinea Trading Corporation (Limited).

Incorporated under the Companies Acts, 1802 to 1883.

Capitar £250,000 in 12,500 Shares of £20 cadi.

Payable—C .    per Share on application ; £    on allotment ; and

the balance as required.

Directors.

Bankers.

Solicitors.

Secretary.

Offices.

Prospectus.

This Company is formed for the purpose of trading with the natives of the island of New Guinea and developing the immense natural resources of what is considered to be, probably, the richest island in the world.

Although the information possessed by Europeans witli regard to the interior of New Guinea is still very meagre, it is well known, from the reports of credible persons who have navigated and explored the coasts, that along the northern coast line the natives are numerous, industrious, and friendly; they raise large quantities of tropical produce and have shown themselves willing to exchange their productions for European goods. Their crops include among other things the most valuable varieties of tropical vegetation, such as spices, camphor, gums, sandalwood, ebony, tobacco, sugar, and vegetable ivory, besides which, birds of paradise, pearls, tortoiseshell, and other exotic products, are to be met with in abundance.

The mineral resources of the island are as yet unexplored, but ample evidence exists to pi’ove that the mountains of the interior contain gold, iron, tin, copper, and other minerals, for the working of which the numerous rivers afford ample facilities.

In the higher land of the interior, which ranges from 1,000 to 15,000 feet above the sea, are numerous tablelands, affording extensive fields for the culture of grain crops of all kinds, and the breeding of cattle and sheep in large numbers. The pursuit of agriculture and stock raising in New Guinea will, in the future, be of the highest importance to the food supplies of the world, as the universal presence of ample supplies of water will enable the farmer to compete on the most favourable terms with the occupants of the arid flats of Australia.

The Company proposes to immediately despatch a large and fully equipped screw steamer with a full cargo of such articles as are considered to be the most useful for opening up a trade with'the natives. The staff* who go out will be instructed to open friendly relations with the different tribes at the places where the steamer calls, and to obtain permission to erect trading stations for the collection and exchange of the produce, each of these stations will thus form a nucleus of civilisation for the surrounding district. This system has been proved to work in the most satisfactory manner on the Congo and other African rivers, and there is no doubt that it is equally applicable to New Guinea, the people of which are probably more advanced than most of the uncivilised peoples which have been encountered by early pioneers of commerce.

E 3

As this Company will be purely a commercial enterprise without any ulterior political motives, the question of annexation or land acquisition will not affect its operations, although if the British Government should decide to assume the protectorate of the island, this Company, as the first trading body in the field, will acquire a most advantageous position.

The commercial history of Great Britain conclusively proves that in all times Corporations of this kind have been of the greatest advantage, both to the country at large and more particularly to the acute and far-sighted individuals who have embarked their capital in such enterprises. We need only allude to the East India Company, the Hudson’s Bay Company, the Falkland Islands Company, the Canada Company, and many others. It should also be remembered that many British Colonies were originally planted by similar companies.

By opening New Guinea to British commerce, this Company will lay the foundations for the eventual settlement of the islands in a peaceful and regular manner, thus advancing the outposts of civilisation, and, while affording a new outlet for the teeming population of this country and facilitating the utilisation of a most fertile region, it will shed the light of progress over another of the dark places of the earth.

At this stage it would be premature to attempt any estimate of dividends, but it is only necessary to refer intending investors to the history of previous enterprises of the kind to prove that the profits accruing from this class of business are very large.

In the enclosed pamphlet will be found a number of corroborative opinions on the Island of New Guinea from the pens of a number of well known authorities on the subject.

The only contracts entered into are

No promotion moneys will be paid.

Prospectuses and forms of application may be obtained at the bankers and offices, and of the Company.

No. 41.

COLONIAL OFFICE to Brigadier-General H. 1L MAC!VEIL

Sir, .    Downing Street, November 3, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of Captain Kennerley’s letter of the 24th of October and yours of the 2nd instant,11 in which an interview with his Lordship is requested in relation to your projected Company in connexion with New Guinea.

These letters will receive his Lordship’s early attention, and a further communication will be made to you on the subject next week.

I am, &c.

(Signed) ROBERT G. W. HERBERT.

Brigadier-General II. R. Maclver.

No. 42.

The GLASGOW CHAMBER OF COMMERCE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

(Received November 5, 1883.)

Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures. My Lord,    Glasgow, November 1883.

I have the honour to enclose herein a Memorial to your Lordship by the Chamber of Commerce of Glasgow on the subject of New Guinea.

I am, &c.

To the Right Horn Earl Derby,    (Signed) WILLIAM H. HILL,

&c.    &c.    Secretary.

\.


Enclosure in No. 42.

To the Right Honourable Earl Derby, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State

for Colonial Affairs.

The Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures in the City of Glasgow,

incorporated by Royal Charter in 1783, confirmed in 1860.

Respectfully Siieweth,

That this Chamber, representing the extensivo commercial and trading interests of Glasgow and the West of Scotland, is necessarily deeply interested in all that relates to the continued prosperity of the Australian Colonies, with which a large, rapidly increasing, and mutually beneficial trade is carried on.

Your Memorialists have given consideration to the correspondence which has recently passed between your Lordship and the Colonial Government of Queensland respecting New Guinea.

While appreciating the necessity of Her Majesty’3 Government proceeding with due deliberation in a matter involving, in its varied relations, such important consequences as a protectorate by this country over, or the annexation of, the island of New Guinea it is considered by many that the question of annexation is so material to the future welfare of these colonies, particularly in tending to avert the establishment of disturbing influences in the islands of the Western Pacific, that this Chamber feels warranted in respectfully urging that Her Majesty’s Government should give their best consideration to the representations about to be made to them on this subject by the Federal Council of Australian Ministers, to be held at Sydney this month.

Signed in name, on behalf, and by appointment of, a general Meeting of the Chamber held at Glasgow this first day of November*, eighteen hundred and eighty-three.

John M‘Laren, President.

No. 43.

The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor Sir W. F. D. JERVOIS,

G.C.M.G., C.B. (New Zealand).

Sir,    Downing Street, November 6, 1883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of the Sth September last,:;: forwarding copies of the Bill entitled “ The Confederation and Annexation Act, 1883,” which has been passed by the Legislative Houses of New Zealand, and reserved by you for the signification of Her Majesty’s pleasure.

This Bill will receive the careful consideration of Her Majesty’s Government, but Her Majesty will not bo finally advised with respect to it until after the approaching conference on the subject of the Western Pacific Islands has been held.

I have. &c.

Sir W. F. D. Jervois.    (Signed) DERBY.

No. 44.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the GLASGOW CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

Sir,    ,    Downing Street, November 8, 1883.

I am- directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge -the receipt;-on the 5th instant of your Letterf enclosing a memorial from the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce on the subject of New Guinea.

Lord Derby desires me to request that you will .-inform the President that Her Majesty’s Government will not fail to bear in mind this expression of opinion on the part of the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce when they have before them the result of the deliberations of the Conference to be held at Sydney, to which the memorial refers.

I am, &c.

The Secretary to the    (Signed) ROBERT G. W. HERBERT.

Glasgow Chamber of Commerce.

* Mo. 31.


' f No. 42.

No. 45.

REUTER’S TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Opening of the Queensland Parliament.

Brisbane, November 9.

The Queensland Parliament has been opened by the Governor, Sir Anthony Musgrave, who, in his speech on the occasion, referred to the New Guinea question, and stated his belief that a firm and unitod expression of opinion on the part of the Australian colonies would lead to the annexation being carried out. His Excellency also announced that the finances of the Colony were in a sound condition, and promised the introduction of a number of bills of local importance.

No. 46.

Governor F. NAPIER BROOME. C.M.G., (Western Australia), to the Right IIon.

the EARL OF DERBY. (Received November 9, 1883.)

Government House, Perth,

My Lord,    September 20, 1883.

Referring to the telegrams12 repeated or acknowledged by my Despatches of the 30th ultimo,12 I have the honour to report that the inter-colonial convention summoned at the instance of Queensland, to consider questions connected with the annexation of the Pacific Islands, and with the constitution of a Federal Government for Australia, has been delayed until the end of November. The place of meeting has also been transferred from Melbourne to Sydney.

2.    Under these circumstances, it will not be convenient that this Colony should be represented at the convention by Mr. Justice Stone, who, when I telegraphed to your Lordship, was in Melbourne on vacation leave, but who desires to return to Perth by the close of this month. I propose, therefore, that the Western Australian delegate shall be the Colonial Secretary (the Hon. M. Fraser, C.M.G.) whose presence at Sydney during the Convention can be arranged for, without much expense to the Government. Mr. Fraser has on a previous occasion represented this colony at an inter-colonial conference.

3.    I think it well, and the Legislative Council agree with me, that Western Australia should take her place in the Australian family on these occasions ; but of course our concern with Pacific annexations is more remote than that of the Eastern colonies, while I doubt if the great question of federation will assume a practical form at this convention, though it may be brought nearer to such a phase.

4.    I enclose for your Lordship’s information, copy of the communications which have passed between the Governments of Victoria and of this Colony respecting the convention.

5.    There seems still some uncertainty as to the final arrangements for the convention, caused, as I understand, by the political situation of some of the governments concerned. Mr. Fraser will not leave until the eve of the date of meeting (when this shall have been finally fixed) and in my instructions to him, I shall of course bear in mind the political constitution of Western Australia.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) F. NAPIER BROOME.

&c. • Ac.    &c.

Enclosure 1 in No. 46.

Premier, Melbourne, to Colonial Secretary, Perth.

Premier’s Office, Melbourne,

Sir,    .    August 27, 1883.

With-reference to the correspondence that has passed on the subject of the annexation of islands in the Pacific Ocean, it will probably be within your knowledge that the confirmation of the annexation of New Guinea has been refused by the Imperial G overnment.

I now beg to transmit for your information a copy of a memorandum13 consequent upon that event, which has been issued by the Hon. Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, Premier of Queensland, in which he suggests the holding of a convention of delegates from the Australasian Colonies, to consider the desirability of making further representations respecting the islands, and also to make it the occasion of discussing the basis on which a Federal Government for Australia could be constituted.

This proposal has met with the concurrence of all the colonies possessing responsible government, and at Sir Thomas Mcllwraith s special request, I have consented to act as convener of the proposed assembly of delegates.

My object in now writing is, to thus state the position of the matter, and to say that it would be a most welcome event if Western Australia, notwithstanding the

difference of her political position, could be represented at the proposed convention.

From the fact that the Secretary of State for the Colonies has himself suggested Federation of the Colonies in connexion with this question of the annexation of the islands, I am encouraged to think that the co-operation of Western Australia in the proposed convention would be readily sanctioned by the Imperial Government.

I am accordingly addressing to you by the present mail the same circular which I have sent to the Premiers of the other Colonies.


I have, &c.

(Signed) Jas. Service,

The Hon. the Colonial Secretary,    Premier.

Perth, Western Australia.

Circular.

Premier’s Office, Melbourne,

Sir, '    August 25, 1883.

With reference to Sir Thomas Mcllwraith’s circular letter, enclosing a Minute of the Executive Council of Queensland, in which it is proposed that some concerted action should be taken, consequent on the refusal of the Imperial Government to annex New Guinea, and that a Convention of Delegates fro.m the Colonies should be held “ to discuss the basis on which a Federal Government could be constituted.’’ I have the honour to inform you, that at the special request of Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, Premier of Queensland, I have consented to act in the capacity of convener of the proposed Assembly of Delegates.

Having learned that all the Colonies have replied to Sir Thomas Mcllwraith’s circular, I now write with a view to ascertain what date would best suit the convenience of the various Colonies ; and, as a means of eliciting this, I beg to communicate my own suggestion, that the Convention should meet in Melbourne at a period in the ensuing month, say on the 25tli proximo.

According to the information before me as to the sittings of the Parliaments in the different Colonies, this period would, for the convenience of the majority, be the most suitable, at least of any period within a reasonable time.

I beg also to suggest the desirability of. giving this Convention a higher stakes than that of the Intercolonial Conferences hitherto held to discuss comparatively subordinate topics, and with this view, I propose that the number of Delegates should be four from each Colony, and that these Delegates should be of as generally representative a character as possible, of course any one Colony having the option of sending a less number, if that should be more convenient.

I propose sending a telegram to anticipate the arrival of this letter in order to facilitate the despatch of an early reply.

I shall be obliged if you will similarly communicate by telegraph your answer.

I have, &c.

(Signed) James Service,

The Honourable the Premier,    Premier.

Perth, Western Australia.

Enclosure 2 in No. 46.

Telegram.

Premier, Victoria, to Colonial Secretary, Perth.

Melbourne, August 24, 1883.

Convention of delegates proposed at the initiation of Queensland respecting annexation of islands and constitution of federal government. I have been requested to act as convener. Am writing you fully by first mail; meantime, telegraph to say will be much pleased to see Western Australia represented; propose meet, Melbourne, twenty-fifth September; four delegates from each Colony suggested, but this optional. Please wire reply to this telegram.

Jas. Service, Premier.

Enclosure 3 in No. 46.

Colonial Secretary, Perth, to Premier, Victoria.

Perth, August 27, 1883.

The Government of Western Australia readily accept your invitation to take part in the proposed convention.

Malcolm Fraser,

Colonial Secretary.


Enclosure 4 in No. 46.

Premier, Victoria, to Colonial Secretary, Western Australia.

Victoria, September 7, 12.17 p.m.

Circular.—On a careful examination of advices from all the Colonies, I feel justified in naming the last week in November as most convenient date for meeting of convention. I have further to inform you that as the new Government could not name any day on which it would be convenient for them to attend in. Melbourne, I suggested that Sydney be meeting place instead, which has been arranged accordingly. Letter by post.

Jas. Service, Premier.

No. 47.

COLONIAL OFFICE to Brigadier-General II. II. MACIVER.

Sir,    Downing Street, November 9, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acquaint you that his Lordship has read the draft prospectus inclosed in the letter addressed to him by you and Captain Kennerlev on the 2nd instant,* but that as this is not a case in which Her Majesty's Government can give the approval which you desire to receive, there would not, in liis Lordship's opinion, be any advantage in liis hearing your further explanations at an interview.

I am, &c.,

Brigadier-General II. II. Maclver.    (Signed) JOHN BEAMS TON.

No. 48.

Brigadier-General JI. R. MACIVER to COLONIAL OFFICE.

58, Lombard Street, London, E.C.,

My Loud,    November 12, 1883.

1 have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordship’s letter of 9tli instant,'}* the contents of which I note.

1. beg to point out that your Lordship is not treating me, and my friends who are interested with me in this matter, fairly. We did not originally apply to your Lordship for your approval; but your Lordship, upon information acquired from a printed paper which accidentally came into your hands, took an unfavourable view of the plan contained therein and informed us of your strong disapproval; this expression of dissatisfaction was immediately communicated to the newspapers, and has caused us heavy losses.

We took the earliest opportunity of supplying your Lordship with authoritative statements of our intentions, and Ave thought Ave had a right to expect that you would

* No. 40.


rrivc these views your attention, and let us know that, inasmuch as the intended Company is purely meant for trading purposes, the disapproval ’ expressed before by your Lordship on insufficient information, does not extend to our present plans.

We shall assume, unless your Lordship informs us to the contrary, that no objection does exist at the Colonial Office to our trading, in the Avay we propose, with New Guinea, and that we shall not be interfered with by Her Majesty’s forces in any way as long as Ave strictly carry out our present programme.

Trusting that your Lordship Avill see fit to favour me at your earliest convenience with a feAv Avords in reply confirming these views,

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) HENRY R. MACIYER.

Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies.

No, 49.

COLONIAL OFFICE to Brigadier-General H. R. MACIVER.

Sir,    Downing Street, November 15, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 12th instant,14 in which you again state that the Company which you represent is meant purely for trading purposes, and you add that you shall assume, unless his Lordship informs you to the contrary, that no objection exists at the Colonial Office to the Company trading in the Avay you propose with New Guinea, and that you will not be interfered with by Her Majesty’s forces in any Avay so long as you strictly carry out your present programme.

Lord Derby desires me to inform you in reply that his Lordship is unable to regard your Company as a trading company.

A circular which has been placed in Lord Derby’s hands signed “ Charles Reynolds, Secretary (pro tern),” dated 58, Lombard Street, London, November 1883, and headed “ Neiv Guinea Expedition,” commences by referring to “ the enormous number of “ applications to join this expedition and goes on to state that although the Company would “ be in a position to take out a great many people simply on payment “ of' their passage money,” they “ are unable at present to fix an executive, or to “ make any absolute appointments except resident officials that “ the others will “ be dealt with when the preparations for the expedition are further advanced, when, “ according to the capabilities of each individual, choice Avill be made.”

The circular further intimates that the passage money is 20/.., and as this represents the cost only(of a steerage passage, such as would be taken by labouring men and their families, or other persons possessed of little or no capital, it is impossible to avoid the conclusion that the proposal to take out agricultural settlers has not been definitively abandoned.

The statements contained in your circular are, in fact, inconsistent with the representation that a trading company only is contemplated, “ which proposes to despatch “ a cargo of such articles as are considered to be most useful for opening up a trado,”

.    .    . “ to obtain permission to erect trading stations for the collection and exchange

“ of produce,” and of which “ the question of annexation or land acquisition will not “ affect the operations.” (See prospectus.)

I am therefore to warn you that if any persons are induced to join your projected expedition in the 'belief that New Guinea is a place in Avhich English working men and their families can settle and maintain themselves by labour or by trading, or that land can be acquired there by them on any secure tenure, they will have been seriously misled, and will run great risk of losing not only their property but their lives; and any persons who are providing funds for the equipment and promotion of the expedition should consider carefully the position in which they will stand in the probable event of its failure.

I am, &c.

Brigadier-General H. R. Mac Tver.    14 (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

No. 50.

Circular issued by the NEW GUINEA EXPLORATION and COLONIZATION

EXPEDITION.

58, Lombard Street, London, November, 1883.

New Guinea Expedition.

In consequence of the enormous number of applications to join this Expedition, it is found perfectly impossible to reply to all the applicants by letter. I am, therefore, instructed to tell you by means of this circular, exactly how the matter stands at the moment.

Up to the present, we have not issued our full “ Prospectus,” owing to a correspondence with the Colonial Secretary. This delay will, we hope, be obviated within the next few days, when everybody on our application list will receive a full Prospectus by post. It is obvious that for an Expedition of this kind, capital is necessary, and, although we shall be in a position to take out a great man)* people simply on payment of their passage. money, we are unable at present to fix an Executive, or to make any absolute appointments, except Resident Officials; the others will be dealt with when the preparations for the Expedition are further advanced, when, according to the capabilities of each individual, choice will be made. Should you wish to go out with us, l am requested to ask that you will fill up the annexed form and return to me, when your letter will be put before the Directors in due course. The Expedition wili sail for New Guinea, calling at an Australian port.

Yours faithfully,

(Signed) Charles Reynolds,

Secretary (pro tern.).

It is a waste of time to make application, unless at least the passage-money of 20/. can be paid.

Address all letters to “ The Secretary.”

To the Directors of the “New Guinea Exploration and Colonization Expedition.”

I hereby offer

and I engage to subscribe for    shares of 20/. each, and to pay for same

when required.

A dd r css__

Signed __    __

Or

'To the Directors of the “ New Guinea Exploration and Colonization Expedition.

I hereby oiler to join said Expedition, and to pay my passage-money of 20/. on your demand for same.

I have been engaged as

I refer to

Address

Signed

ADMIRALTY to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    ■    Admiralty, November 16, 1883.

With reference to former correspondence respecting the sale of the Island of Iririki in Vila Harbour, New Hebrides, to a Frenchman, my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty desire me to forward herewith, for the perusal of the Earl of Derby, a copy of further correspondence between the Commodore and the Officer Commanding the French Naval Forces in those parts on the subject.

2. A similar letter has been addressed to the Foreign Office.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) G. TRYON.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure 1 in No. 51.

Nouvelle Caledonie et Dépendences.

Cabinet du Gouverneur Chef de la Division Navale, No. 743.

Monsieur le Commodore,    Nouméa, le 10 Septembre 1883.

J’ai l’honneur de vous adresser la copie d’un, lettre qui fut écrite le 10 Août 1882, à M. Chevillard, colon français bien connu, établi à Fort Vila, par Mr. Cyprian Arthur George Bridge, Capitaine, R.N., commandant le batiment de S.M.S. “ l’Espiègle ” au sujet de l’acquisition, que cet officier manifestait l’intention de faire, de l’îlot Leliki ou Iririki.

J’ai la pleine confiance. Monsieur le Commodore, que la lecture de cette pièce vous démontrera que l’autorité Français était en droit de supposer que ce petit ilôt n’appartenait à aucun sujet Anglais ; Monsieur le Capitaine Bridge s’annoncait à M. Chevillard, comme venans d’étre nommé Deputy Commissioner pour les N ouvelles Hébrides, et c’était encore là une raison de plus pour nous de penser qu’il était bien au courant des titres de la mission évangélique.

Cette affaire, au reste, est bien simple, Monsieur le Commodore, et si, malgré la présomption qui résulte de la démarche du capitaine de “ l’Espiègle,” l’îlot Leliki, appartient aux Missionnaires d’Erakor, par un Acte en règle passé en 1870, la mission n’a qu’à en produire le titre, et toute personne venue après elle n’aura qu’à s’incliner. C’est l’à le nœud de cette affaire de peu d’importance, et vous me permettrez de vous dire que les attestations du chef indigène déclairans qu’il a agi contraint et par intimidation, sont de peu de valeur à cote de la reproduction du titre. Le caractère prudent de l’officier du “ d’Estrées,” M. le Lieutenant de vaisseau, Marin d’Arbel, et les instructions formelles qu’il avait reçues, ne me portent pas a penser que cet officier ait agi par intimidation auprès de ce chef.

Le batiment a vapeur de la Compagnie des Nouvelles Hébrides, le Calédonien, a board duquel M. Marin d’Arbel avait pris passage, n’était guère de nature à influencer la décision de l’indigène, et si quelque impression de ce genre, involuntaire de la part des personnes, bien entendu, pouvait se produire dans l’esprit du chef, c’eût été plutôt par la vue d’un puissant batiment de guerre ou il venait prononcer sa rétractation. Mais, je le répète, les dires variés de l’indigène n’ont aucune action sur la seule preuve, qui est le titre.

J’aurais été heureux que vous croyez devoir entretenir de cette affaire, le Commandant du “ d’Estrées ” pendant qu’il se trouvait auprès de vous. Cet officier, fort au courant de ce qui a pu se passer dans les Nouvelles Hébrides, vous aurait fait connaître la démarche du capitaine de “ l’Espiègle,” qui eut écarté de vous toute idée de procédé nuisible à la mission Anglaise. Ses explications eussent écartés aussi la méprise qui a pu vous faire croire que M. Macleod, directeur de la société française des Nouvelles Hébrides était pour quelque chose dans cette question d’achat. Ici, encore, c’est le lieu de répéter, qu’il n’y a rien de plus simple et de moins caché que les motifs qui ont précédé l’acte.

Les deux nations amies vivent en ce qui concerne l’archipel des Nouvelles Hébrides, sur le pied d’une Convention qui exclut pour chacune d’elles tout acte d’annexation, et je mets un soin tout particulier, a observer cet accord. Mais cette situation permet aux deux puissances, placées dans ce voisinage, de se ménager les moyens qui peuvent assurer la protection de leur commerce et de leurs nationaux. L’îlot Leliki paraissait approprié naturellement à ces sortes de dépôt qui sont nécessaires à la navigation, et

F 3

comme le fait quo j'ai eu l'honneur do vous communiquer, mo portait à penser quo l’îlot n’appartenait il aucuno personne européenne, j’ai employé le procédé bien utile dans ces sortes de circonstances.

En vous adressant ces explications cordiales, Monsieur le Commodore, je suis heureux de vous dire que j’ai été sensible à l’attention que vous avez en de me remercier par l’intermédiare du Consul Anglais, pour les soins quo reçoit à l’hôpital d^ Nouméa l’officier du “ Hart,” blessé a Arnbria. Nous n’avons fait que reconnaître les égards quo les Erancais reçoivent dans les Colonies Anglaises.

Veuillez agréer, Monsieur le Commodore, l’assurance do ma plus haute considération.

Lo Gouverneur

À Monsieur James E. Erskine,    (Signé) Pallu.

Commodore Commandant les Forces Navales Anglaises en Australie.

H.M.S. “ Espiogle,” Vila Harbour,

My Hear Sir,    August 10, 1882.

T shall be very much obliged to you if you will kindly undertake a commission for me. I wish to buy the small island of Leliki in the harbour, and I shall bo glad if you would be so good as to get the proprietors to sell it. 1 am not prepared to give for it at the most more than ten pounds (1OZ.), but I suppose it can be purchased for a much smaller sum.

Should you be able to buy it for me, I will givo the money to your agent in Sydney or Noumea, as you may wish, provided it does not exceed the maximum (10Z.) which I have named.

I would ask you not to mention my name generally, or it may raise the price.

Yours, &c.

M. Chevillard,    (Signed) Cyprian Arthur George Bridge,

France ville,    Captain, 11.N.

Vila Harbour.

Enclosure 2 in No. 51.

Sir,    “ Nelson ” at Sydney, September 20, 1883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency’s letter and enclosure, respecting the small island of Iririki in Vila Harbour, Port Sandwich.

2.    1 am happy to be able to agree entirely with your Excellency that this affair is a very simple one, and am obliged to your Excellency for the assurance that “ in spite of “ the conclusion arrived at in view of the proceedings of Captain Bridge, of Her “ Majesty’s ship ‘ Espiegle,’ and as the islet of Leliki belongs to the missionaries of “ Erakor, the Mission have only to produce their title deed thereto, and everyone “ coming subsequently to them will have no course open but to give way.”

3.    I also entirely agree with your Excellency that “ the agreement between France “ and England, which excludes any act of annexation on the part of either, docs not “ preclude cither of the two Powers established in this neighbourhood from taking “ steps to ensure the protection of their commerce and of their subjects, and that the “ islet of Leliki seemed to be by nature adapted for one of those depots which are “ necessary for shipping,” and I presume it was in that view that Captain Bridge entered into négociations for its purchase, through Mr. Chevillard ; tho owners, viz., tho Presbyterian Mission, being absent at the time.

4.    Your Excellency will observe that it was impossible for me to have acquainted Captain Communal with this affair, when I had the pleasure of meeting that officer at Havannah Harbour. It was not until my subsequent arrival at Port Villa that I was aware that a French gentleman on board the “ Calédonien ” had been negotiating' for the purchase of Iririki, and not until my return to Sydney that I heard for the first time that that gentleman, who .1. had supposed was an agent of the French Company, was Lieutenant d’Arbel, of the “ H'Estrées.” I was quite aware of the action taken by Captain Bridge with reference to the Island of Leliki, and had Captain Communal (knowing that I was about to proceed to Port Villa) informed me of Lieutenant d’Arbel’s

proceedings in tlie matter, this small affair would liave been immediately set right by the production of the title-deed, which was in the hands of the Rev. P. Mackenzie, of Erakor.

5. I cordially reciprocate the view expressed by your Excellency that the • two friendly nations, France and England, are bound, as regards the New Hebrides Group, to respect the Convention which excludes any act of annexation on the part of either, and I am happy to know that your Excellency places great store on the observance of this agreement.

0. Again thanking your Excellency for the frank explanations contained in your letter, and with the assurance of my most profound esteem.

I have, &c.

His Excellency Captain Pallu de la Barrière, (Signed) James E. Erskine, Commanding the French Naval Forces,    Commodore,

and Governor of New Caledonia.

No. 52.

Brigadier-General H. R. MACIVER to COLONIAL OFFICE.

58, Lombard Street, London, E.C.,

My Lord,    November 17, 1883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordship’s letter of 15th instant15 and now beg to enclose for your Lordship’s perusal, a proof of our final and complete prospectus which contains the names of the proposed directors and officials.

The originators of this scheme regret to find that your Lordship still seeks to invest this simple trading Company with belligerent intentions, although they have positively and distinctly stated to your Lordship that such intentions are entirely foreign, and would indeed be harmful to their scheme, besides endangering their own persons and interests.

The circular to which your Lordship takes exception, although sent out by my colleagues during my absence from London, does not, 1 may venture to say, contain anything inconsistent with our assurances to your Lordship. The officials therein alluded to are the resident officials in London, and the managers to whom would be entrusted the foundation of the stations in New Guinea. Those persons who are to be allowed to go out on payment of 201. only, are not necessarily agriculturalists, our intention being that all the employes of the company should be induced, by their having an interest and share in the profits of the undertaking, to do their best in their several positions. Families are, by the very nature of the scheme, altogether excluded.

Your Lordship appears to assume that the originators of this scheme are entirely ignorant of the first principles of business, viz., a knowledge of the scene of their intended operations, the various customs of the natives, the extent of trade and the produce of the island ; in that your Lordship is mistaken.

For your Lordship’s information, I may say that it is not our intention to land trading parties which may have to rely upon the produce of the country for an extended period ; the steamer or steamers belonging to the Company will be provisioned for at least twelve months, and will supply the stations. The operations of the Company’s servants will in the first place be directed to the valuable pearl shell fisheries, and to the development of the timber trade, and mineral deposits which are known to exist. The stations will, by means of the Company’s vessels, be in constant communication with the Australian ports to which will be carried the various products obtained by barter with the natives.

Having now given your Lordship a further resumé of our objects, together with the names of responsible gentlemen who are prepared to direct the scheme, I cannot but be sanguine that your Lordship will withdraw your disapproval of our enterprise, as you will be convinced of its perfect bona fides and of the advantages that must accrue from it to British commerce.

In conclusion, should your Lordship continue to withhold your consent to this enterprise, we shall, in view of the large expenditure which we have made over

trade.

preliminary arrangements, be reluctantly compelled to accept only the serviced of foreign applicants, and proceed to New Guinea under a foreign flag. This will be the more disappointing to us, as our foremost aim was to found a grand and important commercia] corporation under distinctly British auspices, and in the interests of British


Still hoping to be allowed to proceed with your Lordship’s approval,

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) HENRY R. MAC1VER.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 52.

The New Guinea Trading Corporation, Limited.

incorporated under the Companies’ Acts, 1862 to 1883.

Capital 250,000/. in 12,500 Shares of 20/. each,

Payable—    /. per Share on application, /. on allotment, and the balance as required.

Directors.

Major-General G. De La Poer Beresford, late Assistant AdjutantGeneral, Madras Army.

William A. Cox, Esq., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., and L.M.

Rolt C. Baynton, Esq., Sutton, Surrey.

Captain William Bell McTaggart, late 14th Hussars.

General H. J. Bogle, late Royal Horse Artillery.

Managers in Nero Guinea.

Brigadier-General Henry R. MacIver, &c., &c., &c.

G. P. Milne, Esq., late Engineer D.P.W. and District Local Fund Board, India.

Captain J. Kennerley, late B. Mercantile Marine.

Solicitors.

Messrs. TidditTs &• Sox, 1, Field Court, Gray’s Inn, W.C.

Chaplain.

Rev. H. de Burgh Sidley (M.A.), Chaplain to Lord Borthwick.

Secretary.

Major C. J. Fallon, 34, Radipole Road, late 1st Leicestershire Regiment.

Temporary Offices.

58, Lombard Street, E.C.

Prospectus.

This company is formed for the purpose of trading with the natives of the Island of New Guinea, and developing the immense natural resources of what is considered to be probably tho richest island in the world.

Although tho information possessed by Europeans with regard to the interior of New Guinea is still very meagre, it is well known,-from the reports of credible persons who have navigated and explored the coasts, that along the northern coast line, the Natives are numerous, industrious, and friendly ; they raise large quantities of tropical produce, .and have shown themselves willing to exchange their productions for

European goods. Their crops include among other things the most valuable varieties of tropical vegetation, such as spices, camphor, gums, sandalwood, ebony, tobacco, arrowroot, sago, sugar, and vegetable ivory, besides which birds of paradise, pearls, tortoiseshell, and other exotic products, nre to be met with in abundance.

The mineral resources of the island are as yet unexplored, but ample evidence exists to prove that the mountains of the interior contain gold, iron, tin, copper, coal, and other minerals, for the working of which the numerous rivers afford ample facilities.

In the higher land of the interior, which ranges from 1,000 to 15,000 feet above the sea, are numerous table lands, affording extensive fields for the culture of grain crops of all kinds, and the breeding of cattle and sheep in large numbers. The pursuit of floriculture and stock raising in New Guinea will, in the future, be of the highest importance to the food supplies of the world, as the universal presence of amplo supplies of water will enable the farmer to compete on the most favourable terms with the occupants of the arid flats of Australia. The mildness of the climate compared with that of other tropical countries will obviate many of the extra risks and dangers which might prove detrimental to the carrying out of the company’s objects.

The company proposes to immediately despatch a large and fully equipped screw steamer with a full cargo of such articles as are considered to be the most useful for opening up a trade with the Natives. The staff who go out will be instructed to open friendly relations with the different tribes at the places where the steamer calls, and to obtain permission to erect trading stations for the collection and exchange of the produce; each of these stations will thus form a nucleus of civilisation for the surrounding district. This system has been proved to work in the most satisfactory manner on the Congo and other African rivers, and there is no doubt that it is equally applicable to New Guinea, the people of which are probably more advanced than most of the uncivilised peoples which have been encountered by early pioneers of commerce. The number of stations at present contemplated is six, and they will be kept in communication with each other, and the Australian ports, by means of the company’s steamer, which will carry cargo, mails, and passengers to and from the company’s establishment.

As this company will be purely a commercial enterprise, without any ulterior political motives, the question of annexation or land acquisition will not affect its operations, although if the British Government should decide to assume the protectorate of the island, this company, as the first trading body in the field, will acquire a most advantageous position.

The commercial history of Great Britain conclusively proves that in all times corporations of this kind have been of the greatest advantage both to the country at large, and more particularly to the acute and far-sighted individuals who have embarked their capital in such enterprises. We need only allude to the East India Company, the Hudson’s Bay Company, the Falkland Islands Company, the Canada Company, and many others. It should also be remembered that many British colonies were originally planted by similar companies.

By opening New Guinea to British commerce, this company will lay the foundations for the eventual settlement of the islands in a peaceful and regular manner, thus advancing the outposts of civilisation, and, while affording a new outlet for the teeming population of this country, and facilitating the utilisation of a most fertile region, it will shed the light of progress over another of the dark places of the earth.

At this stage it would be premature to attempt any estimate of dividends, but it is only necessary to refer intending investors to the history of previous enterprises of the kind to prove that the profits accruing from this class of business are very large.

The following quotations from recognised authorities will show the exceptionally favourable conditions enjoyed by this fertile land, and they will satisfy any inquiries as to the climate and temperature of the country. Speaking of the Island of New Guinea at the Royal Geographical Society, on 7th May 1883, Mr. Wilfred l’owell says (from a long experience) : “A more beautiful and healthy spot for settlement than “ this can scarcely be found in any tropical country in the world. The coast is bold “ and steep, rising in many places sheer from the sea to the height of above “ 1,000 feet, and raneiim- inland to the mountains in terraces and table lands of ouen “ grass country, with every facility for cattle raising, well watered with streams that “ take their rise in the heights some 15,000 feet above.” Admiral Moresby at the same meeting, in endorsing Mr. Powell s statements, says: “It is a grand, a splendid “ coast, abounding in beautiful harbours. The whole country is apparently very

Hi 8318.    G

U

“ healthy and very fertile, with an enormous amount of cleared land, and the natives “ wore friendly.” Admiral Moresby further says of the island as follows : “ 'Idle high “ range of mountains which run through New Guinea, with the numerous spurs extending to the coast, confer upon it a splendid river system. Some of the streams “ are known to be navigable for nearly two hundred miles into the interior of the “ country. From its very situation, New Guinea enjoys all the luxuriance of tropical “ vegetation. The cocoa-nut tree grows along the whole coastline; the nutmeg tree “ is indigenous, and is plentiful in all parts of the country, so far as they are known, “ while the researches of later explorers show that the sago palm, the plantain, and “ the pine apple grow on the river flats in great profusion and perfection. The island “ also produces the sugar cane, yam, and sweet potatoe, with arrowroot and rice as “ good as any grown in South Carolina. The timber is of the most splendid descrip-“ tion, and consists of ebony, mahogany, the odoriferous rosamota-ragubuhu, much in “ request for cabinet work, with the tree that produces the valuable massery bark, so “ well known and prized by the Japanese for its medicinal virtues. The temperature “ is not so high as might be expected in a country in such close contact with the “ equator, and thus adding the quality of humidity to the comparative coolness of the “ atmosphere. In this respect it contrasts strongly with the climate of the opposite “ continent of Australia with its barren and cheerless wastes of sandy, waterless, ana “ almost treeless deserts.”

The only contracts entered into are No promotion moneys will be paid.

Prospectuses and forms of application may be obtained at the bankers and offices, and of the company.

No. 53.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, November 20, 1883.

I am directed by Earl Granville to state to you, for the information of Pier Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonics, that Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris has been instructed in the sense of your letter of the 29th ultimo,* relative to the complaints made by Mr. Pat-on and Mr. Wilson in connexion with the proceedings of the “ Compagnie Calédonienne des Nouvelles Hebrides.”

I am to add that Lord Granville does not propose to take any further action in the matter.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Oflicc.

No. 54.

Cai-tain J. KENNERLEY to COLONIAL OFFICE.

40, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C., My Lord,    November 22, 1883.

1 have the honour to enclose you a prospectus of the New Guinea and Western Pacific Trading Company for your perusal, and beg to inform your Lordship that I have withdrawn from the Company, named “the New Guinea Exploration and Colonization Expedition,” or “ Trading ” ditto.

I am appointed as commander, by a few gentlemen who wish to proceed to New Guinea and the islands of Western Pacific, for the sole purpose of trading with the natives, and making purchases of land when obtainable by legal and lawful means. I would beg to call your Lordship’s attention to the fact, that no person can proceed with this intended party who cannot find at least 100k Part of our capital will be expended in merchandise for purposes of barter with the Natives. The greater

number of this party will be men with more or loss means; so your Lordship need not bo concerned about their future welfare.

Trusting your Lordship may see no objection to the purposes of this trading company,

I have, &c.

To the Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) J. KENNERLEY.

Secretary of State for the Colonies.

P.S.—I also enclose a few notes from Captain Armit, who is at present exploring New Guinea.

Enclosure 1 in No. 54.

New Guinea and Western Pacific Trading Syndicate (Limited).

Capital, 10,000/., in 500 Shares of 20/. each, fully paid up.

51. per Share payable on Application, and the remainder on Allotment.

This Syndicate is formed for the purpose of purchasing a suitable steamer and providing the necessary provisions and outfit for a voyage to New Guinea; also to purchase or secure consignments of merchandise for purpose of barter with the natives of New Guinea and the Islands of the Western Pacific.

The mineral wealth and riches of various kinds contained in these productive islands are too well known to require further comment. A considerable trade is at present being done with the natives by Avay of exchanging produce for goods; it is the intention of this Company to form several trading stations on the coast, to collect produce, and conduct the operations of the Company. The steamer, after landing the expedition, will bo kept at the disposal of its members, calling at intervals at tho various stations to collect cargo to be carried on to the large Australian ports ; also to take mails and passengers.

The Pearl Shell Fishery on “ Thursday Island is proving a mine of inexhaustible wealth to those embarked in the business : special attention will be paid to this feature. Exploration and purchases of land will be attended to in due course.

It must be distinctly understood that the Company is co-operative ; each subscribing member will be part owner of the steamer, its outfit, merchandise, &c., and receive a pro rata share of profits.

The commander of the expedition will be Captain J. Kennerley, an experienced officer, who possesses a practical knowledge of the coast and its resources. The subordinate officers will be chosen from the members of the expedition ; a committee of direction will be formed and the operations of the Company will be controlled by their decisions.

No expense has been incurred up to the present. The party will consist of from 30 to 40 gentlemen. No application will be entertained to proceed with the expedition from those who do not take at least five 20/. shares.

A provisional contract has been made for the purchase of a suitable steamer, and the expedition will start at an early date. Only one contract has been made, which can be seen on application.

Applications for shares, with a deposit of 51. per share, to be made to Captain

J. Kennerley, 40, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C., or to the Secretary.

G 2

Enclosure 2 in No. 54.

New Guinea.

From the “ St. James’s Gazette,” 19th November 1883.

The Exploration of New Guinea.

The Melbourne Argus ” publishes several letters received from Captain AY. G. Arm it, its special correspondent, who is engaged in the exploration of New Guinea, fn 1 iis first letter Captain Armit speaks of the natives as follows :—

“ Savages ! I never saw such savages, nor any one else. Let Australians disabuse their minds once for all of such ideas. These Papuans are no more savages than we are. Barbarians they are, no doubt; but even as barbarians they compare very favourably with us and our vaunted civilization. Their gardens show an amount of thought and well-directed labour and enterprise of which savages would be utterly incapable. Their houses are well built, comfortable, and quite up to the standard required by the climate. They are cleanly in their habits, washing everything before they cook it, and themselves whenever they get an opportunity. Their laws are strict, and are generally obeyed. Their women are chaste, womanly, and pleasant. I am quite delighted with these ferocious Papuans.

“ From Robbertoom the correspondent went to Narianouma with the chief of that place, who had come down to visit him. The country traversed is described as both beautiful and fertile, every inch of the land along the river being suited to agriculture —sugar, maize, tapioca, sago, arrowroot, tobacco, indigo, spice, ginger, vanilla, besides every species of vegetable. There would be no difficulty in obtaining land, and once the proprietors sell the purchaser’s right would be as jealously observed as if he were a native. The whole country is suited to European settlement, either as farms, plantations, or cattle stations. There were broad stretches of water, in which fish and crocodiles abound. The correspondent, who spent some time in exploring the neighbourhood of Narianouma, speaks in glowing terms of the beauty of the mountainous region of the Astrolabe, which rises 2,500 ft. above the sea level.”

Extracts from Speeches by Mr. AVilfred Powell and Admiral Moresby.16

No. 55.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, November 23, 1883.

I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit herewith, to be laid before Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, a copy of the Relapsed Criminals Bill, (Projet de Loi sur les Récidivistes) which has been received from lier Majest316’s Ambassador at Paris.

In forwarding this Bill, 11 is Excellency stated on the 19th ultimo that it had not yet come before the Senate, but that it might be brought before it during the present session, and if passed as it stands by that body, it might become law without any further proceedings in the Chamber of Deputies.

I am to request that the enclosed Bill may be returned to this Office at Lord Derby’s earliest convenience, in order that it may be printed, one copy only having been received from Paris.

I am, Ac.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 55.

Projet de Loi sur les Récidivistes.

La Chambre des Députés a adopté le Projet de Loi dont la teneur suit :—

Article l01. La relégation consistera dans 1 internement perpétuel, sur le territoire des Colonies ou Possessions Françaises, des condamnés (pie la présente Loi a pour objet d’éloigner de France.    '

EU e sera prononcée contre les récidivistes et malfaiteurs d’habitude des deux sexes qui auront encouru les condamnations visées par les Articles 4, 5, 6, et 7 de la présente Loi.

Art. 2. 1 ja relégation ne résultera que des condamnations prononcées par les Cours et Tribunaux ordinaires, a l’exclusion de toutes juridictions spéciales ou exceptionnelles.

Art. 3. I jes condamnations pour crimes et délits politiques et pour crimes et délits connexes aux précédents ne seront comptées en aucun cas pour la relégation.

Art. 4. Sera relégué vie :

1.    ’l’ont individu (pii aura encouru dans un intervalle de dix années deux condamnations :i la réclusion ou aux travaux forcés il temps, sans qu’il soit cependant dérogé aux dispositions de la Loi du 30 Mai, 1854 :

2.    Tout individu (pii aura encouru dans ce même intervalle de temps une des condamnations indiquées au paragraphe précédent et deux condamnations, soit a l’emprisonnement pour faits qualifiés crimes, soit il trois mois de prison au moins pour un des délits spécifiés à l’Article suivant, quel (pie soit l’ordre dans lequel ces diverses condamnations auront été prononcées.

Ai t. 5. Sera relégué à vie :

Tout individu qui aura encouru dans un intervalle de dix années quatre condamnations, soit a l'emprisonnement pour faits qualifiés crimes, soit a trois mois de prison au moins pour les délits ci-après spécifiés, savoir:

Vol;

Abus de confiance ;

Escroquerie ;

Destruction ou dégradation d’arbres ou de récoltes dans les cas prévus par les Articles 444, 445, 44G, 447 et 449 du Code Pénal ;

Outrage public il la pudeur ;

Excitation habituelle de mineurs à la débauche.

Art. G. Sera relégué à vie :

Tout individu qui aura encouru dans un intervalle de dix années et dans quelque ordre qu’elles aient eu lieu, outre cinq condamnations pour vagabondage dont une au moins à trois mois d’emprisonnement, deux condamnations au moins dans les conditions et pour l’un des faits visés par l’Article 5 ou par les Articles 4 et 5 combinés de la présente Loi.

Art 7. Sera également relégué à vie :

Tout individu qui, n’ayant été l’objet d’aucune condamnation pour crime ou délit dans les conditions prévues aux Articles 4 et 5, aura néanmoins encouru, dans un intervalle de dix années, six condamnations dont une au moins à trois mois d’emprisonnement par application des Articles 27G, 277, 278, 279. 281, du Code Pénal.

Art. 8. La durée de toute peine subie pour crime ou délit quelconque ne comptera pas dans le calcul du délai de dix années mentionné aux Articles 4, 5, G, et 7.

Art. 9. La relégation n'est pas applicable aux individus âgés de plus de GO ans ou de moins de 21 ans.

Toutefois les condamnations encourues par le mineur de 21 ans compteront, en vue de la relégation, s'il est, après avoir atteint cet âge, de nouveau condamné dans les conditions prévues par la présente Loi.

Art. 10. Les condamnations encourues antérieurement à la promulgation de la présente Loi seront comptées en vue de la relégation, conformément aux précédentes dispositions.

Néanmoins tout individu qui aura encouru avant cette époque les condamnations pouvant entraîner dès maintenant la relégation n’y sera soumis qu’en cas de condamnation nouvelle, dans les conditions prévues par la présente Loi.

Art. 11. Lorsqu’une poursuite devant un Tribunal Correctionnel sera de nature a entraîner l’application de la peine de la relégation il ne pourra jamais être procédé dans les formes édictées par la Loi du 20 Mai, 1863, sur les flagrants délits. Un avocat sera donné d’office au prévenu à peine de nullité.

Gr 3

Le Jugement ou l’Arrêt de condamnation prononcera la relégation eu meme temps que la peine principale. Il visera expressément les condamnations antérieures par suite desquelles elle sera applicable.

Art. 12. Les condamnations qui auront fait l’objet de grâces, commutations, et réductions de peines seront néanmoins comptées en vue de la relégation. Ne le seront pas celles (pii auront été effacées par la réhabilitation.

Art. 13. La relégation n aura lieu qxx'à l’expiration de la dernière peine a subir par le condamné. Mais faculté est laissée au Gouvernement de devancer cette époque pour opérer le transfèrement.

Il pourra également lui faire subir tout ou partie de la dernière peine, soit de réclusion, soit d’emprisonnement, dans un pénitencier agricole de France, de Corse, ou d’Algérie.

L’un de ces pénitenciers servira de dépôt pour les libérés qui y seront maintenus jusqu’au plus prochain départ pour le lieu de la relégation.

Tout individu condamné a la prison ou a la réclusion pourra, sur sa demande, être envoyé dans un des lieux de relégation, après avoir subi la moitié de sa peine.

Il sera soumis aux obligations et bénéficiera aux avantages de la présente Loi.

Art. 14. La relégation devra être effectuée dans l'une des Colonies ci-après:

La Nouvelle-Caledonie et dépendances ;

Les Isles Marquises :

LMle Phu-Quoc ;

La Guyane.

Art. 15. Il pourra être accordé par l'autorité administrative des autorisations exceptionnelles de sortir des territoires de la relégation. Ces autorisations ne pourront être données pour plus de six mois ou etre réitérées, sauf par décision Ministérielle.

Une décision Ministérielle sera également nécessaire pour autoriser, à titre exceptionnel et pendant six mois au plus, le retour en France d’un individu en état de relégation.

Tout relégué qui aura outrepassé ces autorisations ou pénétré sans autorisation en France, sera condamné par le Tribunal Correctionnel du lieu de son arrestation ou de la relégation à la peine ci-dessous édictée contre les évasions.

Art. IG. Tout relégué convaincu d’évasion ou de tentative d’évasion hors des territoires de la relégation sera traduit devant le Tribunal Correctionnel du lieu de sou arrestation et condamne à un emprisonnement (pii ne dépassera pas deux ans.

La peine devra être subie sur les territoires de la relégation.

File pourra, en cas de récidive, être élevée jusqu’à une durée de cinq ans.

Art. 17. Les relégués pourront obtenir, sur les territoires de la relégation, l'exercice de tout ou partie des droits dont ils auraient été privés par l’effet des condamnations encourues.

Art. 1<3. En cas de grâce, le condamné a la relégation ne pourra en être dispensé que par une disposition spéciale des lettres de grâce.

Art. 19. Dans le délai de six mois à dater de la promulgation de la présente Loi, un Décret rendu en forme de Règlement d’Administration Publique en déterminera le mode d’exécution, et notamment: l’organisation des pénitenciers agricoles mentionnes en l’Article 13 ; le temps à passer dans ces pénitenciers; les conditions dans lesquelles le condamne pourra eti’c dispensé définitivement ou provisoirement de la relégation pour cause d’infirmités ou de maladie ; les différents départs pour le lieu de la relégation : les mesures d’aide et d’assistance en faveur des relégués et de leur famille ; l’organisation des établissements destinés aux relégués ; les conditions auxquelles des concessions de terrain, provisoires ou définitives, pourront être faites aux relégués et a leur famille, les avances à leur faii’c pour premier établissemexxt, le xxxode de x’emboux'semeut, l’étexxdue des droits de l’époxxx sxxrvivaxxt, des héi'itiers et des tiex’S ixxtéi’essés sur les terraiixs concédés et les facilités qxxi poxxxTaient etx’c doxxnées à la famille des x’elégués poxxr les x’ejoindx’e.

Art. 20. Est abrogée la Loi dxx 9 Jxxillet, 1852, coxxcerxxant l’interdiction, par xxxesxxx’c admixxistrative du séjoxxr dxx Dépax’tement de la Seine et des coixiixixxncs formant l’aggloméx’ation Lyonnaise.

La peine de la sxxrveillaxxce de la lxaxxtc police est sxxpprimée exx toxxt ce qxxi concenie l’obligation de l'ésidence en des liexxx détei'minés. Elle n’axxx*a désoxaxiais d’axxtx’c effet que d’cxxtx'aîixer l’iixtex’dictioxx dxx séjoxxr et de l’accès dxx Départexxiexxt de la Seine.

Resteixt, en conséquexxce, applicables poxxr cette intex’diction, les dispositioxxs axxtériexxx’cs qui réglaieixt l’application ou la dxxx’ée, aixxsi qxxe la x’emise oxx la sxxspension de la sui'veillance de la haute police et les peines encoxxrxxes par les contx’evcnaxxts, confonnément à l’Article 45 du Code Pénal.

Tous individus places au moment de la promulgation de la présente Loi sous la surveillance de la liante police sont et demeureront de plein droit soumis, pour le temps qui restait a courir de cette peine, a, l’mterdietinn du sidmivot. do 1    <ln n/'p^rtement

de la Seine.    ^    ^

Cette interdiction ne devra être prononcée en aucun cas lorsque la transportation sera encourue.

Art. 21. La présente Loi est applicable à l’Algérie et aux Colonies.

En Algérie, par exception à l’Article 2, la relegation résultera, dans les conditions de la présente Loi, des condamnations pour crimes et délits de droit commun prononcées contre les indigènes du territoire de commandement par les Conseils de Guerre et les Commissions Disciplinaires.

Art. 22. Toutes dispositions antérieures sont nhrnrvéns nn no quelles ont do contraire à la présente Loi.

Délibéré en séance publique, a Paris, les 8 Mai et 29 Juin, 1883.

Le Président,

(Signé) Henri Brisson.

Les Secrétaires,

(Signé) A. Bastid.

L. Bizarelli.

Francis Charmes.

No. 56.

COLONIAL OFFICE to Brigadier-General II. It. MACIVER.

Sir,    Downing Street, November 23, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 17th instant* containing further explanations with regard to the objects and intentions of the Company which you represent.

Although in the prospectus which accompanied your letter the Company is designated as “ The New Guinea Trading Corporation, Limited,” yet the form of application appended to the circular adverted to in my last letter speaks of the “New Guinea Exploration and Colonisation Expedition,” and while your letter now under acknowledgment does not state that there is no intention on the part of the Company to attempt to acquire land in New Guinea, the prospectus states that it is proposed to form six. stations on that island. Lord Derby can therefore give no sanction or approval to the project, and must repeat the caution given in the letter from this department of the 15th instant*}* against taking part in it.

I am, in conclusion,'to observe that the use of a foreign flag would not exempt the proceedings of the Company’s managers and promoters from control, and that not only the Australian Colonies but the natives of New Guinea have asked Her Majesty to afford protection.

I am, &c.

Brigadier-General II. R. Maclver. (Signed) ROBERT G. W. HERBERT.

No. 57.

COLONIAL OFFICE to Captain J. KENNERLEY.

Sir,    Downing Street, November 28, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 22nd instant,+ enclosing a Prospectus of “The New Guinea and Western Pacific Trading Syndicate (Limited).”

Lord Derby desires me to inform you that Her Majesty’s Government are unable to approve any project, although styled a “ trading company,” of which it is a feature that a number of persons who arc to be interested in purchases of land, as mentioned in your prospectus, should proceed from this country to New Guinea.

It is obvious that when only trading is contemplated, it is not usual that a number of persons not connected with commerce should take part in an expedition from this country.

I am, &c.

Captain J. Kcnncrley.    (Signed) ROBERT G. W. HERBERT.

t No. 49.

G 4

No. 58.

The Baron DE MIKLOUHO .M ACL AY to COLONIAL OFFICE.

(Received November 29, 18<S3.)

My Lord,    Sydney, October 17, 1888.

Our (Rev. T. Chalmers and mine) apprehensions have not been deceived.

A telegram appeared in the “Sydney Morning Herald,” dated the 14th October.

The Colonial Secretary has received a telegram New Guinea, confirming the statement that 15,000 have recently been bought for a Sydney syndicate the land being unaware of the transaction.


The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, &c.    &c.    &c.


Brisbane.

from the Rev. Mr. Chalmers, of acres of sugar land on that island at hi. per acre, the real owner of

I have, Ac.

(Signed) M. DE M ACL AY.


No. 59.

The AGENT GENERAL FOR VICTORIA to COLONIAL OFFICE.

8, Victoi’ia Chambers, Victoria Street,

My Lord,    Westminster, S.W., November 29, 1888.

With reference to Mr. Meade’s letter to the Foreign Office of the 10th of August (Parliamentary Paper C. 3,814, No. 32) and to Lord Granville’s subsequent Despatch to Her Majesty’s Embassy at Paris (No. 35), communicating a copy of the joint letter of the Australasian Agents-General to your Lordship, I have the honour to request, for the information of my Government, communication of the reply of the French Government to the representation which Mr. Plunkett was instructed to lose no time in laying before them on the number and position, after arrival, of the convicts to be sent to the Western Pacific, and on the failure of the Government of New Caledonia to demand the extradition of the criminals whom they had lately permitted to escape. More than three months have elapsed since the Despatch of Lord Granville to which f have referred was written, and inquiries which I have made lead mo to believe that, not merely is the French Government pressing forward the scheme of transportation from which the Colonies apprehend such unhappy results, but that a new service from Havre to Noumea has been specially chartered in connexion with it. I shall be glad, for obvious reasons, to be able to inform my Government, during the meeting of the Convention at Sydney, what may have been the reply of the French Government to the representations made by Mr, Plunkett, in reference to which Air. Meade wrote that your Lordship felt it to be necessary to obtain immediate explanations from that Government.

1 have, &c.

(Signed) ROBT. MURRAY SMITH.

Tho Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,

&c.    &c.    &c.

No. 60.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, November 30, 1883.

1 am directed by Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to transmit to you to be laid before the Earl of Derby, copy of a letter from the Hawaiian Minister for Foreign Ail'airs, enclosing a protest against annexation of Polynesian Islands by foreign powers, which was referred to in the letter from this department of September 21 st.*

1 am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

t* —r

Ö7

Enclosure in No. GO.

Department for Foreign Affairs, Honolulu, My Lord,    August 27, 1883.

T iiayk the honour to transmit to you herewith the protest of His Hawaiian Majesty’s Government against certain proposed extensions of foreign dominion among the Islands of the Pacific, and against any further annexations of independent Polynesian States by alien powers.

This Government is emboldened to hope that this protest and appeal for a permanent guarantee of independence to the native communities of Polynesia will find favour with the Government of Great Britain, from the remarks made in Parliament by your Lordship’s Right Honourable colleague the Earl of Derby. His Lordship is reported to have said (on 2nd July last)—

“We shall be prepared to strengthen the hands of those charged with preserving order in the Pacific Islands, and we shall consider with the Colonies the different means for better securing the order of the country so far as the British adventurers are concerned. It may be said, ‘ It is quite true that you may get jurisdiction over ‘ the natives, but you will have no jurisdiction over foreigners.’ It would seldom be necessary to exercise jurisdiction over the natives, if their rights and their lands wero'i." interfered with.”

The concluding words of this extract go to the root of the matter, and sustain better than any argument on my part can the protest which I now respectfully present to your Lordship.

I have, &c.

&c.


The Earl Granville, K.G.„    (Signed) Walter M. Gibson,

&c.


Minister for Foreign Affairs.


Protest.

Whereas his Hawaiian Majesty’s Government being informed that certain Sovereign and Colonial States propose to annex various islands and archipelagoes of Polynesia, does hereby solemnly protest against such projects of annexation, .as unjust to a simple and ignorant people and subversive in their case of those conditions for favourable national development which have been so happily accorded to the Hawaiian nation.

The Hawaiian people enjoying the blessings of national independence confirmed by the joint a .tion of great and magnanimous states, ever ready to afford favourable opportunities for self-government, cannot be silent about, or indifferent to, acts of intervention in contiguous and kindred groups which menace their own situation.

The Hawaiian people encouraged by favourable political conditions have cultivated and entertained a strong: national sentiment, which leads them not onlv to cherish their own political state, but also inspires them with a desire to have extended to kindred, yet less favoured, communities of Polynesia, like favourable political opportunities for national development.

And whereas a Hawaiian Legislative Assembly, expressing unanimously the spirit of the nation, has declared that it was the duty of His Hawaiian Majesty’s Government to proffer to kindred peoples and states of the Pacific an advising assistance to aid them in securing opportunities for improving their political and social condition.

His Hawaiian Majesty’s Government responding to the national will and to the especial appeals of several Polynesian chiefs, has sent a special commissioner to several of the Polynesian chieftains and states to advise them in their national affairs.

And His Hawaiian Majesty’s Government, speaking for the Hawaiian people, so happily prospering through national independence, makes earnest appeal to the Governments of great and enlightened states that they will recognise the inalienable rights of the several native communities of Polynesia to enjoy opportunities for progress and self-government, and will guarantee to them the same favourable political opportunities which have made Hawaii prosperous and happy, and which incite her national spirit to lift up a voice among the nations in behalf of sister islands and groups of Polynesia.

By order of His Majesty in Council,

Iolani Palace,

Honolulu, August 23, 1833.


Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Tho A G EN T-G ENERAL FOR NEW ZEALAND to COLONIAL OFFICE.

7, Westminster Chambers,

Sir,    November 30, 1883.

When the Earl of Derby received the Agents-General a few days ago, his Lordship desired me to lay before him in writing the grounds on which we had ventured to urge that renewed remonstrances should be addressed to the French Government with respect to the Récidiviste Bill, before that measure reaches a further stage in the Senate.

I understood Lord Derby to say that he desired to have further evidence of the correctness of my statement that the récidivistes would be free on their arrival in the colony to which they might be sent, as the terms of the Bill appeared to him to provide for their permanent confinement ( internement perpétuel) within the Colony. I beg, therefore, to make the following explanation.

When the Bill was before the Chamber of Deputies, a remarkable incident occurred. The first clause of the Bill had declared, as the amended Bill does now, that the criminals should be confined within the territory of the Colony {la relegation consistera dans Vinternement perpétuel sur le territoire des colonies ou possessions françaises). But clause 16 (now 15) provided that permission might be given by the colonial authorities to the relégués to leave the Colony (il pourra cire accorde par l'autorité administrative des autorisations exceptionnelles de sortir des territoires de ta relegation), such leave not extending beyond six months ; and the next clause provided that any rélégué who should be convicted of running away (tout réligué convaincu d'évasion ou de tentative    d evasion hors de territoires de la ré légation) should be liable to punishment.

These clauses passed the Chamber without amendment. When, however, clause 20 (now 19) was proposed, providing among other things for the organization of the necessary convict establishments, a deputy (M. Lorois) moved an amendment expressly declaring the absolute freedom of the rélégués throughout the colony (les relégués jouiront de leur liberté entière dans toute l'étendue de la colonie dans laquelle ils seront ré lègues).    He recalled the declarations which had been made during the debate as to

the freedom of the relégués on arrival, saying that these were only expressions of opinion not binding on the Government, and that, although M. Waldeck-Rousseau himself could of course be relied upon to do what he said, ministries passed away, and his successor might hold contrary opinions ; that it was now proposed to have, besides gendarmerie, 200 warders (surveillants) to control the rélégués, and it was not easy to see why such a force was wanted to look after people who were to be free ; and that accordingly the Chamber ought not to be satisfied with mere declarations about their freedom, but should insert express provision to that effect. But the Minister of the Interior (M. Waldeck-Rousseau) replied that the proposed amendment was quite unnecessary (est absolument inutile). The récidiviste would be free from the moment he touched the soil of the Colony (lorsqu'un récidiviste est trans]>orte, il est libre du moment ou il touche le sol de la colonie) : as for the establishments in question, they were merely to provide for cases where a récidiviste should come to the Government for employment or for land ; the provisions of the clause were really in favour of the relègue . and in no way implied the idea of confinement    a aucun degré /'idee

dint ornement). When you pass a penal law, he added, you need not say in it that those who are no longer subject to any penalty are free : so long as the law does not say that the rélégué is not free, it is incontestable that liberty is his right (du moment quit ri est pas dit que le relégua ne sera pas libre il est incontestable que c'est la liberté qui est son droit). Whereupon M. Lorois said that after such a declaration, binding as it would now do not merely M. Waldeck-Rousseau but the whole Ministry, he was satisfied and would withdraw his amendment.

It will be obvious to Lord Derby that the Minister of the Interior could hardly admit an amendment which in terms expressly contradicted the preceding clauses of the Bill : indeed, the appearance of the two in juxtaposition would have been an absurdity. But when the Bill was sent back to the committee for reconsideration before the deuxieme deliberation at the end of June, the committee reported to the Chamber that, while the debates of May had shown the necessity of explaining more clearly the regime to which the rélégués would be subject, it had been officially declared over and over again that this régime would be exactly the same as if the convicts had gone to the colony voluntarily, with the sole difference that they would not be able to leave it as an ordinary colonist might do (comme l’ont dit dans la discussion reprises M. le Ministre

de    l’Inférieur et votre    rapporteur, le regime des relégués dans    lieu de    relegation est

exactement celui sous lequel ils vivraient s ils s'y étaient rendus volontairementavec cette seule    difference, qu ils ne pourront pas en sortir comme    un colon ordi

naire). Their punishment would consist only in the obligation to stay wheie they were sent {leur peine consistées dans l’obligation de rester dans le Heu de la relegation) : even those who were incorrigible would be treated in exactly the saute way {/es incorrigibles... tout comme les precedents \_i.e., the well-behaved] seront libres dans les lieux où ils auront été relégués; comme eux, ils ne seront astreints qua l'internement dans ces lieux.)

Now when the Bill came on for the deuxieme deliberation, the meaning of the word internement was more clearly stated. A deputy (M. Jules Maigne) asked whether internment was to extend over the whole island to which the criminals were sent, or only to fixed places within that island; to which the president of the committee (M. Laroze) replied that it was meant to extend over all the island. But when the discussion reached clause 19 (formerly 20), another deputy (M. Granet) referred to the explanations given in the committee’s second report upon the régime to be applied to the rélégués in the colony, and to the assurance that they .would be as free there as if they had gone voluntarily {dans l’état,ou ils se trouveraient    sciaient volontairement rendais sur

le sol de la transportation, c'est-à-dire à l'éde liberté : he reminded the Chamber how often the committee had repeated the same assurance {/a commission a prétendu elle a répété que, les récidivistes seront en état, de, liberté) : and lie bade them remember that they were going to leave in absolute freedom 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 habitual criminals {vous allez laisser à l’état de liberté absolue 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 récidivistes). Not only was there no denial to this in reply, but on the contrary a confirmation. M. Thomson, a member of the committee, acknowledged that the certainty of the freedom of the relegues was not only assured by the formal and reiterated declarations of the authors of the Bill, of the Minister of the Interior, of the reporter, and of the president of the committee, but also by the terms of the Bill itself {la certitude, que ce regime de liberté leur sera applique resuite non seulement des declarations formelles et répétées des auteurs du projet, du ministre, de du rapporteur, et du president, de la commission, mais    elle résulté aussi texte meme projet    loi) : on

this, the Minister of the Interior interjected “especially by the Bill itself" (surtout du texte de la loi) : further, M. Thomson distinguished between internment and residence (en effet la loi dit que la pie,ne de relegation sera l’internement perpétuel, cest-a-dirc le séjour perpétuel sur le territoire des colonies) : ancî said that, so long as the malefactors remained on the territory, they had paid their debt to society, and there was no right to require anything more from them (à la, condition quits demeurent relégués sur le territoire d’une colonie, les condamnes ont paye leur dette a la, société, et vous    le

droit de leur demander rien, de plus).

It is evident, therefore, that there will be no real restraint upon the relégués after their arrival in the colony ; and this is what the Agents-Gcncral urged upon Lord Derby. We say it is in vain for any one to imagine that habitual criminals, steeped in vice and debauchery, and stained with every crime, to whom a distinct promise is given of absolute freedom on their arrival in the French colony, will really be interned within its limits. On the contrary, the attempt to intern them will be so difficult and costly that it will be hard to resist a constant temptation to the authorities to use the power which is given by the Bill, and allow them to escape.

The English Colonies must guard themselves as they can against such a danger ; and, indeed, Lord Derby has plainly stated, in his despatch to the Foreign Office of August 10,17 that, if increasing numbers of French convicts are to be transported to the Western Pacific, it will not be possible for the Imperial Government to resist legislation such as that which took place two years ago in Queensland, but to which, at that time, Her Majesty’s Government were unwilling to assent. Nor is it only of themselves that the colonists are thinking : they appeal to Lord Derby on behalf of the Native people in the islands, to whom no more cruel fate could be reserved than the one of being permeated by the very dregs of these foreign criminals. Powerless as the High Commissioner already is to repress an outrage by a foreigner, he will find himself confronted by a new and formidable danger to the Natives, against which no authority, no devotion of his own, will avail. The very raison d'etre of the Western Pacific Acts was the acknowledgment by the Imperial Government of a duty towards the native races. This duty, and the obligations which (low from it, Lord Derby has now said there will be much less difficulty in transferring to the Colonies if they decide either upon confederation

or united action. But neither by the Imperial nor by the Colonial authorities can these obligations ever be i'ultilled if the islands are to be the theatre of this new experiment in criminal law by a great and friendly nation. The first to suffer will be the New Hebrides, for it is not attempted to be concealed that efforts will be made to farm out rt-cidivusitis for the properties which French companies have acquired there: but one island after another will follow if they are not saved now by Her Majesty’s Government from the evil fate which seems to threaten them. Against a law which must bring such calamity upon both races the English communities in Australasia feel they have a right to Drotest; and the prayer of the Agents-General to Lord Derby therefore was that Her Majesty’s Government would address a renewed remonstrance to the Government of the i(epublic, not more for the sake of the Queen’s subjects in Australasia than of the Native people to whom, by the Pacific Islands Acts, Her Majesty extended her gracious protection.

I have, &c.

(Signed)


F. D. BELL.


The Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, &c.    &c.    &c.

No. 62.

The ABERDEEN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Aberdeen Chamber of Commerce, 137, Union Street, Aberdeen,

Mv Lord,    November 30, 1883.

As instructed by the President of this Chamber of Commerce, I beg to enclose memorial by this Chamber, with reference to the question of the annexation of New Guinea to the Australian Colonies, and which, we trust, Avill receive your favourable consideration.

1 have, &c.

(Signed) JAMES TYTLER,

The Right Hon. Earl Derby,    Secretary.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 62.

To the Right Hon. Earl Derby, Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for Colonial

Affairs.

The Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce of Aberdeen, incorporated by Royal

Charter.

Respcctf u 11 y slioweth,

That this Chamber, representing the community and city of Aberdeen, and the whole of the north-east of Scotland in connexion with trade and commerce, is necessarily deeply interested in all that relates to the continued prosperity of the Australian Colonies, with which a large, rapidly increasing, and mutually-beneficial trade is carried on. Your memorialists have given consideration to the correspondence which has recently passed between your Lordship and the Colonial Government of Queensland respecting New Guinea, and, having considered this correspondence, at the monthly meeting of the Council of this Chamber of Commerce, held at Aberdeen, on Tuesday, the 27th current, the following motion was unanimously carried, to Avit:

“ This Chamber, recognizing that the annexation of Ncav Guinea is a question of “ great importance to the future Avelfare of the Australian Colonies, resolves to “ petition Her Majesty’s Government to give their best and, if possible, “ favourable consideration to any representation nmde to them on this subject “ by the Federal Council of Australian Ministers, to be held at Sydney this • month.”

Following on this resolution, the memorialists respectfully urge Her Majesty’s Government to give the same their most favourable consideration.

Signed in name, on behalf, and by appointment, of the Aberdeen Chamber of Commerce, this thirtieth day of November in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three.

(Signed) David Stewart,

President.

No. 63.

Governor the Right IIon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales),

to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY.

(Received December 3, 1883.)

Telegraphic.

The intercolonial Convention is somewhat disturbed by a telegram of this morning, stating that the French Government declare that France has claims in the Pacific beyond the recognised area. The Convention consider it important to ascertain what foundation there may be for this telegram, as it may greatly affect their resolutions. They are most anxious not to embarrass Her Majesty’s Government with France. Telegraph reply as soon as possible.

No. 64.

Tiie Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor the Right Hon.

LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales). '

Telegraphic.

3rd Dec. 1883.—What foundation statement “Herald” 14th October pretended purchase land New Guinea.

No. 65.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the AGENT GENERAL FOR VICTORIA.

Sir,    Downing Street, December 3, 1883.

With reference to your letter of the 29th ultimo.* I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you a copy of a lettert from the Foreign Office, with its enclosure, respecting the representations which Mr. Plunkett was instructed to make in connexion with the reported intention of the French Government as regards transportation to New Caledonia, and the alleged failure of the Government of that Colony to demand, as heretofore, the extradition from Australia of escaped criminals.

' A copy of this letter was sent to the Agent General for Queensland on the 5th of October, and Lord Derby concludes that it may have now reached the Government of Queensland.

His Lordship desires me to add {hat there is nothing further to communicate on the points above mentioned, but that the subject is of course receiving continued attention.

I am, &c.

The Agent General for Victoria.    (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

* No. 59,


t No. 20,

o * j


FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sik,    Foreign Office, December 4, 1883.

With reference to the letter from this Department of the 20th ultimo,* I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you, to be laid before Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, copy of a Despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, forwarding a copy of the note which, in compliance with instructions, he has addressed to the French Government, respecting the alleged purchase, bv Frenchmen, of the islet Iririki or Lelika, in the New Hebrides group.

I am, See.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 66.

Mr Louo,    Paris, November 27, 1883.

I have this morning had the honour to receive your Lordship’s Despatch of the 22nd instant, directing me to communicate to the French Government the result of the inquiry respecting the alleged purchase from the natives by Frenchmen of the islet Iririki or Lelika, in the New Flebrides group.

I have the honour to inclose a copy of a note which I have in consequence addressed to the French Minister for Foreign Affairs.

I have, &c.

The Earl Granville, K.G.,    (Signed) Lyons.

&c.    &c.

M. le President dtj Conseie,    Paris, November 27, 1883.

On the 3rd of May last, in pursuance of instructions from Her M ajesty’s Government, I addressed to your Excellency’s predecessor a Note respecting the alleged purchase from the natives by Frenchmen of an islet in the Hebrides group, named Iririki or Lelika, which in fact belonged to Eritish missionaries, and I stated that Her Majesty’s Government proposed to cause inquiry to be made on the spot into the circumstances of the case.

A report on the subject has now been received from Captain Erskine, Commander on the Australian station, to whom the inquiry was entrusted.

'The information which it supplies indicates that Lieutenant Marin d’Arbel had in fact unfortunately purchased the islet in question, which was already the property of British subjects, who held a regular title-deed to it; but that as the natives have, through Commodore Erskine, as far as possible restored the consideration received by them from Lieut. d’Arbel, the incident is apparently closed.

1 have, &c.

His Excellency M. Jules Ferry,    (Signed) Lyons.

&c.    &c.    &c.

No. 67.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, December 4, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you, to be laid before Earl Granville, the accompanying paraphrase of a Telegramf from the Governor of New South Wales, respecting the Inter-Colonial Convention now sitting at Sydney.

I am to request that you will move Lord Granville to cause inquiry to be made, at his earliest convenience, of Her1 Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, as to whether he is aware of anything which could give rise to-the rumour referred to in this telegram, that France had put forth fresh claims in the Pacific Ocean “ beyond the recognised area.”

Lord Derby has informed Lord A. Loftns in reply, that lie is not aware of any such new claims, but that he has requested Lord Granville to make inquiries of Lord Lyons on the subject.

I am, &c.

* The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) ROBERT G. W. HERBERT.

Foreign Office.

No. 68.

Governor the Right Hon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received December 5, 1883.)

(Telegraphic.)

Sydney, 5th December.—Have telegraphed, at request of Convention, Resolutions verbatim regarding Pacific Islands.

Intercolonial Convention. Relations with the Islands of the Pacific. Resolutions arrived at. This Convention respecting (representing?) the government(s) of all the Australasian Colonies, unanimously resolves :—

1.    That further acquisition of dominion in the Pacific south of the Equator by any foreign Power would be highly detrimental to the safety and well-being of the British Possessions in Australasia, and injurious to the interests of the Empire.

2.    That this Convention refrains from suggesting the action by which effect can best be given to the foreign (foregoing ?) resolution in the confident belief that Imperial Government will promptly adopt the wisest and most effectual measures for securing the safety and contentment of this portion of Her Majesty’s dominions.

3.    That having regard to the geographical position of the Islands of New Guinea, the rapid extension of British trade and enterprise Torres Straits, the certainty that the Island shortly be the resort of many adventurous subjects of Great Britain and other nations, and the absence of (or ?) inadequacy of any existing laws for regulating their relations with the native tribes, that Convention, while fully recognizing that the responsibility of extending the boundaries of the Empire belongs to the Imperial Government, is emphatically of opinion that such steps should be immediately taken as will most conveniently and effectively secure the incorporation with the British Empire of so much of New Guinea and the small islands adjacent thereto as is not claimed by the Government of the Netherlands.

4.    That although the understanding arrived at in 1878 between G reat Britain and France, recognising the independence of the New Hebrides, appeal’s to- preclude this Convention from making any recommendation inconsistent with that understanding, the Convention urges upon Her Majesty’s Government that it is extremely desirable that such understanding should give - place to some more definite engagement which shall secure those islands from falling under any foreign dominion, at the same time the Convention trusts that Her Majesty’s Government will avail itself of any opportunity that may arise for negotiating with the Government of France, with the object of obtaining the control of those islands in the interests of Australasia.

5.    That the Governments represented at this Convention undertake to submit and recommend to their respective Legislatures measures of permanent appropriation, defraying in proportion to population such share of the cost incurred in giving effect to the foregoing Resolution, as Her Majesty’s Government, having regard to the relative importance Imperial and Australasian interests, may deem fair and reasonable.

6.    That the Convention protests in the strongest manner against the declared intention of the Government of France to transport large number of relapsed criminals to the French possessions in the Pacific, and urges Her Majesty’s Government to use every means in its power to prevent the adoption of a course so disastrous to the interests of Australasia and the Pacific Islands.

7.    That the Convention expresses a confident hope that no penal settlement for the reception of European criminals will long continue to exist in the Pacific, and invites Her Majesty’s Government to make to the Government of France such serious representations on this subject as may be deemed expedient.

8.    .That these Resolutions be communicated to the Right Hon. the Secretary of State for the Colonies, together with a request that they may be submitted for Her

H 4

Majesty’s gracious consideration, and for such action as Her Majesty may think proper to direct, with a view to giving effect to the earnest desire of her loyal subjects in Australasia.

Note.—His Excellency Sir G. William Des Vceux, the Governor of Fiji, representing that Colony, while expressing individually his general concurrence with the Resolutions, considered himself as precluded by his position from voting upon them.

Alex. Stuakt.

George R. Dibbs.

William Bede Dalby, New South Wales.

II. A. Atkinson.

Fred. Whitaker, New Zealand.

S. W. Griffiths.

James F. Garrick, Queensland.

J. C. Bray.

John S. Downer, South Australia.

W. R. Giblin.

Nicholas J. Brown, Tasmania.

James Service.

Graham Berry.

Geo. B. Kerferd, Victoria.

Malcolm Fraser, Western Australia.

No. 69.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, December 5, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 23rd ultimo,* transmitting a copy of the French Relapsed Criminals Bill.

2.    With reference to this Bill, I am to transmit to you a letterf from the Agent General for New Zealand, in which, after describing the proceedings in connexion with that measure, lie calls particular attention to the fact that if it becomes law in its present shape it will provide for the transportation to islands near Australia of “ recidivistes ” of the worst character who will lie free on their arrival.

3.    There is much apprehension and excitement in Australia and New Zealand as to the probable consequences of the Bill if the powers to be conferred by it should he exercised in respect of New Caledonia and its dependencies ; and while Lord Derby docs not suggest that Her Majesty’s Government could interfere with the existing French penal settlement in New Caledonia, it appears to his Lordship that there is ground for a strong remonstrance against any material increase of the number of criminals to he sent thither, and more particularly against the proposal to include New Caledonia among the places to which relapsed criminals shall be sent, and at the same time to give them an amount of liberty not hitherto enjoyed by those now under penal servitude in that island. This liberty, in the opinion of those best acquainted with the circumstances of the Australian Colonics and the neighbouring countries, would inevitably lead to a wide dispersion of the French convict population among islands not under French authorit}7, whence they would migrate to the Australian continent.

1. 'The French Government should be pressed to consider that, having regard to the very numerous cases in which convicts have during recent years escaped from New Caledonia to Australia, any increase of the numbers sent thither must necessarily be viewed as an unfriendly act, and more particularly that the provisions of the Bill, and the manner in which, according to. explanations publicly given, it is contemplated that those provisions should be carried out, compel Her Majesty’s Government to express their strong hope that they may receive an assurance that it will not be applied to New Caledonia.

5. I am to return the copy ot the 13ill enclosed in your letter, and to request that copies may be sent to this Departme nt as soon as it is printed.

I am, &e.

'The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) ROBERT G. \V. HERBERT.

Foreign Office.

No. 70.

Governor the Right Hon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received December 6, 1883.)

(Telegraphic).

Sydney, 6th December. Yours, 3rd.* Speculators have purchased land New Guinea. Resolution annulling such land speculations will probably submitted Convention.

No. 71.

The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor the Right Hon. LORD A.

LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales).

(Telegraphic.)

December 7, 1883. Resolutions of Convention will receive early and careful consideration. Can Colonies supply number and particulars of escaped New Caledonia convicts arrested in Colonies ?

No. 72.

Administrator SIR A. H. PALMER, K.C.M.G. (Queensland) to the Right Hon. the

EARL OF DERBY. (Received December 7, 1883.)

Government House, Brisbane,

My Lord,    October 9, 1883.

I beg to acknowledge receipt of your Despatch of the 11th July last,f which I have submitted to my responsible advisers.

I now do myself the honor to enclose copies of a communication which I have received from the Premier on the subject.

Sir Thomas Mcllwraith has gone so fully into this question that it does not appear necessary for me to enlarge upon it. 1 have, however, to express my entire concurrence in the view taken by him, and my deep regret that the Imperial Government has not seen its way to endorse the action of Queensland.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Secretary of State    (Signed) A. H. PALMER,

for the Colonies.

Enclosure in No. 72.

Colonial Secretary’s Office, Brisbane,

Sir,    September 28, 1883.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of the Despatch addressed to Your Excellency by the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated the llt:h of July last," containing the refusal of Her Majesty’s Government to confirm the recent action of the Government of this Colony in taking possession, in Her Majesty’s name, of so much of the Island of New Guinea as was not in the possession of any civilised power.

2. The action of your predecessor, the late Sir Arthur Kennedy, in authorising the annexation of New Guinea, was taken after due deliberation and several consultations with his Ministers, throughout which he showed himself fully alive to the

interests and responsibilities of Her Majesty’s Government. Nor were his Ministers behindhand in studying, as far as they possibly could, in connexion with the question of annexation, the interests of the Empire generally, as well as those of Queensland. It is therefore with much regret we have received the announcement of the decision referred to, and find that the only result of our appeal is the expression of a hope that “ the time is now not distant when, in respect of questions of annexation, the “ Australian Colonies will effectively combine together and provide the cost of “ carrying out any policy which, after mature consideration, they may unite in “ recommending, and which Her Majesty's Government may think it right and “ expedient to adopt.”

3.    It is also with regret that we are compelled to notice throughout Lord Derby's reply a certain incomplete conception of the aims of the Australian people and Governments in connexion with such matters as that under consideration. In this portion of the Empire we are daily cognisant of a ceaseless process of development and expansion, as natural as it is inev table, which it is difficult for anyone who is not at least on the skirts of the movement to realise, and I believe that it is partly in a mistaken conception of the attitude which Colonial Governments assume toward this movement that any misunderstanding arises as to the desired extension of Her Majesty’s Dominions in our vicinity. Their purpose is not, as is apparently assumed, to stimulate unduly this process of expansion. On the contrary, the object of all our appeals to Her Majesty’s Government, in this connexion, has been to obtain such powers as may enable us to control this inevitable process, and restrict it within the bounds of law and order.

4.    In reply to that portion of the Despatch in which Lord Derby remarks that “ it is much to be regretted that your advisers should, without apparent necessity, “ have taken on themselves the exercise of powers which they do not possess,” I desire to observe, what must have been already clearly perceived from the purport of previous despatches, that in formally annexing New Guinea, we were perfectly aware that the efficacy of our action was altogether contingent on subsequent ratification by Her Majesty's Government. That we had no right, however, without the sanction of Her Majesty’s Government, to annex territory in which there exists no settled Government, is contrary to the whole history of colonial acquisition. So far also as concerns the phrase, “ without apparent necessity,” I would submit that political necessity is constituted in a large measure by the pressure of public feeling and opinion ; and that these were not wanting in this case is abundantly proved by the favourable verdict of the Australian Press, and the support given to our action by the Governments of the other Australian Colonies.

5.    As a matter of fact, such apprehensions as made the annexation in question an act of necessity have by no means been allayed by the assurance of Her Majesty’s Government that they are unfounded ; and subsequent events which show how eagerly the eyes of another nation are turned towards colonial acquisition in this part of the globe, have rendered the Australian people still more sensitive to the danger of leaving to the mercy of the first comer a territory, the possession of which by a foreign power might-prove disastrous to our trade and to our peace. The measure recently adopted by the French Chamber of Deputies for the deportation, in tens of thousands, of their most dangerous convicts to various islands in the Pacific, to be set free on arrival at their destinations, renders it doubly necessary that every point of vantage in our vicinity should find our jurisdiction firmly established thereon, before these spreading hordes of criminals, who will inevitably converge towards the large communities of Australia, attempt to settle within the neighbourhood of Australian waters. It is unnecessary for me to show how this project of -utilising the Pacific for the free immigration of untrammelled vice, connects itself with the New Guinea question.

6.    Not only has Lord Derby’s despatch failed to allay the apprehensions of the Australian people as to the possible occupation of New Guinea by a foreign power, but they have derived as little comfort from his statement in Parliament that the formation of a settlement on the coast of that island by such a power would be regarded by Her Majesty’s Government as an unfriendly act. At the stage at which the act could be regarded as an unfriendly one, it must have been already accomplished ; so that Lord Derby’s words are either a mere prognostication of regret or a declaration that Her Majesty’s Government would submit the matter to the arbitrament of war. If the Imperial Government mean eventually to annex, not only is no advantage to be gained by postponement, but in the meantime the course, which

0

-Ji

is now open and clear, will have become beset Avith difficulties, and our lost opportunities Avill have to be recovered at a much greater cost than Avould be incurred if avc were to avail ourselves of them Avithout delay.

7.    In coming to the conclusion that “even granting that the extension of the Queen’s sovereignty to the eastern portion of New Guinea has become necessary, the proposal that the territory so annexed should form part of the Colony of Queensland would be open to strong objection,” Lord Derby has omitted to consider the position in which the question rested when negotiations last took place between the Governments of Great Britain and Queensland. Lord Carnarvon, Avhen appealed to by the colonists to annex NeAV Guinea, virtually consented, provided the colonies relieved the Home Government of the cost. The expense of government was then the only obstacle, and Ave have removed that obstacle by offering to provide the necessary funds. With regard to the objection raised by Lord Derby in the extract from his despatch quoted above, I may point out that the annexation of New Guinea to this colony is not considered by the .Government to be a vital part of the question: on the contrary, they Avould prefer that the territory should be made a CroAvn colony, or, better still, placed under the control of the “ United Australian Colonies.” Queensland does not desire an increase of territory. The part she has taken, and is still prepared to take, is to provide for the necessary expenditure, should the territory be annexed to her, and thereby remove the only difficulty which, previous to the initiation of the present correspondence, was supposed to exist. The Colony will, liOAvever, be quite satisfied if annexation to the British CroAvn takes place in another form.

8.    Allusion is made by Lord Derby to a statement in the Dress that one reason Avhy Queensland desires the annexation of New Guinea is the facility which would thereby be afforded for obtaining a large supply of coloured labour for the sugar plantations, without going beyond the limits of the Colony. On behalf of the Colony I deny that we have been actuated by any such motive ; nor was there the slightest ground for believing the statement. The only attempt at an assertion of fact in favour of such a position Avas that made by Lord Lamington in the House of Lords, that immediately the annexation had taken place a labour ship was despatched from Mackay to NeAV Guinea in quest of labour. As a matter of fact no labour vessels have as yet cleared from any port in this Colony for New Guinea ; nor have any natives of that island ever been introduced into Queensland. The inhabitants on the coast of New .Guinea are agriculturists thomselves, with abundance of land to cultivate, and it is quite likely that any improved system of European cultivation would give employment to a large body of New Guinea natives in their own country ; but there is no probability, nor was it ever contemplated, that natives would be taken to the Australian coast.

9. The proposal of Lord Derby to place one or more deputies of the High Commissioner on the coast provided that a reasonable annual sum to meet the cost thereof be paid by this Colony, does not at all meet the requirements of the case. The powers of the High Commissioner do not extend beyond British subjects. Men from all nations are flocking tOAvards the Settlements in Torres Straits, and these are the people we should find it most difficult to deal Avith. The Government must therefore decline to contribute in any Avay to meet the cost of these officers. The proposal that in the event of the High Commissioner’s Deputies being sent out, the Imperial Government would take steps for strengthening the naval force on the Australian station, is connected Avith a much wider subject,—the defences of our coast. The Government consider that the naval defence of the Colonies ought certainly not to fall exclusively on Her Majesty’s Government; a large portion of it should be made a charge upon colonial funds ; and I believe that were proposals made to the various colonies, or the united colonies, for better and more permanent protection, Great Britain Avould be met in a patriotic and loyal spirit.

10. The present condition of NeAV Guinea, uncontrolled by any civilised government, and liable at any moment to be taken possession of by a foreign nation, is a constant source of uneasiness to the colonists of Queensland, who clearly perceive the evils and dangers likely to arise from the close proximity to our shores of a foreign power, and from the establishment, as the probable result, of penal settlements even nearer to the Colony than those already formed. Lord Derby insists that avc cannot of ourselves annex, but this in no way impeaches our contention that noAV is the opportune time for annexation, that delay will only result in an increase of Imperial responsibilities, and that what might- appear to be a policy of

1 2

enterprise is simply a prudent provision against future complications. If England, therefore, formally annex at once, the well-grounded fears of the colonists will be allayed.

I have, &c.

His Excellency the Administrator    (Signed) Thomas McIlavraitii.

of the Government of Queensland.

No. 73.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, December 7, 1883.

With reference to my letter of the 23rd of November,* I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, to be laid before the Earl of Derby, copy of a Despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, enclosing copy of a Note Verbale which he has received from the French Minister for Foreign Affairs in answer to the Memorandum which Her Majesty’s Charge d’Affaires addressed to the French Government in August last upon the subject of the Bill for the transportation of Relapsed Criminals to New Caledonia.

I am to add that your letter of the 5th instant f upon this subject is now under Lord Granville’s consideration.

I am, &c.

Tho Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) PHILIP W. CURRIE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 73.

My Lord,    Paris, December 3, 1883.

With reference to my Despatch of the 28th of October last, to Mr. Plunkett’s Despatches of tho 31st of August and 21st September last, as Avell as to your Lordship’s Despatch of the 4tli of September last, I have the honour to transmit to your Lordship a copy of a Note Yerbale which has been sent to me by the French Minister for Foreign Affairs in answer to Mr. Plunkett’s Memorandum of the 31st August, respecting the apprehensions excited in Her Majesty’s Australian Colonies by the Bill for transportation of Relapsed Criminals to New Caledonia which has been passed by the French Chamber of Deputies.

The Note states that, as the Bill, though adopted by the Chamber of Deputies, is still liable to amendment by the Senate, the French Government cannot yet speak positively as to the purport of the measure or the mode in which it will be carried into execution.

The French Government hopes, however, to be able in a short time to give an estimate of the number of criminals, now in prison, to whom the law will be applicable, if it shall be passed by the Senate in its present shape.

Finally, it appears from the Note that orders have been sent to the Governor of New Caledonia to continue to apply to the competent authorities, in conformity Avith the 16th Article of the Treaty of the 14th of August 1876, for the extradition of transported convicts who escape to Australia.

I have, &c.

Tho Earl Granville, K.G.,    (Signed) Lyons.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Note Verbale.

Le Ministre d’Angleterre il Paris a remis, le 31 Août, a M. Ch.-Lacour une note appelant l’attention du Gouvernement de la Republique sur certaines conséquences qui paraissaient au Gouvernement Britannique devoir résulter pour les colonies Australiennes do la mise en exécution du projet do la loi sur les récidivistes présenté récemment à la Chambre des Députés.

D’après les dispositions do cette loi, la rélégation dans différentes colonies françaises, parmi lesquelles figurent la Nouvelle Calédonie et ses dépendances, doit etre prononcée dans certains cas. Les populations des possessions anglaises ont manifesté les craintes que leur inspirent le voisinage éventuel des individus ainsi éloignés de la métropole, et Lord Granville désirerait savoir quelles sont les intentions du Gouvernement français en ce qui concerne le nombre des condamnés destinés il nos établissements de l’Océan Pacifique, et le régime auquel ils seraient soumis.

Il convient, tout d’abord, de remarquer que les dispositions dont il s’agit n’ont encore été sanctionnées que par l’une des deux assemblées dont l’accord est nécessaire pour leur donner force de loi, et que les délibérations du Sénat, auquel elles sont soumises en ce moment, peuvent meme les ramener par voie d’amendemen t devant la Chambre des Députés.

Dans ces conditions une certaine réserve s’impose au Gouvernement français et le Gouvernement anglais se rendra facilement compte qu’il nous soit dviieile de fournir dès a présent des indications positives sur la portée et sur le mode d'application d’une loi qui attend encore la sanction complete des pouvoirs publics.

Dans l’etat actuel de notre législation, tout condamné libéré, sauf le cas ou la surveillance de la haute police l’astreint à une résidence fixe, demeure libre de se rendre dans les pays étrangers, après l’accomplissement de sa peine. Dès lors, toute mesure destinée assurer une répression plus sevère de la récidive et notamment la séquestration des récidivistes sur des points déterminés constitue par elle-memo une garantie de plus pour la sécurité des autres nations.

La loi soumise au Parlement français a précisément pour objet de réduire à l’impuissance les malfaiteurs d’habitude, en les internant, do préférence, dans des régions éloignées autant que possible séparées de tout autre pays par l’océan, ou ils sont placés sous la surveillance de la force publique. C’est donc, en réalité, une œuvre d’intérêt universel que poursuit le Gouvernement français en se résignant a de lourds sacrifices pour entretenir, surveiller, amender des hommes qui, abandonnées a leurs instincts ou aux entraînements de la misère, no sauraient manquer de devenir un danger commun pour tous les pays voisins de la France. Les individus soumis il la rélegation ne seraient pas d’ailleurs exclusivement dirigés sur la Nouvelle Calédonie et ses dépendances ; la Guyane, les îles Marquises, l’île Phu-Quoc seraient également appelées il en recevoir un certain nombre.

Enfin, les pénalités sévères édictées par l’article 16 do la loi à l’égard des rélégués convaincus d’évasion ou de tentative d’évasion achèvent de démontrer le peu de fondement des appréhensions manifestées par les Colonies Australiennes.

Quant au nombre des individus qui pourront éventuellement tomber sous le coup de la loi, les récherclies prescrites par Monsieur le Ministre de l’Intérieur à la suit© de la communication de M. Plunkett en vue d’arriver à une évaluation approximative ne lui ont pas encore permis d’établir des chiffres précis. Il n’est guère possible, en effet, de déterminer, dès à présent, combien d’individus seront détournés ou non de la récidive par la perspective de l’expatriation devant suivre l’accomplissement de leur peine.

Toutefois, nous serons prochainement en mesure d’indiquer au Gouvernement anglais le nombre des détenus auxquels la loi pourrait être appliquée dans les conditions projetees actuellement si ces conditions ne sont pas modifiées par le vote du Sénat.

Notre attention a été appelée en même temps sur ce fait que les autorités françaises do la Nouvelle Calédonie s’abstiendraient aujourd’hui de réclamer, comme elles le faisaient précédemment, l’extradition des malfaiteurs évadés qui se réfugeraient en Australie et notamment sur le territoire du Queensland.

Dès qu’il a été avisé de cette observation le Ministre de-la Marine et les Colonies s’est empressé de prescrire au Gouverneur de nos établissements de la Nouvelle Calédonie de continuer il poursuivre auprès des autorités compétentes conformément à l’Article 16 du traité du 14 Août 1876 1 extradition des transportés qui parviendraient à se réfugier dans les colonies anglaises d’Australie.

I 3

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sm,    Foreign Office, December 8, 18S3.

I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, for the information of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, copy of a Despatch from Her Majesty’s Consul at Nouméa, forwarding a newspaper report on the proceedings of the “ Compagnie Calédonienne des Nouvelles Hébrides,” during the past year.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J.' PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 74.

My Lord,    Noumea, October G, 1883.

In my Despatch of the 20th November 1882, and previous Despatches, I informed your Lordship of the formation of the “ Compagnie Calédonienne des Nouvelles-Hébrides.” I now have the honour to forward a Report on the proceedings of the said Society for the past year, extracted from the local paper, the “ Néo-Calédonien,” of the 3rd instant.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. Earl Granville, K.G.,    (Signed) E. L. Layard.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Extract from theNéo-Calédonienof October 3, 1883. Compagnie Calédonienne des Nouvelles-Hébrides (Société Anonyme).

Capital : 500,000 fr.

Assemblée Générale Ordinaire d,u 29 Septembre, 1883.

Rapport du Commissaire de Surveillance.

Messieurs,

Conformément à l’Article 30 de nos Statuts, j’ai l’honneur de vous rendre compte de la mission que vous m’avez confiée dans notre réunion du 8 Novembre dernier.

L’exercice, dont votre Conseil d’Administration vient de vous faire connaître les résultats, no comprend qu’une période de huit mois, ainsi que l’avait prévu le paragraphe 2 do l’Article 44 des Statuts ; il s’étend du mois de Novembre 1882, date de la constitution definitive de notre Société, jusqu’au 30 Juin 1883.

Qu’a fait la Compagnie pendant ce court espace de temps ?

Son pacte social lui imposait comme but de son activité l’éstablissement de comptoirs dans les diverses îles de l’archipel Néo-IIébridais : ce but est dés aujourd’hui atteint !

De vastes acquisitions conclues avec autant de bonheur que de promptitude et dans des conditions de publicité et de régularité, qui, quelles que soient les éventualités politiques, leur assurent le respect de tous, et les placent sous la protection du droit des gens, ont mis en nos mains un réseau de stations parfaitement choisies, et un immense domaine agricole qui n’a pas moins de 245,000 hectares.

Ces stations ont déjà donné une vigoureuse impulsion aux opérations agricoles et commerciales dont elles doivent être les instruments.

Pour cette première année seulement, nous pouvons compter sur une exportation do 500 tonnes de coprah, do 2,000 sacs de maïs, de 12 tonnes, do café, soit une valeur d’environ 200,000 fr. Une exploitation chaque jour plus active du coprah de la part des indigènes, les vastes et intelligentes plantations de caféiers et de maïs opérées par nos agents nous garantissent une rapide progression dans le chiffre do nos produits.

L’acquisition du steamer “ Le Calédonien,” et les deux bateaux à voiles “ l’Ambroua ” et le “ Calédonia,” maintiennent des relations faciles et constantes entre nos comptoirs Néo-Hébridais et cetto Colonie.

Un magasin place an centre de l'archipel, pourvu d'un stock de marchandises important et varié, facilite les échanges, stimule la production indigène, et etend nos relations.

L’achat des soufrières de Tana a doté notre actif social d’une valeur industrielle de premier ordre, dont l’exploitation doit fournir à notre Compagnie un nouvel élément de prospérité.

Messieurs, j’ai pu m assurer de la régularité du bilan, de l’inventaire, et des comptes que votre Conseil soumet à votre approbation, et je vous propose de les ratifier par vos votes.

Fait et déposé à Nouméa, au siège social, le 10 Septembre, 1883.

Le Commissaire de Surveillance,

(Signé) G. Cüdenet.

No. 75.

COLONIAL OFFICE to the ABERDEEN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

Sir,    Downing Street, December 8, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 30th ultimo,!i: forwarding a memorial from the Aberdeen Chamber of Commerce, with reference to the question of the annexation of New Guinea.

Lord Derby desires me to state in reply, that the Chamber may be assured that Her Majesty’s Government will not fail to consider carefully the resolutions recently passed by the Inter-Colonial Convention now assembled at Sydney.

1 am, &c.

The Secretary of the    (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

Aberdeen Chamber of Commerce.

No. 76.

Administrator Sir A. H. PALMER, K.C.M.G. (Queensland), to the Right Hon. the

EARL OF DERBY. (Received December 11, 1883.)

Government House, Brisbane,

My Lord,    October 24, 1883.

1 no myself the honour to enclose for your Lordship’s information, extracts from the “ Brisbane Courier ” of the 13th, 15th, and 20th October, giving the details of what is said to have been a’ land purchase which has been effected lately in Now Guinea.

It is hardly necessary for me to point out to your Lordship the very serious difficulties which are likely to arise if speculative Europeans are permitted to trade upon the ignorance and simplicity of the Natives of New Guinea.

It appears from the article of the “ Courier’s ” correspondent, that the land said to have been sold is the sole support of the Natives in the particular district referred to— that the Native chiefs have no power whatever to part with the land, they simply holding it for the people—that the bargain was an unjust one, inasmuch as the value put upon the land, 1 d. per acre, was absurd, and that the agreement was not understood, and was translated into a different dialect to that spoken by the people of the district.

I have every reason to believe that the correspondent of the “ Courier ” is a man who thoroughly knows the country and its inhabitants, and his statements are fully confirmed by those of the special correspondent of the “ Melbourne Argus,” Mr. Armit, a gentleman who was for many years in the service of the Government of this Colony as an officer of police, as also by the letter of the Rev. James Chalmers to the Colonial Secretary (copy enclosed).

It is highly undesirable that the troubles experienced in New Zealand and Fiji should be repeated in the case of New Guinea, and 1 have ventured to draw your Lordship’s attention to these articles, because I am convinced that British rule in some 18

form or other will have to be established in New Guinea, at once, if Ave wish to avoid the constant trouble, expense, and bloodshed likely to arise through the contact of European traders with the Native population of the island.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Secretary of State    (Signed) A. H. PALMEll.

for the Colonies.

Enclosure 1 in No. 76.

of the 20th October 1883.


Extract from the “ Brisbane Courier”

The pretended Land Sale in New Guinea.

[From our OAvn Correspondent.]

Port Moresby, October 2.

The district of Kabadi is about eight miles inland from Redscar Bay, and can be approached on the Avest by the Aroa River, entering the bay near the Skittles Rocks. The bar is shallow, at times cannot be crossed by boats ; it Avould be impossible for a vessel of any draught to enter. The Boera natives, in the trading season, ahvays enter here in their large canoes, Avhilst the Motuans enter at Manumanu. Entering at Manumanu the passage is easily seen, and once in there is a splendid harbour, safe in all seasons and in all kinds of Aveather. The approach to Kabadi on the east side is by Manumanu and ascending the creek Apisi for several miles, it being dee]) up to near the head. Leaving the boat, there is a Avalk of a feAV miles to Matapalia or Hanuabada.

Crossing the Aroa at Ikaukana, there is a plain of several miles, comprising Avhat is said to' be splendid sugar land. It extends right into a thick bush near the range, and beyond it another tract of good country is passed to the Akevaliu River, Avhicli is crossed on a suspension bridge made of thick cane, and into the thick bush near the higher ranges, Avhere much SAvamp is met Avith. The Akevaliu empties into the Aroa about tAvo miles beloAV Ikaukana ; the other rivers crossed near the higher range form a large river that falls into FresliAvater Bay, and is called the Coombes.

Three years ago I visited Kabadi, and found it one of the finest districts I have seen from Bald Head to East Cape, and have pleasant remembrances of the kindness of the people. Since then I have visited it frequently, and knoAV its people Avell. Only a feAV months ago I Avent there to open up communications betAveen the Kabadians and Motuans, and after that sucessful trip have had many messages from the chiefs to return, but have not found time. At last the leading chief sent an urgent request that I should return, as he Avas iioav Avilling to make peace Avith the Manumanuans. Having been to Maiva, a district Avest of Yule Island 15 miles, I Avas detained, but on my return to Port Moresby I at once arranged to visit Kabadi, select house-ground, and arrange Avood, and, if at all possible, bring the parties together, and make peace and friends,

Our party Avas large—Mr. and Mrs. LaAves and son, and Mr. Chalmers, and the first and second of the “ Argus expedition, these gentlemen being anxious to see the country, and, I suppose, like all of the class, to get something to Avrite about. In the event of tho Imperial Government refusing to ratify the action of the Queensland Government in annexing neAV Guinea, I wonder if Mr. Gladstone and his Ministers Avould give the native question a thought ? I ask simply because your bold Queensland action through your grand, honest-hearted Premier has raised difficulties that are likely to lead to more serious ones in the future betAveen Avhites and blacks. If your Premier Avas only here iioav he Avould have a splendid chance of trying his hand at native politics. The natives believe too much in one of the missionaries, and seem led entirely by him, at least so some of the Avhites say, and add that he is a tyrant, acts tyrannically, and that the natives are afraid of him ; but the strange thing is he has been amongst them for six years, never armed, and, Avhile I Avrite this, has his head on his shoulders, and not badly fixed. These savages dispose of tyrants, but this missionary tyrant they have often said they Avould fight for. Why he does not at once assume his position and become dictator or Papuan monarch is hard to say, as either Avould be easy for him.

Well, avc left Port Moresby about sundoAvn, and, Avith a south-east Avind, ran for Boera, a dirty village 15 miles from port. Avhere there is an excellent teacher, a South Sea Islander, avIio has got one of the finest homesteads I have seen south of the line. Piri is a splendid man, and deserves a good place. We arrived about 10 p.m., and, Pin Avas to accompany us to Kabadi, Avhere he is much thought of and the people

love him as a friend and can trust him, to assist the missionaries in securing house „•round, and make arrangements for houses for four new teachers who are to he placed in that district.

The teacher’s house is wattle and plaster, a vei*y comfortable, commodious building. We found Piri not very willing to leave his station, as he is busy building a new church, which, when finished, will be as fine a native building as can be found anywhere ; but as we had the “ tyrant ” missionary with us, he gladly consented.

We had two boats, and the next morning at daylight we were up and away. No wind, not a breath, so it was pull, pull, right across Caution Bay and into Redscar Bay, where passing the Varivara Islands, we got a nice gentle breeze to waft us along on our work of mercy. I wonder if some hereafter to be spoken of in mere alphabetical letters will think the errand one of mere mercy, or will they recognise a work of justice in it all. I ought to explain that a Sydney syndicate appointed a gentleman to come here, select land, and if possible buy it from the natives. This agent surveyor became acquainted with a gentleman who for some years has had much to do with New Guinea, and who has certainly treated the natives well. The latter heard from a man who accompanied the “ tyrant ” missionary in his first trip inland from Redscar Bay of good land for sugar at Kabadi. Being a Scotchman, he naturally thought •‘now’s the day and now’s the hour” an honest penny may be turned. The honesty of the penny has yet to be seen, and the day and hour may prove rather unfortunate. The ancient New Guinea gentleman and the recently-appointed agent surveyor secured the services of another gentleman who has been at the beche-de-mer business on the coast, and the trio, representing, I suppose, the syndicate, accompanied by natives from the port and Boera, proceeded to Kabadi. They had wise heads on good shoulders, and I suppose, to be right all round, they got the missionary folks to translate an agreement which was to be read to the natives and then signed, consigning for ever and for ever the land or lands belonging to the said natives to the said syndicate. Unfortunately the missionaries know nothing of the Kabadi dialect, and translated it into the Motuan, so that it remained a foreign dialect to the Kabadians.

How is it the Anglo-Saxon is such a terrible land grabber? Why not begin right, and leave these poor Papuans on their lands and in full possession of them ? Could you not find in Northern Queensland a few thousand acres of good sugar land for this southern syndicate, and so avoid deceiving the ignorant savage, who seeing a tomahawk would part with everything to secure it. The child plays with the diamond, and one comes along with his bright new penny-piece, hands it to the child, and secures the precious stone. Fine sugar land, beating your Herbert, and the tomahawk fetches it. I think I am right, and I believe it is what your Sir Thomas would have, sell or buy no land until there is a responsible Government, and then only through the Government. Let us for once in our history act righteously by the weaker race, recognise their rights ; remember they are not only savages but children, and cannot deal for themselves with a superior race. Help them, though it seems sometimes very tyrannical. Eh ! but I wish again and again that the Premier and Opposition leader were here ; for once they would be on one side of the House, for once they would unite in indignation in one cause, and for once unite their strong efforts to assist the weak. The missionaries would do much, but they hang back lest it should be said they have stepped beyond their work; but that “tyrant” missionary will not be kept back, and seems to think he can do as he likes and say what he likes. The Imperial Government had better make him Deputy Commissioner or Protector of Natives, or get him out of the way. Well, we got to Manumanu, at the mouth of the Laroge. Some distance up the Laroge and Edith join and form a really splendid harbour. The village is a dirty stinking hole, and the people, for savages, a mean, unthankful lot. Well, up the Laroge is splendid country, on the right bank especially, until the lagoons are reached. We stayed a very short time at the village, then proceeded up the saltwater creek Apisi. When six miles up we came to the “ Alice Meade,” with all the syndicate representatives on board. They were kind to us, and of their hospitality we partook. They were also communicative, and informed us they had been a week at Kabadi before they could get the natives to sell any land, but finally the natives parted with 15,000 acres, not very good land, only here and there small patches fit for sugar growing ; that the one head chief of Kabadi was on board ; that the natives were the very essence of goodness and kindness, and were so rejoiced by all the transactions that they nearly filled the vessel with presents; that no more foreigners should go there, and when we should be seen the people wonld be very much afraid, and that they were specially asked not to allow any others to come.

Hi 8318.    .    K

.Just so, very fine, and that before-mentioned missionary thought so too. I could see him wince, and thought perhaps he would explode, but I believe

For the right that wants assistance

’Gainst the wrong that needs resistance ;

For the future in the distance,

For the good that we can do,

that he kept quiet and bided his time. I should not object to his tyranny if only exercised as I saw it in this trip. "We bade our friends good-bye and pulled up the creek three miles further, feeling sorry for the natives who so unthinkingly parted with their lands. What was to become of them as a people with their lands gone for over and a number of white men living amongst them, and many natives from other parts introduced to work the sugar ? How long ere the troubles between white and black should spring up'( We left our boats at the head of the creek, where we saw a tree marked with the initials of the representatives, and we walked through a piece of splendid land to Matapaila, arriving about sunset, and getting housed just in time to avoid a heavy downpour of rain. The people welcomed us right heartily, and did not seem as if they feared us. The village we camped at is small, but very picturesque, and at night looked well nestled in the centre of a large cocoanut grove. It is a wonder the London Missionary Society has not had teachers here before. However, now they are arranging for four stations, and hope soon to have them occupied.

The natives denied having sold large quantities of land, and said that only one block near the other village was sold, and another block near an inland village, but no more; that the Chief Paru sold the block close by, and was well paid for it; that they got their tomahawks for food, and not for land. I never knew Paru as a great chief, only he was very friendly with Manumanu, and they made him their chief; and now we found that he was no chief, owned no land, and had no power to dispose of the land; that in all that part there was one owner, who took first fruits, best pigs, best fish, frequent presents, and who gave instructions to plant and burn grass in the hunting season, and that Paru was living on his land, and that was the land he sold. There is no doubt Paru swindled the syndicate. That the land had gone for ever no native ever thought. They believed that only one white man, Mr. Goldie, would live with them, and when he left or died the land would return to them. Inland, on the banks of the Aroa, was another block of a few acres, so the natives said, but the syndicate claims 15,000 acres, sold by iSTaime, Arua, a Naara man, and others who had no right whatever to the land. On the morning before leaving-for the inland villages, Urevado, the real land owner, or rather trustee for his nephew, came into the village calling out, “ Leave " my land alone, no foreigner shall have any of my land ; I alone am the rightful owner.” We found from all the people it was so, that he and his nephew were the only landowners. Before we left we saw all the sellers, and they all assured us Urevado and his nephew were right.

In Urevado’s presence Paru Avas charged with deceiving Misi G., and he acknowledged he owned no land, and that he really was no chief, and asked us to beg of Misi G. to come back and get his trade. He asserted again and again that the most of the trade was given in payment of food which went on board the vessel. He said he and others held a “ stick,” and C. held his hand and guided him to write on paper. What the paper said he knew not, and he certainly did not understand all that was said; that he does give Urevado pigs and first-fruits for land; that Urevado tells them where and when to plant, and that he alone gives orders to burn grass.

That the white men were deceived I have no doubt whatever. Neither of them was ever there before, and knew nothing of the dialect, and only one of them knew Motu, and that very, very little. The sale is certainly worthless, and would never be sanctioned by any Government. I think the sale of land at all should be prohibited, and everything done to encourage the natives to hold their lands. Just imagine, ye Queensland planters, getting 15,000 acres magnificent sugar land for 70L worth of trade, a little more than Id. per acre. Will Britain, when she does annex, sanction that ? Never! for the land as it now lies is worth 41. an acre, and to the natives certainly worth 1/. an acre at the very least.

Until New Guinea is annexed or protected, land lifters should be informed of the illegality of their transactions. I know something of natives and their politics, and I know well that in selling land they never think they are parting with it for ever, and that they part with it only to the man whom they know. No native chief can legally

part with land ; lie holds it for his people, and certainly the people cannot part with it. It is all entailed land.

When will the Anglo-Saxon learn the world was not made for him alone ? Britons seem to think these races have only Been holding land through all the past generations for them to enter in a kind of Canaanitish and Israelitish business, to turn out and Avipc out the former and just take possession. Unless the present land-jobbing in New Guinea is not at once stopped, the future is full of trouble. Only let Lord Derby or your Premier say that nothing of the kind will be sanctioned, and the thing must assure these land-lifters that no agreement entered into with untutored savages will be recognised. Let it be remembered in the future the Kabadi land is worth 4 per acre to any Government. It is possible now land may be taken in the same way as the preceding, and the difficulties entailed are innumerable. You need be in no doubt the present land sale is unjust, and is a copy of others to take place. I do not wish it to be thought I for a moment think the gentlemen purchasing tried to deceive the natives, but I do think the natives deceived them. Whatever New Guinea’s future is, Queensland must have much to say in it; and it would be well for your Government to speak and let syndicates, &c., know that no land sale will be recognised.

I believe when Mr. Chester annexed, he, standing under the grand old flag, said, “ No land must be sold until a responsible Government is established, and no land “ sales will be recognised." He, I believe, advised Mr. Goldie, of the present syndicate, not to attempt to buy land now, as any Government would simply ignore the transaction.

Enclosure 2 in No. 76.

Extract from the “ Brisbane Courier ” of the 15th October 1883.

The Colonial Secretary has received telegrams from Mr. Armit, special correspondent of the “ Argus,” and the Rev. J. C. Chalmers, conveying substantially the same information in regard to recent land transactions in New Guinea as that given in our telegrams on Saturday. ' Mr. Armit adds :—“ There is a great ferment among the natives, who “ never knew that the trade was for land. Your action in annexing has drawn the “ attention of the whole world to New Guinea, and England cannot hold aloof now, “ but must protect the natives from designing whites. The natives are a fine “ industrious race, who will not submit tamely to be robbed. All dealings “ .between individuals and natives should be strictly prohibited, and some officer “ should be sent over, pending the decision of the Imperial Government. If somo-“ thing is not done at once, I foresee grave complications, whereas peace and friendly “ relations can be easily maintained by prompt and energetic action. The Kabadi “ district of New Guinea supplies the inhabitants on a coast line of 60 miles with one-half of what they consume. By taking the land the whites will close the “ supply and endeavour to force the natives to work on plantations by destroying “ their trade, the source of their present wealth and independence.”

Enclosure 3 in No. 76.

Extract from the “Brisbane Courier,” of the 13th October 1883.

New Guinea.

[From our own.Correspondent.]

Port Moresby (via Cooktown).

Fifteen thousand acres of good sugar land has been bought for a Sydney syndicate at Id. per acre. The real owner of the land was never seen, and took no part in the transaction. The owner declares that no foreigner must come on his land.

The “ Argus ” exploration party, under Captain Armit, are now at Port Moresby. Mr. Morrison and the “ Age ” party have not been heard of for some weeks. Professor Denton, who was with Armit’s party, died inland. Mr. Armit showed him great kindness.

A large trading party has gone out west.

There has been no rain for some time, and vegetation is dying.

Enclosure 4 in No. 76.

My dear Sm Thomas,    New Guinea, September 24, 1883.

Rememrerixg your request, that if we had anything to report we should do so direct to the Colonial Secretary, who would attend to the same, I therefore beg to draw your attention to the following sale of land at Kabadi, off Redscar Bay, one of the finest districts in New Guinea.

Four years ago I visited the district, and one of my party, who knew what good land was, gave Mr. Goldie, a beche-de-mer fisher, information that the best land he had ever seen was at Kabadi. When Mr. Chester was here last April, Goldie, although lie had never visited the district, spoke of trying to get land there, but was. informed by Mr. Chester he could not purchase land until some responsible government officer was here to watch over native interests, and that all land sales must be made through said officer, and not with the natives.

A few weeks ago Goldie, accompanied by a Mr. Cameron from Sydney, both, I believe, representing a Sydney syndicate, went to Kabadi, and induced the natives to part with 15,000 acres of land for a little more than Id. per acre. We followed soon after to arrange for teachers being placed at the various villages, and found the land sold did not belong to the man called a chief by Goldie, nor to the people who got the trade; that the real owner was Urevado, Kabadi’s greatest chief, who held it as trustee for his nephew. Goldie’s chiefs and people pay tribute to Urevado in the shape of best bananas, yams, sugar cane, pigs, birds, fish, and other things, and they admit that he only can tell them where and when to plant, and he only can give orders to burn grass during hunting season. Urevado told us Goldie must not go on to his land, and he would not sell his land to any foreigner. All begged of us to tell the land purchasers to return and get their trade.

Apart from the illegality of the present sale, I think the system of buying land from natives bad, and will, doubtless, lead to serious trouble in the future. No native thinks he is parting with his land for ever, nor does he imagine that any other one will come on to it, but he who paid the tomahawk, and that on his leaving or dying the land reverts to its original owner.

These natives are like children, the glitter of the new tomahawk will draw from them their best and only real treasure—their land.

Again, selling land now will interfere with the government hereafter, and instead of a responsible government to care for ousted natives, we shall have capitalists who will care for themselves and not the natives.

The land at presexxt claimed as bought by Goldie is in a district that supplies during one season of the year nearly sixty (60) miles of coast line with provisions, and to have their land go to foreigners will not only be a vexy serioxxs affair for themselves, bxxt will be so for several thousands of people.

The preseixt purchasers think it is a missionary dodge, and that we ax’c, mex’ely through spleen or something else, opposing them, bxxt I assxxx’e yoxx, my dear Sir Thomas, it is ixotlxing of the kind; it is not merely because we are missioxxaries that we are determined to xxse all our ixxflxxence to xxpset this land scheme, bixt becaxxse we as xnexx feel it to be an xxnjxist act to the ignorant xxatives and an injxxstice to axxy goverxxmexxt that may come hex’eafter. Why begixx xxow ixx New Gxxixxea what has caused so uxxxclx troxdxle ixx New Zealand, Fiji, and Samoa? Let it bo distixxctly xxxxder-stood that no xxative caxx sell laxxd but through a govex’nmexxt officer, axxd xxo land sales made in any other way will be recognised, axxd this land-lifting will be stopped.

Believe me, &c.

Sir Thomas Mcllwraitlx, Brisbaxxe.    (Signed) James Chalmers.

No, 77.

GEORGE PALMER, Esq., M.P., to COLONIAL OFFICE.

My Lord,    58, Grosvexxor Street, December 11, 1883.

The enclosed letter, from the Rev. W. G. Lawes, I take the liberty to hand to your .Lordship, assuring you that Mr. Lawes is a xxxost trxxstworthy man. lie is a missioxxaxy of the Loxxdon Missionary Society, kxxowxx by myself. Lie is a maxx of more than comxxxon good sense and judgment, axxd therefore, 1 think, one whose evidexxce is likely to be trxxstworthy.

I have taken a copy of this document and leave the original with your Lordship, asking that such, use may be made of it as may appear proper. It will be seen that Hr. Lawcs designed that it should be made a public paper. I shall be glad if this may be its use.

I am, &c.

The Uight Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) GEO. PALMER.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 77.

Port Moresby, New Guinea,

Dear Mr. Parmer,    September 21, 1883.

I had the honour of addressing you some time ago respecting the annexation of New Guinea, and 1 want now to call your attention, and that of the Society you represent, to a case of gross injustice, by which it is sought to deprive the natives of a large tract of country.

The district of Kabadi, in Redscar Bay, about 60 miles from here, comprises a number of villages with a population of about 2,000. The soil is particularly rich, and admirably adapted for the growth of sugar-cane. It is the more valuable from the fact that it is bounded on two sides by navigable water, a salt water creek on one side and a fresh water river on the other.

This has excited the cupidity of some adventurers who see in it a source of speedy wealth. A land surveyor, named Cameron, said to represent some Sydney syndicate, went three weeks.ago, in company Avith a Mr. Goldie, to Kabadi, and they profess to have bought 15,000 acres of land from the natives.

We are Avell known at Kabadi, and the day the land speculators left avc arrived on a visit to the people to select sites for teachers’ houses. We found that a large quantity of trade, such as the natives prize most highly, had been given them, but they had no idea that it Avas in payment for their land. One Chief led Messrs. Cameron and Goldie about (neither of them had ever been to Kabadi before), and Avhen he saw it Avas an opportunity for getting tomahaAvks and tobacco he told them that the land they had seen Avas his. They accepted his Avord, guided his hand to sign a paper, the meaning of Avhich he did not knoAV, gave him about 10L Avortli of trade, put up their marks, and uoav claim to be the rightful oAvners of the land. The true owner of the soil they never saw,and he was    in utter ignorance of the whole transaction. On the

speculators’ oavii statement they gave 701. Avorth of trade aAvay altogether at Kabadi, and claim 15,000 acres of land valued by a scientific agriculturist at 21. an acre !

They have iioav gone along the coast to make other purchases in the same Avay. When they have obtained some thousands more acres of the best land in New Guinea they Avill probably ask the British Government to ratify their title and secure to them the lands Avhich have been the hunting grounds and garden plots of the natives for many generations. It is here that the Aborigines Protection Society can be of great service in protecting the natives of New Guinea. Before the so-called purchases can be utilised as sugar lands a large amount of capital Avill be required to procure the necessary plant of machinery, &c., and no capitalists Avill advance money unless their title to the land is recognised by the British Government.

We feel sure that if the facts of the case are laid before Her Majesty’s advisers they Avill never sanction the Avholesale transfer of native lands, especially Avhen it carries Avith it no responsibility Avith regard to the future of the true OAvners of the soil.

In the above case the claim must be void, from the fact that the vendor Avas not the OAvner and had no right to sell; also that the parties to the contract on the one side did not understand its terms; but cases may arise in which the owners understand the terms and yet dispose of their land. A display of neAV axes, red cloth, beads, and tobacco, Avould entice almost any native to give up his land, but he Avould soon repent Avhen he saAV his ancestors’ lands possessed by foreigners. Surely no Government Avill •recognise any contract made under such circumstances betAveen two such unequal

parties.

Let it be distinctly knoAvn that the Government Avill not recognise any purchases of land from natives by private individuals, and an immense amount of trouble Avill be saved. If not, collision Avith the natives is inevitable, and British interests Avill be damaged for the aggrandisement of a few land grabbers and sugar planters. The evil that must ensue to the natives is self-evident. A 'large influx of foreigners for whose

K 3


good behaviour no one would be responsible, and who would bo under no restraint but self-interest, could only result in cruelty, wrong, and injustice. The natives would soon be cleared off the land.

Whatever the relations between the British Government and New Guinea may be, it is of first importance that the . land of the natives should not be at the mercy of white men “ making haste to be rich.” If there is to be any transfer of native land, it should only be through the representative of a responsible Government. Only thus can anything like justice be secured between barbarous and civilised races. It is not only the immediate owners of the soil.that have to be considered, but the interests of tho natives generally. Every district, such as that of Kabadi, supplies a large outside population with food in return for pottery and other articles of trade. The alienation of any large tract of country would cut off the food supply of neighbouring places, close a large market, and stop useful native industries. These are responsibilities which none but a representative of a civilised Government can assume, and no other can protect native interests.

I need not encroach further on your valuable time. I am writing also to the Secretary of our own Society, the London Missionary, and I trust steps may be taken at once to obtain from the Government a declaration that will put a stop to speculation in native lands. A statement made by the Earl of Carnarvon some years ago in reference to a proposed New Guinea Colonisation Society quashed it at once; and more recently a reply of Sir Arthur Gordon’s to a similar association in Victoria had the same effect.

Apologising for the length of this, I remain, with very kind regards,

Yours very sincerely,

G. Palmer, Esq., M.P.,    W. G. Lawes.

Member of Aborigines Protection Society.

No. 78.

The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor the Right Hon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales).

Telegraphic.

11th Dec. 1883.—Nothing known Paris new French claims19 Pacific.

No. 79.

The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor the Right Hon. LORD A.

LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales).

Telegraphic.

12th December 1883.—Yours fifth.f Are you sending any further telegram Conference.

No. 80.

Governor the Right Hon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales), to the Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received December 13, 1883.)

Telegraphic.

No further telegram from Convention; Closed. Local Parliaments must first approve. Then address Imperial Legislature.

f No. 68.


i 'i i 1 /


Governor the Right IIon. LORD A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales), to the Right Hon. the EARL OR DERBY". (Received December 13, 1883.)

Telegraphic.

Yours seventh.* Two hundred and forty-seven landed since 1873. Most inmates of caols. Details by mail.

No. 82.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, December 15, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 7th instant,f with a copy of a despatch from Her Majesty's Ambassador at Paris, inclosing a note verbale from the French Minister for Foreign Affairs on the subject of the Bill for the transportation of relapsed criminals to islands in the Pacific Ocean.

2.    Lord Derby understands this note to intimate that, if the Bill is passed in its present shape, the French Government will have discretion as to sending any of the recidivistes to New Caledonia and its dependencies; and I am to request that you will inform Earl Granville that it seems to his Lordship to be desirable to press upon the French Government the propriety of allaying the constantly increasing apprehensions of the Colonies by an assurance that these criminals will be sent to some of the other places named in the Bill and not to New Caledonia.

3.    That there is strong foundation for the complaints of the Colonies is shown by the answer to an inquiry which Lord Derby recently addressed to the Governor of New South Wales as to the number and particulars of escaped New Caledonia convicts, who have been arrested in the Australian colonies. Copies of Lord Derby’s telegram and of the answerj received from Lord Augustus Loftus are annexed.

4.    Lord Derby observes that instructions have been given to the Governor of New Caledonia to continue to apply to the Colonial Governments of Australia for the extradition of escapees, and he would suggest that the French Government should be thanked for this action on their part, but that Lord Lyons should at the same time call special attention to the very serious extent to which the escape of French criminals has been permitted during the last 10 years.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) R. H. MEADE.

Foreign Office.

No. 83.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, December 15, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you, for the information of Earl Granville, printed copies of the telegrams, § which have passed between his Lordship and the Governor of New South Wales, relative to New Guinea, and the resolutions of the Inter-Colonial convention.

Lord Derby is considering what action he shall recommend Her Majesty’s Government to take with regard to each of the resolutions reported in Lord Augustus Loftus s telegram of the 5th December, and the only one of those resolutions to which Lord Derby would call Lord Granville’s special attention at this moment is the Gth.

{ Nos. 71 and 81.


* No. 71.


t No. 73.

§ Nos. 01, 68, 70, and 71.

K 4

feeling.


The Under Secretary of State, Foreign Office.


I am, &c.

(Signed) R. II. MEADE.


No. 84.

Governor Sir G. W. DES VŒUX, K.C.M.G., (Fiji), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received December 17, 1888).

My Lord,    Government House, Suva, Fiji, October 26, 1883.

I have the honour to enclose copy of a letter from Mr. Service, Premier of Victoria, inviting this Colony to send a delegate to the approaching Convention of the Australasian Colonies, which has been summoned for the consideration of questions of confederation and annexation.

2.    Principally owing to the action of Mr. Leefe, an unofficial member of the Legislative Council, action which has already, I understand, been reported to your Lordship, there is a great probability that among the subjects of discussion at this Convention wdl be the question of attaching Fiji to one of the larger colonies, or of including it within the proposed confederation.

3.    As I have also good reason to believe that very mistaken notions with reference to the affairs not only of Fiji, but of the High Commission, are entertained even by leading statesmen of Australia, simply because they have received their information almost exclusively Horn prejudiced sources, I have, after much consideration, deemed it my duty to make an effort to remove these incorrect impressions, with a view to obviate if possible the great inconvenience which is otherwise likely to be their result m a not distant future.

4.    Principally for this reason, and also because there are various questions in which Fiji has interest in common with the larger colonies (such as quarantine, exchange of coloured and white prisoners and lunatics, reciprocity in giving effect to judgments of courts of justice), which this meeting of leading statesmen is likely to afford a favourable opportunity for discussing, I have changed my intention, as conveyed to your Lordship in my Despatch of 7th September last,20 and have determined to avail myself of the leave of absence which your Lordship kindly accorded to me in your Despatch of 26th April 1883.20

5.    Unless requested to do so by your Lordship, I do not propose to take any official part in the Convention. My present view is that I could, outside the Convention, render the more useful service in respect of the objects indicated, and may possibly exercise a more effective influence towards conclusions likely to be acceptable to Her Majesty’s Government.

6.    With reference to suggestions of any kind which I may offer, I shall take care in all cases to make it clearly known that they are made without official authority, and may or may not be approved by Her Majesty’s Government ; and your Lordship may feel assured that I shall do nothing which is at all likely to create embarrassment. It is of course possible that I may be able to effect nothing ; but I hope, at all events, to be able on some important points to supply correct information, which, according to all accounts received, is vei20y much wanting.

7.    With a view to open the way to the course proposed, I have caused the enclosed reply to be made to Mr. Service’s invitation, and I intend to embark for Sydney on a steamer which is expected to leave here about the 7tli of November.

8.    In the absence of any special commission of administrator, Mr. Thurston, the senior member of the Executive Council, will act as Governor during my absence, and I venture to think that his ability and special experience render him, to say the least, more fit for the position than any other officer available to fill it.

9. In the improbable event of anything occurring in Australia which should render special authority immediately necessary, I shall, of course, communicate with your Lordship by cable.

L have, &c.

(Signed) G.WILLIAM DES VŒUX, The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    Governor.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure 1 in No. 84.

Sir,    Premier's Office, Melbourne, September 6, 1883.

It will probably be within your knowledge that considerable correspondence has taken place between the various Governments of Australasia and the Imperial Government, respecting the annexation of the Island of New Guinea, and indeed of all the islands lying between New Guinea and Fiji, including the New Hebrides, New Ireland, and New Britain.

The refusal of the Imperial Government to ratify Queensland’s action in taking possession of New Guinea was accompanied by a suggestion on the part of the Secretary of State for the Colonies that the Australasian Colonies should combine together in respect of such questions and for other purposes of government.

The Honourable Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, Premier of Queensland, has adopted this idea, and has thereupon circulated amongst the other Australasian Colonies a Minute of the Executive Council of Queensland embodying a memorandum by himself, in which' he suggests the holding of a Convention to consider the desirability of making further representations respecting the islands, and to discuss the basis on which a Federal Government for Australasia could be constituted.

This proposal has met with the concurrence of all the Colonies of Australasia possessing representative government, and also of the Crown Colony of Western Australia.

At Sir Thomas Mcllwraith’s special request I have consented to act as convener of the proposed assembly of delegates.

My object in now writing is to say that it will be a very welcome event if Fiji can also be represented at the proposed Convention.

From the fact that the Secretary of State for the Colonies has himself suggested the federation of the Colonies in connexion with this question, I am encouraged to think that the co-operation of Fiji in the proposed Convention would be readily sanctioned by the Imperial Government.

I am accordingly addressing to you by the present mail the same circular,* which I have sent to the other Colonies.

It has been arranged that the proposed Convention shall meet in Sydney. The date has not yet been decided upon, but will be communicated to you as early as possible.

I have, &c.

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary,    (Signed) James Service,

Fiji.    Premier.

Enclosure 2 in No. 84.

(Circular.)

Sir,    Premier’s Office, Melbourne, September 11, 1883.

My circular letter of the 25th of August* was written with a view to ascertain what date would best suit the various Australasian Colonies, for the meeting of the Convention which Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, the Premier of Queensland, proposed should he held to discuss the two questions of the annexation of adjacent islands, and the federation of the Australasian Colonies.

I have been since that date in constant telegraphic correspondence on this subject with the different Australasian Governments, and the result is, as already announced to you by my telegram of the 7th instant, that on collating the advices from the

* See Enclosure 1 in No. 46, page 41.

Ri 8318.


L

different Colonies, I am enabled to name tlie last week in November as tlie time most convenient for the meeting of the proposed Convention.

My telegram of the 7th instant will also have informed yon that to meet the convenience of the Sydney Government, who could not name any day on which it would be convenient for them to send delegates to Melbourne, I had suggested that Sydney should be the meeting place. This has accordingly been arranged.

The precise date for the meeting of the Convention will be announced later on.

I beg now formally to invite your Government to appoint delegates to represent your Colony.

I find a slight difference of opinion amongst the Colonial Governments as to the number of delegates which should be appointed, some proposing four, some two. In my letter of the 25th August, I suggested that each Colony should send four delegates. My reason for this was, that on so important an occasion it seemed desirable that the delegation from each Colony should be thoroughly and fairly representative, not only of that party which may be at present in power, but of all parties.

A precedent for this is found in the history of the formation of the Dominion of Canada, on which occasion parties and party leaders who had been long opposed coalesced for the purpose of forming that Federal Government which has so much enhanced the prosperity and importance of the Colonies united under it.

In view of the attention which this movement has received from the Imperial Government, as well as from the English press and people, it seems to me especially desirable that the importance of the present occasion should not be under-estimated, and I feel that it would add greatly to the weight of the Convention’s determinations if it were made a thoroughly representative body.

It is of course a question for each Colony to decide how many delegates it will send.

I have, &c.

The Honourable the Colonial Secretary,    (Signed) James Service,

Fiji .    . Premier.

Enclosure 3 in No. 84.

Colonial Secretary’s Office, Suva,

Sir,    October 5, 1883. .

I have laid before the Governor of Fiji the letters which I have had the honour to receive from you (one dated 6th September and received 24th September, the other dated lltli September and received the 3rd instant), on the subject of a proposed convention which it is proposed to hold in Sydney for the purpose of considering questions of confederation and annexation, and I am directed by his Excellency to forward to you the reply which I herewith enclose.

I have, &c.

The Hon. James Service,    (Signed) John B. Thurston.

Premier, Victoria.

In acknowledging the letters addressed to the Colonial Secretary by the Honourable James Service, Premier of Victoria, conveying a desire for the attendance of a representative of Fiji at a Convention. proposed to be-held shortly in Sydney for the purpose of considering certain important questions, the Governor of Fiji desires, in the first instance, to express on behalf of the Colony his appreciation of the honour done to it by this courteous invitation.

Deeming of vital importance to British interests in this part of the world the creation of an Australasian Federative Government, and having the keenest sympathy with those statesmen who are, as he learns, endeavouring to moderate local susceptibilities, and to promote reciprocal concessions for the purpose of uniting the separate Colonies into one powerful dominion, the Governor of Fiji would be most glad if lie wero in a position to accept this invitation at once in the cordial spirit in which it is offered.

But though Fiji has various interests in common with the larger Colonies, and might also be able to afford local information which would be useful to the Convention, the Governor has reason to believe that Her Majesty’s Government do not, as Mr. Service supposes, contemplate the early inclusion of this Colony in an Australasian Confederation, and he is in doubt whether the position of its representative at such a Convention

would not therefore he so anomalous as to render his appointment desirable, and even whether his presence under such circumstances Avould be acceptable to the other delegates.

The Governor thinks it possible that Fiji might be more useful to the Convention by remaining outside of it, and as time does not permit of the removal by correspondence of his doubts with reference to the points indicated, the Governor hopes to have an early opportunity of conferring in person both with Mr. Service and with the Premier of New South AYales.

Meanwhile the Governor trusts that the representation of Fiji will bo permitted to remain an open question.

No. 85.

COLONIAL OFFICE to GEORGE PALMER, Esq., M.P.

Sir,    Downing Street, December 17, 1883.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknoAvledge the receipt of your letter of the 11th inst.,:;: enclosing one from the Rev. W. G. LaAves, respecting the so-called purchase of 15,000 acres of land at Kabadi, in NeAV Guinea, by a Colonial syndicate, at the price of Id. per acre, and to inform you that this question had already been brought under his Lordship's notice.

Assuming the facts to be as stated ’(and the various accounts are substantially in accord), Her Majesty’s Government Avill certainly refuse to recognise this transaction, or any other of a similar character.

Lord Derby is happy to add that, in taking this course, Her Majesty’s Government Avill apparently receive the active support of the various colonial legislatures, and you may probably have seen a telegram in the neAvspapers, announcing that a resolution on this subject has been passed by the Intercolonial Convention recently assembled at Sydney.

I am, &c.

George Palmer, Esq., M.P.    (Signed) ROBERT G. W. HERBERT.

No. 86.

The Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY to the ACTING HIGH COMMISSIONER (Western Pacific).

Sir,    DoAvning Street, December 17, 1883.

I have the honour to transmit to you for your information a copy of a correspondence! betAveen Mr. G. Palmer, M.P., and this Department relative to an alleged purchase by a Colonial syndicate of land at Kabadi in NeAV Guinea.

I have, &c.

The Acting High Commissioner.    '    (Signed) DERBY.

No. 87.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, December 27, 1883.

With reference to your letter of the 5tli instant, + I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you, to be laid before Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies, copy of a Despatch Avhich has been received from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, enclosing copy of a Note addressed to the French Government, expressing the hope, on the part of Her Majesty’s Government, that no material increase

* No. 77.


t Nos. 77 and 85,

L 2


% No. 69.


I have, &c. (Signed) Lyons.


may be made in the number of criminals to be sent to New Caledonia under the provisions of the Bill relative to relapsed criminals, and remonstrating against an application to that colony of the Relapsed Criminals Bill passed by the French Chamber of Deputies.

I am, &c.

The Under ¡Secretary of ¡State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 87.

My Loud,    Paris, December 20, 1883.

I have this morning had the honour to receive your Lordship’s Despatch, No. 1,241 of the 18th instant, directing me to make an appeal to the French Government against any material increase in the numbers of convicts sent to New Caledonia, and particulai'ly against an application to that Colony of the Relapsed Criminals Bill, passed by the French Chamber of Deputies.

I enclose a copy of a Note which I have addressed in consequence to the French Minister for Foreign Adairs.

I have, &c.

The Earl Granville, Iv,G.,    (Signed) Lyons.

&c.    &c.

M. le President du Consetl,    Paris, December 20, 1888.

I did not fail to communicate to Her Majesty’s Government the Note which your Excellency did me the honour to address to me on the 1st instant, in answer to the representations which had been made by their order to the French Government respecting the apprehensions excited in Her Majesty’s Australian Colonies by the Bill for the transportation of relapsed criminals which has been passed by the Chamber of Deputies, and is now before the Senate.

The agitation which is growing up both in the Australian Colonies and New Zealand is so great, and the alarm felt there so intense, and to all appearances so well founded, that Her Majesty’s Government cannot refrain from making another appeal to the French Government on a subject so important in its relations to Great Britain and to some of her most considerable Colonies.

Her Majesty’s Government desire to represent very seriously to the French Government the clanger to the neighbouring British Colonies which would be the consequence of any material increase in the number of convicts sent to the existing penal settlement in New Caledonia. They would wish to direct with still more earnestness the attention of the French Government to the evils which would be brought upon thfese Colonies if relapsed criminals should be sent to New Caledonia, and should be allowed in that Island an amount of liberty not hitherto conceded to those now under penal servitude there.

Her Majesty’s Government would point out that this liberty, in the opinion of those best acquainted with the circumstances of the Australian Colonies and the neighbouring countries, would inevitably lead to ci wide dispersion of a French convict population among islands not under French authority, whence it would migrate to the Australian Continent. Having regard, moreover, to the very numerous cases in which convicts have, during recent years, escaped from New Caledonia to British Colonies, Her Majesty’s Government cannot but ask, as a question of friendship, that no increase may be made in the numbers sent to that Island. And, considering the nature of the provisions of the Bill relative to relapsed criminals, and the manner in which, as would appear from explanations publicly given, it is contemplated that those provisions shall be carried out, Her Majesty’s Government feel bound to express their strong hope that the position of the British possessions in relation to New Caledonia will be • considered, and that the Bill will not be applied to that Colony.

His Excellency M. J. Ferry,

&c.    &c.    &c.

No. ss.

The Baron N. DE MIKLOUHO-MACLAY to COLONIAL OFFICE.

(Received December 28, 1883,)

My Lord,    Sydney, October 28, 1883.

1 peel myself bound to explain the expressions used in the telegram*: “ Maclay “ Coast Natives claim political autonomy under European protection,” which I have sent your Lordship last night.

During my stay of over four years’ duration amongst the Papuans of the Maclay Coast (the stretch of the N.E. coast of New Guinea which is comprised between Cape Croisille and Cape King William), I have many times discussed with tho Natives the possibility of the arrival of white men on the coast, which prospect tilled the Natives with great fear and apprehensions, and they unanimously requested me to protect them against the intruders.

I promised them to do all I could in this direction, as soon as a necessity for help should be imminent. This promise has been the reason of different letters written by me at different times to Sir Arthur Gordon, in his capacity of the British High Commissioner of the Western Pacific.

During my last visit to the Maclay Coast, in March of. this year, since my return from Europe, the Natives were still more than formerly uneasy.about their safety, having seen several ships during my absence, and they repeated again their request that 1 should prevent that the new comers should rob them of their land and property or kidnap their women and children. On my way from New Guinea 1 wrote again to Sir Arthur Gordon, reminding him of his promises concerning the Natives of the Maclay Coast.

The telegraphic news about the new expedition (General Mclver’s), coupled with the above antecedents, induced me to send the telegram of last night.

The object of the cablegram, as well as of this letter, is therefore only to inform your Lordship about the general wishes of the natives of the part of New Guinea referred to (the Maclay Coast), wishes which I shall try to express as short as possible :

1.    That in case of arrival of white men on the said coast, or in case of a pro

tectorate being granted, or annexation decided, the native institutions as well as customs and regulations should not be abolished, and that the Natives should keep their self-government.

2.    That the land should remain property of the Natives ( become property of

the Crown or of the Government which should protect or annex them).

3.    The Natives of the Maclay Coast not having ever seen a white man before my

landing at the coast in September 1871, and not having had since sufficient intercourse with Europeans, have not the faintest idea about the different European nationalities, they could not therefore, by themselves nor of themselves, ask for the protectorate of any certain specific or special nation. In asking me to protect them they left the question of the kind or species of protectorate they wanted completely in my hands.

The desiderata referred to in paragraph one (1) 1 tried to express in the cablegram with the words: “ claim political autonomy ” ; those in paragraph three (3) induced me to use the expression, “ European protection.”

Remembering the promise given, and only wishing the welfare of the Natives, I have taken the liberty of sending the telegram in question and this letter to your Lordship, only and alone on behalf of the Natives of the Maclay Coast who are at _present not able to claim their own rights, and L hope that your Lordship will not fail to consider the request which I make as the spokesman or representativetern.) of the Natives of the Maclay Coast in New Guinea.

1 have, &c.

(Signed) N. DE MIKLOUHO-MACLAY,

The Right Hon. Lord Derby,    Of the Maclay Coast, New Guinea.

&c.    &c.    &c.

* No. 37.

L 3

No.

The Right Hon. tiie EARL OF DERBY to Governor Sir G. W. DES VCEUN,

K.C.M.G. (Fiji.)

Sir,    Downing Street, December 28, 1888.

i have tlie honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch of tire 26th of October,* with its enclosures, reporting the circumstances which had led to your changing the intention which you had previously expressed of not availing yourself of the leave of absence sanctioned by my Despatch of the 26th of April.f I approve of your action in proceeding to New South Wales with the view of being-present at Sydney during the Convention of the Australasian Colonies.

I have, &c.

Sir G. W. Des Vceux.    (Signed) DERBY.

No. 90.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    .    Foreign Office, December 31, 1883.

With reference to your two letters of the 15th instant, { relating to the question of the proposed transportation to the French Possessions in the Pacific of large numbers of relapsed criminals, I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, to be laid before the Earl of Derby, copies of the instructions which have been addressed to Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris on the subject, in accordance with his Lordship’s suggestion.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure 1 in No. 90.

My Lord,    Foreign Office, December 31, 1883.

With reference to my immediately preceding Despatch, I transmit to your Excellency herewith for your information and guidance copy of a letter from the Colonial Office, calling Lord Granville’s special attention to the sixth resolution adopted at the recent meeting of the Inter-Colonial Convention, protesting against the declared intention of the French Government to transport large numbers of relapsed criminals to the French possessions in the Pacific.

I am, &c.

(Signed) for Earl Granville,

His Excellency the Viscount Lyons, G.C.B.,    J. Pauncefote.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure 2 in No. 90.

My Lord,    Foreign Office, December 31, 1883.

I furnished Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies with a copy of your Excellency’s Despatch of the 3rd instant, enclosing a Note Verbale from the French.Ministor of Foreign Affairs upon the subject of the Bill before the French Senate for the transportation of relapsed criminals to islands in the Pacific and elsewhere, and I now enclose for your Excellency’s information copy of a further letter which I have received from the Colonial Office relative to this question.

Your Excellency will perceive that Lord Derby is anxious that an assurance should be obtained from the French Government that these criminals should not be sent to New Caledonia, but to the other places named in the Bill, and that his Lordship further suggested that while the French Government should be thanked for their

* No. 34


f Not printed.


X Nos. 82 and 83.


promise to instruct the Governor of New Caledonia to continue to apply to the Colonial Governments of Australia for the extradition of escaped convicts, their special attention should he called to the very serious extent to which the escape of French criminals has been permitted during the last ten years.

1 am, &c.

(Signed! Granville,


I have to request your Excellency to address a strong representation to the French Government in the sense of Lord Derby’s suggestions.

No. 91.

Governor tiie MARQTTIS OF NORMANBY, G.C.M.G. (Victoria), to the Right Hon.

tiie EARL OF DERBY. (Received January 2, 1884.)

Government House, Melbourne,

My Lord,    November 21, 1883.

With reference to previous correspondence, I have the honour to transmit to your Lordship a copy of a letter which I have received from my Government, enclosing a paper which has been presented to Parliament, containing Resolutions received from public meetings and municipal bodies in favour of annexation of the Pacific Islands, &c.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) NORMANBY.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 91.

In re Annexation or Protectorate of Islands adjacent to Australia.

Premier’s Office, Melbourne,

My Lord,    November 13, 1883.

In my letter of the 27th of July on this subject, I mentioned that the Government had received Resolutions from several public meetings and municipal bodies supporting their action in this matter. I also expressed the anticipation that similar expressions of opinion would very probably become general throughout the Colony.

I beg now to inform your Excellency that my anticipation has been fulfilled, the Government having received a large number of such Resolutions from all parts of the country.

I have the lipnour to submit herewith a few copies of a Paper presented to Parliament containing such Resolutions as had up to    the date of    the printing    of    the    Paper been

received, but I beg to state that the movement    is    still    going    on,    and    I    am    in frequent

receipt of similar resolutions.

I shall be glad if your Excellency will be so good as to transmit a copy of the printed Paper enclosed for the information of the Right Hon. the Secretary of State for the Colonics.

J have, &c.

His Excellency the Most Hon.    (Signed) James Service,

The Marquis of Normanby, G.C.M.G.,    Premier.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Governor of Victoria.

L 4

142

ANNEXATION OR PROTECTORATE OF ISLANDS

ADJACENT TO

AUSTRALASIA.

Resolutions of Public Meetings and of Municipal Bodies in favour of the Movement

AND PROTESTING AGAINST TRANSPORTATION OF FOREIGN CONVICTS TO THE ISLANDS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

No.

Body by whom Resolutions were passed.

Date.

r. 416 -

Melbourne Public Meeting - - -Ballaarat City Council -----

1883. July 16 th. ,, 16th.

1\ 117

Horsham Borough Council -

„ 17 tli.

P. 453

„ Public Meeting -----

„ 20th.

P. 687 P. 826

Whittlesea Public Meeting -

Eltliam Shire Council - - - - -

September 4th.

P. 882

Alexandra Public Meeting - -

„ 6 th.

P. 055

Yea Shire Council -------

„ 1st.

P. 960

Buninyong Public Meeting - -

„ 17 th.

P. 1018

Newlyn Public Meeting -----

„ 21st.

P. 1020

Ballaarat Public Meeting -

,, 22nd.

P. 1051

Castlemaine Public Meeting - - - -

„ 29th.

P. 1087

Clunes Public Meeting ------

October 1st.

Pi 1088

Maryborough Public Meeting - - - -

„ 1st.

P. 1110

Mortlake Shire Council ------

,, 1st.

P. 1127

(•reswick Public Meeting - - - - - -

„ 5th.

P. 1128

Daylesford Public Meeting - - -

„ 4th.

P. 1129

Kyneton'Public Meeting - - - - - -Warrnambool Town Council - - - -

,, 2nd.

P. 1130

„ 5th.

P. 1187

•Fitzroy Public Meeting - - - - - -

,, 6th.

P. 1138

Seymour Shire Council ------

,, 8th.

P. 1151

Australian Natives’ Association, Creswick Branch -

,, 5 th.

P. 1163

Creswick Public Meeting - - - -

September 24th.

P. 1166

Mansfield Public Meeting ------

October 6th.

P. 1167

Hawthorn Public Meeting -----

., 8 th.

P. 1179

Bairnsdale Shire Council ------

„ 3rd.

P. 1180

New stead Shire Council -----

„ lltli.

P. 1181

Australian Natives’ Association, Kingston Branch

„ 8 tli.

P. 1182

Warrnambool Shire Council - - - - -

,, 3rd.

P. 1183

Eaglehawk Borough Council - - - -

„ nth.

P. 1207 -

Moyston Public Meeting -----

„ lltli.

P. 1214

Geelong Town Council ------

„ 12th.

P. 1215 -

Cathcart Public Meeting - - - - - -

„ 10th.

P. 1217

Sandhurst City Council ------

„ 12th.

P. 1222

Stawell Borough Council -----

„ 10th.

P. 1219

Australian Natives’ Association, Kerang Branch - -

„ lltli.

P. 1252

Dunolly Borough Council -----

„ 17th.

F. 1253

Ecliuca Public Meeting ------

„ 15th.

P. 1262

Glenorchy Public Meeting - - - - -Jackson’s Creek Public Meeting - - - -

„ . 15th.

P. 1263

„ 12th.

P. 1270

Dooen Public Meeting - - - - - -

„ 16th.

P. 1293 -

Burnt Creek Public Meeting -----

„ 18th.

P. 1294 -

Richmond City Council - - - - - -

,, 18th.

P. 1316

East Loddon Shire Council -

„ 23rd.

P. 1317

Murtoa Public Meeting - - - - - -

„ 22nd.

P. 1318

Inglewood Public Meeting -

„ 20th.

P. 1321

Ballaarat East Town Council - - - -

„ 22nd.

P. 1323

St. Kilda Public Meeting - - - - -

,, 19th.

P. 1336

Korong Shire Council - - - - - -

„ 16th.

P. 1337

Ballan Shire Council ------

„ 24th.

P. 1339

Dimboola Public Meeting -----

„ 23rd.

P. 1353

Nliill Public Meeting ------

„ 24th.

P. 1393

Shcpparton and Lower Goulburn Agricultural and Pastoral

„ 29th.

P. 1391

Society.

Williamstown Borough Council -----

„ 30th.

1’. 1395

Benalla Shire Council - - - - - -

„ 12th.

P. 1396

Footscray Borough Council and Public Meeting

„ 18th.

P. 1397

Bacchus Marsh Shire Council - - - - -

„ 20th.

P. 1398

Avon Shire Council ------

„ 29th.

City of Melbourne.

Meeting at the Town Hall.

At a public meeting held in the Melbourne Town Hall on the 16th of July, the Mayor of Melbourne (Councillor Dodgshun) presiding, supported by the Hon. Mr. Justice Higinbotham, the Hon. W. M. K. Vale, the Hon. Jas. Balfour, M.L.C., Mr. Harper, M.P., Mr. Mirams, M.P., and a number of clergymen, ■ the following Resolutions were carried unanimously :—

1.    “ That in the opinion of this meeting it is essential to the future well-being of

the Australasian Colonies, and to that of the native races of the Islands themselves, that New Guinea and the Pacific Islands lying between New Guinea and Fiji, including the New Hebrides, should be annexed to the British Crown.”

2.    “ That this meeting expresses its great satisfaction that both Houses of the

Victorian Parliament have unanimously agreed to Resolutions in favour of attaching these Islands to the British Empire, and expressing their willingness to contribute this Colony’s share of the expenses of such annexation ; and, further, that this meeting rejoices in the unanimity which has characterized the action of all the Governments of Australia and New Zealand in regard to this question.”

3.    “ That a copy of these Resolutions be sent to the Hon. the Premier, with the

request that he will transmit them by telegram to the Right Hon. the Secretary of State for the Colonies and to the various Australian Governments.”

P. 416.

City of Ballaarat, Town Hall,

Sir,    July 21st, 1883.

I have the honour to forward copies of Resolutions passed unanimously by the Council of the City of Ballaarat, at its meeting held on the 16th inst.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

The Hon. Jas. Service,    Geo. Perry,

Premier.    ' Town Clerk.

At a meeting of the Council of the City of Ballaarat, held at the Town Hall, on Monday, July 16th, 1883, the Mayor (Cr. F. M. Claxton) in the chair—

The following Resolution was moved, pursuant to notice, by Cr. J. N. Wilson, seconded by Cr. R. Lewis, and carried unanimously :—

“ That the action of the combined Colonies of Australasia, in endeavouring to obtain from Great Britain consent to annexation, or the establishment of a protectorate over New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and the Pacific Islands lying between New Guinea and Fiji, has the hearty sympathy of this Council.”

Moved by Cr. J. N. Wilson, seconded by Cr. A. T. Morrison, and carried unanimously:—

That a copy of the foregoing Resolution, under the seal of the Council, be sent to the Premier.”

The seal of the Council of the City of Ballaarat was (Seal.)    affixed on the 23rd day of. July, One thousand

eight hundred and eighty-three.

Fred. M. Claxton, Mayor.

T. H. Thompson, Councillor.

Geo. Perry, Town Clerk.

r. 417.

Borough of Horsham,

Town Clerk’s Office,

Sir,    .    Horsham, July 20th, 1883.

1 have the honour, by direction of the Horsham Borough Council, to forward you the accompanying Resolution, for presentation to the Honorable the Premier of V ictoria.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

The Hon. W. Madden,    Saml. Baird,

Melbourne.    Town Clerk.

I have much pleasure in forwarding tho accompanying Resolution in accordance with the request of his Worship the Mayor of Horsham.

W. Madden, 23.7.83.

To the Honorable

the Premier of Victoria.    Town Clerk’s Office,

Sir,    Horsham, July 19th, 1883.

Tiie following Resolution was passed unanimously by the Horsham Borough Council at a meeting of that body held on the 17th inst. :—

“ That the Horsham Borough Council record their appreciation of the action of the Victorian Parliament in the steps they have already taken, and are still taking, to bring pressure to bear on the Imperial Government, with a view to their reconsidering of the petitions from the Australian Colonies regarding the annexation of New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and other Islands in the South Pacific, and that the Council do all in their power to support tho subject-matter at issue.”

(Seal.)


W. Drummond, Mayor.

► Councillors.


C. G. Rasmussen,

J ames Brake,

Saml. Baird, Town Clerk.

P. 453.

To the Hon. James Service,

Melbourne.

Dear Sir,    •    Horsham, July 21st, 1883.

I have the honour to forward to you three Resolutions moved and carried unanimously at a public meeting held in the Mechanics’ Institute, Horsham, Friday evening, July 20th.

1 have the honour to be, Sir,

Yours most respectfully,

W. Drummond, Mayor.

1st Resolution.—Moved by Robt. Clark, Esq., and seconded by Rev. W. Presley:—

“ That it is essential to the well-being of the Australian Colonies that New Guinea and the Pacific Islands lying between New Guinea and Fiji, including the New Hebrides, should be annexed to the British Crown.”

2nd Resolution.—Moved by Rev. A. C. Smith, and seconded by R. Arnolds, Esq.:— “ That this meeting approves the action of both Houses of Parliament in passing Resolutions in favour of attaching the Islands in question to the British Empire, and contributing towards the cost of annexation.

3rd Resolution :—

“ That the members for this district, the Hon. Walter Madden and Mr. R. Baker, and the honorable members of the Upper House, be requested to support the Government in their endeavours with the other Australian Governments in obtaining annexation of the said Islands, and that they present the foregoing Resolutions to Parliament.”

P. 687.—August 22, 1883.

To the Honorable James Service, M.L.A.,

Premier of Victoria.

Honored Sir,    ' Whittlesea.

We, the inhabitants of the Shire of Whittlesea, beg respectfully to pray that the Government of this Colony will use all legitimate and just means to have the Islands near the coast of Australia annexed to the British Crown without delay, and so prevent the threatened influx of French convicts to the vicinity of this our home.

We, as a part of the taxpayers of the Colony of Victoria, are quite willing that this Colony should bear a fair share of governing the above Isles after annexation.

In token of our agreement with the above petition, we hereby unanimously authorise our Chairman (Mr. Willis) and our Secretary (Mr. Thomas) to sign for and on behalf of this meeting, and forward a copy of the petition, duly signed, to your honourable self.

(Signed) Abraiiam Willis, Chairman.

Walter Thomas, Secretary.

P. 826.

Sir,    Eltham, September 4th, 1883.

By their direction I do myself the honour to forward herewith copy of Resolution passed at the last meeting of this Council:—

“ That the cordial thanks of this Council, on behalf of the ratepayers of the Shire, be tendered to the Ministry for the action they have taken with the view of preventing the annexation of the ‘ New Hebrides ’ by a foreign Power.”

I have the honour to be, Sir,

The Hon. James Service,    Your obedient Servant,

Premier and Treasurer of the .    C. S. Wingrove,

Colony of Victoria, Melbourne.    Secretary Eltham S. Council.

P. 882.

To the Honourable James Service, M.L.A.,

Premier of Victoria.    Alexandra,

Sir,    September 6th, 1883.

At a largely attended public meeting of the inhabitants of Alexandra, convened for the purpose of taking into consideration the advisability, or otherwise, of annexing New Guinea and the New Hebrides, it was resolved that a copy of the Resolutions unanimously carried thereat should be forwarded to you.

In accordance therewith we have great pleasure in handing you herewith copy of same.

We have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servants,

William Lade, President of the Shire. Joseph A. Gordon, Hon. Secretary.

Resolutions.

1st.’ That this meeting heartily approves of the action of the Victorian Government in supporting the Queensland Government in annexing New Guinea; and also in urging upon the Home authorities the annexation of the New Hebrides and adjacent Islands.

2nd. In support of the above Resolution this meeting urges the following reasons; viz.:—

1.    The Islands above-mentioned are geographically a part of Australasia.

2.    A vast amount of money and labour has been expended in civilising and

Christianising the Islands; in the New Hebrides the Presbyterian denomination alone having expended 140,000/. upon missions.

3.    There is every reason to fear that should these Islands be annexed by any

other Power they will be made penal settlements similar to New Caledonia.

4.    That should such be the case, not only will the Colonies suffer at present,

but in the future bloodshed will ensue in the expulsion from the Islands of any foreign Power, which would certainly take place when the Colonies became strong enough so to do.

M 2

3rd. That this meeting deprecates the manner in which the Australian Colonies have been treated by the Home Government, and urges upon the Victorian Government the necessity of pushing on the negotiations for Federation, with a view to forwarding and conserving the mutual interests of the Colonies.

P. 955.    Shire of Yea,

Sir,    Shire Office, Yea, September 12, 1883.

The following is a copy of a Resolution passed by the Yea Shire Council at its meeting1 on the 1st instant, viz.—

o    7    #

“ That the Secretary write to the Premier, informing him that this Council are of opinion that State assisted immigration is most essential for the prosperity and welfare of this Colony, and praying that it may be again speedily resorted to ; and further, that the speedy annexation of the South Sea Islands, New Guinea, and the New Hebrides, would be a great boon to this Colony and Australia generally.”

I have the honour to be, Sir,

The Honourable    Your most obedient servant,

The Premier of Victoria,    John N. Kelly, Shire Secretary.

Melbourne.

P. 960.

The Honourable James Service.

Honourable Sir, .    Buninyong, September 18, 1883.

I have been requested, as Chairman of a meeting which was held last -evening in the- Temperance Hall, Buninyong, to transmit to you the following Resolution, the same having been unanimously and enthusiastically adopted by one of the largest meetings over held in Buninyong.

Proposed by the Mayor, seconded by Mr. D. Kerr:

That having heard the statements of Mr. Paton, who has been a missionary in the New Hebrides for 25 years, and therefore thoroughly acquainted with their condition—having heard him in reference to the effects of the labour traffic— tliis meeting expresses its strong condemnation of that traffic, and its conviction that the natives of the New Hebrides can only be protected from injustice by the complete cessation of the traffic, and the annexation of the Islands by the Government of Great Britain ; and that this annexation ought to be immediately effected; and that a copy of this Resolution be forwarded to the Honourable James Service.

I have the honour to be, honourable Sir,

Your obedient servant,

Thomas Hastie, Chairman.

P. 1018.

The Honourable the Premier.

Dear Sir,    Newlyn, September 22, 1883.

At a meeting held at Broomfield Gully last night to celebrate the anniversary of the Debating Society, and over which I presided, 1 was requested to make a statement, showing the stage which the annexation question has reached. I did so, and the result was that a unanimous opinion—“ That the efforts of the Government now made to secure annexation deserve the support of the country ”—was given. I have much pleasure in conveying that expression of opinion for your information.

I am, yours truly,

R. Richardson.

P. 1020.    City of Ballaarat,

Sir,    Town Hall, September 26, 1883.

I have the honour to forward herewith copies of 'Resolutions passed at a public meeting hold at Baliaarat on the 22nd inst.

The Honourable the Premier.


And I remain, your obedient servant,

Geo. Perry, Town Clerk.

At a public meeting hold at Ballaarat on Saturday, September 22nd, 1883, it was unanimously resolved :—

1.    Tliat this meeting-views Avith well-grounded alarm the prospect of another penal

settlement being established in the Pacific, adjacent to these Colonies ; and having already experienced the evils that have resulted from the settlement of New Caledonia, does hereby accord its hearty support to any measures that the Governments of Victoria and the other Colonies may deem necessary to prevent the establishment of any more such settlements Avithin easy reach of our coasts.

2.    That in view of the vigorous measures necessary to carry out the object of the

foregoing Resolution, and in the general interest of humanity, the Imperial Government be urged to annex New Guinea and all other Islands of the Pacific adjacent to the coasts of Australasia and New Zealand.

3.    That copies of the foregoing Resolutions, under the corporate seals of the City of

Ballaarat and ToAvn of Ballaarat East, be forwarded to the Honourable the Premier of Victoria.

(Seal)    John Hickman, Mayor.

Geo. Perry, Town Clerk.

(Seal)    John Ferguson, Mayor.

Robt. Coxon Young, Town Clerk.

Ballaarat, September 24, 1883.

P. 1051.    Castlemaine.

Town Clerk’s Office,

Sir,    Castlemaine, October 1,1883.

I have the honour to forward herewith copy of Resolution, re the Annexation question, carried Avith great acclamation at a public meeting of the Burgesses held in the Theatre Royal on Saturday the 29th ultimo.

Trusting that it Avill assist you in your endeavour to carry out successfully this most important question,

I havo the honour to be, Sir,

The Honourable    Your most obedient servant,

The Premier, Melbourne.    C. A. Holmes, ToAvn Clerk.

Annexation Question.

Public meeting held at Castlemaine on Saturday the 29th September, 1883. The following Resolutions were carried unanimously, and with great enthusiasm :—

1st.—Moved by Councillor James, and seconded by Councillor Pearce:—

“ That this meeting protests most emphatically against the action of the British Government in refusing to accede to the expressed wish of the several Australian Colonies to annex NeAV Guinea and other Islands in the Pacific to Australasia, to Avhich they naturally and geographically belong; the more so that there is imminent danger of these Islands being converted into penal settlements by other Powers, to the detriment of this Portion of Her Majesty’s Dominions.” 2nd. Moved by Councillor Rowe, and seconded by Councillor Redfearn :—

“ That this meeting desires to express its entire satisfaction Avith the action of the several Australian Parliaments in endeavouring to bring about the aforesaid annexation, and trusts that every legitimate and loyal means may be used to ensure ultimate success.”

3rd. Moved by Councillor McGregor, and seconded by J. W. Horwood, Esq:—

“ That copies of the previous Resolutions, under Seal of the Borough Council of Castlemaine, be forwarded to the Honourable the Premier of Victoria.”

(Seal.)    George Yeats, Mayor.

C. A. Holmes, Town Clerk.

P. 1087.    Borough of Clunes.

The Ilonourablo    Town Hall,

The Premier, Melbourne.    •    Clunes, October 2, 1883.

SlR,

I have the honour to transmit herewith copies of Resolutions passed at a public meeting of the inhabitants of Clunes, held in the Town Hall on Monday evening, 1st instant, for the purpose of taking into consideration the action of the Local and Imperial Governments in reference to the annexation of New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and other Islands of the Pacific, to the British Empire.

I trust that the Resolutions, as being the spontaneous expression of the opinion in this town, .will in some measure strengthen your hands, and help towards the accomplishment of the work on which you have set your heart.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

James Edwards, Mayor.

Resolutions adopted at a Meeting of the Inhabitants of Clunes, held in the Town Ball,

October ls£, 1883.

Object.—To take into consideration matters connected with proposal for the annexation of New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and other Islands of the Pacific, to the British Empire.

Resolution I.—That this meeting views with alarm the intended deportation of French criminals to the Islands within easy distance of Australasia, and, having had experience of the evils resulting from the convict settlement of New Caledonia, hereby pledges itself to support any measures which the Victorian Government may consider necessary to prevent additional penal settlements being established in the South Pacific.

Resolution II.—That this meeting desires to express its approval of the action already taken by the Premier of Victoria, and trusts that every legitimate means may be used in urging the Imperial Government to annex New Guinea and the other Islands of the Pacific to Australasia.

Resolution III.—That copies of these Resolutions be forwarded to the Honourable the Premier of Victoria.

(Seal.)    James Edwards, Mayor,

Arthur Batson, Town Clerk.

P. 1088.    Maryborough.

Town Clerk’s Office,

Sir,    Maryborough, October 2, 1883.

I have the honour to forward herewith copies of Resolutions passed at a public meeting held in Maryborough last evening, October 1/83, in the Golden Age Hall, upon the necessity of annexation as being the only certain means of preventing further penal settlements being established close to this Colony.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

The Honourable    Your most obedient servant,

James Service, Premier, Melbourne.    Fred. Hughes, Town Clerk.

1st Resolution.—That this meeting, having in view the probability of another penal settlement being established adjacent to these Colonies, and knowing the great evil that will naturally result therefrom, does hereby accord its hearty support to the Government in any measure that may be brought forward to prevent more penal settlements being established in the Pacific' Islands.

2nd Resolution.—That, in view of the difficulties that will arise before the object of the foregoing Resolution is carried into effect, this meeting would respectfully urge upon the Imperial Government the necessity of annexing New Guinea and otlior Islands in the Pacific ; as annexation is the only certain means of preventing further penal settlements being established near this portion of Her Majesty’s Dominions.

The above Resolutions were unanimously carried at an enthusiastic meeting held in the Golden Age Ilall, Maryborough, on Monday evening, October 1st, 1883.

R. B. Stamp, Mayor.

P. 1110.    Mortlake.

Shire Office,

Sir,    Mortlake, 2nd October, 1882.

I have the honour to forward the following copy of a Resolution adopted by the Mortlake Shire Council at a meeting held on the 1st instant, via. :—

That this Council, in view of the expressed intention of the French Government to deport their criminal population to the New Hebrides, heartily approve of the action of the Honourable James Service and the Government in unringr the

.    o O

annexation of these Islands and New Guinea to the British Crown.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

The Hon. the Chief Secretary.    S. Desfard, Shire Secretary.

P. 1127.    Creswick.

Town Hall,

Sir,    Creswick, Cth October, 1883.

I have the honour, by direction of the Mayor, to forward you the enclosed copies of Resolutions on the subject of the Annexation of the New Hebrides and New Guinea, which were passed unanimously at a public meeting of the Burgesses of the Borough held in the Town Hall last night.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

The Hon. James Service,    Josefii Reed, Town Clerk.

Premier of Victoria, Treasury, Melbourne.

Moved by Councillor Luttet, seconded by Councillor Gray :—

That this meeting views with alarm the contemplated deportation of French criminals to the Islands in the Pacific, within easy distance of Australasia, and having had experience of the evils resulting from the convict settlement in New Caledonia, hereby pledges itself to support any measures which the Victorian Government may consider necessary to prevent additional penal settlements being established in the South Pacific.

Moved by Councillor Northcott, seconded by J. Corr, Esq.:—

That this meeting desires to express its approval of the action already taken by the Premier of Victoria, and trusts that every legitimate means may be used in urging the Imperial Government to annex the New Hebrides and New Guinea.

Moved by Mr. J, Reed, seconded by Mr. F. Mallin : —

That copies of these Resolutions be forwarded to the Honourable the Premier of Victoria, under the seal of the Borough and signature of the Mayor.

(Seal.) T. Cooper, Mayor.

P. 1128.

The Hon. James Service,    Borough of Daylesford.

Premier. &c.. Melbourne.    Borough Offices,

Sir,    Daylesford, Oct. Cth, 1883.

I have the honour, by direction of His Worship the Mayor of this Borough, to forward herewith copies of Resolutions which were unanimously carried at a public meeting of the inhabitants of Daylesford, held on the 4th inst., to consider the threatened deportation of French criminals to the New Hebrides, and the proposed annexation of the Islands by Great Britain. In accordance with the wish of the meeting, the Resolutions are verified by the Mayor’s signature and the Borough seal.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

D. McLeod, Town Clerk.

Resolutions passed unanimously by a public meeting of the inhabitants of the Borough of Daylosford, hold at the Albert Hall, on the 4th October, 18S3, J. 11. Wheeler. Esq., J.l\, in the chair, to consider the deportation of French Criminals to the New Hebrides, and the proposed annexation of the Islands.

1st Resolution.—Proposed by the Hon. W. E. Stanbridge, M.L.C., and seconded by Revd. A. C. Smith :—

“ That this meeting views with alarm and indignation the proposal to convert the New Hebrides into convict settlements, believing that the result will be most disastrous to the Australian Colonies, by introducing into their midst numbers of escaped convicts of the vilest and most dangerous description, and this meeting earnestly and emphatically protests against such settlements being permitted by the British Imperial Government to be established adjacent to these Colonies.    •

2nd Resolution.—Proposed by L. 0. Hart, Esq., seconded by A Beckett, Esq., J.P., and supported by Revd. G. Armstrong:—

“ That, in the opinion of this meeting, the Imperial Government should in justice to the Australian Colonies, immediately annex the New Hebrides, New Guinea, and the other Islands in the Pacific adjacent to the coasts of Australasia and New Zealand, believing that these Islands are, not only from their geographical position, naturally and commercially connected with Australasia, but that their possession by a foreign power would be a standing menace to the Australasian Colonies, and seriously endanger British interests in this part of the world.”

3rd Resolution. — Proposed by 0. Jones, Esq., J.P., and seconded by the Revd. A. Uglen :—

“ That this meeting thoroughly and heartily approves of the action taken by the Victorian Government and Parliament, in conjunction with those of the other Colonies, in reference to this matter, and will accord their warmest sympathy and support to such constitutional and loyal action as may be necessary to prevent these islands being converted into penal settlements, and to secure their annexation by Great Britain.”

4th Resolution.—

“ That copies of these Resolutions, signed by the Mayor as chairman of this meeting, and with the seal of the Borough attached, be forwarded to tko Honourable the Premier of Victoria.”

(Seal.)    J. H. Wheeler, Mayor, Chairman.

D. McLeod, Town Clerk.

r. ii29.

The Honourable    Shire of Kyneton.

James Service, Premier of Victoria.    Kyneton, October 5, 1883.

Sir,

I have the honour, by direction, to forward herewith under seal, the annexed Resolutions passed at a public meeting of the inhabitants of the Shire of Kyneton, presided over by Donald Macpherson, Esq., J.P., President, held in the Mechanics Institute, Kyneton, on Tuesday, 2nd October instant, for the purpose of protesting against the Islands of the Pacific being used by any power as depots for convicts; and taking all steps that may be necessary to strengthen' the hands of the Victorian Government in their opposition to such contemplated action on the part of the French Government.

Also to urge upon the Imperial Government of the United Kingdom compliance with tho desires of the Australasian Colonies to settle this question finally by the annexation of New Guinea, and the extension of the protection of Great Britain to the Islands in tho Pacific adjacent to the coasts of Australia and New Zealand which are as yet not under the guardianship of any foreign power.

And request that you will be pleased to take such measures as may bo deemed necessary for the attainment of the objects set forth in said Resolutions.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

R. Hughes, Shiro Secretary.

Copy of Resolutions passed at a meeting the New Hebrides question, held in the Mechanics’ Institute, Kyneton, 2nd October, 1883.

1.    Moved by M. K. Armstrong, Esq., J,P., seconded by Revd. James Don, and carried unanimously:—

“ That, from the instances which have occured of convicts from New Calendonia finding their way to the Australian Colonies, and of the certain increase of crime and lawlessness which must ensue in these Colonies upon other Islands in the South Seas being made receptacles for persons twice or thrice convicted of felonies, as contemplated by the French Government, this meeting calls upon the Government of this Colony to use every constitutional means to resist such threatened convict invasion.”

2.    Moved by John Menzies, Esq., J.P., seconded by R. C. Elliott,-Esq., and carried unanimously :—

“ That, in the general interests of humanity, and as a measure of protection to the Colonies of Australia, the Imperial Government should be urged to permit of the annexation of New Guinea to Australia; and that the protectorate of Great Britain should be extended over the Islands of the Western Pacific adjacent to the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, where such are not already in the possession of any foreign power.”

3.    Moved by J. E. Andrews, Esq., seconded by Hiram Godwin, Esq., and carried unanimously:—

That copies of the foregoing Resolutions, under the seal of the Corporation of Kyneton, be forwarded to the Honourable the Premier of Victoria.

(Seal.)    D. Macpherson, President.

R. Hughes, Shire Secretary.

P. 1130.

To the Honourable    Warrnambool.

James Service, M.P., Premier.    Town Hall,

Sir,    Warrnambool, 5th October, 1883.

1 am directed by the Town Council of Warrnambool to forward you a copy of a Resolution unanimously passed at their last meeting.

1 am, your obedient servant,

(Seal)    C. A. Cramer, Town Clerk.

Copy of Resolution.

Proposed by the Mayor, Cr. Davis ; seconded by Cr. King :—

That this Council view with admiration the conduct of the Hon. James Service re the annexation of New Guinea and the Hebrides, and urge upon him to continue his exertions by all constitutional means, until the same be brought to a successful issue.

P. 1137.    City of Fitzroy,

Sir,    Town Clerk’s Office, 8th October, 1883.

I have the honour, by request of His Worship the Mayor of this city, to forward, as hereunto annexed, copies of Resolutions unanimously arrived at at a public meeting of the citizens, held in the Town Hall, Fitzroy, on the 6th inst., convened by requisition of the general public, to consider the important question of the annexation of New Guinea and other Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and the proposition of France to establish penal settlements therein.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

To the Honourable    Your most obedient servant,

The Premier of the Colony    (Seal.)    John P. Jones, Town Clerk,

of Victoria.

City of Fitzroy,

Town Clerk’s Office, 6th October, 1883.

Resolutions unanimously arrived at, at a public meeting of the citizens of Fitzroy, held this day in the Fitzroy Town Hall:—

Revolved—That this meeting records its dissatisfaction at the action of the British Government in not complying with the desire of the Australian Colonies to annex New Guinea and other Islands in the Pacific Ocean to Australia, more particularly as it appears almost a certainty that these Islands will be used as penal settlements by other countries, thereby placing in close proximinity to the Australian Colonies the refuse and most degraded portion of other nations.

Resolved,—That this meeting fully concurs in the action taken by the Australian Parliaments in-endeavouring to secure the annexation of the Islands referred to in the foregoing Resolution, and trusts that renewed and strenuous efforts will be continued to be used to yet obtain their annexation.

Resolved—That His Worship the Mayor, as Chairman of the mooting, request the Town Clerk to forward, on behalf of this meeting, copies of tho Resolutions arrived at this evening to tho Honourable the Premier of Victoria.

P. 1138.    Shire of Seymour.

Shire Hall,

Sir,    Seymour, 8th October, 1883.

By direction of the Council, I have the honour to forward herewith copy of a Resolution passed by them at their last meeting.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

The Honourable    Your most obedient servant,

The Premier, Melbourne.    T. Howard, Secretary.

Resolutions referred, to.

That this Council desires to express its approval of tho action already taken by the Premier of Victoria, and trusts that every legitimate means may bo taken for urging tho Imperial Government to annex New Guinea and the other Islands in the Pacific Australasia.

P. 1151.    Australian Natives’ Association, Creswick Branch, No. 11.

Hon. James Service,    .    Creswick, October Sth, 1883.

Melbourne,

Dear Sir,

At the quarterly summoned meeting of tho Creswick Branch of the Australian Natives’ Association held on Friday evening last, 5th inst., the following Resolution was unanimously passed :—

“ That tho members of the Creswick Branch of tho A. N. A. support the Government in their efforts to urge., upon the Imperial Government the desirability of annexing New Guinea and the New Hebrides, and thus prevent an influx of French criminals to the latter Islands; also, that a copy of this Resolution be forwarded to the Premier.”

In tho course of the discussion which took place, the hope was expressed that your Government would still persist in their endeavours to persuade tho members of the Imperial Government to look at the matter from a colonists’ point of view.

The Government may rely on the support of the Natives in any steps they may take to bring about the annexation of these. Islands and prevent French criminals being sent so near our shores.

I am, dear Sir,

Faithfully yours,

Alex. J. Peacock,

Sec. Cres. Br., No. 11, A.N.A.

P. 1163.

The Honourable    Glendonald P. 0., 8th October, 1883.

Jas. Service, MX.A.

SlR,

I have the honour to communicate with you, forwarding the accompanying Resolutions re annexation of New Guinea, New Hebrides, and the intervening Islands, adopted at a public meeting, as indicated at head of same.

I regret that they were not forwarded earlier. Had 1 been delegated to do so at the time, you should have had them sooner. .1 forward copy of Advertiser containing report of meeting at which Resolutions were passed.

Hoping you and your Government shall succeed in your efforts to have the Islands in question brought under British control,

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

A. Gillan.

Resolutions re Annexation of the New Hebrides, passed at a public meeting held in the Oreswick Presbyterian Church on the evening of 24th September, 1883, on the occasion of the Rev. J. G. Baton delivering a lecture on the said Islands.

Chairman, Rev. C. Robinson, pastor loci. The denomination of the gentleman moving and seconding the Resolutions is shown, in order to indicate the representative character of the meeting.

Proposed by Mr. T. Cooper, MX.A., Mayor of Oreswick (Wesleyan), rseconded by Mr. J. Leishman, President of Oreswick Shire Council (Presbyterian)—

1.    “ That this meeting of the inhabitants of Creswick, having heard the Rev. John

G. Paton (25 years a missionary on the South Sea Islands) regarding the new French law to transport many thousands of the worst French criminals from France to New Caledonia and other South Sea Islands, protests in the strongest manner possible against France making the Islands a moral cesspool for her most dangerous characters, as it would be a constant source of evil and danger to Australia, and ruinous to the Islanders.”

Carried unanimously.

Proposed by Mr. J. J. Smith, auctioneer and legal manager (Church of England), seconded by Mr. J. Con, teacher (Wesleyan)—

2.    ‘‘That this meeting heartily supports Mr. Service, our Premier, and his Govern

ment in urging upon Great Britain the great necessity that there now is at once to annex New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and intervening Islands to her Australian possessions, or as Crown Colonies, as the most effectual way to be able completely to forbid this inllux of French criminals,to our nearest Islands ; and also of being able completely to suppress the Polynesian labour traffic with its evils.”

Carried unanimously.

Proposed by Mr. A. Gillan, teacher (Presbyterian), seconded by Mr. W. G. Spence, Sec. of Miner’s Amal. Association (Presbyterian)—

3.    “ That a copy of these Resolutions be forwarded to Mr. Service, conveying to him

the sympathy of this large meeting, and assuring him that he will receive all possible support in any steps he and his Government may see fit to take to bring these Resolutions to a successful issue.”

Carried unanimously.

P. 1166.

' To the Honorable

James Service, Premier of Victoria,

Honorable Sir,    Mansfield.

At a large and influential meeting held in Mansfield on Saturday, 6th October, I was requested, as President of the Shire and chairman on the occasion, to forward to you the following Resolution, carried unanimously at the meeting.

E. H. Macartney.

Resolution.

That this meeting highly approves of the efforts made by the Honourable James Service to secure the annexation of New Guinea and the adjacent Islands to the British Empire.

Mansfield, 8th October, 1883.

P. 1167.

The Hon. James Service, M.L.A.,

Premier of Victoria, Melbourne.    Borough of Hawthorne.

Sir,    Town Hall, Hawthorne, 9th October, 1883.

I have the honour, by direction of his Worship the Mayor, James Swan, Esquire, to forward herewith copies of two Resolutions adopted at a public meeting held in this Borough on the 8th instant.

1 have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

James Warren, Town Clerk.

Resolution No. 1.—

“ That this meeting views with alarm the prospect of another penal settlement adjacent to these Colonies, and having already experienced the evils resulting from the settlement of New Caledonia, does hereby tender its hearty support to any measure that the Government of Victoria and the other Colonies may deem necessary to prevent the establishment of such settlements in any of the Australasian Islands.”

Resolution No. 2—

“ That in view of the urgent measures necessary to carry out the objects of the foregoing Resolution, and in the general interest of humanity, the Imperial Government be urged to annex New Guinea and all other Islands of the Pacific adjacent to the Colonies of Australia and New Zealand.”

James Swan, Mayor.

P. 1179.

The Honourable

James Service, M.P.,

Premier of Victoria.    Shire of Bairnsdale.

Sir,    Shire Office, Bairnsdale, 10th October, 1883.

I have the honour to most respectfully inform you that on the 3rd instant the Council of the Shire of Bairnsdale unanimously passed the following Resolution:—

“ That this Council place on record their approval of the movement for annexation of New Guinea and of the New Hebrides Islands, and that the Premier of Victoria bo apprised accordingly.”

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

Michael Goold,

President, Shire of Bairnsdale.

P. 1180.

To the Honourable

Jas. Service, M.P.,

Premier of Victoria.    Newstead shire,

Sir,    Shire Office, October 11, 1883.

I am directed by the Council of this Shire to express a hope that the Imperial Government will see fit to annex the New Hebrides and other Islands adjacent to the Australian Colonies, and to express the approval of the Council with the action taken by you on behalf of the Colony of Victoria in the matter, and the hope that your efforts will be crowned with success.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

(Seal.)    Your obedient Servant,

J. C. House,

Shire Secretary.

P. 1181.

Australian Natives’ Association, Kingston Branch, No. 23. Sir,    • .    Kingston, October 8, 1883.

At a meeting held 8th October we Avere unanimous in supporting the Victorian Legislature in their action in protesting to the British Government against the French Government in sending convicts to the NeAV Hebrides.

J am your obedient servant,

To the Honourable    Robert Grey, Sec. of A.N.A.

the Premier of Victoria.

P. 1182.

Office of the Shire of Warrnambool.

Sir,    Warrnambool, October 10, 1883.

I have the honour to forward you, for presentation to the Honourable .lames Service and the members of the Government, a copy of the Resolution passed at the meeting of the Shire Council of Warrnambool on the 3rd inst,,on the matter of annexation of New Guinea and New Hebrides.

1 have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

William Anderson, Esq., M.L.A.,    J. 0. Mack, Shire Secretary.

Melbourne.

Copy of a Resolution passed at a Meeting of the Warrnambool Shire Council, held on the

3rd October, 1883.

Proposed by Cr. Hood, seconded by Cr. Wilson, and carried—

“ That, viewing with alarm the expressed intention of the French Government to send their criminal population to the New Hebrides, this Council most heartily approves of the action of the Honourable James Service and his Government in strenuously urging the annexation of these Islands and New Guinea to the British CroAvn, and trusts, by every constitutional means possible, they will persevere until they gain the desired end.”

P. 1183.

Borough, of Eaglehawk.

Sir,    Town Hall, Oct. 11, 1883.

I have the honour, by direction of this Council, to acquaint you with the following Resolution, unanimously passed at the last meeting :—

That this Council fully concurs in the action taken by the Honourable the Premier of this Colony, in conjunction with the Governments of the other Australian Colonies, in their endeavour to secure the annexation of NeAV Guinea, the New Hebrides, Avith the other Islands in the Pacific Ocean adjacent thereto.”

I may add that the expression of opinion of the meeting was that your statesmanlike action in this matter deserves the warmest thanks of this community.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

The Honourable the Premier.    II. E. Tolhurst, Town Clerk.

P. 1207.

The Honourable James Service,

Prime Minister of Victoria.    Moyston,

Sir,    Oct. 12, 1883.

I am requested to forward you the enclosed Resolutions, unanimously passed at a public meeting held at Moyston on Thursday evening, the 11th instant, on the occasion

of a lecture given by the Rev. J. G. Patón on the New Hebrides and the annexation of New Guinea and other Islands to the Australian Colonies.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

R. Moore, J.P.

First Resolution (1).—Proposed by Mr. Moore, J.P., seconded by Mr. Spears:—

“ That, having heard the Rev. J. G. Paton, this meeting of the Inhabitants of Moyston is alarmed at the proposal of France to send thousands of her criminals to New Caledonia and our South Sea Islands, and, in the interests of Australasia and of the Islands, enters its strongest protest against France being allowed so to deport her criminals, as it would demoralise and ruin the peace and prosperity of our Australian Colonies and destroy the work of civilising the Islanders.”

Second Resolution (2).—Proposed by Mr. Sullivan, seconded by Mr. Paterson :—

“ That this meeting urges Great Britain to annex New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and all. the intermediate unannexed Islands, which form a chain round our Australian coast, in order to prevent those islands being used as receptacles for the criminals of France or any other country, which would be dangerous to Australia from every aspect, and also to be able completely to suppress the Polynesian labour traffic with its many evils.”

Third Resolution (3). Proposed by Mr. R. Paterson, seconded by Mr. Marocco :— “ That a copy of these Resolutions be forwarded to Mr. Service, the Premier, with the assurance of all the united support that this meeting can give in helping him to carry them out to a successful termination.”

P. 1214.

L.B.G.—5/83/33.

The Honourable James Service, M.L.A.,

Premier, &c., &c., Victoria,

Sir,    •    Town Hall, Geelong.

I have the honour, by direction of the Town Council of Geelong, to forward you a copy of Resolution (hereto annexed) passed by that body in Council assembled. 1 have therefore respectfully to request that you will be pleased to take the earliest opportunity to forward same for the consideration of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen and the Imperial Parliament, strongly soliciting that the subject matter of the said resolution will receive early and special attention, in the interests of the several Colonies of Australasia.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Town Clerk’s Office,    Your most obedient servant,

12th October, 1883.    Wm. Weire, Town Clerk.

Copy Resolution of the Town Council of Geelong to the Honourable the Premier, referred

to in the annexed Letter from the Town Clerk, Geelong.

Town Hall, Geelong,

12th October, 1883.

“ That this Council, on behalf of the people of Geelong, cordially approves of the action of the Government of this Colony in re the annexation of New Guinea and the New Hebrides, and would respectfully urge them to still further press their annexation on the attention of Her Most Gracious Majesty and the Imperial Parliament, and that a letter be sent to the Honourable James Service, Premier, conveying this Resolution, signed by the Mayor and Town Clerk with the corporation seal attached.”

George Cunningham, Mayor. (Seal.)

Wm. Weire, Town Clerk.

P. 1215.

<    >    i

To the Honourable

James Service, M.L.A.

Sir,    Cathcart, 11th October, 1883.

On the evening of Wednesday the 10th instant a meeting was held in the State school, over which the Rev. J. G. Paton (missionary from New Hebrides) presided.

The following three Resolutions were proposed, seconded, and carried unanimously, and I was directed by the meeting to see that they were duly forwarded to you :—    *

First Resolution—    ’

“ This meeting, having heard the Rev. J. G. Patou, protests against France being allowed to send her criminals and convicts to the South Sea Islands, as it would exterminate the Islanders, and be a source of constant danger and expense to Australasia.

Second Resolution—

“ That this meeting urges Great Britain at once to annex the New Hebrides, New' Guinea, the Solomon Group, and all intervening Islands, that she may be able effectually to prevent French criminals from being sent to those Islands, and also to suppress the Polynesian labour traffic.”

Third Resolution—

“ That a copy of these Resolutions be sent to the Honourable James Service, with the assurance of a hearty support of this meeting in all he may think proper to do in carrying these Resolutions to a successful issue.”

D. Sadler, Cathcart.

P. 1217.    Town Hall, City of Sandhurst,

Sir,    October 13, 1883.

I have the honour, by direction, to forward to you the enclosed Resolution— re the proposed annexation of New Guinea, New Hebrides, and Islands adjacent, &c., &c., to the Australian Colonies—which was moved by the Right Worshipful the Mayor, and passed .unanimously by the City Council at its meeting of yesterday.

And I am further to express to you the Mayor and Council’s grateful sense of the great services you have rendered to the Colonies by the deep and abiding interest you have taken and continue to take in securing for Australasia proper control over the Islands in question, with . a vieAv of preventing, by every means in your power, any further influx of French criminals to these Islands, and ultimately to our own shores, an influx which, if not stopped, must inevitably entail upon the Australian Colonies a great and lasting wrong, and lead to complications in the future between England, Australia, and France of a very serious character.

With every sentiment of respect,

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

The Hon. James Service, M.P., Premier,    W. D. C. Donovan,

Treasury, Melbourne.    Town Clerk.

Be Annexation of New Guinea, New Hebrides, &c.,&c.

“ That the Sandhurst City Council protest against the action of the British Government in refusing to annex New Guinea and other Islands in the Pacific Ocean to Australia, in opposition to the expressed wish of the various Australian Colonies, and more especially as it is contemplated by the French Government to deport their criminals of the lowest class to these Islands; and that a copy of this Resolution be forwarded to the Premier of Victoria.”

The above Resolution was unanimously passed by the Council of tho City of Sandhurst at a meeting held on the 12th day of October, 1883.

Alf. S. Bailes, Mayor.

Borough of Stawell.

P. 1222.    Town Hall, Stawell,

October 12, 1883.

Extract from the minutes of a meeting of the Borough Council of Stawell, held on Wednesday, the 10th day of October, 1883, and ordered to be presented to the Honourable James Service, Premier of the Colony:—

“ That this Council, on behalf of the people of Stawell, desires to express its hearty appreciation of the efforts made by the Government to obtain the annexation of New Guinea and the New Hebrides to the Australias, and respectfully request that it cease not to urge on the Imperial Government the vital importance to the Colonies of such a measure.”

(Seal.)    W. Wayman, Mayor.

Jno. T. Sinclair, Town Clerk.

N 4

P. 1249.

To the Honourable James Service,

Premier of the Colony of Victoria.    Australian Natives'Association,

Sir,    Kerang Branch.

At a general meeting of the above-named Association, held on Thursday the 11 th of October, 1883, the following Resolution was carried unanimously, and ordered to be forwarded to you : —

That we, being members of the above Association and loyal native born subjects of Her Imperial Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Empress of the Indies, view with the greatest alarm the prospect of another penal settlement being established adjacent to these Colonies, our birthplace and home ; and having already experienced the evils resulting from the settlement of New Caledonia, do hereby tender our best and loyal support to any measure that the Government of Victoria and the other Colonies may deem necessary and expedient to prevent the establishment of such settlements in or adjacent to any of the Australasian Islands, and also that in view of the urgent measures necessary to carry out the objects of prevention, and in the general interests of humanity, ourselves, and the rising generation of Australasia, the Imperial Government be urged to annex New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and all the other Islands of the Pacific adjacent to the Colonies of Australia and New Zealand.

And we, being loyal and true members of the Australian Natives’ Association, viewing this question as a national one, and of great urgency, will use our utmost endeavours to have the foregoing Resolutions adopted.

Signed on behalf of the members of the Kerang Branch of the Australian Natives’ Association.

(Seal.)    Alfred J. Jones, President.

W. H. Rundell, Secretary.

Borough of Dunolly.

P. 1252.    Town Hall, Dunolly,

Sir,    October 17, 1883.

I have the honour, in compliance with a unanimous resolution of the Council of this Borough, passed at its ordinary meeting, held on the 10th instant, to express to you its entire approval of the action taken by the Victorian Government in the endeavour to obtain the annexation of New Guinea and the New Hebrides to the British Crown, and the establishment of British authority in those Islands, in order to prevent them from being used as penal settlements by foreign powers, to the danger of the peace and security of the Australian Colonies.

The question being one of the highest importance to Her Majesty’s subjects in this portion of Her dominions, the Council earnestly and hopefully trust that the Home Government will duly recognise the justice of the claims being made on behalf of the colonists, and that the endeavours of- yourself and colleagues in their interests in this matter may be attended with the fullest success.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

The Hon. James Service, Premier,    Ciias. Dicker, Town Clerk.

Melbourne.

P. 1253.

To the Hon. James Service, M.L.A.,

Premier of the Colony of Victoria.

Sir,    Echuca, October 16, 1883.

I have the honour, as chairman of a public meeting held in the town hall at Echuca, on Monday evening the 15th instant, to forward to you, as Premier of Victoria, copies of certain resolutions carried unanimously at that meeting in favour of the annexation of New Guinea and the New Hebrides Islands to Australia, and protesting against the threatened deportation of French convicts to the Islands of the South Seas.

I have the honour to be Sir,

Yours obediently,

Pelling H. G. P. S. Conant,

Chairman.

Copies of Resolutions carried at a Public M, held in the Toivn Hall, ,

Monday 15th October 1883.

No. 1.—Moved by Mr. Pennefathcr, seconded by Mr. AVino- •—

“ That it being- absolutely necessary for the future welfare of the Australian Colonies that New Guinea and the New Hebrides Islands be annexed to Australia, this meeting strongly urges upon the Government the necessity of taking immediate action, in conjunction with the Governments of the other Colonies, to obtain the annexation of these Islands by Great Britain.”

Carried' unanimously.

No. 2.—Moved by Mr. Elderson-Smith, seconded by the Revd. Mr. Carlisle :_

“ That this meeting views with alarm the announcement of the threatened deportation of French convicts to the South Sea Islands, which, if carried out, will be highly destructive of the commercial and social interests of Australia, and request the Victorian Government to take such active steps that may bo calculated to prevent such a calamitous occurrence.”

Carried unanimously.

No. 3.—Moved by Mr. O’Bryan, seconded by Mr. Foyster:—

“ That the foregoing resolutions be forwarded by the Chairman of this meeting to the Premier of Victoria.”

Carried unanimously.

Felling II. G. P. S. Conant,

15th October, 1883.    Chairman of the Meeting.

P. 1262.

To the Honourable

the Prime Minister of Victoria.

Sir,

I beg to forward by request the following Resolutions adopted by a Meeting held in Glenorchy on the 15th October 1883 :—

First Resolution.—Proposed by Mr. W. Harvey :

“That having heard the Rev. J. G. Paton, this meeting is alarmed at the proposal of the French Government to send thousands of its convicts to the South Sea Islands as freed men and women, seeing Australia has already suffered much by the French escaped convicts from New Caledonia ; and this meeting protests against France being allowed to carry out this measure, and pleads with Great Britain in the interests of her Australian Colonies, and of the South Sea Islanders, to use every means possible to prevent France carrying out this measure.”

Seconded by Mr. W. Payne, and carried unanimously.

Second Resolution.—Proposed by Mr. TV. Payne :

“ That this meeting urges Great Britain at once to annex the New Hebrides, New Guinea, and all the intervening Islands—to be able to prevent the exportation of criminals from France or any other country to those Islands, and to be able completely to suppress the labour traffic with its many evils.”

Seconded by Mr. A. McLennan, and carried unanimously.

Third Resolution.—Proposed by Mr. Geo. McKay :

“ That a copy of these Resolutions be sent to the Honourable Jas. Service, with the promise of the hearty support of the inhabitants of Glenorchy, as far as possible, in all he thinks necessary to bring these Resolutions to a successful termination in the interests of Australia.”

Seconded by Mr. W. Couland, and carried unanimously.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

William Harvey.

P. 1263.

Jackson’s Creek, 13tli October, 1883.

The folloAving Resolutions were passed unanimously by the inhabitants of Jackson’s Creek, at a meeting held on the 12tli instant:—

First Resolution—

“ That, having heard the Rev. John G. Paton, this meeting views with alarm the proposal of France to send 83,000 of her convicts to the South Sea Islands, protests against it, and pleads with Great Britain, in the interests of the Islands and of her own Australian Empire, to use every means possible to prevent France from carrving out this measure.”

Second Resolution—

“ That this meeting urges Great Britain at. once to annex New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and the intervening Islands, as the surest way to prevent them being made penal settlements for the refuse of France or any other country, and to be able to supply the Polynesian labour traffic with its many evils.”

Third Resolution—

“ That a copy of these Resolutions be sent to Mr. Service, with the assurance of all the help possible from the inhabitants of Jackson’s Creek in carrying them to a successful issue.”

P. 1270.

To the Hon. James Service,

Premier of Victoria.    Hooen, near Horsham,

Sir,    October 16, 1883.

I have the honour to forward to you the following Resolutions, passed unanimously at a large and enthusiastic meeting held in the State school at Dooen, on Tuesday the 16th inst.

[ have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

Robert Grant.

Resolutions passed at a large and enthusiastic meeting held at Dooen.'

1st. Proposed by Mr. R. Grant, and seconded by Mr. F. McCaskill:—That, having heard Mr. Paton, this meeting protests against France being allowed to send her convicts to the South Sea Islands, and pleads Avitli Great Britain to use every means possible to prevent France from carrying out this measure, as they Avould be a source of increasing danger and crime in Australia, and ruinous to the Islanders, who haAre been to a large extent Christianized and civilized by British money and British missionaries.

2nd. Proposed by Mr. James Paul, and seconded by Mr. S. Moore:—That this meeting, in the strongest way possible, urges Great Britain to annex NeAv Guinea, the New Hebrides, the Solomon Group, and all intervening unannexed Islands as required to complete her Australian Empire, to prevent the Islands from becoming a source of danger to Australia in time of war, and to be able to prevent France or any other country making the Islands a great penal settlement, and also to be able to protect the Christian natives Avho plead for British protection, and to suppress the Polynesian labour traffic with its many evils.

3rd. Proposed by Mr. L. 8. Prendevgast-, and seconded .by Mr. A. McKenzie :—That a copy of these Resolutions be sent to Mr. Sendee, the Premier, assuring him of the support of this meeting in every possible Avay that he may think required to carry out these meetings to a successful termination.

P. 1293.    Burnt Creek State School, Horsham,

October 18, 1883.

The RcAr. J. G. Paton delivered a lecture on the Missionary Labour of the Ncav Hebrides, and on the conclusion of the lecture the following Resolutions Avere passed :—

No. 1. That this meeting, having heard Mr. Paton, protests strongly against France being alloAved to send her convicts to the South Sea Islands, as they Avould be a source of great danger and crime to Australia and ruinous to the Islanders; and this meeting pleads with Great Britain ■ at once to annex the

Hebrides, New Guinea, and all unannexed Islands between, as needed to complete her Australian Empire, and to be able to prevent them being made penal settlements, and to be able to protect the native races, and suppress the Polynesian labour traffic with its many evils.

Proposed by Mr. D. T. McKenzie, seconded by Mr. T. Ryall. Carried unanimously.

No. 2. That a copy of these Resolutions be sent to Mr. Service, our Premier, promising the help of this meeting and district of Burnt Creek in all he finds necessary to do in carrying them to a successful issue.

Proposed by Mr. A. Miller, seconded by J. F. Potter. Carried unanimously.

To J. Service, Esq., M.L.A., Melbourne.

P. 1294.

City of Richmond, Town Hall,

Sib,    •    -    October 23, 1883.

I have the honour, by direction of the Council of' the City of Richmond, to forward herewith a Resolution passed unanimously at a meeting of the Council, on the 18th inst., relative to the annexation question, and ordered to be transmitted to you, with the corporate seal affixed thereto.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

The Honourable the Premier of    Your obedient servant,

Victoria, Melbourne.    Thomas Gardner, Town Clerk.

To the Honourable

The Premier of Victoria.

We, the Mayor and Councillors of the City of Richmond, desire to convey to the Honourable the Premier the assurance that the Government of Victoria have the hearty support of this Council in their endeavours to prevent the transportation of criminals to New Guinea, or other Islands in the Pacific, by urging the annexation of the Islands by the Imperial Government; and wo would urge the Government to continue their efforts towards Hie furtherance of this object.

Given under the Common Seal of the City of Richmond, in the Colony of Victoria, this twentieth day of October, 1883.

John Adam, Mayor.

(Seal)    Rod. Dickins, Councillor.

Thomas Gardner, Town Clerk.

P. 1316.

■Shire of East Loddon.

Sir,    Shire Office, Serpentine. October 23, 1883.

I have the honour herewith to forward you copy of a Resolution passed unanimously at the last meeting of this Council, in support of the policy adopted by the Government for the annexation of the Islands in the Pacific not at present annexed to any Foreign Government:—

“ That this Council desires to give its hearty support to the policy of the present Ministry in its efforts to have the New Hebrides Group, New Guinea, and other Islands of the Pacific annexed to the British Empire—deeming it in the highest degree dangerous to the various Australian communities that any of the Islands alluded to should fall under the control of the French or any other European power, and become penal settlements.”

Trusting that your efforts may be crowned with success,

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

(Seal.)    Benjn. Rinder,

The Honourable    Shire Secretary.

The Chief Secretary, Melbourne.

P. 1317.

To the Honourable

the Premier, Melbourne.

Sir,    Murtoa, October 23, 1883.

I have the honour to inform you that the Revd. J. G. Patou addressed a numerously attended public meeting in Murtoa last night in connexion with the New Hebrides Mission, when the following Resolutions were carried unanimously :—

1.    That this meeting, having heard the Revd. J. Gr. Paton, protests against France

being allowed to send criminals and convicts to the South Sea Islands, as it would exterminate the Islanders and be a source of constant, danger and expense to Australia.

2.    That this meeting of the inhabitants of Murtoa urges Great Rritain at once to

annex New Guinea, the New Hebrides, and all the intermediate Islands which form one chain round the Australian coast from Fiji to Queensland, and are needed to complete an Australian Empire, and to be able to prevent France or* any other country being able to make them penal settlements, and also to be able to suppress the Polynesian Labour Traffic, with its many evils.

3.    That a copy of these Resolutions be forwarded to Mr. Service, our Premier, with

the assurance of the hearty support of this meeting in everything he thinks necessary to carry them to a successful issue.

I have the honour to remain, Sir,

Yours obediently,

Oliver Blayney,

Chairman of the Meeting.

P. 1318.

The Honourable

James Service, Premier, Melbourne.

Sir,    Inglewood, October 20, 1883.

I have much pleasure in forwarding to you, through Messrs. Langdon and Grant, the annexed Resolutions that were unanimously passed at one of the largest public meetings that has been held in Inglewood for a long time. You will also allow me to state that the speakers who addressed the meeting very often and favorably mentioned your name in connexion with the annexation of those Islands referred to in the Resolutions. And I may also assure you that there was a sincere desire embodied in the meeting that your efforts in this important matter may be crowned with success.

And I am, yours faithfully,

W. Bastow, Mayor.

Moved by Councillor Tatchell, seconded by the Revd. D. A. Gilsenan :—

“ That this meeting views the announcement of the threatened deportment of French convicts to the Islands of the South Seas with the greatest alarm, being fully convinced that the same would be highly destructive of all the commercial' and social interests of every Colony in the Southern Hemisphere; and earnestly request that the Victorian Ministry, in conjunction with Parliament, will take such steps and use every legitimate means that will tend to prevent the threatened calamity that is now hanging over Victoria and the rest of the Colonies in the South Pacific.”

Moved by the Revd. A. Allnutt, seconded by Councillor Morrow:—

“ That this meeting considers it a matter of the greatest necessity for the good government and future welfare of the Australian Colonies that New Guinea and the New Hebrides Islands should be annexed to Australia, and Avould strongly urge upon the Premier, Mr. Service, and his Ministry, that it is absolutely necessary to take immediate action with Queensland and the other Colonies to obtain annexation of these Islands.”

Moved by Mr. J. F. Klein, seconded by Mr. Molineaux:—

“ That the foregoing Resolutions be forwarded by his Worship the Mayor to the Honourable James Service, the Premier of Victoria.”

Signed on behalf of the meeting,

W. Bastow, Mayor.

P. 1321.

Town Hall. Ballaarat East,

October 22nd, 1883.

To the Honourable James Service, M.L.A.,

Premier of the Colony of Victoria.

The humble Petition of the undersigned, on behalf of the Mayor, Councillors,

and Burgesses of the Town of Ballaarat East,

Sheweth—

That the Council of the town of Ballaarat East view with alarm the action of the Imperial Government in declining to accede to the expressed desire of the several Australian Colonies to annex New .Guinea and other Islands in the Pacific to Australasia, as there is imminent danger of these Islands ' being made into penal settlements by other European Powers, to the detriment and contamination of this portion of Her Majesty’s Empire.

We therefore most earnestly pray that }rou will use your powerful influence with Her Majesty’s Imperial Government to at once proceed to have the aforesaid Islands annexed to the Continent of Australasia, so that all the Islands may become a portion of our Most Gracious Majesty’s Dominion in the Southern Hemisphei’e.

Your petitioners therefore humbly pray that the annexation may speedily take place.

John Ferguson, Mayor.

(Seal.)    Robert Coxon Young, Town Clerk.

P. 1323.

Town Clerk’s Office, Town Hall, St. Kilda, Sir,    October 22nd, 1883.

I have the honour to forward herewith Resolutions unanimously adopted at a public meeting of ratepayers which was held at the Town Hall, St. Kilda, on Friday evening the 19th inst., to support the action taken by the Government re the Annexation of New Guinea and other Islands in the South Pacific by Great Britain.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

The Hon. James Service,    W. Simpson, Mayor.

Premier of Victoria.

Re Annexation of New Guinea, fe.

Public Meeting.

Town Hall, St. Kilda,

Friday, 19th October, 1883.

Dr. W. II. Embling moved, and the Hon. J. S. Johnston seconded :—

“That this meeting views with alarm the prospect of any penal settlement adjacent to these Colonies, and, having already experienced the evils resulting from the settlement of New Caledonia, does hereby tender its hearty support to any measure that the Government of Victoria and the other Colonies may deem necessary to prevent the establishment of such settlements of any of the Malaysian Islands.”

Carried unanimously.

Mr. John Wilks, J.P., moved, and Mr. Joseph Harris, M.P., seconded :—

“ That in view of the urgent measures necessary to carry out the objects of the foregoing Resolution, and in the general interests of humanity, the Imperial Government be urered to annex New Guinea and all other Islands of the Pacific

O    .    .

adjacent to the Colonies of Australia and New Zealand.

Carried unanimously.

Revd. Samuel Robinson moved, and Mr. Hugh McColl, M.P., seconded :—

“ That the foregoing Resolutions be signed by the Mayor on behalf of this meeting, and forwarded to Mr. Service, as the opinion of the people of St. Kilda in public meeting assembled.”

Carried unanimously.

W. Simpson, Chairman.

no

Sliire of Koron",

Wedderburn, 23rd October, 1883.

Silt,

I have the honour, by direction of this Council, to forward for presentation to the Honourable Mr. Service, the following Resolutions, unanimously adopted at the ordinary meeting held on the 16th instant:—

1.    “ The Council of the Shire of Korong, representing upwards of two thousand

ratepayers and nearly nine thousand inhabitants, beg to present to the Honourable the Premier their warmest thanks for the steps taken by the Government to prevent the further establishment of penal settlements by the French in the South Pacific, being assured that the deportation of large numbers of convicts to Islands in the immediate vicinity of these Colonies must have a most disastrous effect on their future prosperity and well-being.

2.    “ The Council also desire ■ to give their hearty support to the movement for the

annexation to Great Britain of Hew Guinea and other Islands included by their geographical position in the Australian Group, and to express their hope that the result of the Conference on these subjects about to be held in Sydney will be to show that the Colonies are unanimous in their determination to prevent by every means in their power both the pollution of their shores by the felons . of other countries and the establishment in their immediate neighbourhood of foreign settlements which may hereafter, as naval and military depots, become sources of great annoyance to commerce, and possibly, of peril to these communities.”

L have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient Servant,

The Under Secretary,

Melbourne.

P. 1337.    Shire Hall, Ballan,

Sir,    Secretary’s Office, 24th October 1883. .

I have the honour, by direction, to forward copy of a Resolution passed by this Council in favour of the annexation of New Guinea and the New Hebrides, which is as follows:—

" That this Council is in favour of the claim made by the Australian Colonies that the British Government shall annex New Guinea and New Hebrides, and it views with satisfaction and approval the action taken by your Government for the annexation of those Islands.”

I have the honour to be, Sir,

The lion. James Service,    Your most obedient servant, (Seal.)

the Premier of Victoria, Melbourne.    R. H. Young, Secretary.

P. 1339.

To the Hon. the Premier.    Dimboola.

Dear Sir,    The Manse, Dimboola, 24th October, 1883.

I have the honour to inform you that at a meeting held in the Presbyterian Church, Dimboola, last night, and presided over by myself, the following Resolutions were adopted :

1.    “ That this meeting of the inhabitants of Dimboola, having heard the Reverend

J. G. Baton, protests against France being allowed to send her convicts to the South Sea Islands, and pleads with Great Britain to use every means possible to prevent this measure, as it would be a source of danger to Australia and ruinous to the Islanders, who have been, to a large extent. Christianized and civilized by British missionaries.”

2.    “ That this meeting urges Great Britain to annex the IS ew Hebrides, New Guinea,

and the intervening unannexed Islands, as being required to complete her Australian Empire ; to be able to prevent France or any other country making the Islands a penal settlement, and to be able to suppress the Polynesian labour traffic, with its many evils.”

HI

3. “ That a copy of these Resolutions be sent to Mr. Service, the Premier, assuring him of the hearty support of this meeting in every way that he may deem necessary to carry out these Resolutions to a successful issue.”

I have the honour to be,

Your obedient servant,

John Archd. Taylor.

P. 1353.

The Hon. Jas. Service,

Premier of Victoria.    Nhill Station,

Sir,    24th October, 1883.

At a large and influential meeting of the residents of Nhill and surrounding districts, held in the Mechanics’ Institute, Nhill, for the purpose of hearing Mr. Paton give an address on mission work and the labour traffic in the New Hebrides, the following Resolutions were proposed and carried with acclamation :—

1st. Proposed by Mr. Oliver, and seconded by Mr. Kozminsky—

“ That this meeting of the inhabitants of Nhill, having heard Mr. Paton, strongly protests against France being allowed to send her convicts to the South Sea Islands, and pleads with Great Britain to use every means possible to prevent France from carrying out this measure authorized by her new convict law.”

2nd. Proposed by Rev. Mr. Abbott, seconded by Mr. Brown—

“ That this meeting urges Great Britain to annex the New Hebrides, New Guinea, and all the intermediate unannexed Islands, as required to complete her Australian Empire, and save it from any future evils, and to be able to prevent France or any other country making them penal settlements, which would be a source of constant danger, vice, and crime to Australia, and to be able to suppress the'Kanake labour traffic and protect the Islanders who now plead for British annexation and protection.”

3rd. Moved by Mr. Campbell, seconded by Mr. Millar—

“ That a copy of these Resolutions be forwarded by the Chairman to Mr. Service, assuring him of our hearty support in any measure he may deem necessary to carry them to a successful issue.”

I am, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

Wm. Macdonald,

President of the Lowan Shire Council,

Chairman.

P. 1393.    Shepparton.

Shepparton Lower Goulburn Valley

G. W. Hall, Esq., M.P., Melbourne,    Agricultural and Pastoral Society,

Dear Sir,    •    October 29, 1883.

I am instructed by the Committee of this Society to write and ask you to kindly present the following Resolution to the Honourable the Premier, viz. :

“ We, the President, Committee, and Members of the Shepparton and Lower Goulburn Valley Agricultural and Pastoral Society, desire to assure the Honourable the Premier that his Government have our full and hearty support in their efforts to prevent the influx of criminals from France to the Islands of the Pacific and New Guinea ; and we would strongly urge the annexation of these Islands to the British Crown, and we trust that his Government will persevere to obtain this object.”

Than! dng you in anticipation,

I am, yours obediently,

G. Vinge,

Secretary S. and L.G.V.A. and P. Socy.

0 4

P. 1304.    Williamstown.

Sir,    Council Chambers, October 30, 1883.

By direction of the Council, I have the honour to inform you that at their last meeting a Resolution was passed unanimously—

contiguous thereto.’


“ That the Council very heartily approves of the policy of the Premier with reference to the annexation of New Guinea, and the prevention of the influx of the criminals of any nation upon the shores of Australia or any of the Islands

1 have the honour to be, Sir,

The Honourable the Premier, Melbourne.


Your obedient servant,

Geo. P. Smith,

Town Clerk.

P. 1395.    Shire of Benalla.

Sir,    Council Chambers, Benalla, October 29, 1883.

I have the honour to inform you that the following Resolutions wore unanimously carried at a meeting of the Council held on the 12th instant, viz. :—

1st. “ That in the opinion of this Council the Government of Victoria should, in the common interests of the Australasian Colonies, unite with the other Colonial Governments in urging upon the Imperial authorities the necessity of annexing New Guinea and the Islands of the New Hebrides.”

2nd. “ That in view of the threatened deportation by France of her worst criminals to the New Hebrides, and the consequent danger of having a large foreign criminal settlement in such proximity to Australian shores, this Council, in its representative capacity, expresses the hope that the Parliament of Victoria will, in the name of the people, appeal to the British Government to protect these Colonies from so dire a calamity. ’

3rd. “ That the foregoing Resolutions be forwarded to the Honourable the Premier through our Parliamentary representatives, Messrs. Graves and Hall.”

1 have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

The Honourable the Premier,    Evan James,

&c.    &c.    President.

P. 1930.

W. M. Clark, Esq., M.L.A.,    Footscray.

Footscray.    Town Clerk’s Office, Town Hall,

Sir,    October 30, 1883.

I have the honour, by direction of this Council, to respectfully request that you will be good enough to present to the Honourable the Premier, on behalf of this Borough, the following Resolution, adopted at a public meeting held in the Town Hall, on Thursday, the 18th instant, and which was submitted to and received the unanimous approval of this Council:—

Resolution—■“ That this meeting approves of the action taken by the Government in favour of the annexation of the South Pacific Islands; such Resolution to be submitted for the sanction of the Borough Council and to be thence forwarded to the Chief Secretary.”

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

John Our,

Town Clerk.

P. 1397.

Copy of a Resolution passed at a Meeting of the Bacchus Marsh Shire Council, held

October 20 t1883.

“ That this Council approves of the action of the Government of Victoria in uniting with the other Colonial Governments to urge upon the Imperial authorities the necessity of annexing New Guinea and the Islands of the New' Hebrides, and is of opinion that this action should be persisted in until a favourable reply is obtained.

“ That in view of the threatened deportation by France of her worst criminals to the New Hebrides, and the danger of a large criminal settlement so near our shores, this Council, in its representative capacity, expresses the hope that the Parliament of Victoria will, in the name of the people, appeal to the British Government to protect these Colonies from such a dreaded calamity.

“ That this Resolution be forwarded to Messrs. Deakin and Staughton for presentation to the Premier.”

(Seal.)    W. E. Standfield, Secretary.

P. 1398.

To the Hon. James Service,

The Premier of Victoria.    Avon Shire.

Sir,    Council Chambers, Stratford, 30th October, 1883.

By direction of the Avon Shire Council, I have the honour to submit the following Resolution unanimously passed at a meeting of this Council held yesterday, the 29th inst., specially called to consider the subject matter therein contained:—

“ That this Council desires to express its entire concurrence with the Premier and Government of this Colony in the steps taken to obtain the united co-operation of the several Australasian Governments in support of proposals for the annexation of New Guinea and other Islands contiguous thereto and adjacent to the Australasian coasts, and thereby save these Colonies for all time to come from the serious danger of these Islands being used by any European Government in a way that would interfere with the commercial and social development of the Australasian group by forming penal settlements thereon or otherwise, and that the Secretary be hereby instructed to forward this Resolution to the Premier with the assurance of this Council’s active support.”

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

W. Leonard Bolden, Shire Secretary.

No. 92.

Governor F. NAPIER BROOME, C.M.G., (Western Australia) to the Right Hon.

the EARL OF DERBY. (Received January 2, 1884.)

Government House, Perth,

My Lord,    November 22, 1883.

Referring to my Despatch dated the 20th September last,21 respecting the representation of this Colony at the Australasian Convention, I have the honour to inform your Lordship that the Colonial Secretary (the Hon. M. Fraser, C.M.G.) left Albany yesterday to attend the Convention, which assembles in Sydney on the 28th instant.

2. I enclose copy of my instructions to Mr. Fraser, as also of some “ Notes on ‘ undertakings of Federal importance in Western Australia,” a short paper which I have prepared to be read at the Convention. I trust that these documents may meet with your Lordship’s approval.

1 have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) F. NAPIER BROOME.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Ri 6318.


n


Instructions to the Honourable Malcolm Fraser, C.M.G., representing the Government of Western Australia at the Australasian Convention appointed to assemble at Sydney on the 28th November 1883.

On arriving at Sydney, it will be your first duty to pay your respects to his Excellency the Governor of New South Wales, to whom you are at liberty to communicate these instructions, should his Excellency desire to peruse them.

2.    You will then call upon the Premier of New South Wales,.to whom you will communicate your letter of appointment as the Representative of this Government at the Convention.

3.    You will attend all the meetings of the Convention.

4.    You will represent the local and intercolonial interests of Western Australia. Your position as an Imperial Officer in a Crown Colony will not in any way constitute you an exponent of imperial policy.

5.    Subject to these instructions, you will speak and vote at the Convention in all matters, as you may think best in the interests of the Government and people of Western Australia, whether the question be Imperial or local.

0. Though it would not be proper for you to speak or vote in unbecoming censure of any act of the Imperial Government, there can be no reason why you should not express a fair opinion on any matter before the Convention.

7.    You should not speak or vote on any question in discord with what you know to be the acts or policy of this Government.

8.    You should communicate with me by telegraph before giving any vote tending either to engage this Government in expenditure or to occasion loss of revenue.

9.    You will telegraph to me the terms of any resolutions proposed with reference to New Guinea and the Pacific Islands, or Federation, in time to allow me to communicate with you before they come to the vote.

10.    As regards the questions which have been raised respecting the eastern portion of New Guinea and the Pacific Islands near Australia, this Government is in favour of such Imperial action as will prevent foreign powers acquiring any foothold in these regions beyond that which they may now possess.

11.    AYhether such Imperial action shoidd take the form of annexation, of protectorates, or of diplomatic undertakings, is a question upon which this Government conceives Her Majesty’s Government will be the best judge.

12.    This Government is, generally speaking, in favour of any action tending to advance Australian Federation. Of course the financial interests of this Colony will require to be protected.

13.    Having ascertained the opinions of a certain number of the members, you will consider whether you can judiciously propose to the Convention a resolution affirming the continental and federal importance of a Fremantle and Eucla Railway, as the shortest route for European mails and passengers to the Eastern Colonies.

14.    This Government is in favour of Free Trade, and of any action tending to a simplification and unification of customs tariffs. It is adverse to Protection in any shape or form.

15.    You will keep me informed by telegraph sufficiently, but not too profusely, of the proceedings of the Convention, writing also by post.

16.    It would be probably injudicious that you should propose to the Convention any resolution that you have not fair reason to suppose will command a majority. You can easily ascertain this beforehand by conversation with the members. Yon should telegraph to me the terms of any resolution other than that mentioned in paragraph 13, which you may consider it advisable yourself to propose, in time to allow you to receive my answer before it appears on the notice paper of the Convention. It is sometimes of advantage to have a resolution discussed, even if it cannot be carried. But telegraph to me before you act with this object only.

17.    It will be understood, that while you represent the Government of this Colony, you may not, owing to the political constitution of Western Australia, represent either the Governor as instructed by the .Secretary of State for the Colonies, or a majority of the Legislative Council, and that therefore subsequent action here on any important matter decided at the Convention must be to some degree uncertain, until the Secretary of State and the Council have been consulted.

18.    It would be unbecoming the small resources and minor position of Western Australia, were you to assume too forward an attitude at the Convention, where your

presence, though not without some political weight, must partly be considered as a recognition of this Colony’s membership of the Australian family, and of the more important position it may one day occupy therein.

19.    Your attendance at the Convention will of itself be an advantage to this Colony; and your tact and judgment will probably give you occasional opportunities during the sittings of drawing attention to Western Australia. One means of doing so, •would be the reading of a paper describing the several undertakings of this Government which have a Federal character and importance, such as our intercolonial telegraphs and railways, our explorations of the interior, our marine surveys, &c. You will judge whether the nature of the proceedings, and the business brought forward afford an opening for such a paper, a draft of which is annexed. You might also, present to the Convention, copies of the Surveyor General’s recent Report on our little known Kimberly District.

20. You will transmit to me, by the first opportunity, the official minutes of the Convention, all papers laid before it, and the most correct and full report of its deliberations which may be published in the New South Wales press.

21.    Should you require any additional instructions, you can obtain them by telegraph.

(Signed) F. Napier Broome,

Government House, Perth, November 14,1883.    Governor.

Enclosure 2 in No. 92.

Notes on some Undertakings of Federal Importance in Western Australia.

The commanding geographical position of Western Australia, upon the seaboard of the continent nearest to India, to Europe, and to England, cannot fail to give that Colony a more important place ip the Australian system of the future, than its present resources and population would seem to indicate. The fortification of King George’s Sound has lately been declared to be part of the general scheme of Continental defence, and this excellent harbour has for many years been the first and last port of call of the steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, which carry the principal European mails of the Eastern Colonies. Since 1877, the arrival and departure of these mails has been notified to Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane by means of the Eucla telegraph, a work of Federal importance. The object of these notes, which I take the liberty of transmitting to the Australasian Convention through the representative of this Government, is to draw attention to some other West Australian undertakings, also of high intercolonial value.

The chief of these, and one which may be called a truly Federal work, . is the projected Eucla railway, by which it is proposed to connect Fremantle with South Australia. The total length of this line will be 840 miles, of which a section of 90 miles, from Fremantle to York, is now in course of completion, and will shortly be open. The construction of the remaining 750 miles, with borrowed capital, would be an enterprise quite beyond the present resources of Western Australia, and would probably have to remain in abeyance until it could be undertaken by the Federal Government of the future, were it not for a proposal to proceed with it on the Land Grant system. A syndicate • of capitalists now offers to build and work the entire railway, in consideration of a grant of 12,000 acres of land per mile. The scheme has been approved ; and, if the syndicate be as prepared, as would appear, the whole line may be completed in 10 or 12 years. In conjunction with this railway, the West Australian Government propose to construct at Fremantle harbour works which will render that port safe and commodious for the largest steamers, and plans for these works have been prepared by Sir John Coode. The estimate of cost is 638,OOOL or 242,000h, according as a larger or smaller scheme be adopted.

The continental advantage of this Eucla line of railway is so great and manifest, that its construction, even should the present scheme fall through, can only be a matter of time. Coming first to Fremantle from Ceylon, the European mail steamers would reach Australia at a saving of three degrees of southing, and of about 300 miles of distance, as compared with the present arrival at King George’s Sound. Passengers landing at Fremantle would avoid the rough and cold weather of the voyage round the Leeuwin and across the Australian Bight; and both mails and

P 2

lie

passengers—presuming the railway to be continued from Eucla, in the same manner as the intercolonial telegraph, by the South Australian Government—would reach the Eastern Colonies from two to four days sooner than at present, after a land-journey through the most temperate regions of Australia. The time thus economised would be a most valuable saving in the business of the continent.

The West Australian Government have just taken a step which will, it is hoped, solve the difficulties arising out of the existing monopoly of the Eastern Telegraph Company. They have granted a concession to Sir Julius Vogel, for 21 years, for the laying of a submarine cable from a point on the north-west coast to Ceylon or Singapore. The inland lines of the Colony will in a few months form a second trans-continental telegraph, another work of intercolonial value. They will be completed over a distance of 2,113 miles, from Eucla to Roebourne, where the new cable will probably be landed. The distance from Roebourne to Ceylon is about 2,GOO miles, to Singapore about 1,300 miles, and it is a condition of the concession that the cable is to be laid and ready for use within five years. It is scarcely necessary to point out that this additional submarine line will be of the highest advantage to all the Australian Colonies, placing them, as it will, in more certain, and probably considerably cheaper and speedier telegraphic communication with the world than at present.

In connexion with the subject of telegraphs, it may be mentioned that the West Australian Government, having been in communication with the Committee of Lloyds’ on the matter, are now laying a short submarine cable from Breaksea Island, off King Goorge’s Sound, to the main land. This signalling station will be very useful to Australian shipping, as Breaksea Island is the first land made after passing the Leeuwin.

A light of the first order, and an ocean signal station, on Cape Leeuwin itself would be most desirable, and a work of Federal importance. It would cost about 12,000L The West Australian Government have not felt justified in incurring this expense, since it considers that the cost of such a lighthouse should be contributed to by the other Colonies, or that the general boon to shipping would warrant, as in the case of the Great Basses and other lights, the levying of a due, guaranteed by Imperial and Local Acts. If the matter could be arranged on this basis, Western Australia would be glad to contribute its share of the expense, and to execute the work.

It has been proposed to organise a Federal Quarantine Station at King George’s Sound. The Government of the Colony are ready to give every facility, and it may be hoped that a basis of action on this and other Federal matters of pressing need will be settled or suggested during the sitting of the Convention.

The systematic marine survey of the coasts of Western Australia, begun 10 years ago, is a work of Federal value. The expense is borne jointly by the Admiralty and the Colony. The survey is steadily progressing, and a great extent of coast line, from King George’s Sound and Cape Leeuwin, in the south, to the new port of King Sound, in the far north—entered a month or two ago by a merchant steamer for the first time—has been carefully mapped, and sounded out to the 100 fathoms edge. One important result of the survey is, that the Rambler and Beaver reefs, so long a cause of anxiety to seamen, have been conclusively proved not to exist. The West Australian seaboard embraces nearly half the continent, but she has kept pace with the sister colonies in providing mariners with full and accurate charts. Taking into account her small means, she has probably spent a larger proportionate sum than any other state of the continent in perfecting the knowledge of Australian waters.

These few notes may serve to show how the geographical position of the Western Colony already connects it in no small degree with works and projects of continental concern, promising to make it the thoroughfare of the European mails, passengers, and telegrams of the federated Dominion of the future ; and how its Government and Legislature are occupying themselves with undertakings which must tend to knit the Colony more closely to the rest of Australia.

(Signed) F. Napier Broome.

Government House, Perth, 14th November 1883.

The Right IIon. the EARL OF DERBY to Governor the Rtgiit TTon. LORD

A. LOFTUS, G.C.B. (New South Wales.)

My Lord,    Downing Street, January 3, 1884.

I have received a letter,* of which a copy is enclosed, from Baron de Miklouho-Maclay, dated Sydney, the 28th of October 1883, relating to the wishes of the inhabitants of New Guinea, in the event of a protectorate being established there or annexation effected.

I request that you will cause Baron de Miklouho-Maclay to be informed that I have received this letter.

I have, &c.

Lord A. Loftus.    (Signed) DERBY.

No. 94.

FOREIGN OFFICE to COLONIAL OFFICE.

Sir,    Foreign Office, January 8, 1884.

With reference to my letter of the 31st ultimo,f I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you herewith, for the information of the Earl of Derby, copy of a further Despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, forwarding copy of a Note addressed by his Excellency to the French Government, on the subject of the Bill for the transportation of French habitual criminals to New Caledonia and other places.

I am, &c.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) J. PAUNCEFOTE.

Colonial Office.

Enclosure in No. 94.

My Lord,    Paris, January 4, 1884.

I have this morning had the honour to receive your Lordship’s Despatches of the 31st. ultimo, and I enclose herewith a copy of a further Note which I have addressed, in consequence, to the French Government, on the subject of the Bill for the transportation of relapsed criminals to New Caledonia and other places.

The report of the Senate Committee on that Bill was laid on the table of that House on the 22nd ultimo, but no further progress has yet been made.

I will send your Lordship a copy of the report as soon as I am able to get one.

I have, &c.

The Earl Granville, K.G.,    (Signed) Lyons,

&c.    &c.    &c.

M. le President du Conseil,    Paris, January 3, 1884.

In my note of the 20th of last month, I had the honour to inform your Excellency that I had communicated to Her Majesty’s Government the note which you did me the honour to address to me on the 1st of that month, respecting the Bill for the transportation of relapsed criminals, and at the same time I expressed on behalf of Her Majesty’s Government a strong hope that the position of the British possessions in relation to ¡New Caledonia would be considered, and that the Bill would not be applied to that French Colony.

i have now received instructions to submit to your Excellency a further representation on this important subject. Her Majesty’s Government understand your Excellency’s note to intimate, that even if the Bill should become law in its present shape, the French Government would have discretion as to sending recidivists to New Caledonia and its dependencies; and they very earnestly desire to obtain the means of allaying the constantly increasing apprehensions of the British colonists by receiving from the French Government an assurance that these criminals will not be sent to New Caledonia, but rather to the other places named in the Bill.

Her Majesty’s Government have learnt with satisfaction from your Excellency’s Note that instructions have been given to the Governor of New Caledonia to continue to apply to the Colonial Governments of Australia for the extradition of fugitive convicts, and they beg the French Government to accept their thanks for sending these instructions.

That there is strong foundation for the alarm felt in the Colonies, is shown by a report which Her Majesty's Government have received from the Governor of New South Wales, to the effect that 247 fugitive convicts from New Caledonia have landed since 18/3. Her Majesty’s Government desire to direct the special attention of the French Government to the very serious extent to which the escape of criminals is thus shown to have taken place during the last ten years.

In conclusion, I will ask your Excellency’s permission once more to recommend most earnestly to the friendly considerations of the French Government, the representations which I have on this and on previous occasions had the honour to make to them on a matter which has excited intense feeling iu Her Majesty’s Australian Colonies, and to which Her Majesty’s Government attach very serious importance.

I have, &c.

Ilis Excellency, M. Jules Ferry,    (Signed) Lyons.

&c.    &c.    &c.

No. 95.

The AGENT-GENERAL FOR VICTORIA to COLONIAL OFFICE.

8, Victoria Chambers,

Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.,

My Lord,    January 11, 1884.

I trust I may not be considered importunate in requesting your attention to my letter of the 29th of November of last year,* in which I applied, on behalf of my Government, for information as to the nature of the answer of the French Government to the representations which Her Majesty’s Embassy at Paris were instructed in last August to make on the subject of the French Relapsing Convicts Transportation Bill; and concerning which your Lordship then declared that it was necessary to obtain immediate explanations from the Government of the Republic. The length of time which has elapsed since Her Majesty’s Embassy were instructed to act, and even since the papers containing their instructions were published: the fact that the French Government have not only not withdrawn the Bill from the consideration of the Senate, but have, as I am informed, chartered a new special line of steamers from Havre to Noumea, the better to give effect to its provisions; the serious anxiety to which the discussions in the French Legislature, and the conduct of the Government of New Caledonia in regard to recently escaped convicts have given cause throughout the Australian Colonies, and the necessitv which is felt for the adoption, in good time, of common measures of legislative self-protection upon their part; all these considerations may, I trust, justify me in requesting your Lordship to bring the subject, with as little delay as may be, again under the consideration of Her Majesty’s Government.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby. (Signed) ROBT. MURRAY SMITH.

&c.    &c.    &c.    •

' No. 9G.

COLONIAL OFFICE to tiie AGENT-GENERAL FOR VICTORIA.

¡Sir,    Downing Street, January 18, 1884.

I am directed by the Earl of Derby to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 11th instant.f respecting the Relapsed Criminals Bill which has been passed bv the French Chamber of Deputies.

I am to state that Her Majesty’s Government have not lost sight of this important question, and are in communication with the French Government on the sujbject.

The correspondence, as far as it is then completed, Avili be presented to Parliament as soon as it assembles.

I am, &c.

The Agent-General for Victoria.    (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

No. 97.

COLONIAL OFFICE to FOREIGN OFFICE.

Sir,    Downing Street, January 18, 1884.

With reference to previous correspondence respecting the French Relapsed Criminals Bill, I am directed by the Earl of Derby to transmit to you, for the information of Earl Granville, copies of a letter* from the Agent-General for Victoria and of the replyf from this Department on the subject.

I am, <fcc.

The Under Secretary of State,    (Signed) JOHN BRAMSTON.

Foreign Office.

No. 98.

Governor the Right Hon. LORD A. LOFT US, G.C.B. (New South Wales), to the Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY. (Received January 19, 1884.)

My Lord,    Sydney, December C, 1883.

I have the honour to enclose to your Lordship a letter published by the “ Sydney Herald,” from Mr. Cameron (formerly an officer in the Ministry of Mines in this Colony,) replying to certain statements of the Press that he represented a syndicate of speculators with the object of purchasing land in New Guinea.

2. Mr. Cameron admits that a purchase of land (some 12,000 acres) was made by him from the Natives, but states that it was made in the most fair and legitimate way.

I have, &c.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,    (Signed) AUGUSTUS LOFTUS.

&c.    &c.    &c.

Enclosure in No. 98.

Extract from the “ Sydney Morning Herald” of November 23, 1883.

An Account of Mr. John Camerons Visit to New Guinea.

To the Editor of the “ Herald.”

Sir,—I left Sydney on the 21st July last to visit New Guinea, and I arrived back in Sydney on the 15th instant.

I find that statements have been made in various public journals with reference lo my visit, and these statements are to the effect that I represented a syndicate of speculators • in Sydney, that the sole or primary object of my visit was to “ grab ” land from the natives for next to nothing, and I am told that the proclamation by the Queensland Government, that purchases of land from the natives of New Guinea would not be recognised, was mainly caused by my late visit.

Instead of answering categorically these several statements, I will simply state the facts of the matter.

I am a geodetic surveyor, and hold one of the highest positions on the trigonometrical staff of New South Wales, and have been connected with the surveying staff of that colony since 1875. During the years 1869, 1870, and 1871, i was employed in a private business as surveyor in Fiji, and surveyed and laid out the town of Suva, the present capital of Fiji, and at the same time I selected and bought 1,000 acres of land on the

Navua River. During my sojourn in Fiji I became thoroughly acquainted with the language and customs of the natives, and had considerable experience as to the employment of native labour. I was also employed in sugar and cotton growing. I had, whilst in Fiji, considerable experience in the buying of land from the natives, and I may state that none of the purchases made by me, or under my supervision, have ever been upset, although they were investigated by a Commission appointed for the purpose by the Government appointed by the Home authorities. Purchases also in New Hebrides, made by British naval officers and others on exactly the same terms as those I made in Fiji, have never been questioned. At the beginning of this year I had 12 months’ leave (without pay) granted me. After my leave commenced I was induced to undertake a survey of a large tract of country, which occupied my time for some six months. On my return to Sydney, I heard, like the rest of the public, a good deal of talk about New Guinea. When in Fiji, I had, and ever since have had, strong inclination to visit New Guinea, and as I had nothing particular to do for the rest of my leave I determined to pay that country a visit. My idea was that, in the event of New Guinea coming to the fore, my knowledge might prove of considerable professional value to me, and I also intended to see if any other than Port Moresby might prove a better port, and if so to take up land there. I also thought it quite possible that I might find auriferous lands. I estimated roughly that such a visit would cost me about 500/., including the cost of a small schooner with which to survey the coast and rivers. I saw a gentleman in Sydney with reference to buying a boat, as I knew he was interested in a company which employed a great many boats on the coast of New Guinea, and he at once offered to afford me everv assistance, and offered to join me in the venture. I accepted his offer, as I considered that having the benefit of introduction to his commercial connexions in the Torres Straits and coast of New Guinea, would be much better than going, as it were, alone. (The word syndicate is comparatively new to me, and I must leave to others to decide from the above facts whether I represented a syndicate of land-grabbers in any sense of the word.)

I left Sydney, as before stated, on the 21st July last, and Thursday Island the 6th August, and took 19 days- to sail to Port Moresby in the “Alice Meade,” of 14 tons. I found there were some 800 natives at Port Moresby, with some six white men. The natives are, in my opinion, indifferently honest, except those, as a native naively explained to me, who have not felt the civilising effects of the white man. I noticed that further inland the natives had more sense of decency in dress than in the neighbourhood of the missions. The cause of this I am unable to explain. The natives of New Guinea do not appear to me to average over 5 feet 4 inches. They appear intelligent, and will work well for themselves, but not for employers. The country around Port Moresby disappointed me greatly, as there was a total absence of tropical vegetation, and the soil for a radius of some 10 miles appeared very sterile. I travelled 125'miles along the coast (from long. 146‘ to 147’30), and went 32 miles inland, and formed a general opinion of the country for over 10 miles inland along the 125 miles. The land I saw was low and flat, and the sago palm appeared very prevalent, which from my experience is evidence of poor swampy soil. The principal vegetable productions are yams, sweet potatoes, bananas (which latter are of a very inferior quality), sago, arrowroot, cocoanuts in limited number, sugar-cane, breadfruit, mummy apple, beetel nut, and tobacco; but noticeable by their absence were oranges, grandillas, guavas, and limes. I did not discover that the missions had done anything in increasing the variety or improving the edibles of the natives. Tobacco, cotton, coffee, and sugar, could unquestionably be grown in New Guinea ; but there is but a limited quantity of land fit for such purpose along that portion of the south coast which I saw, for the coast land is, as already stated, poor and swampy, and the valleys are far too narrow ; and, from all the reliable information I could gather, the same    objection    to the    land    exists all along the    south coast. I

now come to the subject of the    purchase of    land which I made.    I bought    some

12.000    acres, of which    I estimate    1,000    acres    to be fit for sugar,    and 2,000    acres

for cotton-planting, the    remainder    being    poor    and swampy soil.    But there    is a

drawback to the cultivation of sugar which is most serious, and that is that the rainfall on the south coast does not exceed 35 inches, whilst my experience has taught me that even 50 inches is too low an average for sugar-planting; and again, the rainfall in New Guinea is not sufficiently distributed throughout the year. To purchase these

12.000    acres cost me over 500/., without reckoning the loss of time (which in my case would, at the very least, be another 500/.), and the risk of health, if not life. As to what the natives received for their land, I have no hesitation in avowing that, having taken every precaution to make the natives fully and unquestionably understand the transaction, 1 bought it as cheap as I could. The amount actually received by the

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natives (exclusive of presents which valued over 50/.) was 140/., which is comparatively more than I ever paid for land in Fiji for sugar or cotton growing. I took the following precautions to make the purchases of land binding on the vendors. The natives at Port M oresby are called Motu and their language the same, and which language is understood for 40 miles east and (i() west of Port Moresby. The land I purchased is situated 30 miles west of Port Moresby and seven miles inland, and here the natives are called Kabadians and their language Kabadi, but 10 per cent, of them understand Motu, and all the natives I dealt with understood Motu. Before leaving Thursday Island for New Guinea, I met Mr. Goldie, the well-known naturalist, who had been exploring the New Guinea coast from the Papuan Gulf to the extreme east for the last eight years, and he told me that the only land he knew of fit for sugar or cotton «■rowing was between the Ipisi and Aroa Rivers, about 30 miles west of Port Moresby, and he informed me that he had applied to the Home Government for a grant of such land in consideration of his services in exploring and the good he had done the natives of New Guinea. When Mr. Goldie understood my capabilities as a surveyor, and that I had had experience in Fiji in purchasing land from natives, he proposed to join me, and to go and endeavour to purchase the land he referred to from the natives.

I accordingly accompanied Mr. Goldie, in his schooner the “ Alice Mead,” to Port Moresby. Here Mr. Lawes, the missionary, kindly translated the portion of a deed (which I had prepared), and which referred to the actual conveyance of land, into the Motu language. There is no wr