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A. B. C. OF BOTANY

BY

W. R. GU/LFOYLE, F.L.S., C.M.R.B.S. London.

Author ofFirst Book of Australian Botany for the use of Schools.

Director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens.

HWbrrunie :

S. MULLEN, 29 & 31 COLLINS STREET EAST.

1880.





AT O science is more interesting to the general mind than Botany, which treats of the nature, formation, and characteristics of the plants that grow around us on every side, as well as of all the vegetable kingdom contains. Also, none is more easy of acquisition, because none has a simpler foundation. From the common sward we tread, or the green leaf rustling on the wayside tree, to the most brilliant blossom that ever rewarded the florist’s care—from the familiar grain of corn, or commonest fibre for textile fabric, to the richest fruit or stateliest tree—the whole world of vegetation obeys the same immutable natural law; and the rudiments of that law once understood, the door is open to the mastery of the most complex and abstruse branch of the fascinating subject. Yet Botany has hitherto been practically untaught in our schools. Why, when so much pains are bestowed upon other points of knowledge, this, which is so well recognised, so plain, and so useful, should be neglected is

hard to say. Possibly, I am often told, it is because in no book yet published are the rudiments of Botany rendered easy of grasp by the youthful understanding. Many works setting forth the first elements of ■ the science have been given to the world, but, as a rule, they seem so wanting in simplicity and intelligibility as to be rather a bar than an invitation to knowledge. I refer principally to the instruction of youth; but often have those of riper years, and cultivated and matured intellect, confessed to me they found the elementary botanical manuals I recommended to them were too hard, and called for a closer and more troublesome application than they cared to give.

With all this in view, and greatly prompted by my love of the subject, I have devoted myself to the preparation of this little work, which I, with some confidence, believe contains sound and full instruction in the rudiments of Botany—indeed the groundwork of the whole science—conveyed in language sufficiently clear and expressive as to strike home to the feeblest capacity, and in such a form as to readily reach not only the understanding but the memory. It is designed for the use of the youngest scholar, but is equally fitted for the maturer student. To Botany, like every other science, there is no royal road, but still it is possible to clear the path of botanical study from many a thorn of scientific nomenclature, and many a tangle of needless technicality, and render it so easy and pleasant to youthful feet as to encourage them to keep in the upward and never-ending way of knowledge. I hope I have done good work in this direction. Of course, however enticing the study is made, it must from the outset involve some technicalities, but I have striven to make them no stumbling-blocks. My plan is to begin at the beginning, and so arrange each step of learning that, when once taken, it shall not easily be forgotten. To gain this end I have caused the main points the student has to bear in mind to appear in my book again and again, and as each technicality presents itself it is carefully explained. I assert that, under the strict rule of nothing being allowed to pass until it is understood, whoever goes through this manual to the end will have established a lasting foundation of botanical knowledge, and possess a valuable and ever-recurring help to the study of its more advanced and intricate branches.

With these observations I commend this work, the preparation of which has been, indeed, a labour of love, to the careful attention of those for whom it is intended. It may be usefully regarded as an introduction to my First Book of Australian Botany which I published last year.

WILLIAM R. GrUILFOYLE.

Botanic Gaedens, Melbotjkne,

29th October, 1879.










.



EPITOME OF CONTENTS.

TA OD

SEEDS

.. .. Chapter I. .. . .

7

ROOTS

.. .. ,, II. .. ••

14

STEMS

.. .. ,, HI- --

18

LEAVES

.. .. „ IV. .. ..

25

FLOWERS

.. •• „ V.....

31

FRUITS

.. .. „ VI. .. ..

48

ACOTYLEDON3 .. „ VIL .. .. PRINCIPAL PLANTS OF ECONOMIC VALUE—

54

L-

-Plants Used as Food .. ..

58

II.-

-Spice and Condljiext Plants, etc. ..

62

III.-

-Medicinal Plants, etc. .. ..

G3

IV.-

-Fibre Plants .. .. ..

66

V.-

-Plants Used foe Dyeing .. ..

68

VI.-

Principal Timber Trees of Commerce ..

69

INDEX (Explanatory) ..

71-100




















A. B. C. OF BOTANY.

Chapter I.—SEEDS.

tracing the progress of a Plant through all its


stages, and pointing out the various organs formed at its different periods of growth, and their uses, it is proper to begin with the seed; explaining its formation or development, and its gradual change into the young plant. Then, showing in succeeding Chapters the structure of root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit, the circle will be complete, because the fruit of a plant is the vessel which produces its seed.

Seeds are found in vessels which, as just said, are the fruits of the plants which produce them. Wholesome or poisonous, 'palatable or tasteless, juicy and melting like the orange and nectarine, or wooden and uneatable like the cone of the sheoak and the seed-vessel of the gum-tree, they are all botanically called fruits; and they are as varied in shape, size, substance, and qualities as the plants from which they spring. A cherry, for instance, is a fruit or seed-vessel; the hard stone containing the seed. A pea-pod is another form of fruit; the peas being the seeds. Sub-division by the Natural System of Botany—the one now generally adopted—has placed in widely different Orders plants having seeming points of resemblance ; but it may be stated that the general principle on

which plants are classified in the Natural System is by an examination of their Fruits. In a future Chapter, however, the qualities of Fruits, and the parts of which they consist, will be described. Our present business is with the seed.

2.    Speaking generally, seeds have two or more coats or skins; though exceptions exist, as in the naked or skinless seeds of Fines and Cycads* The outer skin of a seed is termed the testa (shell) ; the inner skin is the tegmen (covering). The testa may be compared to the shell of an egg; the tegmen to the thin skin lining that shell. This comparison is frequently made : for as the albumen,! or white of the egg, nourishes the embryo^ or future bird while in the shell, so the albumen round many seed-germs nourishes the embryo plant when it begins to grow, supporting it until it is strong enough to shake off the testa or shell, and to draw its own nourishment through its roots.

Some kinds of seeds — such as those of the pea, bean, orange, and Eucalyptus, or “gum-tree”—have no albumen surrounding them. Such seeds are termed exalbuminous. Seeds possessing it—such as wheat, barley, maize, grasses, and buttercups—are albuminous ; but the albumen is starchy or farinaceous. The seeds of the Castor-oil plant are remarkable for their abundant albumen, which is of a fatty nature, and produces the castor-oil of commerce.

3.    The germination (growth) of a seed is the starting into action of the life which, if sound, it possesses. In other words, it is the beginning of growth in the sleeping germ of the future plant. Heat, moisture, and air are necessary for

* Cycads belong to the order Cyeadeae, and are in close relationship with Conifers (Pine tribe).

t Albumen, the nutritious matter stored up with the embryo, called also Perisperm and Endosperm.

| Embryo, the young plant contained in the seed.

the proper germination of seeds. Many interesting experiments may be performed to show the effect which the absence of one (or more) of these elements has upon the progress of a growing seed. When totally deprived of them, seeds have been known to preserve their power of germination uninjured for very many years. Reliance must not, however, be too readily placed on all of the wonderful tales related respecting the growth of seeds after the lapse of centuries. The history of Botany contains sufficient wonders to astonish and delight the student, without the introduction of doubtful assertions.

When fully developed, the infant plant consists of—

1.    Cotyledon or Cotyledons (seed-leaves).

2.    Plumule (bud, or first stage of growth).

3.    Radicle (starting point of the root).

4. The cotyledons are the seed-leaves or lobes of the young plant. Flower-bearing plants are divided into two great Classes, according to the number of cotyledons possessed by their seeds. Thus, plants belonging to the monocotyledons have only one seed-leaf. Those belonging to the dicotyledons have two seed-leaves. By differences in seed, root, leaf, and stem these two Classes can generally be determined. Monocotyledons, for instance, may usually be known by the venation or marking of their leaves, which have straight or curved unbranched lines running almost or quite parallel with the midrib, which is a continuation of the leaf-stalk, as a rule running through the middle of the leaf. Monocotyledons include Grasses, Palms, Aloes, Rushes, the ordinary garden Lilies, and many other species. They are also termed endogens or “inside growers.” Most Dicotyledons, on the contrary, have their leaves marked with a network of veins, branching more or less over the leaf.' The plants belonging to this Class are also termed exogens or ‘ ‘ outside growers.” A further explanation of endogen and exogen will be given in a future Chapter.

5. The plumule is the bud in the embryo, or 11 first stage of growth,” indicating the future stem. In some seeds, as in the pea, it is plainly to be seen. In others it is very indistinct.

6.    The radicle (0) is situated below the plumule (A), Fig. D, and is the germ or (starting point) of the root. It always points to the micropyle, or foramen (3), which is a small hole in the hilum or scar through which nourishment is conveyed to the young seed, or nucleus, by the funiculus or umbilicus (cord) joining it to the placenta of the seed-case. The hilum, like the plumule and radicle, is distinct or indistinct in different plants. It is plainly marked in the pea ; indistinctly in the wattle.

7.    In order to examine the mode of germination or growth of seeds belonging to each of the two great Classes of Flowering plants, let us obtain a common garden pea, as representing the Dicotyledons. A reference to figures A and D will indicate the parts mentioned:—

Figure D.

D, a pea, split in halves.

A, the plumule. 0, radicle or radícula. C C, cotyledons or seed-leaves.


A, a pea, enlarged. 1, the testa, torn to show 2, the tegmen. 3, the micropyle, or foramen. 4, the hilum.


Figure E.

K

the dorsal or lack suture (seam or joint), or rib running along the hack of the pea. 2 is the placenta / or part to which the pea is attached by the funiculus (cord), 3.    4 is the ventral

{belly) suture, or cord-like junction of the lower part of the pod. The dorsal and ventral sutures bind together the two halves—termed valves—of the pod.

[Having thus gained a knowledge of the organs of growth, let an experiment be tried by soaking a pea in water for several hours, and then examining it, when it will be found larger and heavier— it has commenced to grow or germinate. If left in water for a still longer time, its outer skin will burst, because of the swelling of the seed-leaves. If sown in the ground after having been well soaked, and carefully taken up for examination after several days have passed, the plumule and radicle (starting points) will have become well developed between the cotyledons. The radicle is the first to strike out, growing downwards to form the root. The plumule soon follows, springing upwards to form the stem. From this time, if undisturbed in the ground, the young plant will make rapid progress. The cotyledons (seed-leaves or lobes) will gradually collapse as the growing plant drains them of their substance, until they are quite dried up in the testa (outer skin or shell) ; by which time the plant’s roots will be strong enough to support it. By sowing a number of peas, and taking them up occasionally for examination, this operation may be seen in all its phases.]

8.    Next examine the process of germination or growth in a grain of wheat representing the great Class of Monocotyledons. Unlike the pea, this grain is albuminous (containing albumen). The embryo or future plant is a mere speck in the end of the grain ; the rest of the seed-case being filled with albumen for its support during germination. The seed has only one cotyledon (seed-leaf), forming a sheath (covering) around the plumule. When the embryo commences to germinate or grow, it feeds upon the albumen. The great difference between this seed and that of the pea is, that instead of the seed-wheat radicle or young root lengthening in a downward direction, thus forming the root, it remains stationary (still), whilst from its lower end small fibrous (thread-like) rootlets issue, protected by sheaths at the points where they spring from the radicle. A representation of this kind of root will be found in Plate I, fig. 2, showing a root of wheat.

These differences in the parts of seeds, manner of growth in the root, and number of seed-leaves, must be remembered, as showing the two great Classes to which the pea and the wheat respectively belong.

9.    The Vegetable Kingdom, according to the Natural System of Botany, is divided into three great Classes. Two of these—Monocotyledons (one seed lobe) and Dicotyledons (two seed lobes)—have been mentioned. The third Class— Acotyledons—consists of Flowerless Plants. The plants belonging to this Class consist of many species of Australian vegetation; amongst them being the large Families of Ferns, Mushrooms, and Mosses. The Acotyledons will form the subject of a separate Chapter.

During this and the following Chapters the Botanical terms and their meanings should be occasionally gone over again. Only those words are given which are really necessary.

Chapter II.—ROOTS.

io.^he Hoots of Plants, though not so various as the fcji upper growth, have many important differences in shape. The broad meaning of the word Hoot is “that portion of the plant which grows beneath the ground, holding firmly in the soil, and absorbing or taking in nourishment.”

There are exceptions to this, as to many other Botanical rules. The Ivy, for instance, as shown in Plate I, fig. 3, throws out a number of fringe-like roots from its stem, which are termed aerial-roots, from the fact of their growing in the air—in this instance often in the crannies of walls and buildings, acting as supports, especially where the structure is decaying ; and often covering the whole surface with the plant. The roots of many water plants (aquatics) do not reach the ground. In every case, however, the roots point downward.

11. Plate I shows diagrams of the principal kinds of roots, as follow:

Fig. 1. Axial — a tap or true root of Gum-tree (Eucalyptus). An axial root, strictly defined, is a lengthening of the radicle into a tap or main root. In some cases merely delicate fibres issue from it ; in others—especially the aged tap-roots of large trees—the fibres attain a great size. The axial or tap-root, however, maintains throughout its character as the chief root. Dicotyledons (producing two cotyledons or seed lobes), except in a very few instances, have axial roots.

Fig. 2. Adventitious root of Wheat. When a root is not axial, it is said to be adventitious1 Monocotyledons (one cotyledon or seed-leaf) not possessing tap-roots have adventitious roots. The Ivy, though its aerial roots are adventitious, belongs to the Dicotyledons (two cotyledons or seed-leaves) from its other characteristics, and is therefore classed with them. In most cases adventitious roots are fibrous, springing from the unlengthened radicle (young root). Roots of this kind often become additionally branched by other fibres issuing from them. Grasses in general have adventitious roots.

12. Fig. 3. Aerial root of Ivy. Other examples of this kind of root are found in the Mangrove, Screw-pine, Moreton Bay and New South Wales Fig-trees.

Fig. 4. Fibrous root of Kangaroo-grass. This description of root is generally stringy or thread-like. Most annuals have fibrous roots.

PLATE I.

ROOTS.

1.

Axial.

5. Fusiform.

9.

Corm.

2.

Adventitious.

6. Soboles.

10.

Tunicate Bulb.

3.

Aerial.

7. Tuberous.

11.

Rhizome.

i.

Fibrous.

8. Scaly Bulb.

Fig. 5. Fusiform: root of Radish. A spindle-shaped tap-root, and therefore an axial or true root. The Australian Yam and Australian Parsnip are examples.

Fig. 6. Soboles or creeping stem of Swamp-weed. A name applied to stems which run along the ground, throwing out numbers of fibres below, and stalks above the surface. Examples: Wood-sorrel, Strawberry, Violet, and many Grasses.

Fig. 7.2 Tuberous or lobe root of Potato. A swollen underground stem, with the crown on its surface. Examples : Australian Sundews, Grass Lily, Australian Colchicum, Dahlia, and many Orchids.

13. Fig. 8. Scaly Bulb of Lily. Bulbs are divided into three kinds, as shown in Figures 8, 9, and 10. The scaly bulb is a thickened root, with the crown on the lower end.    ,

Fig. 9. Corm of Victorian Crocus. Differing from a scaly bulb in having a solid stem, with a very small proportion of broad, thin scales. Examples: Victorian Snowdrop, Ixia, European Crocus, Sword Lily.

Fig. 10. Tunicate Bulb of Jonquil. This form of bulb possesses hollow spheres, decreasing in size towards the centre ; the outer spheres being of a soft texture,

and hardening as they approach the middle. Examples : Daffodil, Amaryllis, Tuberose, Tulip, Snowflake, Onion, and Hyacinth.

14. Fig. 11. Rhizome or root-stock of Australian Sheathed-rush. An irregularly shaped, fleshy stem, growing horizontally below or in some degree above the surface. New stems spring from the upper portion, the lower part becoming rotten and useless. It generally bears marks of former leaves and occasional buds. Examples : Danubian-reed, Butterfly-flag, Iris, and several kinds of Fern.

Chapter III.—STEMS.

15. ¿3? HE Stem is that part of a plant which bears, or has f formerly borne, leaves. Stems do not always grow above the ground ; some plants having underground stems. The majority, however, are above the surface. Stems support the leaves (foliage) and flowers, supplying them with moisture from the roots. The stem springs from the bud or plumule, as shown in Chapter I. Stems may be divided into two kinds, herbaceous and woody. The word 1 ‘ herbaceous’ ’ is variously applied. It signifies plants producing annual (yearly) stems from perennial or long-lived roots. It also means thin, green, and cellular (having cells); and is generally used to refer to soft-wooded plants, such as the Potato, Garden-sage, Phlox, and Heliotrope.

The following are the principal kinds of stems :—

16.    Erect Stems, such as those of Ironbark, Messmate, Stringy-bark, G-iant Gum, Manna Gum, Red Gum, Blue Gum or Fever-tree, Jarrah, Yellow Box, Myrtle-tree of Victoria, and others, generally termed Trunks.

Climbing Stems, as in the Grape-vine, have tendrils or fine shoots. In other plants, such as the Ivy and Trumpet-flower (Tecoma radicans), they have aerial roots, serving the same purpose. In a third class, of which the Australian Virgin’s-bower is an example, the leaf-stalks closely resemble tendrils, and do the same duty of enabling the plant to climb and cling to its support.

Twining Stems, as in the French Bean, Convolvulus, and European Honeysuckle, twdst themselves round their supporters without the aid of tendrils, aerial roots, or leaf-stalks. The stem itself grows round the object to which it clings.

Stems are either hollow, as in Bamboos and Grasses; naturally solid, as in Wattles, and most large trees; spongy or pithy, as in the Australian Paper-grass and Sword-rush of the coast; or succulent or fleshy, as in the numerous kinds of Cactus.

17.    Trees have generally hard, woody stems or trunks, and grow from 30 to 500 feet in height. Hard-wooded stems seem to be almost peculiar to Dicotyledons. Some large Palms and Ferns are called trees, from the great size of their stems.

Shrubs, large or small, are plants seldom possessing a distinct, central stem ; but are always woody. Examples : Fuchsia, Correa or Australian Fuchsia, Privet, Heath, Lantern-flower, Epacris or Australian Heath, Diosma, Australian Holly, &c.

PLATE II


Figure 1.    Figure 2.    Figure


Figure 1.

Exogenous Stem (shewing cross section).

(DICOTYLEDON) Two cotyledons (seed-leaves).

New wood on the outside formed between the old wood and the bark, and producing two seed-leaves (cotyledons) in early growth or germination.

Examples:—Eucalyptus (Australian G-um-tree), Wattle (Acacia), Pine, Cypress, Sheoak, Australian Honeysuckle (Banksia), English Honeysuckle (Lonicera), Hakea, Australian Heath (Epacris), Erica or Common Heath, Victorian Laurel (Pittosporum undulatum), Cherry, Plum, Apple, Peach, Orange, Geranium, Rose, Daphne, Camellia, Rhododendron, &c., &c.

Figure 2.

Endogenous Stem (shewing cross section).

(MONOCOTYLEDON) One cotyledon (seed-leaf).

New wood developed towards the centre of the plant and producing one seed-leaf (cotyledon) in early growth (germination).

Examples :—Cordylines, Palms, Lilies, Orchids, Grasses (including Wheat, Oat, Barley, Maize, Sugar-cane, &c.), Hyacinth, Tulip, Aloe, Agave, Yucca, Asparagus, Snowflake, Crocus, Onion, Iris, Gladiolus, Ixia, &c.,-&c.

Figure 3.

Acrogynous Stem (shewing woody cross section).

(ACOTYLEDON) without cotyledons (seed-leaves).

Produces new wood at the top only.

Examples:—Tree Ferns.

This division (which is generally placed under the head of Cryptogams (Flowerless Plants), includes Filices (Ferns). Musci (Mosses), Lichens, Algse (Seaweeds), Fungi (Mushrooms). See Chapter VII., pages 54, 56, 57.

As mentioned in a previous Chapter, the stem (see Plate II, figs. 1, 2, 3)—as -well as other parts of the plant—presents distinct marks by which Monocotyledonous* and Dicotyle-donoust plants can he readily known. It is in relation to the stem that the words exogen (outer growth) and endogen (inner growth) are applied, as will now be explained.

EXOGENS OR DICOTYLEDONS.

Producing two seed-leaves in early growth (:germination.)

18.    The plants belonging to this Division form a large majority of the Vegetable Kingdom. All the native trees of Great Britain are Exogens ; while our Australian Bottle-trees, Gums, Wattles, Pittosporums, Sheoaks, Tea-trees, and many others, are Exogens. The stem of an Exogen, in its early growth, is a cylinder (tube or pipe) of cellular tissue. This tissue consists of a number of very small cells, massed together, and containing a colouring matter called chlorophyll, generally green, which will be further mentioned in the Chapter on “ Leaves.” Through these cells the matters absorbed (taken up) by the root pass to nourish (or feed) the plant. As the Exogen becomes older, successive layers of woody tissue are yearly formed in rings round the pith or heart of the stem. Each successive ring is formed outside the previous one ; those nearest the heart of the stem being the earliest formed. Hence the term Exogen, signifying “ outside grower.” Examine a cross section of the stem of a Gum-tree or Wattle as an example. (See Plate II, fig. 1, page 20.)

ENDOGENS OR MONOCOTYLEDONS.

(Producing one seed-leaf in early growth.)

19.    Though not so large in number as the Exogens, this Division includes many beautiful and valuable plants. The

* Monocotyledonous means belonging to the Monocotyledons.

t Dicotyledonous, belonging to the Dicotyledons.

graceful tribe of Palms, the Screw-pines, Club-lilies, and other genera or sorts found in Australia are Monocotyledons. The stems of Endogens increase in diameter by vascular bundles—fibrous vessels growing inwards, towards the stem. Hence the term Endogen or “ inward-grower.” (See Plate II, fig. 2, page 20.) Endogens have no annual rings, heart-wood (duramen), or true bark. Generally speaking, their leaves are continuous with the stem. The softest part of the stem is the centre, which is sometimes hollow; the hardest part is the outside or rind. In some Endogens, such as the Dracaena or Cordyline, the outer skin never hardens, and therefore the stem sometimes becomes bulky.

20.    Baric is the outer covering of Exogens. It varies greatly in thickness, shape, and formation. Its thickness is generally in proportion to the age of the plant ; though some species, Gums for instance, shed their bark yearly. The outer bark is the epidermis (skin) ; the fibrous inner layer is the liber or bast. Many kinds of bark are of great commercial and medicinal value. That of Wattles is very highly esteemed for tanning; that of Gums, Tea-trees, Pimeleas and other Australian plants for paper-making, oils, resins, dyes, ropes, &c.

21.    Branches are lateral [growing from the side) additions to the principal stem. Generally speaking, they are either erect (straight up and down), horizontal (lying across), or pendulous (hanging). In some trees, as in the Araucarias— Norfolk Island, Bunya-bunya, and Moreton Bay-pines— they grow in whorls or parts arranged at the same level round the stem, in a manner resembling the radiation [or divergence) of the spokes of a wheel. Some trees shed their branches. The principal branches are limbs, the smaller

ones branchlets and twigs. Some stems and branches a're armed with, spines or thorns ; others have glandular hairs {organs of secretion) more or less poisonous. Branches spring from the buds at the axis or angle of junction of stem and leaf. These angles are nodes, the spaces between are inter nodes.    Palms and some other Mono

cotyledons produce no lateral (sidelong) branches, having, as a rule, only a crown of leaves at the top of the stem, with a terminal (end) leaf-bud in the centre. If this bud be destroyed, the plant can grow no higher, and in some cases it dies. The author, when visiting the South Sea Islands as Botanist in H.M.S. “Challenger,” in 1868, saw several instances of mischievous destruction of noble Coco-nut palms fringing the coral beaches which had been cut down by traders for the sake of the tender leaf-buds or “sailors’ cabbage.” The aborigines of New South Wales and Queensland, and occasionally the settlers, eat the young leaves of the Cabbage and Bangalo palms.

Chapter IY.—LEAVES.

22. IP^EAVES are organs of (1) respiration {breathing), for most plants breathe through them—taking in carbon and other elements of plant food ; (2) evaporation (passing off moisture in vapour) ; (3) assimilation (or forming into a like substance).

The general meaning of the word “leaf” is well understood ; but it must be borne in mind that in a Botanical sense the term is not only applied to the foliage leaves, which are mostly green, but also to the flower leaves or petals, which are generally coloured. Leaves greatly vary in size. Some are only a small fraction of an inch long, and no wider than a thread. Others are from thirty to forty feet in length—the latter enormous size having been attained by the leaf of a Sago-palm in the Royal Gardens at Kew, near London. The magnificent shield-like leaves of the Victoria Regia or Royal Water-lily sometimes measure from five to six feet across. A specimen may be seen in the Botanical Gardens, Melbourne. The leaves of some of the Fan-palms are sufficiently broad to protect one from a shower of rain.

23. The leaves of some plants decay and fall in autumn, and are replaced by a fresh crop in the following spring. Such plants are called deciduous or “ leaf-shedders.” The British Oak, the Cherry, Pear, Apple, Ash, Elm, and Willow are examples of deciduous trees, their stems and branches being leafless and naked during the winter season. Evergreens are plants which continue to bear green leaves all the year round: the leaves sometimes remaining for several years.

Such leaves are termed persistent. Most of the native Australian plants are evergreens. Gums, Hakeas, Wattles, Ferns, and Victorian Laurel are examples. Leaves differ greatly in their margins, which are of various shapes, as under:—

24. A, serrate or saw-edged, B, dentate or toothed. 0, crenulate, or having rounded A marginal (edge) divisions. D, entire, or having an unbroken B edge. Another kind of leaf— retroserrate — has the teeth c placed downwards, instead of upwards, as in the serrate [) leaf. By reversing this page, A will represent a retroserrate leaf. The Australian Yam has this kind of leaf.

25. Cauline leaves are those developed from the stem. Ramose leaves grow from the branches. Radical-leaves spring from so near the root as to have the appearance of coming directly from it. Sessile or sitting leaves have no apparent leafstalk, but appear ^ to sit directly on the branch or stem. A sheathed leaf, such as is seen in most Grasses, has a lengthening- of the leafstalk which surrounds the stem.

26. Alternate leaves, as in the Rose and Camellia, grow one above the other. Opposite leaves coincide or grow directly opposite each other. When more than two leaves are opposite, they are ivhorled (forming a ring around the stem). There are other arrangements of the leaf on the stem, not necessary for present mention.

27.    Leaves have cells containing a colouring matter, generally green, termed chlorophyll. In many Australian plants, the leaves are turned edgeways towards the sun— for instance, the Eucalypti or Gum-trees. Stipules are small appendages found in pairs at the base of the leafstalk (see M Diagram); they are generally absent in Monocotyledons (one seed-leaf).

Paranchyma of the leaf is the cellular tissue surrounding minute vessels enclosed within the epidermis (outer shin or covering).

28.    Vernation, or the manner in which leaves are folded in the hud before they open or expand, is a subject for the advanced student. A thorough knowledge of leaves is of great importance, since by it Botanists are often able to classify a plant when it is inconvenient or impossible to procure other parts of it for examination.

Venation means the distribution of veins in the leaves, as mentioned in Chapter I.

29.    In the Wattle and some other plants, the leafstalk is sometimes so much flattened and extended as to resemble a leaf. This peculiarity is termed a phyllode. In some cases the true leaf is found growing1 at the end of the phyllode. (See Plate III, figs. 3 and 4.) In some Australian Wattles no true leaves are produced, the phyllodes alone serving the same purpose. The leafstalks of some water plants are filled with air, enabling the plant to float or rise above the surface.

Leaves are of two kinds, simple and compound. The simple ones vary in shape. They may be very deeply divided towards the midrib ; they may have one unbroken leaf; yet they are simple leaves. The compound leaf has its blade divided into leaflets, varying in number. The leaflets are separated from the midrib by stalks. Beginners should be careful not to fall into the mistake of calling leaflets leaves. They are merely parts of leaves, as will he seen by Diagram I M.

Fig. I. Compound leaf of Rose.—S, stipules. L, leaflet.

Leaves have stomata or breathing apparatus, generally on both sides of the surface. These are very small openings in the skin of the leaf. In water plants, leaves that float have stomata pn the upper side only; leaves entirely under water have none at all.

30. Some plants have leaves termed sensitive or irritable ; from the fact of their showing a sense of feeling when touched. The well-known Sensitive Mimosa is of this class. The leaves of the Australian Sundews are covered with glandular hairs—that is, hairs tipped by a gland or cell, containing a sticky fluid, strong enough to hold insects settling on them.

Many other plants show a most remarkable degree of sensitiveness.

The surface of leaves are—

Glabrous or smooth. Examples: Victorian Laurel, New Zealand Laurel, Camellia, Looking-glass bush, Moreton Bay Fig. Scabrous or rough. Sunflower, Jerusalem Artichoke.

Hirsute or hairy. Rock Rose, Verbena, some Pelargoniums and Geraniums, Australian Fuchsia (Correa), Australian Foxtail (Trichinium).

Setose or bristly. Nettle, Spotted Thistle, Borage.

Viscous—clammy or sticky. Sundew, Tobacco, some Cypresses (Cupressus)

There are subdivisions of these kinds of surfaces.

The subjoined fig. K shows a leaf of Victorian Laurel, with the reticulated or branched veins (venation) peculiar to Dicotyledons (having tioo seed-leaves) clearly defined:

they are straight or slightly


Figure K.

1 is the midrib, giving off 2, the primary veins. The smaller network of veins branching all over the leaf are secondary veins (3).    4 is the petiole or leafstalk.

When the cellular portions of a leaf have decayed, by being steeped in water, the vascular (containing vessels) portions— namely, the midrib, and primary and secondary veins, together with the petiole—are left ; forming what is called a “skeleton leaf.” The Veins of a Dicotyledonous leaf appear like network; while in the generality of Monocotyledons

PLATE III.

KfliC.



LEAVES.

18.    Rhomboid.

19.    Lanceolate.

20.    Falcate.

21.    Spathulate.

22.    Apicnlate.

23.    Cuneate.

24.    Butcher’s Broom.

25.    Linear.


1.    Pinnate.    10.    Palmate.

2.    Pinnatipartite. 11.    Trilobed.

3.    & 4. Phyllode. 12. Temate.

5.    Reniform.    13.    Sinuate.

6.    Cordate.    14.    Hastate.

7.    Orbiculate.    15.    Sagittate.

8.    Peltate.    16.    Perfoliate.

9.    Oblong.    17.    Undulate.

31. Plate III shows leaves of the following shapes:— Fig. 1. Pinnate leaf of Elderberry-ash. A compound leaf,

having leaflets arranged on each side of a central rib. Examples: Rose, Jasmine, Wonga "Wonga Vine, Moreton Bay Jasmine, English Ash, Wistaria.

Fig. 2. Pinnatipartite leaf of Australian Celery. A simple leaf cut into lateral segments, the divisions extending nearly to the central rib. Another example: Celandine.

Figs. 3 and 4. Phyllode. A leaf-like stalk, enlarged so as to resemble a true leaf. In the Diagram, fig. 3 shows the true leaf of a Wattle; fig. 4 the phyllode. Many Wattles are examples.

Fig. 5. Reniform or kidney-shaped leaf of. Kidney-weed. The Kidney-fern of New Zealand and some Pelargoniums are examples.

Fig. 6. Cordate or heart-shaped leaf of Australian Fuchsia {Correa speciosa variety). Examples: Violet, Periwinkle.

Fig. 7.* Orbiculate or Circular leaf of another kind of Australian Fuchsia {Correa alba). Quince, Australian Mint-bush (round-leaved variety).

* In my work on Australian Botany, page 19, fig. 7, the word globular was improperly mentioned in description of orbiculate leaf. The former term is sometimes applied to fruits and roots.

Fig. 8. Peltate or shield-like leaf of Nasturtium. Lotus-lily, Royal water-lily.

Fig. 9. Oblong, ovate, oval, or elliptical. New Zealand Laurel, Edging or Border-box, some Magnolias, spurious Sarsaparilla, Kangaroo grape-vine.

Fig. 10. Palmate leaf of Castor-oil plant. Palmate or palmatifid leaves have radiating or diverging venation (veins), and are divided into lobes. Flame-tree, Plane, Sycamore, Rice-paper plant.

Fig. 11. Trilobed or three-lobed leaf. Most of the Passionflowers.

Fig. 12. Ternate. Strawberry, Japanese Anemone, some of the Wood-sorrels.

Fig. 13. Sinuate. Queensland Tulip-tree, Firethorn nightshade. -

Fig. 14. Hastate or halbert-shaped. Sea-berry, many Docks.

Fig. 15. Sagittate or arrow-shaped. Nile-lily, Caladium, some Arums.

Fig. 16. Perfoliate leaf of “ Diggers’ Delight.” In this kind of leaf the stem appears to pass through the blade of the leaf. Several European Honeysuckles.

Fig. 17. Undulate or waved leaf of Victorian Laurel. The Bay-tree is another example.

Fig. 18. Rhomboid or quadrangular (four angled). Queensland diamond-leaf Laurel, Australian Bower spinach, Celery-pine.

Fig. 19. Lanceolate leaf of Oleander or Rose-bay. Narrowly elliptic {oval), tapering to each end. Valerian, some Hakeas.

Fig. 20. Falcate or sickle-shaped. Most of the Gum-trees, some Wattles.

Fig. 21. Spathulate or battledore-shaped. Having a linear or line-like form, enlarging into a rounded extremity. Pot Marigold, Treasure-flower, Australian Sundew.

Fig. 22. Apiculate. Having a soft terminal or ending point, springing abruptly. Alpine Gum-tree, Corn-leaf.

Fig. 23. Cuneate or Cuneiform. Shaped like a wedge placed on its point. Native Hop-tree (wedge-leaved variety), Australian Scar-bush.

Fig. 24. Apiculate, flattened leaf-like branch of Butcher’s Brqom; given to show the curious manner in which the flower grows upon it. This plant is said to be the only hard-wooded Monocotyledon found in Great Britain. The Epiphyllum and many other genera of the cactus tribe are remarkable for the manner in which the flowers are produced upon the flattened branches.

Fig. 25. Linear. A narrow leaf, the length many times exceeding the breadth. Found in most Grasses.

There are other forms of leaf ;* amongst them the pinnatifld, which is a simple leaf cut into lateral segments to about the middle, as in the Dandelion, Cape-weed, and Native Daisy.

[The Diagrams and explanations should be carefully studied; and specimens for comparison procured where practicable, to show that shape, and not size, determines the character of the leaf.]

* Mr. Bentham, at paragraph 44 in the introduction to his useful work, “The Flora Australiensis,” points out“ The number of leaves or their parts is expressed adjectively by the following numerals derived from the Latin :—

uni bi tri quadri quinque sex septem octo novem decern multi 1234    5    6    7    8    9    10 many

prefixed to a termination, showing the particular kind of part referred to. Thus—Unidentate, bidentate, multidentate, mean one-toothed, two-toothed, many-toothed, etc. Bifid, trifid, multifid, mean two-lobed, three-lobed, many-lobed.

Chapter V.FLOWERS.

32. /iT'AVINGt examined the common forms of Seeds, Roots, Stems, and Leaves, we now come to

Mowers.

Infloeescence, or the manner in which flowers are arranged on their stalks, is the first matter requiring explanation. Examine a stalk bearing a bunch of flowers, as the Verbena, for instance. It will he seen that each of the florets or little flowers which make up the bunch has a small stalk, by which it is joined to the main stalk. This small stalk is called a pedicel {supporting a single flower); the main stalk, to which all the pedicels are joined, is the peduncle. The peduncle is also called the primary axis. Divisions of the peduncle are also termed axes; a single division is an axis. Bracts are leaf-like developments attached to the flower-stalk, or connected with the flower. The green floral leaves of many flowers are bracts. The manner in which flowers are borne on the stalk is distinguished by various names. Other divisions, of less importance, exist. The principal ones are as follow

Capitulttm: or head.—A number of florets (small flowers) without stalks, packed on the top of the peduncle or main stalk spreading from the outside towards the centre. Examples : Marigold, Treasure-flower, English Daisy, Dandelion, Cape weed, which are composites, or compound flowers.

Spike.—An unbranched peduncle or main stalk bearing a number of flowers, either without flower-stalks, or having them so short as to be scarcely seen. The flowers may be spirally (twisted like a screw) or otherwise arranged. Lavender, Verbena, Rib-grass, Australian Grass-tree, Victorian Foxtail, Cape Wattle.

Spikelet.—A small spike. Wheat, Rye, Barley.

Panicle.—A collection of spikes on long peduncles (main stalks). Oat and most Grasses, Olive, Privet, Horse-chestnut, Spurious Sarsaparilla,3 Fringe-lily.

Raceme.—A cluster of flowers resembling a spike, but having distinct foot-stalks. Golden Wattle, Cape Broom, Wallflower, Stock, Mignonette, Aloe. (A raceme is sometimes compound—composed of many part s united in one common whole).

Corymb.—A raceme or cluster in which the outer or lower stalks (peduncles) are longest, thus making the top of the flowers nearly or quite level. Cauliflower, Victorian Star of Bethlehem, Victorian Laurel, Sweet William, Hawthorn. (Sometimes compound\—composed of many parts.)

Spadix.—A succulent or fleshy spike, bearing flowers, and contained within a sheathed spathe or bractExamples: Nile or Trumpet-lily, Caladium, Arum.

Umbel.—Numerous stalked flowers issuing from one point, the stalks spreading like the wires of a partly opened umbrella. Umbels are either simple (one umbel) or compound (several umbels in one flower). Simple umbels: Cherry, Australian, and Scarlet Geraniums (Pelargoniums). Compound umbels : Garden Parsley, Fennel, Garden and Australian Celery, Parsnip, Carrot.

Cyme.—Several branches rising from one point, in umbels, racemes, or corymbs, the central flowers expanding first. Laurustinus, Common and Australian Elder, Chinese Hawthorn or Maybud.

33. The various parts of a flower should he thoroughly understood, since it is from the flower that the fruit, which contains the seed, is produced. At the same time, it is necessary to mention that flowers differ so much in their construction and shape that it would take volumes to give anything like a complete account of them. The first thing to be gained is a knowledge of their parts, and of the purposes which those parts fulfil. Supplied with this knowledge, the student can proceed to compare or contrast one flower with another. The several parts of a flower are shown in Plates

IV and V. The latter shows the so-called Australian Fuchsia ; the former the Garden or true Fuchsia.

These two plants were chosen for illustration for more than one reason. It is too often the practice, in giving common names to plants, to compare them—from some real or fancied resemblance—to others widely differing from them in construction. In Australia the names thus given by the early settlers still cling to many plants ; though they are in some cases wrongly given. Hence it has been said of this country that its pears are wooden; its grapes disagreeable in taste and growing on weeds ; its currant bushes prickly, and its gooseberry bushes without thorns ; while its cherries have their seeds on the outside. The “ Australian Fuchsia ” is one of these very inaptly applied names, as will be seen when the parts of each flower shown in Plates IV and V are contrasted.

34. A complete flower usually consists of four parts— Calyx, Corolla, Stamens, and Pistil. These are also termed the four floral whorls4 A flower having less than four whorls is incomplete. The Calyx is the outside whorl. Next comes the Corolla. The Stamens and Pistil are the inner whorls, and are the reproductive organs of the plant. Most people know the difference between double and single flowers of the same species, as in the Wallflower, Pink, Rose, Pelargonium—commonly called Geranium—and many other well-known plants. But though the double flowers are usually considered superior in point of beauty to single flowers of the same kind, they are inferior to them from a Botanist’s point of view, since they are in reality deformities. A double flower is produced by causing the inner whorls— the stamens and pistil—to resemble the outer ones. The more completely this is effected by crossing, the more double the flower becomes, but the less capable of producing seed, from the fact that the nature of its fertilising organs has been completely changed. Hence, double flowers, often termed ‘ ‘ sports’ ’ by gardeners, are considered unnatural by Botanists. Double flowers, however, are sometimes reproduced from seeds, but this cannot be accomplished unless some of the fertilising organs are perfect.

35. The following are the parts of a perfect Flower :—

The Calyx or flower-cup (Plates IV and V, ca) is the outer floral envelope. It is usually, though not always, green. In some flowers it is small, in others large ; and in some—as in the true Fuchsia—coloured.    In the Australian Fuchsia it is

green. A perfect calyx consists of one or more pieces called sepals. In Plate V'the calyx is in one piece, therefore it has but one sepal, and is termed monosepalous. In Plate IV the calyx is divided into four sepals, hence it is polysepalous or many-sepaled.” The margin of a calyx may be altogether or nearly entire, as in Plate Y; or deeply divided, as in Plate IV. A divided calyx may be notched, toothed, or cleft. In some plants the calyx falls off soon after the flower opens. In others it remains; becoming inflated—as in the skin of the currant—or else fleshy. In Gum-trees (eucalypts) the calyx opens by the upper part falling off in the shape of a cap or lid, called an operculum.

36. The Corolla is the second or inner floral envelope. It is composed of those coloured leaves which generally form the prettiest portion of the flower, being very seldom green. It has one or more pieces called petals; and is either monopetalous [one petal) or polypetalous [many petals). In Plate V the corolla [co) is entire for the greater portion of its length, in the shape of a tube, having four short petals at the end. This is termed a tubular corolla. In Plate IV the corolla [co) is very distinctly divided into separate parts, as will be found on examining the figure. Petals are of different shapes and sizes. The principal distinctions are:

1.    Papilionaceous Corolla, meaning “like a butterfly,” so

named from the resemblance of the petals to the wings of that insect. The flower of the Pea is a good example.

2.    Cruciform Corolla.—Four petals arranged in the shape

of a cross. The Cabbage and Wallflower are of this kind.

3.    Rosaceous Corolla.—Having five similarly shaped petals,

spread open like a rose; as the Apple and Quince blossoms.    -

Corollas, like leaves, are of all sizes, from the tiny Chickweed to the giant Victoria Regia and the extraordinary Rafflesia Arnoldii.

Some plants—such as the Gums, Hakeas, Grevilleas, Banksias (Australian Honeysuckles), Docks, and Nettles— have no corolla ; they are, therefore, apetalous (without petals). Others, like the Willow, have neither calyx nor corolla. This is called a catkin mode of inflorescence. Grasses and Cereals have substitutes, called glumes [husks). It is incorrect to use the word “calyx” in reference to Grasses.

A Catkin or Amentum (unisexual spike) bears scaly bracts. The Willow, Osier, Hazel, Poplar, Birch and Walnut are examples.

37.    Stamens (Plates IV and V, S) are composed of two parts —Axe filament or stalk, and the anther or pollen-bag (4). In some plants there are no filaments, the anthers are then sessile (without a footstalk). Filaments may be in tubesbundles, or loose ; so may the anthers.

38.    Anthers are composed of two halves or lobes, fixed at the top of the filament (thread-like stalk) where such exists, and have in the inside of each lobe a cell or cells containing the pollen or fertilising dust. Stamens are attached in different ways, viz. :—

1.    Below the base of the ovary (Plates IV and V, o)

as in the Australian Fuchsia, Pea, Poppy, and

Cabbage.

2.    On the inner side of the corolla, as in the Apple and

Strawberry.

3.    On the upper portion of the calyx, inside the corolla

(inner envelope), as in the true Fuchsia (Plate IY, S).

When the stamens are below the base of the ovary, as in the Australian Fuchsia (Plate Y, S) the flower is termed inferior (Hypogynous), the ovary superior.    When the

stamens are above the ovary, as in the true Fuchsia (Plate IV, S) the flower is superior, the ovary inferior. The pollen contained in the anthers is like very fine powder, in most cases of a yellow colour ; presenting beneath the microscope very beautiful forms.

39.    The Pistil (Plates IV and V, P) or Pistils—for some flowers have more than one—is generally a tube (pipe) fixed on the top of the ovary, and communicating with it, inside the stamens. Sometimes it is seated on a disk (organ between tbe stamens and ovary). *The pistil usually consists of three parts—the thread-like style (Plates IV and V, fig. A 1); the stigma (Plates IV and V, fig. A 2) ; and the get-men or ovary, O. The style is not absolutely necessary for the perfection of the pistil.

40.    The Disk (Plates IV and V, d) is absent in some flowers. It is commonly a fleshy or glandular (containing cells) body, of a yellow or greenish colour ; sometimes inserted round the base of the ovary, as in Plate V; sometimes in adhesion to (sticking to), and above it, as in Plate IV; sometimes under the ovary.

41.    The Ovary contains the ovules or seed-germs. It is formed either of one bladder-shaped piece, or of several pieces joined at the edges, the junction being the suture (joint) (shown in fig. E in Lesson on “Seeds”). Each piece is a valve. The ovary has one or more cells, each containing one or more seed-germs, fixed to the placenta or inner part of the ovary by the funiculus (cord) in the manner described in Chapter I. The placenta has a direct communication with the tube of the pistil for the purpose of fertilising the seed-germs, without which process they could not become perfect seeds. Some flowers are without a pistil.

42.    The Perianth is the envelope which surrounds the flower, but this term is only used when the calyx cannot be distinguished from the corolla, as in the Lilies—calyx and corolla alike.

43.    The mode of fertilisation, by which the flower becomes a fruit or seed-vessel, must now engage our attention.

* In the “ First Book of Australian Botany,” page34, a clerical error occurs regarding the parts of the pistil. The stigma and ovary are necessarily the essential parts of the pistil.

Whatever may be the construction of Flowers, they are all perfected in one way; namely, by one or more grains of pollen finding their way to the stigma or top of the pistil. This necessary operation is brought about in different ways. Insects and birds sometimes carry the pollen-dust from one plant to another. Some plants discharge their pollen in the air, and the wind conveys a portion of the powder to the stigmas of similar plants ready for fertilisation (making fruitful). In one way or another the pollen is thus carried from the anther of one plant to the stigma of another plant of its own species; and the process of fertilisation begins. Pollen is produced very plentifully ; only a small proportion, in comparison with the amount wasted, fulfilling its mission. It is also a curious fact that in plants which have both stamens and pistil, the pollen of the stamen is frequently produced at a time when the stigma is not ready for its reception. In such cases the pollen cannot fertilise flowers of the plant producing it; because before the pistil is perfect the pollen is shed. As a general rule, no perfect seed can be produced without the help of pollen; though one or two instances to the contrary have been pointed out, as in the case of a Queensland plant belonging to the Spurge family (Ccelebogyne ilicifolia) (Queensland Spurge Holly), without stamens, having a pistil only, which produced perfect seed (?) in the Royal G-ardens at Kew. “ There was no possibility of pollen reaching the pistil to fertilise it; for at that time no pollen-producing plant of its species existed in Europe.”    To

explain the last sentence, it must be stated that though the Australian and true Fuchsias, shown in Plates IV and V, have both stamens and pistil, many plants have stamens without pistil, or vice versa (the other way.) It is therefore necessary for the pollen from the stamen-bearing plant to find its way to a kindred plant bearing a pistil, and lodge on

the stigma of that pistil, before fertilisation, can take place. In this manner gardeners produce hybrids, or, varieties, by-fertilising the pistil of one plant with the pollen of another. Nature sometimes does the same thing by means of insects, birds, the wind, and other agencies. It must be clearly understood, however, that plants will only fertilise (make fruitful) others of their own kind. The pollen from one variety of Fuchsia will fertilise another kind of Fuchsia; but the pollen from a Geranium will not fertilise a Fuchsia, nor vice versa. Neither will the pollen of a Correa fertilise a true Fuchsia, since they belong to distinct Orders. A flower having stamens and pistil is termed hermaphrodite (both sexes). Those having either stamens or pistil only are “ unisexual ” (one sex).

44. When the pollen reaches the stigma of a similar plant it begins to form a minute fibre, which gradually makes its way down the tube of the pistil into the ovary, where the ovules or future seeds are deposited. Coming in contact with an ovule or ovules, this fibre enters the micropyle (fig. A, page 10) and fertilises the ovule. Then the ovule swells until it becomes a perfect seed. As the fruit approaches maturity or full growth the funiculus or cord becomes plainer, showing the mode by which the seed is connected with the placenta.

45- Thus the flower fulfils its mission, changing into a seed-vessel or Fruit. Generally speaking, soon after the stigma is fertilised, the calyx, corolla, and stamens drop off. Their work is done ; and the flower dies, giving place to the seed-vessel. In some plants the calyx or the corolla may remain for a time. It is then termed persistent (remaining attached). Gum-trees in general have a persistent calyx (flower cup).

46. Compare the various parts of the Australian Fuchsia or Correa with those of the true Fuchsia :—

AUSTRALIAN FUCHSIA (CORREA).

(Plate Y.)

Calyx (ca)—Cup-shaped, entire, monosepalous (one sepal), green.

Corolla (co)—Four short petals, united into a tube for nearly all its length.

Stamens (S)—Eight, free at the bottom of the corolla.

Pistil (P)—Stigma very finely pointed, scarcely perceptible. Disk (d)—Below-the ovary.

Ovary (o)—Superior {above).

Leaf—Cordate, margin entire.

Stem—Rough.

TRUE FUCHSIA.

(Plate IV.)

Calyx (ca)—Cleft, polysepalous (many sepals), coloured. Corolla (co)—Four long petals, distinctly divided.

Stamens (S)—Eight, inserted in the neck of the calyx (flower-cup).

Pistil (P)—Stigma broad-shaped, very perceptible.

Disk (d)—Above the ovary.

Ovary (o)—Inferior [below).

Leaf—Dentate, margin slightly toothed.

Stem—Smooth.

These Botanical comparisons will serve to show the inaccuracy with which common names are sometimes given to plants.

47. Further examples of superior and inferior flowers and fruits will be found on contrasting the Order Amaryllidese— Jonquil, Snowflake, Daffodil, &c.—with the Order Liliaceae, such as Fringe-lily, Tulip, and true Lily (Lilium). The former have an inferior calyx ; tlie latter the reverse (superior calyx).

Stamens are called Hypogynous (inferior, or under the pistil) (see Plate V) when they occur below the ovary (containing the ovules or seed-germs) ; Perigynous when adhering to the tube of the calyx, Epigynous when placed upon the pistil. This term is used when the outer whorls of the flower adhere to the ovary, which is a part of the pistil, so that their upper portions alone are free, and appear to be seated on it.

Chapter VI.—FRUITS.

48. W FRUIT, botanically speaking, consists of two parts—the pericarp or seed-vessel (covering of the fruit) ; and the seed, or matured ovule or ovules, contained in the pericarp. In point of fact, the fruit is the ovary arrived at its mature stage.

Fruits are of many shapes, sizes, and substances. They may be flat, globular (round), angular (having angles or corners), cylindrical (like a tube or pipe), conical (in the form of a cone), &c., or may be either smooth, rough, prickly, or warty. They are divided into two classes, dehiscent (opening or discharging seeds), and indéhiscent (not opening). Dehiscent (opening) fruits are those which discharge their seeds by the bursting of the pericarp (fruit or seed-vessel). The separating parts of such seed-coverings are termed valves, as in the shells of a pea, which is a dehiscent fruit. Indéhiscent (not opening) fruits, such as the Apple, Cherry, and Loquat, set their seeds free by the decay of the fleshy matter surrounding them ; fruit-eating birds often free this kind of seed. Fruits have one or more cells. The pea, for instance, has several seeds in one compartment. It is therefore unilocular or one-celled. An Apple has five cells, each containing a seed; it is therefore multilocular or many-celled.

49. All Fruits belong to one of the four following divisions :—

Simple.—Having the ovaries quite distinct from each other; one series only formed from each flower. Examples : Pea, Bean, Nectarine, Cherry.

Aggregate.—Simple or distinct ovaries, but having more than one series of them developed from each flower. Strawberry, Buttercup, Bose.

Compound.—Ovaries compound; the carpels (leaf or leaves forming the pistil) united to each other. Apple, Loquat, Orange, Wheat, Grasses.

Collective.—Calyx and ovaries solidified into a mass. Fir-cone, Pine-apple, Fig.

50. The pericarp may be the ripened ovary by itself ; or the calyx-tube and ovary united (or in one). In some fruits one or more of the seeds held in the ovary may prove abortive or barren before the fruit is perfected. An Acorn, for example, has but one cell and one seed when ripe; yet in its early stage the ovary has sometimes three cells, with two ovules in each cell.

The Pericarp or covering of the fruit (seed-vessel), is divided into three parts :—

1.    The Epicarp (or Exocarp)—Outer covering or coat.

2.    Sarcocarp (or Mesocarp)—Fleshy or middle coat.

3.    Endocarp—Inner coat.

The hard covering called the stone of a Peach, Apricot, Almond or Plum which holds the Kernel, is termed the Endocarp. On examination of these indehiscent or succulent fruits the parts mentioned can be plainly observed. The pod of the pea (Chapter I., Seeds, page 11) contains an Epicarp, a Sarcocarp, and an Endocarp. The inner covering of the valves of the pea pod is in the Endocarp.

The term Succulent as applied to fruits means those in which the Pericarp gradually becomes soft and juicy. The

Apple, Pear, Orange, and Gooseberry are also good examples of succulent fruits.

51.    When a fruit is ripe, its sound seeds are perfect, and the plant is ready to deliver them. In dehiscent fruits (discharging seeds) the process is a simple one. Most people have noticed the Common Garden or Scarlet Geranium {Pelargonium), when its flowers have, as it is termed, “ run to seed.” The seed-vessel bursts and curls up, ejecting (throwing out) the seeds. In the Wallflower another difference in this process is found ; and in the Gum or Eucalyptus yet another. As the great purpose of the Fruit is the production and protection of the seed for the reproduction of its species, examination will show that it is dehiscent [opening), or indéhiscent (not opening), according as best suits the nature of the seed which it contains.

Fruits generally dehisce (open) or scatter their seeds in one of three ways :—

1.    By valves, opening along the lines of the sutures (joints) as in the pod of a pea. (See fig. E, page 11.) Such dehiscence is termed valvular (containing valves).

2.    By an operculum (lid or cap) which falls off and leaves the lower part, as in the fruit of the common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea), Lecythis ollaria or Monkey-pot, and some mosses (Musci), Circumcissile is the word used to show this mode of dehiscence.

3.    By pores, as in the Poppy ; termed porous dehiscence.

A number of subdivisions of the above also exist.

52.    Subjoined is a list of the principal kinds of Fruits which should be procured when possible for examination and comparison :—

Pome.—A fleshy or succulent fruit, indéhiscent (not

opening), with many cells, few seeds. Apple, Quince, Pear, Loquat.

Drupe.—A pulpy, indehiscent, stone fruit. Cherry, Plum, Peach, Olive, Apricot, Nectarine, English Laurel.

Pepo.—A pulpy fruit, with hard or thickened rind, one-celled, many-seeded. Gourd, Melon, Cucumber, Pumpkin, Vegetable-marrow.

Bacca.—A berry, the seeds becoming loosened from the placenta—part to which the seeds are attached by the funiculus (cord)—as the fruit ripens. Currant, Grape, Gooseberry, Tomato, Potato, Chilli, Kangaroo-apple, Cactus, Australian Gooseberry, Fuchsia, English Holly, and English Myrtle.

Follicle.—A pod-like fruit, formed by a single carpel, leaf forming the pistil, or part of which the fruit is formed—dehiscing (opening) by one side only. Larkspur, Columbine, Flame-tree, Australian Bottle-tree, Paeony, Silky Oak (Grevillea).

Siliqua and Silicula.5—A kind of pod composed of two carpels. Wallflower, Badish, Stock, Cabbage, Turnip, Watercress.

Capsule.—A dry fruit, variously opening by valves, lid, teeth, or pores. Aloe, Victorian Laurel, Poppy, Thorn-apple, Violet, Australian Tea-tree.

Glans or Nut.—A dry, single-seeded, one-celled fruit, generally contained in a cup. Acorn, Hazel.

Samara or Winged Seed.—Having two or more seeds, each in the middle of a thin membrane. Elm, Ash, Sycamore.

Achene.—A dry, one-seeded, indéhiscent (not opening) carpel. Australian and English. Buttercups, Nettle, Thistle, Rose, Dandelion, Australian Virgin’s-bower, Artichoke, Strawberry, and Mallow, containing many one-seeded carpels.*

Legume.—A two-valved pod, both valves opening to discharge the seeds. Pea, Australian Scarlet-runner, Bean, Spurious Sarsaparilla, Black, Silver, and Golden W attles.

Lomentum.—A legume with cross divisions, having a seed in each division. Some Acacias and Cassias. The Queensland Cigar Cassia is a good example.

Caryopsis.—A dry, indéhiscent fruit, closely united to the pericarp seed-vessel or covering, as Maize, Wheat, Barley, Oat, Kangaroo-grass (closely allied to the Achene).

Cone.—Having woody scales or bracts covering a naked 'seed or seeds. Murray-pine, Cypress, Sheoak, Stone-pine, including nearly the whole of the Pine tribe (Coniferæ).

Strobilus.—A sort of cone with membraneous scales and seeds in carpels (the small parts of which compound fruits are formed). Brewer’s Hop.

53. There are less important subdivisions of some of the above.

Contrast the Fruit of the Australian Fuchsia or Correa with that of the true Fuchsia :—

* The carpel is a modified leaf, of which there may be several composing the pistil ; also one of the small parts of which compound fruits are composed. Therefore, the fruit, as well as the pistil, may be said to be composed of one or more carpels.

Figure F.—FRUIT op AUSTRALIAN FUCHSIA (CORREA SPECIOSA).

A—longitudinal section of fruit magnified; showing four seeds (1), attached by the funiculus (2) to the placenta (3). Persistent calyx, ca. B, cross section of fruit. C, follicle or fruitlet (carpel) containing two seeds. D, seed magnified. Fruit composed of 4 carpels (see cross section B).

Figure G.—FRUIT of TRUE FUCHSIA.

A—-longitudinal section of fruit magnified, showing seeds attached to placenta (3). Funiculus minute. B, cross section of fruit. D, seed enlarged.

The Classification of Fruits is a matter upon which Botanists often differ. Besvaux described45, Dr. Bindley 36, Burnortier 33, Richard 24, Mirbel 21, Gcertner 13, and Linnaeus 5 hinds. It will, however, only be necessary for the student to study those mentioned in the above Chapter to enable him to gain a fair knowledge of the principal forms of Fruits,

I Lfivjr

(j f ..v-

1/

Chapter VII.—ACOTYLEDONS.

54.    preceding Chapters have been devoted to the

consideration of Plants belonging to two of the three great Classes or Divisions.

Acotyledons—signifying “without cotyledons”—form the remaining Division.

Plants belonging to this Class are so different from those of the other two Divisions as really to form a distinct branch of Botanical study. It was therefore considered advisable to make them the subject of a separate Chapter.

Acotyledons include Cryptogams or Plowerless Plants ; Acrogens, having stems which increase in growth by the summit, and having a peculiar construction ; Ferns (Filices) ; Algae or Seaweeds; Fungi, Mosses, and Lichens. (See Plate II, fig. 3, showing stems of a tree fern.)

As the name of the Class implies, the Plants belonging to it are without cotyledons or seed-leaves. Some of them have neither stem, branch, nor leaf ; for the Acotyledons include the lowest forms of vegetation down to the Mildew seen in stale bread, cheese, fruit, &c. Nevertheless, they are all, in their several ways, developed specimens of Plant life, no matter how small or mean their appearance. Many noble and beautiful Plants, however, belong to this Class. Foremost amongst them are those graceful species of vegetation—the Ferns.

55. Ferns are generally perennial—(lasting year after year) plants. Some kinds, natives of warm climates, grow

to a considerable height (often 40 or 50 feet), and are termed arborescent or tree ferns. In many parts of Australia fern gullies exist, and are the favourite haunts of these plants, which love shade and moisture. In such spots they are found of all shapes and sizes; from the tall tree fern, spreading its crown of cool green fronds or leaves under the shelter of the huge trees overshadowing them, down to the tiny yet equally beautiful specimens of the tribe; some of them so small that they may be crushed under foot without being noticed. Very often a trickling stream of water from some adjacent spring winds through the gully; while overhead the dense foliage of the large trees is interlaced with innumerable bright-flowering creepers forming a canopy of vegetation.

^Collecting Fern specimens has long been a favourite pursuit with people of all classes. By a simple process they can be made to retain their beauty of shape when dried. A Fernery, or collection of living Ferns, is considered almost indispensable in a public or private garden of any pretensions. From the facility with which Fern leaves can be obtained in Victoria, there should be no difficulty in procuring them for the purpose of examination.

56. Fern leaves are called fronds. When young, before they spread, they are rolled up on the stem in a crozier-shaped bud. On the leaves are generally found the peculiar organs, termed spores, which supply the place of seed-vessels, and which are arranged irregularly along the leaf; either on the margin along its venation (system of veins) at the back ; or along its lower surface. Fern stems are of 6 different kinds, underground and aerial; rhizomes (creeping stems groiuing 'partly underground) being common in some species. When matured, the stems of many large tree ferns are hollow (see Plate II, fig. 3, page 20) ; and their broad green fronds often cap the stem at a height of forty feet and upwards. On these stems—naturally naked, and often having a blackened, charred appearance—Epiphytal Ferns frequently flourish. Epiphytal signifies “ growing upon another plant.” It is distinguished from parasitical by the fact that an epiphyte, though it grows upon another plant, does not injure it by absorbing its sap or otherwise destroijing it, as is the case with parasites Wee the Mistletoes. The Staghorn and Elkhorn Ferns of Queensland and New South Wales—so named from the shape of their fronds—are epiphytes; and their handsome, green leaves agreeably relieve the dull hue of the stems on which they are frequently found growing. The Bird’s-nest Fern is sometimes found growing as an epiphyte. Epiphytal Ferns are not peculiar to the stems of tree ferns; they grow freely on other large trunks, deriving their nourishment from the humidity of the atmosphere. Ferns are acrogenous; that is, they increase their stems by the summit, the trunks sometimes having the shape of a cylinder. Acrogens have another very curious characteristic, a description of which can only be understood after the student is thoroughly grounded in that part of Botany relating to the reproduction of Plants.

57. Ajlgm, the Seaweeds, need not be described at length. Many of the species are utilised for food and other useful purposes ; and the same may be said of the Mosses.

Lichens include some of the lowest forms of vegetation; the variously-coloured stains seen on rocks and buildings are masses of Lichens. Others hang like tufts or beards from the branches of trees.

Fungi are cellular Plants, of peculiar construction. Mushrooms belong to this subdivision; as do most of those destructive agents which attack grain crops and fruit trees. Oidium TucJcerii or vine disease; Rust in wheat and Ergot of rye are examples. Mould on cheese and bread also belong to the Fungi.

According to the Natural System of Botany nowin general use, the Vegetable Kingdom is divided into Classes, Orders or Families, Genera, Species, Varieties, and Races.

A Class is an union of many Orders or Families. Example : Dicotyledons (two Cotyledons or seed-leaves).

An Order, or Family, is a collection of Genera resembling each other in a Botanical sense. Example: Rosacea;, or Order of the Rose.

A Genus (plural: genera) comprises a number of species, having points of resemblance. Example: Genus “Rosa.”

A Species is a plant belonging to a genus, resembling the plant that produced it, and bearing seeds from which similar plants spring. Example : Burnet Rose (Rosa spinosissima). The Apple and Pear are separate species of the Genus Pyrus ; the Plum and Apricot of the Genus Prunus.

A Variety is a Plant which, by the influence of soil, climate, or cultivation, changes in shape, colour, taste of fruit, or otherwise. Varieties (or hybrids) cannot always be depended on to reproduce similar Plants from seed, as they have a tendency, in successive generations, to return to the original stock. Some, however, are consistent, producing seed from which spring plants resembling the original. These are termed Races. Wheat and other cereals are Races.

rittnpl plants ûf (Stantmit Búm*

I.—PLANTS USED AS FOOD, YIELDING ESCULENT ROOTS, LEAVES, Etc.

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Arrowroot

Maranta arundinacea

Tropical America and West Indies

Artichoke

Cynara Scolymus

South Europe and Africa

Asparagus

Asparagus officinalis

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Barley

Hordeum

Unknown

Bean

Faba vulgaris

Egypt

Beet

Beta vulgaris

South Europe

Cabbage

Brassica olerácea

Europe

Cauhflower

,, ,, variety Daucus Carota

y y

Carrot

Celery

Apium graveolens

y y

Chive

Allium Schsenoprasum

y y

Endive

Cichorium Endiva

Asia

Garden Cress

Lepidium sativum

Persia

Garbc

Allium sativum

South Europe

Hop

Humidus Lupulus

Europe, Asia, and North America

Horse Radish

Cochlearia Armoracea

Europe and Asia

Jerusalem Arti-

Helianthus tuberosus

Brazil

choke

Kidney Bean

Phaseolus vulgaris

India

Lettuce

Lactuca sativa

South Asia

Maize, or In-

Zea Mays

South America

dian Com

Oat

Avena sativa

Europe and Asia

Onion

Allium Cepa

Unknown

Parsley

Parsnip

Petroselinum sativum

Sardinia

Pastinaca sativa

Britain

Pea

Pisum sativum

Supposed to he South Europe

I.—Plants Used as Food, Yielding Esculent Roots, Leaves, Etc.—(ContinuedJ

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Potato

Solanum tuberosum

Chili and Peru

Radish

Raphanus sativus

Asia

Rhubarb

Rheum

Rice

Oryza sativa

South Asia

Sago Palm

Sagus farinifera

Moluccas

Samphire

Crithmum maritimum

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Sea-Kale

Crambe maritima

Europe and Africa

Sorrel

Rumex Acetosa

Europe, Asia, and North America

Spinach, or Spinage

Spinacea oleracea

Supposed to be Western Asia

Sugar Cane

Saccharum officinarum

India, China, and South Sea Islands

Tea

Thea chinensis

China and Assam

Turnip

Brassica Rapa

Europe

Water Cress

Nasturtium officinale

Wheat

Triticum vulgare

South Europe and Asia

Yam

Dioscorea, various species

India, China, Japan, South Sea Islands, West Indies, and Queeensland

YIELDING EDIBLE FRUIT,

NUTS, Etc.

Almond

Amygdalus communis

Barhary

Apple

Pyrus Malus

Europe and Asia

Apricot

Prunus Armeniaca

Supposed to be Armenia

Barberry

Berberis communis

Europe

Banana or Plan-

Musa, various species

Tropics

Black-berry

Rubus fruticosus

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Brazil Nut

Berth olletia excelsa

Tropical America

Plants Yielding Edible Fruit, Nuts, Etc.—(Continued.)

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Cashew Nut

Anacardium occidentale

West Indies and Mexico

Cherry

Prunus Cerasus

Britain

Cocoa, or Cacoa Tree

Theobroma Cacao

Guiana, Brazil, and Trinidad

Cocoa, or CocoNut Palm

Cocos nucifera

Sea shores of Southern India, Malayan, and South Sea Islands

Chestnut

Castanea vesca

Europe, Asia, and North America

Citron

Citrus medica

Asia

Cob Nut

Corylus Avellana

Europe, and Asia

Coffee

Coffea arabica

Abyssinia

Cranberry

Vaccinium Oxycoccus

Europe, Asia, and North America

Cucumber

Cucumis sativus

Asia and Africa

Currant

Ribes rubrum and R. nigrum

Europe, Asia, and North America

Date Palm

Phoenix dactylifera

North Africa

Elderberry

Sambucus nigra

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Fig1

Ficus carica

Levant

Filbert

Corylus Avellana

Europe and Asia

Gooseberry

Ribes Grossularia

Europe, North Africa and Nepaul

Gourd

Cucurbita Pepo (variety)

Astrachan

Grape

Vitis vinifera

Asia

Guava

Psidium, various species

West Indies and Tropical America

Jujube

Zizyphus Jujuba

Tropical Asia, Af-rica, and Australia

Lemon

Citrus medica vai : Li-monium

Southern Asia

Lime

Citrus medica var : Limetta

Southern Asia

Loquat

Eriobotrya japonica

China and Japan

PRINCIPAL PLANTS OF ECONOMIC VALUE. Plants Yielding Edible Fruit, Nuts, Etc.—(Continued.)

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Countky.

Love Apple, or

Solanum Lycopersicum

Jamaica, Mexico to

Tomato

Brazil

Mango

Mangifera indica

East Indies

Mangosteen

Garcinia mangostana

Malayan Islands

Medlar

Mespilus germanica

Europe

Melon

Cucumis Melo

Countries bordering the Caspian Sea

Mulberry

Morus nigra

Persia and Asia Minor

Nectarine

Amygdalus Persica var : Nectarina

Persia

Olive

Olea europasa and its varieties

Asia

Orange

Citrus Aurantium

Southern Asia

Peach

Amygdalus Persica

Persia

Pear

Pyrus communis

Europe

Pine Apple

Ananassa sativa

South America

Plum

Prunus domestica

Asia

Pomegranate

Punica Granatum

Africa and Asia

Pumpkin

Cucurbita Pepo (variety)

Astrachan

Quince

Cydonia vulgaris

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Raspberry

Rubus Idseus

Europe and Asia

Strawberry

Fragaria Vesca

Europe' and America

Tamarind

Tamarindus indica

East Indies, Africa, andN.W. Austral.

Vegetable Mar-

Cucurbita Pepo variety:

Astrachan

row

‘ ‘ ovifera’ ’

W alnut

Juglans regia

Europe and Asia

W ater Melon

Cucumis Citrullus

Levant

Zante Currant

Vitis vinifera var:

Mediterranean

II—SPICE AND CONDIMENT PLANTS, Etc.

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Anise

Pimpinella Anisum

South Europe, Asia, and Africa

Basil

Ocimum Basilicum

Tropical Africa and India

Black Pepper

Piper nigrum

East Indies

Caper

Capparis spinosa

South Europe, Asia, and Africa

Caraway Seed

Carum Carui

Europe and Asia

Cayenne or Red Pepper

Capsicum annuum, etc.

E. and W. Indies and S. America

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zeylani-cum and C. verum

India and Ceylon

Clove

Caryophyllus aromaticus

Moluccas

Coriander

Coriandrum sativum

S. Europe and Asia

Fennel

Fceniculum vulgare

Mediterranean

Ginger

Zingiber officinale

Tropical Asia

Lavender

Lavandula vera

South Europe, Asia, and North Africa

Marjoram

Origanum Majorana and vulgare

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Mint

Mentha viridis

Europe, Asia, and North America

Nutmeg

Myristica fragrans

Indian Archipelago

Pepper (Jamaica) or All-

Eugenia Pimenta

West Indian Islands

Peppermint

Mentha piperita

Europe

Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis

Mediterranean

Sage

Salvia officinalis

South Europe

Thyme

Thymus vulgaris

5)

Vanilla

Vanilla aromatica and planifolia

Mexico

Ill—MEDICINAL PLANTS.

Common Name.

»

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Anise or Ani-

Pimpinella Anisum

Asia and Africa

seed

Arbutus or

Arbutus ( Arctostaphylos)

Europe, Asia, and

Bearberry

Uva-ursi

North America

Arum or Wake

Arum maculatimi

Britain

Robin

Asafoetida

Narthex Asafoetida

Tibet

Camomile or

Anthemis nobilis

Europe

Chamomile

Castor-Oil Plant

Ricinus communis

India

Catechu or Cutch

Acacia Catechu

India, Ceylon, Bur-mah, and Tropical Eastern Africa

Colchicum or

Colchicum autumnale

Europe

Meadow Saffron

Colocynth

Cucumis ( Citrullus) Colocynthis

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Croton Oil

Croton Tiglium

Malabar and Tenas-serim

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale

Temperate regions of the Globe

Deadly Night-

Atropa Belladonna

Europe and Asia

Fenugreek

Trigonella Foenum-grse-cum

Mediterranean regions

Foxglove

Digitalis purpurea

Europe

Gamboge

Garcinia Morelia

Siam and Cochin China

Gentian

Gentiana lutea

Alps of Europe

Guaiacum

Guaiacum officinale

West Indies &Tropi -cal South America

Hellebore, or

Helleborus niger

Europe

Christmas Rose

Hemlock

Conium maculatimi

Europe, Asia, Africa

Henbane

Hyoscyamus niger

Europe, Asia, Africa

Horehound

Marrubium vulgare

Europe and Asia

III.—Medicinal Plants.(Continued.)

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Ipecacuanha

Cephaëlis Ipecacuanha

South America

Jalap

Ipomcea (Exogonium) purga

Mexican Andes

Lettuce

Lactuca virosa

Europe

Mandrake

Mandrasrora officinarum

Europe and Asia

Mezereon

Daphne Mezereum

Europe

N ux> V omica

Strychnos Nux-vomica

India, Cochin China, and N. Australia

Opium

Papaver somniferum

Asia

Orris-Root

Iris germanica and Florentina

Europe and Asia

Peruvian or Officinal Bark

Cinchona officinalis, &c.

South America

Quassia

Quassia amara and excelsa

South America and West Indies

Rhubarb

Rheum officinale and other species

China

Rue

Ruta graveolens

Levant

Sarsaparilla

Smilax, various species

S. America, India, China, Australia

Sassafras

Laurus sassafras

North America

Scammony

Convolvulus Scamonia

South Europe, Asia, and North Africa

Scurvy Grass

Cochlearia officinalis

Europe, Asia, and North America

Senna

Cassia, various species

E. Africa, Arabia, Egypt, Punjaub,

&c.

Snakeroot or Birthwort

Aristolochia Serpentaria

North America

Stramonium or Thorn Apple

Datura Stramonium

All over the warmer portions of the Globe

Squill

Urginia (Scilla) maritima

South Europe, Asia,

Sweet Flag '

Acorus Calamus

Asia and North America

III.—Medicinal Plants.(Continued.)

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Tormenti!

Potentilla Tormentilla

Europe

V alerian

Valeriana officinalis

Europe and North Asia

Wolf’s-bane or Monkshood

Aconitum Napellus

Europe, Asia, and North America

W ormwood

Artemisia Absinthium

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Yarrow or Milfoil

Achillea millefolium

Europe, Asia, and North America

YIELDING GUMS, RESINS, AND BALSAMS.

Balm of Gilead

Balsamodendron Opo-balsamum, and Gilea-

dense

Arabia

Balsam of Peru

Myroxylon (Myrosper-mum) Pereiras

Central America

Balsam of Tolu

Myroxylon Toluifera

Tropical America

Benzoin

Styrax Benzoin

Sumatra

Copaiva Tree

Copaifera officinalis

South America and West Indies

Galbanum

Ferula galbaniflua and rubricaulis

Persia

Gum arabic

Acacia verek, Seyal and others

Africa -

Gum Elemi

Icica and Colophonia

South America and West Indies

Indian -Rubber

Siphonia and Ficus

Tropical America

Tree or Ca-

elastica

and India

outchouc

Mastic Tree

Pistacia lentiscus

Mediterranean

Opopanax

Opopanax Chironium

South Europe

Storax or Sty-

Styrax officinale

Mediterranean

rax

Tragacanth

Astragalus, various species

South Europe and Asia

TurpentineTree

Pistacia Terebinthus

Asia and North Africa

IV.—FIBRE PLANTS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CLOTHING, CORDAGE, AND PAPER.

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Bowstring

Sanseviera zeylanica and

Hemp

Roxburghiana

Bulrush

Typha angustifolia

Cape Wedding-Flower

Club or Palm

Dombeya natalensis

Cordyline (Dracaena),

Lily

various species

Coast Rush

Juncus maritimus

Cotton

Gossypium, various species

Cuba Bast

Paritium elatum

Danubian or

Arundo Donax

Bamboo Reed

Dragon Tree

Dracaena Draco

Esparto-Grass

Stipa (Macrochloa) tena-

or Atocha

cissima

Flame Tree

Sterculia (Brachychiton) acerifolium

Flax (common)

Linum usitatissimum

Flax (New Zea-

Phormium tenax

land)

Galingale Rush

Cyperus lucidus, and other species

Grasscloth

Bcehmeria nivea

Plant (Chinese)

Grasscloth

Pipturus argenteua

(Queensland)

Hemp

Cannabis sativa

Indian Rose

Hibiscus mutabilis

Hemp

Native Country.


India and Ceylon

All over the World Natal

India, China, South Sea Islands, New Zealand, Australia, etc.

All temperate climes South America, East and West Indies West Indies South Europe

Canary Islands Spain and Portugal

New South Wales and Queensland Supposed to have originated in the East

New Zealand

Throughout the World

China, Japan, and India

Queensland, South Sea Islands and Indian Archipelago Asia

East Indies

V. — Fibre Plants Used in the Manufacture of Clothing,‘Cordage and Paper.—(Continued.)

Common Name.


Botanical Name.


Native Country.


Jute

Lace Bark (New Zealand) Manilla Hemp Papyrus or Paper Reed Peruvian Hemp Petre Hemp

Pita Hemp

Queensland Hemp Queensland HollyhockTree Ribbon Tree of Otago

RosellaHemp Screw Pine


Sea Mallow Sesal Hemp

Sheathed Rush Spear Lily

Sunn Hemp

VictorianHemp


Victorian Bottle Tree, or Curri] ong


Asia

New Zealand

Philippine Islands South Europe and the East Peru

Southern United States of America South America and West Indies Queensland, Asia, Africa & America Queensland and New South Wales New Zealand

East & West Indies Mauritius, Pacific Isles, Australia, Java, &c.

South-Europe South America and West Indies New South Wales Queenslan d and New South Wales Tropical Australia, S. Asia & Jamaica Victoria, New South Wales, and Tasmania

Victoria, New South Wales, & Queensland


Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius Hoheria populnea

Musa textilis Cyperus (Papyrus) antiquorum

Buonapartea juncea Yucca gloriosa

Agave americana

Sida retusa

Hibiscus splendens

Plagianthus betulinus

Hibiscus sabdariffa Pandanus, various species

Lavatera maritima Fourcroya gigantea

Juncus vaginatus Doryanthes excelsa

Crotalaria juncea

Plagianthus pulchellus

Sterculia diversifolia

PRINCIPAL PLANTS OF ECONOMIC VALUE.

V.-PLANTS USED FOR DYEING.

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Arnatto, or Ar-notto

Bixa Orellana

Tropical America & West Indies

Brazil Wood

Csesalpinia Sappan, and other species

East Indies

Dyers Broom,

Genista tinctoria

Europe

or Woad waxen

Avignon or

Ehamnus infectorius

Mediterranean

French. Berries

Fustic

Maclura tinctoria

Jamaica and South America

Henna orHenne

Lawsonia alba

South Africa, Arabia, Persia, and India

Indigo

Indigofera tinctoria

East Indies

Logwood

Hiematoxylon campe-chianum

Central America

Madder

Rubia tinctoria

Mediterranean

OfficinalCroton,

Croton tinctoria

South Europe

or Turnsole

Safflower, or Bastard Saffron

Cartbamus tinctorius

Asia and Africa

Sumach, or Shu-

Rhus coriaria

Mediterranean

mach

Turmeric

Curcuma longa

Southern Asia

W oad

Isatis tinctoria

South Europe

PRINCIPAL PLANTS OF ECONOMIC VALUE.

VI -PRINCIPAL TIMBER TREES OF COMMERCE.

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Ash '

Fraxinus excelsior

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Beech (common)

Fagus sylvatica

Europe and Asia

Beech (Austra-

Fagus Cunninghamii

Victoria & Tasmania

lian) or Myrtle Tree

Birch

Betula alba

Europe and Asia

Blue Crum

Eucalyptus globulus

Victoria & Tasmania

Blackwood, or Lightwood

Acacia melanoxylon

Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania

Box

Buxus sempervirens

Europe, Asia, and Africa

Cheesewood

Pittosporum bicolor

Victoria and Tasmania

Cedar of Lebanon

Cedrus Libani

Mounts Lebanon and Taurus

Cypress

Cupressus sempervirens

South Europe and Levant

Ebony

Diospvros Ebenum

Ceylon

Elm

Ulmus campestris

South Europe and Asia

Hickory

Carya, various species

North America

Jarrah, or Ma-hoganv Gum

Eucalyptus marginata

l

Western Australia

Karri, or West Australian Gum

Eucalyptus diversicolor

Western Australia

Kauri Pine

Dammara australis

New Zealand

Lancewood

Guatteria (Oxandra) vir-gata

Jamaica, Cuba, and Hayti

Lime, or Linden

Tiba europsea

Europe and Asia

Lignum-vitse

Guaiacum officinale

Jamaica, Cuba, and Venezuela

VI.—Principal Timber Trees of Commerce.(Continued.)

Common Name.

Botanical Name.

Native Country.

Mahogany

Swietenia Mahogani

Mexico, Central America, and West Indies

Maple

Acer campestre

Europe and Asia

Myall

Acacia homalophylla

Victoria and New South Wales

Norway Spruce

Pinus (Abies) excelsa

Europe

Oak

Quercus Robur

Europe and Asia

Pine, or Dealwood

Pinus, various species

Europe, Asia, and North America

Red Gum

Eucalyptus rostrata

Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia

Rosewood

Dalbergia nigra, etc.

South America

Sandal - wood, (South Sea Islands)

Sandal - wood

Santalum obtusifolium

New Caledonia, Aneiteum, etc.

Santalum acuminatum

West Australia

(Australian)

Sandal - wood (Yellow)

Santalum Freyceneti-anum

Sandwich Islands

Sandal - wood

Santalum album

India

(White)

New South Wales, Queensland, and India

Sydney or Red Cedar

Cedrela Toona

Teak

Tectona grandis

Southern Asia

INDEX.

A.


PAGE


Abnormal Abortive ..


Acacia

Acbene


Acom .. Acotyledons Acrogens


Acrogenous stem.. Adventitious root


Aerial root    ..

African Corn-lily Agave ..    ..

Aggregate fruit ..


Albumen ..


Albuminous


Algæ


Irregular, not according to rule ...    15

Imperfectly developed, as abortive stamens, which consist of a filament only ; abortive petals, which are mere bristles or scales ..    ..    49

.......... 21, 52 '

A one-seeded vessel (monosperm) which does not open, but the pericarp of which is separable from the seed ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    52

Fruit of the Oak (Quercus) ..    49,    51

Having no cotyledons..    .. 13,21,54

Stems growing at the summit only, without the addition of new growth at the base    ..    ..    ..    54,    56

See Plate II    ..    ..    ..    21,56

Hoot produced abnormally, as the root arising from an aerial stem—

Ivy, etc....... 15, 17

Growing in the air    ..    14, 15, 17, 19

Ixia, various species ..    ..    17,21

(American Aloe)    ..    ..    .. 21

Several parts collected together into one body. Aggregate is the name often given to fruits that result from the union of several flowers..    49

The nutritious matter that is stored up with the embryo, called also perisperm and endosperm    . .8, 12

Furnished with albumen when perfectly ripe ; a term exclusively applied to seeds    ..    ..    .. 8, 12

Sea weed ..    ..    ..    21, 56


PAGE

Amygdalus communis .. 49, 54, 59 Aloe socotrina ..    ..    9, 21, 35, 51

Eucalyptus alpina    ..    ..    ..    33

Leaves placed on opposite sides of an axis on a different    level    ..    ..    26

Amaryllis ..    ..    ..    ..    18

Deciduous spike of unisexual (one sex ) flowers, apetalous (without petals)    42

Pimpinella Anisum    ..    ..    62, 63

A plant that lives but one year, 15, 18, 23 Produced by one year’s growth 22, 23 Stems produced every year ..    ..    18

Parts of the stamen containing pollen, or powdery matter    ..    42, 44

Without petals    ..    ..    ..    41

Terminating abruptly in a little point 31,33 Pyrus malus . .21, 25, 41, 42, 48, 49, 50, 51, 57, 59

Prunus Armeniaca    ..    49,51,57,59

Water plants ..    ..    ..    ..14

Araucaria ..    ..

Arbutus (Arctostaphylos) Uva


Narthex Asafoetida .. Fraxinus excelsior .. Asparagus officinalis .. Process of converting into a li stance    ..    ..

Bottle Sterculia diversifolia ..


Ranunculus lappaceus

Bower Tetragonia implexicoma

Apium prostratum .. Exocarpus cupressiformis Burchardia umbellata..


Almond ..    ..

Aloes (Socotrine).. Alpine Gum tree.. Alternate leaves ..

Amaryllis .. Amentum (Catkin)

Anise, or Aniseed Annual ..    ..

Annual rings    ..

Annual stems    ..

Anthers ..    ..

Apetalous .. Apiculate ..    ..

Apple ..    ..

Apricot ..    ..

Aquatics ..    ..

Araucaria .. Arbutus, or Bearberry

Arnatto, or Arnotto Arrowroot .. Artichoke ..    ..

Arum, or Wake Robin

Asafcetida .. Ash ..    ..

Asparagus .. Assimilation of sap

Australian tree

Australian Butter cup

Australian Spinach

Australian Celery Australian Cherry Australian Colchi-

Bixa Orellana .. Maranta arundinacea Cynara Scolymus Arum maculatum


Australian Currant Leucopogon Richei ..    .

Australian Elder .. Sambucus Xanthocarpa, and chaudiana ..    ..    .

39


Gaudi-


Australian Lily

73

PAGE . 28


Correa speciosa, 19, 29, 31, 37, 39, 40, 42, 44, 46, 52, 53.

Trichinium, spathulatum, and macro cephalum ..    ..

Pelargonium australe ..


Billardiera, various species

Vitis (Cissus) hypoglauca Xanthorrhæa arborea


Flax Dianella, various species


Australian Fuchsia

38

51

39 35

21

19, 21 19 21, 41

31

19

39

17

35

33

32

52

18


Australian or Victorian Foxtail Australian Geranium

Australian Gooseberry

Australian Grape Australian Grass tree

Gum- Eucalyptus


Australian tree

Epacris, various species Lomatia Fraseri .. Banksia, various species

Mint- Prostanthera rotundifolia

Paper Poa australis ..    ..

Xylomelum pyriforme Trachymene australe .. Smilax glyciphylla ..

Pultensea scabra ..

Rhagodia, various species

Kennedya prostrata ..

Juncus vaginatus    ..


Australian Heath Australian Holly Australian Honeysuckle Australian bush

Australian Grass Australian Pear .. Australian Parsnip Australian Sarsaparilla

Australian Scar bush

Australian Sea berry

Australian Scarlet

runner

Australian Sheathed rush

Australian Sundew Drosera, various species 17, 28, 29, 33

Australian Tea tree Leptospermum and Melaleuca

Australian Virgin’s Clematis aristataand other species 19, 52 bower

Dioscorea, various species Rhamnus infectorius ..


17, 26 .. 68


Australian Tam ..

Avignon or French berries

..    .. The stem, including the root, or any

centre round which leaves and other organs are arranged ..    24, 34

Axial (Axillary) ., Belonging to the axis, growing in the

axil of anything ..    .. 14, 15, 17


Axis ..    ..

B.    page

Balm of Gilead .. Balsam of Peru .. Balsam of Tolu ... Bamboo    ..    ..

Banana,    or Plan

tain

Bangalo Palm .. Banksia    ..    .,

Barberry    ..    ..

Bark (Cortex) ..

Barley    ..    ..

Basil    ..    ,.

Bast (Liber)    ..

Bay tree    ..    ..

Bean    ..    ..

Beech (Australian) or Myrtle tree of the Pern gullies Beech (common) .. Beet    ..    ..

Benzoin    ..    ..

Berry, or Bacca, ..


Bifid, &c. ..    ..

Birch    ..    ..

Bird’s-nest fern .. Blackberry ., Black Pepper .. Blackwood, or Lightwood Black Wattle .. Blade, or lamima Blue Gum, or Fever tree

Borage    ..    ..

Bowstring Hemp Box (border) .. Bracts    ..    ..


A berry, or succulent seed-vessel filled with pulp ..    ..    ..    ..51

Dracocephalum canariense ..    ..    65

Myroxylon (Myrospermum) Pereirse 65 Myroxylon (Myrospermum) toluiferum 65 Bambusa, various species ..    ..    19

Musa, various species ..    ..    <.    59

Seaforthia ..    ..    ..    ..    24

Banksia (Australian Honeysuckle) 21, 41 Berberís communis    ..    ..    ..    59

of the stem Hordeum .. Ocimum basilicum

Laurus nobilis .. Faba vulgaris .. Fagus Cunninghamii


The outer cellular and fibrous covering

..    21,23

8, 21, 35, 52, 58 .. .. 62 ..    ..23

'    ..    ..32

8, 49, 52, 58 ..    ..69

69

58

65


Fagus sylvatica    ..    ..    ..

Beta, various species    ..    ..    ..

Styrax Benzoin    ..    ..    ..


A succulent seed-vessel filled with pulp, in which the seeds nestle, as in Solanum ..

Two-lobed ..

Betula alba ..

Asplénium Nidus Rubus fruticosus Piper nigrum ..

Acacia melanoxylon

..    52

27, 32 19, 69


Acacia decurrens Eucalyptus globulus

Borago officinalis    ..    ..    ..    29

Sanseviera zeylanica    ..    ..    ..    66

Buxus sempervirens    ..    ..    32,    69

Leaves placed below a calyx, or changed in form, from which a flower or flowers proceed 34, 38, 42, 62

INDEX.    75

PAGE



Camellia ..    ..

Camomile or Chamomile

Cape Wattle .. Cape Wedding flower

Cape Weed    ..

Caper ..    ..

Cape Broom    ..

Capitulum ..

Capsule ..    ..

Caraway Seed .. Carpel or (Carindium)

Carrot ..    ..

Caryopsis ..    ..


Shoots or arm-like limbs of trees and shrubs 23,24, 25, 26,33,38,54,57 Little branches    ..    ..    ..    24

Bertholletia excelsa    ..    ..    ..    59

Csesalpinia Sappan    ..    ..    ..    68

Humulus Lupulus    ..    ..    ..    52

Quercus Robur    ..    ..    25,70

.. 9,10,18,24,27

......17

Typha angustifolia    ..    ..    ..    66

Rosa spinosissima    ..    ..    ..    57

Araucaria Bidwilli    ..    ..    ..    23

Ruscus aculeatus    ..    ..    31,33

Ranunculus    ..    ..    ..    ..    49

Dietes (Iris) bicolor    ..    ..    ..    18

C.

Brassica oleracea    ..    41,    42, 51,    58

Livistona (Corypha) australis ..    24

Cactus ..    ..    ..    ..    19, 33,    51

Caladium    ..    ..    ..    32,    38

The flower cup, or outer envelope of the flower 39, 40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 53.

Camellia ..    ..    .. 21,26,29

Anthemis nobilis    ..    ..    ..    63

Albizzia lophantha    ..    ..    ..    35

Dombeya natalensis    ..    ..    ..    66

Cryptostemma calendulacea-..    33, 34

Cappáris spinosa    ..    ..    ..    62

Genista canariense    ..    ..    ..    35

A close head of flowers without footstalks (sessile)    ..    ..    ..    34

A dry seed-vessel, dehiscent (opening) by valves, teeth or lid    ..    ..    51

Carum Carui ..    ..    ..    ..    62

Leaf forming the pistil. Several carpels may be combined to form a pistil    ..    .. 39, 49, 51, 52, 53

Daucus Carota ..    ..    ..    38,    58

The one-seeded indehiscent vessel of grasses, the pericarp being incorporated with the seed    ..    52

_ ,    .    .    page

Lashew nut    ..    Anacardium occidentale    ..    ..    60

Cassia ..    ..    Cassia, various species    ..    ..    52

Castor-oil plant .. Ricinus communis    ..    ..    8, 32,    63

Catechu or Cutch Acacia Catechu    ..    ..    ..    63

Catkin (Amentum) A deciduous spike, consisting of unisexual (one sex) flowers without petals (apetalous)    ..    41,42

Cauliflower .. Brassica oleracea ..    .,    38, 58

Cauline ..    .. Leaves produced on the stem    ..    26

Cayenne or Red Capsicum annuum    ..    ..    ..    62

Pepper

Cedar of Lebanon Cedrus Libani ..    ..    ..    ..    69

Celandine ..    ..    Chelidonium majus ..    ..    ..    31

Ccelebogyneilicifo- Queensland Spurge Holly, or Laurel 44 lia

Celery Pine .. Phyllocladus ..    ..    ..    ..    32

Cells or cellules .. Cavities in the interior of a plant 22, 28, _    42, 43, 48, 49, 51.

Cellular tissue (Par- A spongy substance filling the spaces enchyma)    between the fibres abundant in

leaves and flesby fruits, and forming the softer portions of the plant ..    ..    18, 22, 27, 29

Central rib    .. Midrib, or principal vein of leaf .. 31

Cereals .,    .. Wheat, Barley, Oats, Maize, and


Celery ..    ..    Apium graveolens ..    ..    ..    58

Chapt. I.—Seeds

other grasses .. .. 41, 57 ........7

,, II.—Roots

.. .. .. ..

14

,, III.—Stems

18

,, IV.—Leaves

25

,, V.—Flowers

34

,, YI.—Fruits

48

,, VII.—Acoty-

54

ledons

Cheesewood ..

Pittosporum bicolor .. .. ..

69

Cherry .. ..

Prunus Cerasus 7, 21, 25, 38, 39, 48,

49,

Chickweed ..

51, 60.

Alsine, or Stellaria media .. ..

41

Chinese Hawthorn,

Photinia serrulata .. .. ..

38

or Maybud

Chestnut .. ..

Castanea vesca .. .. .. ..

60

Chilli .. ..

Capsicum annuum .. .. ..

51

Chive .. ' ..

Allium Schsenoprasum .. ..

58

Chlorophyll ..

The green colouring matter of leaves 22

27

Cinnamon.. ..

Cinnamomum zeylanicum .. ..

62

INDEX.    77

PAGE

Circumcissile ..

Citron    ..    ..

Classes    ..    ..

Climbing stems .. Clove    ..    ..

Club, or Palm Lily-Cluster    ..    ..

Coast Rush    ..

Cob nut    ..    ..

Cocoa, or Cacao .. Cocoa nut..    ..

Cocoa-nut Palm .. Coffee    ..    ..

Colchicum, or Meadow Saffron Collective fruit .. Colocyntb..    ..

Colouring matter Columbine .. Compound fruit .. Composites .. Compound .. Compound leaf ..



Cut round circularly, such as seed-vessels opening by a lid or cap ..    50

Citrus medica ..    ..    ..    ..    60

9, 10, 12; 13, 28, 48, 54,    57

:    19

62 23 38 66 60 60 60 24, 60 60 63


Caryophyllus aromaticus Cordyline (Dracaena) ..

A raceme ..    ..

J uncus maritimus    ..

Corylus Avellana    ..

Theobroma Cacao    ..

Cocos nucifera ..    ..

Coffea arabica .. Colchicum autumnale

Calyx and ovaries in a solid mass ..    49

Cucumis (Citrullus) Colocynthus ..    63

In leaves (Chlorophyll)    ..    22,    27

Aquilegia, various species    ..    ..    51

A fruit composed of several parts    49,    52

Compound flowers ..    ..    ..    34

Composed of several parts    ..    35,    38

A leaf formed of several separate leaflets. A pistil is compound when formed by several carpels, either separate or combined .. 27, 28, 31 An arrangement of scales in the fruit covering naked seeds    ..    ..    52

Several umbels in one flower    ..    38

mg of cvpress,

'    8, 52

..    19

..    65

31, 46 ,. 62 21, 23


The pine family, consist etc. ..    ..

Convolvulus ..

Copaifera officinalis Heart-shaped ..

Coriandrum sativum Palm Lily    ..

Correa speciosa and other species 19, 29, 31, 37, 45, 46, 52, 53 Fleshy underground stem, a sort of bulb, without scales    ..    ..    17

Cotyledon orbiculata ..    ..    .. 33

A raceme, the pedicels or lower stalks of which are gradually shorter as they approach the summit, so that the flowers appear flat above ..    38

The inner envelope of the flower; its


Cylinder

Cyme


Cypress


parts are called petals 39, 41, 45, 46 G-ossypium, various species    ..    ..    66

(Seed-leaves) .. 9, 11, 12, 15, 21, 54, 57

Vaecineum Oxycoccus ..    .    60

Climbing plants ..    ..    ..    55

Having the edge divided into crenels or convex flat teeth ..    ..    ..    26

Crocus ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    21

..    ..17, 24, 55

Croton tiglium ..    ..    .,    ..    63

Having the form of a cross with equal arms, as the wallflower, etc. 41 Flowerless plants, or organs of reproduction obscure ..    ..    21,    54

Paritium elatium    ..    ..    ..    66

Cucumis sativus ..    ..    51,60

Stem or stalk of grasses    ..    ..

Shaped like a wedge standing upon its point ..    ..    ..    ,.

Cypress ..    ..    ..    ..    ..

Bibes rubrum, and nigrum    ..    ..

Pimelea axiflora ..    ..    ..

Cycas (Cycads) ..    ..    ..    ..

Palm-like trees or shrubs, including Cycas, Zamia, Encephalartos, or Caffre bread ..    ..    ..    ..    8

A tube or pipe ..    ..    .. 22, 48, 56

A kind of inflorescence in which the flowers are in racemes, corymbs, or umbels, forming one terminal flower head, the successive central flowers expanding first. Example : Lauristinus, etc. ..    ..    ..    38

29, 52, 69


Cupressus sempervirens, and others 21,

H.

Daffodil ..    .. Narcissus pseudo-Narcissus ..    18,46

Dahlia ..    ..    Dahlia ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    17

Daisy (English).. Beilis perennis    ..    ..    ..    .-.    34

Dandelion .. Taraxacum officinale ..    33,    34, 52,    63

Danubian or Bam- ArundoDonax    ..    ..    ..    18,    66

boo reed

Daphne ..    ..

Date Palm .. Deadly Nightshade Deciduous .. Dehiscent..    ..

Dentate ..    ..

Desert or Murray Pine

Diandrous .. Dicotyledonous .. Dicotyledons ..

Diggers’ Delight.. Digynous ..    ..

Diosma ..    ..

Disk ..    ..

Dock ..    ..

Dorsal Suture    ..

Dracaena (Cordy-line)

Double flowers .. Dragon tree (Dragon’s blood)    ..

Drupe ..    ..




Dracaena Draco


39, 40 .. 66


Dyers Broom or Woadwaxen ..


A fleshy or succulent fruit, like the cherry or plum, having a stony endocarp ..    ..    ..    ..

Genista tinctoria ..    ..    ..


51

68


E.

Ebony .. .

. Diospyros Ebenum ..

.. .. 69

Elderberry Ash .

. Panax sambucifolius ...

.. .. 31

Elderberry (Elder) Sambucus nigra ..

.. 38,60

Elkhorn fern .

. Platycerium palcicorne

.. .. 56

Elm ,. .

. Ulmus campestris ..

.. 25, 51, 69 in the seed 8,

Embryo .. .

. The young plant contained

10, 12

Endocarp .. .

. The inner surface of the fruit, or

lining of the carpel next the seed;

the stone of a cherry or

plum is its

endocarp .. ..

.. .. 49

Endive .. .

. Cichorium endiva ..

.. ..58


An inside grower (Monocotyledon) Endogens ..    ..    ..    22,    23

Endogenous stem

Endosperm ,,

English Ash .. English Buttercup English Holly .. English Laurel .. English Myrtle .. Entire leaf ..

Epacris ..    ..

Epicarp ..    ..

Epidermis ..

Epigynous ..

Epiphytal    ..


Plate II, fig. 2. New wood produced at the centre ; it belongs to the monocotyledons ..    ..    ... 21

The albumen of a seed, or substance formed within the embryo-sac ..    8

Fraxinus excelsior    ..    ..    ..    31

Ranunculus acris    ..    ..    ..    52

Ilex aquif olia    ..    ..    ..    ..    51

Prunus Lauro-cerasus    ..    .. 51

Myrtus communis    ..    ..    ..    51

Having no kind of marginal division ;

without lobes    ..    ..    ..    26

Epacris ..    ..    ..    ..    19, 21

Outer covering of the fruit, or pericarp 49 The true skin of a plant, or cellular layer below the cuticle orouterskin, 23,27 Upon or above the ovary, and attached to it    ..    ..    ..    ..    47

Plants which grow upon the surface of others, as many ferns, mosses, and orchids    ..    ..

Epiphyllum ..

Erect branches ..

Erect stems ..

Ergot of Rye ..

Erica ..    ..

Esparto grass, or Atocha

Eucalyptus (Australian Gum tree)

European Crocus ..

European Honeysuckle ..    ..

Evaporation ..

Evergreen    ..

Exalbuminous ..

Exocarpus, “Australian cherry”

Exogens ..    .,


Epiphyllum truncatum

Claviceps purpurea .. Foreign Heath..    ..

Stipa (Macrochloa) tenacissima

Eucalyptus


8, 14, 21, 27, 41, 50

Crocusvemum ..    ..    ..    ..17

Lonicera periclymenum .. 19, 21, 32

The act of evaporating or passing away gradually in vapour or gas ..    ..    25

Always green, retaining leaves throughout the whole year    25, 26

Having no albumen or perisperm ..    8

Exocarpus cupressiformis ..    ..    39

Outside growers, same as Dicotyledons 10, -    22, 23

Exogynous stem .. Growing by addition to the outer parts 21

Linum usitatissimum Phormium tenax

F.

PAGE

Falcate .. ..

Sickle-shaped .. .. ..

31, 32

Families .. ..

13, 75

Fan Palms ..

Chamserops, and Corypha, etc.

.. 25

Farinaceous ..

Of a starchy nature .. ..

.. 8

Fennel .. ..

Foeniculum vulgare .. ..

38, 62

Fenugreek ..

Trigonella Foenum-graecum ..

.. 63

Ferns .. ..

.. 13, 18, 19, 21,

26, 54

Fertilisation ..

The act or process of fertilising

or

making fruitful .. .. 43

44, 45

Fertilising organs

Pistils and stamens .. ..

.. 40

Fibre .. ..

.. 2,14,15,17

23, 45

Fibrous root ..

Thread-like root .. ..

12, 15

Fig .. ..

Ficus Carica .. .. ..

49, 60

Figure A .. ..

A pea enlarg-ed .. .. A pea split in halves .. ..

.. 10

„ D.. ..

.. 10

„ E.. ..

A pea-pod split open .. ..

.. 11

Filament .. ..

The stalk of the anther : any kind of

thread-shaped body ..

.. 42

Filbert .. ..

Corylus Avellana .. ..

.. 60

Firethom Night

Solanum pyracanthum ..

.. 32

shade

Filices .. ..

Ferns .. .. .. ..

21, 54

Fir Cone .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 49

Fir .. ..

Pinus . .. .. ..

.. 49

Flame tree ..

Sterculia (Brachychiton) acerifolia, 32, 51,

66.


Flax (common) .. Flax (NewZealand) Fleshy stems .. Floral Whorls .. Florets ..    ..



66

66

18

39


When many flowers are collected in clusters or heads each flower is called a floret ..    ..    ..    34

Phoenogams ..    ..    ..    9, 10

Cryptogams ..    ..    .. 13,21,54

7, 18, 33, 35, 38, 39, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50.

........25

...... 34, 35

Leafage ......18, 25, 55

A fruit consisting of a single carpel, dehiscing (opening) by the ventral suture    ..    ..    ..    51,53

An aperture in the ovule, allowing

the passage of the pollen tubes to the nucleus or central cellular portion of the ovule    ..    ..    ..    10

Foxglove .. French Bean Fringe Lily-Fronds ..



Galbanum .. G-alingale Bush .. Gamboge ..    ..

Garden Celery .. Garden Cress .. Garden Parsley .. Garden Lilies    ..

Garden Sage    ..

Garlic ..    ..

Genera ..    ..

Gentian ..    ..

Genus ..    ..


Geranium .. Germ ..


Germen .. Germination


Digitalis purpurea    ..    ..    ..    63

Phaseolus vulgaris    ..    ..    ..    19

Thysanotus and Arthropodium 35, 46 The leaves of ferns, properly a combination of leaf and stems; the term frond, however, is often applied to the leaves of palms    ..    ..    55,56

7, 8, 38, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51 53 57

Fuchsia 19, 86, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 51, 52, 53.

Mushrooms, etc.    ..    ..21,54,57

The cord or thread which connects the ovule or seed to the placenta 10, 11, 43, 45, 51, 53

Tapering to each end ; conical roots are sometimes called fusiform ..    17


A race or kind: a group consisting of a number of species having peculiar marks or characteristics ..    57

Pelargonium (of gardens) 21, 29, 40, 45 The starting point; anything in embryo; origin; first principle 8, 10,

43, 47

The ovary ..    ..    ..    ..    43

The first act of growth, sprouting of the young plant, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 21, 22

Glumes or Gluma Husks or coverings of the spikelets of

83

PAGE

Glabrous ..    .. Smooth ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    29

Gladiolus ..    .. Sword Lily ..    ......21

Gians (nut)    .. Applied to the Acorn and Hazelnut.

Seated in a cupule (cup) or in bracts 51


grasses ..    ..    ..    ..    41

Giant Gum .. Eucalyptus amygdalina, variety :

regnans ..    ..    ..    ..    19

Ginger    ..    ..    Zingiber officinale    ..    ..    ..    62

Glandular hairs .. “Hairs tipped with a gland, as in

Drosera or Sundew” ..    24, 28

Gland ..    .. “ An organ of secretion consisting of

cells”..........28

Golden "Wattle    ..    Acacia pycnantha    ..    ..    35,52

Gooseberry .. Ribes Grossularia ..    39,50,51,60

Gourd ..    ..    Cucurbita Pepo    ..    ..    51,60

Grain ..    ., Divided into small particles ..    12, 44

Grape ..    .. Vitis ..    ..    ..    .. 39,51,60

Grape Vine    ..    Vitis vinifera ..    ..    ..    ..    19

Grasses ..    ..    8, 9, 15, 17, 19, 21, 26, 33, 35, 41, 49

Grasscloth    plant    Boehmeria nivea    ..    ..    ...    66

(Chinese)

Grasscloth    plant    Pipturus argenteus    ..    ,.    ..    66

(Queensland)

Grass Lily .. Arthropodium strictum ..    ..    17

Grevillea ..    ..    Grevillea ..    ..    ..    41,51

Guava ..    ..    Psidium, various species    ..    ..    60

Guaicum ..    ..    Guaiacum officinale    . .    . .    . .    63

Gum Arabic .. Acacia verek, Seyal, and others . .    65

Gum Elemi    ..    Icica and Colophonia    . .    . .    . .    65

Gum tree ..    .. Eucalyptus, various species 7, 8, 14, 22,

Gymnospermous .. Naked seeded, as Cycas and Pinus


23, 26, 27, 32, 40, 41, 45, 50

II.

Hakea ..    ..

Hardenbergia monophvlla Hard- wooded stems Hastate .. Hawthorn Hazel .. Heartwood or Duramen Heath ..


Hakea...... 21, 26, 32, 41

Spurious, or Victorian Sarsaparilla ..    35

...... 19, 33

Shaped like the head of a halberd 31, 32 Crataegus oxycantha . .    . .    . . 38

Corylus Avellana . .    . .    42, 51

The inner pith of Dicotyledonous or Exogenous trees . .    . .    . . 23

Erica, various species    . .    19, 21


Heliotropium . . Conium maculatum Helleborus niger


PAGE . 18

. 63

. 63




Ilex, various species Humulus Lupulus Marrubium vulgare


19, 23,


66

63

68

18

45

69


10

29

56

51

58

63

23

35

58

21



I.


Indehiscent    ..

Indian Com .. Indian Rose Hemp India Rubber tree, or Caoutchouc Indigo ..    ..

Inferior ovary    ..

Inflorescence    ..

Internodes    ..

Ipecacuanha    ..

Iris ..    ..



52

66

65

68

46

41

24

64

21


INDEX.

85

Ironbark .. ..

Eucalyptus sideroxylon ..

PAGE

.. 19

Ivy .. ..

Hederá Helix .. .. .. 14

15, 19

Ixia .. ..

Ixia .. .. .. ..

17, 21

Jalap .. ..

J.

Ipomœa (Exogonium) purga..

.. 64

Jamaica Pepper, or

Eugenia Pimenta .. ..

.. 62

Allspice

Japanese Anemone Anemone japónica .. ..

.. 32

Jarrak, or Maho-

Eucalyptus marginata ..

.. 19

gany Gum

Jasmine .. ..

Jasminum, various species ..

.. 31

Jerusalem Arti-

Helianthus tuberosus .. ..

29, 58

choke

Jonquil .. ..

Narcissus Jonquilla .. ..

17, 46

Jujube .. ..

Zizyphus Jujuba .. ..

.. 60

Jute .. ..

Corchorus capsularis and olitorius

.. 67

Kangaroo Apple..

K.

Solanum aviculare .. ..

.. 51

Kangaroo Grass ..

Anthistiria cibata .. ..

15, 52

Kangaroo Grape

Yitis (Cissus) antárctica ..

.. 32

Vine

Karri, orWest Aus-

Eucalyptus diversicolor ..

.. 69

traiian Gum

Kauri Pine ..

Dammara australis .. ..

.. 69

Kernel .. .,

The substance in the shell or husk of

a nut .. .. ..

.. 49

Kidney Bean ..

Phaseolus vulgaris .. ..

.. 58

Kidney Weed ..

Dichondra repens .. ..

.. 31

Kidney fern of N ew

Trichomanes reniforme

.. 31

Zealand

Lace Bark (New

L.

Hoheria populnea .. ..

.. 67

Zealand)

Lanceolate ..

Narrowly elliptical, tapering to each

end .. .. .. ..

31, 32

Lancewood ..

Guatteria (Oxandra) virgata ..

.. 69

Lantern flower ..

Abutilón, various species .. Delphinium ,, ,, ..

.. 19

Larkspur .. ..

.. 51

Lateral branches..

Growing from the side of the axis

or

stalk .. .. .. ..

23, 24

Laurel . ..

Prunus Lauro-cerasus.. ..

.. 51

Laurustinus ..

Viburnum Tinus . ..

.. 38

Lavender    ..    ..    Lavandula vera    ..    ..    35,    62

Leaflet ..    .. One of the divisions of a compound

leaf........ 27, 28, 31

Leaf-stalk .. The base of a leaf connecting it with

the stem ..    ..9, 19, 26, 27, 29

Leaves ..    .. 7, 9, 10, 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,

31, 34, 41, 46, 49, 51, 52, 54.

Legume ..    .. A pod ; or solitary two-valved carpel

bearing its seeds on the ventral suture only    ..    ..    ..    11,    52

Lettuce    ..    ..    Lactuca sativa    ..    ..    ..    58,    64

Lemon ..    .. Citrus medica, variety: Limonium.. 60

Lecythis    ollaria ..    Monkey-pot    .    ..    ..    ..    50

23


Liber, or Bast .. The inner lining or fibrous bark of Exogens (Dicotyledons) ..    ..

Lichens ..    .. An order of cellular Cryptogams or

flowerless plants having no distinction of leaf and stem, and usually of scaly, expanded, frond-like forms 21,

54, 56, 57

69


Lignum    vitse    ..    Guaiacum officinale .


Lilac    ..    ..    Syringa vulgaris .

Lilies    ..    . .    Lilium, various species

Limbs    ..    ..    Branches of trees .

Lime ..    .. Citrus ..    ..    . •

Lime or Linden Tilia europsea ..    .

tree

Linear ..    .. “Narrow, in which the length greatly

exceeds the breadth,” applied to leaves ..    ..    ..    •.    31, 33

Lobe    ..    ..    “ A large division of a leaf or any

other organ ; applied often to the divisions of the anther” 9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 32, 42.


Hfematoxylon campechianum . .    68


An indehiscent pod or legume with partitions between each seed .. European Honeysuckle . .    . .

Coprosma lucida .

Eriobotrya japonica .

Nelumbium speciosum Solanum Lycopersicum

68

32


M. <

Rubia tinctoria . . Magnolia, various species

87

PAGE


Midrib    ..    ..

Mignonette . . Mildew    ..    ..

Mint    ..    ..

Monosepalous ..

Monocotyledon ..

Monocotyledonous Monopetalous ..

Moreton Bay Fig . Moreton Bay Pine Moreton BayTrum-pet Jasmine Mistletoe    ..

Mosses    ..


Swietenia Mahogani    . .    . .    70

Zea Mays . .    . .    8, 21, 52, 58

Malva . .    . .    . .    . .    . .    52

Mandragora oflicinarum    .    .    . .    64

Mangifera indica ......61

Garcinia mangostana    .    .    .    .    .    .    61

Rhizophora Mangle    .    .    .    .    .    .    15

Musa textilis . .    .    .    .    .    .    .    67

Eucalyptus viminalis    .    .    .    .    .    .    19

Acer campestre    .    .    .    .    .    .    70

Edge...... .    .    . . 26

Calendula officinalis    .    .    .    .    .    .    34

Origanum Majorana and vulgare . .    62

Pistacia lentiscus    .    .    .    .    .    .    65

Mespilus germanica    .    .    .    .    .    .    61

A thin tissue or film . .    .    .    ..51

Eucalyptus fissilis    .    .    .    .    .    .    19

Cucumis Melo . .    . .    . .    51, 61

Daphne Mezereum    .    .    .    .    .    .    64

The opening or aperture in the skin of a seed which was once the foramen of the ovule; it indicates the position of the radicle . .    10, 45

The continuation of the leaf-stalk to the point of the leaf    9, 27, 28, 29

Reseda odorata. .    .    .    .    .    .    .    35

A fungus on the leaves or stems of plants, etc. . „    ..    ..    .. 54

Mentha viridis ..    ..    ..    .. 62

(Gamosepalous), sepals united into one body by their edges    ..    40, 46

22, 23.


One Cotyledon or seed-leaf SL, 12, 15, 21,

Belonging to the Monocotyledons ..    22

One petal, or all petals united by

their edges    ..    ..    ..    41

Ficus macrophylla    ..    ..    15,    29

Araucaria Cunninghamii    ..    ..    23

Tecoma jasminoides    ..    ..    ..    31

Loranthus, various species ..    ..    56

Applied popularly to many low-tufted plants, whether Pheenogams or Cryptogams, but properly the term applies to the latter 13, 21, 50, 54, 56

Mould .. ..

Thread-like fungi (Mildew) which

prey upon provisions such as cheese,

etc. .. .. ..

.. .. 57

Mulberry .. ..

Morus nigra .. ..

.. ..61

Multilocular ..

Having many loculaments

(cells) or

cavities in the anther or ovary, etc. 48

Murray, or Desert Prenela robusta ..

.. .. 52

Pine

Musci .. ..

Mosses .. .. ..

.. 21,50

Mushroom ..

Agaricus campestris ..

.. 13, 21, 57

Myall .. ..

Acacia homalophylla ..

.. .. 70

Myrtle tree (Vic

Pagus Cunninghamii ..

.. .. 19

torian)

N.

Nasturtium ..

Tropceolum .. ..

.. .. 32

Native Daisy ..

Brachycome multifida..

.. .. 33

Native Hop tree ..

Daviesia latifolia ..

.. .. 33

Natural System of

.. ..

.. 7,12,57

Botany

Nectarine .. ..

Amygdalus persica ..

7, 49, 51, 61

Nettle .. ..

Urtica .. .. ..

.. 29, 41, 52

New South Wales

Picus Australis .. ..

.. .. 15

Pig

New Zealand Lau

Corynocarpus leevigatus

.. 29,32

rel

Nile, or Trumpet Calla (Richardia) sethiopica

.. 32,38

Lily

Node .. ..

“ The part of a stem from which a

leaf bud proceeds, whether com

plete or incomplete a joining .. 24

Norfolk Island Pine Araucaria excelsa ..

.. .. 23

Norway Spruce ..

Pinus (Abies) excelsa ..

.. .. 70

Notched .. ..

Toothed or cleft calyx..

.. .. 40

Nucleus .. ..

Centre part of the ovule in

which the

embryo is engendered

.. .. 10

Nutmeg .. ..

Myristica fragrans ..

.. .. 62

Nux-vomica ..

Strychnos Nux-vomica

.. .. 64

Oak .. . .

0.

Onerous Robur . .

. . . . 70

Oat . . . •

Avena sativa . . . .

. . 21, 35, 52

Oblong leaf . .

Oval or elliptical, blunt at each end 31, 32

Officinal Croton, or

' Croton tinctona . .

. . . . 0»

Turnsole

page


Ovule


Palmate . .


Palm . . Panicle . .


Papilionaceous Corolla

Papyrus, or Paper reed

Parasitical    ..

Parenchyma    ..

Parenchyma of leaf

Parsley ..    ..


Vine disease........57

Neriurn Oleander .    .    .    .    . .    32

Olea europaea . .    . .    . • 35, 51,61

Allium Cepa...... 18,21

A lid or cap, as in the spore cases of urn mosses, etc. ..    ..    41, 50

Papaver somniferum .    .    .    .    . .    64

Opopanax Chironium......65

Placed on opposite sides of    a stem at

the same level .    .    .    .    . .    26

Citrus Aurantium 7, 8, 21, 49, 50, 61

Circular     31

The popular name of the orchidese, or Orchis family . .    . .    17, 21

......7, 45,    46

7,    11, 15, 24, 25, 39,    43

Iris gennanica and florentina . .    64

Salix, various species . .    . .    . .    42

which contains the ovules 42, 43, 45,

46, 47, 49

The young seed contained in the ovary 4 3, 45, 47, 48, 49


Or germen, the part of the pistil

P.

Having four or five lobes, the midribs of which meet at a common point, so that the whole bears some resemblance to a human hand, as the leaf of the Maple. .    . .    . .    31, 32

The popular name for plants belonging to the order Palmae 9, 19, 21, 24 A branched raceme, the infloresence of most grasses, consisting of spike -


lets on long peduncles . .    . .    35

Having each a corolla as that of the Pea ..    ..    ..    ..    ..41

Cyperus (Papyrus) antiquorum . .    67

‘ ‘ Growing into some other plant, and deriving food from its juices” ..    56

Cellular tissue ..    ..    ..    ..    27

Cellular tissue, which has a globular, not tubular, form ..    ..    ..    27

Petroselinum sativum ..    ..    ..    58

PAGE

Parsnip .. Passion - flower (scarlet)

Pea ..

Pear .. Peach .. Pedicel .. Peduncle ..



Pericarp . .


Perigynous

Perisperm


Periwinkle

Persistent


Peruvian, or Officinal Bark


Pastinaca sativa Tacsonia manicata

Pisum sativum


38, 58 ..    32

7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 41, 42, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53. Pyrus communis    25, 39, 50, 51, 57, 61

Amygdalus persica    ..    21, 49, 51, 61

‘ ‘ The stalk supporting a single flower” 34 The main stalk to which the pedicels are joined, called also the primary axis 34,

_    35, 38

Shield-like, or fixed by the stalk to the centre ..    . .    . .    31, 32

Pelargonium (Garden Geranium) 29, 31,

38, 40, 50

Hanging loosely, like those of the Willow ..    ..    ..    ..    23

Pseonia, various species . .    ..    61

........51

Mentha piperita ..    ..    .. 62

Lasting for more than two years    18, 54

When the base of leaves surround the stem ..    ..    ..    ..    31, 32

The calyx and corolla combined ; that is to say, when they look so much alike that they cannot be readily distinguished, as in the Hyacinth” ..    . .    . .    ..43

‘ ‘ The covering of the fruit; the shell or rind of all fruits taken as a whole. When it separates into layers, each layer may have a different name, but the whole is still the pericarp” ..    . . 48, 49, 52

47


“Applied to the corolla and stamens when attached to the calyx” .. Endosperm, or nourishing matter stored up with the embryo in the seed ; albumen ..    . .    ..    8

Vinca major and minor    ..    .. 31

Not falling off, but remaining green until the part which bears it is wholly matured, as the leaves of evergreen plants ..    . . 26, 45, 53

Cinchona officinalis......64

Buonapartea juncea ..

91

PAGE

..    67

25, 41, 46 ..    29

. . 67 . . 18



Pistil


Pita Hemp Pith .


Pittosporum Placenta . .


Plane    .    .    ..

Plate I. (Roots) .. ,, II., (Stems)

,, III. Leaves) „ IV. and V. (Flowers) Platycerium alci-come

Platycerum grande Plum    .    .    ..

Plumule    .    .    ..


Leaves of the corolla A leaf-stalk ..    ..

Yucca gloriosa    . .

Phlox ..    ,.    ..

A leaf-stalk enlarged so as to have the appearance of a leaf ; an enlargement of the petiole . .    27, 31

Pimelea    . .    . .    . .    . .    23

8, 21, 52, 70 .    . . 49

.    49, 61

.    . . 70


Pinus

Ananassa sativa Pinus . .    . .

Dianthus    . .

A compound leaf

Simple leaflets arranged on each side of a common petiole or central rib..

33


A simple leaf divided almost to the axis, or cut into segments in the way of the side divisions of a feather The female reproductive organ in Phanerogamous (flowering) plants.

It consists of an ovary, style, and stigma 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 52.

Agave americana . .    . .    . .    67

The soft spongy substance in the centre of the stems of plants, same as medulla or cellular pith    19, 22

Pittosporum...... 21, 22

Platanus


The part of a fruit to which the seeds are attached. The place on which ovules originate 10, 11, 43, 45, 51, 53

32 .. 16

.. 20 ..    30

36, 37

. . 56


Staghorn fern

. .    56

21, 49, 51, 57, 61


Elkhorn fern . .

Prunus domestica

Bud, or first stage of growth. First bud of the embryo 9, 10, 11, 12, 18

anther . .    . .    .. 42, 44, 45

Pod    . .    .. The capsule or seed-case of legumi

nous and cruciferous plants 7, 11, 49, _    50, 51, 52

Pollen    . .    .. Fertilising dust. Powdery matter

usually contained in the cells of an


Polyandrous    ..    Many    stamens........39

Polygynous    ..    Many    carpels........39

Polysepalous    ..    Many    sepals composed in a, calyx    40,46

Polypetalous    ..    Many    petals perfectly    distinct    from

each other . .    .    .    .    .    f    .    41

Pome . .    .. Fruit like the apple and pear . .    50

Pomegranate    ..    Punica granatum    .    .    .    .    .    .    61

Poplar ..    ..    Populus . .    . .    .    .    .    .    .    .    42

Poppy ..    .. Papaver    ...... 42, 50, 51

Pores of the leaf .. Same as stomata (aperture in the skin

of a leaf) ...... 50, 51

Porous dehiscence Opening by pores . .    . .    . .    50

Portulaca oleracea    Purslane    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    50

Pot Marigold    ..    Calendula officinalis    .    .    .    .    .    .    33

Potato . .    .. Solanum tuberosum . .    17, 18, 51, 59

Primary axis    . .    Peduncle    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    34

Primary veins    ..    First veins    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    29

Principal Plants of 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, Economic Value 68, 69, 70.

Privet . .    .. Ligustrum ...... 19, 35

Prunus . .    . .    . .    . .    . .    . .    61

Purslane ..    .. Portulaca oleracea ..    ..    ..    50

Pumpkin . .    .. Cucurbita Pepo ......61

Pyrus . .    ..    Pyrus . .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    57

.    Q-

Quassia . .    . . Quassia amara, and excelsa    ..    64

Queensland Cigar Cassia (Cathartocarpus) Brewsterii ..    52

Cassia

Queensland Dia- Pittosporum rhombifolium ..    .32

mond-leaved Laurel

Queensland Hemp Sida retusa .    ..    ..    ..    67

Queensland Holly- Hibiscus splendens ..    ..    ..    67

hock tree

Queensland Spurge Ccelebogyne Ilicifolia ..    ..    ..    44

Holly

Queensland Tulip Stenocarpus sinuatus ..    ..    ..    32

tree

Quince ..    .. Cydonia vulgaris .    31, 41, 51, 61

PAGE

ground .. .. ..

26

First starting point of the root

9,

10,

11,

12,

14,

15

Same as Radicle .. ..

10

Raphanus sativus .. ..

17,

51,

59

Rafflesia Arnoldii .. ..

41

Divided into many branches ..

# ,

26

Rubus Idasus .. .. ..

# #

61

Cedrela Toona .. .. ..

# ,

70

R.


Raceme ..


Races ..    ..

Radical leaves ..


An inflorescence in which the flowers are arranged singly on distinct pedicels along a common axis    35, 38

..    ..    ..    ..57

Applied to leaves arising from the crown of the root close to the



Eucalyptus rostrata ..    ..    19,    70

Shaped like a kidney......31

_...... 50, 56, 57

Act of respiring or breathing . .    25

Branched veins, having the appearance of network ..    ..    ..    29

.. ......26

A stem creeping horizontally, more or less covered by the soil, giving off buds above and roots below 17, 18 Rhododendron ..    ..    ..    .,    21

Four-sided form, not square .    .    31,    32

Rheum. Various species    .    .    59,    64

Plantago major . .    . .    . .    35

Plagianthus betulinus    -..    ..    67

Oryza sativa . .    ..    ..    ..    59

Aralia papyrifera ......32

The external cover of fruit; bark 23, 51

Yearly    ...... . .    22

Cistus. Various species    . .    . .

A small root, a radicle    . .    . . 12

7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 22, 26, 34.

Underground stems    ..    . .    . .    17

“ Burnet Rose”    . .    . .    . .    57

The order of which the Rose is the type, “ Rosa” ......57

Rose .. ..

Rosa. Various species, 21, 26,

28, 31, 40,

41, 49

52, 57.

Rosaceous corolla

Having the same arrangement as the

petals of a single rose . .

. . 41

Rose Bay ..

Nerium Oleander . . . .

. . 32

Rosella Hemp ..

Hibiscus sorbifolius . . . .

. . 67

Rosemary ..

Rosmarinus officinalis . .

. . 62

Rosewood ..

Dalbergia nigra, etc. . .

. . 70

Royal Water Lily Victoria regia......

25, 32

Rue .. ..

Ruta graveolens . . . .

. . 64

Rushes .. ..

Juncus. Various species ..

. . 9

Rust in Wheat .

. . 57

Rye .. ..

Secale cereale......

. . 35


S.




. . 68

. . 62 31, 32 25, 59 . .    24

..    51

. .    59

. .    70

. . 70

. . 70

. . 70


The fleshy part of the pericarp lying between the epicarp and endocarp Smilax. Various species . .    . .

Hardenbergia. Various species . .

Laurus Sassafras . .    - -    _• •

Rough, covered with stiff, short hairs

.......17,


56

49

64

32

64

29

17

52

64


Rudimentary close-pressed leaves Convolvulus Scamonia . . Pelargonium zonale . .    . •    38, 50

Pandanus.. Various species . • 15, 23, 67 Cochlearia officinalis......64


Sea-berry .

INDEX.

Rhagodia. Various species

95

PAGE

. . 32

Seakale .. .

Cranbe maritima . .

. . 59

Sea Mallow

Lavatera maritima . .

. . 67

Seaweeds ..

. Algae . . . . . .

. . 56

Secondary veins .

• . • • • • .

. . 29

Seed-leaf .. .

Cotyledon 9, 11, 12, 15, 21,

22, 27, 29,

Seed .. .

54, 57.

7, 8, 9, 10, 34, 38,

39,

40,43,44,

45, 48, 49, 50, 51

52

, 53, 57.

Seed-case .. .

. Covering of the seed . .

10, 12

Seed-vessels .

7, 43, 45,

48,

49, 50, 52

Senna .. .

Cassia .. . . . .

Sensitive or irri-

. . 28



Mimosa sensitiva and pudica    ..    28

Leaflets forming the Calyx . .    40, 46

Having straight, sharp-edged teeth on the margin pointing to the apex 26 Fourcroya gigantea . .    . .    . .    67

Without a stalk, as a leaf without a petiole . .    . .    . .    26, 42

Covered with setse or bristles . .    29

A part which is rolled round a stem or other body, the same as vagina 12 Lengthening of the leaf-stalk surrounding the stem seen in grasses. 26

.......■ .    . . 67

Testa........8, 12, 48

Casuarina. Various species 21, 22, 52

........19

Woody plants with several stems

from the same root......19

A short pod with double placenta . .    51

A long pod similar in structure to the Silirula . .    . .    . .    . .    51

G-revillea robusta ......51

Acacia dealbata . .    . .    . . 52

A fruit formed by one flower . .    49

A leaf not branching, not divided into separate parts . .    27, 28, 31, 33

One umbel ...... . .    38

_    ...... 39, 40

Having a margin with deep, irregular indentations . .    . .    . .    31, 32

Sessile, or without ffoot-stalks (peduncles)........26

Skeleton leaf



portions of the leaf    . .    . .    29

8, 11, 12, 23, 27, 28, 40 Sarsaparilla of New South Wales . .    35

Aristolochia Serpentaria    . .    . . 64

Anguillaria australis    . .    . . 17

Leucojum. Various species 18, 21, 46 Underground creeping stem    . .    17

. . ......18

Not hollow or furnished with internal

cavities ...... 17, 19

Rumex acetosa ......59


Species



Spikelet ..    ..

Spines or thorns ..


Spongy stems


Spores    ..    ..

Sports    .. * ..

Spotted Thistle ..


PAGE

The network of veins left when the cellular portion of the leaf has decayed. The veins are the vascular

A succulent spike hearing male and female flowers, as in Arum, etc. ..    38

A large bract rolled over an inflorescence, and guarding it while young 38 Like a battledore, oblong, with the lower end much attenuated; shaped like a druggist’s spathula 31, 33 “ A plant whose seed is in itself after its kind.” “ Possessing the power of multiplying and transmitting its type and qualities without change from generation to generation” 9, 13, 40, 44, 50, 56, 57

Doryanthes excelsa......67

(Hollow) round, globular spaces . .    17

Spinacea oleracea    .    .    .    .    .    .    59

Inflorescence consisting of numerous flowers without foot-stalks (sessile) on a lengthened axis . . 35, 38, 42 A small spike    .    .    .    .    .    .    35

Stiff, sharp-pointed bodies consisting of woody tissue covered with cellular tissue . .    .    .    .    .    .    .    24

Having the texture of a sponge with many cells filled with air, as the coats of many seeds    . .    . .    19

“ Cellular germinating bodies in cryptogamic plants”    .    .    .    .    55

Explanation of    .    .    .    .    .    .    40

Carduus marianus......29


Stigma .. Stipules ..


Stock    ..

Stomata .. Stone    ..


Stone Pine . Storax or Styrax Stramonium or Thorn Apple Strawberry    .

Stringy Bark . Strobilus . .    .


Hop . .    . .    . .    . .    . . 52

Style . .    . . Part of the pistil; the stalk between

the ovary and the stigma . .    . .    43

Succulent. .    . . Full of juice or moisture contained in

cells . .    . .    . .    19, 38, 49, 50

Sugar Cane . . Saccharum officinarum . .    21, 59

Sumach or Shumach Rhus. Various species . .    . .    68

Sunflower . . Helianthus. Various species . .    29

Sunn Hemp    . . Crotalara juncea    . .    . .    . .    67

Superior Ovary . . When free from the calyx . .    42, 46

Suture ..    .. A joint......_.    43, ÖC

Swamp Weed    . . Selliera radicans    . .    *. ,    . ,    17


Hardenbergia monophylla . .    35, 52

Urginia (Seilla) maritima . .    . .    64

Platycerium alcicorne    . .    . . 56

17, 28, 31, 34, 35, 38, 42 Male organs of the flower containing pollen _    39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 4G, 47

Stellaria media, etc. . .    . .    . .

The ascending axis or part of a plant which shoots out of the ground and supports the branches 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32, 34, 46, 54, 56.

The top of the pistil, or female organ of the flower. .    . .    43, 44, 45, 46

Appendages or lobes at the base of other leaves, resembling a small

leaf........ 27, 28

Mathiola. Various species ..    35,51

Breathing-pores of a leaf    . .    . . 28

‘ ‘ A hard body found in certain fruits, and producing the ossification of the endocarp or lining of the fruit’ ’    7,

49, 51

PinusPinea . .    . .    . .    . .    52

Styrax officinale    . .    . .    . . 65

Datura Stramonium . .    . .    . . 64

Fragaria vesca . .    17, 32, 42, 49, 52, 61

Eucalyptus obliqua . .    . .    . . 19

A fir-cone, or any fruit which resembles a fir-cone. An imbricated scaly inflorescence such as that of the

Sweet Bay or Vic- Laurus nobilis........32

tor’s Laurel

Sweet Flag    . . Aeorus Calamus ......64

Sweet William . . Dianthus barbatus......38

Sword Lily . . Gladiolus. Various species . .    . . 17

Sword Rush of the Lepidosperma gladiatum    . .    . . 19

Coast

Sycamore    . . Acer pseudo-platanus    . .    32, 51

Sydney or Red CedrelaToona........70

Cedar

T.


Tamarind Tap-root .. Tea . . Tea trees . . Teak Wood Tegmen . .

Tendril . .



Tamarindus indica . .    . .    . .    61

An axial or main root . . 14, 15, 17

Thea chinensis........59

Melaleuca and Leptospermum 22, 23

Tectona grandis .....- 70

The second or inner skin of the seed “ called also Endopleura” . .    8, 10

A slender, twisting, thread-like shoot by which a plant clings to another

for support........

Growing at the end or extremity . . Threefold, “ compound leaves composed of three leaflets’ ’

The outer skin of a seed Carduus. Various species Datura Stramonium . .



Thymus vulgaris . .

The minute elementary parts of which the organs of plants are composed or arranged in the fibrous, cellular, or vascular forms . .

Nicotiana Tabacum . .

Solanum Lycopersicum Potentella Tormentilla


19 .    24

31, 32 10, 12 . 52 .    51

24, 39 . 62


22

29

51

65

65


Gazania splendehs . .    . .    33, 34

A plant having a large woody trunk 19,

2o, 57

-    ......21, 55, 56

Containing three stamens    . .    . . 39

Australian foxtail ......29

Containing three carpels    . .    • • 39

Three-lobed ...... 31, 32


True^Fuchsia . .

Trumpet flower . . Trunk . .    .    ,

Tube Rose . . Tuberous root . .



PAGE

3.6, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 52, 53 Tecoma radicans    . .    . .    . . 19

The bole or principal stem of a tree Polyanthus tuberosa . .    . .    . .

A roundish, underground, succulent stem, from which new plants or

tubers are produced......

Having the form of a tube or pipe Tulipa. Various species Covered with layers Curcuma longa . .

Brassica Rapa . .

Pistacia Terebinthus A small thin branch Twisting or winding round body . .    . .    . .


Fuchsia. Various species


19



Umbel




U.

A form of inflorescence in which a number of stalks, each bearing a flower, radiate from one    centre    .    .    3$

Same as funiculus    .    .    .    .    .    .    10

Root-stocks...... 17, 18

Wavy, having an uneven alternately convex and concave margin or surf ace 31, 32 One-toothed . .    .    .    .    .    .    .    33

“Having a single cavity or loculus''

(cell) . .     48

Of one sex only    .    .    .    .    ,    .    45

V.

Valeriana officinalis    . .    . .    32, 65

The parts which separate in some dehiscent capsules 11, 43, 48, 49, 50, 51

Containing valves    ......50

Vanilla aromatica and planifolia    . .    62

A term indicating a lower grade of subdivision next    to the    species    45, 57

Composed of spiral vessels and their

modifications...... 23, 29

. .    . .    3, 12, 22, 57

Cucurbita succada    . .    . .    51, 61

'    PAGE

Veins . .    .

Venation .    .

Ventral Suture . Verbena . .    .

Vernation . .    .

Vessel . .    .

Victorian Bottle Tree

Victorian Crocus Victorian Foxtail G-rass

Victorian Hemp Victorian Laurel

Victorian Snowdrop

Victorian Star of Bethlehem Victoria Regia . . Violet . .    .    .

Viscous . .    .    .


. .    . . 9, 27, 29, 32, 55

Arrangement of the veins 9, 27, 29, 32, 55 Belly seam or joint in the pod ..    11

Verbena. Various species . . 29, 34, 35 Arrangement of the leaves in the bud 27 . . <    . •    7, 23, 27, 29

Sterculia diversifolia    .    .    .    .    .    .    67

Hypoxis glabella ......17

Trichinium. Various species . .    35

Plagianthus pulchellus. .    . .    . .    67

Pittosporum undulatum 21, 26, 29, 32, 38, 51.

Anguillaria australis    .    .    .    .    .    .    17

Chamsescilla corvmbosa    .    .    .    .    38

The Royal Water Lily    . .    25, 41

Viola. Various species    . . 17, 31, 51

Sticky, clammy    .    .    .    .    .    .    29

W.



23,



Willow . . Wistaria . . Woad . . Wood Sorrel Woody Stem Wroody tissue Wolf s-bane


Aconitum Napellus


. .    42, 61

35, 40, 41, 50, 51 . .    51, 59

. . . . 61 . . 14, 27, 28 10, 19, 21, 22, 26, 27, 31, 32 21, 35, 49, 52,


round an

23, 40, 47 to each the same

. . 26 25, 41, 42 . .    31

. .    63

17,    32

18,    19 . . 22 . . 65


101

AGE

Wonga Wonga Tecoma australis ......31

Vine

Wormwood . . Artemisia Absinthium......65

Y.

Yam . .    . . Dioscorea. Various species . .    . .    59

Yam (Australian). . Microseris Forsteri......

Yarrow or Milfoil Achillea millefolium . .    . .    . . 65

Yellow Box Gum Eucalyptus melliodora    . .    . . 19

Yucca . .    . . Adam’s needle . .    . .    . .    . .    21

Z.

Zante Currant .. Vitis vinifera variety......61

EXTRACTS FROM PRESS NOTICES

OF THE

FIRST BOOK OF AUSTRALIAN BOTANY

BY

W. R. GUILFOYLE, F.L.S., C.M.R.B.S. Lond.

A little rudimentary work on the botany of Australia has been prepared by Mr. W. R. Guilfoyle, the Director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens. .    .    . The design of the

writer is to direct the eye of the beginner to the principal parts of plants, and to explain the manner of growth. .    .

The present publication will enable the reader to overhaul trees, shrubs, and plants with considerable effect. .    .    .

—Melbourne Argus, 5th August, 1878.

A book on the botany of Australia, such an one as which, while avoiding, on the one hand, the massiveness, not to say cumbrousness, of the many tomed works on the subject .    .

and, on the other, having a character entirely distinct from the meagre and eminently unsatisfactory articles on the subject appearing in some school books .    .    . such a book,

we are glad to say, we have now before us. .    .    . In

conclusion, it is not a word too much to say that the work is a valuable addition to the literature of botany, and that it is one of the very best that can be placed in the hands of students.—Town and Country Journal, Sydney, 24th August, 1878.

Australian Botany, designed specially for the use of schools, by W. R. Guilfoyle, F.L.S., C.M.R.B.S. London, and Director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens, is the unpretending title of a really useful and valuable primer on botany, as connected, more especially, with the Australian flora. .    .

The book is really admirable so far as it goes, but can only be regarded as initiatory, and, it is to be hoped, will be followed by others. .    .    . —Castlemaine Representative, 10th August,

1878.

.    .    . The first book which has reached ns is profusely-

illustrated, and is arranged in a very clear and interesting-manner. .    .    . The work cannot fail to be of great value

to teachers and pupils. .    .    . —Ballarat Star, 26th August,

1878.

.    .    . We have especial pleasure in recommending this

work, which is sure to become a text book for the use of schools.— Warrnanibool Guardian and Examiner, 14th August, 1878.

.    .    . It is a highly creditable production, written in a

popular style for easy reading, and will, no doubt, be appreciated by public and private school instructors.—Geelong Advertiser, 10th August, 1878.

.    .    . It must be highly encouraging to Mr. Guilfoyle to

receive from Mr. Ellery, Professors Irving, Pearson, Halford, Strong, and Andrew, Mr. Morris, of the Church of England Grammar School, and Mr. Venables, of the Education Department, opinions highly favourable of the merits of the book. .    .    . —Australasian, Melbourne, 21st September,

1878.

.    .    . On the whole, it is a work well calculated to

smooth the way for the first steps in this most delightful science.—The Queenslander, Brisbane, 7th September, 1878.

Also numerous other press notices, and highly flattering letters from several literary and scientific gentlemen.

A. H. Massina & Co., Printers, 26 Little Collins St. East, Melbourne.






1

Adventitious, differing from the natural state 'of anything; “ organs produced in abnormal positions, as roots arising from aerial stems.”

2

Figures 7, 8, 9, and 10 are by some botanists termed root-stocks or “ underground stems.”

3

The true Australian Sarsaparilla is Smilax Glyciphylla, not “ Har-denbergia Monophylla,” which is properly called Spurious or Victorian Sarsaparilla. The root of the latter is reputed to possess properties similar to those of the Smilax, but the idea is erroneous. The Victorian Sarsaparilla belongs to the order Leguminosse.

4

Mr. Bentliam, in liis “ Flora Australiensis” (a work with which every student of Australian Botany should endeavour to make himself familiar) says, in paragraphs 92 and 93, xiii., introduction:— “ The number of parts in each whorl of a flower is expressed adjectively by the following numerals derived from the Greek:— Mono di tri tetra penta hexa hepta octo ennea deca, etc., poly 12345    6    7    89    10    many

Thus, a flower is disepalous, trisepalous, tetrasepalous, poly4 sepalous, etc., according as there are 2, 3, or many petals.

Diandrous, triandrous, polyandrous, etc., according as there are 2, 3, or many stamens.

Digynous, trigynous, polygynous, etc., according as there are 2,3, or many carpels” (modified leaves, of which the pistil is composed, whether combined or distinct.)

5

The Siliqua is elongated. The Silicula is much shorter, and

contains fewer seeds. The latter has sometimes a double placenta,

or part, to which the seeds are attached by the funiculus (cord).

6

In my “ First Book of Australian Botanyat pages 46 and 47, will be found a few practical hints as regards the collecting and preservation of ferns and other plants.