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‘Hhe Semai (School «Series.




P E E F A C E.

Good reading is more readily acquired by practice than by precept. The more children read, they will read the more fluently, intelligently, and gracefully; and children can only be induced to read much by giving them subjects to read about in which they will naturally feel interested, and by so treating these subjects as to render them attractive.

It is with special reference to this principle, as regards both matter and style, that the Reading-Books in this Series have been prepared. The lessons are designed so to interest young people as to induce them to read, not as task-work merely, but for the pleasure of the thing. They avoid as much as possible that dull solidity which so much tends to make school hours a weariness to the young.

The numerous Illustrations afford an important aid in this respect. The interest of children is much more readily quickened through the eye than through the understanding; indeed it is through the eye that the understanding itself is most quickly reached.

In adapting the lessons for the daily work of the school-room, special care has been bestowed upon the Word-lessons, so as to make them available for a great variety of exercises.

I.    The Meanings of difficult words and phrases are given at the end of each lesson. The object here has been, not so much to give dictionary meanings, or synonyms, as to translate the words into the language of children. The definitions are generally in such a form as to admit of their being readily substituted in the lesson for the words explained.

II.    For special lessons in Pronunciation, the more difficult words are divided into syllables. Great importance is attached to this exercise, and teachers are advised to make use of it

systematically. They will find that when their pupils have learned to pronounce words correctly in syllables, the difficulty of spelling them has been greatly reduced.

III.    To each lesson there are appended Questions on the subject-matter or on the picture. These questions have been prepared specially to enable the pupil himself to ascertain whether he has mastered the chief points of the lesson.

IV.    It is suggested that the same questions should be afterwards used as a Composition Exercise. In this case, each answer must be in the form of a complete sentence, reproducing the chief part of the question as a direct statement. For example, the questions on the picture of “ The Sailor and the Monkeys” (p. 23) should be thus answered:—

“ Who is that lying on the ground ? ” There is a sailor lying on the ground.What is he doing ? ” He is fast asleep.What do you see on the trees?” There are several monkeys on the trees. “What have they got on their heads?” They have all got caps on their heads. “ What is the monkey on the ground doing ?” The monkey on the ground is going to steal a cap for himself. “Where did the others get their caps?” The others stole theirs also from the sailo?'’s bundle.How were they made to give them up again ? The sailor, in a rage, threw his cap doum on the ground, and they, mimicking him, did the same. These answers, read consecutively, form a fair description of the incident in the picture.

V.    As a more advanced exercise, the sentences may be turned into the narrative form, thus:—“ There was once a sailor lying on the ground, fast asleep, when a number of monkeys came and stole caps from a bundle which was lying beside him. Each put one of the caps on his head; and when the sailor awoke, he saw the little mimics running about the trees with his caps on. He could not induce them to give them up; so, in a rage, he threw his own cap down on the ground, when they, following his example, all did the same.”

The Proverbs, Anecdotes, &c., scattered through the volume, will afford a pleasant change from the continuous lessons; while the elliptical form in which many of them are given will exercise the ingenuity of the children, and encourage them to voluntary working,—truly the best assistant which'the teacher can have in the performance of his arduous duties.


The Snail on the Wall, .. ..


Half the Profit, .. v.


Little Jim, .. .. .. ..


Royal Favour (Elliptical), ..


The Tea-Farmer, .. ..


Stories of Tigers—Parti.,


Tit for Tat, .. .. ..


Useful Knowledge—Common

Proverbs (Elliptical), .. ..


Things, .. .. ..


The Hiunming-Bird, .. ..


Red and Black, .. .. ,.


The Humming-Bird, .. ..


The Daw in Borrowed Feathers, ..


The Boy who was always Too

The Ant and the Cricket, .. ..


Late, .. .. .. ..


The Dog and the Shadow, , ..


The Sailor and the Monkeys, ..


The Ambitious Boy, .. ..


The Voice of Spring, .. ..


The Better Land, .. .. ..


The Wonderful Pudding, .. ..


Proverbs (Elliptical), .. ..


Too Fast (Elliptical), .. ..


The English Girl and her Ayah, ..


Stories of the Elephant—Part I.,


Proverbs (Elliptical), .. ..


Elliptical Exercises, .. ,.


Stories of Tigers—Part II., ..


Useful Knowledge—Clothing,


Houses made of Snow, .. ..


Useful Knowledge—Common

The Child’s First Grief, .. ..


Things, .. .. ..


The Fox and the Stork, .. ..


How a Dog got his Dinner, ..


The Ostrich, .. .. ..


Happiness (Elliptical), .. ..


A Sharp Question (Elliptical), .,


The Sale of the Pet Lamb, .. ..


Don’t be Too Sure, .. ..


A Sly Hit (Elliptical), .. ..


Elliptical Exercises, .. ..


Brave Bobby, .. .. ..


Buds, .. .. .. ..


The Travellers and the Bear, ..


Truth and Fiction (Elliptical), ..


The Dun Cow, .. .. ..


Proverbs (Elliptical), .. ..


We are Seven, .. .. ..


Useful Knowledge—The Break

The Latin for Cold (Elliptical), ..


fast-table, .. .. ..


The Gate without a Latch, ..


The Duke and the Cow-boy, ..


Elliptical Exercises, .. ..


Stories of Dogs, .. ., ..


The Spider and the Fly, ., ..


Elliptical Exercises, ,. ..


Take Care of the Minutes, ..


Lucy Gray, .. .. .. ..


Proverbs (EllipticaL), ..


Proverbs (Elliptical), .. ..


The Beggar Man, .. .. ..


The Saint Bernard Dog, .. ..


The Lost Child,    ..    .. 109

The Busy Little Lapp,    ..    .. Ill

The Dog at his Master’s Grave, ..    114

The Stone that Rebounded, ..    116

Whale Hunting, ..    ..    ..    120

The Blind Boy,    ..    ..    ..    122

The Speaking Chip,    ..    ..    123

Useful Knowledge—Metals,    126

The Sailor’s Mother,    ..    ..    128

Elliptical Exercises,    ..    ..    129

The Prince and the Judge, ..    130

Frederick and the English Ambassador (Elliptical),    ..    133

A Beaver Town, ..    ..    ..    134

Elliptical Exercises,    ..    ..    137

The West India Islands,    ..    138

The Heroic Daughter, ..    .. 142

Elliptical Exercises,    ..    ..    145

Useful Knowledge—The Earth, 146 Useful Knowledge — Motions

of the Earth,    ..    ..    146

Letters of Recommendation, ..    148

Elliptical Exercises,    ..    ..    149

Meddlesome Matty,    ..    ..    150

Habits of Flowers,    ..    ..    152

Complaints of the Poor,    ..    ..    155

The Canvas Boat,    ..    ..    156

The Bain Lesson, ..    ..    ..    161

The Elephant, ..    ..    ..    163

Proverbs (Elliptical),    ..    ..    165

Catching Wild Elephants,    ..    166

The Parrot, ..    ..    ..    169

The Parrot in Exile,    ..    ..    172

Stories of the Elephant—Part II., 173 Raleigh’s Two Plants,    ..    ..    177

Proverbs (Elliptical),    ..    ..    180

The Ark and the Dove,    ..    ..    181

Proverbs (Elliptical),    ..    ..    183

No Pay, No Work,    ..    184

The Orphan Boy's Tale,    ..    ..    187

Little Dick and the Giant,    ..    188

The Trunk of the Elephant,    ..    191

The Little Hero, ..    ..    .,    193

The Newfoundland Dog,    ..    195

The Flying Fish,......198

Words and Deeds,    ..    ..    200

The Irish Harper,    ..    ..    201

Story of a Scottish Shepherd Dog

—Part I.,......202

Story of a Scottish Shepherd Dog

—Part II.,......


Bird Dwellings, .. .. ..


The Sailor Boy, .. .. ..


The Shark, .. .. ..


Good Temper, .. .. ..


High Cliff, ......


The Kettle of Boiling Water, ..


A Song for Merry Harvest, ..


A Just Rebuke, .. .. ..


Armour for the Warfare of Life,


The World we Live in,—An

Introduction to Geography, The Brown Bear, ..    ..    ..

Speak No III,    ..    ..    ..

Monkeys—Part I.,    ..    ..

Monkeys—Part II.,    ..    ..

The Shepherd’s Dog—Parti., .. The Shepherd’s Dog—Part II., The Bag of Gold—Parti.,    ..

The Bag of Gold—Part    II.,    ..

The Rhinoceros, ..    ..    ..

Good Life, Long Life,    ..    ..

The Tiger,    ..    ..    ■ ..

The Sea Gull.......

The Storm Petrel,    ..    ..

Brotherly Love, ..    ..    ..

Lost in the Forest—Part I ,    ..

Lost in the Forest—Part II.,    ..

Lost in the Forest—Part HI., .. Lost in the Forest—Part IV., ..




239 243 247 250 252 254 257


260 265 268


271 274 278 284

* *

A point is placed before each word explained in the Notes.





1.    “What 'ails you, lad?” said ‘Dame Bell to little boy, who sat near a wall at the back of her house. He had a book in his hand, and tears were in his eyes.

2.    “ We have all got a poem, called Little Jim, 'to learn,” said the boy, whose name was Tom Blair ; “ and the one who says it best is to get a prize from the master. But I don’t think I can learn it.”

3.    “Why not?” said the dame.—“The boys say that I can’t, and that I need not try,” said Tom in a sad tone. — “Don’t mind what the boys say; let them see that you can learn it,” said his friend.

4.    “ But I don’t think I can,” said Tom ; “ it is so'long, and some of the words are so 'hard. I know I need not try for the prize. But I should like to learn the poem as well as I can ; for the boys laugh at me, and call me ' Slow Tom.’ ”

5.    “Well, dear,” said the dame, in a kind voice, “ if you are slow, and can’t help it, try to be ‘ slow and sure,’ as they say. Look at that snail on the wall—how slow it is ! And yet, if you watch it,

you will see it will get to the top in time. So just try to learn,a few lines each day, and you may ‘gain the prize in the end. And when you are like “to lose heart, think of the snail on the wall.”

6.    When Dame Bell had said this, she went ou her way. And Tom thought that (though he coujd not keep up with the boys) he might run a race with the snail. So he ’resolved to try to learn his ’task by the time the snail got to the top of the wall.

7.    At last the day came on which the master was to give the prize, and he called up the boys to -repeat the poem. When five or six had ’recited, it came to Tom’s turn. There was a laugh when he got up, for most of the boys thought he would fail. But he did not miss a word ; and his heart was full of joy when the master said—“ Well done, Tom Blair!”

8.    When the rest of the class had tried, the master said Tom had done best; and he gave him the prize. “And now tell me,” said the master “how you learned the poem so well.”—“ Please, sir, it was the snail on the wall that taught me how to do it,” said Tom.

9.    There was a loud laugh when Tom said this. But the master said: “You need not laugh, boys; for we may learn much from such things as snails.— How did the snail teach you, Tom?”

10.    “ Please, sir, I saw it crawl up the wall bit by bit; it did not stop nor turn back, but went on and on. And I thought I would do the same with my task. So I learned it bit by bit, anti did not give up ; and by the time the snail had got to the top of the wall, I had learned it all.”

11.    “ Well done, Tom!” said the master.—“Now, boys, let us give a good cheer for Tom Blair and the snail on the wall.” And the old house rang with a loud, long cheer ; for all were glad that “ Slow Tom” had got a prize at last.

Questions.—1. What did Dame Bell ask the bo} ? Why?—2. What did the boy say ? What was his name ?—3. What had the other boya said to him ? What did Dame Bell tell him to do ?—4. What did Tom say about the prize ? What did he say about the poem ? WBat did the boys call him?—5. What did the dame tell him to watch?—6. With what did Tom think he might run a race? What did he resolve to do? —7. How many boys were called up before Tom ? Why was there a laugh when he got up ? How did he say the poem ? What did the master say to him ? — 8. Who won the prize ? WBat did Tom say had taught him ?—9. How was this received by the other boys ? What cid the master say?—10. How did Tom explain the matter?—11. Why did the boys at last give a loud cheer ?





















Ails, is wrong with.

Same, Mistress; an old woman. Gain, win.

Hard, not easy to learn. Re-clt-ed, repeated aloud.

Re-peat', say; recite. Re-solved', made up his mind. Task, lesson.

To learn, to get by heart To lose heart, to give up hope.


1.    The cottage 'was a thatched one,

The outside old and mean;

Yet everything within that cot Was ‘wondrous neat and clean.

2.    The night was dark and stormy,

The wind was ’howling wild ;

A ‘patient mother knelt beside The death-bed of her child:

S. A little worn-out creature,

His once bright eyes grown dim;

He was a collier's only child,—

They called him Little Jim.

4.    And oh, to see the ‘briny tears

Fast hurrying down her cheek,

As she offered up a prayer ‘in thought She was afraid to speak,

5.    Lest she might waken one she loved

Far better than her life ;

For there was all a mother’s love In that poor collier’s wife.

6.    With hands uplifted, see ! she kneels

Beside the sufferer’s bed,

And prays that He will spare her boy, And take herself instead.

7.    She gets her answer from the child;—

Soft fell these words from him:

Mother, the angels do so smile,

And ‘beckon Little Jim !

8. “ I have no pain, dear mother, now;

But oh, I am so ‘dry !    .

Just ‘moisten poor Jim’s lips again ; And, mother, don’t you cry!”

9. With gentle, trembling haste she held The tea-cup to his lips; lie smiled, to thank her, as he took Three tiny little sips.

10. “ Tell father, when he comes from work,

I said Good-night to him ;

And, mother, now I’ll go to sleep !”—

Alas, poor Little Jim !

11.    She saw that he was dying:

The child she loved so dear    %

Had uttered the last words that she .

Might ever hope to hear.

12.    The cottage door was opened,

The collier’s step was heard ;

The mother and the father met,—

Yet neither spoke a word.

13.    He knew that all was over,—

He knew his child was dead :

He took the candle in his hand,

And walked towards the bed.

14.    His ‘quivering lips gave ‘token

Of grief he’d ‘fain ‘conceal;

And see ! his wife has joined him,—

The ‘stricken couple kneel.

15.    With hearts bowed down with sadness,

They humbly ask of Him,

In heaven once more to meet again Their own poor Little Jim !

Printed, by permission of EDWARD FARMER, Author of "Ned Farmer’s Scrap Book."

Questions.—1. What kind of cottage was it? — 2. What kind of night? Where was the mother kneeling? —3. Who was the boy? — 4-A Why did she offer up her prayer in thought ?7-9. From whom did she get her answer?—10, 11. What were Little Jim’s last words?— 12, 13. What did the collier do when he came in? —14, 15. What did both father and mother then do ?































Beck-011, wave on ; calL Brin-y, salt, like sea-water. Con-ceal', hide.

Dry, thirsty.

Fain, gladly.

Howl-ing, making a loud, dreary sound.

In thought, in the mind, without speaking.

Moist-en, make wet.

Pa-tient, unwearied and gentle. Quiv-er-ing, shaking, trembling with strong feeling.

Strick-en, bowed down ; afflicted. To-ken, sign, or proof.

Was a thatched one, had a straw roof.

Won-drous, uncommonly.


1.    Once upon a time there was no tea at all in our country. In England in the olden time people used to drink ale, and a sweet kind of wine called ‘mead: great ‘tankards of ale stood on the breakfast-table. Now we use tea and coffee.

2.    When tea was first brought to England, an old man and woman had some sent to them as a great treat. But when they got it, they did not know how it ought to be used. At length they boiled the leaves, and ‘strewed them on a piece of ‘bacon which they were going to have for dinner. They ate the leaves, and threw the tea away!

3.    In those days a pound of tea cost so much money that only the rich could buy it. Now it is so cheap that even the poorest can enjoy it.

4.    Tea is the leaf of a plant which grows 'plentifully in China, Japan, and other Eastern lands. The Chinese drink their tea without either miilk or sugar. Whenever a ‘visitor comes into a house, a servant

alwaj^s brings him a cup of tea. Every cottager in China has his little tea-garden. He sells what he does not use, and can thus buy food and clothing for his family.

5 When a man has a large piece of ground, and grows a great many tea-plants, he is called a tea-farmer. When the tea-leaves are ready to be gathered, the farmer and his family are very busy. They pull off the leaves and throw them into baskets. When the baskets are full, they are carried into the house.

6. The leaves are dried in iron pans over a fire. While they^are drying, men and women keep turning them about. As soon as they begin to crack, they are taken out and spread upon a table. Then the work-people roll them up in their hands, and press all the juice they can out of them.

7.    After being once more dried in the air, the leaves have to go into the pan again over the fire. There they begin to curl and twist; and at last they look as we see them in this country. The farmer then picks out the best leaves, and gets them ready for market. He may be seen marching off to the town with his chest of tea slung over his shoulder, on a pole made of 'bamboo.

8.    He goes to a tea 'merchant and oilers the chest of tea for sale. The merchant looks at it, and if he thinks it good he buys it. Then the farmer marches home again, with his money slung over his shoulder. His money 'consists of a number of strings of brass ‘coins, of so little value that a great many of them make but a small sum.

QUESTIONS.—1. What was used in England for breakfast before tea and coffee were known ?—2. What mistake did an old man and woman make when tea first came in ?—3. Why can the poorest now enjoy tea? —4. What is tea? Where does it come from ?—5. What is a man called who grows a great many tea-plants ? What is the first thing done with the leaves when they are pulled?—6. What next? and next?—7. How does the grower carry his tea to market? — 8. WTiat does he bring back ?





















Ba-COn, hogs' flesh salted and dried. Bam-boo', the stem of a tall, strong reed.

Mer-chant, dealer ; one who buys and sells.

Plen-ti-ful-ly, in great abundance.

Coins, pieces of stamped metal; money. Con-sists' of, is made of; is composed of. Mead, wine made with honey and water.

Strewed, spread ; scattered. Tank-ard, drinking-can. Vis-it-or, caller ; stranger.


1.    A BOY was one day sitting on the steps of a door. He had a broom in one hand, and in the other a large piece of bread and butter, which somebody had kindly given him. While he was eating it, and 'merrily 'humming a tune, he saw a poor little dog quietly sleeping not far from him. He called out to him, ‘‘Come here, poor fello^r!”

2.    The dog, hearing himself kindly spoken to, rose, pricked up his ears, and wagged his tail. Seeing the boy eating, he came near him. The boy held out to him a piece of his bread and butter. As the dog 'stretched out his head to take it, the boy 'hastily drew back his hand and hit him a hard rap on the nose. The poor dog ran away, howling most 'dreadfully, while the 'cruel boy sat laughing at the ‘ mischief he had done.

3.    A gentleman, who was looking from a window on the other side of the street, saw what the wicked boy had done. Opening the street door, he called him to cross over; at the same time holding up a sixpence between his finger and thumb.

4.    “ Would you like this ? ” said the gentleman. —“Yes, if you please, sir,” said the boy, smiling; and he hastily ran over to 'seize the money. Just at the moment that he stretched out his hand, he got so 'severe a rap on the knuckles, with a cane which the gentleman had behind him, that he roared out like a bull!

5.    “ What did you do that for?” said he, making a very long face, and rubbing his hand. “ I didn’t Jiurt you, nor ask you for the sixpence.”

6. “ What did you hurt that poor dog for just now ? ” said the gentleman. “ He didn’t hurt you, nor ask you for your bread and butter. As you 'served him I have served you. Now, 'remember dogs can feel as well as boys, and learn to 'behave kindly towards dumb animals in 'future.”

Questions.—1, 2. What did the dog think he was going to getî Wdiat did the boy do to him ?—3, 4. How was the boy punished ? —5. What did he say ?— 6. WTiat did the gentleman tell him to remember ?

















howl-in g














Be-have', act.

Cru-el. unkind ; wicked. Dread-ful-ly, fearfully.

Fu-ture, time to come.

Has-ti-ly, quickly.

Hum-ming, singing without words. Mer-ri-ly, in a happy way.

Mis-chief, naughty trick. Re-mem-ber, keep in mind; do not forget.

Seize, lay hold of.

Served, did to ; treated.

Se-vere', sharp; sore.

Stretched, pushed.

PROVERB S— (Elliptical).

The following are all the words required in this Exercise

glit-ters    need-y    may    per-form'

com-mand'    quar-rel    num-ber    tongue

It takes two to make a.......

All is not gold that........

Be slow to promise, but quick to.......

A young man idle, an old man.....

Do what you ought, come what . . .

Keep good company, and be one of the......

Better to slip with the foot than with the . . * . „ 0 Command your temper, lest it.......you.



1.    Under the shade of a tree, at the end of one of the ‘twigs, hangs a tiny little nest. It swings in the air, and is as light as a feather; for it is made ‘ chiefly of moss and * down. It is very snug; and within it lie two tiny eggs, of the size of peas, and as white as snow.

2.    Watch *a moment, and we shall see what bird it is that has built the nest; for she has only gone to have a sip of honey. It is a ‘lovely place to watch in. Flowers ‘scent the air. Yonder is a deep wood ; and strange flowers of every shape and size grow all about. Some are like monkeys, some like bees, some like butterflies. These flowers are called orchids. They grow in England, only not nearly so large as in warm countries,

3.    Hark! the bird is coming. It is the smallest bird in the whole world. Its body is no bigger than a hazel-nut. But its feathers are more lovely than I can ‘describe. It has a green crest on its head, which ‘sparkles like a little star. The colours on its body are green, and gold, and purple. You can scarcely tell where one ends and another begins.

4.    If you look about, you will see more of these little creatures. They are called Humming-birds, and live in hot countries,—in India, as well as in America. The woods and ‘groves are alive with them. They flash about here and there, clad in all the colours of the rainbow. The eye is never tired of watching them.

(6W)    2_V

5. The humming-bird in the picture is sitting on her eggs to hatch her young ones. When the mother bird is tired, her ‘mate comes and takes her place.

Then up she springs, and darts away into the woods, where she ‘chooses some flower that has honey in it.

6.    As she ‘hovers in the air, she moves her wings about so quickly that you can hardly see them. Her wings make a humming sound as she hovers over the flower; and it is from this that she gets her name.

7.    But she is thinking now about the ‘insects. There are a great many of these, hidden at the bottom of the flower. She soon spies them out, and she darts her long tongue into the'midst of them. Some insects stick to it; for the tongue is sticky, as if it had been rubbed with glue. The insects are drawn into her mouth ; she swallows them, and then darts out her tongue for more.

8. All this time, she is hovering over the flower, and humming with her wings. When she has had •enough of insects, she sips a little honey, and flies back to her nest.

Questions.—1. Of what is the nest of the humming-bird made? Where does it hang?—2. What strange flowers are^ around it?—

3. What is the size of the bird?—4. In what kind of countries do they live ?—5. What is the humming-bird in the picture doing ? Who takes her place when she is tired?—6. What causes the humming? —7. What do these birds feed upon?—8. What does the bird take, after the insects?
















feath^er built flow-ers yon-der mon-keys

A mo-ment, an instant.

Chief-ly, mostly.

Choos-es, picks out.

De-scribe', tell in words; explain. Down, the soft hair under the feathers of birds.

E-nough', plenty.

Groves, bowers; avenues.

tongue stick-y glue

swal-lows hov^er-ing

Hov-ers, flutters.

In-sects, very small creatures, as flies. Love-ly, beautiful.

Mate, companion; the male bird. Scent the air, fill the air with sweet smells.

Spar-kles, twinkles.

Twigs, small branches.


1.    The humming-bird ! the humming-bird !

So fairy-like and bright;

It lives amongst the sunny flowers,

A creature of * delight!

2.    In the * radiant islands of the East,

Where ‘fragrant spices grow,

'A thousand thousand humming-birds Go ‘glancing to and fro.

3.    Like living fires they flit about,

Scarce larger than a bee,

Amongst the broad 'palmetto leaves,

And through the 'fan-palm tree.

4.    There builds her nest the humming-bird,

Within the 'ancient wood,

Her nest of silky cotton-down,

And rears her tiny brood.

5.    She hangs it to a 'slender twig,

Where it waves light and free,

As the ‘campanero tolls his song While rocks the mighty tree.

6.    All crimson is her shining breast,

Like to the red red rose ;

Her wing is the changeful green and blue That the neck of the peacock shows

7.    Thou happy, happy humming-bird,

No winter round thee 'lowers;

Thou never saw’st a leafless tree,

Nor land without sweet flowers :





A reign of summer joyfulness To thee for life is given ;

Thy food the honey from the flower,

Thy drink the dew from heaven!

Mary Howitt.

shin-ing    win-ter















Ancient, old.

Cam-pan-e-ro, the hell-bird of Guiana, in South America. Its note sounds like a bell—hence its name.

De-light, happiness

Fan-palm, palm-trees with leaves like a fan.

Fra-grant, sweet-smelling.

Glanc-ing, darting quickly, like rays of light.

Low^ers, falls; comes down. Pal-met-to, a kind of fan-palm, found in the Southern States of America Ra-di-ant, shining ; sending out rays; cheerful.

Slen-der, very slight.


1.    Solomon Slow was the son of a gentleman, who lived on the ‘border of the ’New Forest. His mother called him Solomon, “ Because,” she said, “ he is a wise child ; ‘ slow and sure ’ is sure to do well.”—“Yes,” said his father; “but he is too slow ; and unless he become a little more quick, and a little less lazy, I shall never make a man of him.”

2.    When he was about ten years old, his father and some friends planned a ‘pic-nic in the Forest, and ‘hired a large van to take them there. They were to set out at seven in the morning. Solomon knew this, as he had heard his father say so the night before.

3.    The sun was shining very brightly when he awoke at six the next morning; but he was as lazy as ever. “ If I get up about ten minutes before seven,” said he, “ I shall be down in plenty of time.” So he lay still in bed, and heard all the party pass his door as they went down stairs.

4.    They even called to him ; but he gave no answer, and only lazily rolled himself up in the clothes. At last, up he jumped, dressed, and ran down stairs; but he found the breakfast-room empty, and the van gone!

5.    ‘Snatching up his hat, he ran as fast as he could down the road ; but there was a high wind, and the dust was in clouds everywhere. He

screamed and bawled for the van to stop ; but all *in vain. No one could hear him; and at last, tired with running, and half choked with dust, he walked 'sulkily home.

6. But even this did not cure him. He was a lazy boy, and grew up to be a lazy man; and when

in 'business, though the coach passed his door every day, he was seldom ready. Just look at him in the picture, running up the hill, and bawling “Stop! stop ! ”

Questions.1. What was the boy’s name? Where did he live? What did his mother say of him ? What did his father say of him ?— 2. At what time was the pic-nic party to start?—3. When did Solomon awake ? What did he say to himself ?—4. What did he find when he did come down stairs ?—5. What did he then do ? Did he succeed ?— 6. What kind of man did he turn out ?
















Bor-der, edge; outer part.

Bus -iness, trade or employment. Hired, paid for the loan of.

In vain, without success; to no purpose.

New For-est, a plain in Hampshire, in the south of England.

Pic-nic, a feast in the open air. Snatch-ing up, seizing quickly. Sulk-i-ly, gloomily; in a bad humour.

-'k'/U/MMSOH Si


‘    1. A sailor once went ashore on the coast of South

America. He had with him a number of red woollen caps for sale. On his way to a town at some distance from the coast, he had to pass through a forest, in which 'troops of monkeys were everywhere seen climbing among the trees.

2.    At noon, as the sun was right overhead, the sailor had to take 'shelter from its burning rays. He lay down to rest under the shade of a large tree. Taking one of the caps out of his bundle, he put it on his head, and soon fell fast asleep.

3.    When he awoke, he found, to his 'utter 'amazement, that the caps were all gone! A most * unusual chattering among the 'dense branches above him drew his attention. Looking up, he saw the trees alive with troops of monkeys, and on the head of each monkey was a red woollen cap!

4.    The little ’mimics had watched his ’proceedings ; and, having stolen his caps while he slept, had ’adorned their black pates with their ’booty. The monkeys gave no heed to his shouts, but only grinned at his rage.

5.    Finding every ’attempt to get hack his caps ‘fruitless, he pulled off the one which he had put on Lis head, and threw it on the ground, crying out, “ Here, you little thieving 'rogues, if you will keep the rest, you may take this one too ! ”

6.    No sooner had he done this, than, to his great •surprise, the little animals at once did the same. Each ’snatched the cap from his head and threw it on the ground ! The sailor ’regained all his caps, and marched off ’in triumph.

Questions on the Picture.—Who is that lying on the ground? What is he doing ? What do you see on the trees? What have they got on their heads? What is the monkey on the ground doiag ? Where did the others get their caps ? How were they made to give them up again ?


























A-domed', decked.

A-maze^-ment, wonder; surprise. At-tempt', effort; plan.

Boot-y, what they had stolen; plunder. Dense, thick; closely set.

Fruit-less, of no use.

In tri-umph, with great joy at his success.

Mim-ics. imitators.

Pro-ceed-ings, on-goings; doings. Re-gained', got back.

Rogues (rôgz), tricky fellows Shel-ter, refuge.

Snatched, pulled.

Sur-prise', wonder Troops, great numbers. Un-u-su-al, rare; uncommon. Ut-ter, very great; extreme


1.    I am coming, little maiden !

With the ’pleasant sunshine ’laden.

With the honey for the bee,

With the blossom for the tree,

With the flower and with the leaf;—

Till I come, the time is ’brief.

2.    I am coming, I am coming !

Hark ! the little bee is humming;

See ! the lark is ’soaring high

In the bright and sunny sky;

And the 'gnats are on the wing,

Wheeling round in airy ring.

3.    See ! the yellow ’catkins cover All the slender willows over;

And on banks of mossy green Star-like primroses are seen ;

Aud, their ’clustering leaves below,

White and purple violets 'blow.

4.    Hark ! the new- born lam bs are bleating ;

Arid the cawing rooks are meeting

In the elms—a noisy crowd !

All the birds are singing loud ;

And the first white butterfly In the sunshine dances by.

5.    Look around thee—look around !

Flowers in all the fields ’abound;

Every running stream is bright;

All the ’orchard trees are white,

And each small and waving shoot Promises sweet flowers and fruit.

6.    Turn thine eyes to earth and heaven !

God for thee the Spring has given;

Taught the birds their ’melodies,

Clothed the earth, and cleared the skies,

For thy pleasure or thy food :—

Pour thy soul in ’gratitude!    Mary Howixt.






























A-bound*, are plentiful.

Blow, bloom; put forth flowers.

Brief, short.

Cat-kins, a kind of flower, in shape like a cat’s tail, growing on willow, birch, hazel, and other trees. Clus-ter-ing, growing in bunches.

Gnats (natz), very small insects. Grat-i-tude, thankfulness. La-den, loaded; burdened. Mel-o-dies, sweet songs. Or-chard, a garden of fruit-trees. Pleas-ant, cheerful; gay. Soar-ing, mounting on the wing.


1.    Our Uncle Robert one day came to us, and asked us to dinner. He said he would give us a pudding, the ‘materials of which had given work to more than a thousand men !

2.    “ A pudding that has taken a thousand men to make ! Then it must be as large as a church ! ”

“ Well, my hoys,” said Uncle Robert, “ to-morrow at dinner-time you shall see it.”

3.    Scarcely had we taken our breakfast next day, when we ‘prepared to go to our uncle’s house. When we got there, we were ‘surprised to see everything as calm and quiet as usual. At last we sat down to table. The first dishes were ‘removed —our eyes were ‘eagerly fixed on the door—in came the pudding ! It was a plum-pudding of the * usual kind and size—not a bit larger !

4.    “ This is not the pudding that you ‘promised us,” said my brother.

“It is, indeed,” said Uncle Eobert.

“0 uncle! you do not mean to say that more

than a thousand men have helped to make that little pudding ? ”

“Eat some of it first, my boy; and then take your slate and pencil, and help me to count the workmen,” said Uncle Robert.

5.    “ Now,” said Uncle Robert, “ to make this pudding we must first have flour; and how many people must have ‘laboured to ‘procure it! The ground must have been ploughed, and sov^ed, and harrowed, and reaped. To make the plough, miners, ‘smelters, and smiths,—wood-cutters, sawyers, and carpenters,—must have laboured.

6.    “ The leather of the harness for the horses had to he tanned, and prepared for the harness-maker. Then, we have the builders of the mill, and the men who 'quarried the mill-stones, and who made the machinery of the mill.

7.    “ Then think of the plums, the lemon-peel, the spices, the sugar;—all these come from ‘distant countries; and to get them hither, ships, ship-builders, sail-makers, sailors, growers, merchants, and grocers, have been ‘employed.

'Then we need eggs, milk, and suet.”

“Oh, stop, stop, uncle!” cried I. “I am sure you have counted a thousand.”

8.    “I have not ‘reckoned all, my child. We must cook the pudding, and then we must reckon colliers who bring us coal, miners who dig for tin and iron for the sauce-pan. Then there is the linen of the cloth it was wrapped in. To make this we must reckon those who grow the flax, and gather it, and ‘card it, and spin it, and weave it, and all the workmen who make the ‘looms and machines.”

9. Robert and I both said we were quite ‘satisfied that there were more than a thousand men employed.

Questions.—1. Who one day asked the boys to dinner? What kind of pudding did he promise them ?—2. How large did they say it must be ?—3. When did they start for their uncle’s house ? What surprised them ? What kind of pudding appeared ?—4. What did one of them say ? What did their uncle tell them to do ?—5. How did their uncle begin to reckon up the men ?—6. Whom did he next include ?— 7. What things had come from distant countries ? Who were required in order to get them ? What did one of the boys exclaim ?—8. Who wore employed in preparing for the cooking of the pudding ?—9. Were the boys at length satisfied ?














































Card, comb with a thing called a card. Bis-tant, far off.

Ea-ger-ly, with great interest ; anxiously.

Ena-ployed , made use of; engaged La-boured, worked.

Looms, weaving machines. Ma-te-ri-als, the things it was made of. Pre-pared', got ready.

Pro-cure', get; obtain.

Prom-ised US, said we should have. Quar-ried, dug out.

Reck-oned, taken into account. Re-moved', taken away.

Sat-is-fied, convinced; sure. Smelt-ers, men who melt the iron ore to get the iron.

Sur-prised', in a state of wonder; astonished.

U-su-al, common; ordinary.

TOO FAST—(Elliptical).

tied un-do' robbed de-spair'

Two travellers were......in a wood, and .... to trees. One

of them, in......., exclaimed,—

“Oh, I am undone ! ”    •

Are you,” said the other joyfully; “ then I wish you wrnuld


1.    In the island of 'Ceylon there are large 'herds of wild elephants. Many have been caught and tamed, and made useful in helping to build bridges, houses, and churches.

2.    Travellers tell us that some of them are as careful about the neatness of their work as men could be! An elephant has been known to step back a few yards to see if it had laid a block of wood or of stone straight; and then, if not 'satisfied, to ‘return and push it into its right place!

3.    Some years ago, an 'engineer in Ceylon had to lay pipes to 'convey water nearly two miles, over hills and through woods where there were no roads.

To help him in his work, he had to ’employ ’several elephants; and nothing could be more ’interesting than to watch the way in which the elephant engineers did their work.

4.    Lifting up one of the heavy pieces of pipe, and ’balancing it in its trunk, each animal would march off with its load, and carry it safely over every ’obstacle, to the place where it was to be laid. When it reached the spot, it would kneel down and place the pipe 'exactly where the driver wished.

5.    Once, when one of the elephants found it hard to get one of the pipes it had brought fitted into another, it got up and went to the end of the pipe, and putting its head against it, soon forced it into its place.

6.    In a show of wild beasts at ’Bath, some years ago, there was a large good-natured elephant. Among the crowd that went to see it was a baker. He thought it a clever thing to tease the elephant, by pretending to give it a cake, and then pulling away his hand.

7.    The elephant bore this for some time well enough, but at last it got angry. Putting its trunk out of the cage, it caught the baker round the waist, lifted him to the top of the ’caravan, and bumped his head with great force against the roof.

8.    Everybody thought the man would be killed. But all at once the elephant loosened its trunk, and dropped him from the roof to the’ ground, in the very midst of the people. There he lay for a minute or two, looking half dead ; but when the people came to him, he got up and walked away as if nothing had ‘happened.

9. Though he was very much frightened, he was not hurt; but you may be sure he never tried to play tricks upon elephants again

10.    A poor woman, in one of the cities of India, had a stall in the market-place, where she sold fruit. An elephant used to go by, and always stopped to look at her stall. She knew how fond the elephant was of fruit; and she used, now and then, to give him some.

11.    One day the elephant fell into a passion with his keeper. He broke loose, and ran through the market, trampling down everything before him. The people at the stalls ran away as fast as they could. The poor woman left her stall and ran too. But she forgot, in her fright, that her little child was sitting on the ground, close by the stall!

12.    It was just in the elephant’s way, and you would think it must have been ‘trampled to death. But the elephant knew the child again, and knew that this was the stall where he had been fed with fruit.

13.    Though he was ‘in a passion, he stopped. He looked at the child, and picked it up with his trunk. Then he set it out of his way, and went on. You may think how glad the poor woman was to see her child safe.

QUESTIONS.—1, 2. Where are there large herds of wild elephants? For what are they useful when tamed?—3, 4. What are the elephant in the picture doing ? Where did this take place ?—5. What did one ..f the elephants do when it could not get the pipe to fit?—6-9. What did the elephant at Bath do to the baker who teased it?—10. How did the poor woman in India make the elephant her friend ?—11-13. How did he reward her ?

































forced .



Bal -anc-ing, adjusting.

Bath, a town in the west of England.

Car -a-van', large waggon.

Cey-lon , a large island in Asia, south of India.

Con-vey7, carry.

Em-ploy , make use of.

En-gi-neer , one who makes railways, and other great works.

Ex-act-ly, without mistake; precisely. Hap-pened, occurred.

Herds, droves.

In a pas-sion, very angry. In-ter-est-ing, pleasing; amusing. Ob-sta-cle, anything in the way. Re-turn', go back.

Sat-is-fied, pleased with its work. Sev-er-al, more than one; a good many. Tram-pled, trodden.



The correct spelling of the word for each blank space either to be given orally or to be written on the slate.

awl I found that the poor shoemaker had was an and all    some lasts. I did I could to help him.

an At the picnic exchanged with little Emma apple Ann    for egg.

blue The wind away the sheet of paper, and it fell blew    into the stream.

bough If you do not down, you will strike your head bow    against the    of the tree.

bad If he you do so, he gave you advice; and you bade    should not follow it.

beet He the poor dog with a root, and deserves to beat    be himself.



Cotton.—What is Cotton ? It is the soft down that grows in the seed-pod of the cotton-plant.

Where does this plant grow? In the United States, and in India.

How is the Cotton made into Cloth ? It is spun into yarn, and then woven into a web of cloth.

Where is the chief seat of its manufacture ? Manchester, in Lancashire.

What is Cotto» Cloth generally called ? Calico, from Calicut, in India, where it was first made.

What is Nankeen? A kind of cotton, naturally of a yellow colour, first made at Nankin, in China.

What is the finest kind of cotton ? Muslin; much used for ladies’ dresses. The best is made in France.

Linen.—What is Linen made from ? From the threads in the stem of the flax-plant.

Where does this plant grow? In Ireland, Holland, Germany, and Russia.

What do we get from the seeds of the flax-plant? Linseed oil and meal; and oil-cake, with which cattle are fed.

What is Damask ? Linen with figures woven in it; so called from Damascus, in Syria, where it was first made.

What is the finest kind of Linen ? Cambric ; so called from Cambray, in France, where it was first made.

Wool.—What is Woollen Cloth made from ? From the fleece of the sheep.

Where is it chiefly made ? In the West of England, and in Yorkshire.

What is Worsted? It is the name given to the coarser kinds of woollen stuffs, as flannels. It is also the name of the woollen thread or yarn used in knitting stockings.

What is Merino? It is a fine kind of woollen cloth; so-called from the Spanish merino sheep.

(594)    3-

Does all our Merino Wool come from Spain? No; the merino sheep is now reared in Australia, and much of our merino wool comes from that colony.

What is Alpaca? It is a silky woollen cloth, made from the hair of the Alpaca sheep, which lives in Peru, in South America.

AVhat is the finest kind of Woollen Cloth ? Cashmere, made frifcn the wool of the Cashmere goat.

Silk. — From what is Silk made ? From the fine threads made by a caterpillar called the silk-worm, and wound round its body before it turns into a chrysalis.

Where did the Silk-worm first come from ? From China ; but it is now reared in all the warmer countries of Europe, especially in France.

What is Ribbon? Silk woven in narrow webs or bands.

What is Satin? A closely-woven aud glossy silk fabric.

What is Sarcenet? A very fine, thin silk, first made by the Saracens.

What is Velvet? A thick silk cloth, with a shaggy pile on the surface.

What is Velveteen? Cotton velvet; an imitation of silk velvet, made of cotton.

What is Crape ? A kind of gauze, made of raw silk, and stiffened with gum-water.

Lace.—What is Lace? A fine kind of network, made of loops of linen, cotton, and silk threads.

Where is the finest Lace made ? What is called real lace is best made at Brussels : it is made of linen-thread.

Of what is common Net made? Of cotton-thread.

What towns in the British Isles are famous for Lace-making? Nottingham in England, and Limerick in Ireland.    -


Leather. —What is Leather? The skins or hides of animals, made clean, soft, and lasting by a process called tanning.

What is Morocco ? A very soft kind of leather, made from goats’ skins ; so called because it was first brought from Morocco, in Africa.

What is Chamois? The soft leather made from the skin of the Swiss goat.

Hats and Caps.—Of what are Men’s tall Hats made? They used to be made of the skin of the beaver (see p. 134); but they are now made of a silk cloth, with a long nap on it like the beaver’s hair, and are called silk hats.

Of what are Caps made? Of woollen or worsted cloth.

What is Felt? Woollen cloth pressed and beat till it becomes close and stiff.

Of what are Ladies’ Bonnets and some kinds of Hats made? Of the straw or stems of wheat plaited together.

What part of England is famous for Straw-plaiting? The counties north of London, especially Bedfordshire.

Gloves.—Of what are Gloves made? Of woollen and worsted cloth, of cotton and linen thread, and of different kinds of leather.

Of what kinds of Leather are they made? Of dog-skin, doe-skin, calf-skin, and especially of kid, the skin of the young goat.

Where are the best Kid Gloves made ? In Paris and Grenoble, in France.


Paper.—From what is Paper made? From cotton and linen rags, and from different kinds of straw.

How is it made ? First, the rags are torn into very small shreds, and boiled till, with the water, they form a thin pulp not unlike gruel.

What is done with this Pulp? It is passed through a machine, in which it is strained, dried, and pressed, and so becomes a web of paper.

What is now much used in making Taper for printing? A kind of grass that grows in Spain.

From what does Paper take its name? From the papyrus—a plant which was used by the Egyptians for writing on.

What is Rice Paper ? Paper made of the pith or rind of the rice-plant, used by the Chinese.

What is Blotting Paper? It is soft, porous paper, unsized.

How is Paper sized? By the addition of a thin resin, which makes it to some extent water-proof.

From what is Brown Paper made ? From sacking, canvas, and other coarse hempen materials.

How are Paste-board and Card-board made ? By pasting and pressing together several layers of paper.


Ink. — What is Ink made of? Of gall-nuts and a preparation of iron, mixed with water and gum-arabic.

What are Gall-nuts ? Little balls formed on those parts of the tender shoots of the oak where an insect has laid its eggs.

Where do the best Gall-nuts come from? From Aleppo and Smyrna, in Asia.

Pens. — What are Pens made of ? Of quills and of metal.

What are Quill Pens? The quills or wing-feathers of the goose, swan, or other bird; prepared, for the purpose of writing, by moisture and heating.

What are Metallic Pens chiefly made of? Of steel; but sometimes the points are of gold, silver, or platinum.

When were Steel Pens first made ? In 1803.

What were used as Pens in ancient times? Reeds cut and pointed like a quill.

Pencils. — What are Pencils made of? Of a mineral called black-lead cr plumbago, enclosed in a small stick of cedar-wood.

Where is the best Black-lead found? In Cumberland.


1.    In a town in the south of France, twenty poor people ‘were served with dinner, at a ‘certain hour every day. A dog belonging to the place was always present at this meal, to watch for the scraps that were now and then thrown to him.

2.    The ‘guests, however, were poor and hungry, and of course not very ‘liberal. So the poor dog hardly did more than smell the feast, of which he would have liked a share.

3.    Now it happened that this dinner was ‘served out to each guest on his ringing a bell; but, as the person who served the dinner handed it through a ¿mall ‘opening, he did not see who ‘received it.

4.    Well, one day the dog had^waited till all the poor people were gone. Having himself got very little to eat, he reached up, took hold of the rope with his teeth, and rang the bell. A good dinner was at once handed out, and the dog ate it with great 'delight.

5. This was done by the dog for several days; but the rogue was at length found out. It was thought, however, so 'clever for a dog, that 'he was allowed to take his regular turn at the dinner every day. And thus he went on for a long time, ringing the bell, and taking his meal with the other guests !

Questions.—1. Where did this incident occur? How many poor people were served with dinner every day ? Why was a dog always present at this meal?—2. Why did he get a very small share ?—3. When was this dinner served to each guest ? How was it that the person who served it did not see who received it ?—4. What did the dog do one day after all the people had gone? What was the result?—5. How long was this done by the dog, before he was found out ? Why was the dog allowed to continue to take his regular turn ? What did he go on for a long time doing ?


























Cer-tain, fixed.

Clev-er, skilful; ingenious. De-light', joy; pleasure.

Guests, persons asked to the dinner. He was al-lowed' to, they let him. Lib -er-al, free to give.

0-pen-ing, hole.

Pour les pauvres [poor-lay po'vr), for the poor.

Re-ceived', got.

Served, handed.    [treated.

Were served, were provided; were

H APPINE S S—(Elliptical).

swing gate coun-try ,

“Were I but a king,” said a.......boy, “ I would eat my

£11 of fat bacon, and.....upon a ... all day long.”


1.    A thousand flocks were on the hills,

A thousand flocks and more,

Feeding in sunshine pleasantly :

They were the rich man’s ’store.

There was "the while one little lamb Beside a cottage door;

2.    A little lamb that rested

With the children ’neath the tree;

That ate, meek creature, from their hands, And ’nestled to their knee ;

That had a place within their hearts—

One of the family.

3.    But want, even as an armed man,

Came down upon their shed :

The father 'laboured all day long That his children might be fed;

And, one by one, their ’household things Were sold to buy them,bread.

4.    That father, with a downcast eye,

Upon his ‘threshold stood ;

‘Gaunt poverty each pleasant thought Had in his heart ‘subdued.

“ What is the creature’s life to us?”

Said he; “ ’twill buy us food.

5. “Ay, though the children weep all day,

And with down-drooping head Each does his small task ‘mournfully, The hungry must be fed ;

And that which has a price to bring Must go to buy us bread.”

6.    It went. Oh, parting has a ‘pang

The hardest heart to ‘ wrino-;

But the ’ tender soul of a little child With ‘fervent love doth clinsf,

With love that hath no * feignings false, Unto each gentle thing.

7.    Therefore most sorrowful it was

Those children small to see ;

Most sorrowful to hear them ’plead For the lamb so ‘piteously:

“ O mother dear, it loveth us!

And what besides have we ? ”

8. “Let’s take him to the broad green hill;”

In his ‘impotent 'despair,

Said one strong boy—“ let’s take him off, The hills are wide and fair;

I know a little hiding-place,

And we shall keep him there.”

9.    Oh, vain !—They took the little lamb,

And 'straightway tied him down ; With a strong cord they tied him fast, And o’er the common brown,

And o’er the hot and ‘ flinty roads,

They took him to the town.

10. The little children through that day,

And throughout all the morrow,

From everything about the house A mournful thought did ‘borrow;

The very bread they had to eat Was food unto their sorrow.

Mary Howitt.

Questions.—1. What was the rich man’s store? Where was there one little lamb ?—2. Who were very fond of it ?—3. What compelled the father to sell their household things ?—4. What did he at last make up his mind to sell ?—5. What was his reason for this ?—6. Was it sold ? —7. Who were very sorry ? How did they plead for their lamb ?— 8. What did one strong boy propose to do ?—9. Where was the lamb taken?—10. Why did the bread they got to eat make them sadder?





















hun-gry p art-in g hard-est gen-tle there-fore

Bor-row, get; draw.

De-spair , utter want of hope. Feign-ings, pretences. Fer-vent, warm ; burning. Flint-y, hard ; stony.

Gaunt, thin ; starved-looking. House-hold things, furniture Im-po-tent, powerless ; useless. La-boured, worked. Mourn-ful-ly, sadly.

Nes-tled, lay close, as in a Dost.

Pang, a sting of sorrow,

Pit-e -ous-ly, with great pity, or sorrow. Plead, beg; pray.

Store,stock; property.

Straight-way, immediately. Sub-dued', overcome ; brought down. Ten-der, loving.

The while, at the same time. Thresh-old, the stone under the door of a house.

Wring, twist, or force painfully.

A SLY HIT—(Elliptical).

know    re-plied'    thought

sent    fat-tens    people

John was.......to be very stupid. He was .... to a mill

one day; and the miller said, “John, some......say you are

a fool. Now tell me what you . . . . , and what you don’t know.”

“ Well,”.......John, “ I know millers’ hogs are fat.”

“ Very well, John. Now tell me what you don’t know.”

“ I don’t know,” said John, “ whose corn.......them !”


1.    Some years ago, a ship * bound for China had on board, with other ‘passengers, an officer, his wife, their only child (a little boy five years old), and a large ‘Newfoundland dog called Bobby.

2.    Everybody in the ship liked Bobby, he was so good-tempered and ‘frolicsome; but the boy was the dog’s constant ‘playmate. He was a merry little fellow, and as fond of Bobby as Bobby was of him.

3.    One evening while the little boy and the dog were romping together, the ship gave a roll, and splash went the child into the sea !

4.    A cry was raised, “A ‘hand over! a hand over!” and the brave dog sprang over the side of the ship, ‘clearing it like a greyhound, and swam towards the stern. The little boy’s father, half ‘frantic, leaped with others into the ‘jolly-boat; but it was too dark to see far before them. All gave the child up for lost.

5.    At last they heard a splash on the left side of the ship. Pull on, quick!” cried the father. The boat was turned, the men ‘pulled with all their might, and in a moment brave Bobby was alongside, holding up the child in his mouth ! Joy ! joy ! joy !

6.    The boat was rowed back to the ship ; the half-drowned boy soon got better; the parents were ‘delighted ; and brave Bobby was ‘caressed by alb

7.    At the ‘Cape-of-Good-Hope, the passengers were to be landed. The officer got into the boat, with his wife and child; but he told the sailors to hold the Newfoundland dog tight by the collar till the boat was some distance from the ship. “You will then see,” said he, “ what a strong swimmer he is.”

8. Brave Bobby pulled and tugged to get loose, but all in vain; for they held him till the boat was near the shore. But no sooner did the officer give tne ’signal than the dog was *set at liberty, and away he went full dash into the sea.

9.    ‘Suddenly the poor animal set up a shrill howl, and threw himself out of the water. At first it was thought he had been seized with ‘cramp; but it was worse than that—a shark was after him!

10.    “A shark ! a shark !” sounded from the boat to the ship. Bobby swam right and left, and dived and ’doubled, showing his teeth, and never allowing the shark time to turn on his back ; without doing which the monster could not bite him.

11.    The officer in the boat soon saw that there was little chance of reaching the spot in time to save the dog.' Poor Bobby swam and dodged, till he was almost tired out. “ Stop rowing/’ cried the officer to the men, “ and turn the boat round.”

12.    Just at that moment the shark, which had got very close to the dog, turned on his back and opened his horrid mouth ! Bobby was all but gone. His master rose, pointed his gun, and fired. In a moment the water was tinged with blood ; the horrid jaws of the shark were 'shattered to pieces!

13.    The men then rowed to the spot where Bobby was swimming about. The officer pulled the dog into the boat; the child threw his little arms around him; and the men in the boat, and the sailors in the ship, cried out with joy, “ Hurrah! hurrah! joy! joy ! Bobby is safe ! the shark is killed! Hurrah ! hurrah ! ”

Questions on the Picture.—How does the dog in the picture happen to be in the water? When did this occur? What fish is that near the dog? Why is it turning on its back? Who are in the boat? How was the dog saved? Why was he so much loved by his master?




































Bound for, ready to go to; going to.

Cape-of-Good-Hope , the most southerly point of Africa.

Ca-ressed', made of, fondled.

Clear-ing, leaping over without touching.

Cramp, a stiffening of the limbs, which makes swimming impossible, and often causes drowning.

De-light-ed, very glad. [same line.

Doub-led, went back again over the

Fran-tic, beside himself; out of his senses; mad.

Frol-ic-some, playful.

Hand, one of the crew.

Jol-ly-boat, a small boat belonging to a ship ; a yawl-boat.

New-found-land dog, a dog which comes from Newfoundland, a large island of North America

Pas-sen-gers, travellers by a publio conveyance.

Play-mate, friend ; play-fellow.

Pulled, rowed.

Set at lib-er-ty, let loose ; set free.

Shat-tered, broken ; shivered

Sig-nal, sign.

Sud-den-ly, all at once.


1.    Two men were going through a forest.

if I am afraid/’ said one, “ that we may meet with wild beasts; I see the ‘tracks of their paws on the ground.”

“Fear nothing, friend Quickwit,” cried the other, whose name was Braggart. “ In case of an attack we shall stand by each other like men. I have a strong arm, a stout heart, and—”

2.    “Hark!” cried the first in ‘alarm, as a low growl was heard from a ‘thicket near. In ‘an instant Braggart, who was light and ‘nimble, climbed up a tree like a squirrel, leaving his friend, who was not so active, to face the danger alone !

3.    But Quickwit’s ‘presence of mind did not fail him. He could not fight, he could not fly, but he laid himself flat on the ground, and held his breath, so as to ‘appear quite dead. Out of the thicket rushed a huge bear, and at once made up to poor Quickwit; while Braggart looked down, trembling, from his perch in the tree.

4.    One may ‘guess what were the feelings of Quickwit when the bear ‘snuffed all round him, coming so near that he could feel its warm breath, when its ‘muzzle was close to his ear! But Quickwit did not ‘wince or move ; and the bear, thinking him dead, ‘plunged again into the thicket, leaving him quite unharmed !

5.    When Braggart saw that the danger was over, he came down from the tree. Somewhat ‘ashamed

of his cowardly conduct, he tried to pass off the matter with a joke.

“ Well, my friend Quickwit,” he said, “ what did the bear say to you when he whispered into your ear ? ”

6. “ He told me,” replied Quickwit, “ never again to trust a boaster like you ! ”

The hour of danger often shows that the greatest boasters are the greatest cowards. Let ‘courage be proved by deeds—not by words.

Questions.—1. What were the names of the two friends? Which seemed to be the braver, from his way of speaking? — 2. What did he do when the growl of the bear was heard? — 3, 4. Who is lying close to the bear in the picture ? Is he. dead, or what ?— 5. H ow did the other try to pass off the matter?—6. What was the bear s advice?
















un-harmed' some-what cow-ard-ly con-duct mat-ter






A-larm7, fright.

An in^stant, a moment.

Ap-pear , look as if he were. A-shamed' of, filled with shame at. Cour-age, bravery ; spirit; fearlessness.

Guess, fancy; imagine.

Muz-zle, the biting part; the mouth and nose of an animal.

Nim-ble, active, quick.

Plunged, dived, as into water. Pres-ence of mind, readiness of wit;

knowing what to do.

Snuffed, smelt.

Thick-et, a place where shrubs are thickly set.

Tracks, marks.

Wince, stark    %


1.     Yes, Mary; now that I am at home, you may walk anywhere with me, and fear nothing ! ” cried Alfred, ‘whisking off the heads of the ‘dandelions in the field with his cane, as he ‘ strolled along with his sister. " If a robber were to ‘attack us now, or two, or ‘half-a-dozen, I would—”

2.    “ Oh dear ! ” ‘exclaimed Mary suddenly, “ I had forgotten that this is the field in which the farmer keeps that ‘vicious dun cow ! There she is ! —she has caught sight of us ! ”

3.    “ Run ! run for your life ! ” shouted Alfred, as with ‘levelled horns and tail in the air the dun cow came rushing towards them ! Both the children began to fly ‘at their utmost speed, making for a ‘stile which was not far off.

4.    “ Stop, brother !—oh, stop !” cried poor Mary. “A ‘bramble has caught my jacket! Set me free —oh, set me free ! ”

The only answer which came was a bellow from the cow, which" made Alfred run the faster, and so ’alarmed Mary that she pulled away her jacket by ’main force, leaving half a yard of lace on the bramble !

5.    ’Panting, she reached the stile; and, ’scrambling over in a moment, joined her brother on the safe side. The ill-tempered cow gave another bellow, seeing the children beyond reach of her horns.

6.    “ What does she mean by that roar ? ” cried Alfred, ’shrinking back at the sound ; for, however brave he might be against absent robbers, he was ’mightily afraid of a cow.

“ I ’suspect,” laughed Mary, who had got over her fright, “ that her bellow means much the same as the whisper of the bear to the traveller in the fable— ‘ Let courage be proved by deeds—not by words.’ ”

A. L. O. E.

Questions.—1. What did Alfred say to his sister?—2. What did Mary remember?—3. What did Alfred do when he saw the cow?— 4, 5. What did he do when his sister was in trouble?—6. What did Mary say the cow’s last bellow meant?































A-larmed/, frightened.

At-tack', come against.

At their ut-most speed, as fast as they could run.

Bram-ble, a wild, prickly shrub, bearing sweet black berries.

Dan-de-li-on, a common plant, with a yellow flower. The name means lion’s tooth; so called because of the tooth-like edges of its leaves.

Ex-claimed', called out.

Half-a-doz^en, six; here, any number.

Lev-elled horns, homs pointing for-Main, very great; powerful. [ward. Might-i-ly, very much.

Pant-ing, breathing quickly; gasping Scram-bling, climbing on all fours. Shrink-ing, cowering from fear.

Stile, steps for climbing over a fence. Strolled, wandered or walked slowly. Sus-pect, am inclined to think; guess. Vi-cious, wicked; ill-tempered. Whisk-ing, nipping or cutting off by a quick motion.


1.    I met a little 'cottage girl,

She was eight years old, she said;

Her hair was thick with many a curl That ‘clustered round her head.

2. “ Sisters and brothers, little maid,

How many may you be ?”—

“ How many ? seven in all,” she said,

And, 'wondering, looked at me.—    %

3. “ And where are they, I pray you tell?”—

She answered, “ Seven are we;

And two of us at 'Conway dwell,

And two are gone to sea;

4. “ Two of us in the church-yard lie,

My sister and my brother;

And in the church-yard cottage I Dwell near them with my mother.”—

5. “ You say that two at Conway dwell,

And two are gone to sea,

Yet you are seven ; I 'pray you tell,

Sweet maid, how this may be ?”—

6.    Then did the little maid 'reply,

“ Seven boys and girls are we;

Two of us in the church-yard lie,

'Beneath the church-yard tree.”—

7. “ You run about, my little maid,

Your limbs they are alive;

If two are in the church-yard laid,

Then ye are only five.”—

8. “ Their graves are green, they may be seen,”

The little maid replied,

“ Twelve steps or more from my mother’s door,— And they are side by side.

9.“ My stockings there I often knit, My ‘ kerchief there I hem ;

And there upon the ground I sit, — I sit and sing to them.

10. “ And often after sunset, sir,

When it is light and fair,

I take my little ‘porringer And eat my supper there.

11. “ The first that died was little Jane :

In bed she ‘moaning lay, t Till God ‘relieved her of her pain, And then she went away.

14 “ So in the church-yard she was laid;

And, all the summer dry,

Together round her grave we played,

My brother John and I.

13. “ And when the ground was white with snow,

And I could run and slide,

My brother John was forced to go;

And he lies by her side.”—

14. “ How many are you, then,” said I,

“ If they two are in heaven ?”—

The little maiden would reply,    *

“ O master! we are seven.”—

15.“ But they are dead, those two are dead, Their ‘spirits are in heaven.”—

'Twas throwing words away; for still The little maid would have her will,

And said, “ Nay, we are seven.”














sun-set sup-per sum-mer to-geth-er





Be-neath', under.

Clus-tered, hung thickly.

Con-way, a town in the north of Wales. Cot-tage girl, a girl who lived in a cottage.

Ker^chief, napkin.

Moan-ing, crying out with pain.

Por-rin-ger, a small bowl to hold porridge.

Pray, beg^ beseech.

Re-lieved', set free, eased.

Re-ply^ answer.

Spir-its, souls.

Won-der-ing, in wonder ; surprised.

THE LATIN FOR COLD-(Elliptical).

mo-ment    an-swered

schol-ars    school-mas-ter

A............asked one of his........in the winter time

what was the Latin word for cold.

“ Oh, sir,”----.... the boy, “ I forget it at this......, but

I have it at my fingers’ ends ! ”

(594)    '


1.    There was a farmer who had a little gate which opened from his yard into a field. This little gate wanted a 'latch, and therefore could not be fastened. When he passed through the gate, he was very careful to pull it after him; but other people were not always so 'mindful.

2.    Even with all his care, the wind would often blow it open again after he had closed it. 'The result was, that the gate was 'generally either 'flapping backwards and forwards in the wind or standing wide open.

3. In this way the poultry were always getting out, and the sheep and lambs were always getting in. It took up half the children s time to run after the chickens and drive them back into the yard, and to send the sheep and the lambs back into the field.

4.    The farmer’s wife was always telling him that he ought to get the latch 'mended; but he used to say that it would cost sixpence, and that it was not worth while. He said that the children might as well be driving the sheep and the poultry in and out of the yard and the field as be doing nothing. So the gate remained without the latch.

5.    One day a fat pig got out of its sty, and, pushing open the gate, ran into the field, and thence wandered into a thick wood. The pig was soon missed, and a 'hue-and-cry was raised after it. The farmer was in the act of tying up a horse in the stable ; but he left it, to run after the pig.

6.    His wife was ironing some clothes in the kitchen; and she left her work, to follow her husband. The daughter was stirring some broth over ihe fire; and she left it, to run after her mother. The farmer’s sons and his man joined in the chase after the pig; and away they all went, men and women, pell-mell, to the wood.

7.    But the man, making more haste than good speed, ’sprained his ankle in jumping over a fence. The farmer and his sons were ’obliged to ¿pve up chasing the pig, to carry the man back to the house. The good woman and her daughter also ’returned to ’assist the poor man who was hurt.

8.    When they got back to the house, they found that the broth had boiled over,—that the dinner was spoiled; and that two shirts, which had been hanging before the fire, were ’scorched and ’utterly ’ruined.

9.    The farmer scolded his wife and the girl, for being so careless as not to take the shirts and the broth from the fire before they left the kitchen. He then went to his stable, where he found that the horse, which he had left loose, had kicked a fine ’colt and broken its leg. The servant was kept in the house for a fortnight, by the hurt to his ankle.

10.    Thus, besides the 'injury done to the farmer’s man, the farmer lost two weeks’ work from his servant, a fine colt, a fat pig, and his two best shirts, to say nothing of the loss of his dinner—all for the want of a sixpenny latch! In this way were two good old ’proverbs ’verified :—

For want of a nail the wheel comes off. Safe bind, safe find.

Questions.—1. Where was the little gate? What did it want? What was the farmer always careful to do ? Who were not so mindful?—2. How was it often opened after he had closed it? What was the result?—3. What was always happening? What took up half the children’s time?—4. What did the farmer’s wife tell him? What did he say ?—5. What happened when the pig got out of its sty?—6. Who joined in the chase? What had the wife been doing? What had the daughter been doing?—7. What made them stop ?—8. What did they find on coming back to the house ?—9. For what did the farmer scold his wife and the girl? What had happened in the stable?—10. And all this for the want of - - - ?






















farm-er o-pened want-ed fast-ened passed care-ful al-ways

As-sist', help.

Colt, a young horse.

Flap-ping, swinging.

Gen-er-al-ly, commonly. Hue-and-cry, chasing and shouting at once.

In-ju-ry, harm.

Latch, a small bolt or catch.

Mend-ed, put right.

Mind-ful, careful.

an-kle jump-mg chas-ing scold-ed care-less kicked fort-night

0-bliged', forced.

Prov-erbs, well-known truths, common sayings.

Re-turned', went back.

Ru-ined, destroyed.

Scorched, burned on the outside. Sprained, put out of joint.

The re-sult', what followed. Ut-ter-ly, altogether.

Ver-i-fied, shown to be true.


[Continued from page 32.)

bare The    tore his    leg in such a manner that I

bear    could not to look at it.    •

beach I have been told that    -trees seldom grow near

beech    the sea-    .

bean    I have    looking at the    -stalk; and it seems

been    to be growing beautifully.

bread These plump chickens were    up on a sort of food

bred    like rye    .

by    He will    something for you    next Christmas, and

buy    bring it when he comes,

eight The boys and girls twenty- pears and ate    apples at the picnic.


1. “ Will you walk into my parlour?” said the spider to the fly; “ ’Tis the prettiest little parlour that ever you did spy.

The way into my parlour is up a winding stair;

And I’ve got many 'curious things to show you when you’re there.”

“ Oh no, no,” said the little fly; “ to ask me is in vain,

For who goes up your winding stair can ne’er come down again.”

2. “ I'm sure you must be weary, dear, with 'soaring upfso high ;

Will you rest upon my little bed?” said the spider to the fly. “ There are pretty curtains drawn around; the sheets are fine and thin;

And if you like to rest 'a while, I’ll snugly tuck you in!”

“ Oh no, no,” said the little fly; “ for I’ve often heard it said, They never, never wake again, who sleep upon your bed !”

3.    Said the 'cunning spider to the fly—“ Dear friend, what

can I do

To prove the warm 'affection I’ve always felt for you ?

I have within my pantry good store of ail that’s nice;

I’m sure you’re very welcome—will you please to take a slice?”

“ Oh no, no,” said the little fly, “ kind sir, that cannot be;

I’ve heard what’s in your pantry, and I do not wish to see.”

4. “ Sweet creature,” said the spider, “ you’re witty and you’re

wise ;

How handsome are your 'gauzy wings, how 'brilliant are your eyes!

I have a little looking-glass upon my parlour shelf,

If you’ll step in one moment, dear, you shall 'behold yourself .” “ I thank you, gentle sir,” she said, “for what you please to say ; And bidding you good-morning now, I’ll call another day.”

5.    The spider turned him round about, and went into his den, For well he knew the silly fly would soon come back again ; So he wove a "subtle web in a little corner sly,

And set his table ready to dine upon the fly!

Then he came out to his door again, and merrily did sing: “ Come hither, hither, pretty fly, with the pearl and silver wing ;

Your robes are green and purple—there’s a crest upon your head !

Your eyes are like the diamond bright, but mine are dull as lead ! ”

6.    Alas ! alas ! how very soon this silly little fly,

Hearing his wily, ‘flattering words, came slowly flitting by. With buzzing wings she hung aloft, then near and nearer drew,

Thinking only of her brilliant eyes, her green and purple hue—

Thinking only of her crested head—poor foolish thing I At last,

Up jumped the cunning spider, and fiercely held her fast! He dragged her up his winding stair, into his ‘dismal den, Within his little parlour—but she ne’er came out again !

7.    And now, dear little children, who may this story read,

To idle, silly, flattering words, I pray you, ne’er give heed; Unto an evil ‘counsellor close heart and ear and eye,

And take a lesson from this tale of the Spider and the Fly.

Mart Howitt.

Questions.—1. The spider asked the fly to - - - - ? He said he would show her - - - ? The fly said - ? because those who went there - - - - ? —2. The spider then asked the fly to - - - - ? But the fly said - ? —3-5. When the spider told her that she was very handsome, she promised - - - - ?—6, 7. It was his - words that made her come; but she - - - -?






















par-lour spi^der pret-ti-est wind-ing cur-tains a-round' snug-ly

Af-fec-tion, love.

A while, a little time.

Be-hold , see.

Brill-iant, brightly sparkling. Coun-sel-lor, one who gives advice. Cuu-ning, sly; knowing.

fool-ish fierce-ly dragged chil-dren i-dle

flat-ter-ing les-son

Cu-ri-ous, not often seen; rare; nice. Dis-mal, causing horror; dark; gloomy. Flat-ter-ing, speaking false praise. Gauz-y, like gauze; very thin. Soar-ing, mounting on the wing. Subt-le, very fine; cunningly made.


1.    “I shall never find time to learn this ‘tiresome lesson,” said Robert to Frank as they left school; “I can’t be ready with it to-morrow.”

2.    “You have ten minutes now before dinner; why not begin at once?” asked his brother.

“ Ten minutes ! that’s nothing. Besides, I must have a run with Rover now,” replied Robert, whistling to his dog.    %

3.    After dinner, the two boys walked off to school again. Frank took out his book and began to learn. “What a ‘book-worm!” said the other, laughing ; and he looked out for birds’ nests in the hedge, till they got to the school.

4.    “Come off* to cricket!” ‘shouted a party of school-fellows as they broke up from lessons. Robert ‘bounded away with the rest. Frank ‘promised to follow in a quarter of an hour, and took out his book once more. This done, he played away with the rest, and ‘enjoyed the game heartily.

5.    The boys were tired that evening, and went to bed early. But when they ‘returned to school next day, Frank knew his lesson perfectly, while Robert ‘pleaded that he had not had time to learn it.

G. “ How did you find time, Frank ? ” asked his master.

“ I had ten minutes before dinner yesterday, sir; a quarter of an hour going back to school; and as much before cricket. Then I looked over my lesson Before I went to bed; and took ten minutes before breakfast this morning to make it perfect.”

7. “Which make an hour’s ‘preparation/’ replied his master. “ Go to the bottom of the class, Robert; and learn that, for those who take care of the minutes, the hours will take care of themselves.”

Questions.—1. What was Robert’s first excuse for not learning his lesson?—2.What did Frank tell him? What did he advise him to do'Wliat did Robert reply?—3. What did Frank do on his way to school" What did Robert call him?—4. Where did Robert go when lessons were over ?—5. Who knew the lesson perfectly next day ? What excuse did Robert make?—6. What did the master ask Frank? What did he say ?—7. How was Robert punished ? The master told him that for those who.....? the hours will ----?”































Book-worm, one who reads a great deal

Eound-ed away, rushed off Ell-joyed/, was pleased with. Piead^ed, said in excuse.

Prep-a-ra-tion, learning one’s lessons. Prom-ised to, said that he woulu. Re-turned', went back Shout-ed, called loudly.

Tire-SOme, wearisome.

PROVERBS (Elliptical).

sound    fruits    fear    pov-er-ty

em-ployed'    e-nough'    mas-ter    con-quers

A good servant makes a good......

Better face a danger than be always in ... .

Debt is the worst kind of.......

Deeds are......; words are but leaves.

Empty vessels make most.....

Poor indeed is he who thinks he never has......

The greatest conqueror is he who.......’ . himself.

He is idle who might be better........


1.    Around the fire, one wintry night,

The farmer’s rosy children sat;

The 'fagot lent its blazing light,

And jokes went round, and 'careless chat;

2.    When, hark ! a gentle hand they hear

Low tapping at the bolted door;

And thus, to gain their willing ear,

A 'feeble voice was heard 'implore:

3. “ Cold blows the blast across the moor,

The sleet drives hissing in the wind ;

Yon 'toilsome mountain lies before—

A 'dreary, treeless waste behind.

4. “ My eyes are weak and dim with age,

No road, no path can I 'descry;

And these 'poor rags ill stand the rage Of such a keen, 'inclement sky.

5. “ So faint I am, these 'tottering feet

N o more my palsied frame can bear;

My 'freezing heart forgets to beat,

And drifting snows my tomb 'prepare.

6. “ Open your 'hospitable door,

And 'shield me from the biting blast:

Cold, cold it blows across the moor—

The weary moor that I have passed! ”

7.    With hasty steps the farmer ran,

And close beside the fire they place The poor half-frozen beggar-man,

With shaking limbs and pale-blue face.

8.    The little children 'flocking came,

And 'chafed his frozen hands in theirs;

And busily the good old dame A comfortable ‘ mess prepares.

9.    Their kindness cheered his drooping soul;

And slowly down his wrinkled cheek The big round tear was seen to roll,

Which told the thanks he could not speak.

10. The children then began to sigh,

And all their merry chat was o’er;

And yet they felt, they knew not why,

More glad than they had done before. Aiken.

Questions.—1. Who were sitting round the fire ? What were they doing?—2. Who came to the door?—3-6. What did he ask?—7. What

did the farmer do ?—8. And the children......? And the good old

dame - - - - ?—9. What told the old man’s thanks ?—10. How did the children feel ? Because they had done an act of - ?


























Care-less chat, idle talk. Chafed, warmed by rubbing. De-scry', find out; see.

Drear-y, lonely.

Faggot, a log used for fuel; firewood.

Fee-ble, weak.

Flock-ing, in a crowd.

Freez-ing, icy cold.

Hos-pi-ta-ble, kind to strangers. Im-plore , to beg; to ask earnestly. In-clem-ent, rough, stormy.

Mess, a dish of food; a meal Poor rags, torn clothes.

Pre-pare', make ready.

Shield, protect.

Toil-some, har’d to climb. Tot-ter-ing, staggering.


1.    A nobleman, who dwelt in a castle a long way from the sea-shore, was about to hold his marriage-feast. There was plenty of meats, game, and fruit, for the great ‘occasion, but no fish, as the sea had been very rough.

2.    On the very morning of the feast, however, a poor fisherman came to the castle with a large ‘turbot. There was great joy in the house, and the fisherman was brought with his prize into the large room where the nobleman stood ‘in the midst of his ‘guests.

3.    “ A fine fish,” said the nobleman. “ Fix ‘your own price; you shall be paid at once. How much do you ask ? ”

“Not a penny, my lord ; I will not take money. One hundred lashes on my bare back is the price of my fish ! I will not take one lash from the number.”

4.    The nobleman and his guests were not a little •surprised; but the fisherman was firm. They ‘reasoned with him in vain. At length the nobleman said,—

“ Well, well, this fellow has ‘a strange whim, but we must have the fish. So lay on lightly, and let the price be paid in our presence.”

5.    After fifty lashes had been given, “ Hold, hold!” cried the fisherman; “I have a partner in this business, and it is right that he should get his share.”

“ What! are there two such fools in the world ? ” *aid the nobleman. “ Where is he to be found ? Name him, ancl he shall be sent for at once.”

6.    “ You need not go far for him,” said the fisherman. “ You will find him at your own gate, in the shape of your own porter. He would not let me pass until I ‘promised that he should have half of whatever I should get for my turbot.”

7.    “ Oh, ho!” said the nobleman, “bring him up at once ; he shall certainly ‘receive his half with the ‘strictest justice.”

8.    The porter was therefore brought, and had to take his share of the bargain. He was then turned off from the nobleman’s service, and the fisherman was ‘amply ‘rewarded.

Questions.—1. What was wanting for the feast?—2. Who brought one?—3, 4. What price did he ask?—5. When did he cry, “Hold!”? Why ?—6. Who was his partner? What had the porter looked for?— 7. What did he get ?—8. What more was done to him ? What was done to the fisherman ?

no-bl e-man






























Am-ply, fully; largely A strange whim, an odd notion. Guests, friends asked to the feast.

Ill the midst of, surrounded by Oc-ca-sion, event.

Prom-ised, agreed; gave my word. Rea-soned with him, tried to make him change his mind.

Re-ceive\ get

Re-ward-ed, paid for his fish as well as for his cleverness Strict-est, most exact.

Sur-prised', filled with wonder; astonished.

Tur-bot, a large flat fish.

Your own price, any price you like.

ROYAL FAVOUR— (Elliptical).

bade    stand    asked

maj-es-ty    boast-ed    spok-en

A fellow once.......that the king had......to him ;

and being.....what his.......had said, replied, “He ... .

me.....out of the way.”



1.    Some years ago, a number of English officers in India went out to hunt. On their way home, after their day’s sport, they found in the ’jungle a little ’tiger kitten, not more than a fortnight old.

2.    They took it with them; and when they ’reached their tent, the little tiger was ’provided with a tiny dog-collar and chain, and tied to the tent-pole, round which it played and frisked, to the 'delight of all who saw it.

3.    Just as it was growing dark, however, about two hours ’after the capture, the people in the tent were checked, in the midst of their mirth, by a

sound that caused the bravest heart among them


to ‘quail.

4.    It was the roar of a tiger ! In an instant the little kitten became every inch a tiger, and ‘strained at its chain with all its baby strength, while it replied with a loud ‘wail to the terrible voice outside. The company in the tent were ‘panic-struck, there was something so sudden and so wild in the roar.

5.    Suddenly there leaped into the centre of the tent a huge tigress! Without ‘noticing a single man there, she caught her kitten by the neck; she ‘snapped, by one jerk, the chain which bound it ; and, turning to the tent door, dashed oil' at full speed. One cannot be sorry that not a gun was ‘levelled at the brave mother as she bore her young one off in ‘triumph.

Questions on the Picture.—What has this tigress in her mouth? Where has she brought it from? How does it come to have a chain hanging from its neck? Who are those at the door of the tent in the distance? Did they fire at the tigress? Why?—[What is the use of her great whiskers to the tigress ? What other animals have whiskers ?]































Af-ter the cap-ture, after it had been caught.

De-light , joy; amusement.

Juñ-gle, waste land overgrown with tall grass and brushwood.

Lev-elled, aimed.

No-tic-ing, taking notice of. Pan-ic-Struck, struck with great fear.

Pro-Vld-ed, supplied; furnished. Quail, to sink with fear. Reached, got back to.

Snapped, broke.

Strained, pulled.

Ti-ger kit-ten,'a young tiger. Tri-umpll, joy for her success. Wail, a cry of distress.


COMMON THINGS—Continued from page 34.

inner bark is uninjured, the outer bark grows again.

For what is it remarkable ? It is very light, elastic, and proof against most liquids.

What is it used for? For making stoppers of bottles, net-floats, life-buoys, lining of shoes, and many other things.

Sponge.—What is Sponge? The soft skeleton of a sea-animal.%

Of what does Sponge consist? Of a great number of tubes, which during the life of the animal are lined with a soft flesh, like jelly.

Where is it found ? Chiefly in the Mediterranean ; the finest coming from the Grecian Islands in the Archipelago.

How is it obtained ? By diving : the natives of these islands are trained to be divers from childhood.

Coral.—What is Coral? It is a stony substance, formed by little sea-animals.

Where do these animals live ? They are most abundant in warm seas: some small kinds are found near Britain.

What is the form of coral ? It is sometimes in masses, but oftener branched.

What is a Coral-reef? It is a ridge of coral along a coast-line, produced by vast colonies of these small animals.

Are red and black coral the same as the common coral? No; they are produced in the interior of a fleshy body by similar small animals, which live at the bottom of the sea.

Pearl. — What is Pearl ? A hard, shining substance, found in a shell-fish called the pearl-oyster.

Where is the Pearl-oyster found r Plentifully in the seas about the East Indies ; also in the Persian Gulf, and in several parts of Europe.

In what parts of Europe? On the coasts and in some rivers of Scotland ; and in a river in Bavaria.

How is Pearl-fishing carried on?

India - rubber. — What is India-rubber ? The sap of a tree that grows in South America.

How is it got from the tree? Holes are made in the bark, through which the sap runs into clay cups or shells placed ready to receive it.

What is it like as it comes from the tree? It is white, and hardens in the air.

What is done to it afterwards ? It is moulded into bottles of a pear shape, and passed through the smoke of a palm-nut fire.

What is it remarkable for ? It is water-proof, and very elastic.

Why is it called Rubber? Because one of its earliest uses was to rub out pencil-marks.

To what other uses is it now put? Coats, shoes, and caps are made of it; as well as combs, trays, and a great many ornaments.

Gutta - percha. — What is Guttapercha? The sap of a tall tree that grows in the East Indies.

What is it remarkable for ? It is tough, easily bent, and water-proof.

What things are made of it? Soles of shoes, water-pipes, speaking-tubes, picture-frames, cups, and many ornaments.

Why is it easily manufactured ? Because a very slight heat softens it, and then it may be moulded into any 6liape.

Why is it used to cover telegraphcables that pass under the sea ? Because it keeps the water out, and because it keeps the electricity in.

Cork. — What is Cork? The outer bark of a kind of oak-tree.

Where does it grow ? In Spain, France, Italy, and the north of Africa.

How is it gathered ? The whole trunk is skinned of its, bark once in every eight or ten years ; for if the

Chiefly by diving ; in the same way as sponge and coral are obtained.

What is Mother-of-pearl? It is made from the shells of the pearl-oyster.

Glass. — What is Glass made of ? Chiefly of sand or flint, and potash or soda, melted together in clay vessels.

Where is the best Sand for Glassmaking found? In Norfolk, and in the Isle of Wight.

What are the chief kinds of Glass ? Flint-glass, crown-glass, and plate-glass.

For what is Flint-glass used? For making tumblers, wine-glasses, and other articles for domestic use.

How are these articles made into the required form? By blowing through a long tube, and by moulding.

For what is Crown-glass used? Chiefly for windows.

How is it made into sheets ? By twirling a mass of the soft glass on the end of a rod rapidly before a furnace.

What is Plate-glass ? It is the finest kind of sheet-glass, and is made by pouring the melted glass upon an iron table. The surface is then ground and polished.

What is done to all Glass after it is made, in order to render it less brittle? It is annealed, or slowly cooled after being brought to a great heat.

Sealing-wax.—What is Sealing-wax made of? Of a resin called shell-lac, mixed with Venice-turpentine, and some colouring matter, as ivory-black or vermilion.

What i3 Shell-lac ? It is a crust formed on certain trees in the East Indies by an insect.

What is Venice-turpentine? A thick, sticky substance, which oozes from the larch-tree.

How is Sealing-wax made ? When the materials are mixed, they are rolled into rods on a hot marble slab.

Gum-arabic.—What is Gum-arabic? It is a sticky juice, which oozes from the acacia-tree in Arabia, Egypt, &c., and hardens in the air.

Glue. — How is Glue made? By boiling the parings of hides, and the sinews and hoofs of animals, till they turn into a firm jelly, which hardens as it cools.

How is it prepared for use ? A pan containing the hard glue and a little water is placed in another pan containing water only; and as the water in the latter heats, the glue melts.

What is Gelatine? It is a fine kind of glue, made from the skins of animals, and used for making sweet jellies.    .

What is Isinglass? It is a still purer kind of glue, used for the same purposes as gelatine, and made from the sounds of certain fishes.

Soap. — Of what is Soap made? Of fat or oil boiled with soda, which has been mixed with lime.

What is White-soap ? Soap made with pure white tallow.

What is it called when scented, and moulded into cakes? Windsor-soap.

Of what is Yellow-soap made ? Of resin, and palm-oil instead of tallow.

Of what is Soft-soap made ? Of whale or seal oil and tallow, mixed with pearl-ash instead of soda.

Whalebone.—From what is Whalebone obtained ? From the Greenland whale.

Is it made from its bones? No ; it is found in its upper jaw.

How is it arranged there ? In a series of plates or blades, having fringes of coarse fibres.

What purpose do these serve ? They form a kind of strainer, to separate the food of the whale from the water which carries the food into its mouth.

What does the Whale feed on? On very small fishes.

Why must it take very small fishes ? Because it has a very narrow throat and no teeth.

How is Whale-bone manufactured ? It is first sofbened by boiling ; then cut into strips: and when it cools it is harder than it was at first.


1.    Hurrah for the sea-side!” cried Phil. “ What fun I shall have with boating, and bathing, and digging away in the sand! But the 'fishing will be the best fun of all. Many a 'jolly red lobster shall I drag out of the sea ! ”

2.    “Red lobsters!” cried Bill, with a loud, rude laugh ; “ you will be clever to catch them ! If you had ever seen a lobster, as I have seen many brought in the fishermen’s baskets, you would have known that the creatures, with their strong big claws, are pretty nearly blacky

3.    “ None of your nonsense for me !” cried Phil  A_s if I didn’t know the look of a lobster, when my aunt has 'lobster-salad twenty times in the year ! The shell is as red as a soldier’s coat.”

4.    “As black as a sweep’s,” laughed Bill. Phil was so angry at being thus 'contradicted that he began to look almost as red as a lobster himself. From high words the two boys were almost coming to blows, when, hearing their loud voices, Bill’s grandfather drew near.

5.    “ Hollo ! what’s the matter ? ” said he. — “Grandfather, are not lobsters black ?” cried Bill.— “Are they not red?” shouted his friend.—“Ah, my lads,” said the old man, “ how often it is our own 'ignorance that makes us 'believe that no one knows the truth so well as ourselves! Neither of you, it seems, ' is aware that lobsters are black until boiled, and that then their colour is changed.

6.    “ I would give Phil a 'sovereign for every red

(594)    5_v

lobster that he could fish out of the sea ; and Bill another for every black one that he could eat at the

Questions.—1. What colour did Phil say lobsters were?—2. What did Bill say?—3. Why did Phil say he knew all about it?—4. What made Phil angry? Who drew near? —5, 6. What did be tell them? Wliat makes us often think that no one knows the truth so well a^s ourselves ?

fish-er-men non-sense bas-kets    sol-dier

known    an-gry

crea-tures al-most

hur-rah' lob-ster boat-ing laugh bath-ing clev-er dig-ging brought

Be-lieve', think ; suppose. Con-tra-dict-ed, spoken against; opposed in words.

Fish-ing, catching fish.

Ig-no-rance, want of knowledge.

Is a-ware', knows.

him-selfi    friend

grand-fa-ther our-selves' mat-ter    col-our

shout-ed    changed

Jol-ly, fine ; large.

Lob-ster sal-ad, lobster dressed with uncooked herbs (as lettuce), and seasoned.

Sov-er-eign, a gold coin, worth twenty shillings.


1.    A number of jackdaws lived very happily in the tower of an old church. 'Close at hand was a poultry-yard belonging to a large house. Among the ’poultry lived some peacocks, which were ‘allowed to wander about the garden and in front of the house, that their beautiful feathers might be seen.

2.    Now one of the jackdaws thought that there was nothing he should like so much as to ‘strut about like a peacock, spreading his long tail in the sun, or drawing it up behind him in the shape of a wheel. Then, if he could shake all his feathers at once, and let them down as the peacocks did, while everybody ‘gazed at him, he thought how proud he should be.

3- So he ‘resolved what he would do. He ‘gathered

up the peacocks’ cast-off feathers, dressed himself in them, and began to strut about the poultry-yard, in the hope of 'passing for a peacock ! But he was

quite 'mistaken. Not only peacocks, but turkeys, guinea-fowls, and even chickens and ducks, 'mocked him; and being 'provoked by his 'foolish vanity, they tore the 'borrowed feathers from him, pecked him, and drove him out of the yard.

4.    The unhappy jackdaw then wished to return to his old friends in the church-tower, and would have been glad to lead his former happy life with them. But they would not notice him ; and he was ‘obliged to leave them, and lead a life of loneliness and ‘misery.

5.    This 'fable shows the folly of those who set their hearts on fine clothes, and who try to lead a fife above their * station. So long as we keep in the place which God has given us, we are happy, and people honour and respect us ; but nothing is so 'absurd as the vanity which makes us try to seem finer or richer than we really are.

Questions on the Picture.—What is the little black bird in the front of the picture? What has he got in his tail? Where did he get them? Why did he put them there ? What are the other birds in the picture ? What are they doing ? Why ? What is this fable meant to show ?































Ab-surd', foolish.

Al-lowed' to, let; permitted to. Bor-rowed, taken from others.

Close at hand, quite near.

Fa-ble, story in which animals act and speak like man.

Fool-ish van-i-ty, silly pride. Gath-ered up, brought together ; collected.

Gazed, looked in wonder.

Mis -er-y, wretchedness.

Mis-tak-en, wrong.

Mocked, sneered at.

O-bliged', forced.

Pass-ing, being taken.

Poul-try, fowls kept for food ; domes-Pro-voked', made angry. [tic fowls. Re-solved', made up his mind. _ Sta-tion, rank, or place in life.

Strut, to walk proudly.


1. A silly young cricket, ‘accustomed to sing

Through the warm sunny months of gay summer and spring, Began to ‘complain, when he found that at home His ‘cupboard ‘was empty, and winter was come.

Not a crumb to be found On the snow-covered ground ;

Not a flower could he see, ,

Not a leaf on a tree:

“ Oh, what will become,” said the cricket, “ of me ?”

2. At last, by ‘starvation and ‘famine made bold,

All dripping with wet, and all ‘trembling with cold, Away he set off to a ‘miserly ant,

To see if, to keep him alive, he would grant Him ‘shelter from rain,

And a mouthful of grain :

He wished only to ‘borrow,

And ‘repay it to-morrow;

If not, he must die of starvation and sorrow.

3. Said the ant to the cricket: “ I’m your servant and friend; But we ants never borrow, we ants never lend.

But tell me, dear sir, did you lay nothing by When the weather was warm ?”—Said the cricket: “Not I! My heart was so light That I sang day and night,

For all nature looked gay.”—

“ You sang, sir, you say?

Go, then,” said the ant, “and dance winter away!”

Thus ending, he ‘hastily opened the ‘wicket,

And out of the door turned the poor little cricket.

4. Though this is a fable, the ‘moral is good:

If you live without work, you will go without food.

Questions.1. The cricket in winter found that his - ? was empty. —2. He was likely to die of - ? So he went to - - ? and asked him to

give him - ? and lend him----?—3. The ant told him that as he - - 1

all summer, he must - ? winter away. — 4. If you live - - ? you will go - - ?













young sun-ny sum-mer spring

Ac-CUS-tomed, used ; in the habit of. Bor-row, get on loan.

Com-plain , to find fault; grieve. Cric-ket, a winged insect that has a chirping note.

Cup-board, a shelf or press for keeping food.

Fam-ine, great want of food Has-ti-ly, quickly.

na-ture o-pened noth-ing turned

Mi -ser-ly, too anxious about his stores. Mor-al, lesson; truth.

Re-pay', pay back.

Shel-ter, cover.

Star-va-tion, dying from cold. Trem-bling, shaking.

Was emp-ty, had nothing in it ; was bare.

Wick^et, little door.


1.    As a dog was ‘crossing a ‘brook with a bone in his mouth, he saw his own ‘image in the clear water, and 'mistook it for another dog carrying another bone. Not ‘content with what he himself ‘possessed, the greedy creature ‘snatched at the prize which he saw below. In doing so, he of course ‘dropped the real bone, which fell into the brook and was lost.

2.    The greedy, ‘grasping at more than they have, often lose even that which they might in peace have ‘enjoyed.

Questions on the Picture. —What is the dog in the picture standing on ? What is he looking into ? What did he see there ? What did he think it was ? Something is dropping frdm his mouth : what is it? Why did he drop it? What kind of dog would you call him? How was he punished ?
















Erook, stream.

Con-tent', satisfied. Cross-ing, going over. Dropped, let fall. En-joyed', had the good of.

Grasp-ing at, seizing eagerly. Im-age, likeness.

Mis-took" it for, thought it was. Pos-sessed', had of his own. Snatched at, tried to lay hold of.


1.    “ I never knew before, Cecil, that you were so fond of drawing,” said Aunt Sophia, as sho looked over the shoulder of her nephew, who was * busy with his pencil. “ You really have made great "progress.”

2.    “ I need to do so,” cried Cecil, “ if I am to carry off the prize for drawing, as I "am resolved to do this "term.”

3.     I should have thought,” said his aunt, “ that you "had little chance against Lee. He is an artist’s son, and has used the pencil, one might almost say, from his cradle.”

4.    “ That will double the pleasure of beating him,” cried Cecil, "dashing the bough of a tree into his picture, as if he meant what he said. “ I’m working now at this four hours a day ; he never draws more than two.”

5.    “ You are not "neglecting your Latin for it, I hope? You have had the Latin prize every term for these three years past,” said Aunt Sophia.

6.     Yes,” replied Cecil, with a proud smile ; “ there is no boy in our class can "match me in that— though Russell is now working hard. But I am not "content with one prize ; I cannot rest till I have won the "paitit-box for drawing, "of which Tom Lee makes so sure. It would be ‘glorious to beat the son of an artist on his own ground !”

7.    “ Take care,” said his aunt, gently laying her hand on his shoulder, “that you do not lose the Latin prize in trying for that which you are not likely to gain. ‘Remember the fable of the dog that ‘dropped the ‘substance in catching at the shadow.”

8.    On the evening of the day on which the names of the prize-winners were read out, Cecil came home from school ‘gloomy and grave. His looks told his aunt enough to make her spare him the pain of questions ; but his little sister Rosey was not so thoughtful.

9.    “ 0 Cecil,” she cried, running ‘eagerly up to him, “tell me, are you to get the two prizes?” — “No!” said Cecil, with a growl. — “Only one!” cried the child in a ‘sorrowful tone. — “Not one!” ‘muttered the boy. “ I was so busy trying to beat Lee that I could not hold my ground against Russell.”

10.    Cecil flung himself on a chair in so angry a

mood that even Rosey did not dare to question him further. Their aunt silently hoped that the lesson might prove worth the pain which it cost, and that the ‘ambitious boy might not again need to be reminded of the dog in the fable.    aloe

Questions.—1. In what did Aunt Sophia say that Cecil had made great progress? What led her to say so?—2. Why did Cecil say he needed to do so?—3. Against whom did his aunt think he had little chance? Why?—4. What did Cecil say to this? What did he do at the same time ? IIow many hours a day was he working at his drawing ? How many was Lee ?—5. What hope did his aunt express ? How often had he gained the Latin prize ?—6. What boast did Cecil make about Latin ? Who was working hard ? What was Cecil ambitious of doing? What would be a glorious victory?—7. What warning did his aunt give him ? Of what fable did she remind him ?—8. In what mood did Cecil return from school on the day on which the names of the prize-winners were read out ? What did his looks tell his aunt ? Who was not so thoughtful ?—9. How did she run up to him ? What did she say ? How did he answer ? What was he to get ? How did he explain his misfortune?—10. How did he show his ill-temper? What did their aunt silently hope ?





















ground    shadow

gen-tly    e-nough'

try-ing    ques-tions

like-ly    thought-ful

catch-ing    siOent-ly

Am-bi-tious, anxious to beat others.

Am re-solved, have made up my mind.

Bus-y with his pen-cil, engaged on a picture

Con-tent', satisfied.

Dash-ing, drawing quickly with his pencil.

Dropped, lost.

Ea-ger-ly, anxiously.

Gloom-y, unhappy; sullen.

Glo-ri-OUS, grand ; splendid.

Had lit—tie chance, were likely to fail.

Match, equal.

Mut-tered, said in a grumbling voice. Ne-glect-ing, overlooking.

Of which Tom Lee makes so sure, which Tom Lee thinks he is certain to get.

Paint-box for draw-ing, the drawing-prize.

Prog-ress, advance ; improvement. Re-mem-ber, keep in your mind.’ Sor-row-ful, sad.

Sub-stance, the real thing, not the


Term, a division or part of a year spent at school.


1.    “ I hear thee speak of the 'Better Land,

Thou call’st its children a happy ' band;

Mother, oh! where is that ' radiant shore ?

Shall we not seek it, and weep no more ?

Is it where the flower of the orange blows,

And the 'fire-flies glance through the 'myrtle boughs?”— “ Not there, not there, my child !”

2.    “ Is it where the 'feathery palm-trees rise,

And the date grows ripe under sunny skies;

Or ’midst the green islands on 'glittering seas,

Where ‘fragrant forests 'perfume the breeze,

And 'strange bright birds on their 'starry wings Bear the ric)i 'hues of all glorious things?”—

“ Not there, not there, my child !”

3.    k‘ Is it far away in some ’region old,

Where the rivers wander o’er sands of gold ;

Where the burning rays of the 'ruby shine,

And the diamond lights up the 'secret mine,

And the pearl ’gleams forth from the ’coral strand ;

Is it there, sweet mother, that Better Land?”—

“ Not there, not there, my child!

4.    “ Eye hath not seen it, my gentle boy ;

Ear hath not heard its deep songs of joy ;

Dreams cannot ’ picture a world so fair:

Sorrow and death may not * enter there;

Time doth not breathe on its 'fadeless bloom;

For beyond the clouds and ’beyond the tomb—

It is there, it is there, my child !”    Mrs. Hemans.

Band, company.

Bet-ter Land, Heaven.

Be-yond' the tomb, after death; beyond the grave.

Cor-al strand, shore or beach formed of coral covered with earth, as the South Sea islands are.

En-ter, go in.

Fade-less, never-dying.

Feath-er-y, having leaves like feathers.

Fire-flies, small beetles, common in South America, which send forth from their bodies a bright light of a greenish yellow colour.

Fra-grant, sweet-smelling.

Gleams, shoots forth rays of light.

Glit-ter-ing, shining; sparkling in the sunlight.

Hues, colours.

Myr-tle boughs, branches of the myrtle, a sweet-smelling shrub. It grows in tropical countries.

Per-fume', fill with sweet smell.

Pic-ture, imagine; paint in fancy.

Ra-di-ant, bright; glittering.

Re-gion, country ; division of the Earth.

Ru-by, a precious stone of a dark red colour.

Se-cret, dark; hidden.    [stars.

Star-ry wings, wings twinkling like

Strange, curious; rare.



























la-bour say late

Better to do well than to . . ..well. It is never too .... to learn.

Idle people have the most......


1.    A little English girl in India was one day playing outside her father’s tent, near the edge of a ‘jungle. Her attention was ‘attracted by a beautiful little ‘fawn, that seemed too young to run about, and which stood ‘timidly ‘gazing at the child with its soft, dark eyes.

2.    The girl moved towards it; but the fawn started back, with a frightened look, and fleTl. The child gave chase; but the fawn was soon hid among the tall reeds and grass of the jungle.

3. When the girl’s ‘ayah ‘missed her charge, she quickly hurried after her. But, so eager had the child been in chasing the fawn, that she was some distance from the tent before the ayah ‘overtook her. Catching up the girl in her arms, she tried to return; but the grass and reeds around grew so high that she could scarcely see two yards before her.

4.    She walked some steps with the little girl in her arms; then stopped, and looked round with a frightened air. “ We are lost! ” cried the poor Hindoo, lost in the dreadful jungle ! ”

5.    “ Do not be so frightened, Motee,” said the fair-haired English girl; “ God can save us, and show us the way back.” The little child could feel, as the Hindoo could not, that, even in that lonely jungle, a great and loving Friend was beside her. Again the ayah tried to find her way ; again she ‘paused in alarm.

6.    What was that sound, like a growl, that

startled her, and made her sink on the ground in terror, clasping the little girl all the closer in her arms ? Both turned to gaze in the direction from which that dreadful sound had come.

7.    What was their horror on 'beholding the striped head of a Bengal tiger above the waving grass! The ayah uttered a terrified scream; and the little girl cried to God to save her. It seemed like the instant answer to that cry, when the sharp ‘report of a rifle rang through the thicket, quickly followed by a second; and the tiger, 'mortally wounded, lay rolling and struggling on the earth!

8.    Edith, for that was the girl’s name, saw nothing of what followed. Senseless with terror, she lay in the arms of her trembling ayah.

9. It was her father whom Providence had sent *to the rescue. Lifting his little girl in his arms, he bore her back to the tent ; leaving his servants, who had ‘followed in his steps, to bring in the dead tiger.    a. l. o. e.

Questions on the Picture.—Where are the nurse and girl in the picture ? What is an Indian nurse called ? How do they happen to he there? Why have they stopped? What animal is that coming near them ? What did the girl do when she saw it ? How were they saved from it ?







play-in g

























At-tracted, taken; held; engaged. A-yah, native Indian nurse. Be-hold-ing, seeing.

Fawn, a young deer.

Fol-lowed in his steps, gone after him.

Gaz-ing, looking.

Jtlfi-gle, waste land overgrown with tall grass and brushwood.

Missed her charge, lost sight of the little girl she had charge of. Mor-tal-ly, so as to cause death. O-ver-took', came up with.

Paused, stopped.

Ee-port , noise made by firing. Star-tied, frightened.

Tim-id-ly, in a frightened manner.

To the rescue, to deliver her.

PROVERB S— (Elliptical).

found    reap    fool-ish

night    thorn    dan-ger

wealth    leap    lit-tle

Look before yon .....

Lost time is never.....again.

Little......, little care.

Promise......, but do much.

Sow well, .... well.

Out of debt, out of......

Praise a fine day at.....

- Penny wise, and pound......

No rose without a ... * -



1.    When taken young, the tiger can be tamed. The ‘fakirs, a class of people in India who are in the habit of going about begging, often lead with them tame tigers and leopards; but they are ’dangerous pets.

2.    A story is told of a gentleman in India, who nearly lost his life by a tame tiger which he had * reared.

3.    He was sitting one evening outside his tent reading, with his pet ‘couched down beside him. One hand hung by his side, while the other held his book. The tiger began to lick his hand, and went on doing so for some time. A low growl made the gentleman turn his head and look down. He saw that his hand was covered with blood!

4.    In a moment he knew that the wild nature of the animal had ‘awakened, and that if he ‘withdrew his hand, the tiger would at once spring upon him. Calling to his servant, whom he saw at a little distance, he told him to fetch a loaded gun, and shoot the tiger dead on the spot.

5.    He then sat quite still, ‘allowing it to growl and to lick the blood 'at its pleasure. We may feel sure that the moments seemed very long to him. Speedily, however, the servant came near with the gun, very quietly, so as not to disturb the animal; took a steady aim, and ¿hot it through the heart!

G. The general way of hunting the tiger is with elephants. Though the horse can be made to face a lion, he will seldom face a tiger. The elephant, on the other hand, stands steadily while his rider ‘takes aim, just before the tiger makes his spring.

7.    The Hindoos rarely hunt the tiger, or even fire on it. They let it ‘prowl about their houses, and carry away their cattle, and even their children! But wherever ‘Europeans go, they strive to ‘rid the country of such dangerous animals.

8.    Sometimes the tiger, when hunted, springs upon the elephant, and ‘fastens its teeth and claws in his neck or shoulder. The latter tries to kneel oh his enemy, so as to crush it by the weight of his great legs and heavy body.

9. Sometimes they both roll on the ground, and a fearful ‘struggle follows; generally, however, ending in the death of the tiger, either from the strength of the elephant, or by a bullet from the hunter’s ‘rifle.

Questions on the Picture.—1-5. Who often lead about tame tigers? What kind of tiger is that in the picture? What is it doing? What is the servant going to do ? Why ?—6, 7. How is the tiger generally hunted ?—8. What does it sometimes do ?—9. How does the struggle usually end ?































Al-low-ing, suffering.

At its pleas-ure, as much as it wished; at its will.

A-W&k-ened, been aroused.

Couched, lying, with the head raised. Dan-ger-ous, not safe.

Eu -ro-pe-ans, natives of Europe. Fa-kirs' (fa-keers ), begging monks.

Fast-ens, fixes.

Prowl, rove about in search of prey. Reared, brought up.

Rid, clear.

Ri-fle, gun.

Strug-gle, fight; contest.

Takes aim, shoots him. With-drew', drew back or away.


1.    All the winter, the 'Eskimos live in huts made of snow. These huts are very clean and white when they are new, but they soon turn dirty; and ‘when the summer comes they begin to melt.

2.    Sometimes the Eskimos find logs of wood on the shore, which have been ‘drifted by the waves ‘from some other country ; and these they ‘gather, and build their huts with them.

3.    When they cannot get wood, they use the pure white snow. It is frozen so hard that it keeps firm all through the winter. Sometimes, when the hut ’becomes very warm with the lamp, and the people, and the dogs, the walls begin to *drip a little; but a piece of fresh snow rubbed over the place soon mends it. The windows of these huts are not made of glass, but of ice.

4.    Though there is no stove in the hut, it is as

warm as the Eskimo can bear it. He warms it with his lamp; which is nothing but a vessel like a saucer, full of oil. A great many little wicks float on the oil, and he lights them all. The burning wicks make the room warm. A cooking-pot hangs over the lamp ; but he often eats his meat raw.    .

5.    He has no chairs and tables, for he does not know how to make them; but there is a raised Tedge all round the hut, ’covered with warm skins. This is his seat during the day, and his bed at night. But under the skins there is nothing but snow.

6.    When the warm weather comes, the Eskimo is glad to get away from the snow hut. Its walls begin to melt, and he gets wet as he lies in bed, and often catches cold. He is therefore very glad to 'escape from it to his tent, which forms his summer •residence.

Questions.1. Where do the Eskimos live in winter? WTiat are the huts when new ?—2. How do the Eskimos sometimes get wood to build with?—3. W"hat do they use when they cannot get wood? How long does one these houses last ? How do they mend the walls when they get out of repair? What are the windows made of?— 4. How is the houie warmed ?—5. WEat kind of bed does it contain ?— 6, Where do the Eskimos live in summer ?    ,

(MU    6_v


























Be -comes', grows.

Cov-ered, overspread.

Drift-ed, driven along.

Drip, to fall in drops; to melt. E-scape', get away.

Es-ki-mos, North American Indians of the Frozen Zone.

From some oth-er coun-try, from some distant shore.

Gath-er, pick up; collect.

Led^e, shelf.

Res-i-dence, dwelling-place; house. When the sum-mer comes, when the weather becomes warm.


1.    “ Oh ! call my brother back to me !

I cannot play alone ;

The summer comes with flower and bee— Where is my brother gone ?

The flowers 'run wild, the flowers we sowed Around our garden tree ;

Our 'vine is 'drooping with its load—

Oh ! call him back to me !”—

2.    “ He would not hear thy voice, fair child !

He may not come to thee;

The face that once like summer 'smiled,

On earth no more ‘thou’lt see.

A rose’s 'brief bright life of joy,    .

Such unto him was given;

So—thou must play alone, my boy !

Thy brother is iu Heaven.”—

3.    “ And has he left his birds and flowers ?

And must I call ' in vain ?

And through the long, long summer hours, Will he not come again?

And by the brook and in the 'glade Are all our ’wanderings 'o’er?—

Oh ! while my brother with me played, Would I had loved him more!”

Mrs. Hkmans.

Questions.—1. What does the child ask his mother to do? Why? What season has come ? He asks where his brother - - ? He does not know that his brother - - ? He therefore asks his mother to - - - ?— 2. What does his mother tell him ? What should he see no more on earth? To what does she compare his brother’s life? Why must the boy play alone?—3. What does the boy then ask? What does he wish he had done while his brother was alive ?















% played






Brief, short.

Drocp-ing, hanging downward. Glade, an open space in a wood. In vain, without success.

O’er, finished; ended.

Run wild, grow in confusion. Smiled, looked pleasant. Thou’lt, thou wilt.

Vine, the grape tree. Wan-der-ings, walks; rambles.


1.    A rox asked a stork to dinner, with the ‘naughty ‘purpose of playing a trick on his guest. The stork came at the hour fixed, with a good ‘appetite for her meal. But little pleased was she on finding that it ‘consisted of 'mince served up in a dish so ‘shallow that she could scarcely, with her long slender bill, pick up enough to ‘satisfy a sparrow !

2.    The fox ‘lapped up the food readily enough, only stopping a moment to say, “ I hope, madam, that you like your feast ? Don’t you think that my mince is first-rate ? ” The stork made no reply, but ‘retired, hungry and ‘much displeased, from the almost untasted meal.

3.    A few days afterwards the stork returned the ‘compliment by asking the fox to dinner. ’Reynard ‘hastened to the place of meeting, where the

stork had made ready her meal. Great was the ’disgust of the fox to behold the food served up in a long-necked jar, which let in the stork’s slender bill, but into which he could not ‘thrust even his pointed nose !

4. “ I hope, sir, that you like your feast ? ” said the stork, who was not ‘generous enough to return good for evil, and who wished to give Reynard a lesson. And as the hungry fox looked sadly up into her face, she added, “ Those who cannot take a joke in good part should never make one. Never do to others what you would not like them to do to yourself.”

Questions.—1. Why did the fox ask the stork to dinner? With what did the stork come ? What did the fox put before her ? What sort of dish was it in ?—2. What did the fox ask the stork while he was

eating ? In what mood did the stork retire ?—3. How did the stork return the compliment ? What disgusted the fox on his arrival ?— 4. What is the picture about? Those who cannot-? a joke should never - ? one.































Ap-pe-tite, wish for food. Com-pli-ment, act of respect; favour. Con-sist-ed, was made up.

Dis-gust , annoyance ; anger. Gen-er-OUS, noble; liberal. Has-tened, went quickly.

Lapped, licked.

Mince, meat chopped very small.

Much dis-pleased', very aj^ry. Naught-y, cruel; unkind. Pur-pose, intention.

Re-tired', went off.

Rey-nard, a name given to the fox. Sat-is-fy, feed; content.

Shal-low, flat; not deep.

Thrust, push. ^


1.    The ‘humming-bird is the smallest, and the ostrich the largest of birds. There are hummingbirds no larger than bees, while the ostrich is often ten feet ‘in height, from the crown of the head to the ground.

2.    The home of the ostrich is in the sandy deserts of Africa and Arabia. Among the Arabs, it is called the camel bird, from the form of its neck and body. Like the camel, it dwells in the desert, and can live a long time without water.

3.    Though the ostrich has wings, they are too small for it to fly with; but in running, it uses them like ‘paddles. Spreading them out, and flapping them in the air, it runs along with great speed. The swiftest horse cannot keep up with it! As is said in the Bible, “ * She lifteth up herself on highshe *scorneth the horse and his rider.”

4.    The nest of the ostrich is simply a hole in the sand; and there the female bird lays ten or twelve large eggs. She watches her nest very ‘closely, always sitting on her eggs at night, and leaving them only for a short time during the hottest part of the day.

5.    The eggs are prepared for food in ‘various ways, and some people are very fond of them. The shells, also, are made into cups and ornaments of different kinds.

6.    The ostrich is often hunted on horseback; but so rapid is its flight, that the hunters would seldom succeed in catching it, if they did not know that it never runs ‘in an even course, but ‘zig-zag. So they let it go winding and doubling about, while they themselves push straight forward, thus saving time and keeping up with it.

7.    The chase sometimes lasts two or three days, till the poor bird is tired out; for though swift, it is not so strong as a horse. When taken, it will turn round upon the hunters, and attack them ‘furiously, till it is brought down.

8.    The Rev. Robert Moffat, in his Missionary Labours in South Africa, describes the method of the wild Bushmen in hunting the ostrich :—A native is dressed with the skin and feathers of one of these birds; and, thus ‘disguised, he goes near to a flock of ostriches. He ‘mimics the real bird, by pecking on the ground, and shaking his feathers. He trots and walks along, until he gets within bow-shot. Then he shoots a poisoned arrow at one of the flock, and generally succeeds in taking his ‘prey.

9. A traveller ’relates that, at a French factory on the river ‘Niger, he once saw a young ostrich so tame that it let a little black boy mount on its back. No sooner did it feel the weight of the boy than it set off. At first it moved at a sharp trot, and then it stretched out its wings, and ran with the fleetness of a race-horse round the village!

10. The ostrich is chiefly ‘valued for the beautiful white feathers of its wings and tail. The young reader may not know that the ‘crest of the Prince of Wales is formed of three ostrich feathers, with a motto meaning “I serve.” The “origin of this is said to have been as follows :—The King of Bohemia, who was slain at the battle of ‘Cregy in the year 134G, wore this crest and motto. These were 'assumed by his conqueror, Edward, Prince of Wales, known as the Black Prince, and have been worn ever since by the heir to the British crown.

Questions.—1. Which is the smallest of birds? Which is the largest? What is often its height?—2. Where is the home of the ostrich ? What four-footed animal is it like? Whiy ?—3. What is said about the ostrich in the Bible?—4. Wliat is the nest of the ostrich?—5. What are made of the shells of its eggs?—6. How do horsemen run down the ostrich?— 7. How long does the chase sometimes last ? What does the ostrich do when taken ?—8. How do the wild Bushmen hunt the ostrich? How do they kill their prey ?—9. What is the story of the ostrich in the picture? —10. For what is the ostrich chiefly valued? Whose crest is formed of three ostrich feathers? What is said to have been the origin of this?

As-sumed', taken to himself.

Close-ly, constantly.

Cre^-y, in the north-west of France, near the mouth of the river Somme, and 48 miles south of Calais. There the Black Prince defeated Philip of France.

Crest, the ornament for the top of a helmet.

Dis-guised', hidden by a false dress; concealed.

Fu-ri-ous-ly, with great anger.

Hum-ming-bird, a bird which makes a humming noise with its wings. (See Lesson, p. 17.)

In an e-ven course, straight forward.

In height, high.

Mim-ics, does the same things as; imitates.

Ni-ger, a great river in Africa

Or-i-gin, beginning.

Pad-dles, broad short oars, used in pushing boats forward.

Prey, what is hunted ; booty.

Re-lates', tells as a story.

Scorn-eth, thinks little of; despises.

She lifteth up herself on high. See Job xxxix. 18.

Val-ued, sought after.

Va-ri-OUS, different.

Zig-zag, with short turns; from side to side.




































A SHARP QUESTION—(Elliptical).

point-ing tried end no-to-ri-ous point-ed

Jeffreys, a.........judge in the time of Charles I.

........with his cane to a man who was about to be.....,

said—“ There is a great rogue at the end of my cane.”

The man.......at inquired, “ At which . . . , my lord?”


1.    “ Father, don't you want me to be clever and great?” said Willie to his father one day.

“ I want you, my boy, to do your duty in the ‘station, whatever it may be, to which it will please God to call you; and not to set your heart on any mere earthly success, or make too sure of anything.

2.    “ When I see folk, as the saying goes, counting

their chickens before they are hatched, it brings into my mind what I read lately about the ‘famous Napoleon Bonaparte.”    _

3.    “ Oh, let me hear about him, father. You can talk quite well at your work, and I like to hear what you get out of those learned books that you read.”

4.    “ This was taken out of a large book, written by an Earl—the Life of the great William Pitt,” said the father; “ and it is all true—I have not a doubt of it. When Bonaparte was ruling over France, he wished to rule over Old England too ; and so, being sure of ‘conquest, he fixed on the very time when he would come over and invade us.

o. “ He got a number of his soldiers together, and had ships ready to carry them across. He looked over the blue waves of ‘the Channel, and, thought he, ‘ I’ll soon land in England, march up to London, and take it.’ ”

“ He made too sure,” laughed Willie.

“ He made so sure,” said the father, " that— would you believe it, my boy ?—he had actually a medal made to 'celebrate his ' invasion of England!

“But he never invaded it!” ’interrupted Willie.

6.    “And on the medal was stamped in French, ‘ ’Struck at London ,’ ” ’continued the father.

“But he never entered London!” cried Willie.

“ He made so sure of success,” said the father, “ that he prepared a medal in honour of the conquest of a city that he was never so much as to set his foot in! ”

7.    “ Well, that was counting his chickens before they were hatched!” ‘exclaimed the boy. “ That ivas making too sure ! How ashamed Bonaparte must afterwards have felt, whenever he thought of that medal!—Have you any more stories for me, father ?”

8.    “ Yes; I remember another, which I read some time ago,” replied the father. “ It’s about a very different man from him who struck the medal;—it’s about the Duke of Wellington—”—“Who beat Napoleon Bonaparte himself at the battle of Waterloo ! ” cried Willie. “ I hope that he hadn’t his medal ready beforehand?”

9.    “You know, or perhaps you don’t know, my lad, that Wellington was sent over to Portugal, to help the poor folk there who were fighting against the French. God gave wisdom to our great general, and success to a good cause. So the enemy’s soldiers were driven out, and Portugal was free !”

10.    “ How glad the ’Portuguese must have been,” cried Willie; “and how they must have honoured our Duke ! That was the time for striking a medal —when the battle had been fought and won.”

11.    “ I don’t know whether a medal was struck,” said the father; “ but I’ll tell you what the Portuguese did. They had a ’print made of the general, and under it were these words, in Latin, * ‘ Invincible Wellington, from *grateful Portugal.’ ”

12.    “ Oh, that was making too sure ! The Duke might have won a hundred battles, but, as long as he lived, no one could tell that he might not be beaten at last.”

13.    “ Just hear the end of my story, my boy, and you’ll see that the Duke was quite of your mind in that matter. A friend asked him to send him the print; so Wellington got a copy, and sent it.

14.    “ But he would not allow that boastful word to be at the bottom of his likeness, as if he thought himself sure of victory. He scored out ‘ invincible ’ with a dash of his pen, and underneath it he wrote, 'Don’t halloo till you are out of the wood.’ ”

15.    Willie burst out laughing. "That showed the Duke’s good sense,” said he.—“ Ay, and good feeling too, my boy. It showed that he was not a man of a ’boastful spirit, but knew that the highest may have a fall. When you are ’tempted, Willie, to make too sure of the morrow, just think of Bonaparte and his medal—of Wellington and his print.

A. L. o. E.

Questions.—1. What did Willie suppose his father wished him to be? What did his father say he wished him to do? And not to set his heart on what?—2. Of whom was he reminded by people who counted their chickens before they were hatched?—3. Willie said his father could quite well talk to him while - -?—4. Out of what book was the story taken? "What did Bonaparte wish to do? What had he fixed on?—5. How did he make too sure of success?—6. What was stamped on the medal? Why was this very foolish?—7. How did

Willie think that Bonaparte must have felt afterwards?—8. About whom did his father tell him another story?—9. Out of what country did Wellington drive the French?—10. What did Willie say that was the proper time for doing ?—11. How did the Portuguese do Wellington honour?—12. What did Willie say about the inscription ?—13. For what did a friend ask the Duke ? Did he send it ?—14. What word did the Duke score out? What did he write in its place?—15. This showed that he was not a man of a - - ? When was Willie to think of these incidents ?













a-shamed' re-mem-ber dif -fer-ent Wel-ling-ton





Boast-fu.1, fond of self-praise. Cel-e-brate, to make famous ; to keep Conquest, victory.    [in mind.

Con-tin-ued, went on.

Ex-claimed', called out.

Fa-mous, much talked of; noted. Grate-ful, full of thanks. In-ter-rupt-ed, broke in.

In -va-sion, marching into a country as an enemy.

In-vin-ci-ble, not to be conquered; unconquerable.

Por-tu-guese', the people of Portugal. Print, a picture ; likeness.

Sta-tion, place; rank.

Struck, stamped by a stroke : said of medals and coins.

Tempt-ed, led; inclined.

The Chan-nel, the narrow sea between France and England.


(Continued from page 52.)

feet In performing the of jumping a fence five feat    high, he hurt one of his    .

forth On the    of June we went    to meet them;

fourth    and all returned together.

grown Why do you    so? You have    very stout,

groan    and seem hardly able to walk,

hear    Standing    do you    what he says?—Oh, yes;

here    I very well.

hymn I heard sing a beautiful ; and after a little I him    was able to sing it with    .

hair He caught a , by a net made, of horse , in the hare    field behind the wood.

know I am sure    person that I    will do it so well as your-

no    self. I don’t that. I have wish to do it.


1.    Leaves as well as flowers come from buds. The bud swells, the leaves push out, the flower forms, and then comes the fruit.

2.    The buds of trees have brown scales over them. These scales shelter the 'tender bud from the cold of winter and early spring. They ajre glued tightly together by a sticky 'substance, and thus form a close little case for the bud, to 'protect it from the sharp air. When the weather becomes warm enough, the swelling bud pushes the scales apart; and when the leaves are out, these scales drop off, because there is no more use for them. •

3.    In cold countries, the buds are always protected in this way, by a covering. The buds that we see in spring are not formed in the same year in which they appear. They are formed in the 'preceding year, a little while before the leaves begin to fall; and as they form, they loosen the old leaves, and soon push them off.

4.    Now in these little buds are locked up all the leaves and flowers that are to come out next spring. The 'precious 'treasures of another year are there, and they must be kept safe through the winter, and therefore they have coverings to guard them from the cold.

5.    These coverings have been called by some one “the winter cradle of the buds and a very good name it is. The little buds in their cradles rock ' to and fro in the cold winds of winter, and are as safe from harm as the baby in its cradle.

G. The inside of these cradles is lined with soft down. This is the bud’s little blanket, to keep it warm. In warm countries, the buds have not these “ winter cradles.” They do not need them there. The buds of the orange-tree and the lemon-tree have no coverings. There is no cold air for them to fear ; and to put warm coverings on them would do harm ‘instead of good.

Questions.—1. What come from buds?—2. How are the tender buds protected from the cold of winter ?—3. When are the buds that we see in spring formed ?—4. What are locked up in these little buds ?—5. What has some one called their coverings ?—6. What forms the bud’s blanket ? Why have the buds of the orange-tree no such coverings ?


























In-stead' of, rather than. Pre-ced-ing, going before. Pre-Cious, very valuable. PrO-tect', shelter, or guard.

Sub-stance, matter.

Ten-der, delicate ; easily injured.

To and fro, backwards and forwards. Treas-ures, gathered wealth ; riches.


ran    wild    noth-ing

friends ad-ven-tures    sur-prise'

A traveller, relating his..........to some friends,    told

them that he and his servant had once made fifty .... Arabs

run! His.......stared in........; but he told them that

there was.......wonderful in it after all. “ For,” said he,

*“ we. . ., and they . . . after us.”


shines    rain

A little .... lays much dust. Make hay while the sun.....



Tile Table. — Name three kinds of Wood much used for making Tables? Pine, birch, and mahogany.

Where do the best kinds of Pine grow? In Canada, Norway, and Russia.

Where does Birch come from ? From the northern countries of Europe, Asia, and America.

Where does Mahogany come from? From America and the West Indies ; chiefly from the countries round the Gulf of Mexico.

The Table-cloth__Of what are

Table-cloths generally made ? Of linen. (See Lesson on Linen, p. 33.)

The Cups and Saucers. — Of what are the Cups and Saucers made? Of clay, and other kinds of earth, mixed with powdered flint and water. They are called earthenware.

What is a man called who works in Earthenware ? A Potter.

What is done with the Cup or Saucer after he has shaped it ? It is baked in an oven, glazed, and baked again.

Where is the best English Earthenware made? At “ the Potteries,” a district including Staffordshire and Warwickshire.

What is the finest Earthenware called? China, because it first came from China, in Asia.

Where is very fine China now made in Europe? In Saxony (a country in Germany) and in France.

The Spoons.—Of what are Spoons made? Of iron, of mixed metal, and sometimes of silver. (See Lesson on Metals, p. 126.)

The Knives and Forks.—Of what are Knives and Forks made ? Of steel and other metals. (Seep. 127.)

The Handles. — Of what are the

Handles of knives and forks made 1 Of bone or ivory.

From what is Bone got? From the horns of the cow and the buffalo, and sometimes of the stag.

How is Horn worked ? It is softened by heat, and pressed or qioulded into the required shape.

What is Ivory ? It is the tusk of the elephant or the walrus.

For what is it remarkable ? It is hard and solid, of a beautiful white colour, and it takes on a high polish.

How is it worked? It is cut with sharp tools, and turned in the lathe.

Where does the purest Ivory come from? From the Cape of Good.Eope; and from Ceylon, an island to the south of India.

Bread. — What are the Loaves and Rolls made of ? Of wheat flour.

How is Bread made? The flour is mixed with water, and then yeast is added to make it rise.

How does the Yeast make it rise ? It forms a kind of gas, which forces its way through the dough in all directions, and so swells it out.

What is done after this ? The dough is cut in pieces, and baked in the oven.

Where does Wheat grow? In almost all countries; but it is not known where it first came from.

Does Great Britain grow enough of Wheat for its own use? No : it grows a great deal, but large quantities are imported from Russia, the United States, and other countries.

Of what other Grains is Bread sometimes made ? Of barley and oatmeal.

What other Food is made of Oatmeal? A thick pudding called porridge, which is said to be very strength-giving.

Where is it very much used? In Scotland it is the usual breakfast of children, 'and of those who do hard work.

Milk and Butter. — AVhat is the place called where Milk is kept after it comes from the cow? The dairy.

AVhat forms on the surface of the Milk when it stands for some time ? A thick, oily liquid, called cream.

How is Batter made? By putting cream in a churn, and stirring it violently, it is separated into butter and butter-milk.

AVhat is Cheese ? It is the curd of milk, salted, pressed, and dried.

How is the Curd formed? By putting a liquid called rennet in milk, it is made to turn sour, and to separate into a thick mass called curd, and a thin liquid called whey.

A\rhat kinds of Milk are used for food besides cow’s milk ? Goat’s milk in Switzerland, reindeer’s in Lapland, camel’s in Arabia, and mare’s in Tartary. AVe also make cheese of ewe-milk ; and give ass’s-milk to invalids.

Eggs.—AVhat kinds of Eggs are commonly used for food? Chiefly those of the common hen; sometimes also those of ducks and turkeys.

Do the British Isles supply themselves with Eggs? Not entirely. They produce great quantities, but millions are imported every year from France. England and Scotland also get large supplies of eggs from Ireland.

Salt. — AA7here is Salt obtained ? Either from mines (Rock salt) or from salt water (Bay salt).

AVhere are the greatest Salt-mines? In Poland ; but there are very large ones also at Northwich, in Cheshire.

How is Salt made from sea water? The water is boiled till it all goes off in steam, leaving only the salt behind.

Is Rock-salt used just as it come? from the mine ? Not always : the Cheshire salt is first melted in sea water, and then prepared in the same way as Bay salt.

AVhy do we use Salt with our food ? If we took our food without it, we should become very unhealthy.

For what do we use it, besides for seasoning food ? For preserving meat.

Tea.—What is Tea? It is the dried leaf of a plant which grows in China, India, and other Eastern countries.

What kind of plant is the Tea-plant? It is an evergreen plant, with flowers not unlike those of the white wild-rose. (See p. 12.)

When was Tea first brought to England? About two hundred years ago.

How can you give an idea of the amount of Tea consumed in Great Britain in a year ? If all the chests of tea consumed in the British Islands in a year were ranged in a line, they would stretch from the north to the south of Scotland—nearly three hundred miles!

Coffee.—From what is Coffee made? From the berries of an evergreen shrub about ten or twelve feet high.

What are the Berries like? They are about the size of a cherry; and each contains two kernels, called coffee-beans.

How are the Beans prepared ? They are dried and roasted, and then ground into the powder which we call coffee.

Where does Coffee come from ? The best coffee comes from Mocha, in Arabia ; but a great deal comes also from the West Indies and from Brazil.

Cocoa.—From what is Cocoa made? From the oily seeds of the cacao, a shrub which grows in the West Indies and many parts of South America.

What else is made from these Seeds? Mixed with sugar and spices, they make a sweet paste called chocolate.

Sugar.—From what is Sugar made ? It is made chiefly from the juice of the sugar-cane.

Whence does it come ? From the East and AVest Indies, and from Brazil.

How is it made ? The stems are crushed, to get the juice out of them ; the juice is then cleared, boiled till it forms into crystals, and strained.

What is the liquid part strained from the sugar called? Molasses, or treacle.

AVhat else is Sugar made from ? From the maple-tree, from beet-root, and from the date-palm.


1.    A Scotch nobleman, who was very fond of farming, had bought a cow from a gentleman who lived near him. The cow was to be sent home next morning. Early in the morning, as the duke was taking a walk, he saw a boy trying in vain to drive the cow to his house. The cow was very 'unruly, and the poor boy could not 'manage her at all.

2.    The boy, not knowing the duke, bawled out to him, Hallo, man ! come here and help me with this beast.” The duke walked slowly on, not 'seeming to notice the boy, who still kept calling for his help. At last, finding that he could not get on with the cow, he cried out in 'distress, Come here, man,

(594)    7_V and help me, and I’ll give you half of whatever I get.”

3.    The duke went, and lent a helping hand.

“And now,” said the duke, as they ‘trudged

along after the cow, “ how much do you think you will get for the job ?”

“I don’t know,” said the boy; “but I am sure of something, for the folk up at the big house are good to everybody.”

4.    On coming to a lane near the house, the duke slipped away from the boy, and reached home by a different road. Calling a servant, he put a ‘sovereign into his hand, saying, “ Give that to the boy who brought the cow.”

5.    He then returned to the end of the lane, where he had parted from the boy, so as to meet him on his way back.

“ Well, how much did you get ? ” asked the duke.

“A shilling,” said the boy; “and there’s half of it to you.”

6.    “ But surely you got more than a shilling ? ” said the duke.

“ No,” said the boy ; “ that is all I got; and I think it quite enough.”

“ I do not,” said the duke ; “ there must be something wrong; and, as I am a friend of the duke, if you return, I think I’ll see that you get more.”

7.    They went back. The duke rang the bell, and ordered all the servants to be ‘assembled.

“Now,” said the duke to the boy, “point me out the person who gave you the shilling.”

It was that man there,” said he, pointing to the * butler.

8. The butler fell on his knees, 'confessed his fault, and begged to be * forgiven; but the duke ordered him to give the boy the sovereign, and quit his service at once. “ You have lost,” said the duke, “ both your place and your 'character, by your 'deceit. Learn for the future that *honesty%is the best 'policy.”

9.    The boy now found out who it was that had

helped him to drive the cow ; and the duke was so pleased with the 'manliness and honesty of the boy, that he sent him to school, and paid for him out of his own pocket.    •

Questions.—1. Where was the boy trying to drive the cow? Who saw him ? What difficulty had the boy with the cow ?—2. What did the boy call out to the duke? What did the boy offer him for his help ?—3. Did he give it ? What did the duke ask him ? What did lie answer ?—4. Where did the duke leave the boy ? How did he reach home ? What did he give a servant, for the boy ?—5. Where did he meet the boy again? What did the boy say he had got? — 6. What did the duke say? What did the boy say to that? Where did he ask the boy to go with him?—7. Whom did he order to be assembled? "What did he ask the boy to do? To whom did he point?—8. What did the butler do? How was he punished?—9. How was the boy treated?

shil-ling    tak-ing

walked    hal-lo'

slipped    slow-ly

farm-ing    no-tice

morn-ing    re-turned'

try-ing    point-ing

ev-er-y-bod-y Scotch dif-fer-ent    reached

e-nough'    no-ble-man

ser-vants    gen-tle-man

As-sem-bled, brought together. But-ler, a servant who has charge of wine and plate ; a chief servant. Char-ac-ter, good name.

Con-fessed' owned ; admitted. De-ceit', cunning. -Dis-tress', great sorrow.

For-pv^en, let off ; pardoned. Hon-es-ty, fair dealing; uprightness

some-thing pock-et ser-vice per-son or-dered

Man-age, keep in order.

Man-li-ness, quality of being manly ;

boldness; courage.

Pol-i-cy, rule to act by.

Seem-ing, appearing.

Sov-er-ei.gn (sov-er-inl, a gold coin, worth twenty shillings.

Trudged, walked slowly.

Un-ru-ly, wild ; not easily led.


1.    Some years ago, a fine dog, called Neptune, was kept at an inn in Wimborne, in the county of ‘Dorset. His fame spread far and wide.

2.    Every morning, as the clock of the ‘minster

struck eight, he might have been seen, with a basket in his mouth, going to the baker’s for bread. The basket ‘contained money to buy the bread; and Neptune, day after day, carried it safely across the street to the baker’s shop.

3. The baker took the money, and placed the right number of rolls in the basket. With these Neptune ‘hastened back to the kitchen of the inn, and there laid down *his trust. It is said that he never tried to take the basket, or even to ’approach it, on Sunday mornings, when no rolls could be got.

4. *On one occasion, when returning with the rolls, another dog made an attack upon the basket, for the purpose of stealing its 'contents. On this, the trusty fellow, placing it on the ground, began to fight with his 'assailant. He 'severely punished him, and then bore off his charge ' in triumph !

5.    Two gentlemen, brothers, were one day out shooting wild-fowl. They had with them a noble Newfoundland dog. Having thrown down their hats on the grass, they crept through some reeds to a river bank. After firing at the birds, they 'proceeded some way down by the side of the stream.

6.    At length they began to wish for their hats. Calling the dog, they sent him back for them ; and away he went to ‘fulfil the 'errand.

7.    When he reached the place, he made several ‘attempts to carry both hats in his mouth separately. Finding great difficulty in this, he at last noticed that one of the hats was smaller than the other. Placing the smaller hat within the larger one, and pressing it down with his foot, he was then able with ease to carry both together.

There are two ways of doing everything—a right and a wrong.

Questions.—1. What was the name of the Wimborne dog?—2. What did he do eveiy morning? At what hour? What was in the basket?

—3. What did the baker do? What did the dog then do? On what mornings did Neptune omit this?—4. What did he do when another dog attacked the basket ?—5. What did two sportsmen leave on a river bank ?—6. What did they send for them ?—7. How did he at first try to carry them ? How did he at last succeed ? What two ways are there of doing everything ?


























Ap-proach', go near.

As-sail-ant, one who attacks another; enemy.

At-tempts', trials.

Con-tained', had in it.

Coil-tents, what it had in it.

Dor-set. a county in the south of England.

Er-rand, what he was sent to do ; message.

Ful-fil' , carry out; do.

Has-tened, hurried ; went quickly. His trust, what he had charge of, namely, the basket of rolls.

In tri-umph, with joy for his victory. Min-ster, a large Ghurch ; originally a church attached to a monastery.

On one oc-ca-sion, once.

Pro-ceed-ed, went on.

Se-vere-ly, sharply ; sorely.


(<Continued from page 92.)

lead They him through the woods to the mines, led    and showed him how the was got.

might Every    of that cheese have been removed

mite    before it was placed on the table. Yes, it .

nay I am quite sure that I heard a horse    just

neigh    now.    , you are mistaken.

Olir    The is come when we must commence work,

hour    if we wish to keep places in the class.

peace Give each of these boys a    of the pie, and we

piece    shall soon have    among    them.

prey    I    you tell me how the lion and other animals of

pray    the cat tribe seize    their • .

rain Take the bridle into the stable from the , else

reign    it will be spoiled.

rein Queen Victoria commenced her in 1837.


]. Oft I had heard of Lucy Gray;

And, when I crossed 'the wild,

I chanced to see, at break of day,

The 'solitary child.

2.    No mate, no 'comrade Lucy knew;

She dwelt on a wide moor,—

The sweetest thing that ever grew Beside 'a human door !

3.    You yet may spy the 'fawn at play,

The hare upon the green;

But the sweet face of Lucy Gray Will never more be seen.

4. “To-night will be a stormy night—

' You to the town must go;

And take a lantern, child, to light Your mother through the snow.”—

5. “That, father, will I gladly do!

’Tis scarcely afternoon—

The minster clock has just struck two,

And yonder is the moon !”

6.    At this the father raised his hook,

And snapped a * fagot-band ;

He plied his work;—and Lucy took The lantern in her hand.

7.    Not blither is the mountain ‘roe:

With many a ‘wanton stroke Her feet ‘disperse tbe powdery snow,

That rises up like smoke.

8.    The storm came on before its time:

She wandered up and down ; j4nd many a hill did Lucy climb,

But never reached the town !

9.    The ‘wretched parents all that night

Went shouting far and wide ;

But there was neither sound nor sight To serve them for a guide.

10.    At day-break on a hill they stood

That ‘overlooked the moor;

And thence they saw the bridge of wood A ‘furlong from their door.

11.    They wept, and, turning homeward, cried,

“ In Heaven we all shall meet!”—

When in the snow the mother spied

The print of Lucy’s feet!

12.    Then, downwards from the steep hill’s edge,

They ‘tracked the foot-marks small;

And through the broken hawthorn hedge, And by the long stone wall;

13.    And then an open field they crossed—

The marks were still the same;

They tracked them on, nor ever lost,

And to the bridge they came.

14.    They followed from the snowy bank

Those foot-marks, one by one,

Into the middle of the plank—

And farther there were none !

15.    Yet some ‘maintain that to this day

She is a living child ;

That you may see sweet Lucy Gray Upon the ‘lonesome wild.

16.    O’er rough and smooth she trips along,

And never looks behind ;

And sings a solitary song That whistles in the wind.


Questions.—1, 2. Where did Lucy Gray dwell? — 3. What will aever more be seen?—4. Who sent her to the town? Why?—o. At what time did she start ?—6. What did she take in her hand ?— 7. What showed how blithely she set out?—8. What caused Her to lose her way ?—9. What did her parents do all night ?—10. Where did they stand at day-break ?—11. What did the mother spy in the snow?— 12, 13. Where did they track the foot-marks?—14. Where did they lose them? What had become of Lucy?—15, 16. What do some maintain?




storm-y    blith-er

scarce-ly    moun-tain

af-ter-noon'    min-ster

A hu-man door, a door of man’s dwelling-place.

Com-rade, friend; companion. Dis-perse , scatter; throw about. Fag-ot-band, the band round a bundle of sticks for fuel.

Fawn, a young deer.

Fur-long, not very far; the length or' which eight make a mile.

fol-lowed haw-thorn lan-tern    whis-tles

guide    brok-en

Lone-some, lonely; dismal. Main-tain , say strongly; hold it true. Over-looked', looked down on.

Roe, a female deer.

Sol-i-ta-ry, lonely; with no friends. The wild, a wild place; a moor. Tracked, traced; followed.

Wan-ton, playful, frisky.

Wretch-ed, unhappy.


fall light quar-rels

A bad ^workman........with his tools.

Many hands make ..... work.-Friends are plenty when the purse is ... ,

1.    The Saint Bernard dog is very large and

strong, with a large head, long hair, and a bushy tail. He is a noble-looking dog, and he is as noble and ‘intelligent as he looks.    .

2.    His home is among the Alps,—high mountains in ‘Switzerland. There are several very steep and narrow roads, called “passes,” which lead over these mountains into Italy.

3.    There are snow-storms on these mountains even in summer; but in the long winter season they are ‘extremely ‘violent, and the passes are then very ‘dangerous. These storms sometimes come on very suddenly,—often after a bright and pleasant morning. The snow falls so thickly, that in a few hours the traveller is buried beneath the ‘drifts.

4.    Hundreds of persons have lost their lives in trying to pass over these mountains during the winter season. But many lives have been saved by the ‘sagacity and kindness of the Saint Bernard dogs.

5.    These dogs take their name from the Convent of Saint Bernard, where they are kept. This house is situated far up in the pass of the Grand Saint Bernard,—one of the most dangerous of the •Alpine passes. Here devoted monks live all the year, for the purpose of aiding travellers; and, with the help of their dogs, they succeed in saving many lives.

6.    The dogs are ‘trained to look for lost travellers ; and every day in winter they are sent out, •generally in pairs. One has a basket of food and a flask of wine or brandy strapped to his neck ; the other has a cloak strapped upon his back. Thus any poor fainting man whom they may find may be at once supplied with food and clothing.

7.    If the man can walk, they lead him towards the convent, barking loudly all the way for help, and to let the monks know that they are coming back. If the man is so faint and ‘benumbed that he cannot move, they go back to fetch the monks, and guide them to the spot where he is lying.

8.    Sometimes the traveller is buried deep in the snow. If the monks were alone, they could never find him; but the keen scent of the dogs ‘discovers him ; and they scratch up the snow with their feet, and they bark and howl till the monks come to the spot.

9. One dog is said to have saved in this way as many as forty-two lives! Its name was Barry, and it was as ‘ingenious as it was brave. Once a woman, who was going up the mountain with her little son, was carried away by a ‘snow-slip. Barry found the little boy unhurt, but cold and stiff. He managed, however, to get him on his back; and thus carried him to the door of the convent, where he was taken good care of by the monks.

Questions.1. What kind of dog is the Saint Bernard dog? What is he besides noble-looking ? — 2. Where is his home ? What are the narrow roads over the Alps called ? — 3. What makes them very dangerous in winter?—4. How are many persons saved on these mountains?—5. Why is the Saint Bernard dog so called? Who live at the Convent of Saint Bernard ?—6. What do the dogs carry with them when they go out to look for travellers ?—7. What do they do if they find a man who can walk ? What, if the man cannot walk ?—8. How are travellers discovered under the snow?—9. How many lives did Barry save ? What did he do with the little boy he found ?









kind-ness .

















Al-pine, belonging to the Alps, the loftiest mountains in Europe, chiefly in Switzerland, but partly in France, Italy, and Austria.

Be-numbed', powerless with cold.

Dan-ger-OUS, full of risk; perilous.

Dis-cov-ers, finds out.

Drifts, heaps of snow driven together by the wind.

Ex-treme-ly, in a very high degree.

Gen-er-al-ly in pairs, usually two by two.

In-ge-ni-OUS, skilful; ready in planning. _

In-tel-li-gent, wise ; knowing what should be done.

Sa-ga^-i-ty, quickness of wit; wisdom.

Snow-slip, a mass of snow sliding down a mountain-side.

Switz-er-land, a small country in the middle of Europe, north of Italy and east of France.

Trained, taught.

Vik)-lent, fierce; severe.




1.    It was a clear, cold, winter night,

The heavens were brightly 'starred,

When on St. Bernard’s snowy height The good monks 'kept their guard.

2.    And round their hearth that night they told,

To one who shelter 'craved,

How the brave dog, he thought so old,

Full forty lives had saved ;

3.    When ‘suddenly, with kindling eye,

Up sprang the old dog there,

As from afar a child’s shrill cry Bang through the frosty air.

4.    In haste the monks unbarred the door,

Bugs round the 'mastiffs threw;

And as they bounded forth once more, Called, “ Blessings be with you ! ”


5.    They hurried ‘headlong down the hill,

Past many a ‘snow-wreath wild,

Until the older dog stood still Beside a sleeping child.

6.    He licked the little icy hand

With his rough, kindly tongue;

With his warm breath he gently 'fanned The ‘tresses fair and long.

7.    The child looked up, with eyes of blue,

As if the whole he guessed;

His arms around the dog he threw,

And sunk again to rest.

8.    Once more he woke, and wrapped him fast

In the warm covering sent:

The dogs then with their charge, at last, Up the steep mountain went.


9. The fire glowed bright with heaped-up logs, Each monk brought forth a light;

“ Good dogs ! ” they cried, “ good dogs, good dogs! AVhom bring you here to-night ?”

10. In with a joyous bound they come—

The boy awoke and smiled:

“ Ah me !” the stranger cried, “ some home ' Mourneth for thee, fair child ! ”

11. With morning light the monks and boy Sought where the village lay—

I dare not try to ‘paint the joy Their coming gave that day.

Questions.—1. What kind of night was it? Where did the monks keep their guard?—2. What were the monks telling the stranger?— 3. What made the old dog spring up?—4. What did the monks throw round the mastiffs? What did they call after them?—5. What did the older dog find in the snow?—6. What did the dog do to the child?— 7. What did the child do when he awoke the first time ?— 8. And the second time?—9. Who went forth with lights to meet the dogs? What did they say?—10. What did the stranger say when the boy was brought in?—11. What did the monks do next morning?













bright-ly Ber-nard shel-ter height

Craved, begged ; asked.

Fanned, blew aside.

Head-long, rapidly ; without delay. Kept their guard, were on the watch for travellers.

Mas-tiffs, the large dogs of St. Bernard.

sought mom-ing vil-lage com-ing

Mourn-eth, grieves ; is sad.

Paint, tell of; describe. Snow-wreath, a bank of drifted snow. Starred, covered with stars. Sud-den-ly, in a moment.

Tresses, braids or curls of hair.


1.    There is a tribe of busy little people who live in the ‘Frozen Zone, and who are very seldom seen anywhere else. They are called Lapps, which is short for Laplanders. Lapland is the name of the country where they live. You will find it in the north of the map of Europe.

2.    They do not live in huts, because it would not suit them to do so. They are ‘obliged to wander up and down the country; sometimes on the mountains, and sometimes in the plains. So they pitch tents, which can be easily changed from place to place. The Lapp moves about in this way because of a very useful animal that God has given him, called the reindeer.

3.    The reindeer likes to move about. In the summer some very fierce flies, called ‘mosquitoes, bite him. To ‘escape from them, he runs up the cold mountains, where the Lapp ‘follows him, and ‘sets up his tent. In the winter the flies go away, and then the Lapp drives his reindeer down to the plain. So you see he has to shift his tent again.

4.    You would not think the tent very nice to live in. The door is so small that you could hardly ‘enter by it. There is no chimney, but the smoke goes out at a hole in the top ;—that is, after it has made everybody’s face very black.

5.    There are no lamps or candles. The Lapps think the fire-light enough. They sit by day, and they sleep by night, on skins spread on the floor. They find out the time by looking at the sun. How many things the little Lapp has to do without!

G. But he is very happy and ’contented. If he has a herd of reindeer, he thinks he is a rich man. He has very little to eat besides its flesh and its

milk. When winter comes, and the wild-fowl have flown away, and the sea is frozen too hard to let him catch fish, he goes to his herd of reindeer and kills one of them. Its flesh is as good to him as beef or mutton is to us.

7. Every morning and every night the reindeer are fetched up to be milked. The milk they give is thicker and nicer than that of the cow. The Lapp wife makes cheese of it; but she does not use butter.

8. The Laplanders ride in ’sledges drawn by reindeer instead of horses. The deer is fastened to the sledge by a strap, and his master ties a cord round his horns by way of a bridle.

9.    When the reindeer dies, or is killed, his warm skin makes a coat or rug, or whatever ’garment the Lapp chooses to have; so that he may be said to clothe, as well as to feed, his master.

10.    This animal lives upon nothing but moss, which grows under the snow, and seems to have been put there on purpose for him. In winter, when it freezes so hard that you could not stand in the air a minute, the reindeer .wanders about looking for moss.

11.    He has no stable or shelter of any kind. But he turns up the frozen snow, and gets at the moss, and is quite content. A horse or a cow would die, if turned out in such a frost. But this is the home of the reindeer. He does not die, for

(¿94)    g_y

God has placed him there to be a comfort to the little Lapp.

Questions.—1. Where is Lapland? What are its people called?— 2. Why do they wander up and down the country?—3. Where does the reindeer go in summer? Why? Where does he go in winter?— 4. Describe the Laplander’s tent.—5. Where do the Lapps sit, and sleep? How do they find out the time?—6. What is their chief food? —7. What is made of the reindeer’s milk?—8. In what do the Laplanders ride? What do they use for a bridle?—9. What use is made of the reindeer’s skin?—10. On what does the reindeer live?—11. What is not provided for him? Where is he quite content?





















Con-tent-ed, easy in his mind ; satisfied.

En-ter, go in.

E-scape , get away.

Fol-lows, goes after.

Fro-zen Zone, the region round the North Pole.

Gar-ment, covering; dress. Mos-qui-toes (moske'tos), stinging insects.

0-bliged', forced.

Sets up, pitches.

Sledges, carriages that move on smooth bars or runners, instead of wheels.


1. “He will not come,” said the gentle child;

And she patted the poor dog’s head;

And she 'pleasantly called him, and fondly smiled: But he 'heeded her not in his 'anguish wild,

Nor arose from his lowly bed.

2.    ’Twas his master’s grave where he chose to rest—

He 'guarded it night and day;

The love that 'glowed in his ‘grateful breast,

For the friend who had fed, * controlled, * caressed, Might never fade away.

3.    And when the long grass rustled near,

Beneath some 'hastening tread, lie started up with a 'quivering ear,

For he thought ’twas the step of his master dear, Returning from the dead.

4.    But sometimes, when a storm drew nigh,

And the clouds were dark and 'fleet, lie tore the turf with a 'mournful cry,

As if he would force his way, or die,

To his much-loved master’s feet.

5.    So there, through the summer’s heat, he lay,

Till autumn nights grew bleak,

Till his eye grew dim with his hope’s ‘decay,

And he pined, and pined, and wasted away,

A skeleton 'gaunt and weak.

6.    And oft the pitying children brought

Their offerings of meat and bread,

And to coax him away to their homes they 'sought; But his buried master he ne’er forgot,

Nor ’strayed from his lonely bed.

7.    Cold winter came, with an angry ‘sway,

And the snow lay deep and sore;

Then his moaning grew fainter day by day, Till, close where the broken tomb-stone lay, He fell, to rise no more.

8. And when he ' struggled with * mortal pain, And Death was by his side,

With one loud cry, that shook the plain,

He called for his master—but called in vain; Then stretched himself, and died.

Mrs. Sigourney.

Questions on the Picture.—Where is the dog in the picture resting? What is the little girl trying to do? Why did the dog start up when he heard any one coming near? What did he sometimes do in a storm? How long did he remain there? What did the children use to bring him? What happened when winter came? What was the last thing the dog did?


























An-guish, very great grief. Ca-ressed', made much of; fondled. Con-trolled', kept in check ; ruled. De-cay', fading ; decline.

Fleet, flying very quickly.

Gaunt, wasted away ; thin.

Glowed, burned.

Grate-ful, full of thanks.

Guard-ed, kept watch over. Has-ten-ing tread, quick footstep.

Heed-ed, minded; noticed.

Mor-tal, causing death ; deadly. Mourn-ful, sorrowful.

Pleas-ant-ly, in a kind way. Quiv-er-ing, shaking from strong feeling ; trembling.

Sought, tried.

Strayed, wandered.

Strug-gled, strove ; fought.

Sway, rule.


1.    “ 0 BOYS, boys, don’t throw stones at that poor bird,” said an old gray-headed man.

“ Why, sir,” said a little fellow, “ she makes such a squalling that we can’t bear her.”,

2.    “Yes; but she uses the voice which God gave her, and it is ‘probably as pleasant to her friends as yours is to those who love you. And, besides, I am afraid the stone will ‘rehound, and hurt you as long as you live S ”

3.    “ Rebound! We don’t ‘understand you, sir ! ”

“ Well, come and I will tell you a story.”

“ Is it a true story ? ”

“Yes; every word is true.”

“ Fifty years ago, I was a hoy like you. I used to throw stones, and as I had no other hoy very near me to play with, I threw them till I became very ‘accurate in my aim.

4.    “ One day I went to work for an aged couple of the name of Hamilton. They seemed very old people then. They were very kind to everybody and everything. Few had so many swallows making their nests under the roofs of their barns,— few had so many pets that seemed to love them, as they.

5.    “For seven years a bird had come, after the long winter was over, and built her nest in the same place, and there ‘reared her young ones. She had just returned on the day that I went there to work, and they ‘welcomed her heartily. She hopped about as if glad to get back.

6.    “ In the course of the day, I thought I would try my skill upon her. She sat upon a post near the spot where she was to build her nest, and looked at me trustfully, as much as to say, ‘ You won’t hurt me?’ I found a nice stone, and, ‘poising my arm, I threw it with my utmost skill. It struck the bird on tjie head, and she dropped dead !

7.    “I was sorry the moment I,saw her fall. But the deed was done. All day long her mate flew

about, and chirped in tones so sad that he made my heart ache. Why had I taken a life so ’innocent, and made the poor mate grieve so ?

8. “ I said nothing to the old people about it. But through a grandchild they found it out; and, though they never said a word to me on the matter, I knew that they mourned for the bird, and were deeply grieved at my cruelty. I could never look them in the face afterwards as I had done before. Oh, that I had told them how sorry I was !

9.    “ They have been dead many, many years, and so has the poor bird; but don’t you see how that stone rebounded, and hit me ? How deep a wound it made upon my ‘memory!—how deep upon my ‘conscience! Why, my dear boys, I would give a great deal to-day if I could undo that deed !

10.    “ For fifty years I have carried it in my memory. I have never spoken of it before; yet if what I have now said shall ‘prevent yob from throwing a stone that may rebound and deeply wound your conscience, I shall ‘rejoice.”

11.    The boys at once dropped the stones they had in their hands, and the bird had no more trouble from them.

Questions.—1. What did the old man tell the boys not to do?—2. What voice did he say the bird used ? What was he afraid the stone would do?—3. How did he explain his meaning? What did he use to do when a hoy? How had he become very sure in his aim?—4. To whom did he one day go to work?—5. How often had the same bird built her nest in the same place?—6. What did he do to the bird?—7. What made his heart ache?—8. How did the old people find out what had happened?—9. How had the stone rebounded?—10. What would make him rejoice?—11. What did the boys do when they heard the story ?































Ac-cu-rate, sure.

Con -science, the power of knowing right and wrong.

In-no-cent, harmless.

Mem^o-ry, the store-house of the mind. Poising, balancing carefully. Pre-vent', stop; hinder.

Prob-a-bly, likely.

Reared, brought up.

Re-bound , spring back upon those who threw it.

Re-joice , be very glad.

Un-der-stand' you, know what you mean.

Wel-comed her, said they were glad to see her again.


1.    Every year ships sail to the northern seas to hunt the whale. The men want his fat to make oil; and the whalebone too, which is found in the roof of his mouth.

2.    The ships carry with them a number of small boats. When the whaling ground is reached, men are sent to the top-mast to be on the look-out; and, at a ’signal from them, the boats are ‘launched as soon as a whale is seen.

3.    Each boat has a man in it called a ’harpooner. He sits in the bow of the boat. The harpoon is a long spear with a * barbed point, made of tough iron. To the shaft of the harpoon a rope is fixed. This rope, which is sometimes a quarter of a mile long, lies carefully ’coiled up in the bow of the boat.

4.    When the boat is near the whale, it is rowed up to him swiftly, but ’silently; the harpooner standing up, ready for his work. When the boat is within a few yards of the huge creature, the men ‘rest for a moment on their oars. Up goes the arm of the harpooner,* and in an instant he sends the harpoon with all his force into the body of the whale.

5.    'Smarting with the wound, the whale dives into the ocean, and swims away as far as he can. If the whale were a true fish, he could remain under water always, and never be caught. But he must come up to breathe. He is an animal, and, like the cow or the horse, he cannot live without air.

6.    In the meantime, the men in the boat have

* The harpoon is now generally shot from a gun.

rowed near the place where they ‘expect him to rise. As soon as he comes up, another harpoon is driven into his body Down dives the whale again; but he soon returns.

7.    In his fury, he lashes the sea so ’violently with his huge tail that the noise can sometimes be heard two or three miles off! At last, from pain and loss of blood, the poor whale is worn out. The boats are once more rowed up to him, and the men thrust long steel lances into his body.

8.    Soon his huge ‘carcass floats lifeless on the water. Three cheers are given by the men in the boats, and the body of the whale is ‘towed in triumph to the ship. There it is cut into pieces, and boiled down into oil; and, when the fishing season is over the oil is taken home in casks.

Questions.—1. Where do ships go to hunt the whale? Why is he hunted? Where is the whalebone found?—2. Where do men watch for the whales ? What is done as soon as one is seen ?—3. What is the man who spears the whale called ? What is attached to the spear ? How long is the rope sometimes ?—4. When is the harpoon driven into the whale?—5. What does the whale do when struck? Why must he come up again?—6. What is done when he reappears?—7. When he is worn out, what are thrust into his body ?—8. What is done with the body when it is taken to the ship ?


























Barbed point,

a point with a

spur Launched,

pushed into the water.

standing backward, which fixes the spear firmly in the animal’s flesh, and prevents it from being pulled out.

Car-cass, dead body.

Coiled up, wound in rings.

Ex-pect, look for.

Har-poou-er, the man who uses the harpoon, or whale-spear.

Rest.... on their oars, lift the blades of their oars out of the water and remain still, to steady the boat..

Si^-nal, a sign; notice.

Si-lent-ly, quietly; the men not making any noise.

Smart-ing, suffering keenly.

Towed, dragged along in the water.

Vi-o-lent-ly, furiously.


1.    Oh ! say, what is that thing called light,

Which I must 'ne’er enjoy ?

What are the 'benefits of sight ?

Oh ! tell a poor blind boy !

2.    You talk of 'wondrous things you see,—

You say the sun shines bright;

I feel him warm, but how can he Or make it day or night ?

3.    My day or night myself I make,

'Whene’er I sleep or play ;

And could I always keep awake,

With me *’twere always day.

4. With heavy sighs, I often hear You 'mourn my helpless woe; But 'sure ‘with patience I can bear A loss I ne’er can know.

5. Then let not what I cannot have My ' peace of mind ‘ destroy;

While thus I sing, *1 am a king,

Although a poor blind boy.


_ %

Questions.—1. What does the blind boy ask to be told?—2. What

is the only way in which he knows the sun ?—3. What makes the difference between day and night to him? What would make it always day with him?—4. Why can he bear his loss with patience ?—5. By what does he not wish his peace of mind to be destroyed ? What is he while he can sing thus ?










while ’






Ben-e-fits, things to be gained; advantages.

De-stroy', put an end to.

I am a king, I enjoy the greatest happiness.

Mourn, grieve over.

Ne’er, never.

Peace of mind, being contented.

Sure, surely.

’Twere, it were; it would be.

Whene’er I sleep or play. It is night to him whenever he sleeps and day to him while he plays.

With pa-tience, with calmness of temper; without murmuring.

Won-drous, causing wonder.


1.    As I had gone to work one morning without my ‘square, I took up a chip, and with a piece of •charcoal wrote upon it a ’request that Mrs. Williams would send me that article. I called a chief, who was looking after a ‘portion of the work, and said to him, Friend, take this; go to our house, and give it to Mrs., Williams.”

2.    He was a strange-looking man. He had been a great warrior ; and, in one of the many battles he had fought, he had lost an eye. Giving me a look of wonder with the other, he said, “ Take that! She will call me foolish, and scold me, if I carry a chip to her.”

3.    “No,” I replied, “ she will not. Take it and go at once ; I am in haste.”

Seeing that I 'was in earnest, he took it, and asked, What must I say ? ”

I replied, “ You have nothing to say ; the chip will say all I wish.”

With a look of 'surprise and 'contempt, he held up the piece of wood, and said, “ How can this speak ? Has this a mouth ? ”

4.    I 'desired him to take it 'instantly, and not spend so much time in talking about it. On reaching the house, he gave the chip to Mrs. Williams ; who read it, threw it away, and went to the tooh chest. The chief, wishing to see the 'result of this strange affair, followed her closely. On 'receiving the square from her, he said, “ Stay, daughter; how do you know that this is what Mr. Williams wants ?”

5.    “ Why,” she replied, “ did you not bring me a chip just now ? ”

“Yes,” said the 'astonished warrior; “but I did not hear it say anything.”

“ If you did not, I did,” was the reply, “ for it made known to me what he wanted ; and all you have to do is to return with it as quickly as possible.”

6.    Upon this, the chief rushed out of the house; and catching up the piece of wood, he ran through the 'settlement with the chip in one hand and the

square in the other. Holding them up as high as his arms could reach, he shouted as he went, “ See the wisdom of these English people; they can make chips talk ! ”

7.    On giving me the square, he wished to know how it was possible thus to talk with persons ’at a distance. I 'explained the matter to him as well as I could; but it was so great a ’mystery, that he actually tied a string to the chip, hung it round his neck, and wore it for some time !

8.    During several following days, we often saw him ’surrounded by a crowd, who listened with the greatest interest while he told them the wonders which the chip had -performed. Rev j0Hn Williams.

Questions.—1. What was written on the chip? To whom was it sent ? Who was asked to carry it to her ?—2. Why did the chief object v —3. What did he say when told that the chip would say all that was washed?—4. What did he ask, on receiving the square?—5. What was he told in reply ?—6. What did he shout, as he ran through the settlement?—7 What did he do with the chip?—8. What was he seen doing for several days afterwards ?





de-sir ed' talk-ing fol-lowed daugli-ter









As-ton-ished, wondering; surprised. At a dis-tance, far away.

Char-coal, burned wood.

Con-tempt', scorn.

De-sired', asked; ordered.

Ex-plained , made plain; laid open. In-stant-ly, at once.

Mys-ter-y, something that it is difficult to explain.

Ter-formed', done.

Por-tion, part.

wis-dom ac-tu-al-ly list-ened in-ter-est

Re-ceiv-ing, getting.

Re-quest', desire; wish.

Re-sult , end; out-come.

Set-tle-ment, place where foreigners settle in a new country.

Square, an instrument used to show whether buildings, carpenter-work, &c., are straight.

Sur-prise', wonder.

Sur-round-ed by, in the middle of.

Was in ear-nest, meant what I said.



Gold. — Why is Gold so precious a metal ? Because it is very rare, and difficult to get; also because it is lasting and very beautiful.

For what besides is it remarkable? It may be drawn out into very fine wdres, and beat into very thin leaves.

For what is Gold-leaf used? For gilding picture - frames, earthenware, the boards afnd edges of books, and many other things.

In what forms is Gold found? In dust, and in lumps called nuggets.

Where is it found in Dust? In the beds of rivers in Hungary, South America, and Africa.

Where is it found in Nuggets ? In Russia, California, and Australia, mixed with a hard, flinty rock.

Are Coins and Jewellery made of pure gold? No; by itself it would be too soft. It is hardened by being mixed with silver and copper.

Silver.—For what is Silver remarkable? For its pure white colour, and its brightness when polished.

For what besides? It can be drawn out into wires finer than the human hair, and beat into leaves.

Is Silver-leaf as thin as Gold-leaf ? No ; the thinnest leaf into which silver can be beaten is twice as thick as the thinnest gold-leaf.

In what state is Silver when it is dug out of the earth ? It is mixed with stones and dross.

What is a metal in that state called? An ore.

How is the Silver got from the ore? By melting.

Where are the greatest Silver-mines ? In Mexico and Peru in America ; but silver is also found in Saxony and Hungary, as well as in Sweden and Russia, in Europe.

Copper. — What is Copper like? It is of a reddish colour, and when polished is a little like gold.

, For what is it used ? For making kettles and pans, plates for covering the bottoms of ships, and copper-wire.

Why is it not safe to use it for purposes of cooking? Because it is poisonous when acted upon by vinegar or sour fruits.

Where is it found ? In Cornwall and Anglesey in England, and also in Australia.

Where are the largest Copper-works? At Swansea, in Wales.

Why is it not worked in Cornwall, where it is found ? Because there is no coal there.

What is a metal called which is made by mixing two or more metals together? An Alloy, or compound metal.

What are the chief Alloys of Copper? Brass, bronze, and bell-metal.

AVhat is Brass ? It is an alloy o! copper and zinc.

What is Bronze? An alloy of copper and tin, in which only one-tenth is tin. What used to be called “coppers"’ (copper coins), are now made of bronze.

What is Bell-metal ? An alloy of copper and tin, in which one-fourth is tin.

Lead.—AVhat kind of metal is Lead? It is a soft, coarse, heavy metal, of a bluish-gray colour.

For what is it used ? For roofing houses, making water - pipes, lining cisterns, making bullets and small-shot, &c.

AVhere is it found ? In large quantities in many parts of England and AVales, particularly in the Pennine range of m’ountains.

AVhat are the chief Alloys of Lead? Solder, a compound of lead and tin ; and type-metal, a compound of lead and antimony.

Iron.—Why is Iron so much used for manufacturing purposes ? Because it is very hard, is easily worked, and can bear a great strain.

Where is it obtained ? Both in England and Scotland in large quantities. It is one of the great sources of British wealth.

What other mineral is generally found in the same districts ? Coal, which is much required in smelting and manufacturing iron.

What are the different kinds of Iron ? The principal are cast-iron, wrought-iron, and steel.

What is Cast-iron ? It is iron melted and run into moulds. It is very hard and very brittle.

What is it used for? For making grates, fenders, railings, and girders or beams of iron used in building bridges, houses, &c.

How is Wrought-iron made ? By | making a current of hot air pass through the iron while it is melting.

Wherein does it differ from Cast-iron ? It is not brittle, but very tough; and it can be drawn out into wires and beaten into plates.

Can it be melted? No; but when red-hot, it can be moulded by blows with a hammer, and punched with sharp tools.

What things are made of Wrought-iron? Bails for railways, horse-shoes, and other things made by the blacksmith.

How is Steel made? It is made from wrought-iron, by heating it in charcoal, and beating it with heavy hammers.

For what is it remarkable ? It is finer and harder than wrought-iron ; and may be made either brittle (as in pen-knives), or elastic (as in watch-springs).

Where does the Iron that makes the best Steel come from ? From Sweden.

What things are made of Steel ? Knives, scissors, and sharp tools.

What is a man who works in Steel called? A cutler, or maker of things that cut.    '

What town in England is famous for its Cutlery. Sheffield, in Yorkshire.

Tin.—What kind of metal is Tin? It is white, silvery, and easily bent.

For what is it chiefly used? For coating other metals.

Is it pure Tin that the tinsmith uses? No ; it is sheet-iron plated with tin.

What is Tin-foil ? It is tin beat out into very thin leaves. It is used for covering cakes of soap, chocolate, &c.

Where does Tin come from ? The largest tin-mines in the world are in Cornwall.

Into what Alloys already mentioned does Tin enter ? Into l^onze, bell-metal, and solder.

Mention another Alloy of Tin very much used ? Pewter—a compound of tin and a small quantity of lead—of which drinking-cans are made.

What is the best Pewter made of ? Of tin, mixed with antimony and copper. It is called Britannia-metal, of which tea and coffee pots, as well as spoons, are often made.    •

Zinc.—What kind of metal is Zinc? It is a bluish-white metal, bright when polished, and easily bent when rolled into sheets.

For what is it used ? For rain-water pipes and the gutters of houses.

Where is it found ? In the lead-mines of Derbyshire and of the Mendip Hills, in England.

What Alloy contains Zinc ? Brass.

Mercury.—What is peculiar in Mercury ? It is a fluid metal.

Does it ever become hard? Yes ; it freezes in very cold countries.

Why is it called Quicksilver ? Because of its fluidity, and its resemblance to silver. The word means “living silver. ’’

For what is it used ? For making barometers, thermometers, levels, &c.

Where is Mercury found ? In Spain, South America, and some parts of Asia.

What is a Barometer ? A weatherglass, an instrument for measuring the weight of the air.

What is a Thermometer ? An instrument for measuring the heat or cold of air, water, &c.


1.    One morning (raw it was and wet,

A ’foggy day in winter time),

A woman on the road I met,

Not old, though something past ’her prime; 'Majestic in her person, tall and straight;

And like a Roman 'matron’s was her 'mien and ’gait.

2.    The ’ancient spirit is not dead ;

Old times, thought I, are breathing there;

Proud was I that my country bred Such strength, a ‘dignity so fair:

She begged ’an alms, like one in poor estate;

I looked at her again, nor did my pride ’abate.

3.    When from these lofty thoughts I woke,

“ What is it,” said I, “ that you bear

Beneath the 'covert of your cloak,

’Protected from this cold damp air?”

She answered, soon as she the question heard, u A simple burden, sir—a little singing-bird.”

4.    And, thus ‘continuing, she said,

“ I had a son, who many a day

Sailed on the seas, but he is dead,—

In Denmark he was cast away;

And I have travelled weary miles, to see ■

If ‘aught which he had owned might still remain for me.

5.    The bird and cage they both were his;

’Twas my son’s bird; and neat and trim He kept itmany voyages

This singing-bird had gone with him When last he sailed, he left the bird behind;

From ‘bodings, as might be, that hung upon his mind.

6.    He to a fellow-lodger’s care

Had left it, to be watched and fed.

And pipe its song in safety;—there I found it when my son was dead;

And now, God help me for my little ‘wit!

1 bear it with me, sir; he took so much ‘ delight in it.”


Qcestions.—1. What kind of morning was it ? Whom did the poet meet? Describe her appearance.—2. What made the poet feel proud? For what did the woman ask him?—3. What was the woman carrying? Where did she carry it ?—4, 5. To whom had it belonged? What was he ? What had become of him ? What did he usually do with the bird when he went to sea ? Why had he not taken it on his last

voyage ?—G.

Where had she found it ? Why

was she carryin

g it with



morn-in g

























A-bate', become less.


noble bearing.

An-cient spir-it, the spirit of old times.

Aught, anything.

Bod-ings, fears for the future; foreshadowings.

Con-tin-u-ing, going on.

Cov-ert, covering.

De-light', joy.

Gait, way of walking.

Her prime, her best; time of life when the strength is greatest.

Ma-jes-tic, like a queen.

Ma-tron, an elderly lady.

Mien, manner.

Pro-tect-ed, sheltered.

Wit, sense; knowledge.


{Continued from page 102.)

rap    You had better up the parcel, and then for

wrap    James to take it at once to the post-office.

rote He down the poetry so often, that he could say wrote    it by    , though he did not understand it.

sea    Do you    that large vessel far otf on the    1

see    Yes, I    it, and a small one near it.

sow    Tell that girl to learn to    with a needle before

sew    she attempts to onion seed.

sum One hundred pounds seems to    persons a

some    small    of money. I wish I had such a .

(594)    9_v


1.    ‘Henry V. was as brave a King as ever sat on the English throne, and gained ‘one of the greatest victories ever won by English soldiers. But when he was Prince ot Wales, he was a very wild and ‘riotous youth. He mixed with low ‘companions, who led him to do many base and foolish acts, quite unworthy of a Prince.

2.    ‘On one occasion, one of his friends was ‘tried for some offence before the Lord Chief Justice. He was found guilty, and was ordered to be sent to prison. When the Prince, who was in the court, heard the ‘sentence, he fell into a great rage. He spoke very rudely to the Judge, and ‘commanded him to let his friend off!

3.    “ Prison,” he said, “ is no place for a Prince’s friend. I am Prince of Wales, and I forbid you to send this man to prison, like a common thief.”

Prince or no Prince,” replied the Judge calmly, <f you have no right to speak thus to the King’s Judge. I have sworn to do justice, and justice I shall do.”

4.    The Prince, getting more ‘enraged, then tried to set the prisoner free himself. But the Judge told him it was none of his ‘business, and ordered him to cease from such riot in court.

5.    The ‘calmness with which the Judge spoke made the Prince still more angry; and he rushed up to the bench, and struck the Judge a severe blow on the face! For this, the Judge ordered the officers of the court to seize the Prince, and take him to prison with his friend. “ I do this,” he said, “ not because he has done me harm, but because he has 'insulted the honour of the law.”

6. Turning again to the Prince, he added, “ Young man, you will one day be King. How can you expect your ‘subjects to obey you then, if you yourself thus disobey the King’s laws now?”

7.    On hearing this, the Prince was very much ashamed of himself. He had not a word to say ; but, laying down his sword, he bowed to the Judge, and walked quietly off to prison.

8.    When the King (Henry IV.) heard of this ’incident, he said, “Happy is the King that has a Judge who so fearlessly ’enforces the laws, and a son who knows how to ’submit to them.”

9.    Shortly after this Prince had been crowned King, many of his people came to pay their respects to him. Some of those who knew how wild he had been as a young man, were ’anxious to know how he would act as King.

10.    Among the rest came some of his former riotous companions, expecting, no doubt, to be made at once the King’s chief favourites.

11.    But they were ’mistaken. The King told them that he had given up his foolish ways, and advised them to do the same. Nor would he let them come about his person, until they had shown that they had learned better manners. .

12.    The Judge also came, not knowing how he would be received. He feared that he might lose his oflice; but he did not care, as he had only done his duty.

13.    He also was mistaken. The King received him very kindly, and thanked him for the sharp lesson he had given him. He told him still to keep the office which he had so worthily filled. “ If ever,” said the King, “ I have a son who shall behave as I did to }rou, may I have a Judge as bold and faithful as you to correct him !”

Questions.—1. What sort of youth was Henry V. when he was Prince of Wales ? What sort of companions did he mix with ?—2. What was done to one of them?—3. What did the Prince say to the Judge? What did the Judge reply?—4. What did the Prince then try to do? •—5. When the Judge told him to cease from such riot, what did the Prince do to him? What did the Judge then order? What reason did he give for this step?—6. Of what did the Judge remind him?— 7. How did the Prince then behave?—8. What did the King say when he heard of this?—9. What were some persons anxious about, when the Prince became King?—10. What did his former companions expect?—11. How did the Prince treat them?—12. Who ^lso came? What did he fear? Why did he not care?—13. How was he received

by the young incident?

King? What


did he make to

the former


























Anx-ious, very desirous; eager.

Bus-iness, concern.

Calm-ness, state of rest; coolness.

Com-mand-ed, ordered.

Com-pan-ions, friends.

En-for-ces, puts in force.

En-raged', full of rage; furious.

Hen-ry V., King of England from 1413 to 1422.

In-ci-dent, what happened ; occurrence.

In-sult-ed, abused; shown disrespect to.

Mis-tak-en, wrong in opinion.

One of the great-est vic-to-ries, at the battle of Agincourt (a.d. 1415), in which he defeated a French army eight times as great as his own. Agincourt is 36 miles south-east of Calais, and not far from Cre<jy. (See p. 87.)

On one oc-ca-sion, once.

Ri-Ot-OUS, unruly; wicked.

Sen-tence, judgment.

Sub-jects, persons under the law.

Sub-mit', to be obedient.

Tried, examined before a Judge.


an-swer    reg-i-ment    beat

re-view'    e-qual    try

It is said that Frederick, King of Prussia, one day, at a......

of a splendid........of grenadiers, asked the English Ambassador if he thought an.....number of Englishmen could

. . . . them.

“ No,” replied Lord Hyndford, “ I cannot be so bold as say that; but I will......for it that half the number would . .


1.    Beavers were at one time ’abundant in Europe, but they are now found chiefly in Canada and other parts of North America. The name beaver comes from a word which means builder; and a wonderful little builder he is. But he not only builds houses ; he is a capital wood-cutter and a ‘skilful 'engineer as well.

2.    During summer each beaver lives by himself, in a 'burrow which he digs out near a lake or stream. When winter comes he quits this 'retreat, and unites with his fellows to build a winter home. They generally 'combine in troops of from two to three hundred; so that, when the houses are all built, they form a little beaver town.

3.    They begin by choosing a good 'site for their town ; sometimes on the bank of a lake or a river, and sometimes on an island. They like a river best, because the running stream helps to carry down the trees they use in building.

4.    With no tool but their own sharp teeth, they soon cut down a tree. If it stands close to the water, the beavers 'manage very cleverly to cut it so that it shall fall into the river. In this way they can get the 'entire tree floated down the stream ; but if the trees are at some distance, they have to cut them into several pieces, and drag them to the riverside with their teeth.

5.    After they have got 'a supply of trees, the beavers begin their work of building. The first thing they do is to make a 'dam across the river. This

stops the 'current, and forms a deep pond at the river-side. The dam is made of logs and branches firmly fixed into the bed of the stream.

6.    The spaces between the posts are filled up with stones and clay, and the whole is made as firm as the little animals can make it. They seize the trees with their teeth, and drag them from place to place as they are wanted ; but the stones and the clay which they require are carried in an odd way between the fore-paws and the chin.

7.    All the time they are at work, the beavers are 'constantly moving to and fro, 'trampling down the soft clay with their paws, and making all as smooth as they can. And it is a ‘curious thing that they do all their work during the night.

8.    Every care is taken to make the dam strong; and when any part of it is broken, the beavers never rest till they have mended it. They are ever on the watch ; and the Indians, who know this, tr}^ to bring them out of their hiding-places by breaking the dam. In this way the poor beavers are often caught, as they rush forth to mend the ’breach.

9.    When the dam is finished, the beavers begin to build their little town. The houses are made of the same ‘materials as the dam. They are all built on the edge of the pond ; and passages run from them into the ground in all directions.

10.    The door of a beaver’s house is under the water—generally three or four feet below the ’surface. There is no other opening in it of any kind: all the other passages lead to holes or caves under ground, where the beavers can hide themselves from their enemies.

11.    Each house holds from ten to twenty beavers. It has two rooms in it, one above the other. The upper one is where the beavers live. The lower room is used as a place to store their food, which consists chiefly of the bark of the silver-birch and poplar trees. It is kept under water, safe from the frost, and is brought up as it is wanted.

12.    Like the bird and the bee, the beaver builds his house just as God has taught him. He has not reason to guide him in his work : this gift belongs to man alone. But the lower animals are born with the power of doing everything ‘necessary to make themselves safe and comfortable. This power is called instinct.

Questions.—1. Where are beavers now chiefly found ? What does the name beaver mean? — 2. Where does the beaver live in summer? What do they do in winter? — 3. Why do they like the bank of a river best ?—4. How do they cut down trees ?—5. When do they begin building? What is the first thing they do? For what purpose? Of what is the dam made ?—6. How are the trees taken to the place where they are wanted ? How are the stones and clay carried ?—7. When do they do all their work? — 8. How do the Indians often catch beavers? — 9. Where are their houses built?—10. Where is the door made? — 11. How many live in one house? How many rooms are in each house? What is the use of each ? What is their food ?—12. By what power do they do all this ?    %































A-bun-dant, found in great numbers. A sup-ply', a quantity ; enough. Breach, broken part.

Bur-row, hole in the earth. Com-bine', join together. Con-stant-ly, without ceasing. Cu-ri-ous, singular.

Cur-rent, running water.

Dam, bank or wall to stop running water. En-gi-neer', maker of great works.

En-tjre', whole.

Man-age, plan ; contrive. Ma-te-ri-als, things for building. NeC-es-sa-ry, needed ; requisite. Re-treat', a quiet place, where one lives alone.

Site, place.

Skil-ful, clever.

Sur-face, top of the water. Tram-pling, treading.


[Continued from page 129.)











Did the thief    anything else but the watch and

the    hammer I

We sailed    across the    of Dover to Calais

in two hours.

Your    looked very withered the last    \ saw

it in the garden.

I see that    is a wide difference between

opinion and yours.

When he had    himself- on his knees before

the    , he begged for mercy.


1.    Moke than three hundred years ago there stood, Dear a small town on the coast of Spain, an ’ancient ’convent. It still stands there, on a height above the sea, surrounded by a forest of pine-trees.

2.    A stranger, travelling on foot, with a little boy one day stopped at the gate of the convent, and asked the porter to give him a little bread and water for

his child. Poor and friendless though he was when he stood at the convent gate, he afterwards became one of the most famous of men. That stranger was the great Christopher Columbus, and the little boy was his son Diego.    .

3. Seven years afterwards he was ‘befriended by Isabella, Queen of Spain ; and on the 3rd of August 1492 Columbus set sail from Spain, with three small ships, on the great voyage which ended in the ’discovery of America.

4.    He wanted to find out a new way to India. He believed that the world was round, though few people knew it at that time. Columbus was not aware that there was such a continent as America: he thought that if he sailed on and on, always keeping to the west, he would at last come to In<^a.

5.    Look at the Map of the World, and you will see that, if there had been no such country as America, he would have been right. At that time no one in Europe knew anything about America : so Columbus sailed into what was then an unknown sea. Many thought that he would never come back. On and on he went with his ships, not knowing where he was going.

G. For a long time there was no sign of land — nothing but the wide waters all around him. Hay after day and night after night passed by. The men who were with him became ‘alarmed, and tried to ‘compel him to return ; but he held bravely on his course, and would not turn back. At last the great Atlantic Ocean was crossed, and the ships came in sight of one of the West India Islands.

7.    When the brave Columbus saw the land, he thought it was the India which he had come to seek; so he called it India. Afterwards, when it was found that this was not the country known before as India, it was called the West Indies, and the other India the East Indies.

8.    When the people of the island saw the ships of Columbus, they were very much surprised ; for they had never heard of Europe, or of the people who lived there. After filling his ships with ‘treasure got from the natives, Columbus sailed back to Spain.

9. When the other nations of Europe heard of

the great discovery of a New World, they wished to share in its riches. Several nations, therefore, sent out ships and men to try to ‘gain possession of part of it.

10. The poor natives were not well treated by many of the people who took their beautiful islands from them, Their new masters used them so cruelly that they were soon almost all 'destroyed. ‘Negroes were then brought from Africa to the West India Islands,, and there forced to work as slaves. In this way there were soon negro slaves in all the islands.

11. After a long time some of the islands came into the possession of England ; but the English at that time were no better than other nations in regard to slavery. There were many in England who ‘ were engaged in the cruel slave-trade. At last the people of England began to think it was wrong to keep slaves; and a law was made that in all the countries belonging to Britain every slave should be set free.

12.    There are still slaves in the islands which belong to Spain ; but there is reason to hope that they will soon all be made free. Meantime, let us 'rejoice that not a slave now exists in the British 'dominions.

13.    The climate of the West India Islands is very warm, and most of the things grow there which are found in warm countries. The chief articles which are got from the West Indies are sugar, rum, tobacco, and cotton.

Questions.—1. Where did a convent stand more than three hundred years ago? — 2. Who stopped one day at the gate? Who was the stranger?—3. Who befriended him seven years later? When did he set sail ? What discovery did he make ?—4. What did he want to find out?—5. Was his idea right? What did many people think?—6. What did his sailors try to do ? What land at last came in sight ?—7 What land did he think it was ? What did he call it ? What was it afterwards called?—8. Who were very much surprised? What did he carry back to Spain?—9. Who wished to share in the riches of the New World ?—10. How were the natives treated by the Europeans who went out ? Who were sent there to work as slaves ?—11. What country got possession of some of the islands ? In what trade did the English take part? What did they at last do? —12. What country still allows slavery in its islands ? —13. What are the chief articles brought from the West Indies ?































A-larmed', afraid.

AnQuent, oLd ; built long aero. Be-friend-ed, favoured ; helped. Coin-pel', force.

Con-vent, a house in which monks or nuns live.    „

De-stroyed', killed.

Dis-COV-er-y, finding out for the first time.

Do-mm-ions, all the lands and possessions under one government.

Gain pos-ses-sion of, get hold of ; seize.

Ne-grOPS, black people, natives of Africa.

Re-joice', be glad.

Treas-ureT costly things.

Were en-gaged', took part.



1.    A captain in the Russian army, who had been sent as an ‘exile for life to a small village in the north of ‘Siberia, had a daughter named Catherine. She saw how unhappy her father and mother were, and she ‘resolved to go to 'St. Petersburg herself, and ask the 'Czar to pardon her father.

2.    When she told her father her plan, he only laughed at her; and her mother said that she ought to mind her work instead of talking nonsense. “ Here, my dear,” said she ; “ dust the table for dinner, and then you may set off for St. Petersburg at your ease.”

3.    But neither her father’s laughter nor her mother’s sneers turned Catherine from her purpose ; and after waiting ‘patiently for three years, she at length got her father to agree to let her go.

4.    It was a 'terrible journey for a girl of eighteen to 'undertake alone. She had to travel on foot for hundreds of miles, through vast forests, and across dreary snow-covered plains. She had no clothes with her except the faded ones which she wore ; all that she had in her pocket was a single 'silver rouble; but she had a brave heart, and unbounded trust in God.

5.    She met with the greatest hardships and dangers on her travels. Once she was caught in a 'furious storm, at the end of a long day’s journey, and had to 'take refuge from the wind and rain in a 'thicket by the way. This gave her shelter for a time; but long before morning she was ‘drenched to the skin.

G. At another time, she feared that the wretches with whom she lodged were going to murder her, for the sake of the money which they thought she had. It was only when they found that she had but a few coppers in her purse, that they let her go unharmed.

7. She was often driven from the doors* of the rich, as a beggar and a cheat. She was ‘spurned by matrons who should have known better, ‘jeered at by thoughtless boys, and even attacked by dogs.

Questions.—1. What was Catherine’s father? Where did he live ? What did she resolve to do?—2. W7hat did her father say to this? And her mother?—3. How long had she to wait before her father let her go?—4. What did she take with her for her journey?—5. What did she do when caught in a storm?—6. What did she at another time fear? When did they let her go unharmed?—7. How was she often treated by the rich? To what other hardships was she exposed ?
















Czar, the Emperor of Russia. Drenched, wet through.

Ex-ile, a person banished from his Fu-ri-ous, fierce; violent. [country. Jeered at, made a fool of; mocked. Pa-tient-ly, with patience; calmly. Re-solved', made up her mind. Si-be-ri-a, a country in the north of Asia, part of Russia.

Sil-ver rou-ble, a coin worth about three shillings.

Spurned, driven away.

St. Pe-ters-burg, the capital of Russia in Europe.

Take ref-uge, seek shelter.

Ter-ri-ble, dreadful.

Thick-et, a close shrubbery.

Un-dSi-take', enter on.


1. Before her journey was half done, winter •overtook her, and greatly increased her hardships ; but some carriers with whom she fell in were very kind to her. When her cheek was frost-bitten, they rubbed it with snow; when no sheep-skin could be got for her, they gave her theirs by turns, and took every possible care of her.

2.    Her next ‘mishap was to be tumbled out of a ‘barge on the river ‘Volga. This did so much harm to her health, that, before ‘continuing her journey, she had to spend some months in a nunnery, where the nuns were very kind to her.

3.    At last, after a journey of eighteen months, she reached St. Petersburg. She stood day after day for a fortnight on the steps of the Senate House, holding out a ‘petition to the ‘senators; but without success.

4.    After many failures, she was ‘fortunate enough to find friends who were able to take her to the Czar ; and he was very kind to her, and promised that her father’s trial should be at once ‘revised. The result was, that the Czar pardoned her father, and allowed him to return with his wife from Siberia.

5.    When the Czar, touched with her noble bearing, asked Catherine if she had anything to ask for herself, she replied that she would be quite satisfied if he would also pardon two poor old gentlemen who had been kind to her in her exile. Her request was at once granted.

G- Very touching was the meeting between the ‘heroic daughter and the parents whom she had delivered. When she came into their presence, they at once fell on their knees to thank her ; but she exclaimed, “It is God that we have to thank for your wonderful deliverance!”

7. But Catherine’s health had been completely broken by her great exertions. She had bought her parents’ freedom with her own life. One morning, a few months afterwards, when the nuns with whom she lived went into her room, they found her with her hands clasped, quietly sleeping her last long sleep.

Questions.1. What increased her hardships before she had got half way ? Who were then kind to her ?—2. What was her next mishap ? What was the consequence ?—3. How long did her journey to St. Petersburg take ? Where did she stand every day for a fortnight ? —4. What was she fortunate enough to find? What was the result?— 5. What request did she make for herself ?—6. What meeting was very touching ? What did she say when her parents fell on their knees to thank her?—7. What was the effect of her journey on Catherine ?

car-ri-ers    fail-ures    ban-islied    ex-er-tions    won-der-ful

nun-ner-y    sat-is-fied    com-plete-ly    pos-si-ble    de-liv-er-ance

Barge, a large river-boat. Con-tin-u-ing, going on with. For-tu-nate, lucky.

He-ro-ic, brave.

Mis-hap , accident.

O-ver-took', came upon.

Pe-ti-tion, a paper containing a re-Re-vised , gone over again. [quest. Sen-a-tors, councillors of the Czar. Vol-ga, a large river in Russia.


[Continued from, page 137.)














Certainly spoonfuls will not be much. Indeed, I would give him more.

Frederick    the stone    the window by ac


They may    their bells for joy just now, but they

will their hands for grief ere long.

If you    a little, he will tell you its exact    .

I cannot just now; I’ll come again.

Stand out of his till he this sack. He will eoon do it.

He felt very and fatigued all last ; but he is better now.




(Form.—What is the Form of the Earth ? It is round, like an orange or a ball.

What is the Whole Globe called ? A sphere.

What is the Half of it called ? A hemisphere, or half-sphere.

How could you see the whole of an orange at once ? By cutting it in two, and placing the halves side by side.

How can you see a picture of the whole Globe at once ? By placing pictures of the two Hemispheres side by side. (See Nelsons’ “ Geography and Atlas,” Maps I. and II.)

Surface. — Of what does the Surface of the Globe consist? Of Land and Water.

Of which is there most ? Of the water: it covers three times as much space as the land.

How is the Land-surface of the Globe divided ? Into low-lands, which are nearly at the level of the sea ; and high-lands, which are much above the level of the sea.

How is the Water-surface of the Globe divided ? Into the sea, which surrounds the land ; and rivers, which drain the land, and flow into the sea.

What are Lakes ? When a river, on its way to the sea, flows into a deep hollow or basin, it must fill that up be

fore it can flow any further. This hollow filled with water is called a Lake. (See “Geography and Atlas,” pp. 10-12.)

What is the largest body of Water called ? An Ocean.

And the largest body of Land? A Continent.

What is a portion of Land with water all round it ? An Island.

If it has water round it at ail parts but one ? A Peninsula ; which means, “ almost an island.”

What is an Isthmus? A narrow neck of land joining two larger portions.

What is a narrow neck of Water joining two larger portions ? A Strait.

And a passage wider than a Strait? A Channel.

What is a Cape ? A point of land jutting into the sea.

What is a body of Water stretching into the Land ? A Gulf or Bay.

What is a Mountain? A portion of land rising high above the country around it.

What are smaller High-lands ? Hills.

And Burning-mountains ? Volcanoes.

What is a tract of country lying between Hills? A Valley or Dale.

What is a Plain ? A broad portion of country nearly flat or level.

If the Plain is high up amongst Hills? A Table-land. (See “ Geography and Atlas,” p. 21.)


Day and Night—Is the Earth standing still? No ; it is constantly turning round—spinning like a top — carrying everything on it round with it.

How much of the Earth gets the sunlight at one time? Only one-half, because the Earth is round.

What is the time called during which any place is in the Sun-light ? Day.

And when it is out of the Sun-light ? Night.

If the Earth did not spin round, what would happen ? It would always be day on one side of the Earth, and always night on the other.

But since the Earth does spin round? All the parts of it are passing, one after another, into and out of the sun-light; and so day travels round the Earth.

What is Sun-rise at any place? The time when that place first comes in sight of the Sun.





N o-vem'-ber. De-cem'-ber.

In what direction does the Earth spin round ? From west to east.

So Sun-rise travels round the Earth ? From east to west.

What is the time when a place is just leaving the Sun-light ? Sun-set.

What is Noon? The time when the Sun is highest in the heavens ; or when a place is right in front of the Sun: also called mid-day.

Days and Hours.—What is the interval between Noon to-day and Noon to-morrow? A day.

How is a Day divided ? Into twenty-four equal parts, called hours.

How do we measure Time as it passes ? By the clock.

What is the end of the first hour after Noon? One o’clock.

And the twelfth ? Twelve o’clock.

Is the next hour Thirteen o’clock ? No.

Why ? Because half a day has passed, and it is more convenient to number the hours after mid-night exactly as we numbered the hours after mid-day.

What o’clock is it at Noon? Twelve o’clock again.

How is each Hour divided? Into sixty minutes.

And each Minute? Into sixty seconds.

What do seven Days make ? A week.

And two Weeks? A fortnight.

Pronounce in syllables, and spell, the names of the Days of the Week.

Sun'-day, or Sab'-bath.



Wednes'-day [Wens'-day).




The Year and Months__What mo

tion has the Earth besides its spinning motion? An onward motion round the Sun.

How could you show the two motions by means of a top? While it was spinning, I could pass a string round its point and draw it round the table.

How long does the Earth take to make a journey round the Sun? Three hundred and sixty-five days.

What does one such journey make? A Year.

How is the Year divided? Into twelve Months.

Pronounce in syllables, and spell, the names of the Months.

J an'-u-ar-y. Feb'-ru-ar-y. March. A'-pril.



The Seasons.—What have we seen the spinning motion of the Earth cause? The change from day to night. ,

What does its onward motion cause ? The change of the Seasons.

Which is the warmest Season ? Summer.

And the coldest? Winter.

What makes the difference between Summer and Winter? In one part of its onward journey, the Earth receives the sun-light more directly on its northern half than on its southern: then the north has Summer, and the south Winter.

What is the case at the opposite point in the journey? The Sun shines more directly on the southern half, and makes it Summer in the south, and Winter in the north.

What Season comes between Summer and Winter? Autumn, during which it becomes colder and colder, and the days grow shorter and shorter.

And between Winter and Summer? Spring, during whieh it becomes warmer and warmer, and the days grow longer and longer (See “ Geography and Atlas," p. 8.)


1.    A gentleman once ‘advertised for a boy to ‘assist him in his ‘office, and nearly fifty ‘applied for the place. Out of the whole number he in a short time chose one, and sent all the rest away.

2.    “ I should like to know,” said a friend, “ ‘on what ground you chose that boy. He had not a single ‘recommendation with him.”

3.    “ You are ‘mistaken,” said the gentleman ; “ he had a great many :—

“ He wiped his feet when he came in, and closed the door after him ; showing that he was • orderly and tidy.

4.    “ He gave up his seat 'instantly to that lame old man; showing that he was kind and thoughtful.

“ He took off his cap when he came in, and •answered my questions 'promptly and ‘respectfully; showing that he was 'polite.

5.    “He lifted up the book which I had ‘purposely laid on the floor, and placed it on the table, while all the rest stepped over it or shoved it aside; showing that he was careful.

“ And he waited quietly for his turn, instead of pushing the others aside ; showing that he was ‘modest.

6.    “ When I talked with him, I ‘noticed that his clothes were carefully brushed, his hair in nice order, and his teeth as white as milk. • When he wrote his name, I observed that his finger-nails were clean, instead of being tipped with jet, like the handsome little fellow’s in the blue jacket.

7. “ Don’t you call these things letters of recommendation ? I do; and what I can tell about a boy by using my eyes for ten minutes, is worth more than all the fine letters that he can bring.”

Questions.—1. What did the gentleman advertise for ? How many applied for the place?—2. Why was his friend surprised ?—3. What was the boy’s first recommendation ?—4. And his second ? And his third ?—5. And his fourth ? And his fifth ?—G. And his sixth ?— 7. What did the gentleman say was worth more than fine letters?


























Ad-ver-tised' for, gave public notice that he wanted Answered, replied to Ap-plied , offered themselves.

As-sist', help.

In^stant-ly, at once.

Mis-tak-en, wrong.

Mod-est, not forward; retiring. No-ticed, observed; saw.

Of-fice, place of business.

I On what ground, for what reason.

I Or-der-ly, fond of good order; regular.

Po-lite , well-bred; of good manners.

Prompt-ly, smartly; readily.

Pur-pose-ly, intentionally; with a special object in view.

Rec-om-men-da-tion, a written character.

Re-spect-ful-ly, in a civil or respectful manner.


[Continued from, page 145.)

Wood Charles,    you like a walk in the    before

would    dinner? 0 yes, very much.

wade Did the soldiers,    down with their arms and

weighed    knapsacks, attempt to    through the river?

won I hear that of you has the first prize, and one    the other the second.

your Where is the which I saw in room a short ewer    time since? It was a very pretty one.

yew Did see the grazing beneath the -tree ?

ewe    No; I did not. When did see it ?



1.    Oh, how one ugly trick has spoiled

The sweetest and the best!

Matilda, though a pleasant child,

One ugly trick possessed,

Which, like a cloud before the skies, Hid all her better ‘qualities.

2.    Sometimes 'she’d lift the tea-pot lid,

To peep at what was in it;

Or ‘tilt the kettle, if you did But turn your back a minute.

In vain you told her not to touch,

Her trick of 'meddling grew so much.

3.    Her grandmamma went out one day,

And by mistake she laid Her spectacles and snuff-box gay Too near the little maid ;

“ Ah ! well,” thought she, “ I’ll try them on As soon as grandmamma is gone.”

4. ’Forthwith she placed upon her nose

The ' glasses large and wide;

And looking round, as I suppose,

The snuff-box too she ‘spied:

“ Oh, what a pretty box is this!

I’ll open it,” said little Miss.

5. “ I know that grandmamma would say,

‘ Don’t meddle with it, dear But then she’s far enough away,

And no one else is near;

Besides, what can there be ‘amiss In opening such a box as this ? ”

6.    So thumb and finger went to work

To move the 'stubborn lid;

And presently a mighty jerk The mighty * mischief did ;

For all at once, ah, woful case !

The snuff came puffing in her face.

7.    Poor eyes, and nose, and mouth, and chin,

A dismal sight presented ;

And as the snuff'got further in,

•Sincerely she ‘repented.

In vain she ran about for ease—

She could do nothing else but sneeze !

8.    She dashed the spectacles away,

To wipe her ‘tingling eyes;

And as in twenty bits they lay,

Her grandmamma she spies.

“ Hey day ! and what’s the matter now?” Cried grandmamma with ‘lifted brow.

9. Matilda, smarting with the pain,

And tingling still, and sore,

Made many a promise to ‘refrain From meddling evermore.

And ’tis a fact, as I have heard,

She ever since has kept her word.

Mrs. Gilbert.

Questions.—1. What kind of child was Matilda ? What hid all her better qualities?—2. What was her one ugly trick? What did this lead her to do ? What was in vain ?—3. What did her grandmamma leave too near her one day ? What did she think ?—4. What did she first do ? What did she then spy ?—5. What did she know her grandmamma would have said to her? Why did she not mind this?—

6.    What did the mighty mischief? How was Matilda punished?—

7.    What caused her to repent ? What was the only thing she could do ?—8. What happened to the spectacles ? Who arrived at that moment? What did she say?—9. What promise did Matilda make? Did she keep it?


























A-miss', wrong.

Forth-with', immediately.

Glass-es, spectacles.

Lift-ed brow, eyes opened wide in amazement.

Med-dling, touching what she had no business with.

Mis-chief, harm; injury.

Q,ual-i-ties, parts; points of character. Re-frain , keep back; forbear.

Re-pent-ed, was sorry for what she had done.

She’d lift, she would lift, or was in the habit of lifting.

Sin-cere-ly, truly; from the heart.

Spied, caught sight of. 1

Stub-born, stiff; difficult to open.

Tilt the ket-tle, raise the kettle on one side.

Tin-gling, throbbing with sharp pain.


1. Nearly all flowers turn towards the light, as if they loved it. This can be seen by watching plants that are standing near a window. The flowers will all be bent towards the light, if the pots are allowed always to stand in the same position. But by turning them round a little every day, while the blossoms are opening, the plants can be made to show flowers on all sides.

2.    Some flowers shut themselves up at night, as if they were going to sleep, and open again in the morning. This is the case with tulips.

3.    The writer was one morning 'admiring some flowers that had been sent to him the evening before. Among them were some tulips; and out of one of them, as it opened, flew a bee !

4.    A lazy, ‘dronish bee he must have been, to be caught in this way, when the flower was closing for the night. Or, perhaps, he had done a hard day’s work in gathering honey, and at last had become sleepy. At any rate, he stayed too long in the tulip, and so was shut in for the night.

5.    The little daisy is one of the flowers that close at night; but it is as beautiful and bright as ever, on its “slender stem,” when it awakes in the morning. When it shuts itself up, it forms a little green ball, not unlike a pea, and can hardly be known from the green grass amidst which it lies.

6.    But look next morning, and the ball is open, showing, as the poet says, “ a golden tuft within a silver crown.” It is a very beautiful sight indeed to see the grass ‘spangled with daisies, shining in the bright sun.

7.    It is said that this flower was at first called day s eye, because it opens its eye at. the dawn of day ; and that afterwards the name became daisy.

8.    The golden flowers of the dandelion are shut up every night; and they are folded so closely together in their green coverings, that they look like buds which had never been opened. In places where the sun is very hot, the dandelion shuts itself up even during the day; and in this way it is ‘sheltered in its green covering from the sun, and kept from fading.

9.    Some flowers hang down their heads at night, as if nodding in their sleep; but in the morning they lift them up again, to welcome the light. Other flowers have a particular time to open. The evening primrose, 'for example, is so called because it does not open till evening.

10.    Through the various months, we have a 'constant 'succession of flowers, each having its own season, and opening at its 'appointed time, every year.

Questions.—1. Towards what do nearly all plants naturally turn? How may this be seen? How may a plant be made to flower all round? —2. What peculiar habit have tulips ?—3. What flew out of a tulip one morning ?—4. How had he been caught?—5. What is the habit of the daisy ? What does it form when shut up?—6. What does it show next morning?—7. What is the origin of the name daisy t—8. What other flowers are shut at night? Where does the dandelion shut itself up during the day ?—9. Mention another habit of certain flowers at night. Why is the evening primrose so called ?—10. What have we through the various months ? What has each flower ?






dais-y dan-de-l&m cov^er-ing w el-come closely






watch-ing stand-ing win-dow to-wards al-lowed'

Ad-mir-ing, looking at with wonder. Ap-point-ed, fixed.

Con-stant, nnbrdken.

Dron-ish, idle.

par-tic-u-lar prim-rose be-cause'

va-ri-ous / ' sea-son

For ex-am-ple, for instance. Shel-tered, guarded; protected. Span-gled, covered with bright spots. Sur-ces-sion, following in order; series.


1. “ And wherefore do the Poor 'complain ?”

The Rich man asked of me;—

“ Come, walk abroad with me,” I said,

“ And I will answer thee.”

2.    ’Twas evening, and the frozen streets

Were cheerless to behold ;

And we were wrapped and coated well,* And yet we were a-cold.

3.    We met an old bare-headed man,

His locks were thin aod white;

I asked him what he did abroad In that cold winter’s night.

4.    The cold was keen indeed, he said,

But at home no fire had he,

And therefore he had come abroad To ask for 'charity.

5.    We met a young bare-footed child,

And she begged loud and bold;

I asked her what she did abroad When the wind it blew so cold.

6.    She said her father was at home,

And he lay sick 'a-bed,

And therefore was it she was sent Abroad to beg for bread.

7.    We saw a woman sitting down

Upon a stone to rest;

She had a baby at her back,

And another at her breast.

8.    I asked her why she 'loitered there,

"When the night-wind was so 'chill; She turned her head, and -bade the child That screamed behind, be still;—

9. Tlien told us that her husband served,

A soldier, far away,

And therefore to ‘her parish she Was ‘begging back her way.

10. I turned me to the Rich man, then,

For 'silently stood he—

“ You asked me why the Poor complain, And these have answered thee !”


Questions—1. ’What did the Rich man ask the poet? How did the poet propose to answer him ?—2. What kind of evening was it ?— 3. Whom did they first meet?—4. What was his reason for being abroad?—o. Whom did they next address ?—6. What was her reply?— 7. Who was sitting on a stone ?—8. What did she do when asked why she was there?—9. Where was she going?—10. Who had answered the Rich man?









where-fore an-swer e-ven-ing sol-dier

A-bed', in bed.

Beg-ging her way, supporting herself and her children by begging during her journey.

Char-i-ty, alms.—To ask for charity, to beg.

there-fore    sit-ting

bare-foot-ed    an-otlYer

fa-ther    b e-hind'

wom-an    hus-band

Chill, cokQ

Com-plain', find fault; grumble.

Her par-ish, the district to which she belonged.

Loi-tered, hung about; delayed. Si-lent-ly, without saying a word



1.    More than two hundred years ago, seven English sailors were ‘captured by ‘pirates, and carried off to Algiers, on the northern coast of Africa. Here they spent five ‘miserable years, during which they were treated not only as prispners, but also as slaves.

2.    At length, they could bear their hard fate no longer. They had no hope either of being set free

by their masters, or of being ‘rescued by their friends. They therefore resolved to 'make their escape.

3.    They were watched so closely, and kept so hard at work, that this was very difficult indeed. But any fate would be better than ‘bondage ; and the difficulties they met with only made them more 'determined to succeed.

4.    Their plan was, to make a boat in separate parts ; and to carry these to the coast, and join them together there. By good luck it happened that one of them had got the use of a cellar, in which to store the goods that he sold for his master’s benefit. Here the captives met, as often as they could, to talk.over their plans; and here, in their stolen half hours, they made their preparations.

o. First, they made a keel, in two parts; then they made the ribs. They were afraid that if they covered these with boards, the noise of their hammering would let out their secret. So they got as much stout canvas as would make a double covering


for their little skiff; and, in order to make it watertight, they first soaked it in tallow, and then covered it with 'pitch.

6. As they could work very little at their boat each day, and often whole days passed without their being able to touch it, it was a very long time before it was finished. At last everything was ready, and they were in high spirits. When they had found a piece of cloth that would make a sail, they thought themselves the luckiest fellows in the world.

7. Secretly, and in the dark, they carried their boat, piece by piece, to a quiet valley about half a mile from the sea. Here they put the pieces together, and bore their boat ’in triumph to the shore. On ’launching it, what was their ’dismay to find that their ’tiny craft could carry at most only five of their number !

8.    They cast lots to settle who were to be left behind ; and, after a sad leave-taking, the little crew set sail, ’promising, if they ever reached home, to make the case of their comrades known. The only provisions they were able to take with them were two leathern bottles of fresh water, and a little bread.

Questions.—1. By whom were the English sailors captured ? Where were they carried? How many years were they kept there? How were they treated ?—2. What did they at last resolve to do ?—3. What made this very difficult ? What did their difficulties make them ?—4. What was their plan ? Where did they make their preparations ?—5. What did they first make ? Why did they use a canvas covering ? What did they do to make it water-tight?—6. Why did the work take a long time ? What made them feel very happy ?—7. What did they find on launching their boat?—8. How did they settle who were to remain behind? What did the crew promise those who were, left? What were their only provisions ?


























Bond-age, slavery ; state of being prisoners.

Cap-tured, taken prisoners. De-ter-mined, fixed, resolved. Dis-may', horror.

In tri-umph, with joy ; triumphantly. Launch-ing, setting afloat.

Make their e-scape', run away.

Mis-er-a-ble, wretched.

Pi-rates, sea-robbers.

Pitchy a kind of tar.

Prom-is-ing, giving their word ; engaging.

Res-cued, brought out of danger; delivered.

Ti-ny craft, little boat.


1.    They soon found that their boat leaked very much, and that it needed constant labour to ‘bale it. Before they had been three days afloat, their stock of bread was spoiled by the salt water; and the fresh water had become stale, and hardly fit for drinking.

2.    There was scarcely any wind to help them; and the labour of rowing with rude oars, under a broiling sun, soon began to tell upon the strongest arms and the stoutest hearts among them.

3.    The island of ‘Minorca was the place to which they had tried to steer their course, by the help of a pocket-compass during the day, and of the stars by night.

4.    Five days had gone, nor were there any signs of land. On every side the glittering waters stretched away as far as they could see. ‘Famine stared them in the face.

5.    It is no wonder that hope died in their hearts. They threw down their oars in ‘despair. They crouched down in the bottom of the boat, their ‘ghastly faces showing that the end was not far off.

6.    Will Adams, their leader, was the last to give in. His hand still nervously grasped the ‘tiller, and his eye was bent eagerly towards the ‘horizon.

7.    Suddenly he called out, “ Cheer up, lads ! we

have one chance more. Do you see that dark speck in the shining waters ahead ?    \ am much mistaken

if it is not a ‘turtle.”

8.    Silently every man seized his oar and settled to his work. They rowed very quietly towards the creature, and seized it before it was aware of their approach. At once they cut off its head, fed upon its flesh, and drank its blood.

9.    Hope ‘revived in their hearts as they found their strength returning. They plied their oars with all their might; and ere many hours had passed, the eagle eye of Adams ‘descried a thin gray line stretching along between sea and sky.

10.    Before night, they felt sure that it was land; and morning showed them the rugged mountains of Minorca distinctly against the sky. By ten o’clock that night they had landed; and they “gave thanks unto Him who had brought them unto the haven where they would be.”

11.    The Spaniards supplied them with food, and treated them with the greatest kindness. In due time they were sent to England in one of the king’s ships. The canvas boat was placed as a memorial in the great church in Minorca, where its ribs and skeleton were seen by a traveller more , than one hundred years afterwards.

Questions.—1. What needed constant labour after they had sailed? What spoiled their stock of bread?—2. What soon began to tell upon the strongest ?—3. How did they steer ? Where did they try to go ?— 4. In what position were they when five days had gone?—5. What did they do in their despair? Where did they crouch down ?—6. Who was their leader?—7. What did he suddenly call out?—8. What did they do?—9. What was seen ere many hours had passed?—10. What did they do on landing?—11. How were they treated by the Spaniards?

leaked    row-ing    coin-pass    mis-tak-en    moun-tains

con-stant    broil-ing    glit-ter-ing    strength    Span-iards

la-bour    stron-gest    ner-vous-ly    re-turn-ing    me-mo-ri-al

scarce-ly    spoiled    sud-den-ly    stretch-in g    skel-e-ton

Bale, throw out the water from. De-scried', saw.

De-spair', utter want of hope. Fam-ine, utter want of food. Ghast-ly, pale; death-like. Ho-ri-zon, where sea and sky meet.

Min-or-ca, one of the Bal-e-ar-ic Islands, off the east coast of Spain. Re-vived', arose again.

Til-ler, the handle for turning the helm.

Tur-tle, the large sea-tortoise.


1. “ Mother, it rains !” and tears like rain fell dovyi.—

“ O little daughter ! see, the plants ‘rejoice ;

The rose-buds blush, and in your garden-bed The ’drooping violets look so gladly up,

’Blessing our God for rain. He knows what’s best.”—

2. “ Yes, mother, He knows everything; and so

He surely knows there’s but one afternoon In all the week that I can have from school;

And ’tis the third that I’ve had leave to go And play with Mary, if it did not rain,

And gather wild-flowers in her father’s ’grove,—

And now it rains again.”

3.    The mother took The ‘mourner on her knee, and kissed away

The 'blinding grief. And then she told her tales Of the great Eastern deserts parched and dry,

And how the traveller ’mid the burning sands Watches for rain-clouds with a ’fainting gaze;

And showed her pictures of the ’caravan,

And the poor camel with his out-stretched neck, Longing for water.

L    And she told her, too,

Of the ’sad mother in the wilderness,

And the ’spent water-bottle how she laid Her darling son among the shrubs to die,

Bowing her head down that she might not see The ’ agony of the long death from thirst;

And how the blessed Angel, when she prayed,

Showed her a ’crystal well to save her child.


5.    And other stories from the Book of God Breathed that kind teacher to the listening one, Seated so meek beside her:—how there fell No rain in Israel, till the grass decayed,

And the brooks wasted, and the cattle died ;

And good 'Elijah with his earnest prayer Besought the Lord, till the consenting cloud Gave rain, and thankful earth her fruits restored.

6.    And then they sang a hymn; and, full of joy, The baby, crowing from his nurse’s arms,

Came in and joined them, creeping merrily After his little sister; till, her pain

Of disappointment all 'absorbed in love,

She thanked her mother for the pleasant time, And for her tender lessons.

7.    So that night,

Amid her simple prayer, they heard her say Words of sweet praise to Him whose mercy gives The blessed rain :—“ For now I know, O God.

What pleases Thee is best.”    Mrs. Sigourney.

Questions.—1. Why did the little girl weep? What did her mother tell her?—2. Why was the girl angry that it rained?—3. What did her mother tell her about the deserts?—4. What about the sad mother in the wilderness?—5. What about the drought in Israel? Who had prayed to God for rain then?—6. What did they then do? Who joined them? How was the girl’s disappointment removed?—7. What words did she put in her prayer that night?













moth-er daugh-ter vi-o-lets grief

Ab-sorbed', swallowed up.

Ag-O-ny, extreme pain.

Bless-ing, thanking.

Blind-mg grief, sorrowful tears. Car-a-van’, a company of travellers. Crys-tal, clear; pure.

Droop-ing, fading; sickly.

E-li-jah, the prophet; for the incident, see 1 Kings xviii. 45.

Is-ra-el ear-nest be-sought' con-sent-ing

Faint-ing, languid from loss of strength.

Grove, a small wood; a group of trees. MournLer, grumbler.

Re-joice , am glad.

Sad moth-er, Hagar, the mother of Ishmael, the “darling son” here referred to (see Genesis xxL 15-19). Spent, empty.


1.    The home of the elephant is in the deep shady forest. He is the largest of all land animals, and is found both in Asia and in Africa.

2.    One of the chief places in Asia where the elephant is found is the island of ’Ceylon. Tn this beautiful island, which is as large as Ireland, there are vast forests, which form the home of thousands of elephants., In these forests the trees grow thick and tall, so as to make many parts almost dark, while bright sunlight is above and around them.

3. The elephant likes the deep shady part of the forest, and seeks the coolest places that can be found. There he will stand ’happing his ears, to drive away the hies; or he will pull down a bough from a tree to fan himself.

4«. He is fond, too, of bathing, and likes to be near a lake or a running water, where he will stand for hours together, sucking up the water with his trunk and spouting it all over his body.

5. He is fond of the fruits which grow in the forest, but he also eats the leaves and the young tender boughs of the trees. There is plenty of food for him in ’his native forests ; but he is not always ’content with what he finds there, and sometimes ’invades the regions of ’civilisation.

G. When the crops of rice and Indian corn are getting ripe, he often does a great deal of ’mischief. At night he comes out of the forest, and breaks into a garden or a field. He soon tears down the fence, and marches over the field, eating as much as he can, and ’trampling down more than he eats. Next morning when the owner of the field awakes, he finds that the elephant has been there, and has gone back to the forest, leaving his crops all trodden down and ’destroyed.

7. When a herd of elephants moves about in the forest, the oldest of the herd goes first. The young elephants and their mothers are put in the middle of the troop, where they are safest. Then all march along with a great trampling noise, the boughs ot the trees bending and breaking before them. Though the elephant is ’commonly quiet and harmless, no one dares to ‘attack a herd of elephants marching through the forest.

8. In Asia the elephant is tamed, and made to work. At one time the African elephant also was tamed. Soldiers in ‘ancient times often went to battle mounted on the backs of African elephants. But now the elephant that lives in Africa is hunted chiefly for its ‘valuable ivory tusks.    %

Questions.—1. Where is the home of the elephant? How does he rank among land animals? In what continents is he found?—2. Where is he chiefly found in Asia?—3. What part of the forest does the elephant prefer?—4. Why does he like to be near a lake or a running water? —5. What food does he eat? Where does he find plenty of it?—6. At what time does he often do great mischief? When does he break into a garden or a field? What damage does he do? When does the owner find it out?—7. Which elephant marches at the head of a herd? Which are put in the middle?—8. Where is the elephant tamed, and made to work? For what was the African elephant used in ancient times? For what is it now chiefly hunted?































An-cient, old; early.

At-tack , fall upon; assail. Com-mon-ly, usually; generally. Con-tent', satisfied.

Cey-lon , a large island at the southern extremity of India.

Civ-il-i-sa-tion, improvement by human arts.

De-stroyed', ruined; greatly injured.

Flap-ping, wagging; striking backward and forward.

His na-tive for-ests, the forests in which he was born.

In-vades', marches into; attacks.

Mis-chief, harm.

Tram-pling, treading.

Val-u-a-ble, of great value; worth much money.

PRO VERBS—(Elliptical).

fruits    moth-er    tem-per    right

Master jour......, lest it master you.

What is not.....must be wrong.

Deeds are......, words are but leaves.

Sloth is the......of poverty.



1.    In catching wild elephants in Ceylon, the natives choose a place near to the forest, and make a fence round it, each post in the fence being the trunk of a tree. Sometimes the space ‘enclosed is so great that the fence ‘extends to several miles! The space inside the fence is called a ‘corral. There are openings like great door-ways left in it, by which the elephants are to get in when they come rushing towards it.

2.    When the corral has been made ready, the

elephants begin to see blazing lights all around them. These are the fires that the 'natives have made to frighten the elephants.

3.    The fires seem at first a long way off. But they come nearer and nearer, until the poor elephants are 'hemmed in by fires on all sides but one. Behind the flames are crowds of men, with white shining sticks and spears in their hands. Jhe men knock these sticks about, and 'brandish their spears, all the time making a great shouting noise, to frighten the elephants as much as they can.

4.    The elephants look about, to see how they can 'escape. Only one way is left open, and the whole herd sets off down it with a 'furious rush. -That one way leads them to the corral! As soon as they are in the corral, the natives bar up the door-ways, and the poor elephants are 'penned in, as 'securely as if they were in a prison.

5.    One by one they must be got out, and this is done with the help of tame elephants which were once caught in the corral themselves; but since then they have been well taught, and are now willing to help to catch their old friends of the forest.

6.    When one of the elephants has been got out, the natives bar the door-way behind him. He rushes about in great fury; but the tame elephants come, one on each side of him, and stroke him with their trunks, and seem to talk to him.

7.    He becomes a little quieter while they are with him. 'By-and-by they 'entice him to follow them away from the corral. When they come to a good strong tree they stop. The natives keep close behind, and ‘contrive to slip a strong rope round one of his legs, and then to coil it round and round the tree. As soon as he is tied fast, his false friends leave him! He tries to follow them; and when he finds that he cannot, he roars, and struggles as if he would pull the tree down!

8. The natives soon come back, and bring him cocoa-nuts and plenty of green leaves to eat. At first he is too angry to eat, and he tosses the cocoa-nuts about, and tramples them under his feet; but in spite of his rage he cannot help getting hungry. By-and-by he is glad to take all the nuts and good things the natives bring him. In a few days he begins to be tame and gentle; and in a little time he can be made to do anything his master likes. One by one the other elephants in the corral are let out and tamed in the same way.

Questions.—1. Wliat is a corral? How large sometimes is the space enclosed? Wl.y are openings left in the fence?—2. How are the elephants frightened?—3. On how many sides of them are the fires? Who are behind the flames?—4. Where does the only way left open to them lead? What is done when they are in the corral?—5. With what help are they taken out?—6. What does an elephant do when .taken out?— 7. How do the tame ones treat him?—8. What do the natives then give him? What forces him to take to them?




catch-ing    rush-ing

choose    sev-er-al

o-pen-ings    blaz-ing

Bran-dish, wave, flourish about. Con-trive', manage.

Cor-ral, an elephant trap. En-closed', closed in ; surrounded. En-tice', tempt; allure.

E-scape, get away.

fu-ry    gen-tle

mas-ter    hun-gry

strug-gles    plen-ty

Ex-tends', stretches away.

Fn-ri-OUS, violent.

Hemmed in, shut in ; confined Na-tives, people of the country. Penned, shut in ; cooped up. Se-cure-ly, safely ; surely.


1.    Parrots ‘abound in the forests of South America. They live where there is summer all the year round, where the leaves are always green, and the flowers are always blooming. There the bright little humming-bird may be seen ‘darting about in the sunshine. And at night the fire-fly ‘flits to and fro, shining like a tiny star.

2.    The parrot makes his home in the forest, because he can find shade there in the heat of the day. If you were going through the forest, you would hear such a noise and ‘chattering among the boughs over your head, that you would wonder what was the matter. If you looked up, you would see a great many parrots sitting on the boughs.

3.    Parrots feed chiefly on fruit and seeds; and plenty of fruit grows in the forest for them to eat. They are very fond of the wild cherry, ‘especially of the stone. They drive their hard, strong bill into it, and get the ‘kernel out ‘in a minute.

4.    The bill of the parrot seems made ‘on purpose to enable him to crack these stones. It is very sharp, and is hooked at the end. In fact, his bill is his knife, and his foot is his fork. He can hold anything he likes in his foot. It is as useful to him as your hand is to you.

5.    The toes of the parrot are as ‘distinct from one another as your fingers are; and the joints are so supple that he can bend them about in any way he pleases. If it were not for his foot, he could never climb the trees as he does. He hooks himself on to a branch overhead by his bill. Then he lays hold of a bough with his foot, and pulls himself up. He goes on climbing in this way till he gets to the top of the tree.

6.    Parrots are very fond of bathing. They fly about till they find some clear pool or stream. Then they enjoy themselves very much indeed. They dip into the water, and splash it all over their feathers. When they are tired of bathing, they sit in the sun and dress their feathers till they are dry.

7.    In the middle of the day, the heat becomes very great. Then the parrots fly into the deepest shade they can find. They perch on the trees and go to sleep. The chattering ceases, and the forest is still. But in the evening, when the sun is down, they wake up, and are as noisy and as lively as ever.

8.    They sup, as they breakfasted, upon the kernels of the fruits; and then they go to the water to bathe once more. Again follows the business of 'pluming their feathers; and after that they go to rest for the night.

9.    But they do not 'roost in the branches where they took their mid-day nap. Their sleeping-room is a hollow in a tree, 'scooped out by th^ 'woodpecker. As many parrots go in as the hollow will contain. The rest hook themselves to the bark by their claws and bills, and hang there during the night.

10.    The parrot lays her eggs in these hollow trees. She does not make a nest, but is content with the soft rotten wood ; and the whole flock lay their eggs together in the same tree.

Questions.—1. Where do parrots abound? How long does summer last there?—2. Where does the parrot make his home? Why?—3. What is his chief food?—4. For what purpose does his bill seem to have been mads? What has he for a fork?—5. What of the parrot’s toes? What of his joints? What makes him so good a climber? What use does he make of his bill in climbing?—6. Why do parrots fly about in search of a pool or a stream? What do they enjoy very much ?—7. What do they do in the heat of the day?—8. What is the last thing they do before going to rest at night?—9. What is their sleeping-room?— 10. Where do they lay their eggs ?


























A-bound', are plentiful. Chat-ter-ing, idle talking; gabbling. Dart-ing, moving quickly.

Dis-tinct , separate.

E-spec-ial-ly, most of all.

Flits, darts, or flies quickly.

In a min-ute, in a very short time

Ker-nel, the soft part inside.

Oil pur-pose, purposely ; expressly. Plhm-ing, picking and dressing. Roost, sleep, or rest on a branch. Scooped, hollowed ; carved. Wood-peck-er, a small climbing bird, with a strong bill.


1.    A parrot from the Spanish Mam,

Full young and early caged, came o’er With bright wings to the 'bleak 'domain Of 'Mulla’s shore.

2.    To spicy groves where he had won

His plumage of “resplendent hue,

His native fruits, and skies, and sun,

He bade 'adieu.

3.    For these he changed the smoke of turf,

A heathery land and misty sky,

And turned on rocks and raging surf His golden eye.

4.    But petted iii our climate cold,

He lived and chattered many a day; Until, with age, from green and gold His wings grew gray.

5. At last, when blind, and seeming dumb, He scolded, laughed, and spoke no more, A Spanish stranger chanced to come To Mulla’s shore.

6. He hailed the bird in Spanish speech;

The bird in Spanish speech replied,

Flapped round the cage with joyous screech,

L)ropt down, and died! Campbell.

Questions.—1. Where was the parrot taken?—2. To what did he bid adieu?—3. What had he in place of these?—4. What enabled him to live many a day?—5. Who came to Mull when he seemed to have lost his voice ?—G. How did he hail the bird ? What followed ?

dumb    re-plied

scohFed    joy^ous

laughed    screech










Mull-a’s shore, the Island of Mull, on the west coast of Scotland. Re-splen-dent, shining brightly Span-ish Main, the coast of South America belonging to Spain.

A-dieu', farewell (literally, to God). Bleak, cold; cheerless Do-main', land ; district.

For these he changed, instead of these he had to endure.

II- o





1.    In the city of Delhi, in India, a tailor was in the habit of giving some fruit to an elephant, that daily passed the place where he sat at work. So ‘accustomed had the animal become to this, that it ‘regularly put its trunk in at the window, to receive the ‘expected gift.

2.    One day, however, the tailor, being ‘out of humour, thrust his needle into the elephant’s trunk, telling it to be gone, as he had nothing to give it.

3.    The elephant passed quietly on; but on coming to a pool of dirty water near by, it filled its trunk and returned. Thrusting its huge head in at the window, it half drowned the poor tailor by pouring a flood of water over him, to the great ‘amusement of those who * witnessed the scene !

4.    An army in India was marching up a hill. The large guns, which were very heavy, were drawn by elephants. There was a long train of those animals in regular ‘file, one close behind the other, each drawing its ‘piece of artillery.

5.    On the carriage of one of the guns a soldier was sitting, a little in front of a wheel. The man, being very tired, dropped asleep, and fell from his seat. The wheel of the carriage, loaded with its heavy gun, was just on the point of rolling over his body. There was no time to get him out of the way.

6.    The elephant ‘in the rear, seeing the danger, but unable to reach the man with its trunk, seized the wheel, and lifting it up, passed it carefully over him, and set it down a little beyond !

Questions.—1. Where was it that an elephant daily passed a tailor’s shop? What used the tailor to give it? What did the elephant regularly do in passing ?—2. What did the tailor do one day ?—3. What did the elephant then do? What did it do on its return?. Who were amused by the scene?—4. Where was an army in India marching? How were the guns conveyed ?—5. What caused a man to fall from his seat ? In what danger was he ?—6. How was he saved ?

























Ac-cus-tomed, used.

A-muse-ment, sport; fun. Ex-pect^ed, looked for.

File, line, or row, one behind another. In the rear, behind him.







Out of hu-mour, ill-tempered.

Piece of ar-til-ler-y, a great gun. Reg-u-lar-ly, duly; every time it


Wit-nessed, saw; beheld.

7.    An elephant was in the habit of passing over a small bridge 'leading from his master’s house into a town in India. He one day 'refused to go over it, and it was only by cruelly 'goring him with a spear that he could be forced to 'venture on the bridge, the strength of which he first tried with his trunk, showing that he 'suspected something.

8. At last he went on, but before he could get over, the bridge gave way, and both the elephant and his driver 'were cast into the ditch. The fall killed the driver, and very much 'injured the elephant.

9.    An Englishman who 'travelled a great deal in India, says: “I 'performed many long 'journeys upon an elephant, and whenever I wished to make a sketch, the ’docile creature would stand perfectly still till my drawing was finished.

10.    “If at any time I wished ripe mango-fruit which was growing out of my reach, he would ’select the most fruitful branch, break it off with his trunk, and offer it to me. Sometimes I gave him some of the fruit for himself, and he would thank me by raising his trunk three times over his head, making a gentle murmuring noise as he did so.

11.    “When branches of trees came in my way, he broke them off at once, twisting his trunk round them; and he often broke off* a leafy bough for himself, and used it as a fan to keep off the flies, waving it to and fro with his trunk. When I was at breakfast in the morning, he always came to the tent door to be cheered by my praise and ’caresses, and to receive fruit and sugar-candy.”

Questions.—7. How was the elephant forced to venture on the bridge? How had he shown that he suspected something?—8. What happened when he went on it? What befell the driver? And the elephant ?—9. What did another elephant do when his master wished to make a sketch ?—10. How did the writer obtain mango-fruit? What did the elephant do when he got some of the fruit ?—11. What use did he sometimes make of a leafy bough ?

mas-ter’s    driv-er    fin-ished    rais-ing    break-fast

cru-el-ly    En-glish-man    man-go-fruit    mur-mur-ing    re-ceive'

strength    per-fect-ly    fruit-ful    branch-es    su-gar-can-dy

Ca-ress-es, acts of fondling, or affection.

Do-cile, easily managed.

Go-ring, pricking.

In-jured, hurt.

Jour-neys, travels; excursions. Lead-ing from .... into, between .....and.

Per-formed', went through.

Re-fused' to go, would not go ; declined to go.

Se-lect', choose.

Sus-pect-ed • some-thing, fancied there was something wrong.

Trav-elled a great deal, was a frequent traveller.

Ven-ture on, trust himself to.

Were cast, fell


1.    In the ‘reign of Queen Elizabeth, two plants were brought to England, for the first time, by Sir Walter Raleigh, both of which are now very much used—the Tobacco-plant and the Potato. Sir Walter had sailed across the seas to America, in search of new lands ; and he brought babk both these plants with him.

2.    When he was in America, he had seen the Indians smoke, and before long he acquired the habit himself. He became extremely fond of smoking, and ’frequently ‘indulged in the practice.

3.    When he returned to England, he was sitting by the fire one day, and began to smoke. In the middle of his smoking, the door opened, and in came his man-servant. Now, this man had never in his life seen any one smoke, and did not know that there was such a plant as tobacco. So, when he saw the smoke coming from his master’s mouth, he thought that he was on fire! He cried out in alarm, and ran to fetch a bucket of water to put the fire out; and Sir Walter was ‘deluged before he had time to ‘explain what he was really doing.

4.    But very soon the old servant got used to seeing people with smoke coming out of their mouths; and all the young nobles of the court began to smoke because Sir Walter did so.

5.    At first, people did not like the potato at all : nobody would eat it. Yet Sir Walter told them how useful it would be. The potato, he said, could be made to grow in England. He told them that,

(594)    12—V.


when the corn-harvest failed—which it often used to do—people need not ‘starve if they had plenty of potatoes.

6.    Queen Elizabeth, who was a very clever woman, listened to what Sir Walter said, and had potatoes served up at her own table. There the grand people who dined with her majesty were * obliged to eat them. But they spread a report that the potato was ‘poisonous, because it belongs to the same order as the ’deadly nightshade and many other poisonous plants. So, in spite of all that the Queen could do, no one would eat potatoes, and they were left for the pigs.

7.    The people did not find out their ‘mistake till many years afterwards. The poor potato was *de-


spised and forgotten till the reign of the French king Louis XVI., when there lived a Frenchman who had made a study of growing plants for food. He felt sure that he could make the potato a great blessing to the country; and he began at once to try.

8.    After a great deal of trouble he ‘succeeded. People laughed at him at first, and would not take any notice of what he said. But he went on growing the potato till he brought it to 'perfection. Even then no one would have eaten it, if its part had not been taken by the king. He had large pieces of ground planted with potatoes, and went about with the flower of the potato in his button-hole.

9.    No one dared to laugh at the king; and when he said that potatoes were to be eaten, people began to find out how good and 'wholesome they were. ' By degrees the potato was more and more liked ; and now there is hardly any vegetable that is more highly ‘esteemed.

Questions.—1. What were the two plants which Raleigh brought to England ? Where did he bring them from ?—2. What habit did he acquire from the Indians ?—3. What did he do one day after his return to England? Who went into the room ? What did he think? What did he do ?—4. Who soon followed Sir Walter’s example ?—5. How did people at first regard the potato ? When, according to Raleigh, would it be useful?—6. Where were the grand people obliged to eat potatoes? What report did they spread about them? For what were they then left?—7. When did people find out their mistake? Of what did the learned Frenchman feel sure?—8. He succeeded, after what? How did people treat his efforts ? Who helped him by taking the part of the potato ?—9. What did people begin to find out then ? What is thought of the potato now ?


























0-bliged', forced.

Per-fec-tion, as good as it could be made.

Poi-son-ous, causing death.

Reign, the time a king or queen is on the throne. Elizabeth was queen of England from 1558 till 1603.

Starve, die for want of food. Suc-ceed-ed, gained his end. Whole-some, good for the health.

By de-grees', bit by bit.

Dead-ly night-shade, a poisonous plant.

Del-uged, covered completely. De-spised , looked down on. E-steemed', thought of ; valued Ex-plain', make him understand. Pre-quent-ly, often.

In-dulged' in, enjoyed.

Mis-take', error.


tree    lit-tle    com-pa-ny    feasts    wheel

keeps    fast    noise    trav-el    climb

Better to be alone than in bad.......

He who grasps too much, holds......

He that......till he is sick, must .... till he is well.

He that can......well afoot.....a good horse.

The worst.....of the cart makes the most.....

If you wish to have the fruit, you must learn to.....the . . . •


1.    “ Tell me a story, please,” my little girl Lisped from her cradle. So I bent me down,

And told her how it rained, and rained, and rained, Till all the flowers were ’covered, and the trees Hid their tall heads, and where the houses stood And people dwelt, a fearful ’deluge rolled ;

Because the world was wicked, and refused To ’heed the words of God.

2.    But ’one good man, Who long.had warned the wicked to ‘repent,

Obey, and live, taught by the voice of Heaven,

Had built an ark ; and thither, with his wife And children, turned for safety.

3.    Two and two Of beasts and birds and creeping things, he took, With food for all. And, when the tempest roared, And the great 'fountains of the sky poured out

A ’ceaseless flood, till all beside were drowned, They in their quiet vessel dwelt 'secure.

4.    And so the mighty waters bore them up,

And o’er the bosom of the deep they sailed For many days. But then a gentle dove ’Scaped from the 'casement of the ark, and spread Her lovely ‘pinion o’er that boundless wave.

5.    All was ‘desolation. Chirping nest,

Nor face of man, nor living thing she saw ;

For all the people of the earth were drowned, Because of disobedience.

6.    Naught she spied,

Save wide, dark waters, and a frowning sky,

Nor found her weary foot a place of rest:

So, with a leaf of olive in her mouth,

Sole fruit of her drear voyage, which 'perchance Upon some 'wrecking 'billow floated by,

With drooping wing the peaceful ark she sought.

7.    The righteous man that wandering dove received, And to her mate 'restored, who, with sad moans, Had wondered at her absence.

8.    Then I looked Upon the child, to see if her young thoughts Wearied with following mine. But her blue eye Was a glad listener, and the eager breath

Of pleased attention curled her parted lips.

9.    And so I told her how the waters dried,

And the green branches waved, and the sweet buds Came up in loveliness, and that meek dove Went forth to build her nest, while thousand birds

Awoke their songs of praise, and the tired ark Upon the breezy breast of ‘Ararat Reposed, and Noah with glad spirit reared An altar to his God.

10.    Since, many a time,

When to her rest, ere evening’s earliest star,

That little one is laid, with earnest tone,

And pure cheek pressed to mine, she fondly asks,

“ The Ark and Dove.”    Mrs. Sigourney.


Questions.—1. Why was the rain sent to cover the earth ?2. What had one good man done ? How did he know to do that ? Who went into the ark with him?—3. What did he take with him ?—4. What bird was allowed to escape from the ark ?—5. What was the appearance of things ?—6. What did her foot not find ? What did she bring back in her mouth ? Where had she probably found it?—7. Who received her? —8. What showed that the child was interested?—9. What did the dove do when the waters dried ? Where did the ark rest ? What did Noah do ?—10. When does the child often ask for the story ?







thith-er    creep-ing    right-eous

chil-dren    tem-pest    won-dered

safe-ty    dis-o-be-di-ence    ab-sence

Ar-a-rat, a mountain in Turkey in Asia, near the borders of Persia. Bil-low, wave.

Case-ment, window.

Cease-less, constant; never ending Cov-ered, under water.

Del-uge, flood.

Des-o-la-tion, waste; gloom. Poun-tains, water springs.

Heed, mind; care for.

One good man, Noah. Per-chance', perhaps.

Pin-ion, wing.

Re-pent', feel sorry for sin. Re-stored', gave back.

Se-cure', safe.

Wea-ried, grew tired.

Wreck-ing, causing wreck or ruin.

PROVERBS- (Elliptical).

can-not    sense    pound

vir-tue    slaves    long

Most men are......because they......say No.”

He liveth .... that liveth well.

An ounce of.....is worth a ...... of wit.

The path of......is the path of peace.


1.    “ Little boy, will you help an old man up the hill with his load ? ” These words were spoken by an old gray-headed man, who was drawing a handcart with a bag of corn in it.

2.    “I can’t; I 'am in a hurry,” said Hanson, the boy ‘addressed, who was hurrying to get to the school-yard, that he might play with the boys before school began.

3.    The old man sat down on a stone at the foot of the hill, to rest himself and gather strength for the 'ascent. He gazed after Hanson, and sighed as he thought of the days of his youth, now far back in the past. A tear was beginning to gather in his eye, when another little boy, John Wilson, came up to him and said, “ Shall I help you up the hill with your load ? ”

4.    The old man ‘brushed his eyes with the cuff of his coat, and replied, “ I shall be very glad to have your help.” He then arose, and taking the ‘tongue of his cart, pulled with all his strength, while John pushed behind.

5.    When they reached the top of the hill, John •discovered a rent in the bag on the under side, from which the corn was dropping out; and, putting forth all his strength, he turned the bag, so that there might be no further loss of corn.

6.    “ I am much obliged to you,” said the old man, as John set out upon a run for the school-house ; “ and may the Lord reward you.” But

John was out of hearing before the last words were spoken.

7.    When John reached the school-house, he was about ten minutes too late ; for which he received a mark. This was a very unusual thing for him, as he was ‘remarkable for being ‘punctual. If he had told the master what had ‘detained him, he would have been * excused ; but he thought it wo^ld look a little like boasting to do so. So he took the mark without saying a word.

8.    When the school was out, Hanson said to John, '‘For what did you get a mark ? ”

“ Because I was too late,” said John.

“ I know that; but why were you not in time ? I saw you at the foot of the hill, only a little way behind me. I suppose you stopped to help old Stevenson up the hill with his ‘grist? He tried to stop me ; but I don’t work for nothing.”

“ Nor I either.”

9.    " Oh ! you got a mark from the school-master. Do you call that pay for your work ? ”

“You don’t know what else I got.”

“ Did you get anything else ? ”

“I did not do it ‘expecting to get anything for it.”

“ Why did you do it, then ? ”

“ Because I thought I ought to help the poor old man.”

“ If you have a mind to be such a fool as to work for nothing, you may. No pay, no work, is my rule.”    _

10.    To be kind and useful is my rule, John might

have said with truth ; but he did not say so. Nor did John really work for nothing when he ’performed acts of kindness. In the first place, he had the ’approval of his ’conscience; which was worth something. In the second place, he had the pleasure of doing good; which was also worth something. In the third place, he had the ’gratitude and love of many ; also worth something. And lastly, and best of all, he had the approval of God, who has promised that even a cup of cold water given to a disciple shall not lose its reward.    Alden.

Questions.—1. Who asked a little boy’s help ? What was he doing? —2. What did Hanson reply? Why was he hurrying ?—3. What did the old man do? Who offered to help him?—4. What did the old man reply? What did he do, as he answered? How did John help him? —5. What did John discover when they got to the top of the hill? What did he do ?—6. What did the old man say as John ran off ?— 7. Why did John receive a mark from the master? How might he have been excused ? Why did he not do so ?—8. What reason did Hanson give for not having helped the old man ?—9. What reason did J ohn give for having done it? What was Hanson’s rule?—10. What might John have said? What were the four things which John gained by doing acts of kindness ?







boast-ing .
















b e-hind'






Ad-dressed7, spoken to.

Ex-CUSed7, let off; pardoned.

Am in a liur-ry,

have no time to

Ex-pect-ing to get, looking for ; hop-


ing to receive.

Ap-prov-al, good opinion.

Grat-i-tude, good-will,

in return for a

As-cent7, road up hill.

good act.

Brushed his eyes, wiped away a tear. Con-science, sense of duty. De-tained7, kept back; delayed. Dis-cov-ered, found; saw for the first time.

Grist, corn ready to be ground. Per-formed7, did.

Punc-tu-al, exact in time. Ke-mark-a-ble, well known; noted. Tongue, shaft or pole.


1.    Stay, lady ! stay, ‘for mercy’s sake,

And hear a helpless ' orphan’s tale !

Ah, sure my looks must pity ‘wake !—

’Tis want that makes my cheek so pale Yet I was once a mother’s ‘pride,

And my brave father’s hope and joy; But in the ‘Nile’s “proud fight he died, And I am now an orphan boy.    %

2.    Poor, foolish child! how ‘pleased was I,

When news of Nelson’s victory came, Along the crowded streets to fly,

And see the lighted windows flame!

To force me home my mother sought:

She could not bear to see my joy;

For with my father’s life ’twas bought, And made me a poor orphan boy.

3.    The people’s shouts were long and loud,—

My mother, ‘shuddering, closed her ears “ Rejoice ! rejoice !” still cried the crowd,— My mother answered with her tears.

“ Oh, why do tears steal down your cheek,” Cried I, “ while others shout for joy?” She kissed me, and, in ‘accents weak,

She called me her poor orphan boy.

4. “ What is an orphan boy?” I said,—

When suddenly she ‘gasped for breath, And her eyes closed. I ‘shrieked for aid ;

But ah, her eyes were closed in death! My ‘hardships since I will not tell;

But now, no more a parent’s joy,

Ah, lady ! I have learned too well What ’tis to be an orphan boy!

5.    OJp ‘were I by your ‘bounty fed !—

Nay, gentle lady ! do not ‘chide ;

Trust me, I mean to 'earn'my bread,— The sailor’s orphan boy ‘has pride.

Lady, you weep ! What is’t you say ?

You’ll give me clothing, food, 'employ?—

Look down, dear parents, look and see

Your happy, happy orphan boy i Mrs QpiE

Questions.—1. "What made the boy’s cheek so pale? Where had his father died? — 2. Why could his mother not bear to see his joy for Nelson’s victory? —3. What did she call him? —4. What happened when he asked her what that meant? — 5. Did he beg bread from the lady ? How did he mean to obtain it ? What did the lady promise him ?


























Accents, words, or voice.

Boun-ty, goodness

Chide, blame ; or look angrily.

Earn my bread, work for a living. Em-ploy', work to be paid for.

For mer-cy’s sake, for pity’s sake. Gasped, panted.

Hard-ships, trials.

Has pride, has self-respect or honour. Nile’s fight, the Battle of the Nile, in

which Nelson gained a great victory over the French, in 1798.

Or-phan, a child who has lost father or Pleased, glad ; delighted. [mother Pride, that of which one is proud; Proud, splendid ; glorious, [favourite. Shrieked, screamed ; called wildly. Shud-der-ing, trembling with fear. Wake, rouse ; excite.

Were I, if I were.


1.    Little Dick—what a gay fellow he was! He used to go about singing and whistling the whole day long. He was always ’merry, and ’scarcely anything could make him sad.

2.    One day little Dick thought that he would have a ’ramble in the forest, at some distance from his home ; so off he set in high spirits, singing and whistling till he made the woods ring again.

3.    At last he ’reached a clear brook that ’ran through the wood; and, being thirsty, he stooped to drink. But just at that moment he was suddenly

“seized from behind ; and he found himself in the hands of a great, tall giant, a hundred times as big as himself. The giant looked at him with great •delight, and then put him into a large bag and carried him off.

4.    Poor Dicky tried all he could to get out of the bag, but *to no purpose. He screamed, he struggled, he tried to tear the bag ; but the giant only laughed at him for his ‘pains, and went on, holding him fast.

5.    At last the giant came to his house—a gloomy-looking place, with a high wall all round it, and no trees or flowers. When he got in, he shut the door, and took Dicky out of the bag.

G. The poor ‘captive now thought that ’his time was come ; for when he looked round he saw a large fire, and before it two ‘victims larger than himself roasting for the giant’s dinner. The giant, however, did not kill Dick, but only put him into a prison which he had ‘prepared for him.

7.    The prison was quite dark, with bars all round it; and the only food in it was a piece of dry bread and a cup of water. Dick beat his head against the iron bars, and dashed backwards and forwards, and felt very ‘wretched.

8.    Next day the giant came and looked at Dick ; and finding that he had eaten none of the bread, he took him by the head, and crammed some of it down his throat! Poor Dick was too much frightened to think of eating or drinking.

9.    He ^a^ left all alone in the dark another day; and a sad day it was. The poor creature thought of his own home, his ‘companions, the sunlight, the trees, the flowers, and the many nice things he used to eat; and then he screamed, and tried to get between the iron bars, and beat and tore himself.

10.    The giant came again, and wanted Dick to sing as he used to do, and be happy and merry. “ Sing, sing, sing ! ” said he. But Dick was much too sad to sing : a prison is no place in which to sing songs. At last the giant grew angry, and took Dick out to force him to sing. Dick gave a loud scream, plunged and 'struggled, and then sank dead in the giant’s hand!

11.    This is a true story. Poor Dicky was a little bird, and the giant was a cruel boy.

The Youth's Friend.

Questions. 1. What kind of fellow was little Dick ? What used he to do the whole day long ?—2. What did he one day set off to do ?— 3. What happened to him as he stooped to drink ? In whose hands did he find himself? Where did the giant put him?—4. How did Dicky try to get out of the bag? What did the giant do then? — -5. What did he do when he came to his house ?—6. What did Dick see at the fire, when he was taken out of the bag ? What did the giant do with Dick ?—7. What food was set there for him ? What did Dick do when put in prison?—8. What did the giant do on finding that Dick had eaten nothing? — 9. What did he think of when left alone in the dark ?—10. Why did Dick not sing as he used to do ? What happened when the giant took him out of prison?—11. Is this a true story? What was Dicky? Who was the giant?

















Cap-tive, prisoner.

Com-pan-ions, friends.

De-light', joy; pleasure.

His time was come, he was going to Mer-ry, in good spirits. [be killed. Pains, trouble; labour.

Pre-pared', got ready.

Ram-ble, wander; roam

Ran, flowed.

Reached, came to.

Scarce-ly, .hardly.

Seized, caught; laid hold of. Strug-gled, strove. *

To no pur-pose, in vain. Vic-tims, things sacrificed. Wretch-ed, unhappy; miserable.


1. The long trunk of the elephant is a 'wonderful •example of 'design and skill. The neck of fourfooted animals is usually long, to enable them to reach their food 'without difficulty ; but the elephant has a short neck, to enable him more easily to 'support the weight of his huge head and heavy

tusks. The difficulty of getting food is 'admirably overcome by his long trunk.

2. The trunk of the elephant is to him what the neck is to other animals. It is also a nose to him ; for at the end of it there is a hollow place like a cup, and in the bottom of the cup are two holes or nostrils, through which the animal smells and breathes. It is an arm and a hand too; so that it has been said that the elephant carries his nose in his hand. And it might also have been said that be breathes by his hand, How strange it would

seem to us if we were to breathe through our



3.    At the end of the trunk there is a ‘curious part, about five inches long, which forms a finger. With this finger the animal can pick up a pin or the smallest piece of money from the ground ; he can ‘select herbs and flowers, and take them one by one; he can untie knots ; he can open and shut gates by turning the keys or pushing back the bolts; and with this finger he has been taught to make regular marks like letters, with an instrument as small as a pen.

4.    The trunk of a full-grown elephant is about eight feet long. It can be made shorter or longer *as the animal chooses, and can be moved with great ease in every possible direction. It has such ‘prodigious strength that he can knock down a man with it, and pull up trees of ‘moderate size by the roots.

Questions.—1. Why has the elephant a short neck ? What enables him to get his food?—2. What does the trunk thus supply the place of? How does the elephant breathe ? How can it be said that he carries his nose in his hand?—3. What is there at the end of the trunk? What can he do with this? — 4. How long is the trunk of a full-grown elephant ? Give an example of its great strength ?




fi n-ger






















Ad-mi-ra-bly, wonderfully.

As the an-i-mal choos-es, at the will of the animal.

Cu-ri -ous, singular De-sign', contrivance ; plan. Ex-am-ple, instance.

Mod-er-ate, ’not very great. Pro-dig-ious, very great. Se-lect', choose ; separate. Sup-port', bear.

With-OUt' dii-fi-cul-ty, easily. Won-der-ful, extraordinary


1.    Can a boy be a ‘hero? Of course he can, if he has ‘courage, and ‘opportunity to show it. The boy who will stand up for the right, stick to the truth, ‘resist temptation, and * suffer rather than do wrong, is a true hero.

2.    Here is an ‘example of true heroism. A drummer-boy, who had become a great favourite with his officers, was asked by the captain to drink a glass of rum. But he ‘declined, saying, “ I am a temperance boy, and do not taste strong drink.”

3.    “ But you must take some now,” said the captain. You have been on duty all day, beating the drum and marching ; and now you must not refuse. I ‘insist upon it.” But the boy stood firm.

4.    The captain then turned to the major, and said : “ Our little drummer is afraid to drink. He will never make a soldier.”

How is this?” said the major ‘in a playful manner. <f Do you refuse to obey orders ?”

5.    “ Sir,” said the boy, I have never refused to obey orders, and have tried to do my duty as a soldier ‘faithfully ; but I must refuse to drink rum, for I know it would do me harm.”

G. Ci Then,” said the major, in a 'stern tone of voice, in order ‘to test his sincerity, I command you to take a drink ; and you know it is death to disobey orders.”

7. The little hero, fixing his clear blue eyes on the face of the officer, said : “ Sir, my father died a drunkard, and wheti I 'entered the army I ‘prorn-r4)    ] 3—v.

ised my mother that I would not taste a drop of rum ; and I mean to keep my promise. I am sorry to disobey your orders, sir; but I would rather suffer anything than ‘disgrace my mother, and break my pledge.”—Was not that boy a hero? He had learned when to say NO !

8. Few have learned to speak this word When it should be spoken;

•Resolution is delayed,

Vows to vii’tue broken.

More of courage is required This one word to say,

Than to stand where shots are fired In the battle fray.

9. The officers could not help admiring the conduct of the boy, and ever afterwards treated him with great kindness.

Questions. —1. What makes a boy a hero?—2. What was the drummer-boy asked to do? By whom ? What did the boy reply?— 3. What reason did the captain give for insisting on it ?—4. What did the captain say to the major?—What did the major say to the boy?— 5. What did the boy then say?—6. Why did the major assume a stern tone? What did he say would be the punishment of disobedience?— 7, 8. What reason did the boy then give for refusing ? What would he suffer anything rather than do?—9. What did the officers think of his conduct ?































Courtage, valour.

De-clined', refused.

Dis-grace', put to shame.

En-tered the ar-my, enlisted. Ex-am-ple, instance; case. Faith-ful-ly, honestly.

He-ro, a person remarkable for bravery. In a play-ful man-ner, in a good-humoured way; in jest; jokingly.

In-sist'up-on'it, will take no refusal. Op-por-tu-ni-ty, chance. Prom-ised, gave my word to. Re-Sist', withstand.

Res-o-luttion, making up one’s mind. Stern, severe, harsh.

Suftfer, bear.

To test his sin-cerQ-ty, to find out whether he was in earnest.


1.    Off the coast of North America, in the broad Atlantic Ocean, lies the island of Newfoundland. In the seas around that island is the most famous fishery in the world. There thousands of vessels go to fish, and millions of cod-fish are caught every year. That island is the native home of the Newfoundland dog, and from it the finest 'specimens of these dogs are brought.

2.    In his own country the Newfoundland dog is very useful. He is so large and strong that he can work like a little pony. Three or four of these great dogs are 'harnessed to little sledges ; arid in this way they draw loads of timber from the woods down to the coast. They also bear their part in the cod-fishery, and drag loads of fish up the beach. When they have 'delivered one load at their master’s store-house, they trot back again to the ship with the empty sledge for another load.

3.    I daresay you have seen a Newfoundland dog swimming about in the water. He likes the water, and is as much at home there as on the land. The reason that he can swim so well is because his toes are joined one to another, like the toes of a duck. The duck’s feet are called ,£U6&-feet j the feet of the New- duck’s foot. foundland dog may be called half webbed, as the toes are joined only half way up.

4.    God has given 'different- habits to different kinds of dogs, so that each in its own way may be of 'service to man. He Las made the mastiff strong and powerful, with a 'disposition to fight 'in defence of his master’s property ; he has made the shepherd’s dog well fitted for guarding and watching his master’s sheep ; and he has given the Newfoundland dog webbed feet, that he may swim the better, and thus be the means, as he often has been, of savins human life.

5.    Once a gentleman, having gone beyond his depth while bathing, was very nearly drowned. He owed his life to a Newfoundland dog that dashed in after him and brought him to shore. Every year afterwards, on the return of the day, the gentleman gave a dinner to his friends, and had the dog at table. A good supply of beef-steak was put on the dog’s plate as his share of the feast. The gentleman also had a picture painted of the scene of his danger, and of his brave 'deliverer bearing him through the waves.

6.    The following verses describe the rescue of a shipwrecked sailor by a Newfoundland dog,—an 'incident which 'occurred some years ago at the island of Sanda, one of the 'Orkneys :—


7.    The sun was sinking in the west,

'Lurid and red sank he,

While a little band stood on the land,

And gazed out on the sea.

8.    The farewell gleam of dying day

Shone on a sailor’s form,

As he clung to the deck of a surf-swept wreck That 'drove before the storm.

9. “Alas! alas!” the gazers cried,

As darker grew the sky,

“ Must he find a grave ’neath the rushing wave ?— What a dreadful death to die! ”

10.    A ‘giant billow sweeps the deck:

He has loosed his hold at last!

And his drowning cry came thrilling by Upon the stormy blast!

11.    See! there speeds a dog with leap and beund

Adown the rugged steep;

Ere the eye can wink, from the rocky brink He plunges in the deep!

12.    High on the waves, and low between,

He breasts the angry sea;

Away from the shore, through the stormy roar, Eight onward swimmeth he.

13.    Speed, Oscar! speed, thou noble dog,

Upon thy fearful path !

Speed, Oscar ! speed, nor hear nor heed The Taving tempest’s wrath !

14.    He hath seized the sailor ere he sinks—

He holds him firm and tight;

And back to the shore, through the stormy roar, He strains with all his might.

15.    No word is said, nor breath is drawn,

Among the little band,

As through surf and spray he breasts his way, And gains the rocky land.

16.    Long, long in Sanda’s lonely isle

This story shall be told;

And coming days shall hear the praise Of Oscar true and bold.

Questions. 1. Where is the island of'Newfoundland ? For what are its seas famous ? Of what animal is it the native home ?—2. What

use is made of these dogs in their own country? — 3. Why can they swim so well ? What are ducks’ feet called ? What may those of the Newfoundland dog be called?—4. Why has God given different habits to different kinds of dogs? For example, the mastiff? the sheep-dog? the Newfoundland dog?—5. To what did a gentleman once owe his life? How did he honour the dog?—6. Where did the incident described in the verses occur ?—7.-16. Tell the story of Oscar, the dog of Sanda.






















store-house guard-ing





gen-tle-man gazed







De-liv-ered, given up ; left. De-liv-er-er, rescuer.

Dif-fer-ent, not the Scame. DiS-po-si-tion, tendency ; readiness. Drove, was forced along.

Gif-ant bil-low, huge wave. Har-nessed, attached by straps. In-ci-dent, something that happens; an event.

In de-fence' Of, for the protection of;

in order to guard.

Lu-rid, gloomy.

Oc-curred', happened.

Ol’k-neys, a group of islands off the north of Scotland.

Rav-ing, mad.

Serf-vice, use ; help.

Spec-i-mens, samples; examples


1.    Far out on the wide ocean may sometimes he seen a fish which is called the Flying-fish. It is called by this name because it leaps out of the water and flies a 'considerable distance in the air.

2.    Its fins are very large, and almost like the wings of a bird. It can fly about fifty yards at a time, or even more, and then it drops into the water again. After that it takes another leap, and goes on leaping and flying for a long time. The fish takes these leaps to escape from its enemies.

3.    In the seas of the 'Tropics a 'shoal of flying-fish 'pursued by 'dolphins may often be seen thus flying above the waves. Their silvery fins and blue bodies glitter in the sun, and look very beautiful. It is a sight watched with great interest by sailors and others on board of any passing ship.

4 But this plan of flying is not always a safe one. There are a number of sea-birds ready to pounce on the poor fish when it gets out of the water. The gull and the great albatross are always on the watch.

who contrived to get

5. Once a ship when far out at sea sprung a leak during a storm. The ship went down, and all hands were lost except one man,

on a raft made by the sailors before the ship sank. On it he drifted about for several days.

G. He had little food with him, and at last the little he had had was exhausted. Death stared him in the face ; and terrible it was thus to have to meet death out on the wide ocean.

7.    At last the storm abated; the sea became calm, and the sky once more serene. Suddenly a splashing sound was heard, and on looking round he saw a great shoal of flying-fish near him. Many of the fish fell on the raft, and in a few minutes a large number were caught by him.

8.    In this strange way, with no human help at hand, the poor castaway was supplied with food sufficient to last him for many days. He continued drifting about; but at last the raft was sighted by a passing ship, which at once bore down to it. The man was saved and brought to Europe.

Questions.—1. Why is the flying-fish so called? Where may it be seen ? 2. What are its fins like ? How far can it fly ? What does it then do ? Why does it take these leaps ? 3. By what are they often pursued in the Tropics? What look beautiful? 4. Why is flying not always safe ? What birds especially ?    5. What did the sailor

once saved from shipwreck do? 6. In what terrible plight was he ?    7. How was he supplied with food ?    8. How was he at last

saved ?











Con-sid-er-a-ble, pretty great. Dol-phin, a small sea animal of the whale kind.

Pur-sued, chased.

Shoal, a crowd.

Trop-ics, hot regions near the Equater.


1.    Oh, stay not thou at gentle words,

Let deeds with language dwell; The one who pities starving birds, Should scatter crumbs as well.

2.    The Mercy that is warm and true

Must lend a helping hand;

For those who talk, yet fail to do, But “ build upon the sand."



On tlie green banks of Shannon, when Sheelali was nigh, No blithe Irish lad was so happy as I;

No harp like my own could so cheerily play,

And wherever I went was my poor dog Tray.


When at last I was forced from my Sheelali to part,

She said—while the sorrow was big at her heart—

“ O ! remember your Sheelah, when far, far away ;

And be kind, my dear Pat, to our poor dog Tray.”


Poor dog! he was faithful and kind, to be sure;

And he constantly loved me, although I was poor :

When the sour-looking folks sent me heartless away,

I had always a friend in my poor dog Tray.


When the road was so dark, and the night was so cold, And Pat and his dog were grown weary and old,

How snugly we slept in my old coat of gray,

And he licked me for kindness—my poor dog Tray.


Though my wallet was scant, I remembered his case Nor refused my last crust to his pitiful face ;

Put he died at my feet one cold winter day,

And I played a sad lament for my poor dog Trav.


Where now shall I go, poor, forsaken, and blind ?

Can I find one to guide me, so faithful and kind ?

To my sweet native village, so far, far away,

I can never more return with my poor dog Tray.



















re-fused' -










1.    Among the mountains of Scotland there lived, many years ago, a shepherd and his wife with their only son, a boy about ten years of age. The cottage in which they dwelt was in a glen far from any public road.

2.    One evening the boy’s mother was very ill. It was a quiet evening in the month of December. There was no wind, but snow had begun to fall softly all around. The shepherd took down his long staff, meaning to set out for the village to get medicine for his wife.

S. “ Father,” said the boy, ff I know the sheep-path through the glen as well as you. Let me go to the doctor, and do you stay beside mother. With Shag walking before me all the way, I shall be quite safe.” The shepherd ‘consented, and the boy soon set out on his 'errand.

4.    He was a brave boy. He had been used to the mountains from his earliest years, and had no fear. The dog Shag wTent with his young master, wagging his tail and bounding along the hill-side with great joy.

5.    The boy went safely on, and at length reached the village. He saw the doctor; and after getting from him the medicine for his mother, he started on his return home.

G. The snow continued to fall; but the boy went bravely on, hoping soon to reach the cottage in the glen. Shag went on before, as if to make sure at every turn of the narrow path that all was safe.

7.    Suddenly he stopped, and began snuffing and smelling about. Go on, Shag ! ” cried his young master ; but the dog would not move. “ Shag, go on ! ” repeated the boy.

8.    Shag seemed 'obstinate for the first time in his life, and at last the boy moved on alone, 'heedless of the warning growl of the faithful dog. He had 'proceeded but a few steps, when he fell over a precipice which had been 'concealed by a 'snow-wreath.

9.    At the cottage many hours passed while the shepherd and his wife were waiting and watching for their boy’s return. After he left, the fall of snow had become very heavy ; and though the moon was up, there was little light in the glen..

10.    The father often snuffed a candle which he had placed in the window, in the hope that his son would see it on his way up the glen. He 'piled wood on the fire, and spoke words of comfort to his wife, though he himself at last began to fear that something was wrong.

11.    Often did he go to the door ; but not a sound could he hear, and nothing could he see moving on the wide waste of snow.

“ Perhaps the doctor was not at home, and he has waited for him,” said his poor mother. She felt so uneasy at her boy’s 'absence that she almost forgot her own suffering.

12.    It was nearly midnight when the well-known bark of the faithful Shag was heard at the door. “ My son ! my son !” cried both parents at the same moment. The cottage door was_ opened, and Shag entered—but without his master!

13. “ My poor boy lias perished in the snow ! ” exclaimed the mother. But at that moment the father saw a small packet tied to the dog’s neck. He took it off and said,—“ No, our son is not dead. Here is the medicine, tied up in his handkerchief. He has hurt himself, or fallen into some hollow in the glen. I must go and seek him. Trust in God, and wait till I return.”

The father was soon ready, and in an instant Shag was again on his feet, and showed unbounded joy as the shepherd left the cottage.

Questions.—1. Where was the shepherd’s cottage? Who lived in it? 2. Why did the shepherd take down his staff one evening? 3. What did his son propose ? And the shepherd ? 4. Why had the boy no fear ? What went with him ? 5. What did he get at the village ? G. What continued to fall ? Where did Shag go ? 7. What did he suddenly do? What did the boy say to him? 8. What happened? 9. How long did his parents Avatch for his return ? 10. What had his father placed in the window ? What did he begin to fear ? 11. What did his mother suggest ? 12. What was heard about midnight ? Why were the parents disappointed ? 13. What did the mother exclaim ? What did the father notice ? What did he at once do ? What went with him?









snuffling suflfer-ings ex-claimed' faith-ful    packet

o-pened    hand-ker-chief

perished    un-bound-ed

Ob-sti-nate, self-willed.

Piled, heaped up.

Pro-ceed-ed, gone on.

Snow-wreath, a mound or heap of snow drifted by the wind.




Ab-sence, being away; opp. presence. Con-cealed’, hidden.

Con-sent-ed, agreed ; gave in. Er-rand, message.

Heed-less of, not minding.


1. Alone in her mountain dwelling, the poor mother lay watching and waiting. As the snow and the wind beat around the cottage, she sometimes feared that her husband too might perish in the glen.

2. She felt that the lives of both her husband and her son depended on the ’sagacity of the dog. But she knew that God could guide the dumb creature’s footsteps, and she 'fervently prayed to him in her time of need.

8. Shag led the way down the glen; and when they were at some distance from the cottage, he suddenly turned down a path which led to the bottoi^L of the crag over which the poor boy had fallen.

4.    The 'descent was steep and dangerous, and the shepherd was often 'obliged to 'support himself by laying hold of the branches of some small birch-trees which grew among the rocks.

5.    Happily the snow had ceased to fall: the clouds had passed away, and the moon shone bright and clear in the sky. At last the shepherd stood near the bottom. He hallooed, he strained his eyes, but he could neither see nor hear anything.

G. Shag was making his way down an almost upright cliff, and the shepherd 'resolved at all risks to follow him. After getting to the bottom, Shag began whining and scratching at something lying among the snow. The father found it was what seemed to be the dead body of his son. But he was not dead ; he was only in a ' stupor.

7.    Lifting him up in his arms, he wrapped his

plaid around him, and strapped him across his shoulders. With great labour he climbed again the steep 'ascent. He made his way as best he could to the cottage,, and at last reached it with his heavy burden.    „

8.    The poor boy was laid on his mother’s bed, and after great exertions they aroused him from his death-like sleep. He was much bruised, but was not otherwise hurt.

9.    W hen he fell, Shag had made his way down to him; and the brave boy had used what little strength he had left to tie the doctor’s packet to the dog’s neck and send him home.

10.    Shag lived at the cottage in the glen till he grew old and gray. He was loved and cared for till the day of his death, for his services on that terrible winter night.

Questions.—1. What did the mother sometimes fear? 2. What thought comforted her? 3. What did Shag do at some distance from the cottage? 4. What was the shepherd often obliged to do? 5. What change had taken place in the weather ? 6. Where was Shag going ? What did the shepherd resolve to do? What did he find? In what state? 7. How did he convey him to the cottage? 8. Where was he placed? What did his parents succeed in doing? 9. What had he been able to do after falling? 10. Why was Shag loved and cared for?

Re-solved', made up Ms mind. Sa-^ac-i-ty, good sense ; wisdom. Stu-por, a swoon ; a faint. Sup-port', keep up.






w ait-in g




















As-cent , way upwards.

De-scent , way downwards. Fer-vent-ly, with great earnestness. 0-bliged', forced.


1.    In the forests of Southern Africa, near the Cape of Good Hope, there lives a little Lird which •excels all other birds in the extent if not in the beauty of its dwelling. It is called the * Sociable Weaver Bird, because it lives in great companies under one roof.

2.    These birds usually choose a large and lofty

tree, whose strong wide-spreading branches will give both shelter and support to their dwelling. The birds all share in the work of building; but when the frame-work is finished, each bird builds its own nest.    .

3.    The building is firmly woven around the branches of the tree on which it rests. The roof is like that of a thatched house : it consists of dry grass, woven and matted together. It slopes downwards, and has a rim which lets the rain-water run off. In this way each little dwelling is kept snug and dry. Figure to yourself a large sloping roof, with all the space under it filled with nests, crowded one against another, and you will have some idea of these * singular dwellings.

4.    Each nest is about six inches deep. Sometimes one opening leads to three or four nests, but generally each nest has its own entrance. The number of nests goes on increasing as the number of families increases.

5.    A traveller who examined several of these bird-dwellings says that one of them contained above four hundred nests ; and as there would be a pair of birds to each, the whole must have made a little ‘colony of nearly a thousand birds.

G. There is another bird, found in Australia, which builds a kind of ‘rustic bower on the ground. It is called the bower-bird, and is about the size of a common partridge. When two of these birds begin to build their house, they do so in a very orderly way. They usually set it up in an open place, where they can enjoy the sun.

7. Their first care is to make a floor of round shells; and when this is done, they begin to plant a little ‘avenue of branches in the ground. For this purpose, they may be seen bringing from the fields fine shoots of trees, of about equal size. The thick ends of these they thrust firmly in between the pebbles and small stones which lie on the ground. The branches are arranged in two rows, bending one towards another, so as to form a


shaded avenue. When all is finished, the two birds may be seen walking up and down together in their little bower.

8. They seem to enjoy playing with each other through it, and chasing each other out and in. They often, too, adorn their bower with beautiful feathers found in the fields. These they hang up like flowers on the twigs which form their abode. They also use bright ’gleaming ’mother-of-pearl shells to ’ decorate^ the entrances to their bower, and often a thick shining covering of them may be seen at the outlets

(Sim    14 —v.

9. So fond are these birds of everything bright and shining, that in the districts where they build, they pick up and carry to their bower any trifles or jewels that fall in their way. If a traveller chance to lose his watch, his knife, or his seal, it is useless to look for it at the place where it was dropped. It is generally found in one of the walks of the bower-bird.

10. The discovery of the bower-building bird was made by the well-known naturalist, Mr. Gould. Afraid that his story might be received in Europe with doubt, he managed, by dint of great care, to bring home with him one of these singular bird-dwellings.    It is now in the British Museum,

London, where it can be seen and admired.

Questions.—1. What is the name of the birds which build many nests under one roof ? WThere do they live ? 2. Where is the dwelling built? Who build the frame-work? What does each bird then do? 3. What supports the dwelling ? What is the roof like ? Of what does it consist? How does the rain run off? 4. How deep is each nest? How are the entrances arranged? When does the number of nests increase? 5. How many nests did a traveller find in one dwelling? How many birds must it have contained ? 6. Where is the bower-bird found? Where does it build its bower? Of what size? 7. What is the first care of the birds ? Of what is the avenue made ? How are the branches arranged? 8. What do the birds seem to enjoy? How do they adorn the bower ? 9. What shows their fondness for things bright and shining ? Where are lost articles generally found ? 10. Who discovered the bower-bird? What did he bring home with him? Why? Where is it now?









ar-ranged' fin-ished chas-ing districts Mother-of-pearl, the silvery lining of certain shells, especially of oysters. Rus-tic, belonging to the country. SinLgU-lar, uncommon.

So-ci-a-ble, fond of society.

thatched    ex-am-ined

en-trance    Aus-tra-li-a

m-creas-es trav-el-ler Av-e-nue, passage.

Col-o-ny, a collection of animals. Dec-o-rate, adorn.

Ex-cels', goes beyond ; surpasses. Gleam-ing, shining; glittering.

par-tridge pur-pose


1.    Right merrily, right merrily we sailed before the wind,

With a briskly heaving sea before, and the landsman’s cheer behind.

There was joy forme in every league, delight on every strand,    %

Aud I sat for days on the high ‘foretop, on the long lookout for land.

2.    There was joy for me in the nightly watch, on the burning 'tropic seas,

To mark the waves, like living fires, leap up to the ‘freshening breeze.

Right merrily, right merrily our gallant ship went free,

Until we neared the rocky 'shoals within the Western Sea.

3.    Yet still none thought of danger near, till in the silent


The helmsman gave the dreadful word of “ ‘ Breakers to the right! ”

The moment that his voice was heard, was felt the awful shock;

The ship sprang forward with a bound, and struck upon a rock.

4.    “All hands on deck!” our captain cried: in terror and dis


They threw the cargo overboard, and cut the mast away. ’Twas all in vain !—’twas all in vain !—the sea rushed o’er the deck, '

And, shattered with the beating 'surf,"down went the parting wreck.

5.    The moment that the wreck went down my father seized me


And leaping ’mid the thundering waves, clung to the broken mast.

I know not how he bore me up—my senses seemed to swim— A shuddering horror chilled my brain and stiffened every limb.

6.    What next I knew was how at morn, on a bleak, barren shore, Out of a hundred mariners, were living only four.

I looked around, like one who wakes from dreams of fierce alarm,

And round my body still I felt, firm locked, my father’s arm.

7.    And with a rigid, dying grasp, he closely held me fast,

Even as he held me when he seized, at midnight, on the mast. With humble hearts and streaming eyes, down knelt the

little band,

Praying Him who had preserved their lives to lend His guiding hand.

8.    And day by day, though burning thirst and pining hunger


His mercy through our misery preserved each drooping frame.

And after months of weary woe, sickness, and travel sore,

He sent the blessed English ship that took us from that shore.

While sitting at your happy hearth, beside your mother’s knee,

O think upon poor sailors and the dangers of the sea!


































waves breaking on


Shoals, banks or bars near the surface of the water ; shallows.

Fore-top, the platform at the head of the foremast.

Fl'eslAen-illg, growing brisk or strong.

Surf, the foam of broken waves. Trop-ic, near the Equator, and therefore very hot

1.    In the sea, as on the land, there is constant war among the creatures which inhabit it. As the lion and the tiger prey on the beasts of the forest and the jungle, so in the sea there are fish which prey upon those around them.

2.    In the waters around the British Islands there are various kinds of sharks, but they are all harmless to man. It is only in the ’Tropics that this creature is so ‘formidable and ferocious.

3.    The most dreadful of all sharks is the white shark. It is found in many parts of the world, but is seldom seen except in the tropical seas, where it attains a length of twenty, or even thirty feet.

4.    Its mouth is on the under side of its head, and is armed with several rows of strong, sharp teeth.

These teeth are movable at the will of the animal, and usually lie backwards ; but they become * erect at the moment it is seizing its prey.

5.    No fish swims with such speed as the shark. It ‘outstrips the swiftest ship; and often for days together it may be seen following one, and playing" around it, for the sake of picking up anything that may be thrown overboard. When about to seize any object it turns on its back, so that its mouth is upwards ; and such is its ‘voracity that it will swallow almost anything, living or dead.

6.    A dreadful instance of the ferocity of the shark once occurred at the Society Islands in the ‘Pacific. Upwards of thirty natives were passing from one island to another in a large vessel, consisting of two canoes fastened together side by side.

7.    Being overtaken by a storm, the canoes were torn apart, and singly they could not be made to float upright. In vain the crew ‘attempted to balance them. They were every moment overturned.

8.    The men then formed a hasty raft of such loose boards and spars as were in the canoes, and thus attempted to drift ashore. The raft was so deep in the water that the waves washed above the knees of the poor islanders.

9.    Tossed about thus, they soon became 'exhausted with hunger and 'fatigue ; and at last the dreaded sharks began to collect around them. Soon these terrible creatures had the boldness to attack the men, and to drag one and another from the raft. The men had no weapons of defence, and they thus became an easy prey.

10.    The number and boldness of the monsters

every moment increased. The ‘forlorn wretches on the raft were one by one torn off, until only two or three remained. The raft, lightened of its load, then rose to the surface, and thus placed the ‘survivors beyond the reach of their terrible foes. The tide at length bore the men to one of the islands, where they landed, and told of the fate of their companions.    %

11.    Once the sailors on board a ship were allowed by their captain to try to catch a shark that had been following them for several days. A strong iron hook was fastened to a chain, and a piece of meat was fixed on it. Then a long rope was attached to the chain.

12.    When all was ready the bait was lowered into the sea in sight of the shark, which was seen gliding along near the surface of the water. In a moment there was a quick movement on the part of the fish. Down, down it sank in the clear water, and swam right below the ship. Turning on its back, it opened wide its jaws and swallowed both bait and hook.

13.    A strong pull at the rope by the sailors fastened the hook deep in the shark’s body. At once the creature struggled ‘desperately to get free. But the rope was strong, and the men held fast and pulled with a will. The shark was caught at last, and killed. Then once more the ship spread her sails to the breeze, and bounded on her way across the sea. This method of catching the shark is often practised on board ships sailing'in the Tropics.

Questions.—1. What is there in the sea as on the land? 2. Where are there harmless sharks ? Where are they formidable ? 3. Which is the most dreadful of all sharks? What is its size? 4. Describe its mouth and teeth. 5. Why does it follow ships? 6. Where did a dreadful instance of its ferocity occur ? Where were the natives going ? In what? 7. What separated the canoes? What difficulty had the crews then ? 8. What did the men then do ? 9. What began to collect around them ? What were they bold enough to do ? 10. How many men at last remained on the raft ? What saved them ? 11. What were the sailors on board a ship once allowed to do ? What tackle did they use ? 12. What did the shark do when the bait was lowered ? 13 How was the hook fastened in its body ? Where is this method of catching sharks often practised ?


























At-tempt-ed, tried.

Des-pe-rate-ly, hopelessly; violently. E-rect', straight up.

Ex-haust-ed, worn out.

Fa-tigue', tiredness.

For-lorn', deserted.

For-mid-a-ble, causing fear. Out-strips , swims faster than. Pa-cif-ic, the ocean between America Sur-viv-ors, those left. [and Asia. Trop-ics, hot regions near the Equator. Vo-rac-i-ty, greed.


1.    It maketh poverty content,

It dries up sorrow’s tear ;

It is a gift from Heaven sent

Our drooping hearts to cheer.    ■

2.    It meets you with a smile at morn,

It lulls you to repose—

A flower for peer and peasant born,

An everlasting rose.

3.    What may this wondrous spirit be,

With power unheard before ?

This charm, this bright divinity?—

Good Temper—nothing more.

4.    Good Temper—’tis the choicest gift

That woman homeward brings,

And can the poorest peasant lift

To bliss unknown to kings.    C. Swain.


1.    e< Nigh sixty years ago, when I was a young, strong, active lad, I lived for some months by the sea-shore. Our dwelling was near the beach, in a place where the cliffs were rugged and high, —so high, that when we looked from the top of one of them, men walking on the sands beneath seemed little bigger than crows.

2.    “ I set out one day to gather shells ; for that was a wonderful place for shells, and the strangers who came to the village hard by used often to buy them from us. I did not go alone. I took with me my brother Sam. Each of us carried a bag to hold the shells. The bag was hung round our necks by a long string, so as to leave our hands quite free.

3.    “ The last thing our mother said to us before we started was this : ‘ Take care, lads, and don’t go too far ; for the tide is on the turn, and the waves are running high, and if you go as far as High-cliff there is danger that you may be drowned.’—‘ No fear, mother ! ’ said I; * even if the tide should come in upon us, I ‘reckon that I’m active and strong enough to climb to the top of the cliff’

4.    “We had plenty of luck that day in finding shells. Both of us filled our bags, and we were so eager, and so pleased with our success, that we wandered on further and further, scarce giving a thought to the tide till we saw the white creamy foam tossed on the sand from the waves that came roiling and tumbling in-shore. ' Then we looked up and saw the great white cliff rising high and bluff before us !

5. “‘I say, Sam/ cried I, ‘just see how the tide is coming in ! ’tis time for us to make the best of our way back to mother ! *

“ My brother turned white as a sheet. ‘ ’Tis too late for that/ said he, giving a ‘wildered gaze at the waste of heaving billows.

C. “ The coast just there made a bend like a ‘crescent, and though we stood upon dry land still, the white-topped waves, both before and behind us, were rolling right up to the cliff! Where we had walked dry-shod not an hour before, there was nothing to be seen but the waters, and soon they would cover the place where we were !

7.    “ ‘ What’s to be done V cried my brother, as he looked up at the great rocky wall before us.

“‘Keep a good heart!’ said I. ‘I’ll climb to the top of the cliff, and then I’ll get help and a rope, and we’ll draw you up to safety.’

“So I put down my bag, and I pulled off my jacket; for it was clear enough that I could not climb with them. I knew well, though I didn’t choose to say so, that it would be hard work to get to the top of so high and steep a cliff; but I did not know—I would not believe—that it was impossible for me to do so.

8.    “ By dint of straining every muscle, clutching at every jutting crag or little rock-plant that offered a hold, I managed to struggle up a few yards. But the way grew steeper and harder. I could scarcely find place for my foot, or hold for my hand ; the earth was slipping from beneath me! I panted, I gasped, I strained ; feeling myself falling, I tried, with a ‘violent effort, to catch hold of a little stump that seemed to be just beyond my reach.

9.    “ I caught it, but lost my footing. I hung for a moment by one hand ; then the stump gave way, and with a cry of fear I fell heavily down the rock ! ”

“Oh! grandfather, were you much hurt?” exclaimed Rose, who had listened with breathless interest to Peter’s account of his ‘perilous adventure.

“ Not badly hurt,” said he, “ but enough bruised and shaken to be kept from the folly of trying the climbing again.    _

10.    “ My brother and I felt that there was but one thing which we could do—we must loudly call out for assistance. We cried aloud again and again; we lifted up our voices with all our might, and, as God in his mercy ordered, the sound of our cry was heard at the top of the cliff.”

11.    “Was a rope let down from the top of the cliff?” asked the 'impatient Rose.

“ A rope was let down,” replied Peter, “ and it was long enough and strong enough to save us. It was let down not a minute too soon, for already the sand on which we stood was washed by every advancing wave ! Sam, who was terribly frightened, at once caught hold of the rope, and clung to it as if for his life. I put on my jacket again, and passed the string of my bag of shells round my neck.

12.    “We had not risen many feet above the c?nd.s when a horrible dread arose in my mind that

I should never he able to hold on till I reached the top of the cliff! The muscles of my arms ached terribly, my fingers could scarcely keep their grasp, and the string round my neck seemed to choke me, like the grip of an iron hand !

13. “‘Make haste!’ I gasped in agony, scarce

able to bring out the words. ‘ Oh! be quick—be quick, or I shall be forced to let go !

“ ‘ Oh, hold fast, brother, hold fast! ’ shouted poor Sam in ’mortal terror at my danger. The men above were straining every nerve to pull us up before my strength should fail me; but oh, how fearfully slow our ascent seemed !

Id. “ The strain on my arms now was ’torture ! My brain grew dizzy. I could scarcely breathe. The bag round my neck seemed to grow heavier every moment. I felt that unless I could be relieved of the weight, I must let go, and be dashed in

pieces ! I dared not attempt to cling by one weary hand, so as to use the other to untie the fatal string 1

15.    “ I cried out in despairing agony. I know not to this day whether the weight on it snapped the string, or whether in my struggles the knot was untied ; but never till my dying hour shall I forget the sense of relief, when suddenly something gave way, and I felt that the weight was gone. * I heard a splash in the waters below, and in another minute I was firmly grasped by a hand stretched out from above ! ”

16.    “Oh! grandfather, what a mercy!” exclaimed Rose, drawing a long breath. Her heart had beat fast at the account of such terrible danger. ■


Questions.—1. How long was it since the adventure had taken place? What showed the great height of the cliff? 2. For what purpose did Peter and his brother go to the beach ? What had they, to carry the shells in? 3. What warning had their mother given them? 4. What kept them from noticing the advance of the tide? 5. What did they at last discover? G. What was the shape of the coast-line ? How were they enclosed ? 7. What did Peter propose to do? 8. How far up did he get? What then happened? 9. Did he catch the stump ? What then ? 10. What was the only thing left for them to do? Were their cries heard? 11. What was let down? Who seized it ? What did Peter do first ? 12. What dread filled his mind ?    13. What did he cry out ? What did Sam say to him ?

14. What made Peter suffer most? What dared he not do ? 15. How did he get relief ? 16. What did Pose exclaim ?































Reck-OU, think; believe. Tor-ture, great pain. Vi-O-lent, forcible. Wil-dered, stupified.

Cres-cent, shape of half moon. Im-pa-tient, eager.

Mor-tal, deadly; extreme. Per-il-OUS, dangerous.


1. About two hundred years ago, a man, bearing the title of the Marquis of Worcester, was sitting

before a blazing fire one cold night in a small room in the Tower of London. He was a prisoner. A kettle of boiling water was on the fire, and he sat watching the steam, as it lifted the lid of the kettle, and rushed out of the spout.

2. He thought of the power of the steam, and wondered what would be the 'effect if he were to fasten down the lid and stop up the spout. He came to think that the effect would be to burst the kettle. “ How much power, then,” thought he, “ there must be in steam ! ”

3. As soon as he was let out of prison he made trial of its force. “ I have taken.” he writes, “ a

cannon, and filled it three-quarters full of water, stopping firmly up both the touch-hole and the mouth; and having made a good fire under it, within twenty-four hours it burst, and made a great crack.” After this, the marquis formed a machine, which, by the power of steam, drove up water to the height of forty feet.

4.    About one hundred years after thi.^ a little boy, who lived in Scotland, and whose name was James Watt, sat one day looking at a kettle of boiling water, and holding a spoon before the steam that rushed out of the spout.

5.    His aunt thought he was idle, and said, Is it not a shame for you to waste your time so ? ” But James was not idle ; he was thinking of the power of the steam.

G. James grew to be a good and a great man, and made those wonderful improvements in the steam-engine which have made it so useful in our day.

7.    What can the steam-engine not do ? It


draws, it raises, it lowers, it pumps, it drains, it drives, it blasts, it digs, it cuts, it saws, it planes, it bores, it blows, it 'forges, it hammers, it files, it polishes, it 'rivets, it spins, it winds, it weaves, it coins, it prints ; and it does more things than I can think of.

8.    If it could speak, it might say,—

“ I blow the bellows, I forge the steel;

I manage the mill and the 'mint;

I hammer the ore and turn the wheel,

And the news that you read I print.’’

9.    And this is the Story of the Kettle of Boiling

Water. From so small a beginning as the steam of a tea-kettle came the steam-engine, the steamboat, and the engine by which the trains of carriages are moved with such speed on our railroads.

10. Learn from this how much good may be done by thinking. How many men had looked at kettles of boiling water, but how few had thought of the force of the steam, and of the good uses to which it might be turned !

Questions.—1. Where was the Marquis of Worcester sitting? How long ago? What was he watching ? 2. Of what did he think? What did he wonder? What did he come to think? 3. What experiment did he make when he got out of prison? What machine did he make after that? 4. How long after this did James Watt live? What did he watch one day? 5. What did his aunt think? 6. What did he live to do? 7. Mention things the steam-engine can do. 8. What might it say if it could speak ? 9. What was thus the beginning of the steam-engine? 10. What lesson may we learn from this?













stop-ping    planes

ma-chine'    pol-ish-es

im-prove-ments coins low^-ers    weaves

Ef-fect , what would follow.    I Mint, the place where money is coined

Forg-es, beats metal into shapes.    I Riv-ets, fastens with a clinched pin.



Bring forth the harp, and let us sweep its fullest, loudest string; The bee below, the bird above, are teaching us to sing A song for merry Harvest; and the one who will not bear His grateful part, partakes a boon he ill deserves to share.


The grasshopper is pouring forth his quick, and trembling notes; The laughter of the gleaner's child, the heart's own music, floats. Up! up ! I say, a roundelay from every voice that lives Should welcome merry Harvest, and bless the Hand that gives.

Eliza Cook.


1.    An American farmer was one evening standing at his door, when an Indian, faint and weary, came and asked him for some food. He said roughly, I have none for you.” The Indian then asked for beer, and again met with a ‘refusal.

2.    At last he begged for water ; but the farmer only answered, “ Get you gone, you Indian dog ! ” The Indian fixed his eyes for a little on the farmer, and then went away.

3.    Some time afterwards the same farmer, while in ‘pursuit of game, lost his way in the woods. He wandered about till at last he saw an Indian' hut; and he went to it, to ask his way to the place he wished to reach.

4.    The Indian said, ic It is a great way off, and the sun will soon go down. You cannot get there to-night, and if you stay in the wood the wolves will ‘devour you; but if you have a mind to lodge with me, you may.”

5.    The farmer was very glad to lodge with the kind Indian, so he went into his hut. The Indian boiled a little ‘venison for him, and gave him rum and water to drink ; and he also spread out some deer-skins that he might sleep on them.

G. Next morning he called the farmer, and told him that the sun wfis up, and that the place he wished to reach was a great way off, but that he would show him the way. The Indian took his gun and went on, while the farmer followed.

7. When they had walked several miles, the

(f>94)    ] 5-V,

Indian told him that the place was now only two miles off. He then stopped, and turning to him said, " Do you know me ? ” The farmer seemed much ashamed and said, “ I have seen you.”

8. The Indian answered, Yes, you have seen me at your own door ; and now, on parting, I will make bold to give you a piece of advice :—When a poor Indian who is hungry, and thirsty, and faint, again asks you for a little meat or drink, do not say to him, ‘ Get you gone, you Indian dog! * ”

The poor savage thus taught the white man a lesson which he never forgot.

Questions. —1. Who was standing at his door? For what did the Indian ask him ? What did he reply ? 2. What did the farmer say when he asked for water ? 3. What happened some time afterwards? Where did he go to ask his way? 4. What did the Indian say to him?

5. How did the Indian treat him ? 6. What did he do next morning ? 7. What did the Indian ask the farmer before parting from him? How did the farmer look ? 8. What advice did the Indian give him ?

e-ven-ing    rough-ly    an'swered    a-shamed'    thirst'y

LiHian    af-ter-wards    boiled    ad-vice'    les'son

De-vouF, eat up.    I Re-fus-al, saying no ; denial.

Pur-suit', search ; chase.    I Ven'i-son, flesh of deer.


1.    The buckler of Integrity

Throw broadly o’er thy breast;

Thy helmet let bright Honour be,

And Truth thy stainless crest.

2.    Let kind and gentle Courtesy

Be burnish to thy mail;

"Twill turn full many a stroke from thee When rougher arms would fail.

3.    Accoutred thus, go forth in joy,

While rings thy battle-cheer;

On !—on !—fear God, my gallant boy—

But know no other fear!




1.    The Earth is round, like an orange or a ball. It is called a sphere, from a Greek word which signifies a globe or round body. A hemisphere is a half sphere or half globe.

2.    The surface of the Earth—that is, the outside on which we live— is curved everywhere like the outside of a ball. If it were possible to view the Earth from a height of 1,000 miles, we should then see it as a vast ball or globe. It does not seem so to us, only because we see so little of it at once. It is nevertheless true that not only the.land but also the sea partakes of the round form of the globe.

3.    The surface of the sea seems a flat watery plain ; but when we stand by the sea-shore and watch a vessel coming toward us, the first

part that comes in sight is the top of the mast. All the rest of the ship is hid by the curve of the water between us and it. As it comes nearer, we see more of the mast; and, last of all, the hull or body of the ship can be seen. If the surface of the sea were not curved, we should see the whole ship at once. The tops of mountains are seen by ships at sea long before the land at the foot.

4.    Here is a picture of a number of ships at sea, as seen through a telescope. The whole of the nearest ship is seen, less of the next, and less of the next, till the one furthest away is nearly hid from view.

Nothing can be seen of it but a part of its mast. The rest of it is hid by the curve of the sea.

5.    Another proof that the Earth is round is, that ships can sail round, it and come back to the point from which

* These lessons are taken from the “Geography and Atlas Combined ” nut fished in the Royal School Series (price Is. 6d.). T. Nelson and Sons.’ they started. A ship can go round the globe by sailing either to the east round Africa, or to the west round South America.

6.    Or, we can go round the globe partly by land and partly by sea. By crossing the Atlantic, we can make the first part of the journey by water; then the next part by land, across the continent of America; then again by water, across the Pacific Ocean; then a long journey by land, across Asia and Europe, back to the British Islands.

7.    The distance round the Earth, called the circumference, is about

25,000 miles. A railway train travelling night and day would take about a month to go round the globe. The distance from side to side through the centre of the Earth is about 8,000 miles. This is called the diameter.

8.    The circumference of any round body is about three times its diameter. If a ball measures 9 inches round the outside, it will measure about 3 inches from side to side through the centre.


1.    The Earth is never at rest,—it is constantly in motion. It turns round on itself, with a motion like that of a top, once every 24 hours; and men, cities, trees, and ships are ever turning with it.

2.    It is this motion of the Earth round itself which causes Day and Night. The sun is always shining; but as the Earth is round like a ball, only one half of it can receive light at a time. When one side is lighted by the sun, the other side is in darkness.

3.    When our side of the globe is toward the sun it is Day with us, and

when our side of the globe is turned away from the sun it is Night with us. When it is midday in Britain it is midnight in Australia and New Zealand.    ■

4.    When a place first comes in sight of the sun it is Sunrise or morning at that place. When the sun is highest in the heavens it is Noon. When the place is just going out of sight of the sun it is Sunset or evening at that place. The point where the sun rises is called the East; and where it sets, the West.

5.    Besides thus constantly turning round on itself, the Earth is at the same time sweeping through space in a yearly journey round the sun. One, two, three, four, five ! Do you know that while you have been counting these five beats—five seconds—you have been actually carried through space more than one hundred miles? Yet so it is. However wonderful it may seem, the Earth is constantly on the wing, flying round the sun with a speed so great that for every breath we draw we advance on our way forty or fifty miles !

fi. The atmosphere and all the objects on the surface of the Earth move along with it. We cannot, therefore, feel the Earth move. We can only judge of its motion by observing the changing position of the heavenly bodies as the Earth sweeps along through space. A man in a balloon does not feel any motion as he floats along. He only knows that he is moving by watching the position of the objects beneath him. So it is with us on the Earth. We are carried along with it in its yearly journey round the sun without being aware of any motion. Though the rate at which the Earth travels is so very great, yet, compared with its vast size, its motion is slow and grand. There is no hurry in the movements of the heavenly bodies—all is calm and sublime.

7.    The Earth completes its journey round the sun in 33? days. One journey makes our year. It is to this motion round the sun that we owe the change of Seasons. In one part of this journey the Earth receives the light of the sun more directly on its northern half than on its southern half. Then the north has Summer and the south Winter.

8.    At another part of the journey the Earth receives the light of the sun more directly on its southern half. Then the south has Summer, and the north Winter. Between Winter and Summer is the Spring, and between Summer and Winter is Autumn. Thus has our heavenly Bather prepared the Earth for our home.


1.    The cardinal or principal points of the compass are—North, South, East, and West.

Half way between North and East is North-East.

Half way between North and West is North-West.

Half way between South and East is South-East.

Half way between South and West is South-West.

2.    If you stand with your face to the sun at noon, your back will be to the South, your face to the North,* your right hand to the East, your left hand to the West.

* This applies only to the southern half of the globe. In the northern hemisphere the sun appears in the south at noon.


1.    The surface of the globe consists of LAND and WATER—one-fourth being land, and three-fourths water.

2.    LAND.—Those lands which are nearly at the level of the sea are called Low lands. They are divided into plains and valleys. Those lands which are much above the level of the sea are called High lands, They are divided into table lands and mountains.

3.    The highest mountain in Britain is Ben Nevis. The highest mountain in Europe is Mont Blanc, 15,000 feet, or three times the height of Ben Nevis. The highest mountain in the world is the summit of the Himalayas, about 5^ miles above the level of the sea. High though many of the mountains of the globe be, they are less, compared with the size of the Earth, than the roughness of the skin of an orange.

4.    WATER.—The waters of the globe consist of the Sea, Rivers, and Lakes. The sea covers nearly three-fourths of the Earth’s surface —only one-fourth being land, as has been already stated. Strictly speaking, the sea is one vast sheet of water—all the great oceans being united. But, for convenience, it has been separated into five great divisions—namely, the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Indian, and the Antarctic Oceans.

5.    As these great oceans are all connected, it is manifest that the OLD WORLD (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and the NEW WORLD (North and South America) are, after all, but two vast islands. The Atlantic lies between them on the one side, and the Pacific on the other side.

6.    The average depth of the sea, taking one part with another, is supposed to be about half a mile; but in some parts the depth is known to be between 5 and 6 miles.

7.    All the water in the rivers and lakes of the Earth comes from the sea. It first rises in the form of watery vapour, and remains in the air. It is invisible till it meets with a cold current of air, and then it appears in the form of Clouds. Clouds in the sky are nothing but condensed watery vapour floating in the air.

8.    Erom the clouds come the rains which water the earth and form our rivers. "When rain falls on the sloping sides of hills or mountains, it flows in a stream down the slopes, uniting with other streams on its way. Much of the rain may sink below the surface and be carried many miles under ground, and then reappear as a spring of running water. The streams from the mountain-slopes and the streamlets from the springs unite in the valleys, gradually becoming broader and deeper as they flow. At last they form a river, and in this way the greatest rivers of the Earth are formed.

9.    The use of rivers is to drain the land. It is not correct to say that they water the land. The land is watered by the rain before it reaches the rivers ; and the surplus water—that is, the water not taken up by plants and animals—is returned by the rivers to the sea.

10.    We thus see the beautiful arrangement which God has made for

watering the Earth. The springs of the rivers are supplied from the rains of heaven ; and these rains are formed of vapours which are taken up from the sea by the heat of the sun, and carried up to the mountains through the air. The quantity of water thus conveyed is nearly the same one year with another. “ All the rivers run into the sea, and yet the sea is not full.”    _

11.    The largest river of the globe is the Amazon, in South America. It rises in the Andes Mountains—a small stream at first; but before it reaches the ocean, hundreds of other streams have joined it, and at last it pours into the sea a greater volume of water than any other river of the globe. Many of its tributaries are larger than the largest river in Europe. The Amazon has a course of nearly 4,000 miles, and before it reaches the Atlantic the vast flood is 50 miles wide.

12.    When rivers on their way to the ocean flow into a deep hollow or basin, the hollow becomes filled and a Lake is formed. There may be many streams flowing into a lake, but generally there is only one outlet. The largest lake of fresh water on the globe is Lake Superior, in North America. It is nearly as large as Ireland.

13.    Occasionally lakes are found which have streams flowing into them, but none flowing out. Such lakes are usually salt. The Caspian. Sea in Asia is an example. It is called a sea from its great extent, but it is in reality an inland lake of salt water.


1.    A map is not a picture; it is only a plan (coloured or uncoloured) to show the position of places. In a map the coasts of a country, its rivers, lakes, mountains, and towns, are shown by simple lines and dots, but no picture of anything is given.

2.    A picture of a garden shows the shape of the trees and flowers, &c.; but a map of a garden, or a map of a country, shows only the position of places, as if seen from a great distance above.

3.    At the top of a map is North; at the foot is South; at the right hand East; at the left hand West.

4.    Most maps have lines drawn across them; some are from top to bottom, others from side to side. Those from top to bottom run due north and south. Those from side to side run due east and west. By such lines measurements can be made, and the positions of places on the globe stated in degrees; but for ordinary purposes (for example, in maps of England, Scotland, Ireland, &c.), it is more useful to have lines on the map which tell distances in English miles.*

* Such lines are given in the maps of the Royal School Series. See “Geography and Atlas Combined,” Is. 6d.; “ Geography ©f England and Wales,” 6d ; “ Geography of Scotland,” 3d. Just published.


1. High in the heavens there is a star called the Pole Star. It is seen always near the same point in the sky, while to us the other north pole.    stars change their position every hour,

and appear to move round it.

2.    Beneath this star is that point

/    \ on the Earth’s surface which we call

the North Pole. It is the most northern point of the Earth. If we I could reach it, the Pole Star would be ] seen directly overhead.

3.    The most southern point of the Earth is the South Pole. It is exactly opposite the North Pole, on the other side of the Earth.

4.    In the daily motion of the Earth

south pole.    round itself, these two points, the

North Pole and the South Pole, remain as it were fixed, while the rest of the Earth spins round them with a motion like that of a top. At the Equator this motion is greatest, because the Earth is widest there.

5. The motion at the Equator is at the rate of 1,000 miles an hour. At the British Islands, in the northern half of the globe, it is about G50 miles an hour. At Cape Horn, in the southern half of the globe, it is also about 650 miles an hour. At the Poles there is no motion at all.


An imaginary line round the middle of the Earth, the same distance from the North Pole as it is from the South Pole,—that is, about

6,000 miles,—is called the Equator because it divides the Earth into two equal parts. (See Diagram above.)


1.    By the Climate of any place we usually mean its degree of heat or cold ; though we also speak of a moist climate, a dry climate, a healthy climate, &c.

2.    As the portion of the globe within the tropics is more directly under the rays of the sun, the hottest countries are those round the middle of the Earth, and the coldest are those round the Poles. Between these lie the countries which have temperate climates.

3.    It must be remembered that height above the level of the sea affects the climate of a place more than anything else. You can sooner go from a warm to a cold climate by ascending than by any other way. Elevated districts are cooler than the valleys below them. The tops of high mountains are always cold.

4.    Even in the hottest regions of the Earth, at a height of about

15,000 feet the snow never melts. The point at which snow never melts is called the snow-line, or the line of perpetual snow. In Britain the highest mountain is Ben Nevis, 4,368 feet above the level of the sea. It is frequently, but not always, covered with snow throughout the year. If it were 150 feet higher it would be covered with perpetual snow. The nearer we approach the poles the lower down is the snow-line.

5.    The climate of a place is also affected by its nearness to the sea. Places near the sea have a milder climate than places at a distance from it. Edinburgh and Moscow lie nearly on the same line of latitude, and yet Edinburgh, from its nearness to the sea, has a much milder climate than Moscow, which is in the midst of a large continent.

G. Winds also have a considerable effect on the climate of a country. The east winds that prevail in Britain during spring, having passed over the great plains of Russia and North Germany, are cold, dry, and piercing; while the west winds from the Atlantic are warm and' moist.

7. We thus see that the climate of a place depends not only on its latitude, or distance from the Equator, but also on its nearness to the sea, its height above the sea, and on its prevailing winds.


1.    There are plants and animals which are peculiar to certain regions of the Earth, but man is found in all regions. God has endowed him with reason, which renders him superior to all other creatures ; and by the use of reason, and that wonderful organ the hand, man is enabled to adapt himself to all climates.

2.    He can erect a tent or a hut to screen himself from the burning sun of the tropics, or from the cold of the polar regions. He can clothe himself with fur to resist the cold, or with light cotton to protect himself from the rays of the sun. He can obtain warmth and prepare his food by a fire of wood or coal, and in a great variety of ways he can thus minister to his comfort. Man alone can do these things. None of the lower animals know how to light a fire to warm themselves or to cook their food.

3.    In hot climates man lives chiefly on cooling fruits and herbs. In cold climates he lives chiefly on animal food. In temperate climates he enjoys both kinds of food. In the savage state men subsist chiefly by hunting, fishing, and the spontaneous productions of the earth. Civilized nations are distinguished for their advancement in manufactures, in science, literature, and art.



A Continent is a vast body of land containing several countries. The great continents are Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and South America.

An Island is a portion of land surrounded by water ; as Great Britain, Ireland, and Newfoundland. Australia is called the Island Continent from its vast size.

A Peninsula is a portion of land almost surrounded by water; as Denmark, Spain and Portugal. The word “peninsula ’’ means nearly-an-island.

An Isthmus is a narrow neck of land uniting two bodies of land, as the Isthmus of Panama, uniting North and South America.

A Cape is a point of land jutting out into the sea; as Cape of Good Hope, Cape Horn.

Mountains and Hills are parts of the land rising considerably above the general surface. Smaller elevations are called hills. Those above 1,000 feet high are usually called mountains. A mountain range is a series of mountains connected together in one long range, as The Andes of South America.

A Volcano is a mountain which sends forth fire, smoke, or lava; as Mount Etna, Mount Vesuvius.

A Plain is a portion of country nearly flat or level. An elevated plain is called a table-land.

A Valley is a tract of country lying between mountains or hills.

A Desert is a barren tract of country, usually consisting of sand and rock ; as the Great Desert of Sahara in Africa.


An Ocean is a vast body of water with numerous seas and gulfs ; as the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean.

A Sea is also a large body of water, but smaller than an ocean, and nearly surrounded by land ; as the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea.

A Gulf or Bay is a body of water extending into the land ; as the Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Biscay.

An Archipelago is a sea containing many islands, as the Archipelago east of Greece.

A Strait is a narrow passage connecting two bodies of water ; as the Strait of Gibraltar, connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean.

A Channel is generally wider than a strait ; as St. George’s Channel, between Ireland and Wales.

A Lake is a body of water surrounded by land, as Lake Superior in North America.

A River is a large stream of water flow

ing over land. Small streams are called rivulets and brooks.

The place where a river begins is its source, and where it ends its mouth. The source is always in land higher than any other part of the river’s course. The mouth may be at the sea, at a lake, or at another river.

A river which flows into a larger river is called a tributary. It contributes its waters to the other and makes it larger.

The land on each side of a river is called its banks. The right bank is on the right hand and the left bank on the left hand when going down the stream.

Rapids are formed where the bed of the river slopes much. Waterfalls are formed where the stream flows over a precipice. The Falls of Niagara, one of the great wonders of the world, are an example of a large river pouring over a precipice.

Rivers drain the land, and a district drained by a river and its tributaries is called the basin of that river.


1.    The brown ‘bear was at one time a ‘tenant of the wild forests and hills of Britain. In the time of the Homans, British bears were sent to Rome to amuse the people by fighting in the ‘circus.

2.    The bear seems to have lingered, as did the wolf, longer in Scotland than in England ; for it is stated that one of the Gordon family—so late as 1057—was rewarded by the king for his valour in slaying a fierce bear.

3.    Though not now found in Britain, the brown bear is still found in the mountain districts of Europe, from the far north to the Alps and the Pyrenees.

4.    Its general habits are well known. It ‘frequents the gloomiest ‘recesses of the mountains, as well as glens and caverns, and the depths of the forests. It digs a cave, or enlarges one, in which to dwell; or it occupies the hollow of some huge decayed tree ; or it forms a rude sort of den under the ‘covert of branches of trees, lining its dwelling with moss.

5.    When snow covers the ground, the bear has to give up roaming about the woods. It seeks its den, and there passes the winter in a half ‘torpid state. When it retires to its winter quarters it is very fat; but on coming forth in the spring it is observed to be very lean.

6.    It is during the cold season that the female bear brings forth her young. Her cubs are from one to three in number. As she could not suckle them without feeding herself, she has even during winter now and then to leave her den to seek for food, while the male bear lies in his long winter sleep.

7.    The female bear shows great courage, in defending her young. It is a work of no little danger for a hunter to attack a she bear when her cubs are with her; for then she will fight to the last, braving wounds and even death in their defence.

8.    The brown bear climbs trees and rocks with great skill. It also swims well; and in the heat of summer it frequently takes to the water for the sake of the bath. When caught young it is easily tamed. It lives to a great age. Bears have been known to live between forty and fifty years in captivity. IIow long they may live in their native haunts is not known.

9. Sometimes in winter a female bear, in search of food, will come down from the mountains, and in the middle of the night break into a place where goats are kept. A few blows with her paws will


dash to pieces the little wooden gate of the fold, and in a moment the goats are at her mercy.

10. In Russia, the skins of bears are amon£ the most useful as well as most comfortable articles of winter clothing; and in several other northern countries they are used as beds, and are made into caps and gloves.

Questions.—1. Where was the brown bear at one time found ? Why were British loears sent to Rome? 2. Where does the bear seem to have lingered longer than in England ? What shows this ? 3. In what parts of Europe is it still found? 4. What places does it frequent?

Where Joes it dwell ? 5. What can it not do in winter ? In what state does it pass that season ? What is observed when it comes forth in spring? 6. When does the female bear bring forth her young? How many cubs has she ? Wrhy has she now and then to leave her den ? 7. When is it dangerous to attack a she bear? Why? 8. Why does it often take to the water in summer ? When is it easily tamed ? How long have bears been known to live in captivity ? 9. How does the female bear sometimes get food in winter ? 10. Where are bear-skins used for clothing ? To what other purposes are they put ?





















Bear.—Bears belong to the class of animals called by naturalists sole-walking (plantigrades) ; while lions and tigers are called toe-walking animals (digitigrades. ) There are many kinds of bears. The principal are the brown bear of Europe and Asia ; the black bear and the grizzly bear of America ; and the polar bear, which is found in

the countries and islands of the Arctic seas.

Cir-cus, a round area for sports and games.

Cov-ert, shelter.

Fre-quents , haunts ; goes about in. Re-cess-es, retired places ; retreats Tennant, dweller.

Tor-pid, without feeling ; numb.


1.    Nay, speak no ill! a kindly word

Can never leave a sting behind ;

And oh ! to breathe each tale we’ve heard,

Is far beneath a noble mind.

Full oft a better seed is sown,

By choosing thus the kinder plan;    '

And if but little good be known,

Still let us speak the best we can.

2.    Yes ! speak no ill, but tender be

To others’ failings, as your own;

If you’re the first a fault to see,

Be not the first to make it known:

For life is but a passing day,

No tongue can tell how brief its span ;

Then oh ! the little time we stay,

Let’s speak of all the best we can.

breathe    choos-ing    known    fault    tongue

be-neath'    kinder    fail-ings    pass-ing    brief

MONKEYS.    239



1. Among the most ’attractive creatures in the forests of tropical countries are the troops of monkeys that career in ceaseless chase through the lofty trees.

They abound in the countries and islands of Southern Asia, in the wilds of Africa, and in the great forests of South America. None are found in Europe, except a few on the Rock of ‘Gibraltar, of a kind called the 'Barbary ape. Africa may be regarded as the head - quarters of the monkey tribe, for there they 'literally swarm.

2 In some respects monkeys and apes are the true masters of the forest, Their rule is not 'disputed either by the tiger or \yy the lion. Their

nimbleness enables them easily to escape from cither; and they live on the tops of trees, beyond the reach of most of their enemies. The only animals they have cause to dread are serpents, which make constant war on them. Some of these serpents are of great size, and swallow monkeys almost with as much ease as they swallow birds. Others are smaller, but more ‘agile, and go in ‘quest of monkeys among the branches of trees. The more easily to secure their prey, they watch for the time when the monkeys are asleep.

3.    Monkeys feed chiefly on the buds of trees, fruits, roots, and plants. They are all fond of sweets, and have a great liking for the sweet juice of the palm-tree and the sugar-cane. When these fail, they eat insects and worms ; and sometimes such as live near the coast go to the sea-shore to feast on oysters and crabs. They get at oysters in a very clever and crafty way. The oysters of hot countries, you know, are much larger than ours. The monkey, when it reaches the sea-side, picks up a stick or a stone, and watches till it sees an oyster slowly open. It then thrusts the stick between the two shells, and prevents them closing. The cunning animal then eats the fish at its leisure.

4.    Among the many kinds of monkeys which live in the great forests of Africa, there is a very curious one, which builds a bower of branches and leaves, to sleep in. One day a traveller* who was out hunting noticed, in a high tree under which he was passing, a singular-looking bower built among the branches.

* M. De Chaillu.

He asked his companion, a native African, whether the hunters in that part of the country were in the habit of sleeping in the woods.


To his great surprise, he was told that the skilfully made bower-nest was not built by human hands, but by a monkey !

5. The traveller afterwards saw many of these curious creatures, and closely ’examined their nests.

He found that they were generally built about fifteen or twenty feet from the ground. He supposes that this position is chosen that at night the monkeys may be safe from wild beasts. The nests are made of leafy branches, tied neatly to the tree with the long stems of creeping plants, which serve as cord. The tying is done so neatly, and the roof is so well made, that the traveller could scarcely believe that human hands had not done the work, till at length one day he saw one of the monkeys at home in its leafy bower.

G. The roof, being neatly rounded, throws off the rain perfectly. The nests are generally found in

(594)    16—v.

pairs, but there are never more than two together. Single nests, however, are sometimes found, occupied by old monkeys, whose silvery hair and worn teeth show their great age. The traveller of whom we have spoken often watched one of these monkeys going to rest at night. He saw it climb up to its house, and seat itself snugly on a branch under the bower, with its arms firmly clasped round the tree. This was its way of sleeping.

7.    One day the same traveller caught a young monkey of this kind in the woods. Though only about a foot in height, and very young, it was able to walk. After a few days it became quite tame, and learned to eat from its master’s hand. He fed it on biscuit, boiled rice, and goat’s milk. It became very fond of its master, and liked very much to be petted. The creature, however, soon showed itself to be a great thief; and when the hunters left their huts, it would often steal in and make off with any fruit or fish that it could find. For this it was whipped several times ; but it never learned to be honest. It lived and died a thief.

8.    The little creature was very fond of tasting its master’s coffee, but would not drink of it when there was no sugar in it. It delighted to eat with the negroes; and while they were seated round a dish of boiled rice or meat, it used to help itself as they did. It lived about five months after its capture ; but one morning it was found very ill, and though all kinds of forest berries were brought to it, it refused to eat. Next day it died, greatly to the sorrow of the negroes and its master.

Questions.—1. What are among the most attractive creatures in tropical countries ? Where do monkeys abound ? Where only are they found in Europe ? What country is the head-quarters of the monkey tribe ? 2. Why may monkeys and apes be called the true masters of the forest? What are the only animals they have cause to dread? Eor what time do serpents watch ? 3. On what do monkeys chiefly feed? Of what are they all fond? Especially? When these fail, what do they eat ? How do they get at oysters ? 4. What curious monkey lives in Africa ? What did a traveller suppose the bower to be ? 5. How far from the ground are these bowers built? Why is that position chosen ? Of what is the nest made ? With what are the branches tied ? What convinced the traveller that the bowers were made by monkeys ? 6. How is the roof formed? How many nests are generally found together ? By what are single nests occupied ? What is the monkey’s way of sleeping in its bower? 7 What did the traveller once catch? On what did he feed it ? What did it soon show itself to be ? How was it punished ? With what effect ? 8. Of what was it very fond ? When would it not drink of it ? With whom did it delight to eat ? How long did it live after its capture ? What were brought to it when it \yas ill ? When did it die ?































Ag-ile, nimble; active.

At-trac-tive, winning; engaging. Bar-bar-y, a general name for the states on the northern coast of Africa. Dis-put-ed, called in question.

Ex-am-ined, looked into carefully. Gib-ral-tar, a rock-fortress and town in the extreme south of Spain. Lit-er-al-ly, actually.

Quest, search.


1. In the beautiful island of ‘Ceylon, in the Indian Ocean, there is a graceful little ‘monkey, which is the pet of every one—of natives and Europeans alike. The native ‘conjurers teach it to dance, and in their wanderings they carry it from village to village, clad in a queer dress, to show off its lively tricks. This kind of monkey, in a wild state, does a deal of mischief in the corn-fields, and is so impudent that it often goes into the gardens of the natives and steals the growing fruit.

2.    Another kind of monkey found in Ceylon, and the most numerous in the island, is the wan-deroo. It is an active and clever creature, with a snowy white heard. In captivity it is remarkable for its grave face and sober manners. It has a gentle and * confiding nature. It is also very cleanly in its habits, and spends much of its time in trimming its fur.

3.    In their native wilds, a party of twenty or thirty of these creatures may often he seen busily searching for berries and nuts. They are seldom seen on the ground, except when they have come down from the trees to pick up seeds or fruit which may have fallen. When disturbed, their leaps are very great; but generally their progress is made not so much by leaping as by swinging from branch to branch.

4.    Sometimes one may be seen to fling itself down so as to catch the lower bough of a tree at a distance. Its weight and force make the branch first bend down and then spring up again to a considerable height. In the ‘rebound the monkey is carried up too, so that it can grasp a higher branch, and thus continue its ‘headlong flight. It is a wonderful sight to see these animals perform such feats, even when hindered, as they often are, by their young. The little creatures cling to the older monkeys as they leap and swing from tree to tree, till they are out of danger in the depths of the forest

5. Monkeys can neither fly nor swim, hut it is said that sometimes they cross rivers by making bridges of their bodies in a curious way.

One monkey catches hold of a tree on the bank of a river ; a second monkey takes hold of the first; a third holds on by the second ;

a fourth holds on by the third ; and so on, till perhaps a chain of five or six monkeys is formed, each holding on by its neighbour.

6. When all are linked together, the monkeys at the lower end of the chain make it to swing to and fro across the stream. It swings further and further each time, till at last the monkey at the bottom of the chain gets within reach of a tree on the opposite

side. He grasps a branch and holds on by it firmly. In this way a complete bridge over the river is formed, and over this living bridge the rest of the monkeys quickly cross. The danger of falling into the stream does not prevent them giving each other a few nips and pinches as they move along.

7. When all are safely landed, the monkey that made the first link lets go his hold of the tree, and the bridge falls to the opposite bank. Such is the wonderful story told of one kind of monkey which lives in the forests of South America.

Questions. —1. Where is there a graceful little monkey? What do the conjurers teach it? Where do they take it ? What does this kind of monkey do in a wild state? 2. What kind of monkey is most numerous in Ceylon ? What is peculiar about it ? For what is it remarkable in captivity ? In what does it spend much of its time ? 3. How many of these monkeys may be seen together in their native wilds ? Doing what? When only do they go on the ground? How is their progress generally made? 4. Describe how this is done? What makes these feats the more wonderful ? 5. By what means are monkeys said sometimes to cross rivers ? How is the bridge made ? 6. How is it thrown across the river ? How do those crossing amuse themselves ? 7. How is the bridge taken to the opposite bank ? Where is this wonderful feat said to be performed ?    ■

isl'and    wan-der-ings re-mark'a-ble con-sid'er-a-ble dan'ger

con-tin-ue pre-vent'

op-po-site    pinch-es

com-plete'    op-po-site

quick-ly    won-der-ful

Apes are larger animals, and have no tails. Baboons are the largest of all the four-handed animals. They have strong, powerful bodies, and short tails. Apes and baboons being both larger and stronger are more savage than monkeys, and have more power for doing mischief.

Re-bound', springing back.

In-dian    mis-chief    bus'i-ly

grace-ful    im-pu-dent    dis-turbed'

na-tives    nu-mer-ous    bough

Eu-ro-pe'ans cap-tiv-i-ty    dis-tance

Cey-lon , a large pear-shaped island, south of India.

Con-fld-ing, trustful.

Con-jur-ers, performers of tricks. Head-long, dashing.

Monk-ey.—Monkeys are the smallest of the animals called by naturalists four-handed (quadrumana).    They

have tails, which are generally long.



1. The shepherd’s dog is remarkable for its intelligence and ‘sagacity. Far up among the hills, as well as in the green valleys and lowlands, he may be seen guarding and watching his master’s sheep. Look at him there, as he stands on a rock while the sheep are feeding and the young lambs are frisking around them—he is the very picture of a faithful servant. All over the hills of Cumberland, the mountains of Wales and of Scotland, and in many other parts of the world, thousands of these valuable dogs are to be found. Without them it would be almost impossible to make use of mountain pasture-lands.

2.    Not many years ago there lived a Scottish shepherd-poet, called James Hogg, who tended his sheep among the green hills and sweetly-flowing streams of the south of Scotland. He had good means of studying the habits of the shepherd’s dog.

3.    He ‘mentions that he at one time had a do«-called Sirrah—a very 'extraordinary animal in managing a flock. One of his 'exploits was as follows:— About seven hundred lambs, which were once under his care, broke away at midnight, and 'scampered off in three divisions across the hills, in spite of all that the shepherd and an assistant lad could do to keep them together.

4.    “ Sirrah, my dog,” cried the shepherd, in great distress, “ they’re 'a’ awa’.” The night was so dark that he did not see Sirrah ; but the faithful animal had heard his master’s words, and without more ado he silently set off in quest of the run-away flock.

5.    Meanwhile the shepherd and his companion did not fail to do all that was in their power to 'recover their lost charge. They spent the whole night in searching the hills for miles around; but of neither the lambs nor Sirrah could they 'obtain any trace.

G. “ It was the most wonderful thing,” says the poet, that had ever 'occurred in the life of a shepherd. We had nothing for it (day having dawned) but to return to our master, and inform him that we had lost his whole flock of lambs—that we knew not what had become of one of them !

7.    “ On our way home, however, we discovered a number of lambs at the bottom of a deep hollow, and the faithful Sirrah standing in front of them, looking all around for some relief, but still true to his charge. The sun was then up, and, when we first came within sight of them, we thought that he had at least managed to recover some of the lambs, fiut what was our surprise, when we discovered at last that not one lamb of the whole flock was wanting !

8.    “ How he had got them all gathered in the dark, I cannot tell. The charge had been left entirely to himself from midnight until the rising of the sun, and if all the shepherds in the Forest had been there to assist him, they could not have done the work so well. I never felt so grateful to any creature under the sun as I did to my honest Sirrah that morning.”

Questions.—1. For what is the shepherd’s dog remarkable? Of what is he the very picture? Where may thousands of these dogs be found? 2. The name of the Scottish shepherd-poet. What had he good means of studying ? 3. The name of the dog he once had 1 How many lambs were in the flock? What did they do at midnight?

4.    What did the shepherd say to Sirrah? What did Sirrah do?

5.    How did the shepherds spend the night? With what result? G. What had they to do at daybreak ? 7, 8. What did they discover on their way home ? What surprised them on counting the lambs ?





















A’ awa’, Scotch for “All away.” Ex-ploits', clever acts ; feats. Ex-traor-di-na-ry, out of the common order; remarkable.

Hen-tions, states; says.

Ob-tain', get; procure. Oc-curred', happened. Re-cov-er, get back. Sa-gac-i-ty, sense; acuteness. Scam'pered, ran.


1.    Another strange story told of a shepherd’s dog is as follows :—A gentleman sold a large flock of sheep to a dealer, which the latter had not hands to drive. The seller, however, told him he had a very sensible dog which he could send to assist him to a place about thirty miles off; and that, when he reached the end of his journey, he had only to feed him, and desire him to go home.

2.    The dog soon after got his orders, and set off with the flock and the drover. But he ’remained absent so many days that his master became very uneasy about him. One morning, however, to his great surprise, he found that the dog had returned with a very large flock of sheep, including the whole that he had lately sold !

3.    The fact turned out to be this:—The drover had been so pleased with the dog that he had resolved to steal him, and had locked him up until the time when he was about to leave the country. The dog grew sulky, and made ‘various ‘attempts to escape, and one evening he succeeded ; and, strange to say, he at once went to the field, gathered the sheep, and drove them all back to his master!

4.    Wonderful, however, as the Scottish shepherd’s dog is, there is a dog in another part of the world more wonderful still, because it is itself the shepherd! In some parts of South America there are sheepdogs which are ‘intrusted with the care of flocks, without any master to ‘direct them. They go out with them early in the morning, of their own ‘accord; and they keep beside them all day, driving away the birds of prey that would attack the lambs, and the wild dogs that come in packs to worry the sheep.

5.    Then they bring them home in the evening, taking great care by the way that none of the lambs are too tired to keep up with the flock. If they become tired, and begin to lag behind, the dog-shepherd will go and fetch them one by one, carrying them gently in his mouth until they are all quite safe in the fold. He then lays himself down at the door to guard them—ready, the whole night long, to start up at the first approach of danger.

6.    The means taken to train these doers to their work are curious. A little pup is brought, before its eyes are open, to a female sheep, and is suckled by her several times a-day. A woolly nest is made within the sheep-pen, and the little stranger is laid within it; so that, when it creeps out and begins to play, it has no other companions than the lambs of the fold. They thus becorqe its brothers and sisters. As the animal grows up, its delight is to be always with them, to watch and protect them.

Questions.—1. In what difficulty was the buyer of the large flock of sheep? What did the seller propose? 2. Why did the dog’s master become uneasy about him? What surprised him one morning? 3. What had the drover tried to do ? How had the dog punished him? 4. What dog is more wonderful than the Scottish sheep-dog? Why ? 5. What does the dog do wffien the lambs are tired ? 6. How is this dog-shepherd trained to its wTork ?

gen-tle-man in-clud-ing sen’si-ble    re-solved’

jour-ney    sulk-y

un-ea'sy    e-scape’

Ac-cord', will.

deavours ; order.

At-tempts , en Di-rect , guide













In-trust-ed, charged with. Re-mafned’, stayed. Va-ri-OUS, different; several.



1.    There lived, not many jmars ago, two neighbours, one of whom was named Frankheart, and the other Wily. Frankheart was too ready to trust every man he met; but Wily loved money so well that he quite forgot that honesty is the best ‘policy.

2.    One day Frankheart came into Wily’s house, and said : “ Neighbour Wily, I am about to take a journey to see my uncle, who is very ill. I have one hundred pounds in gold which I want to leave behind. What shall I do with it?”

3.    Wily’s eyes brightened, and he replied : “ 1 have a good strong iron safe in which I keep my money and notes. Fire cannot harm it, and thieves cannot open it. I put the key in a place known only to my wife and myself. I think you cannot do better than put your gold into my safe.”

4.    “I shall be away only a few weeks, I think,” said Frankheart. I am much ‘obliged to you for your offer to take care of the gold. Here it is;”—and, producing a bag, he emptied the contents on the table.

5.    He counted the money before Wily and his wife, put it back into the bag, tied the mouth of it, and called their attention to the written label on it bearing his name and showing the amount. Then he gave the bag to Wily, and bade him and his wife good-bye.

G. What a careless man!” said the wife; “he has gone off without taking our ‘receipt for the money.”—“Of course he trusts to our honour,” re-

plied the husband , “ we shall not forget it.” Wily had not yet begun to feel the force of temptation.

7.    Nearly a year passed away before Frankheart returned home. The day after his return he called on his neighbours, and said he would trouble them for the little bag of gold.

8. Wily looked at his wife, and his wife at him. Each seemed waiting for the other to speak. At length Wily replied : “ Mr. Frankheart, your memory must be failing. It is true you talked of leaving a bag of gold with us, but we gave it back to you; for we did not like to take the risk of having it stolen.”

9.    “And do you say the same?” asked Frankheart, looking at the woman. “Yes,” replied she, blushing. “ Do you suppose my husband would tell a falsehood ? It is not very likely that we would have taken charge of a bag of gold without being paid for it.”

10.    “Well, neighbours,” said Frankheart, “inasmuch as I neglected to take your receipt for the money, I suppose I must lose it; but you will find that money so got will not do you much good. I am sony more for your sake than for mine. Who do you think will sleep the sounder to-night,—you or I?”

11.    He took his hat and left the house. Mrs. Wily then said to her husband : “ Call him back, and tell him we were only joking. He is right, husband,—the money will be a curse to us.” — “0 no ! ’tis good shining gold,” said Wily ; “ besides, Frankheart is much richer than we are. He can afford to lose it.”

Questions.—1. What were the names of the neighbours? And their natures? 2. What did Frankheart one day say to Wily? 3. What did Wily advise? 4. What did Frankheart do? 5. To what did he call the attention of Wily and his wife? 6. What did the wife say when he had gone ? What did Wily say? 7. When did Frankheart return? When did he call for his bag of gold? 8. What did Wily say to him? 9. What did his wife say? 10. Why did Frankheart say he supposed he must lose the money? But what did he say about the money? 11. What did Mrs. Wily then propose to do? But Wily said?





















0-bliged', indebted. Pol-i-cy, rule of life.

I Re-ceipt', a written admission of hav-| ing received something.


1.    Frankheart went to the judge, and told him the story. “ And did you take a receipt for the money?” asked the judge. — “ No,” replied Frankheart ; “ I supposed neighbour Wily was honest as the sun ; and then his wife stood by, and saw me give him the gold.”

2.    Well, Mr. Frankheart, step into that room and wait, while I send for Mr. Wily and question him.” Frankheart obeyed, and the judge sent an officer to ask Wily to call at the judge’s office without ‘delay.

3.    As soon as Wily arrived, the judge said to him : “ I learn that you some time ago received a large sum of money in gold, to take care of for your friend; and that you now refuse to return it to him. What do you say to the charge?’5—“ I deny it wholly,” replied Wily.

4.    “ Well,” replied the judge, “ lei us suppose you innocent; but, in order to * convince me, write to your wife the letter I am about to dictate to you. She is said to have been a witness to the transaction, and if what you say is true it can be easily shown. Now, sir, write these words.”

5. “ But, may it please your honour,” said Wily, who was not well pleased at the proposal, “ why not let me go home, and bring my wife before you ? That wo aid be the most direct way of learning what she has to say.”—“Allow me to choose my own way,” said the judge. “Here are pen, ink, and paper. Write!”

G. Wily looked toward the door, as if he were half inclined to run ; but as officers stood near, that plan was not to be thought of. He then took up a pen and wrote these words, at the dictation of the judge : “ My dear wife,—Give the bearer the bag of gold belonging to Mr, Frankheart. I am about to restore it to him.”

7.    The judge carefully examined the letter, to see that it contained these words and nothing more. Wily rose to go, hoping he might reach his home in time to explain matters to his wife ; but the judge, in a loud, stern voice, exclaimed, “ Sit down, sir, and wait for the return of my messenger.”

8.    Trembling at the thought of 'exposure, Wily sank down on a chair. One of the officers received the letter from the judge and 'departed. In less than half an hour the officer returned with a ba^. He gave it to the judge, who read the label, and then counted the money, and found tha.t it amounted to just one hundred pounds.

9.    The wretched Wily threw himself on his knees, confessed his crime, and begged the judge to forgive him. The judge threw open a door, and, pointing to Frankheart, said to Wily, “ Here is the man to whom you must sue for pardon.”

10.    “I think, judge,”said Mr. Frankheart, “that his own conscience will punish him enough.”—“I am not sure of that,” replied the judge; “ men capable of such baseness have generally succeeded in hardening what little conscience they may have had. But if you refuse to appear against this man, I must release him.”

11.    “I do refuse,” said Frankheart; “for I hope he will reform.”—“Then,” said the judge, “ I have nothing more to say, except that you, Mr. Frankheart, deserve to be reproved for trusting any man, honest or dishonest, with money, without taking a receipt.”

Having spoken these words, the judge dismissed them.

Questions.—1. To whom did Frankheart tell his story? What did the judge ask? 2. What did the judge do? 3. What did Wily say when charged with having received the gold? 4. What did the judge tell him to do? 5. What did Wily propose to do? But the judge replied ? 6. What was Wily ordered to write ? 7. What did Wily prepare to do ? What did the judge say to him ?    8. What did the

messenger bring back? 9. What did Wily then do? To whom did the judge refer him? 10. What did Frankheart say? 11. Why did he refuse to appear against Wily? Why did the judge rebuke Frankheart?





















Con-vince', satisfy.    I De-part-ed, went away.

De-lay’’, putting oft    I Ex-po-sure, making the thing public


1.    There are several kinds of this giant animal to be found in various parts of Asia and Africa, but the most 'remarkable is the Indian rhinoceros.

2.    In his native 'regions he leads a quiet, lazy life. Like the elephant, he loves the marshy borders of lakes and rivers, where he delights to roll and 'wallow in the mud. He is also fond of the bath, and swims with ease.

o. Slow in his movements, the rhinoceros wanders over his native plains with a heavy step. He

(594    1 7 —V.

carries his huge head so low that his nose almost touches the ground.

4.    Now and then he will stop to eat some ‘favourite plant; or in mere playfulness to plough up the ground with his horn, throwing the mud and stones behind him. The ‘jungle gives way to his weight and strength, and his track is often marked by a line of broken trees and bushes.

5.    When roused, the rhinoceros is a dangerous enemy. Such is the keenness of his sense of smell and of hearing, that it is almost impossible to take him by surprise.

6.    At times he is very fierce, and attacks every animal that he sees, or that goes near his haunts. Even the elephant himself is not a match for the rhinoceros.

7.    The great horn, springing from his long, thick nose, is a most powerful ‘weapon. With it he not only digs up the bushes and young trees on the leaves and fruits of which he feeds, but with it too he fights his enemies. One stroke from it will rend the body of a horse or an ox in pieces. Woe to any of the inhabitants of the jungle that meet with the rhinoceros in his fury !

8.    Many a fierce battle takes place between the rhinoceros and the tiger; and the former seldom fails to conquer in the struggle. With one blow of his horn he tosses the tiger in the air. The tiger then falls back on the ground, and is trampled to death by his enemy.

9.    So thick and hard is the skin of the rhinoceros that no bullet can pierce it, except when it strikes the neck or the breast, where it is rather thinner.

10. The Indian rhinoceros has only one horn, but in Africa there are several kinds which have two horns.

Questions.—1. Where is the rhinoceros found? Which is the most remarkable? 2. What kind of life does he lead in his native regions? Of what is he fond? How does he swim? 3. How does he carry his head? 4. What does he now and then stop to do? How is^iis track often m-arked? 5. When is he dangerous? Why is it difficult to surprise him? 6. What is he at times? What animal is not a match for him then? 7. What powerful weapon has he? What shows its strength? 8. What animal often fights with the rhinoceros? Which generally conquers? How does the rhinoceros kill him? 9. What shows the hardness of the rhinoceros’s skin? Except? 10. What is peculiar in some African rhinoceroses?





















Con-quer, overcome ; win. Fa-vour-ite, much liked.

Jun-gle, tall coarse grass and brushwood growing on waste land.

Ee-gions, lands ; districts. Ee-mark-a-ble, worthy of notice. Wal-low, roll about.

Weapon, tool; arm for fighting with


1.    He liveth long who liveth well;

All else is life but flung away:

He liveth longest who can tell

Of true things truly done each day.

2.    Then fill each hour with what will last;

Buy up the moments as they go:

The life above, when this is past,

Is the ripe fruit of life below.

3.    Sow love, and taste its fruitage pure;

Sow peace, and reap its harvest bright; Sow sunbeams on the rock-and moor,

And find a harvest-home of light.


1.    The tiger is found only in Asia. In Europe, in Africa, and in the ’New World, he is wholly unknown. He ’attains his greatest strength and size in the jungles of India. India may therefore he termed the kingdom of the tiger, as Africa is the kingdom of the lion.

2.    Have you ever thought of the use of which whiskers are to cats ? Lions have great whiskers ; and so have tigers, panthers, and all other animals of the cat tribe. Wherever you find an animal with whiskers like those of the cat, you may be sure that that animal is meant to steal softly among branches and thick bushes.

3.    At the roots of the tiger’s whiskers there are

nerves, which make him sensible of the slightest touch. In this way he knows in a moment whether there is in his path anything which would make a noise and alarm his prey as he creeps through the gloomy jungle.    ■

4.    The wild-cat’s whiskers were given her for a life in the woods, the lion’s for the woody mountains on which he lives, and the tiger’s for the 'tangled jungle where he reigns, till man comes to clear and. cultivate the land.

5.    In length the tiger varies from ten to twelve feet; and though not so ’majestic in appearance, he is a much more handsome-looking animal than the lion. About twenty years is supposed to be the ’duration of a tiger’s life. From three to five cubs are born at one time to the tigress ; but when she becomes a mother she has no such 'dutiful mate to wait on her as the lioness has. The lion, at such a time, provides food for the lioness and her young; but the tigress has to provide both for herself and for her cubs.

6.    She shows strong affection for her young, and is easily roused to great fury in their defence. Once two tiger-cubs were found in the jungle by a party of soldiers. They brought them to their officer, a Captain Williamson. For safety, the cubs were shut up in a stable; but they yelled and cried * incessantly. On the third or fourth night their 'wailings found a 'response. It was faint at first, but it speedily became fierce and loud, till at length it came to the 'very stable door.

7.    It was the mother tigress ; and such was her fury, that the soldiers, afraid of their lives, threw the cubs out from a window. The tigress was at once 'appeased, and fled back with her young ones to the jungle.

8.    The tiger is an excellent swimmer, and has been even known to swim to the flat-bottomed rafts peculiar to the rivers of the East, and attack the men on board. Once on this account a crew had to take to the small boat which was tied to their raft, and had to row ashore for their lives. The tiger was left to do as he pleased, and sad havoc he made. The raft gradually floated down the river till it got near the shore, and the tiger, leaping to the bank, was soon lost in the jungle.

9.    Hunting the tiger is a' favourite sport of

Europeans in India. The general way of hunting him is with elephants. Though the horse can be made to face a lion, he will seldom face a tiger. The elephant, on the contrary, can be trained to stand steadily while his rider takes aim.

10. The natives of India rarely hunt or even fire

on the tiger ; but wherever Europeans go they strive to rid the country of these dangerous animals. The usual way is for the hunters to ride on the back of the elephant in a kind of seat called in India a howdah. The howdah is a wooden box large enough to hold two or three persons, as you see in the picture.

11.    As the elephants go trampling through the jungle, they use their trunks to push aside or break off any branches that may be in their waj; It is said, too, that they sometimes even pluck fruit from the trees and offer it to their master as he sits in the howdah.

12.    When a tiger is near, both men and elephants are ’on the alert. The elephant seems to know at once, and becomes excited. He lifts his trunk high in the air, and makes a shrill cry. The men on his back then get their spears and guns ready. The tiger, meanwhile, is concealed among the tangled bushes of the jungle. His ’tawny skin, with its glossy black stripes, so resembles the glowing colour of the jungle-grass at certain seasons of the year, that it is difficult to distinguish the animal as he creeps along.

13.    Sometimes the tiger springs out on the elephant, and fastens his teeth and claws in his shoulder or back. Then the real struggle comes to be between the elephant and the tiger. The former tries to shake off the tiger, and then to kneel on him. The elephant can thus crush him by the weight of his great legs and heavy body. But sometimes they both roll on the ground together, and a fearful combat ’ensues.- It generalIv ends, however, in the death of the tiger, either from the strength of the elephant or by a bullet from the hunter’s rifle.

Questions.—1. Where only is the tiger found? Where does he attain his greatest strength and size? What may India therefore be called? Which is the kingdom of the lion? 2. What animals have whiskers? Why? 3. What are at the roots of the tiger’s whiskers? What does he thus know? 4. Why were the tiger’s whiskers given him? 5. What is the length of the tiger? What is he, compared with the lion? What is supposed to be the duration of a tiger’s life? How many cubs has the tigress at one time? In what is she not so well off as the lioness? 6. What does she show for her young? What was done with two tiger-cubs once found in the jungle? What was heard three or four nights afterwards? 7. What was it? What did the soldiers do? What followed? 8. For what purpose does the tiger use his swimming powers? What once happened on this account? 9. What is a favourite sport of Europeans in India? What is the general way of hunting the tiger? What animal can seldom be made to face the tiger? What can the elephant be trained to do? 10. Do the natives of India hunt the tiger? Why do Europeans do so? Where do the hunters ride? What is a howdah? 11. For what do the elephants use their trunks in the jungle? 12. How does the elephant show his excitement when a tiger is near ? What do the hunters then do ? Why is it difficult to distinguish the tiger in the jungle ? 13. What does the tiger sometimes do? What struggle follows? What does the elephant try to do? How does the struggle generally end?





































calmed ; quieted.

On the a-lert', on the watch ; guard-

-------- 7---------

Du-ra-tion, length.

Du-ti-ful, attentive.

En-sues', follows.

In-ces-sant-ly, without stopping. Ma-jes-tic, dignified ; kingly. New World, America.

ing against surprise.

Re-sponse', answer.

Tan-gled, confused, from branches being intertwined.

Taw-ny, of a yellowish-brown colour.    ■

Wail-ings, loud cries of sorrow.


The white sea-gull, the bold sea-gull,

A joyful bird is he,

Sitting, like a king, in calm repose,

On the breast of the heaving sea!

1.    The sea has its birds as well as the woods. They are not birds of song, nor birds of many colours, but they are quite as interesting, quite as ‘attractive, in their wild cries and their snow-white wings, and the story of their lives spent upon the billow.

2.    There are many different kinds of sea-birds : cormorants black and grim, puffins fat and heavy, sitting on the rocks to stare at you ; petrels, flying about among the waves when it is stormy ; and pretty little brown sandpipers, dodging about at low-water ;—but the commonest of all are the gulls.

3.    There are several 'species, but the one you generally see is the common sea-gull. It is seventeen inches long; its colours are gray and white, shaded and mixed; and its yellow beak is hooked at the end,— a mark by which you may always know the family.

4.    Perhaps, in one of your summer visits to the sea-side, you have watched a sea-gull flapping its long wings idly a little way above the waves and at a short distance from the shore. It looked as if it were weary and feeble. Then all at once it would rise proudly, and spread its wings, and sweep away, away, till your eye could follow it no further.

5.    The sea-gulls are found many miles from the coast. Distance is nothing to them, and they sail on, seeming to be heedless where they go.

6.    They feed on fish, and on the oily matter which floats on the surface of the waves ; and though the storm may come, and the tempest blow fiercely enough to ’shatter the stoutest ship, it never ’injures them. Happy sea-birds! what matters to them the tossing of the billow or the fury of the wind ?

7.    But their usual haunts are nearer the shore ; and the more rocky the coast, the more do they abound. In May and June, which is the breeding-season, it is a sight you would not forget, to see thousands of them ’clustered on the cliffs by the sea,

8.    Their nests are most simple. A hole scooped out on a ledge of the rock, or even on the ground, and a few pieces of dry grass laid in it—that is all. Two and sometimes three eggs are laid in each.

9.    All may seem quiet, but the sound of a gun or any other alarm will bring the gulls out in such numbers that the sun appears darkened, and the whole air is full of their wild, hoarse cries. When the alarm is past they return to their nests; though how each manages to find its own, when all are alike to our eyes, seems a puzzle.

10. When the young are hatched, must they wait till they are able to fly down to the sea from their high nursery on the rocks ? Oh no! they can manage better than that; for the mother-bird gets them on her back, and carries them tenderly down to the water, where, as they can swim from the very first, she can feed them at her leisure.

Questions.—1. What is interesting in sea-birds ? 2. Name different kinds of sea-birds. Where do petrels fly about? Which are the commonest of all ? 3. Which species is generally seen ? Its length ? Its colours ? By what mark may it always be known ? 4. Describe the flight of a sea-gull. 5. What shows that distance is nothing to them? G. On what do they feed ? What never injures them? 7. Where are their usual haunts ? What is a striking sight in the breeding-season ? 8. Of what do their nests consist ? 9. What happens when a gun is fired? What do they do when the alarm is past? What seems a puzzle ? 10. IIow do the young birds reach the water ?

col-ours    cor-mo-rants

in-ter-est-ing pet-rels bilQow    dodging

diflfer-ent    com-mon-est

At-trac-tive, drawing notice.

Clustered, crowded.

Injures, harms.

gen-er-al-ly    hooked    fee-ble

seWen-teen    watched    haunts

yel-low    flapping    thou-sands

beak    wea-ry    scooped

Lei-sure, without haste.

Shat-ter, break in pieces.

Spe-cies, kinds.


1. Petrels are familiarly named Mother Carey’s Chickens. They are found in all parts of the world; and they are in a very true sense ocean-birds, for they rarely go near the shore, except when they are breeding. Their home is the boundless waste of waters.

2.    Scarcely larger than the swallow that darts through our streets, one wonders that so frail a little bird should brave the fury of the tempest. When the masts are cracking and the cordage shrieking in the fierce blast, and when the sea is leaping up into mountain waves, the little petrel flits hither and thither, piping its singular note, as if it were the very spirit of the storm.

3.    Flocks of these little birds, more or less numerous, follow ships often for days together. It is a pleasing sight to see them crowd up close under the stem of a ship without any sign of fear. Their sooty wings are extended, and their tiny web feet are put down to feel the water, while they pick up the particles of food of which they are in search.

4.    It is a strange but common idea among sailors that these birds have something to do with storms. In every gale, if they are seen, they are spoken of as the ff imps” of the storm.

5.    If this little bird does in any way indicate a coming storm, sailors should rather receive its warning with gratitude. “ As well might they curse the midnight light-house that, star-like, guides them on their way, as this harmless little wanderer, who tells them of the coming storm, and enables them to prepare for it.”

6.    It is said that the petrel is named after St. Peter, because, when actually on the wing, it seems to walk on the water.

7.    A thousand miles from land are we,

Tossing about on the roaring sea;

From billow to bounding billow cast,

Like fleecy snow on the stormy blast:

The sails are scattered abroad like weeds;

The strong masts shake like quivering reeds;

The mighty cables and iron chains,

The hull, which all earthly strength ’disdains,

They strain, and they crack; and hearts like stone Their natural hard proud strength disown.

8.    Up and down ! up and down !

From the base of the wave to the billow’s crown,

And amidst the flashing and feathery foam,

The stormy petrel finds a home—

A home, if such a place may be

For her who lives on the wide wide sea,

On the craggy ice, in the frozen air,

And only seeketh her rocky lair

To warm her young, and to teach them to spring

At once o’er the wave on their stormy wing!

9.    O’er the deep ! o’er the deep ! '

Where the whale and the shark and the sword-fish sleep,

Outflying the blast and the driving rain,

The petrel telleth her tale—in vain;

For the mariner curseth the warning bird,

Who bringeth him news of the storms unheard!

—Ah! thus does the prophet of good or ill Meet hate from the creatures he serveth still!

Yet he ne'er falters.—so, petrel, spring Once more o’er the waves on thy stormy wing!

Questions.—1. What are petrels familiarly named? Where are they found? Why are they truly ocean-birds? 2. What is the size of the petrel? What is therefore wonderful? What does it do during the storm ? 3. What is a pleasing sight ? How do they pick up their food ? 4. What idea is common among sailors ? How are they spoken of? 5. How should its warning (if it be one) be received? What might sailors as well curse ? 6. After whom is the petrel said to be called ? Why ?






















1.    We are but two—the others sleep

Through death’s untroubled night; We are but two—oh, let us keep The link that binds us bright.

2.    We in one mother’s arms were locked—

Long be her love repaid !

In the same cradle we were rocked; Round the same hearth we played.

3.    Our boyish sports were all the same,

Each little joy and woe ;

Let manhood keep alive the flame Lit up so long ago.

4.    We are but one—be that the bond

To hold us till we die !

Shoulder to shoulder let us stand,

Till side by side we lie.



1.    A soldier in Ceylon was very fond of making short * excursions into the forest; and one evening he set out, intending, as usual, to keep by the outskirts, and to return before it was dark. But as he was walking along, a peacock ran across his path, and he tried to catch it.

2.    He ran after it, pelting it with stones ; and became so much ’interested in the chase, that he forgot where he was, and lost himself in the ’mazes of the forest. Then he gave up all wish for the peacock (as well he might), and thought only of finding his way back.

3.    But he felt as if in a ’labyrinth. No path was to be seen; and the best thing he could do was to climb a tree, to find out in which part of the sky the sun was setting, that it might be a guide to him.

4.    But the trees were tall and thick, and he could not see anything of the sun, or catch even its faintest gleams. So he came down in haste, dreading lest night, with its many dangers, should overtake him in the wilderness.

5.    But, alas ! an enemy met him at the very outset. He was ’intruding on the ’domain of beasts, and birds, and reptiles, and could expect nothing less than ’encounters with them.

G. And 'So it was that at this moment a lordly elephant stood full in his way, listlessly flapping his ears and swinging his trunk, to drive away the flies, as elephants always do when they stand still.

7.    The elephants lead a very pleasant life in these great forests, bathing in the rivers that wind through them, or rolling their huge bodies on the thick grass. The young tender branches afford them a constant supply of food, and with their trunks they can tear them down from the loftiest trees.

8.    The other animals treat the elephant with respect, on account of his 'superior size. Even the tiger does not dare to attack him ; for, if he did, he might be received upon his tusks, and tossed into the air.

9.    It often happens, when an elephant is alone, that he has been driven from the herd, and is not in the best of humours. At all events, the soldier was afraid to pass this one. He had no desire to feel the tread of his great foot;—a foot which can crush the strongest man as easily as a cat can crush a mouse. So he slipped out of his way, and struck off in another direction.

10.    This new path seemed more open than the

other ; but, in reality, it led him deeper and deeper into the mazes of the forest. He fancied he heard the elephant coming after him, and he ran as fast as the prickly brushwood would let him. To add to his alarm, it began to grow dark, and he felt that he should have to spend the night alone in the forest.    ,

11.    The thought was a very terrible one. The wild beasts would by-and-by come out of their dens, and roam in search of prey. He had no blazing fire

to keep them at a distance, no poisoned arrow with which to shoot them,—no weapon of defence.    What

was to become of him ?

12.    One thing was certain : he must climb a tree,

and spend the night among its branches. But the trees were not easy to climb ; their stems were tall and straight, and shot up to a vast height without a single branch.    %

13.    The natives often cut steps in the trunk with a hatchet; but he had no hatchet, and was obliged to wander about until he found a tree with branches low enough for him to reach them. Then he scrambled up as high as he could get, and held a stout stick in his hand, to defend himself against the bears ; for some bears, he knew, can climb as well as a cat.

14.    He could not go to sleep, nor was it very likely he should ; for, in the clear moonlight, he saw elephants and other animals roaming about, and even passing close by the tree on which he was perched.

Questions.—1. Where did a soldier make excursions? With what intention did he set out one evening? What crossed his path? 2. Where did it lead him? With what result? Of what only did he soon think ? 3. What was the best thing he could do ? 4. Why did he soon come down again ? Of what was he afraid ? 5. What might he expect? Why? 6. What enemy stood full in his way? 7. What kind of life do the elephants lead in the forest? On what do they feed? 8. Why do the other animals treat him with respect? Why does the tiger not attack him ? 9. Why is a solitary elephant often out of humour? What did the soldier therefore do? 10. Where did the new path lead him ? What added to his alarm ?    11. Why

was this a terrible thought? 12. Where was it necessary for him to spend the night? What difficulty was there in the way of that? 13. Why did he keep a stout stick in his hand ? 14. What kept him awake ?

(594)    18—v.


1. He was glad indeed when morning came, that he might make another 'attempt to find his way out

sol-dier    guide

Cey-lon'    dread-ing

pea-cock    rep-tiles

wil-der-ness    list-less-ly

Do-main', country; region. En-coun-ters, fights. Ex-cur-sions, trips. In-ter-est-ed, taken up. In-trud-ing, thrusting himself.













Lab-y-rinth, maze ; winding passages in which it is difficult to find one’s way.

Ma -zes, windings.

Su-pe-ri-or, greater.

of the gloomy forest,

2.    But after walking and running for several hours, he became more 'bewildered than ever, and at last sat down on a fallen tree, completely worn out.

3.    He had scarcely sat two minutes, when a snake, with a curious mark on the back of its neck, something like a pair


its head, and looked at him in a threatening manner.

4. The soldier knew well what kind of enemy he had to deal with. It was the spectacled or hooded snake, *—one of the most deadly of its tribe.

* The Cobra de Capello.

5.    Strange as it may seem, the natives of

Ceylon regard the hooded snake with awe. They think it is as powerful as their gods ; that it belongs to another world, and only comes here as a visitor. They never kill one except in selfdefence ; and when one gets into a house, they 'contrive to put it in a bag, and carry it away to a distance.    %

6.    The hooded snake never bites except when provoked ; and then it gives warning of its intention by puffing out its neck, moving its head from side to side, glaring with its eyes, and making a loud hissing sound.

7.    All this was going on at that moment; and the soldier, fully expecting it to dart upon him, took to his heels and ran away. He continued to run until he was out of breath ; and then he found himself in a more open part of the forest.

8. A number of fallen trees lay on the ground, as though a 'hurricane had torn them up and tossed them there. This was just the place for snakes ; and a great many, of different kinds and colours, were gliding in and out among the fallen logs. They made off as fast as they could, and disappeared among the bushes; but still the soldier halted, and dared not proceed a step further.

9.    A great brown and yellow snake, as thick as his body, and about twenty feet long, lay coiled on the ground. It raised its head, and fixed its keen eyes upon him. It was the terrible snake called the Python, of which so many wonderful stories are told. It can wind itself round a small deer or other animal, and in a few moments crush it to death.


10.    The soldier knew this snake as well as he had known the other, and felt very anxious to get out of its way. So he crept cautiously back, treading as lightly as he could on the fallen trunks, which crumbled to pieces under his feet, and dreading every minute to be bitten by the snakes that lurked within.

11.    Now, however, to his great joy, he came upon the banks of a river, and the sight was very reviving to him. He could at last quench his thirst and bathe his temples; and he hoped, by following its course, to meet with natives, or to find his way out of the forest.

12.    He had only gone a few yards when he heard a loud chattering overhead, and, looking up, saw a crowd of monkeys grinning at him. They were a merry group, and seemed to b® enjoying themselves in their leafy home.

13.    And, indeed, nothing can be more pleasant than the life of the monkeys in their native forests. From the tops of the trees they look securely down on the lion, the tiger, and the elephant; and even pelt them with cocoa-nuts, when they are 'in the humour for mischief!

14.    But they are terribly afraid of the snake. For the snake will come, twisting itself up a tree when they are least aware of it; and woe to the monkey that is taking his afternoon nap then! He will be snapped up and swallowed before he has had time to make any defence !

15.    In these great forests the trees are often so matted together that the monkeys can travel for miles and miles along the tops of them, without coming to the ground.

16.    The trees in which the monkeys were chattering were loaded with cocoa-nuts; and, as the soldier was very hungry, he longed to get some of them to eat. Wishing to make the monkeys throw them down to him, he began to pelt them with stones, knowing well that they would pelt him with nuts in return.

17. And so they did,—pulling them off the trees, and flinging them at him with all their might. He contrived to dodge out of the way, and escape a broken head ; and then picked up some of the nuts, and ran off with them.

Questions. —1. Why was he glad when morning came ? 2. How long did he run about? And then? 3. What raised its head and looked at him ? Why did it seem angry ? 4. What kind of snake was it? 5. How do the natives of Ceylon regard it? When only do they kill them ? 'What do they do when one gets into a house ?

6.    When only does it bite ? How does it give warning of its intention?

7.    What was going on at that moment? What did the soldier do?

Where did he find himself ? 8. What lay on the ground ? What were gliding among them? 9. What lay coiled on the ground? What kind of snake was it ? What shows its great power ? 10. Where did the soldier then go ? Dreading what ?    11. What did he then come

upon? What did he hope? 12. What did he hear overhead? Whence did it come ?    13. What gives these monkeys security ?

What do they do when inclined to be mischievous? 14. Of what are they afraid ? Why ? 15. How are the monkeys able to travel in the forest? 16, 17. With what were the trees loaded? How did the soldier get a supply ?













tread-in g








At-tempt', trial.    I    Con-trive', manage. '

Be-wil-dered, puzzled ; led astray. |    Hur-ri-cane, a violent storm.


1.    The forest became wilder and wilder, and the darkness gave him warning that he should have to spend another night there. This time, he thought he would tie himself into a tree, so that he might, if possible, get a little sleep without being in danger of falling.

2.    The cord he used was made of long rope-like plants that grow in these forests. It was as tough and strong as rope. He did not, however, get much sleep. His clothes soon became soaked with the heavy and chilling dew that falls in ‘tropical countries ; and by-and-by he heard a loud barking and howling that was almost deafening. It was the cry of the jackals in pursuit of their prey.

3.    Jackals are greedier than wolves, and*will attack almost any animal they may meet. All day they lie hidden in their dens, but when night comes they issue forth in packs, and scour the forest.

4.    The jackal that

first scents the prey c gives notice to the rest by a loud howl, and    the jackal.

all the pack answer him. The lion often hears the cry, and follows at a distance. Then, when the jackals have run down their prey, and are just going to devour it, in steps the lion, and the jackals have to give place, and wait until he has satisfied his hunger.


5.    As soon as day dawned, the poor soldier came down from his roosting-place, and continued his way along the river-side. But very soon the banks became so covered with ’jungle and prickly shrubs, that he was obliged to take to the water and wade. It was very fatiguing work; and when he came to a more open place, he lay down on a rock, and in spite of the glaring rays of the sun, that beat full upon him, he sank into a deep sleep.

6.    When he awoke he got a terrible fright: close beside him were foot-marks of tigers, freshly made upon the soft mud! They had evidently been there while he was asleep, and he had been quite at their mercy. His escape seemed almost miraculous, and he did not leave the spot until he had kneeled down and thanked God for it.

7.    He was now very hungry; and seeing a number of peacocks feeding on some red berries, he thought he would venture to eat some too. But they were sour and disagreeable, and he did not think it *prudent to eat many of them.

8.    By-and-by he was better off; for he came to some cocoa-nut trees growing in a cluster on the river bank. Hundreds of parrots, with bright

green, yellow, and red plumage, were flying about among the branches; and they kept up such, a harsh screaming that they almost drove him stupid. And there were numbers of brill-

iantlv-dressed birds,

«/ '

with bills nearly as large as their bodies. The bills of these birds look so heavy, that one wonders how they can carry them.

9.    These were the toucans ; but so far were they from being troubled by the weight of their bills, that they were hopping about as ’nimbly as the parrots! In fact the bill is very light, and consists of a thin net-work of bone covered with a horny coating.

10.    The toucan feeds upon fruit and spices. But he is not content with a wholly vegetable diet. He eats mice and small birds, and has a g^eat liking for eggs,—cunningly driving away the parents, and then enjoying the contents of the nest.

11. When he seizes his prey, he jerks it up into the air and catches it again in his wide bill; and by a few squeezes he kills it. Then he cleverly breaks the bones, and swallows it piece by piece, not even leaving the beak and legs, if it happens to be a bird. All the while he makes a chattering noise with his bill, as if rejoicing over his meal.

12.    The nest of the toucan is in the hollow of a tree ; and when he goes to roost he turns his tail up over his back, and nestles his great bill on his shoulder, until it is quite hidden among the feathers. He is as noisy as the parrot; and altogether they made such a din, that the soldier was glad to get out of their way.

13.    Happily for him the elephants had been there before him, tearing down the branches ; and numbers of cocoa-nuts lay strewed on the ground. On these he made a good supper, and again tied himself into a tree for the night. The moon shone in all her glory, and he could clearly see the animals that came down to thQ river to drink.

14.    And here I may tell you that in hot countries the creatures in the forest have at all times plenty of food ; but every now and then there comes

a ’drought, and the supply of water is cut off. Rivers and lakes dry up under the burning rays of the sun; and the animals, parched with thirst, wander a long way in search of something to drink.

15. When they have found a spring, they all draw up on its banks; for they must drink or die. The elephants march in a long line, from the depths of the forest;


come in a herd, depending on thear numbers for safety. The lion and the tiger meet each other face to face ; and the smaller animals, such as the jackal and the timid deer, venture to the water’s edge, though it is as much as their lives are worth.

16. The snake, too, is there, taking possession of the hank, and seizing as much prey as he can get. Like the rest of his tribe, he sleeps with his eyes open, and seems for ever on the watch. Fierce battles take place every hour, and the weak fall victims to the strong. But Hhe snake is always able to defend himself; his scales are like armour, and no animal cares to venture near him and run the risk of being crushed to death in his folds.

Questions.1. "What warning did the darkness give the soldier? How did he resolve to secure himself ? 2. What kind of rope did he use? Why did he not get much sleep? 3. Where do jackals spend the day? When and how do they hunt? 4. How do the pack get notice of the prey ? What does the lion often do ? 5. Why was the soldier obliged to wade ? Where did he fall asleep ? 6. What did he notice when he awoke ? What did he do before leaving the spot i

7.    What did he next try to eat ? Why did he not eat many of them ?

8.    Why was he soon better off ? What were flying about among the branches ? What birds were there besides parrots ? 9. Why does the size of their bill not trouble them? 10. On what do they feed? 11. How does the toucan destroy his prey? What kind of noise does he make the while? 12. Where is his nest? How does he go to roost? 13. How was the soldier supplied with cocoa-nuts? What did he see in the moonlight? 14. Of what have the animals in the forest always plenty? From what do they sometimes suffer? What do they then do? 15. What may often be seen at a spring or river? 16. What does the snake do? How does he sleep? What is the result of the battles that take place ? Why is the snake always able to defend himself ?






pos-si-ble    greed-i-er

soaked    sat-is-fied

deaflen-ing    fa-tig-uing

jack-als    glar-ing

pur-suit'    jni-rac-u-lous

kneeled    cun-ning-ly

dis-a-gree-a-ble seizes plu-mage    squeez-es

tou-cans    strewed

veg-e-ta-ble    parched

Drought, dry season.

Jun-gle, long coarse grass and brush-

Wim-blyj actively.


Pru-dent, wise.

Trop-i-cal coun'tries, hot countries near the equator.


1.    Next day the soldier lived on his cocoa-nuts, dashing them against the trees to break the shells,—though by so doing he lost the milky juice. When he had eaten a few kernels, he put the rest in his bag.

2.    All at once he thought he heard men shouting, and he made for the place, overjoyed at the ‘prospect of meeting with human beings. But, alas! the sound died away, and was not repeated; and after running about a mile without seeing any one, he found himself deeper than ever in the heart of the forest.

3.    He now began to ’retrace his steps towards the river, but to his great alarm three elephants were standing full in his way. One of them was a young one, and came ’frolicking up to him as if in play. He ran back, and looked about for a tree to climb; but in his haste to get out of its reach his foot slipped, and he fell from the tree right under the elephant’s trunk!

4.    The elephant stopped, touched him,- smelled

him, and even turned him over. The soldier was very much afraid it would trample on him ; and therefore, suddenly jumping up, he gave such a shout that the elephant was scared, and ran back to its companions. Then all the three came rushing towards the soldier, bending and breaking everything before them.    .

5.    But fear lent the soldier wings, and he ran so fast that he soon left them behind him. Unfortunately he left his bag behind him too, with all his

cocoa-nuts in it; and he would have lost his dinner if he had not come upon another fruit that did as well.

6.    This was the fruit of the jack-tree. It is so large that it weighs fully seventy pounds, and contains more than two hundred seeds, or nuts, a little like chestnuts. The natives of Ceylon use it for food, either cutting it in slices and frying it in oil, or else eating it raw.

7.    The soldier tried to make a fire by rubbing two pieces of stick together; but though he rubbed a long time he could not get a spark. So he loaded himself with jack fruit, and went on in better spirits for having found such an 'abundant supply of food. But just at that moment he heard a loud grunting, and found that he was almost in the midst of a herd of wild boars.

8.    The wild boars are very ferocious animals. While they are young, they form themselves into a circle, the weakest in the middle, and the strongest facing the danger; and in this way they defy every other animal. But when the wild boar has grown up, he walks the forest fearless and alone. Hunting him is a favourite amusement in Ceylon.

9.    The hunter is mounted on horseback, and thrusts at the boar with a long spear. But he often gets the worst of it; for the enraged animal will charge so furiously as to drive both hunter and dogs off the field.

10.    The soldier swam across the river, to get out of the way of the wild boars. - When he reached the opposite bank he was completely worn out ; and sitting down he began to think over the many escapes he had had.

11.    He continued to wander about in the forest some days longer, but did not meet with any more adventures worth relating. At last he became so weak that he could not climb the trees; so he lay down at the foot of one of them, and sank into a deep sleep.

12.    Here he was found by some natives, who had come into the jungle to look for their cattle that had gone astray. They roused him from his sleep ; but he was not able to stand, and seemed as if he had lost his senses. They carried him away to the hospital, where every attention was paid to him. He slowly recovered his reason and his health; and when he was quite well he related his wonderful escapes in the forest, as I have told them to you.

Questions.—1. On what did the soldier live next day? How did he break them ? What did he lose ?    2. By what prospect was he

overjoyed? How was he disappointed? 3. What stood between him and the river ? What did one of them do ? What accident befell the soldier ? 4. How did he get rid of the elephant ? What did all three then do ? 5. How did he escape from them ? What did he also leave behind ? Why did he not lose his dinner ? 6. What fruit was that ? Describe it. How is it eaten ? 7. How did the soldier try to make a fire ? Did he succeed ? Why did he go on in better spirits ? What next disturbed him? 8. How do wild boars go about when young? And when old? What is a favourite amusement in Ceylon? 9. How is he hunted ? What often happens ? 10. How did the soldier escape the boars ? 11. Into wha/t state did he at last get ? Where did he fall asleep ?    12. Who found him there ? In what condition was he ?

Where did they carry him ?

















A-bun-dant, plentiful. Frol-ick-ing, playing.

I Pros-pect, hope.

I Re-trace', trace back ;





go over again.


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