. / ,

'    ■    ' / P

/ . //.- ' '

V/    w-'

• . ■ ■'

•    '/ V//W    .    ...    .    ’■    . *1

H:W/////È v ; • 'T ■’-* ...... - # •://>#-. ' •

• / ' ./A(////O, ''//// ;    /    y    .    '''//////''•'t////// iti ■    .

. - .•

• V,/// •. ■''/////,;■,,'■ '////,"    ' • '    ... '    '■    .    •    •    -    '    '    '    ,

.................... V ....    ■

.    •    •    //////;//../✓, . ,7/ #/.    .    .    ............. ,,

. . ///,, - . . // . // ,./■ . - .... / . . . - > • • • « ¥. . ■ ■ -





^he Ißoval (School (Scries.

No. IV.







( Oil oiu L c lA €

D H A K f M H t- Mv LIB R Ä R Y


Good reading is more readily acaiured by practice than by precept. The more young people read, they will read the more fluently, intelligently, and gracefully; and they can be induced to read much only by giving them interesting subjects to read about, and by treating them attractively.

It is with special reference to this principle, as regards both matter and style, that the Reading-Books in this Series have been prepared. The lessons aim not only at teaching the art of reading, but at training the pupils to a love of reading. They avoid as much as possible that dull solidity which tends so much to make school hours a weariness to the young.

The numerous Illustrations afford an important aid in this respect. The interest of young people is quickened more readily through the eye than in any other way; indeed it is through the eye that the understanding itself is most quickly reached.

As great variety as possible has been given to the contents of the present volume. Young people cannot be expected to dwell long on one subject, or even on one class of subjects. In the case of the mind, as of the body, judicious change is one of the best means of keeping up its vigour. In the following pages, accordingly, lessons on Natural History are intermingled with interesting Narratives, both in prose and in verse, with lessons having a more directly didactic tendency, and with Historical Summaries.

The following special features of the Series are worthy of note:—

I.    The Meanings of the difficult words are given at the head of each lesson. The definitions, or translations of the words, are in such a form as to admit of their being readily substituted in the text for the words explained.

II.    The Dictation Lessons are intended to be written in the ordinary MS. character; but they are here given in the print-writing type used in the previous books of the Series, in order to continue to familiarize the eye of the pupil with the appearance words present token written. This will be found to be a decided help in learning to spell correctly.

III.    For special lessons in Pronunciation, the more difficult words in each lesson are divided into syllables. Great importance is attached to this Exercise, and teachers are advised to make use of it systematically. They will find that when their pupils have learned to pronounce words correctly in syllables, the difficulty of spelling them has been greatly reduced.

IV.    Questions on the narrative or subject-matter are appended to each lesson. These questions have been prepared primarily to enable the pupil himself to ascertain whether he has mastered the chief points of the lesson.

V.    It is suggested that each set of questions should also be made the basis of a Composition Exercise. In this case, the pupils must be told to express each answer in the form of a complete sentence, reproducing in it so much of the question as is necessary. An example of this kind of Exercise is given on page 73, where the story of the Letter consists entirely of answers to the questions on the preceding page.

VI.    The Outlines of British History, which in this volume extend to the beginning of the Tudor Period, are intended to be prepared at home, and used from day to day along with the miscellaneous lessons in the same Part of the book, but for examination only. These lessons are merely brief outlines, and are designed as an introduction to the more extended narrative of Collier's British History, in the same Series.


*** The Italics indicate Poetical Pieces


Scenes in the Tropics :—

The Forest, ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    9

The Bird of Paradise,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    13

Casabianca, ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    17

Little Robert the Trapper,    ...    ...    ..,    ...    18

Home, Sweet Home,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    22

The Wreck of theHesperus,”    ...    ...    ...    ...    23

Try Again,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    25

The Sea-Gull,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    29

Monkeys on board Ship,    ...    ...    ..    ...    ...    32

The Voice of Spring,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    35

The Stinging Nettle,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    37


The Monkey and the Cats,    ...    ...    ...    ...    41

The Fox without a Tail,    ..    ...    ...    ...    42

Mercury and the Woodman,    ...    ...    ...    ...    43

The Cuckoo,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    45

A Faithful Dog,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    47

The Loss of theRoyal George,”    ...    ...    ...    ...    49

The Tailor-Bird,    ..    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    51

Napoleon and the Young English Sailor, ...    ...    ...    54

Pearl-Fishing, ^    ...    ...    ...    ...    ..    ...    57

Be Kind, ...    ...    ...    ...    ....    ...    ...    gl

-^Observation,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    63

Story of William Tell,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    65

The Chamois,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    68

Fidelity—A Story of Helvcllyn,    ...    ...    ...    ...    71

Model Composition Exercise,    ...    ...    ...    „    73

- ' The Arab and his Horse,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ,    74

Anecdotes of Washington,...    ..    ...    75

.Story of the “ White Ship,”    ...    ...    ...    ...    79

He Never Smiled Again, ...    ...    ...    ...    33

The Story of John Gilpin,    ...    ...    ...    ..    ...    34

yAndrocles and the Lion,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    33

The Wind in a Frolic, ^ ....._ ...    ...    ..    ...    94

Llewelyn and his Bog,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    93

Word Lessons—Words pronounced nearly alike,    ...    ...    90

Elliptical Dictation Exercises—Put the right word in the

right place, ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    IOQ

Outlines of British History—Division First

The Roman Period (55 B. c. -410 a. d. ),    ...    . „    ...    101

The Old English Period (449 A.D.-1006 A.D.),    ...    ..    102

The Norman Line (1060 A.D.-1154 A.D.),    ...    ...    100

Scotland (1058 A.D.-1154 A.D,),    ...    ...    ...    ...    110

Ireland (800 a.d.-1154 a.d.),    ...    ...    ...    .    Ill



The May Queen—Parti., ... ... . ...

.. 113

The Sky-lark, ... ... , ... . .

. 115

The May Queen—Part IT., ... ... ..

.-. 121

The Bison, or American Buffalo, ... .. . ,


The Old Arm-Chair, ... ... ... . ,

.. 125

Bison-Hunting, ... ... ... ... ...

.. 126

The Sheltering Rock, ... ... ... .

... 129

Lord Ullins Daughter, ... ... ... ...

... 136

The Rorqual, or Smooth-backed Whale, .. ...

... 138

The Inchcape Bell, ... ... ... ...

... 141

The Swallow, ... ... ... ... ...

.. 143

Story of Bruce and the Spider, ... ... ...

... 150

The Mocking-Bird, ... ... ... ...

... 153

The Village Blacksmith, ... ... ... ...

. 156

The Golden Eagle’s Nest—A Narrative, ... ...

... 158

The Graves of a Household, ... ...

... 167

The Battle of Bannockburn, ... ... ...

... 168

The Ship on Fire, ... ... ... ... •••

... 175

Crossing the Alps, ... ... ... •••

... 177

The Soldier s Dream,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ... igi

The White-Headed Eagle,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ig2

The Burial of Sir John Moore,    ...    ...    ...    ...    135

Brave Women, ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

The Death of De Boune,    ...    ...    ...    ...    Igg

Outlines of British History—Division Second

The Plantagenet Line (1154 a.d.—1399 A.r>.),    ...    ..    191

Scotland (1154 A.D.-1370 A.D.),    ...    202

Ireland (1154 a.D.-1400 A.D.), ...    ...    205


Story of Sir Richard Arkwright, ...    .    .    208

The Ley end of the Heart of Bruce, ...    ...    213

The Romans in Britain, ...    ...    .    217

Boadicea, ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    223

Archery in the Olden Time,    ...    ...    ...    ...    225

Jessie of Lucknow, •    ..    ...    ...    234

The Falls of Niagara,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    236

y To-day and To-morrow,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    240

An Iceberg,    ...    ...    ...    ...    .    ...    242

Love of Country,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    245

The Hand,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    246

The Bov fire of Craig-Gowan,    ...    ...    ...    ...    250

Noble Revenge,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    252

The Relief of Londonderry,    ...    ...    ..    ...    255

Hohenlinden,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    258

The Loss of the “ Birkenhead,” ...    ...    ...    ...    260

A Wild Night at Sea,    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    263

Outlines of British History—Division Third:—

House of Lancaster (1399 A.D.-1461 a.d.),    ...    ...    265

House of York (1461 A.D.-1485 a.d.),    ...    ...    ..    269

Scotland (1370 a.d.-1488 a.d.), ...    ...    ...    ...    273

Ireland (1400 a.d.-1485 a.d.), ...    ...    ...    ...    275

Word Lessons :—

Old English Prefixes, ...    ...    ...    ...    .    280

Latin Prefixes,    ...    ...    ...    ...    283

Words derived from the Names of Persons,    ...    ...    286

Words derived from the Names of Places,    ...    ...    287


The Adventures of Bass and Flinders.    ...    ...    ...    289

The Story of Flinders—Parti.,    ...    ..    ...    ...    292

The Story of Flinders—Part II.,    ...    ...    ...    ..    295

Sturt’s First and Second Explorations,    ...    ...    ...    299

Major Mitchell’s Exploration of Victoria,    .    ...    ...    804

Eyre’s Two Journeys—Parti.,    ...    ...    ...    ...    307

Eyre’s Two Journeys—Part II.,    ...    ...    ...    ...    312

Sturt’s Journey into the Interior—Parti., ...    ...    ...    31G

Sturt’s Journey into the Interior—Part II.,    ...    ...    320

The Story of Kennedy, ...    ..    ...    ..    ...    323

The Expedition of Burke and Wills—Part I.,    ..    ..    328

The Expedition of Burke and Wills—Part II.,    ...    ...    332


The ivords explained in each Lesson are distinguished by an Asterisk.



A.-lert', active ; quick. Con-trivLance, plan, scheme. Jag-uar, the American tiger.

Myr-i-ads, immense numbers. Re -cess-es, deepest parts. Ven-om-ous, poisonous.

In hot countries the woods are not like our woods. They are great dark forests, where the trees grow so closely together, and are so tall, that if you looked up you could hardly see the sky.

Then there are a great many climbing plants, that twist themselves round and round the trunks and branches of the trees. They are called vegetable cables, because they are so much like ropes. They reach from one tree to another, and almost fill up the spaces between. The white man has to carve out his way with his hatchet, or else burn a passage for himself through the dense mass.

Dangers of every kind lurk in the forest. The quick subtle Indian durst not venture there without his poisoned arrows, nor the white man without the thunder and lightning of his gun. The venomous*

snake may lie coiled among the bushes, or traces of the savage jaguar* may be seen upon the path.

Birds, beasts, and insects live there, for the most part, undisturbed. It is their home; and on every side they are at work, hunting their prey, or escaping from danger. For though man seldom wages war upon them, these wild creatures of the forest are engaged in constant warfare with each other; and the weak are always using some contrivance" to protect themselves from the strong.

There are a great many curious things to be seen in these South American forests.

In the deepest gloom, where the trees shut out the sun, myriads* of lights flit about, and * twinkle like little stars. As they flash here and there, you might fancy that troops of fairies were floating about with torches in their hands ; but there are no fairies in the case,—the lights are only the torches of the fire-flies that live in the recesses* of the woods, and every night make a kind of illumination amongst the trees.

There are troops of monkeys, that run along the vegetable cables from one tree to another, or swing from the branches by their tails, making a noise all the time as if they were talking to each other. When night comes they roll themselves into a ball, huddled together as close as may be, to keep themselves warm.

Sometimes it happens that a few little monkeys have not been alert* enough to get into the ball, and are left shivering outside. They keep up a pitiful howling the whole night through, as if they were telling the rest how cold and miserable they are, and begging to be let in. But the others pay no attention, and go quietly off to sleep.

Then there are all sorts of wonderful birds, such as we never see in our country, except in cages.

Flocks of parrots glisten in the sun, clad in glowing scarlet, and green, and gold. Humming-birds, Like gems of beauty, come to seek honey and insects

from the forest flowers. Fly-catchers gleam and sparkle everywhere. Water-fowl of snowy plumage sport on the streams, their white dresses contrasting with those of the red flamingo, or the scarlet ibis, that stand patiently fishing on the shore.

Questions. —Why are the forests in hot countries so dark ? What are the climbing-plants called? Why? How does the white man make a way for himself through the forest ? What dangers lurk there ? Of what is the forest specially the home ? What are the lights that flit about in the gloom ? How do the monkeys swing themselves from one tree to another ? How do they keep themselves warm at night i What birds are found in these forests ?


Dictation :—

In the dense forests of South America, birds, beasts, and insects liue, for the most part, undisturbed by man.

But though man does not wage war upon them, they are engaged in constant warfare with each other.


Haunts, favourite places. Plume, a bunch of feathers.

un-dis-turbed' il-lu-mi-na-tion

at-ten-tion    pa-tient-ly

Pronounce in syllables:— climb-ing    pro-tect'

veg-e-ta-ble    cu-ri-ous

poi-soned    car-ry-ing

crea-tures    hud-dled

moñ-keys    qui-et-ly

shiv-er-ing    spar-kle

pit-i-ful    plu-mage

mis-er-a-ble    flam-iñ-go

Trop-i-cal, between the Tropics ; in the Torrid (Hottest) Zone.

If you turn now to the map of Asia, you will find a number of islands lying to the south of Malacca, and forming a link between Asia and Australia.

These islands are in the very midst of the Tropics. The warm tropicaT seas bathe their coasts; and dark, dense forests, cover many of them from the sea-shore to the top of the highest mountain.

One of the largest of these islands, called New Guinea, and a few small islands near it, are the home of the splendid Bird of Paradise. These birds live nowhere else. The natives call them God’s Birds, because they think them more splendid than any other that he has made. -

The head and neck of the Bird of Paradise are as soft as velvet, and of a golden tint, that changes, while you are looking at it, into all the colours of

the rainbow. Its tail is a magnificent plume* of fairy-like feathers, partly white and partly yellow, so that you might think they were made of silver and gold. This plume is very much longer than the body, and makes the bird appear larger than it is ; for in reality it is only about the size of a pigeon.

We can hardly fancy a flock of these beautiful birds upon the wing, floating at their ease, or pursuing the insects of various kinds that serve them for food. But this is no uncommon sight in that land of flowers and spices—a land that seems exactly fitted to be the home of the Bird of Paradise.

But there, as in all tropical countries, there is a season of rain and storm. Then the birds disappear, as the swallows do with us, and seek some sheltered place. But when the rain is over, and the spices in the woods breathe out fresh fragrance, they return to their old haunts/ and the gay plumes of the male birds may be seen glittering amongst the trees as before.

When the Birds of Paradise are about to take one of their long flights, they choose a leader to be king over them. Where he goes they go, and where he settles they settle, perching on the same tree.

He generally flies high up in the air, far above the heads of his subjects; and he takes care to lead them against the wind, so that their loose floating plumes may not be blown over their heads. If a storm comes, they then rise higher and higher, and keep mounting until they reach a calmer and serener region.

The natives always know the king, by the spots which he has upon his tail, like the eyes upon the feathers of the peacock. When they go into the woods to shoot these birds, they try to kill him first. In order to get a good shot, they make a little bower of leaves and branches of trees, within which they can hide themselves and yet see all that is going on.

The birds are perched around them, suspecting no danger; but arrow after arrow comes out of this leafy bower, and strikes down first one, and then another, till the natives think that they have enough. They cut off the legs, and stuff the bodies with spices, and make a famous trade of selling them to Europeans.

The natives used to pretend that this bird had neither leg's nor stomach ! Thus it was believed for a long time that it fed on the dew, and never alighted on the ground. This is why it has been called the “ Bird of Paradise.”

Questions.—Where does the Bird of Paradise live? What do the natives call it ? Why ? What is remarkable in the colour of its head and neck ? and in the colour and size of its tail ? When do these birds disappear ? Who leads these birds in their long flights ? How do the natives know the king? Where do they conceal themselves when shooting these birds ? How do they prepare them for the European market ? What did the natives use to pretend about them ? Why was it called the Bird of Paradise ?

Pronounce in syllables

de-li-cious    pur-su-ing    shel-tered    be-lieved

Par-a-dise    in-sects    perch-ing    sus-pect^-ing

mag-nif-i-cent    dis-ap-pear'    gen-er-al-ly    Eu-ro-pe-ans

Dictation :—

The chiefs of the islands where the Birds of Paradise are found, use them in their turbans.

In many parts of the East, as well as in this country, parts of these birds are used by ladies as ornaments in their head-dress.



As born, as if lie were born.    I Shroud, ropes supporting the masts

Pen-non, a flag, or streamer.    1 Wreath-ing-, encircling rolling.

The boy stood on the burning deck,

Whence all but he had fled ;    %

The flame that lit the battle’s wreck Shone round him o’er the dead.

Yet beautiful and bright he stood,

As* born to rule the storm;

A creature of heroic blood,

A proud though child-like form.

The flames rolled on—he would not go Without his father’s word ;

That father, faint in death below,

His voice no longer heard.

He called aloud: “ Say, father, say If yet my task is done ?”—

He knew not that the chieftain lay Unconscious of his son.

<c Speak, father,” once again he cried,

“ If I may yet be gone f”

And but the booming shots replied,

And fast the flames rolled on.

Upon his brow he felt their breath,

And in his waving hair;

And looked from that lone post of death,

In still, yet brave despair.

And shouted but once more aloud,

“ My father, must I stay ?”

While o’er him fast, through sail and shroud,* The wreathing* fires made-way.

They wrapt the ship in splendour wild.

They caught the flag on high,

And streamed above the gallant child,

Like banners in the sky.    •


There came a burst of thunder sound,—

The boy—oh ! where was he ?

Ask of the winds that far around With fragments strewed the sea;

With mast, and helm, and pennon* fair,

That well had borne their part—

But the noblest thing that perished there,

Was that young faithful heart!

Mrs. Hemans.

Pronounce in burn-ing beau-ti-ful crea-ture he-ro-ic









syllables :— chief-tain un-con-scious boom-ing re-plied'

Dictation :—

Casabianca was the son of the admiral of the warship “ U Orient.” Hauing, in the battle of the Nile, receiued orders not to quit his post till his faiher’s return, the braue boy perished in the flames rather than disobey.    _


Crush, the mass of coal which blocked I Gal-ler-ies, passages in the c<?al mine, up the mine.    I Shaft, opening leading to the mine.

One morning while the pitmen are at work in a coal mine, they hear a noise louder than thunder. In a moment every lamp is out, and men and boys throw down their tools and run.

It is Tuesday morning. The men reach the bottom of the shaft,* and count their number. Five are missing, four men and one little trapper,1 Robert Lester. People above hear the noise, and rush to the pit’s mouth. The workmen are taken up. O

1 The business of the trappers is to sit at the trap-doors which lead out of the passages of the mine, and to open and shut them as required. Often little boys are employed in this. It is not hard work, but it is very dismal and tiresome.


the agony of the wives and mothers of those who are left behind !

Brave men go back to their rescue. They light their lamps and reach the crush.* There is nothing but a heap of ruins. They shout, but there is no answer. Up go pick-axes and shovels, to clear the way. It is great labour, and it involves great risk. Men flock from all quarters to offer their services How they work !

Towards night they hear something. It is not a voice, but a tapping. It can just be heard. Clinkclink, clink,, clink, clink! five times, and then it stops. Clink, clink, five times .again, and then it stops. Five more, and then a stop.

What does it mean ? One man guesses. There are five missing, and the five clinks show that all the five are alive, waiting for deliverance. A shout of joy goes up in and above the pit.

How had it fared with the poor prisoners ? They were frightened like the rest by that sudden and awful noise. Little Robert left his door and ran to the men, who well knew what the noise meant. Waiting till everything was quiet, they went forward to examine the passage-way Robert had left. It was blocked up. They tried another; that also was blocked up. Oh, fearful thought—they were buried cdive!

The men went back to the boy. “ I want to go home ; please, do let me go home,” said little Robert. “ Yes, yes, as soon as we find a way out, my little man,” said Truman, in a kind yet husky voice. The air grew close and suffocating, and they took their oil-cans and food bags to one of the galleries* where it was better.

Truman and Logan, two of the buried hewers, were Christian men. “ Well, James, what shall we do next ?” asked Truman. “ There is but one thing we can do,” said Logan. “ God says, ‘ Call upon me in the day of trouble ; I will deliver thee.’ ”

They all knelt down. Poor little Robert cried bitterly. But as the two pitmen prayed,—first the one and then the other,—all hearts grew lighter, and even the little trapper dried his tears.

Then the men got their pick-axes; but what a hopeless task it seemed, to cut through that terrible mass of earth and stones to daylight! Their hearts beat with hope and joy when they first heard the sound of their friends working on the other side. It was then that they made the clink, clink with their pickaxes, which was heard by their deliverers, and so much encouraged them in their work.

Wednesday, Thursday, Friday passed, and no rescue. What dark and dreadful days! Worse than all, the sounds beyond did not appeal to draw nearer. At last Saturday came. Five days had passed ; and the men outside knew that there was not an instant to lose. They were too anxious even to speak. It was only work, work, work, for dear life. For hours they had heard no signals. Were their poor comrades dead ?

Suddenly the wall was pierced ; a hole was made through it; feeble voices were heard.

Truman, are yon there ?”    “ Yes, all here.”

“All living V' “Yes, thank God, all living.” “All living! all living ! ” shouted the men ; and the shout went up to the mouth of the pit. When Robert’s father heard that his son was alive, the good news was too much for him, and he fell down senseless.

One hour more and the rescuers reached their comrades. Who can describe the meeting; or the joy and gratitude of wives, mothers, and friends, as one and another were brought up to the light ? What a huzza rent the air as Mr. Lester came in sight with Robert in his arms !    “ Safe ! safe !

God be praised !”

Questions.—What noise was heard in the coal mine? What did every one in the pit do when it was heard ? How many were ascertained to he missing ? What did the men who had escaped do ? What noise did they hear towards night ? What did it mean ? What did the prisoners do when they found that the passages were all blocked up ? What did

Truman and Logan do? When were they rescued ? How long had they been shut in ? How was Kohert’s appearance greeted ?

Pronounce in syllables


















An explosion in a coal mine blocked up the passages with earth and stones. Four men and a boy were

shut in.

Their comrades began at once to clear a way for them. On the fifth day, they were all taken out aliue.


Be it, though it be.    [raour. I Hal-low, to make holy

Daz-zles, fascinates ; catches by gla- | Seek, though we seek.

;Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam,

Be* it ever so humble, there’s no place like home !

A charm from the skies seems to hallow* all there,

Which, seek* through the world, is ne’er met with elsewhere. Home ! home ! sweet home !

There’s no place like home !

An exile from home, splendour dazzles* in vaiu .

Oh, give me my lowly thatched cottage again ;

The birds singing gaily that came at my call :

Give me these, and the peace of mind dearer than all. Home ! sweet, sweet home !

There’s no place like home !    Payne.

Pronounce in syllables:—

pleas-ures    hum-ble    splen-dour    sing-ing

palLa-ces    else-where'    cot-tage    gai-ly


’Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam, Be it euer so humble, there’s no place like home


A main', with all its force.

Elax, the blue flower of the flax-plant. Lashed, tied by a rope, or lash.

Ope, open ; bloom.

Skip-per, the master of a small vessel. Warm, warmly ; so as to make warm. Weath-er, resist; endure Whoop-ing, roaring

It was the schooner “Hesperus”

That sailed the wintry sea ;

And the skipper* had taken his little daughter To bear him company.

Blue were her eyes as the fairy flax,*

Her cheeks like the dawn of day,

And her bosom white as the hawthorn buds ' That ope* in the month of May.

Down came the storm, and smote amain*

The vessel in its strength;

She shuddered and paused, like a frighted steed, Then leaped her cable’s length.

“ Come hither ! come hither! my little daughter, And do not tremble so ;

For I can weather* the roughest gale That ever wind did blow.”

He wrapped her warm* in his seaman’s coat Against the stinging blast;

He cut a rope from a broken spar,

And bound her to the mast.

“ O father ! I hear the church bells ring ;

O say, what may it be —

“ ’Tis a fog-bell on a rock-bound coast !”

And he steered for the open sea.

“ O father ! I hear the sound of guns ;

O say, what may it be ?

“ Some ship in distress, that cannot live In such an angry sea !”

“ O father! I see a gleaming light ;

O say, what may it be ?”

But the father answered never a word,—

A. frozen corpse was he !

And fast, through the midnight dark and drear, Through the whistling sjeet and snow,

Like a sheeted ghost, the vessel swept Towards the reef of Norman’s Woe.

The breakers were right beneath her bows;

She drifted, a dreary wreck,

And a whooping* billow swept the crew Like icicles from her deck.

She struck where the white and fleecy waves Looked soft as carded wool ;

But the cruel rocks, they gored her side Like the horns of an angry bull.

At day-break on the bleak sea-beach A. fisherman stood aghast,

To see the form of a maiden fair Lashed* close to a drifting mast.

The salt sea was frozen on her breast,

The salt tears in her eyes ;    .

And he saw her hair, like the brown sea-weed, On the billows fall and rise.


Pronounce in syllables:—

rough-est bro-ken dis-tress' an-gry














Such was the wreck of the “Hesperus,” In the midnight and'the snow!

Christ save us all from a death like this, On the reef of Norman’s Woe.



Be-ceiv-ing, imposing upon; cheating. I Stole, slipped off in disgrace. En-COur-ag-ing,cheering; givinghope. | Urged, pleaded ; reasoned.

Have you finished your lesson, George ? ” said Mr. Prentice to his son, who had laid aside his book and was busily engaged in making a large paper kite.

“No, father,” replied George, hanging down his head.

“ Why not, my son ? ”

“Because it is so difficult, father. I am- sure that I shall never learn it. Besides, I could not remember it after I had learned it, my memory is so bad.”

“ If I were to promise you a holiday on the thirtieth of the month after next, do you think you would forget the date ? ”

“No, I am pretty sure that I should not.”

“You are first-rate at skating, and flying your kite, and playing at ball and marbles, are you not ? ”

“Yes, father.”

“ And yet you cannot learn your lesson ! My dear boy, you are deceiving* yourself. You can learn as well as any one, if you will only try.”

“But have I not tried, father?” again urged* George.

“ Well, try again. Come, for this afternoon lay aside that kite you are making, and give another effort to get your lesson ready. Be in earnest, and you will soon learn it. To show you that it only requires perseverance, I will tell you a story :—

“ One of the dullest boys at a village school, more than thirty years ago, went up to repeat his lesson one morning; and, as usual, did not know it. ‘Go to your seat!’ said the teacher angrily. ‘If you don’t pay more attention to your lessons you will never be fit for anything.’

“The poor boy stole* off to his seat, and bent his eyes again upon his lesson.

“ ‘It is of no use ; I cannot learn,’ lie said in a whisper to a companion who sat near him.

“ ‘ You must try hard,’ replied the kind-hearted boy.

“ ‘ I have tried, but it is of no use ; I may just as well give up at once.’

“ ‘ Try again, Henry i ’ whispered his companion, in an earnest and encouraging* tone.

Questions.—What reasons did George give for not being able to learn his lesson ? What did his father ask him if he was likely to forget ? What did he say ? To show him that learning only required perseverance, what did his father do? What kind of boy was it about? What had the teacher told him when he failed? What had his companion whispered to him ?    .

Pkonounce in syllables













per-se-ver- ance an-gri-ly at-ten-tion com-pan-ion


/I boy who could beat all his companions at their games was unable to learn his lesson, or to remember it after it was learned.

To show him that he was deceiuing himself and that it only required perseverance, his father told him a story.



Bent, applied closely.    | Im-pulse, force ; motive ; tendency

“ These two little words gave Henry a jresh impulse,* and he bent* his mind again to his task. Gradually he began to find the sentences lingering in his memory ; and soon, to his surprise and pleasure, the whole lesson was mastered ! He then rose from his seat and proceeded to the teacher’s desk.

“ ‘ What do you want now ? ’ asked the teacher.

“ ‘To say my lesson, sir.’

“ ‘ Did you not try half an hour ago ? ’

“ ‘ Yes ; but I can say it now, sir,’ said the boy.

“ ‘ Go on, then.’

“ Henry commenced, and repeated the whole lesson without missing a word ! The master gave him a look of pleasure as he handed back his book.

“From that day,” continued Mr. Prentice, “there was no boy in the school who learned more rapidly than Henry. From that day till the present hour he has been a student; and he now urges his son George to ‘ try again,’ as he tried.”

“And was it indeed yon, father?” asked his son, eagerly looking up into the face of his kind parent.

“ Yes, my child. That dull boy was your own father in his early years.”

“ Then I will try again,” said-George, in a decided tone; and, flinging aside his half-made kite, he turned and re-entered the house, and was soon bending in earnest attention over his lesson.

“ Well, what success, George ? ” asked Mr. Prentice, as the family gathered around the tea-table.

“ I learned the lesson, father ! ” replied the boy. “ I can say every word of it.”

“ Did you find it hard work ? ”

“Not so very hard, after I had once made up my mind that I would learn it. Indeed I never stopped to think, as I usually do, but went right on until I had mastered every sentence.”

“ May you never forget this lesson, my son! ” said Mr. Prentice. “You now possess the secret of success. It lies in never stopping to think about a task’s being difficult or tiresome, but in going steadily on, with a fixed determination to succeed.”

Questions.—What effect had the words “Try again ” on the boy? What had he begun to find ? What had the teacher said to him when he returned to his desk? How had he succeeded? What had the teacher done as he handed him back his book ? What resolution had Henry formed? Had he kept it? Who did Henry turn out to be? What did George do when he heard that? With what result? Wherein lies the secret of success.    •









Pronounce in syllables grad-u-al-ly    pro-ceed-ed

sen-ten-ces    com-menced'

liii-ger-ing    re-peat-ed

sur-prise'    con-tin-ued


The story his father told George was about his own youth. When a boy, he had been idle and dull. Once a companion had urged him to “try again.”

He had done so, and had succeeded not only then, but always afterwards. George took the hint, and succeeded as his father had done.


Bil-low-y, rolling in great waves. Foam-cloud, a ball of froth.

Gust-y, accompanied with sudden bursts of wind.

League, a measure of distance at sea.

about 3J English miles.

Surg-ing, swelling.

Wan-ton, roving; frolicsome.

0 the white sea-gull, the wild sea-gull,

A joyful bird is he,

As he lies like a cradled thing at rest In the arms of a sunny sea!

The little waves rock to and fro,

And the white gull lies asleep,

As the fisher’s bark, with breeze and tide, Goes merrily over the deep.

The ship, with her fair sails set, goes by, And her people stand to note How the sea-gull sits on the rocking waves, As if in an anchored boat.

The sea is fresh, the sea is fair,

And the sky calm over head,

And the sea-gull lies on the deep deep sea5 Like a king in his royal bed!

0 the white sea-gull, the bold sea-gull,

A joyful bird is he,

Throned, like a king, in calm repose,

On the breast of the heaving sea!

The waves leap up, the wild wind blows,

And the gulls together crowd,

And wheel about, and madly scream To the deep sea roaring loud:

And let the sea roar ever so loud,

And the wind pipe ever so high,

With a wilder joy the bold sea-gull Sendeth forth a wilder cry;—

For the sea-gull he is a daring bird,

And he loves with the storm to sail;

To ride in the strength of the billowy* sea, And to breast the driving gale!

The little boat she is tossed about Like a sea-weed, to and fro;

The tall ship reels like a drunken man,

As the gusty * tempests blow;

But the sea-gull laughs at the fear of man, And sails, in a wild delight,    ^    .

On the torn-up breast of the night-black sea, Like a foam-cloud,* calm and white.

The waves may rage, and the winds may roar, But he fears not wreck, nor need;

For he rides the sea, in its stormy strength,

As a strong man rides his steed.

O the white sea-gull, the bold sea-gull,

He makes on the shore his nest,

And he tries what the inland fields may be; But he loveth the sea the best!

And away from land, a thousand leagues/

He goes ’mid surging* foam;—

What matter to him is land or shore.

For the sea is his truest home!

And away to the North among ice-rocks stern,

And amid the frozen snow,

To a sea that is lone and desolate,

Will the wanton* sea-gull go.

For he careth not for the winter wild,

Nor those desert regions chill ;

In the midst of the cold, as on calm blu^seas,

The sea-gull hath his will!

And the dead whale lies on the northern shores, And the seal, and the sea-horse grim;

And the death of the great sea-creatures makes A full merry feast for him.

O the wild sea-gull, the bold sea-gull,

As he screams in his wheeling flight, •

As he sits on the waves in storm or calm.

All cometh to him aright!

All cometh to him as he liketh best,

Nor any his will gainsay !

And he rides on the waves like a bold young king That was crowned but yesterday !

Mary Howitt,

Questions.—What do the people in the ship stand to note ? What is the sea-gull like, when the sea and sky are calm ? What do the gulls do when the wild wind blows ? Where do they make their nests ? What food do they find in the cold North ?    •

Pronounce in syllables .—

mer-ri-ly    bil-low-y    des'o-late    north-ern

aii-chored    drun-ken    wan-ton    gain-say'

re-pose'    thou-sand    re-gions    yes-ter-day


These web-footed marine birds are dispersed over euery quarter of the world, and in some parts are met with at certain seasons in qast multitudes.

The species which frequents the Arctic regions is the iuory gull; so called from its white plumage, which riuals in pureness of colour new-fallen snow.


Dis-cov'ered, found out.

En-ticed', tempted.

Pen-al-ty, fine.

Pros-e-cut-ed, charged with the of-

fence ; tried. Ref-llge, shelter

Sal-ute', a discharge of cannon in hon-

our of some person or event. Sal-Ut-ed, greeted ; met.

Scam-pered, ran hastily Sen-e-gal , a river and colony of West-

ern Africa.

The following account of a Senegal* monkey was written by a lady who was a passenger on board the ship in which it was brought to England :—•

“We had several monkeys on board, but Jack, the cook’s monkey, was the prince of them all. At first Jack had been kept to one part of the deck by means of a cord ; but as he grew tame he got more liberty, till at last he was allowed the whole range of the ship, excepting the captain’s and the passengers’ cabins.

“ I was often awakened at an early hour by the quick trampling of feet on deck, and knew that it arose from a pursuit of Jack for some mischief he had been doing. He would snatch the caps off the sailors’ heads, and steal their knives and other tools; and, if not very actively pursued, he would sometimes throw them overboard.

“ When breakfast was being prepared, Jack used to take a seat in a corner, near the grate, and, when the cook’s back was turned, he would snatch up something from the fire, and conceal it. He sometimes burned his fingers by these tricks, and this kept him quiet for a few days. But no sooner was the pain gone, than the same thing was done again.

“ Two days in each week, the pigs, which formed part of our live stock, were allowed to run about

the deck for exercise ; and then Jack was as happy as the day was long.

“ Hiding himself behind a cask, he would suddenly spring upon the back of one of them, which then scampered"1 round the deck in a fright. Sometimes Jack got upset, and if saluted " with a la^igh from the sailors, he put on a look of wonder, as much as to say, ‘ What can you have got to laugh at ? *

“ Besides Jack, we had on board three little monkeys with red skins and blue faces, and Jack would often get them all on his back at once, and carry them about the vessel. When, however, I began to pet these little creatures, he became jealous, and got rid of two of them by throwing them into the sea !

“ One of his drollest tricks was performed on the poor little monkey that was left. One day, the men who had been painting left their paint and brushes on the upper deck. Jack enticed* the little monkey to him; then, seizing him with one hand, with the other he took the brush and covered him with white paint from head to foot!

“ The laugh of the man at the helm called my attention to this ; and as soon as Jack saw that he was discovered, he dropped his dripping brother, and scampered up to the main-top, where he stood with his nose between the bars, looking at what was going on below.

“ Jack was afraid to come down, and only after three days passed in his lofty place of refuge* did hunger force him to descend. He chose the moment

when I was sitting on deck, and swinging himself (si)    3

by a rope, he dropped suddenly into my lap, looking so piteously at me for pardon, that I not only forgave him myself, but saved him from further punishment.

Soon after this I took another vessel, and Jack and T parted, never to meet again.”

Among the rules of the port of London is one which forbids, under a heavy penalty/ the firing of a gun from any vessel lying there. An armed ship had just coine in from a long voyage, during which she had touched at several places, and at each of them had fired a salute on anchoring/

A monkey that was on board, naturally wondering why this was omitted when he saw the anchor dropped at London, resolved, rather than that it should not take place, that he would fire the salute himself!

Accordingly, while the attention of all on board was engaged with the arrival of the ship, lie went to the cooking-place, and with the tongs took out a live coal, which he applied to the touch-hole of one of the guns; and forthwith the whole neighbourhood was startled by the roar of the cannon.

The captain of the vessel was prosecuted* for breaking the law; and he could only clear himself by proving that the cannon had been fired by the monkey.

Questions.—Where did Jack come from? To whom did he belong? What was he allowed when he grew tame ? What tricks did he play on the sailors ? How did he amuse himself with the pigs ? How many other monkeys were on board ? How did Jack play with them ? What made him jealous of them? How did he get rid of two of them? What droll trick did he play on the remaining one ?—What law was the captain of an armed vessel once tried for breaking ? Who had fired the cannon ? Why ? How did the captain clear himself ?

Pronounce in syllables:—






















Fanes, temples.    I    Hes-pe-ri-an, western

I come, I come ! ye have called me loner ;

T come o’er the mountains with light and song : Ye may trace my step o’er the wakening earth, By the winds which tell of the violet’s birth,

By the primrose stars in the shadowy grass,

By the green leaves opening as I pass.

I have breathed on the South, and the chestnut flowers, By thousands, have burst from the forest bowers;

And the ancient graves, and the fallen fanes,*

Are veiled with wreaths on Italian plains.—

But it is not for me, in my hour of bloom,

To speak of the ruin or of the tomb!

I have looked on the hills of the stormy North,

And the larch has hung all his tassels forth;

The fisher is out on the sunny sea,

And the rein-deer bounds o’er the pastures free;

And the pine has a fringe of softer green,

And the moss looks bright where my foot hath been,

I have sent through the wood-paths a gentle sigh,

And called out each voice of the deep blue sky,

From the night-bird’s lay through the starry-time In the groves of the soft Hesperian* clime,

To the swan’s wild note by the Iceland lakes When the dark fir-bough into verdure breaks.

From the streams and founts I have loosed the chain;— They are sweeping on to the silvery main;

They are flashing down from the mountain-brows,

They are flinging spray on the forest boughs;

They are bursting fresh from their sparry caves, •

And the earth resounds with the joy of waves.

Come forth, O ye children of gladness, come!

Where the violets lie may be now your home.

Ye of the rose-lip and dew-bright eye,

And the bounding footstep, to meet me fly;

With the lyre, and the wreath, and the joyous lay,

Come forth to the sunshine, I may not stay.

Mrs. Hemans.

Pronounce in syllables :—


















Con-se-quen-ces, what follow ; effects.

Con-vinced/, satisfied by proof. Ex-am-in-ing, looking carefully at; inspecting.

Sat-is-fied, freed from doubt, convinced.

Tiii-gle, thrill with pain; smart. Tres-pass, commit an offence. Whole-some, health-giving.


Alfred saw a beautiful flower growing on the farther side of a deep ditch, and he ran forward to get it for his sister Mary. Mary begged him not to do so, lest he should tumble into the ditch. But Alfred would have his own way.

As he was going down the bank, his foot slipped; and he would have fallen into the ditch, had he not caught hold of some nettles that were growing near. He was not long in scrambling up the bank again, for the sharp sting of the nettles made him forget the beautiful flower.

‘‘There now!” said he; “talk of everything being useful! I am quite sure a stinging nettle is of no use in the world. See how it has stung my fingers ! They are covered with white blisters, and tingle* terribly. I am quite sure grandpapa was wrong when he said that everything was useful.”

“ Perhaps not,” said the old gentleman, who at that moment peeped over the hedge. “ But I shall go round by the gate, and come to you.”

In a few minutes the old gentleman was with them, examining* the smarting fingers of his grandson.    -

“ Well now, grandpapa, please to tell me of what use nettles are, for I cannot think that they are of the least use whatever.”

“ The nettle,” replied the old gentleman, “ has no doubt many uses of which I am ignorant; but I

shall point out a few, which may show you that God has not formed it in vain. And I shall begin with the use of which the nettle has been to you, Alfred.” “To me, grandpapa! I am quite sure that it has been of no use to me.”

“No use ! ” said the old gentleman, smiling. “ Why, did it not save you from tumbling into the ditch ? ” Here Alfred looked rather foolish, while his grandfather went on : “ It is not a very long time, Alfred, since you were praising your nettle-soup. The soup was made of the tender tops of young nettles, and I daresay you remember it very well.”

“ Oh yes ! ” said Mary. “It was old Martha Smith who told my mother to give it to us; she said it would do us ‘ a power of good.5 ”    .

“ I am glad you remember it. Bat let us look at the nettle a little nearer.” Just then a bee alighted on one of the nettle flowers. “ Do you think that bee if he could speak, would say that the nettle

was of no use ? See ! he is gathering honey from it, and perhaps finds it as useful as the blooming rose.”

The old gentleman then sat down on the bank ; and having his gloves on, he turned over some of the nettle leaves.




“ Look here ! said he. called the ladybird, with its red back spotted with black.

I daresay this ladybird finds the nettle of some use, or it would not take shelter under its leaves.

“ Then, again, here is a spider that has woven his web from one leaf to another : no doubt the spider finds the nettle of some use too. So that the bee, the ladybird, and the spider are all against you.”

Here Alfred and Mary looked at each other, as if now quite satisfied* that the nettle had not been made in vain. But their grandfather still went on *.

“ Nettles are often useful in keeping young people in the right path. When your sister begged you, Alfred, not to go near the ditch, you heeded her not; but when the nettle pointed out your error, you were convinced* of it in a moment.

4' The nettle, moreover, teaches a useful lesson Look at Alfred’s fingers: they are not stung where he grasped the nettle firmly, but only in the parts that touched it lightly. Many little trials of the world are of the same character: give way to them,

they annoy you ; meet them bravely, they injure you not, for you overcome them.

“ Another excellent lesson to be got from the nettle is, to mind your own business, and not to meddle with that of other people. Let the nettle alone—it never stings you ; trespass* upon it—you must take the consequences.*

“ I might say a good deal more ; but if the nettle assists in forming a wholesome* food—if it affords honey to the bee, shade and shelter to the ladybird and the spider — if it keeps young people in the proper path, and supplies us with useful lessons—• you must allow that the stinging nettle has not been made in vain.    qld Humphrey.

Questions.—Why did Alfred go down the bank of the ditch ? What saved him from falling? What made him forget the flower ? In what did he say his grandpapa was wrong? Who answered him? Of what use did he say the nettle had been to Alfred? What had Alfred been praising some time before? What insects seemed to find the nettle ol some use? How are nettles often useful to young people? What parts of Alfred’s fingers were not stung? What does this teach about the trials of life? How does the nettle tell you that you should mind your own business?

Pronounce in syllables


























Tender-handed stroke a nettle,

And it stings you for your pains; Grasp it like a man of And it soft as silk remains.

Boot-y,^ plunder.    |    Qut-weighs', is heavier than.

De-fect' , want; imperfection.    |    Be-store', give back,


Two hungry cats, having stolen some cheese, could not agree between themselves how to divide their booty/ They therefore went to law, and a cunning monkey was to decide their cause.

“ bet us see,” said the judge (with as arch a look as could be) : “ay, ay, this slice truly outweighs* the other ; ” and so saying he bit off a large piece, in order, as he told them, to make the shares equal.

The other scale had now become too heavy, which gave this upright judge a pretence to help himself to a mouthful from the second slice.

“Hold! hold!” cried the two cats ; “give each of us our share of what is left, and we shall be content.”

“ If yon are content,” said the monkey, “justice is not: the law, my friends, must take its course.”

Upon this, he nibbled first one piece and then the other, till the poor cats saw that their cheese was in a fair way to be all eaten up. They therefore most humbly begged him not to put himself to any further trouble, but to give them what was still left.

“ Ha ! ha ! ha ! not so fast, good ladies,” said the monkey ; “ we owe justice to ourselves as well as to you ; and what remains is due to me as the lawyer.”

So he crammed the whole into his mouth at once, and very gravely broke up the court!

This fable teaches us that it is better to put up with a trifling loss, than to run the risk of losing all we have by going to law.


A fox being caught in a trap, was glad to save his neck by leaving his tail behind him; but, upon going abroad into the world, he began to be so ashamed of his defect*, that he almost wished he had died in the trap. However, resolving to make the best of a bad case, he called a meeting of the rest of the foxes, and proposed that they should all follow his example.

“ You have no notion,” said he, “ of the ease and comfort with which I now move about. I could never have believed it if I had not tried it myself. But really, when one comes to think of it, a tail is such an ugly, useless thing, that one wonders how foxes have put up with it so loug. I propose, therefore, my worthy brethren, that you should profit by my example, and that all foxes from this day forward should cut off their tails.”

Thereupon, one of the oldest stepped forward, and said, “ I rather think, my friend, that you would not have advised us to part with our tails, if there had been any chance of recovering your own.”


A woodman was felling a tree on the bank of a river, and by chance let slip his axe into the water, when it immediately sank to the bottom. In great distress for his loss, he sat down by the side of the stream, and lamented bitterly. But Mercury, whose river it was, taking pity on him, appeared before him. Hearing the cause of his sorrow, he dived to the bottom of the river, and bringing up a golden axe, asked the woodman if that was his.

Upon the man saying no, Mercury dived a second time, and brought up an axe of silver. Again the man denied that it was his. So diving a third time, he produced the very axe which the man had lost.

“ That is mine ! ” said the woodman, glad to have recovered his own ; and so pleased was Mercury with the fellow’s truthfulness and honesty, that he at once made him a present of the other two.

When the man’s companions heard this story, one of them determined to try whether he might not have the like good fortune. So going to the same place, as if for the purpose of cutting wood, he let his axe slip intentionally into the river, and then sat down on the bank, and made a great show of weeping.

Mercury appeared as before ; and hearing from him that his tears were caused by the loss of his axe, he dived into the stream, and bringing up a golden axe, asked him if that was the axe he had lost.

“ Ay, surely !” said the man, eagerly ; and he was about to grasp the treasure, when Mercury, to punish his impudence and lying, not only refused to give him that- one, but would not so much as'restore* him his own axe again.

Honesty is the best policy.

Questions,—Why did the two cats go to law ? Who was the judge ? How did he make the heavier slice lighter? What excuse had he for

doing the same to the other piece? What did the cats then say? What did the monkey reply ? And what became of all the cheese ? What does this fable teach ?—What led the fox to advise his neighbours to cut off their tails ? What reason did he give for it ? What did an old fox say ?—Why did Mercury give the woodman the golden and the silver axe ? What did one of his companions doWhat did he say when he saw the golden axe ? How was he punished ?

, syllables :—
























Ru-ral, country.    | Vo-cal, full of song.

Hail, beauteous stranger of the grove !

Thpu messenger of spring !

Now Heaven repairs thy rura,i * seat, And woods thy welcome sing.

"What time the daisy decks the green. Thy certain voice we hear :—




Hast thou a star to guide thy path,

Or mark the rolling year ?

Delightful visitant! with thee I hail the time of flowers,

A ud hear the sound of music sweet From birds among the bowers.

The school-boy, wandering through the wood To pluck the primrose gay,

Starts, thy curious voice to hear.

And imitates the lay.

What time the pea puts on the bloom.

Thou fliest thy vocal* vale,

A n annual guest, in other lands Another spring to hail.

Sweet bird ! thy bower is ever green,

Thy sky is ever clear;

Thou hast no sorrow in thy song,

No winter in thy year.

Oh ! could I fly, I’d fly with thee;

We’d make, with joyful wing,

Our annual visit o’er the globe,

Companions of the spring.

John Logan.

Pronounce in syllables

beau-te-ous    cer-tain

mes-sen-ger    dc-light-ful










The European cuckoo, like the swallow, is a bird of passage. It visits the British Islands in April, and leaves about the beginning of July. . it builds no nest, but lays its eggs in the nests of other birds, preferring that of the hedge sparrow.

The American cuckoo is a different bird, it builds a nest, and rears its own young.


A-light-ed, got off his horse ; dis- | Up-braid-ed, blamed, mounted.    I Wel-ter-ing, rolling about.

A French merchant, having some money due to him, set out on horseback to receive it, accompanied by his dog. Having settled the business, he tied the bag of money before him, and began to return home.

The merchant, after riding some miles, alighted* to rest himself under a tree ; and taking the bag of money in his hand, laid it down by his side. But on remounting he forgot it. The dog observing this, ran to fetch the bag; but it was too heavy for it to drag along.

It then ran after its master, and, by barking and howling, tried to tell him of his mistake. The merchant did not understand these signs ; but the dog went on with its efforts, and after trying in vain to stop the horse, it at last began to bite its heels.

The thought now struck the merchant that the dog had gone mad ; and so, in crossing a brook, he looked back to see whether it would drink. The animal was too intent on its object to think of stopping for this purpose ; and it continued to bark and bite with greater violence than before.

The merchant, feeling now certain that the dog was mad, drew a pistol from his pocket, and took aim. In a moment the poor dog lay weltering* in its blood ; and its master, unable to bear the sight, spurred on his horse.

“ I am most unfortunate,” said he to himself; “ I had almost rather have lost my money than my

dog.” Thereupon he stretched out his hand for his treasure ; but no bag was to be found ! In a moment he discovered his mistake, and upbraided* himself for disregarding the signs which his dog had made to him.

He turned his horse, and rode back to the place where he had stopped. He saw the marks of blood as he proceeded ; but nowhere was his dog to be seen on the road. .

At last he reached the spot where he had rested, and there lay the forgotten bag, with the poor dog, in the agonies of death, watching beside it!

When he saw his master, he showed his joy by feebly wagging his tail. He tried to rise, but his strength was gone; and after stretching out his tongue to lick the hand that was now fondling him in deep sorrow, he closed his eyes in death.

Questions.—What was the object of the Frenchman’s journey? Why did he alight on his way home ? What did he forget when he remounted ? Who perceived this ? What did it try to do ? Why did it fail ? How did it try to remind its master of his mistake ? What thought now struck the merchant ? How did he put it to the test ? With what effect? What did he then do? What made him feel for his money? What did he now see? What did he do? What did he notice on the ground as he proceeded ? What did he find at the place where he had rested? What did the dog do before it died?





Pronounce in mer-chant





syllables:— re-mount-ing ob-serv-ing un-der-standtry-ing






A merchant left his treasure under a tree. His dog tried to remind him of his mistake. He thought the animal had gone mad, drew his pistol, and shot it.


Fast, close.    I Shrouds, the ropes which support

Heel, lean over on one side. I    a ship’s masts

Toll for the brave !

The brave that are no more !

All sunk beneath the wave Fast* by their native shore!

Eight hundred of the brave,

Whose courage well was tried,

Had made the vessel heel,*

And laid her on her side.

A land-breeze shook the shrouds,*

And she was overset;

Down went the “ Royal George ”

With all her crew complete.

Toll for the brave !

- Brave Kempenfelt is gone ;

His last sea-hght is fought,

His work of glory done.

It was not in the battle ;

No tempest gave the shock ;

(31)    4


She sprang no fatal leak;

She ran upon no rock.

His sword was in its sheath,

His fingers held the pen,

When Kempenfelt went down With twice four hundred men.

Weigh the vessel up,

Once dreaded by our foes !

And mingle wuth our cup The tear that England owes.

Her timbers yet are sound,

And she may float again.

Full charged with England’s thunder,

And plough the distant main ;

But Kempenfelt is gone,

His victories are o’er ;

And he and his eight hundred Shall plough the wave no more.




Pronounce m syllables:—

cour-age    Kem-pen-felf/    tim-bers

com-plete,    dread^ed    thun-der


The “Royal George," a first-rate man-of-war, of one hundred guns, upset and sank while at anchor in the Spithead, by the guns rolling to one side of the uessel, June 28, 1782. In this dreadful catastrophe nearly a thousand persons perished, among whom was Admiral Kempenfelt, who was writing in his cabin at the time.    .

By the use of the diuing-bell this ship was surveyed in May 1817, as she lay embedded in the deep; and since that time several successive gunpowder explosions have brought up numerous portions of the wreck.


En-dowed', supplied.

Fi-bres, fine threads. Gos-sa-mer, a fine web ; cobweb. In-Stinct, natural impulse.

Nat-U-ral-ist, one who studies and writes about animals.

Trop-i-cal, in the torrid zone.

The birds in a tropical forest are exposed to many dangers; and if they were not endowed" with instinct,* they would soon fall victims to their enemies. The monkeys are lying in wait for their eggs ; and so is the snake, that glides stealthily amongst the bushes.

The mother bird knows very well what she has to expect, if either of these cunning foes should get into her nest ; and she generally contrives to conceal it so skilfully, that neither snake nor monkey can find its entrance.

The tailor-bird of India is no bigger than the

humming-bird, and has a long slender bill, which she uses as a needle. She is very timid and cautious, and will not hang her nest, as many birds do, to the end of a bough. She fancies that it would not be safe even there. She therefore fastens it to the leaf itself; and so carefully that no one can see it.

First of all she picks up a dead leaf from the ground, and then, with her needle and thread (her needle being her bill, and her thread the fibres* of a plant) she sews the dead leaf to the side of a living one, and in the space between she makes her nest.

Small as the space is, it is quite large enough for the tiny eggs she lays ; and she lines it with gossamer,* that the little tailor-birds may feel themselves quite snug and comfortable. The leaf, with the nest sewed into it, swings about in the wind as it did before, for the weight of the bird does not draw it down.

It is hidden from the prying eyes of the forest robbers ; and here the young brood are hatched in safety. You may see them put out their heads when they are expecting their mother back with an insect or a worm for their food. But at the slightest sound of danger they draw back their heads, and then there seems to be nothing but the leaf hanging with the other leaves upon the bough.

Another little bird, called the Indian sparrow, is equally ingenious. She builds her nest on the highest tree she can find, and if overhanging a river so much the better. She makes it of grass, which she weaves like cloth, and fashions it into the shape of a bottle. It contains several apartments, and the entrance is at the bottom.

The oddest thing about this nest is, that the bird is said to light up her rooms with fire-flies, which she sticks to the walls by pieces of clay !

One naturalist* thinks she must brino* them home


for food ; and another supposes that she places them there to dazzle the eyes of the bats, that would gladly prey upon her young ones if they could.

Questions.—What are the enemies of birds in a tropical forest? What enables the birds to protect themselves? What bird is very ingenious in concealing her nest? Where does she fasten it? How does she join the two leaves together. What has she for needle and thread? With what is the nest lined? What other bird is equally clever? Where does she prefer to build her nest? Of what is it made ? Of what shape is it ? Where is the entrance ? What reasons have been given for her putting the fire-flies in it ?

Dictation :— ,

The Indian Tailor-bird wakes her nest in the space between a liuing leaf on the tree and a dead one which she sews to it, using her bill as needle, and the fibres of a plant as thread.


Ar-go, the fabled ship in which Jason sailed to search for the golden fleece. Bou-logne' (Boo-Ion'), a seaport on the French coast.

Dot-ing, dwelling fondly on the subject.

HogS-head, a large barrel.

Hom-i-cld-al, murderous; man-slav-Scant-ly, with difficulty.    [ing.

Shift, contrive.

Watch, the portion of time during which sailors are on duty.

Wat-tied, plaited.

Wher-ry, a light ferry-boat.

I love contemplating—apart From all Lis homicidal* glory— The traits that soften to the heart Napoleon’s story.

Twas when his banners at Boulogne* Armed in our island every freeman, His navy chanced to capture one Poor British seaman.

They suffered him, I know not how, Unprisoned on the shore to roam;

And aye was bent his youthful brow On England’s home.

His eye, methinks, pursued the flight Of birds to Britain, half way over,

With envy—they could reach the white • Dear cliffs of Dover.

A stormy midnight watch,* he thought, Than this sojourn would have been dearer, If but the storm his vessel brought To England nearer.

At last, when care had banished sleep,

He saw one morning, dreaming, doting,* An empty hogshead* from the deep Come shoreward floating.

He hid it in a cave, and wrought The live-long day, laborious, lurking,

Until he launched a tiny boat,

By mighty working.

Oh dear me ! ’twas a thing beyond Description !—such a wretched wherry* Perhaps, ne’er ventured on a pond,

Or crossed a ferry.

For ploughing in the salt sea field,

It would have made the boldest shudder^ CJntarred, uncompassed, and unkeeled,— No sail—no rudder !    •

From neighbouring woods he interlaced His sorry skiif with wattled* willows; And thus equipped he would have passed The foaming billows.


A French guard caught him on the beach, His little Argo* sorely jeering,

Till tidings of him chanced to reach Napoleon’s hearing.

With folded arms Napoleon stood,

Serene alike in peace and danger,

And, in his wonted attitude,

Addressed the stranger.

Rash youth, that wouldst yon Channel pass On twigs and staves so rudely fashioned, Thy heart with some sweet English lass Must be impassioned.”

I have no sweetheart,” said the lad ;

But, absent years from one another,

Great was the longing that I had .To see my mother.”

“ And so thou shalt,” Napoleon said ;

“ You’ve both my favour justly won ;

A noble mother must have bred So brave a son.”

He gave the tar a piece of gold,

And, with a flag of truce, commanded He should be shipped to England old, And safely landed.

Our sailor oft could scantly* shift*

To And a dinner, plain and hearty,

But never changed the coin and gift Of Buonaparte.


Questions.—Whom did Napoleon’s navy capture? What liberty was allowed him? What longing seized him? What did he iind one morning? Where did he hide it? What did he make of it? Who caught him ? What did Napoleon say to the lad ? What did he reply? What did Napoleon then say? What did he order? What did he give the sailor ? What did the sailor do with it ?

Pronounce in syllables.—



















Dictation : —







In 7803, Napoleon resolued upon the invasion of England, and assembled a vast army for the purpose at Boulogne.

The menace was met by a most patriotic response, and 300,000 Volunteers were enrolled. It was thus that Napoleon’s “banners at Boulogne armed in our island every freeman. ”

Doubtful of the success of an attach on England, and eager to punish Austria, Napoleon suddenly abandoned the projected invasion in 7805, and marched the “Army of Englandto the banks of the Danube.


Plan-tain, a valuable food-plant

in tropical countries. Ruth-less, pitiless.

Di-a-dem, crown.

Maize, Indian corn. Mem-brane, tissue or film.

In the Netv World, the sunlit waters on either side of the Isthmus of Panama were once rich in the precious shells in which pearls are found. In such abundance did they yield their treasures to the Spanish conquerors, that in one year Seville imported six hundred and ninety-seven pounds weight of pearls, some of them of great beauty !    •

But the hands of the gold-seekers, red with the blood of their fellow-men, whose lovely lands, rich in the palm-tree, the plantain,* and the maize,* they cruelly laid waste, were equally unsparing beneath the waters, and equally ruthless* to the miserable race of pearl-fishers. The poor Indians, insufficiently fed, and forced into the sea by their cruel masters, oftentimes never reappeared, having fallen a helpless prey to the hungry sharks. The pearl-banks themselves, unceasingty stripped of their shells, soon became exhausted. Land and water, cursed by the Spaniards’ greed of gain, alike lay desolate.

But it is not so in the East. There, pearl-fisheries still flourish. At Bahrein, in the Persian Gulf, renowned in times past, is the largest pearl-fishery in the world. „ The annual amount of wealth which it produces is estimated at a quarter of a million sterling.

Another celebrated pearl-fishery in the East is at the island of Ceylon ; an island of which Pliny, the learned naturalist of ancient Borne, extolled the

“ pure gold and peerless pearls an island crowned with the never-dying palm, sitting as a queen upon the sunlit waves, while from her cinnamon groves the spicy odours float afar. _

With pearls, as with corals, there are appointed fishing-grounds for successive years. Certain divisions are made of the great pearl-banks stretching between the island and the continent of India. The principal of these divisions lies about twenty miles from the shore of Ceylon.

This spot, a desert all the year round except in February and March, is then alive with treasure-seekers. Ever-shifting, miscellaneous crowds of people are there, from all countries, of many tongues and many colours, of every gradation of rank and infinite varieties of occupation, yet all engrossed with the search for pearls.

Some are drawn by business, and some by curiosity. The merchant is there, and the traveller, as well as crowds of busy native workmen. ,

But, hark! a gun fires. 5Tis sunset, and the boats are launched, each with its twenty men,—ten to row and ten to dive, five of whom at a time go down into the deep. Night passes, but when morn comes the diving begins.

In the bottom of each boat are five huge red stones. Through a hole in each a rope has been passed. Each diver plants his right foot firmly on one of these stones, while with his right hand he grasps a rope ; and weighted by the huge red stone, he speedily sinks to the bottom. To hold the shells, he bears with him a basket, or he hangs a net-work

bag around his neck. As soon as he reaches the bottom—and not daring to glance around, lest the monster he,dreads may be near—he quickly gathers all the shells within his reach. , Generally speaking, in about two minutes he pulls the rope, which his right hand has never let go, and is swiftly drawn up again into the boat.

Each diver makes from forty to fifty plunges in a day, bringing up perhaps a hundred shells at a time. But remaining under water for one minute—two, four, five minutes—has a terrible effect on the human frame. When the divers come up, not only water, but sometimes blood, pours from their nostrils, mouths, and ears ! But of this they take no heed. In the blue waters themselves is the only enemy they dread—the fierce and cruel ground-shark.

When noontide arrives, again the gun fires, and, with colours flying, the boats return, bearing then-treasures to the shore.

But the shells are closed fast. The oyster is yet alive, and to force the shell open with violence might injure the pearl that lies hidden within.

The pearl shells are put into pits dug in the earth, where mats are spread to receive them. They are left there till the creatures within them die, when the shells, opening of themselves, allow of the pearls being safely removed.

The chemist and the microscope have shown the secret of the composition of the pearl. It is formed of alternate layers of membrane* (animal substance), and carbonate of lime (mineral substance), in the same way as the lustrous internal coating of the shell. These layers are slowly and successively produced by the animal itself. Some injury, probably, has happened to the outside of the shell, and the hole must be filled up; or a grain of sand or other irritating substance has entered inside the shell (sometimes by the cunning design of man), and this must be covered over, that it may no longer wound, —and lo, the result! By a creature ranking amongst the lowest in the scale of creation is produced a marvel of beauty—an incomparable gem, to glisten in a monarch's diadem,* and to be the poet’s symbol for all that is most precious and most pure !

Questions.—In what part of the New World did pearls emce abound ? What quantity was imported into Seville in one year? How did the Spaniards treat the pearl-divers? Why did the pearl-banks soon become exhausted ? Where do pearl-fisheries still flourish ? Where is the largest in the world ? At what is its annual produce estimated ? What is the season of pearl-fishing at Ceylon ? At what time do the boats set out? When does the diving begin? How do the divers sink to the bottom ? With what do they fill their baskets or bags ? How long do the divers generally remain down? What painful effect has diving on them? What is the chief object of their dread? When do the boats leave the fishing-ground? How are the shells opened? Of what is the pearl composed?

Pronounce in syllables









Bah-rein [Bahi-rane)    mi-cro-scope

suc-ces-sive    car-bon-ate

mis-cel-la-ne-ous    ir-ri-tat-ing

cu-ri-os-i-ty    in-com-par-a-hlo


In-no-cent, harmless. In-ter-miii-gled, mixed. Re-nown', glory ; fame.

Ac-cents, sounds of the voice ; words. Cher'ish, foster; tend.

Dearth, want; absence of joy.

Be kind to thy father: for when thou wast young, Who loved thee as fondly as he ?

He caught the first accents* that fell from thy tongue, And joined in thine innocent* _glee.

Be kind to thy father: for now he is old,

His locks intermingled* with gray ;

His footsteps are feeble, once fearless and bold—

Thy father is passing away.

Be kind to thy mother: for, lo! on her brow

May traces of sorrow be seen ;—

Oh, well may’st thou cherish* and comfort her now,

For loving and kind hath she been.

Remember thy mother: for thee will she pray,

As long as God givetli her breath;

With accents of kindness, then, cheer her lone way,

E’en to the dark valley of death.

Be kind to thy brother: his heart will have dearth/

If the smile of thy love be withdrawn;

The flowers of feeling will fade at their birth,

If the dew of affection be gone.

Be kind to thy brother: wherever you are,

The love of a brother shall be An ornament, purer and richer by far Than pearls from the depths of the sea.

Be kind to thy sister: not many may know The depth of true sisterly love;

The wealth of the ocean lies fathoms below The surface that sparkles above.

Thy kindness shall bring to thee many sweet hours,

A nd blessings thy pathway to crown ;

Affection shall weave thee a garland of flowers,

More precious than wealth or renown.*

Questions.—Why should you be kind to your father when he is old? What will a mother do as long as she has breath? With what should her child cheer her lone way ? What is the love of a brother purer and richer than ? What is compared to the wealth of the ocean lyinp fathoms below the surface ? What will affection weave for you ?

Pronounce in syllables

fond-ly    com-fort    af-fec-tion    spar-kle9

fear-less    re-mem-ber    or-na-ment    gar-land

sor-row    with-drawn'    sis-ter-ly    pre-cious

Dictation :—    .

Thy kindness shall bring to thee many sweet hours And blessings thy pathway to crown ;

Affection shall weave thee a garland of flowers, More precious than wealth or renown.


Ca-di, a Turkish village-judge. I Scope, room.

Der-vise, a Turkish monk.    | Sor-cer-er, magician ; wizard

A dervise* was journeying alone in a desert, when two merchants suddenly met him.

“You have lost a camel,” said he toMhe merchants.

“ Indeed we have,” they replied.

“Was he not blind in his right eye, and lame in his left leg ? ” said the dervise.

“He was,” replied the merchants.

“ And was he not loaded with honey on one side, and with wheat on the other ? ”

“Most certainly he was,” they replied ; “and, as you have seen him so lately, and marked him so particularly, you can in all probability conduct us to him.”

“ My friends,” said the dervise, “ I have never seen your camel, nor ever heard of him, but from you !”

“A pretty story, truly,” said the merchants: “ but where are the jewels which formed a part of his burthen ? ”

“ I have seen neither your camel nor your jewels,” repeated the dervise.

On this, they seized his person, and forthwith hurried him before the cadi ;* but, on the strictest search, nothing could be found upon him, nor could any evidence whatever be adduced, to convict him either of falsehood or of theft.

They were about to proceed against him as a

sorcerer,* when the dervise with great calmness thus addressed the court:—“ I have been much amused with your surprise, and own that there has been some ground for your suspicions; but I have lived long and alone, and I can find ample scope* for observation even in a desert. I knew that I had crossed the track of a camel that had strayed from its owner, because I saw no mark of any human footstep on the same route. I knew that the animal was blind of an eye, because it had cropped the herbage only on one side of its path ; and that it was lame in one leg, from the faint impression which that particular foot had produced upon the sand. I concluded that the animal had lost one tooth, because, wherever it had grazed, a small tuft of herbage had been left uninjured in the centre of its bite. As to that which formed the burthen of the beast, the busy ants informed me that it was corn on the one side; and the clustering flies, that it was honey on the other.”    Colton.

Questions.—Whom did the dervise meet? About what did he ash them ? What did they suppose from his questions ? What did they then inquire about ? Before whom did they take him ? What was the result? As what were they next going to try him? How had he known that the camel had strayed from its owner i How, that it was blind of an eye ? How, that it was lame in one leg ? How, that it bad lost a tooth ? How, that its burthen was corn on one side ? and honey on the other ?

Pronounce in syllables .—






















(a.d. 1307.)

Alt^orf, the chief town in Uri. Gess-ler, the Austrian ruler of Switzerland.

Come, list; to me« and you shall hear A tale of what befell A famous man of Switzerland — His name was William Tell.

Near Reuss’s* bank, from day to His little Hock he led, [day, (31)

Reuss (Roiss), a river in Switzer land.

U-ri, a canton in Switzerland.

By prudent thrift and hardy toil Content to earn his bread.

Nor was the hunter’s craft unIn Uri* none was seen [known; To track the rock-frequenting herd With eye so true and keen.

A little son was in his home,

A laughing, fair-haired boy;

So strong of limb, so blithe of heart, He made it ring with joy.

His father's sheep were all his friends ;

The lambs he called by name ; And when they frolicked in the fields,

The child would share the game.

So peacefully their hours were spent

That life had scarce a sorrow; They took the good of every day, And hoped for more to-morrow.

But oft some shining April morn Is darkened in an hour,

And blackest griefs o’er joyous homes,

Alas ! unseen may lower.

Not yet on Switzerland had dawned Her day of liberty ;

The stranger’s yoke was on her sons, And pressed right heavily.

So one was sent in luckless hour, To rule in Austria’s name ;

A haughty man of savage mood In pomp and pride he came.

One day, in wantonness of power, He set his cap on high :—

“ Bow down, ye slaves,” the order ran ;

“ Who disobeys shall die ! ”

It chanced that William Tell that morn

Had left his cottage home,

And, with his little son in hand, To Altorf* town had come.

For oft the boy had eyed the spoil

His father homeward bore,

And prayed to join the hunting


When they should roam for more.


And often on some meriy night,

When wondrous feats were told,

He longed his father’s bow to take,

And be a hunter bold.

Tell saw the crowd, the lifted cap,

The tyrant’s angry frown ;

And heralds shouted in his ear,

“Bow down, ye slaves, bow down ! ”

Stern Gessler* marked the peasant’s mien,

And watched to see him fall;

But never palm-tree straighter stood

Than Tell before them all!

“ My knee shall bend,” he calmly said,

“ To God, and God alone';

My life is in the Austrian’s hand,

My conscience is my own. ”

“ Seize him, ye guards! ” the ruler cried,

While passion choked his breath;

“ He mocks my power, he braves my lord,

He dies the traitor’s death ;—

“Yet wait. The Swiss are marksmen true—

So all the world doth say ;

That fair-haired stripling hither bring—

We’ll try their skill to-day.”

Hard by a spreading lime-tree stood, To this the youth was bound They placed an apple on his head— He looked in wonder round.

“ The fault is mine, if fault there be,”

Cried Tell, in accents wild;

“ On manhood let your vengeance fall,

But spare, oh, spare my child! ”

I will not harm the pretty boy,” Said Gessler tauntingly;

“ If blood of his shall stain the ground,

Yours will the murder be.

“Draw tight your bow, my cunning man,

Your straightest arrow take; For know, yon apple is your mark, Your liberty the stake.”

A. mingled noise of wrath and grief Was heard among the crowd: The men, they muttered curses deep,

The women wept aloud.

Full fifty paces from his child,

His strong bow in his hand, With lips compressed, and flashing Tell firmly took his stand, [eye.

Sure, full enough of pain and woe This crowded Earth has been; But never, since the curse began, A sadder sight was seen.

Then spake aloud the gallant boy, Impatient of delay,

“Shoot straight and quick, thine aim is sure;

Thou canst not miss to-day. ”

“Heaven bless thee now!” the parent said,

“ Thy courage shames my fear:

‘ Man tramples on his brother man,

But God is ever near. ’ ”

The bow was bent, the arrow went

As by an angel guided;

In pieces two, beneath the tree,

The apple fell divided 1

“ Twas bravely done,” the ruler said,

‘ ‘ My plighted word I keep;

’Twas bravely done by sire and son—    •

Go home, and feed your sheep.”

“No thanks I give thee for thy boon,”

The peasant coldly said ;

“To God alone my praise is due,

And duly shall be paid.

“Yet know, proud man, thy fate was near,

Had I but missed my aim;

Not unavenged my child had died—

Thy parting hour the same.

“For see ! a second shaft was here,

If harm my boy befell;—

Now go and bless the heavenly powers

My first has sped so well.”—

God helped the right, God spared the sin :

He brings the proud to shame ;

He guards the weak against the strong—-

Praise to his holy name !

Rev. J. H. Gurney.


Chasm, a deep opening, or cleft, between two rocks.

Dain-ty, something very nice ; a delicacy.

The graceful chamois is found on all the mountains of Europe which bound the valley of the Danube, both on the north and on the south. As, however, it prefers the cold air of the highest mountains, it makes Switzerland its chief home.

In general appearance, its head and body are not unlike those of the goat; but it has a more slender neck, and no beard ; and its horns are black and stand erect, being curved into hooks only at the tips.

The chamois is not only very swift of foot, but very sure-footed. Its cup-shaped and sharp-edged hoofs have been specially made for the mountains on which it loves to dwell. It makes its way up and down the face of very steep rocks. It bounds swiftly from crag to crag, springing fearlessly on to the top of the sharpest rocks, if only it can find room to place its four feet close together.

The flesh of the chamois is considered a great dainty* by the Swiss ; and its skin, when tanned, is the fine soft leather which is called after it, chamois-leather.

Chamois-hunting is a favourite pursuit in Switzerland. The sport is attended with very great peril. The hunter has often to spend days and nights alone upon the mountains. He has to pass over the most dangerous rocks and precipices, and often his rashness costs him his life.

The chamois has the greatest affection for her young; and when they are in danger, she shows wonderful sagacity in planning means for their escape.

A Swiss hunter, while pursuing his dangerous sport, observed a mother chamois and her two kids on a rock above him. They were sporting by her side, leaping here and there around her.

The hunter, climbing the rock, drew near, intending, if possible, to capture one of the kids alive. No sooner did the mother chamois observe him, than, dashing at him furiously with her horns, she endeavoured to hurl him down the cliff. The hunter drove her off, fearing to fire, lest the young ones should take to flight.

He was aware that there was a deep chasm* beyond, by which he believed the escape of the animals to be cut off What was his surprise, therefore, when he saw the old chamois form with her body a bridge across the chasm, which she could just span by stretching out her fore and hind legs ! As soon as she had done this, she called on her young ones ; and they sprang one at a time on her back, and reached the other side in safety ! She sprang across after them, and was soon beyond the reach of the hunter’s bullets.

Questions.—Where is the home of the chamois? In what is it like the goat? In what do they differ? What is the most remarkable thing about the chamois’ running ? Where is the chamois hunted ? What makes the sport very dangerous? In what does the chamois show wonderful sagacity ? Describe the instance of this illustrated by the picture.









Pronounce in syllables grace-ful    gen-er-al

cham-ois [sham^waw) ap-pear-ance Dan-ube    slen-der

Switz-er-land    spe-cial-ly

Dictation :—    t

The hind legs of the chamois, like those of the hare, are longer than the fore ones.

This not only giues it additional swiftness, but greater security in ascending and descending steep rocks.


Brake, thicket; clump.    I Dis-cem', see ; discove’-

Cov^ert. hiding-place ; an bush.    | Tarn, a mountain lake.

A barking sound the shepherd hears,

A cry as of a dog or fox ;    %

He halts, and searches with his eye Among the scattered rocks :

And now at distance can discern*

A stirring in a brake* of fern ;

And instantly a dog is seen,

Glancing through that covert* green.

The dog is not of mountain breed ;

Its motions, too, are wild and shy ;

With something, as the shepherd thinks, Unusual in its cry :

Not is there any one in sight All round, in hollow or on height ;

Nor shout nor whistle strikes his ear— What is the creature doing here ?

It was a cove, a huge recess,

That keeps, till June, December’s snow ; A lofty precipice in front,

A silent tarn* below ;

Far in the bosom of Helvellyn,

Demote from public road or dwelling, Pathway or cultivated land,

From trace of human foot or hand.

Not free from boding thoughts, a while The shepherd stood ; then made his way O’er rocks and stones, following the dog As quickly as he may ;    _

Nor far had gone before he found A human skeleton on the ground !

The appalled discoverer with a sigh Looks round to learn the history.

From those abrupt and perilous rocks The man had fallen—that place of fear !

At length upon the shepherd's mind It breaks, and all is clear:

He instantly recalled the name,

And who he was, and whence he came; Remembered, too, the very day On which the traveller passed that way.

But hear a wonder, for whose sake This lamentable tale I tell ;—-A lasting monument of words This wonder merits well :

The dog, which still was hovering nigh, Repeating the same timid cry,

This dog had been, through three months’ space A dweller in that savage place !

Yes, proof was plain that since the day When this ill-fated traveller died.

The dog had watched about the spot,

Or by liis master’s side :

How nourished here through such long time, He knows who gave that love sublime;

And gave that strength of feeling great, Above all human estimate.


Questions.—What attracted the shepherd’s notice? What did he discover among' the ferns? What question did he then ask? What kind of place was it ? What was there in front of it ? What below ? On what mountain was it ? What did the shepherd find on following the dog? What did he then remember? For whose sake does the poet tell the tale ? How long had he watched beside his master’s corpse ?

Pronounce in





prec-i-pice sylluhles:—

Hel-vel-lyn cul-ti-vat-ed skel-e-ton ap-p ailed' dis-cov-er-er












The story in the following Letter is written entirely from the questions to the preceding lesson on “ Fidelity,” and shows how the questions appended to the lessons, the narrative ones especially, may he used as Composition Exercises. This example also shows the form m which a letter should be arranged    %

Ulleswater, ‘lith August 1871.

My Dear Harry,

We are having a splendid time of it here. We have had delightful weather ; and as we have a new excursion nearly every day, the time passes very quickly. The holidays are already nearly half over, and it does not seem as if we had been more than a week here !

We had a delightful excursion to Helvellyn last week, and saw the place where the traveller's dead body was watched for three months by his dog. Perhaps you don't know the story. Here it is. It will help to Jill my letter.

A shepherd was one day watching his sheep on Helvellyn, when he heard loud barking, as of a dog or fox somewhere near. He went to search for the cause of it, and found a strange-looking dog (not a mountain sheepdog) glancing at him through the ferns. He ivas puzzled to know what the creature could be doing there; for it is a huge recess in the very bosom of Helvellyn, in which the winter's snow often lies till June. There is a huge precipice in front, and at the foot of it a little lake. The dog led on, and the shepherd followed it over the rocks and stones. When he reached the foot of the precipice, the dog paused beside a human skeleton lying on the ground.

The shepherd at once remembered that, about three months before, a traveller used to roam over the mountains with his dog. Evidently he had lost his way in a iTList, had fallen over the precipice, and been killed.

But the most extraordinary thing was, that his dog had watched all that time beside the dead body of his master !    ■

Wordsworth the poet, who spent most of his life in this neighbourhood, has a beautiful poem calledFidelity," in praise of the dog. I advise you to read it. '

We go to Windermere to-morrow. Write ’soon, to your affectionate friend,


To Harry Bush.


Car-a-van, a company of travellers. Com-mem-o-rat-ed, celebrated; praised.

Es-cort/, guard ; convoy.

Ex-haust-ion, great weakness. O-ver-pow-ered, subdued ; defeated. Parcha (pa-shaw), a Turkish governor; viceroy.

A CARAVAN* on its way to Damascus was once attacked and captured by a party of Arabs. While the robbers were dividing their spoils, they were assailed by a troop of Turkish horsemen, that had gone out from Acre to escort* the caravan.

The scales of fortune were at once turned. The robbers were overpowered ;* many of them were killed, and the rest were made prisoners.

Among1 the wounded Arabs was a man named Hassan, who had a very fine horse, which also fell into the hands of his captors.

As Hassan lay at night by the side of one of the tents, his feet bound together by a leathern thong, he heard the neighing of his horse. As is the custom in the East, it passed the night in the open air near the tents; but its legs were fastened too’ether, so that it could not move. Hassan knew its voice; and wishing to see his favourite once more, he crawled along upon his hands and knees till he reached the spot where the horse stood.

“ My poor friend,” said he, “ what will become of you in the hands of the Turks ? They will shut you up in close and unwholesome stables with the horses of a pacha.* Go back to the tent of your master. Tell my wife that she will never see her husband more ; and lick the hands of my children with your tongue, in token of a father’s love.”

While thus speaking, Hassan had gnawed away the thong of goat-skin with which the legs of his horse had been fastened together, and the noble animal stood free. But when the horse saw his wounded master at his feet, he stooped his head, and grasping with his teeth the leather girdle

round his waist, he,ran off with him in his mouth at full gallop. He thus bore him over many a weary mile of mountain and plain, until his desert home was reached ; then, having gently laid him- by the side of his wondering wife and children, he fell down dead from exhaustion !*

All the tribe to which Hassan belonged wept over the body of the faithful steed ; and more than one poet lias commemorated * in song his sagacity and devotion.

Questions.—By whom was the caravan overpowered? Who assailed the Arabs ? What were they doing at the time? Who were successful this time? What was Hassan the possessor of9 What did he hear one night ? What did he do ? What did he say b > the horse ? How did he set the horse free? What did the horse (].<••? Where did he carry him ? What did he do when he laid him down

Pronounce in syllables .—



neigh-ing ,






















Dictation : —

An Arab and his horse were both captured by Turkish horsemen. One night the Arab set his horse free.

But when he saw his wounded master at his feet, he grasped with his teeth the girdle round his waist, carried him home in his mouth, and fell down dead from exhaustion.    .


borough. Car-eer, time < Cor-por-al, an

Bar-gess-es, citizens, or freemen of a f service.

officer of the lowest


Cos-tume, official dress Dig-ni-ty, elevation of manner E-mo-tion, strong feeling.

En-deav-our-ing, trying.

Im-pulse, natural inclination. Re-as-sur-ing, comforting; encouraging. f

Re-lieved , came to his rescue; freed him from his difficulty.

Speak-er, the chairman.

Sur-pass-es, goes beyond ; exceeds

During the American War, the captain of a little band of soldiers was giving orders to those under him, about a heavy beam that they were endeavouring* to raise to the top of some military works which they were repairing. The weight was almost beyond their power to raise, and the voice of the superintendent was often heard shouting, “ Heave away ! There it goes ! Heave, ho !”

An officer, not in military costume,* was passing, and asked the superintendent why he did not render a little aid. The latter, astonished, turning round with all the pomp of an emperor, said, “Sir, I am a corporal!*” “ You are, are you ?” replied the officer; “ I was not aware of that;” and taking off his hat, he bowed, saying, “ I ask your pardon, Mr. Corporal.” Upon this he dismounted, and pulled till the sweat stood in drops on his forehead. And when the beam was raised, turning to the little great man, he said,— “ Mr. Corporal, when you have another such job, and have not men enough, send for your Commander-in-chief, and I shall gladly come to help you a second time !”

The corporal was thunder-struck. It was Washington !

When Washington had closed his career* in the French and Indian War, he became a member of the House of Burgesses.* The Speaker* was directed, by a vote of the House, to return their thanks to that officer for the distinguished military services which he had rendered to his country.

As soon as Washington entered the House, the Speaker, in obedience to this order, and following the impulse* of his own grateful heart, discharged the duty with great dignity.* But he spoke with such warmth of colouring, and strength of expression, that the young hero was entirely confounded.

He rose to express his thanks for the honour which had been done to him ; but such were his emotion* and confusion, that he could not give distinct utterance to a single syllable.

He blushed, stammered, and trembled for a second, when the Speaker relieved* him by a happy stroke of address.

“ Sit down, Mr. Washington,” said he, with a reassuring* smile ; “ we perceive that your modesty is equal to your valour, and that surpasses the power of any language that I possess.”

Questions.—What work were the soldiers doing? What was the voice of their superintendent often heard saying ? What did the officer ask him? What did he reply? What did the officer then do? What did he say to the corporal when the beam was raised ? Who was he ?— What House did Washington become a member of? What was the Speaker directed to do? How did he speak? What effect had this upon Washington? How did the Speaker relieve him?

Pronounce in syllables






























As soon as


entered the

House, the

Speaker discharged the duty of returning thanks to him, with great dignity.

When Washington rose to reply, his emotion and confusion were such, that he could not giue distinct utterance to a single syllable,


(A.D. 1120.)

Be-numbed', made powerless.    I Ret-i-nue, body of followers and at-

Con-tract', settle the terms of.    | tendants.

King Henry I. went over to Normandy with his son Prince William and a great retinue,* to have the prince acknowledged as his successor by the Norman nobles, and to contract* the promised marriage between him and the daughter of the Count of Anjou. When both these things had been done with great show and rejoicing, the whole retinue prepared, to embark for the voyage home.

When all was ready, there came to the king, Fitz-Stephen, a sea-captain, and said : “ My liege, my father served your father all his life, upon the sea. He steered the ship with the golden boy upon the prow, in which your father sailed to conquer England. I beseech you to grant me the same office. I have a fair vessel in the harbour hei’e, called the White Ship, manned by fifty sailors of renown. I pray you, sire, to let your servant have the honour of steering you in the White Ship to England.”

“ I am sorry, friend,” replied the king, “ that my vessel is already chosen, and that I cannot therefore sail with the son of the man who served my father. But the prince, with all his company, shall go along with you, in the fair White Ship, manned by the fifty sailors of renown.”

An hour or two afterwards, the ’king set sail in the vessel he had chosen, accompanied by other vessels, and, sailing all night with a fair and gentle wind, arrived upon the coast of England in the morning. While it was yet night, the people in some of the ships heard a faint wild cry come over the sea, and wondered what it was.

The prince went aboard the White Ship with one hundred and forty youthful nobles like himself, among whom were eighteen noble ladies of the highest rank. All this gay company, with their servants and the fifty sailors, made three hundred souls aboard the fair White Ship.

“ Give three casks of wine, Fitz-Stephen,” said the prince, “ to the fifty sailors of renown. My father the king has sailed out of the harbour. What time is there to make merry here, and yet reach England with the rest?”

“Prince,” said Fitz-Stephen, “before morning my fifty and the White Ship shall overtake the swiftest vessel in attendance on your father the king, if we sail at midnight.”

Then the prince commanded to make merry; and the sailors drank out the three casks of wine ; and the prince and all the noble company danced in the moonlight on the deck of the White Ship.

When at last she shot out of the harbour of Bar* fleur, there was not a sober seaman on board. But the sails were all set and the oars all going merrily, Fitz-Stephen at the helm.    .

The gay young nobles, and the beautiful ladies wrapped up in mantles of various bright colours, to protect them from the cold, talked, laughed, and sang. The prince encouraged the fifty sailors to row harder yet, for the honour of the White Ship.

Crash !—a terrific cry broke from three hundred hearts. It was the cry the people in the distant vessels of the king heard faintly on the water. The White Ship had struck upon a rock, and was going down !

Fitz-Stephen hurried the prince into a boat with some few nobles. “Push off,” he whispered, “and row to the land. It is not far, and tlie sea is smooth. The rest of us must die.”

But, as they rowed away fast from the sinking ship, the prince heard the voice of his sister Marie calling for help. He never in his life had been so good as he was then. He cried, in an agony, “.Bow back at any risk ! I cannot bear to leave her!” They rowed back. As the prince held out his arms to catch his sister, such numbers leaped in that the boat was overset. And in the same instant the White Ship) went down.

Only two men floated ;—a nobleman, Godfrey by name ; and a poor butcher of Bouen. By-and-by another rnian came swimming toward them, whom they knew, when he had pushed aside his long wet hair, to be Fitz-Stephen.

When he heard that the prince and all his retinue had gone down, Fitz-Stephen, with a ghastly face, cried, “Woe, woe to me !” and sank to the bottom.

The other two clung to the yard for some hours. At length the young noble said faintly, “ I am exhausted, and benumbed'' with the cold, and can hold no longer. Farewell, good friend. God preserve you.” So he dropped and sank, and of all the brilliant crowd, the poor butcher of Bouen alone was saved. In the morning, some fishermen saw him floating in (3D    6

his sheep-skin coat, and got him into their boat,—• the sole relater of the dismal tale.

For three days no one dared to carry the intelligence to the king; at length they sent into his presence a little boy, who, weeping bitterly, and kneeling at his feet, told him that the Wivite Ship was lost, with all on board.

The king fell to the ground like a dead man, and never afterwards was seen to smile. Charles Dickens

Questions.—Why did King Henry go over to Normandy? Who accompanied him? Who came to the king when he was about to embark for England ? What did he ask the king to let him do ? On what ground ? What did the king reply ? What did some of the king’s people hear in the middle of the night ? How many went on board the White Ship ? What did the prince tell the captain to give the sailors ? What delayed their departure? What caused the terrific cry which the king’s people had heard ? What was done with the prince ? Why did he return to the wreck ? What happened then? How many were afioat after this ? What became of the captain ? Who alone survived to tell the tale? How was the intelligence conveyed to the king? What effect had it on him ?

Pronounce in syllables:—


























As Prince William was returning from Normandy, his uessel, called the “ White Shipstruck on a rock, and went down.

A poor butcher of Rouen alone suruiued to tell the dismal tale. When King Henry heard it, “he never smiled again/*


Blent, blended: mingled.    I Reck-less, heedless ; wild.

Fes-tal, holiday; mirthful.    | Tour-ney, tournament; a mock tight

The bark that held a prince went down,

The sweeping waves rolled on ;

And what was England’s glorious crown'

To him that wept a son ?

He lived—for life may long be borne Ere sorrow break its chain ;

Why comes not death to those who mourn '?—

He never smiled again !

There stood proud forms around his throne. •

The stately and the brave;

But which could fill the place of one,—

That one beneath the wave ?

Before him passed the young and fair,

In pleasure’s reckless* train ;

But seas dashed o’er his son’s bright hair .—

He never smiled again !

He sat where festal* bowls went round,

He heard the minstrel sing;

He saw the tourney’s* victor crowned Amidst the knightly ring :

A murmur of the restless deep Was blent* with every strain,

A voice of winds that would not sleep : —

He never smiled again !

Hearts, in that time, closed o’er the trace Of vows once fondly poured ;

And strangers took the kinsman’s place At many a joyous board ;

Graves, which true love had„bathed with tears. Were left to heaven’s bright rain ;

Fresh hopes were born for other years He never smiled again !

Mrs. Hemans,


A-gOg', excited and anxious. A-main.', in full force.

Bell, the name of an inn. Cal-en-der, one who calenders or Eke, also.    [presses cloth.

Fru-gal, saving; economical.

John Gilpin was a citizen Of credit and renown,

A train-band* captain eke* was he Of famous London town.

John Gilpin’s spouse said to her dear ;

“ Though wedded we have been These twice ten tedious years, yet No holiday have seen.    [we

‘ To-morrow is our wedding-day, And we will then repair Unto the Bell* at Edmonton,

All in a chaise and pair.

My sister, and my sister’s child, Myself, and children three,

Will fill the chaise; so you must On horseback after we. ” [ride

He soon replied, “ I do admire Of womankind but one,

And you are she, my dearest dear, Therefore it shall be done.

“ I am a linen-draper bold,

As all the world doth know,

And my good friend the calender* Will lend his horse to go. ”

Quoth* Mrs. Gilpin, “That's well said;

And for that wine is dear,

We will be furnished with our own, Which is both bright and clear. ”

Guise, manner.

Quoth, says.

Rig-, a romp or frolic. To run a rig (idiom), to play a prank. Train-band., militia, or volunteer. Trice, an instant.

John Gilpin kissed his loving wife;

O’erjoyed was he to find,

! That, though on pleasure she was bent,

She had a frugal* mind.

The morning came, the chaise was brought,

But yet was not allowed To drive up to the door, lest all Should say that she was proud.

So, three doors off the chaise was stayed,

Where they did all get in;

Six precious souls, and all agog* To dash through thick and thin.

Smack went the whip, round went the wheels,

Were never folk so glad;

The stones did rattle underneath, As if Cheapside were mad.

John Gilpin, at his horse’s side, Seized fast the flowing mane, And up he got, in haste to ride,— But soon came down again;

For saddle-tree scarce reached had he,

His journey to begin,

When, turning round his head, he


Three customers come in.

So down he came; for loss of time Although it grieved him sore,

Yet loss of pence, full well he knew, Would trouble him much more.

'Twas long before the customers Were suited to their mind, When Betty, screaming, came down stairs,

“ The wine is left behind ! ”

“Good lack!” quoth he — “yet bring to me

My leathern belt likewise,

In which I bear my trusty sword When I do exercise.”

Now Mistress Gilpin (careful soul!)

Had two stone bottles found,

To hold the liquor that she loved, And keep it safe and sound.

Each bottle had a curling ear, Through which the Belt he drew, And hung a bottle on each side,

To make his balance true.

Then over all, that he might be Equipped from top to toe,

His long red cloak, well brushed and He manfully did throw, [neat,

Now see him mounted once again Upon his nimble steed,

Full slowly pacing o’er the stones, With caution and good heed.

But finding soon a smoother road Beneath his well-shod feet,

The snorting beast began to Uot, Which galled him in his seat.

So, “Fair and softly ! ” John he cried,

But John he cried in vain,

That trot became a gallop soon,

In spite of curb and rein.

So stooping down, as needs he must Who cannot sit upright,

He grasped the mane with both his hands

And eke* with all his might.

His horse, who never in that sort Had handled been before,

What thing upon his back had got Did wonder more and more.

Away went Gilpin, neck or nought;

Away went hat and wig! >

He little dreamt, when he set out, Of running such a rig.*

The wind did blow, the cloak did


Like streamer, long and gay, Till, loop and button failing both, At last it flew away!

Then might all people well discern The bottles he had slung;

A bottle swinging at each side,

As hath been said or sung.

The dogs did bark, the children screamed,

Up flew the windows all;

And every soul cried out, “ Well done !”

As loud as he could bawl.

Away went Gilpin—who but he ?

His fame soon spread around: “He carries weight!—he rides a race !

’Tis for a thousand pound ! ”

And still, as fast as he drew near, ’Twas wonderful to view.

How in a trice* the turnpike men Their gates wide open threw.

And now, as he went bowing down His reeking head full low,

The bottles twain behind his back Were shattered at a blow!

Down ran the wine into the road, Most piteous to be seen,

Which made his horse’s flanks to smoke

As they had basted been.

But still he seemed to carry weight With leathern girdle braced;

For all might see the bottle necks Still dangling at his waist.

Thus all through merry Islington These gambols he did play, Until he came unto the Wash Of Edmonton so gay;

And there he threw the W ash about On both sides of the way,

Just like unto a trundling mop,

Or a wild 9;oose at play.

At Edmonton his loving wife From the balc6ny spied Her tender husband, wondering To see how he did ride, [much

“ Stop, stop, John Gilpin !—here’s the house,”

They all at once did cry;

“ The dinner waits, and we are tired: ”

Said Gilpin—“ So am I! ”

But yet his horse was not a whit Inclined to tarry there;

For why ?—his owner had a house Full ten miles off, at Ware.

So like an arrow swift he flew, Shot by an archer strong;

So did he fly—which brings me to The middle of my song.

Away went Gilpin out of breath, And sore against his will,

Till at his friend the calender’s His horse at last stood still

The calender, amazed to see His neighbour in such trim. Laid down his pipe, flew to the gate. And thus accosted him :

“What news? what news? your tidings tell;

Tell me you must and shall— Say why bareheaded you are come. Or why you come at all ? ”

Now Gilpin had a pleasant wit., And loved a timely joke;

And thus unto the calender In merry guise* he spoke;

“ I came because your horse would And, if I well forebode, [come; My hat and wig will soon be here, -They are upon the road.”

The calender, right glad to find His friend in merry pin, Returned him not a single word, But to the house went in;

Whence straight he came with hat and wig;

A wig that flowed behind,

A hat not much the worse for wear,—

Each comely in its kind.

He held them up, and in his turn Thus showed his ready wit:

“ My head is twice as big as ycmrs, They therefore needs must fit!

“ But let me scrape the dirt away That hangs upon your face ;

And stop and eat, for well you may Be in a hungry case.”

Said John, “ It is my wedding-day, And all the world would stare, If wife should dine at Edmonton, And I should dine at Ware.”

So, turning to his horse, he said,

“ I am in haste to dine;

’Twas for your pleasure you came here,

You shall go back for mine.”

Ah, luckless speech, and bootless boast!

For which he paid full dear ; For, while he spake, a braying ass Did sing most loud and clear;

Whereat his horse did snort, as he Had heard a lion roar,

And galloped off with all his might, As he had done before!

Away went Gilpin, and away Went Gilpin’s hat and wig !

He lost them sooner than at first, For why ?-—they were too big.

Now Mistress Gilpin, when she saw Her husband posting down Into the country far away,

She pulled out half a crown ;

And thus unto the youth she said, That drove them to the Bell, “This shall be yours, when you bring back

My husband safe and well. ”

The youth did ride, and soon did meet

John coming back amain ;* Whom in a trice he tried to stop, By catching at his rein ;

But not performing what he might And gladly would have done, The frighted steed he frighted more, And made him faster run.

Away went Gilpin, and away Went post-boy at his heels,

The post-boy’s horse right glad to miss

The lumbering of the wheels.

Six gentlemen upon the road,

Thus seeing Gilpin fly,

With post-boy scampering in the rear,

They raised the hue and cry:—

“ Stop thief ! stop thief !—a highwayman ! ”

Not one of them was mute;

And all and each that passed that way

Did join in the pursuit!

And now the turnpike gates again Flew open in short space;

The toll-men thinking, as before, That Gilpin rode a race.

And so he did, and won it too,

For he got first to town;

Nor stopped till, where he had got He did again get down. [up,

Now let-us sing, long live the king;

And Gilpin, long live he !

And when he next doth ride abroad, May I be there to see!

Cow PER.


Pa-tient, one suffering, and attended I Sub-mis-sive-ly, humbly ; in token by a physician.    | of obedience.

Once at Carthage there was a slave named Androcles, who was so badly treated by his master that he resolved to run away from him. He therefore secretly left his master’s house, and hid himself in a forest, some miles distant from the city.

After wandering about for some time, he came to a large cavern, and, overcome by hunger and fatigue, he lay down in it, and soon fell fast asleep.

He was suddenly awakened by the roar of a wild beast; and running to the mouth of the cavern, he was met by a great lion, which stood right in his way, and made it impossible for him to escape 1

Androcles expected nothing else than to be at once torn to pieces ; but, to his great surprise, the lion came gently towards him, without showing any signs of rage. It gave forth at the same time a low and mournful sound, as if it were begging his assistance. As the lion approached him, he noticed that it limped with one of its legs, and that the foot was swollen, as if it had been wounded.

He then went up to the lion, and taking hold of the wounded paw, examined it as a surgeon would examine a patient.* He was not long in finding out the cause of the swelling ; for he saw' in the ball of the foot a very large thorn. The slave extracted the thorn, and pressed out of the wound a quantity of matter ; which gave the lion immediate relief.

Thereupon the lion began to show his gratitude

by every means in his power. He jumped about like a playful spaniel, wagged his great tail, and licked the hands and feet of his physician. From that moment Androcles became his guest; and the lion never sallied forth in quest of prey without sharing the produce of his chase with his friend.

The slave continued to live in this savage state for several months. At length, wandering carelessly through the woods, he was seized by a company of soldiers who had been sent out to search for him, and was by them led back to his master.

He was tried as a runaway slave, and was sen tenced to be torn by a lion in the public arena.

When the time for his destruction came, Androcles stood in the middle of the arena calmly awaiting his fate. Presently a dreadful yell was heard, which made the spectators start and tremble. A huge lion then sprang out of a den, and darted forward upon its victim with flaming eyes and gaping jaws.

What was the surprise of the multitude when the lion, instead of springing upon the man, and tearing him to pieces, couched submissively * at his feet, and fawned upon him like a dog!

The governor of the city then ordered Androcles to explain how it was that the savage beast had, in a moment, become as harmless as a lamb.

In reply, Androcles told the story of his adventures in the woods, and concluded by saying that that was the very lion, which stood by his side.

The spectators were so delighted with the story, that they begged the governor to pardon Androcles. This he did, and he also presented him with the lion which had in this way twice spared his life.

Questions.—Why did Androcles go into the forest? Where did he lie down? What startled him? Whence did it proceed? What surprised him greatly ? What did the lion seem to be begging ? Why did it require it? How did Androcles cure it of its lameness? How did the lion show his gratitude? How long did Androcles remain with him? How was he fed? By whom was Androcles captured? What sentence was passed upon him ? What happened when the lion was let loose ? Who asked to have it explained ? What was the fate of Androcles ? and of the lion ?

Pronounce in syllables.


















Androcles cured the Hon, and the lion spared Androcles.

The people begged the gouernor to pardon the slaue. He did so, and also presented him with the lion

which had twice saued his life.


Blus-ter-ing, blowing noisily Com-mo-tion, stir. Grleam-ing, shining Hustle, shake roughly

Ker-chiefs, napkins for covering the


Trun-dleci, rolled. Ur-chins, mischievous boys.

The Wind one morning sprang up from sleep,

Saying, “ Now for a frolic ! now for a leap !

Now for a mad-cap galloping chase !

I’ll make a commotion* in every place !”

So it swept with a bustle right through a great town, Cracking the signs and scattering down Shutters ; and whisking, with merciless squalls.

Old women’s bonnets and gingerbread stalls.

There never was heard a much lustier shout,

As the apples and oranges trundled* about ;

And the urchins* that stand with their thievish eyes For ever on watch, ran each with a prize.

Then away to the field^dt went, blistering* and humming, And the cattle alFwondered what monster was coming.

It plucked by the tails the grave matronly cows,

And tossed the colts’ manes all over their brows;

Till, offended at such an unusual salute,

They all turned their backs, and stood sulky and mute.

So on it went, capering and playing its pranks,—

Whistling with reeds on the broad river’s banks,

Puffing the birds as they sat on the spray,

Or the traveller grave on the king’s highway.

It was not too nice to hustle* the bags Of the beggar, and flutter his dirty rags;

’Twas so bold, that it feared not to play its joke With the doctor’s wig or the gentleman’s cloak.

Through the forest it roared, and cried, gaily, “ Now,

You sturdy old oaks, I’ll make you bow !”

And it made them bow without more-ado,

Or it cracked their great branches through and through.

Then it rushed like a monster on cottage and farm, Striking their dwellers with sudden alarm ;

And they ran out like bees in a midsummer swarm:

There were dames with their kerchiefs* tied over their caps, To see if their poultry were free from mishaps;

The turkeys they gobbled, the geese screamed aloud,

And the hens crept to roost in a terrified crowd;

There was rearing of ladders, and logs were laid on,

Where the thatch from the roof threatened soon to be gone.

But the Wind had swept on, and had met in a lane With a school-boy, who panted and struggled in vain;

For it tossed him and twirled him, then passed,—and he stood With his hat in a pool and his shoes in the mud '

Then away went the Wind in its holiday glee,

And now it was far on the billowy sea;

And the lordly ships felt its staggering blow,

And the little boats darted to and fro.

But, lo! it was night, and it sank to rest On the sea-birds’ rock in the gleaming* west,

Laughing to think, in its frolicsome fun,

How little of mischief it really had done. William Howitt

Questions.—What did the Wind first sweep through ? What did it overturn there ? Where did it go next ? What did it do to the cows ? What did all the cattle do ? Where did it next play its pranks ? What did it say to the oaks ? What did it next rush upon ? What did the dames go out to see ? Whom did it meet in a lane ? How did it leave him standing ? Where did it go next ? What did the great ships feel V When did it sink to rest ? and where? What did it Jaugh to think?

Pronounce in syllables:— thiev-ish un-u-su-al




gal-lop-ing scat-ter-ing mer-ci-less gin-ger-bread lus-ti-er












The Wind one morning sprang up from sleep, Saying, “ Noiv for a frolic! nouj for a leap! Now for a mad-cap galloping chase /

HI make a commotion in euery place l ”


StO-ried, bearing stories.

Be-spreut', sprinkled; bespattered. Brack (bratck), a female hound. Guise, behaviour; manner.

Poi’t-al seat, a seat in a gateway. Rue, lament; regret.

Cf Arl Vvnn wi vt/v    •

The spearman heard the bugle sound, %

And cheerily smiled the morn,

And many a brach* and many a hound Attend Llewelyn’s horn;

And still he blew a louder blast,

And gave a louder cheer,—

“ Come, Gelert! why art thou the last    .

Llewelyn’s horn to hear?

“ Oh, where does faithful Gelert roam?

The flower of all his race !

So true, so brave !—a lamb at home,

A lion in the chase ! ”

That day Llewelyn little loved The chase of hart or hare,

And scant and small the booty proved,- —

For Gelert was not there.

Unpleased, Llewelyn homeward hied;

When, near the portal* seat,

Elis truant Gelert he espied,

Bounding his lord to greet.

But when he gained the castle door,

Aghast the chieftain stood :

The hound was smeared with drops of gore, — His lips and fangs ran blood !

Llewelyn gazed with wild surprise;—-Unused such looks to meet,

His favourite checked his joyful guise,*

And crouched and licked his feet.

Onward in haste Llewelyn passed,

(And on went Gelert too,)

And still, where’er his eyes were cast, Fresh blood-drops shocked his view !

O’erturned his infant’s bed he found!

The blood-stained cover rent,

And all around the walls and ground With recent blood besprent!*

He called his child—no voice replied!

He searched, with terror wild;

Blood! blood he found on every side ! But nowhere found the child !

“ Monster ! by thee my child’s devoured The frantic father cried ;

And to the hilt his vengeful sword He plunged in Gelert’s side !

His suppliant, as to earth he fell,

No pity could impart;

But still his Gelert’s dying yell Passed heavy o’er his heart.

Aroused by Gelert’s dying yell,

Some slumberer wakened nigh;— What words the parent’s joy can tell To hear his infant cry !

Concealed beneath a mangled heap His hurried search had missed,

All glowing from his rosy sleep,

His cherub boy he kissed !

Nor scratch had he, nor harm, nor dread But the same couch beneath Lay a great wolf, all torn and dead,— Tremendous still in death !

Ah, what was then Llewelyn’s pain !

For now the truth was clear:

The gallant hound the wolf had slain,

To save Llewelyn’s heir.

Vain, vain was all Llewelyn’s woe:—

“ Best of thy kind, adieu !

The frantic deed which laid thee low This heart shall ever rue.”*

And now a gallant tomb they raise,

With costly sculpture decked ;

And marbles, storied* with his praise,

Poor Gelert’s bones protect.

Here never could the spearman pass.

Or forester, unmoved;

Here oft the tear-besprinkled grass Llewelyn’s sorrow proved.

And here he hung his horn and spear;    •

And oft, as evening fell,

In fancy’s piercing sounds would hear Poor Gelert’s dying yell.


Questions.—Which of Llewelyn’s dogs did not answer his call? What effect had this on the booty ? What did Llewelyn see on his return ? What made him stand aghast ? Where did he hasten to ? What could he not find ? What did he think had happened to it ? What did he therefore do ? What did Gelert’s dying yell do ? In what state was the child ? What else lay beneath the couch ? What had Gelert really done? Where did Llewelyn hang his horn and spear?

Pronounce in syllables:—

spear-man    Gel-ert    venge-ful    tre-men-dous

clieer-i-ly    tru-ant    sup-pll-ant    sculp-ture

Lle-wel-yn    fa-vour-ite    slum-ber-er    for-est-er

Dictation :—

Llewelyn, believing that his favourite hound had killed his child, plunged his sword in its side.

Beneath tire couch he found his child unharmed, and beside him the mangled remains of a huge wolf The gallant hound the wolf had slain,

To save Llewelyn’s heir.




ail, to bo sick, ale, malt liquor.

air, the atmosphere, ere, before, e'er, ever, heir, an inheritor.

all, the whole, awl, a sharp tool

altar, for worship alter, to change.

ant, an insect, aunt, a relative.

ate, did eat. eight, four and four.

aught, anything, ought, is bound.

bad, evil, bade, did bid

bale, a package, bail, surety

ball, a round body bawl, to shout.

bare, uncovered, bear, an animal.

be, to exist, bee, an insect.

beach, sea-coast, beech, a tree.

bean, the seed, of a plant, been, part, of be..

beat,    to strike, beet, a plant.

beau,    a fop. bow, a weapon.

beer, malt liquor bier, a frame for bearing the dead.

berry, a small fruit bury, to inter

berth, sleeping-place in a ship.

birth, coming into life.

blew, did blow, blue, a colour.

boar, a male pig. bore, to pierce.

bow, to bend, bough, a branch.

boy, a male child, buoy, a iloat.

brake, a thicket, break, to shatter.

bread, food, bred, brought up.

bridal, a wedding, bridle, of a horse.

Britain, the country. Briton, an inhabitant.

but, except, butt, a target, butt, a cask.

by, near, buy, to purchase, bye, in good-bye.

calendar, an almanac, calender, to press cloth.

cannon, a great gun. canon, a rule.

cask, a barrel, casque, a helmet.

cede, to give up. seed, part of a plant.

ceiling, of a room, sealing, with wax.

cell, a small room, sell, to give for money.

cent, a hundred scent, perfume, sent, did send.

check, to restrain, cheque, an order for money.

choir, of singers, quire, of paper, claws, of an animal, clause, of a sentence,

climb, to ascend, clime, climate.

coarse, not fine, course, a running.

cord,    string, chord, in music.

core,    the heart, corps, a body of men.

council, an assembly counsel, to advise.

crews, sailors, cruise, to sail about, cruse, a small cup. currant, a small fruit, current, stream.

dear, costly, deer, an animal.

desert, merit, dessert, after dinner.

dew, moisture, due, owed.

die, a stamp.

die, to expire.

dye, to change t he colour.

doe, a female deer, dough, paste for baking.

done, finished, dun, a colour, dying, expiring, dyeing, changing the colour.

ewe, a female sheep

yew, a tree.

you, the person addressod

ewer, a jug. your, of you

fain, eager, fane, a temple, feign, to sham.

faint, feeble, feint, a pretence.

fair, a market, fair, beautiful, fare, food.

feat, an exploit, feet, of the body.

find, to discover, fined,punished in money

(lew, did fly. flue, a chimney.

flour, ground grain, flower, a blossom.

fool, a stupid person, full, complete.

fore, in front, four, two and two.

forth, abroad, fourth, after third.

foul, not clean, fowl, a bird.

fur, of an animal, fir, a tree.

gait, manner of walking gate, a door.

gilt, covered with gold, guilt, wickedness.

grate, for fire, great, large.

groan, a deep moan, grown, increased.

hail, to accost, hail, frozen rain, hale, healthy.

hair, of the head. ' hare, an animal.

hall, a large room, haul, to pull.

hart, a deer heart, the seat of life. (31) heal, to cure, heel, of the foot.

hear, to listen, here, in this place.

heard, did hear, herd, a flock.

hew, to cut down, hue, colour.

hie, to go ; hasten, high, lofty.

him, a person referred to. hymn, a sacred song.

hire, wages, higher, loftier.

hole, an opening, whole, entire.

holy, pure ; sacred, wholly, altogethei’.

I. the person speaking, eye, the organ of vision.

in, into, inn, a tavern.

isle, an island, aisle, wing of a church.

key, for a lock, quay, a wharf.

kill, to slay.

kiln, for burning lime.

knead, to work dough, need, to require.

lain, reclined, lane, an alley.

lea, a meadow, lee, the sheltered side.

leak, a hole in a ship, leek, a plant.

led, did lead, lead, a metal.

lessen, to make less, lesson, instruction.

liar, one who tells lies, lyre, a musical instrument.

links, of a chain, lynx, an animal.

lo ! look low, not high.

loan, something lent, lone, solitary.

made, did make, maid, a young woman

mail, a bag of letters, mail, armour, male, a hemnimal.

main, chief, main, the ocean, mane, of an animal.

manner, method, manor, domain.

mantel, a chimnev-piece. mantle, a cloak.

marshal, to arrange, martial, warlike.

mean, low. mean, to intend mien, manner.

meat, food, meet, to encounter mete, to measure.

medal, a coin, meddle, to interfere

meter, a measure, metre, verse.

might, power, mite, an insect.

miner, one who minea minor, junior ; smaller

moan, a deep sigh, mown, cut down.

mote, a particle, moat, a ditch.

muscle, of the body, mussel, a shell-fish.

muse, to meditate, mews, stables, mews, cries as a cat

nave, of a wheel nave, of a church, knave, a rogue.

neigh, as a horse, nay, no.

new, not old. knew, did know.

night, time of darkness, knight, a title of rank.

no, negative, know, to understand.

none, no one. nun, a female monk

nose, of the face, knows, does know.

not, negative, knot, a tie.

oar, for a boat ore, metal, o'er, over.

ode, a short poem, owed, did owe.

oh ! exclamation, owe, to be indebted.

one, a number, won, gained.

our, of us. hour, sixty minutes.

pail, for milk, pale, white.

pain, suffering, pane, of glass.

pair, a couple, pare, to cut.

pear,    a fruit.

pause, a stop, paws, of an animal

peace, quietness piece, a part.

peak,    the top. pique, ill-will.

peal,    a loud sound peel, to pare.

peas,    in number pease, in quantity

peer, a nobleman, pier, of a bridge, phrase, mode of speech, frays, quarrels.

plain, level ground, plane, a joiner's tool.

plait, to fold, plate, a dish.

please, to delight, pleas, excuses.

plum, a fruit, plumb, a leaden weight

pole, a measure, pole, a piece of wood, poll, the head.

pore, an opening, pore, to study closely, pour, to empty out.

practice, a custom, practise, to do habitually.

praise, renown, prays, entreats, preys, plunders.

pray, to entreat, prey, plunder.

pries, looks into closely, prize, a reward.

principal, chief, principle, rule

profit, gain.

prophet, one who foretells.

rain, water from the clouds.

reign, to rule, rein, of a horse.

raise, to lift up. rays, of the sun. raze, to overthrow

rap, to knock, wrap, to infold

read, to peruse, reed, a plant.

reck, to care wreck, ruin.

red, a colour, read, did read.

right, not wrong, rite, a ceremony write, with a pen. Wright, a workman rime, hoar-frost, rhyme, in verse.

ring, a circle, ring, to sound a bell, wring, to twist.

road, a way. rode, did ride, rowed, did row

root, of a plant, route, line of march.

rose, a flower rose, did rise, rows, does row

rote, memory.

Wrote, did write

rough, uneven ruff, for the neck

row, a line, row, to row a boat roe, a female deer

rye, a grain, wry, crooked.

sale, the act of selling sail, of a ship

scene, a view seen, beheld.

sea, the ocean.

see, domain of a bishop

see, to behold

seams, joinings, seems, appears

sear, to burn.

seer,    a prophet sere, faded.

sees,    beholds seize, to take hold of

sew, to make a seam SOW, to scatter seed SO, thus.

site, situation sight, vision

size, bulk, sighs, moans

sloe, a berry, slow, not fast soar, to mount sore, painful

soared, did soar sword, a weapon.

sold,    did sell.

soled, my boot is soled.

some, a portion.

sum,    amount.

son, a male child

sun,    that shines.

soul, spirit.

sole,    of the foot.

stair, a flight of steps, stare, to gaze.

stake, a post.

Steak, a slice of beef.

stationary, fixed, stationery, materials for writing.

steal, to take by theft, steel, metal.

stile, a step in a fence. Style, manner of writing.

straight, not crooked Strait, narrow

tale, a story, tail, of an animal

tare, a weed, tear, to rend

tax, a charge, tacks, small nails

team, of horses, teem, to be full of

tear,    from the eye tier, a row.

tease, to annoy.

teas,    kinds of tea.

their, of them, there, in that place.

threw, did throw, through, from side to side-

throne, a royal seat, thrown, cast

tide, a current, tied, made fast.

time, season, thyme, a plant.

to, unto, too, also, two, one and one

toe, of the foot, tow, coarse flax

told, narrated tolled, rang.

trait, feature tray, vessel.

use, to employ, ewes, female sheep.

vain, conceited, vein, a blood-vessel, vane, a weather-cock

vale, valley, veil, for the face.

wade, to walk in water weighed, dTd weigh

waist, of the body Waste, to destroy

wait, to stay, weight, heaviness.

ware, goods, wear, to put on.

weather, state of the air.

wether, a sheep.

week, seven days, weak, feeble.

weigh, to find the weight of. way, a road

wood, a forest, would, past of will

yoke, a chain, yolk, of an egg


Let the teacher frame short sentences, introducing the words prescribed for each day’s lesson—either a separate sentence for each word, or two words in the same sentence. Thus :—-

red..........The officer wore a red cloak.

read........I have read the book three times.

principal ... The principal cause of his failure has been his want principle    of principle.


The pupils are to be required to write short sentences, showing the right use of the words in each day’s lesson.

This will be a thorough test, also, of their knowledge of the verbal distinctions


Pat the Right Word m the Right Place.




































A man may be noble though he be poor. No one is a man because he has a fortune.

We do not blame a man who is of his success, so much as one who is of his learning.

It has been wisely said that we may a friend, though we do not his faults.

I have fear that you will soon be able to master so a book.

I have got a supply of eggs, but I cannot say whether they are or not.

Most of my friends are still young men; but I have lately become acquainted with a very man.

His library contains many editions of the classical writers.

We should only for what is necessary, and be content to what we cannot get.

I in an old house, in the same town in which my family has been accustomed to for generations.

The duke is very . Report says that he has been a man ; but there is good reason to hope that he has repented of his    deeds.

The of the English people are good ; but many of their    are objectionable.

The master who me grammar was a clever man. I more from him than from any other teacher.

He has tried nearly every in existence; but no has yet been effected.

The camel’s may well be spoken of as its , for it has been called the ship of the desert.

A tree cannot be expected to revive; a one may recover.

The in his education will not excuse the serious in his conduct.

We speak of the of a new planet or island, but of the of a new machine.





55 B.C. to 410 A.D.    _

LEADING FEATURES :—Britain a Roman province for three centuries and a half—The Britons unable to defend themselves when the Romans withdrew.

1.    The Celts who inhabited Britain were disturbed in the year 55 B.o. by the arrival of Roman soldiers under Julius Caesar. The Roman Period of British history then began. It lasted four hundred and sixty-five years.

2.    It was not until the reign of Claudius, 43 A.D., that the Romans gained any decided success in Britain. Shortly after that time, 51 A.D., a brave British chief named Caractacus (Ca-rdc-ta-cus) was defeated and taken prisoner; and the Druids, as the priests of the Britons were called, were expelled from Mona (Anglesey).

3.    Agricola was the chief Roman governor of Britain. During seven years (78-85 a.d.) he held power; and, having invaded Caledonia (Scotland), he defeated a chief named Galgacus in the Battle of the Grampians, 84 a.d.

4.    The Romans built several walls across Britain, to secure their conquests from the attacks of the Piets or Caledonians. The principal of these were the Wall of Hadrian, from the Tyne to the Solway Firth (121 a.d.); and the Wall of Antonine, from the Forth to the Clyde (140 a.d. ). The Roman Emperor Severus (Se-ve^'us) marched through Caledonia, as far as'the Moray Firth.

5.    The Sack of London by the Piets, in 367 a.d., is a clear sign that the Roman power was decaying in the island. Finally, in 410 a.d., the Emperor Honorius wrote a letter withdrawing his legions from Britain, and leaving it without any native army to repel the attacks of the northern foes.


1 When did the Romans first visit Britain? Under what general? To what race did the natives belong? How long did the Roman Period last ? What are its leading features ?

2. In whose reign did the Romans first gain any decided success in Britain ? What native chief was taken prisoner by the Romans? What were the British priests called ? From what place were they driven ?

3.    Who was the chief Roman gover nor of Britain ? How long did he hold power ? What great victory did he gain ?

4.    Name the principal Roman walls. For what purpose were they built ? When was Hadrian’s Wall built ? And where 1 When was Antonine’s Wall built ? And where ?

5.    What indicates the decay of the Roman power in Britain ? When wero the Roman legions withdrawn ?


Landing of Julius Caesar.......b. c. 55

Invasion under Claudius.......a.d. 43

Agricola governor.............. 78-85


449 A.D. to 1066 A.D.

LEADING FEATURES Britain becomes England—The English become Christian—The Danes struggle with the English—French influence prepares England fbr the Norman Conquest.


1.    Not long after the departure of the Romans, the Piets again invaded South Britain. The Britons, being unable to resist them, called in the aid of certain Germanic tribes who bad been in the habit of visiting their coasts. The Germans gladly came; and they liked the country so much that they were loath to go away again (449).

So they wrested from the Britons (or Welsh, as they called them), whom they had come to help, land on which they and their families might settle. These Germanic settlers were the founders of the English nation.

By-and-by there came other tribes of the same, race, who settled on different parts of the coast. In the end (582), they founded as many as eight distinct states in Britain—or England, as it came to be called -and drove the Welsh into the highlands in the north and west of the country.

2.    The names of some of these states (as Essex, Sussex, Wessex) show that they were founded by Saxons. Others (as East Anglia and Nor thmnbria) were founded by people called Angles. As the earliest settlers were Saxons, the Welsh naturally gave that name to all the invaders.

But the Angles got most of the land, and became the most powerful. So, when the two peoples (who spoke the same language, and were as closely related as brothers) grew into one, they were called AngloSaxons (that is, Angles and Saxons), or more commonly Angles, or English alone. The Anglian priests were the first to use^he language for literary purposes; hence it was called English. Saxons as well as Angles called their speech English—never Saxon, or Anglo-Saxon, as is often done now; and the general name which they gave to the country was England.

3.    When these Germans came to Britain they were heathens in religion, and little better than savages in life and manners. But Augustine (Au-gus-tine) began to preach Christianity in Kent in 597, and then a great change began. The Christian faith was eihbraeed by the King of Northumbria in 627, and it rapidly spread to the other states, carrying civilization and refinement in its train.

4.    These early kingdoms were generally at war with one another, and the weaker states thus became gradually absorbed in the stronger ones. In this way the land came to be divided among three states— Wessex, Mercia, and Northumbria. These three then contended; and in the end, Wessex (under King Egbert) remained as sole conqueror, having swallowed up the territory of all the other seven (827).


1.    What are the leading features of the Old English Period? Why did the Germans come to Britain? Why did they not go away again? Of what were these Germans the founders? How many different states did they found in all?

2.    Why did the Welsh call all these settlers Saxons ? Which was the most powerful tribe? What name did the combined peoples receive? What was

their speech called? Why? What general name did they give to Britain?

3.    What were these settlers in religion? When and by whom was Christianity introduced into Kent? When into Northumbria?

4.    What was the effect of the wars a-mongthe Germanic states? Among what three states was the land first divided? Which state conquered in the end?


1. For the next two hundred years, the English were engaged in constant wars with the Norsemen, or Danes, who had begun to ravage their coasts as early as 787. The Danes were nearly related to the English in origin and language. If we represent the Angles and the Saxons as brothers, we may call the Danes their cousins.

The kings who were most successful in resisting the Danes were Alfred the Great (871-901) and Athelstane (925-941). Alfred’s greatest victory was gained over them at Ethandune (878) in the county of Somerset.

In Athelstane’s reign, a Danish prince of Northumbria tried to assert his independence. He formed a league with the King of Scots and some Welsh princes who were alarmed at Athelstane’s growing power. Athelstane met them at Brunanburgli (937) in Lincolnshire, and gained a decisive victory.

Thereafter Athelstane reigned in peace. He is regarded as one of the ablest and wisest of the early English princes, and as the first who had any real claim to the title of King of all England. He also encouraged commerce by granting the title of Thane to every merchant who made three voyages in his own ships.

2.    But their defeats did not prevent the Danes from returning again and again to attack the English, especially when a weak monarch held the throne. Ethelred the Unready (978-1017) tried to get rid of them first by bribing them with money to go away ; but this only made them return in larger numbers and demand a larger bribe. Then he ordered a Massacre of all the Danes in England (1002); which brought over thousands of their friends burning with revenge.

After a fierce struggle, the Danes at last succeeded in wresting the crown of England from the English (1017); and they held it for twenty-four years. Three Danish kings in succession filled the English throne. The greatest of them was Canute, or Knut, who was at the same time King of England, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

3.    On the death of the last Danish king—who left no son to succeed him—Edward (the son of Ethelred) was called to the throne (1041); and thus the true English line was restored. This Edward had spent the greater part of his life in Normandy, the duke of which state was his second cousin.

It was quite natural, therefore, that when he came to England he should surround himself with the Norman friends of his youth. French fashions and influence were thus introduced into England long before the Norman Conquest; and by-and-by the French language was that commonly used, not only in the king’s circle, but in the churches and the courts of law. Edward, whose pious life gained for him, after his death, the title of The Confessor, died childless in 1066.

4.    The nearest heir to the throne was a boy named Edgar Athefing ; but as he was too young to wield the sceptre in times so stormy, the Witan, or Great Council, chose as king, Harold, Earl of Kent, then the most powerful noble in all England. But Duke W illiam of Normandy declared that Edward had bequeathed the crown to him ; and, moreover, that Harold himself had sworn a solemn oath not to oppose his claims.

He therefore came over with a powerful army, and claimed the throne. The King of Norway invaded England at the same time, and took the city of York. Harold marched to the north and defeated him; and then turning south, he hastened to meet William, who had landed on the coast of Sussex.

The two armies met at Senlac Hill, near Hastings, ax^d a terrible battle was fought, which lasted a whole day (October 14,1066). Fearful was the slaughter : thousands of brave men and true fell on both sides. But in the evening, as Harold was again leading on his men to the charge, he was shot in the eye by an arrow, which pierced his brain. His two brothers fell slain by his side, and his army fled to the woods. Thus the Duke of Normandy gained the victory, and was called William the Conqueror.


1.    How long did the struggle with the Danes last ? How were they related to the English? What kings were most successful in resisting them ? Wh at was Alfred’s great victory? What was Athelstane’s ? What is the character of the latter? How did he encourage commerce ?

2.    How did Ethelred try to get rid of the Danes first? With what effect? What other means did he try ? What did that lead to? How many Danish kings occupied the throne ? Who was the greatest of them ?

3.    When was the English line re-

stored ? Where had Edward spent the greater part of his life? With whom did he surround himself when he came to the English throne? What were the consequences of this? What was Edward’s surname ? When did he die ?

4. Who was the nearest heir to the throne ? Why was he not made king ? Whom did the Witan choose as king? Who claimed the crown ? On what grounds? What means did he adopt to obtain it? Who invaded England at the same time? With what result ? Where did William land ? Where did the two armies meet ? What was the issue?


Battle of Hastings, or The Conquest 1060

Egbert crowned..............a. t>. 827

Massacre of Danes...............1002

The three Danish kings .... 1017-1041

chief authors of the old English period.

Hildas the Wise—first British historian—a monk—native of Wales— died a.d 570.

Venerable Bede—wrote History, and translated the Scriptures into English—died a.d. 735.

King Alfred—translated the Psalm , Bede’s History, &c., into English-died a.d. 901

Asser—a learned monk—King Alfred’s tutor—wrote the Life of A If red — died a. d. 909.


1066 A.D. to 1154 A.D.—88 years.—4 Kings

LEADING FEATURESThe Feudal System introduced -Growing power of the Barons.

William I. (The Conqueror),

began to reign................. 1066

William II. (Rufus) son........1087

Henry I. (Beauclerc),brother .... 1100 Stephen (Earl of Blois), nephew ....................1135-1154


1066 A.D. to 10S7 A.D. — 21 years

1.    William, after the Battle of Hastings, marched to London; and was crowned on Christmas-day, 1066. He promised to rule according to the English laws, and was at first just and merciful; but his subjects gave him much trouble by forming plots against his life; and once, when he was in Normandy, they fixed on a day to destroy all the Nor mans in the country, as Ethelred had destroyed the Danes.

But William soon returned ; and, when he heard of it, began to act like a savage tyrant, carrying fire and sword through the country, and laying waste whole counties. Taking away the rich estates of the English, he gave them to his Norman followers, who promised in return to serve him in time of war. Thus began in England the Feudal System, or the custom of serving in war instead of paying rent (1085).

2.    Three chief acts of his reign were these:—The Domesday Book was written, the Curfew Bell ordered, and the New Forest laid out

The Domesday Book contained an account of every estate in England, with the name of its owner, and an account of the cultivated land, as well as of the rivers, forests, and lakes (1086).

The Curfew was a bell which he ordered to be rung in every parish at eight o’clock at night, as a signal for the people to put out their lights and fires.

The New Forest embraced all Hampshire, from Winchester to the sea. Here he destroyed sixty villages, and drove out all the inhabitants, in order to make it a fit place for hunting wild beasts.

3.    The Conqueror had three sons, Robert, William, and Henry. Robert raised a rebellion in France against his father; and, being besieged in a castle, met him in single combat: for both being covered with armour, they did not know each other. Robert knocked his father off his horse, and would have killed him ; but the old king’s helmet fell off, and Robert saw his face. He was so shocked that he fell down before his father, and implored his pardon for what he had done.

4. Some years after this, King William was besieging a town in France, when his horse, slipping on some hot ashes, began to plunge. The king, who had become very heavy, got bruised upon the saddle, which caused his death. He left the crown of England to his second son William, and that of Normandy to Robert.


What were three ctiief acts of his Norman line. Name the kings. When- reign? What was the Domesday Book?

j..___i. ,___•    .___•__*    P/,,*. D .-.11 O f I'1, AT ^*•* T?    0

Give the first and last dates of the

did each begin to reign ?

1. How long did William I. reign? What was William’s first act after the Battle of Hastings? When was he crowned ? What did he promise ? What was his conduct at first ? Why did he alter his conduct towards his subjects? How did he then act? To whom did he give the estates which he took from the English? On what condition ? To what system did this lead? What is the Feudal System ?

J^e Curfew Bell? The New Forest?

'How did he make the New Forest? For what purpose ?

3.    How many sons had William? What were their names ? Which rebelled? What occurred when Robert was besieged ?

4.    How did William come by his death ? In what was he engaged at the time? To whom did he leave the crown of England ? What did he leave to Robert ?


1087 A.D. to 1100 A.D.—13 years.

1.    William II. was called Rufus because he had a ruddy complexion. He was not beloved by the people, as he was false and cruel, and a plot was formed to set Robert upon the throne ; for he, though wild and careless, was brave and generous, and the people were fond of him. But William was on his guard, and defeated their plans.

2.    After this, William, not content with the crown of England, wished for that of Normandy also. He therefore made war upon Robert, and took away part of his dukedom (1091). Soon afterwards he obtained the whole ; for Robert, wishing to go to the Crusades, borrowed a large sum of money from him, promising that if he could not pay it back, William should have his lands (1096).

3.    In those days it was a custom with many Christians to take a journey to Jerusalem, to see the tomb where Christ was supposed to have been buried. But Jerusalem was then in the hands of the Turks, who were not Christians, and who were very cruel to the pilgrims, and wished to prevent them from visiting Jerusalem. So Peter the Hermit, who had been a pilgrim, went through all Europe preaching the Crusades (or Wars of the Cross), and persuading the princes and nobles to sell their lands, leave their homes, and take all the men they could to Jerusalem to drive out the Turks. It was thought that whoever

died in this holy war was sure to go to heaven. Many thousands soon went; and Robert of Normandy was one of their leaders.

4. Several princes besides Robert sold their lands to William, who was now priding himself on becoming a very powerful king, when death put an end to his greatness; for one day, as he was hunting in the New Forest, Sir Walter Tyrrel, shooting at a deer, missed his mark, and his arrow, glancing from a tree, pierced the king to the heart. Tyrrel escaped to France.

Some historians say that this was a murder, planned by the followers of Rufus; but the truth is not known. He was so little cared for, that his body was carried in a common cart to Winchester, and buried without ceremony.


1.    From what year to what year did William Rufus reign ? Why was he called Rufus? Was he beloved? Why? What attempt was made by the people ?

2.    Upon whom did William make war? Why? Did he obtain Normandy? How?

3.    What famous wars were begun in William’s reign? Where? Against

what people? Why? Who was it that preached the Crusades ? How did Robert of Normandy and many others obtain money for this purpose ?

4. What caused William’s death ? Who is said to have shot the arrow ? What became of Tyrrel? What do some historians say of the matter? What was done witli the body ? What does this show ?


1100 A. D. to 1135 A. D. —35 years.    .

1.    Henry I. was the youngest son of the Conqueror, and brother of the last king. He was called Beauclerc (Bo-dare), which means “fine scholar,” because he was very learned for a king in those days. As 60on as Henry heard of his brother’s death, he hastened to Winchester to seize the royal treasures ; and then to London, where he was crowned king.

2.    Robert, on his return from the Holy Land, came over to England with an army, to take possession of the crown, which was his by right. He, however, consented to give up his claim for 3000 marks a-year; which Henry agreed to pay him.

3.    Soon after this, Henry invaded and took possession of Normandy, took Robert prisoner, and brought him over to England. He was closely confined in Cardiff Castle, in Wales, for the rest of his life—a period of twenty-eight years. Some say that his eyes were burned out with a red-hot needle by Henry’s order.

4.    Henry had married Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III. of Scotland, and niece of Edgar Atheling (1100). By this marriage the Norman and the English royal lines were united. The issue of this marriage was a son and a daughter, William and Maud. Prince William was drowned on a voyage from Normandy in 1120 (see page 79). But Henry, in his will, left the crown to his daughter Maud, and made his nobles and his nephew Stephen swear to obey her. He died of an illness brought on by eating too heartily of lampreys.

5.    During this reign, the woollen manufacture was brought into England by some people who came from Flanders, and settled at Worsted in Norfolk.


1.    Who succeeded Rufus ? Give the first and last dates of Henry’s reign. Whose son was he ? What was he sur-named? Why? What did Henry do when he heard of his brother’s death ? Where was he crowned ?

2.    Where was Robert then ? What did he do when he returned home? What agreement was made?

3.    What did Henry do soon after this? Where was Robert confined?

How long? What is he said to have


4.    Whom did Henry marry ? What did this marriage effect? How many children had Henry? What was the fate of his son ? To whom did he leave the crown ? Who swore to obey Maud ? What caused Henry's death ?

5.    What manufacture was brought into England in this reign ? By whom ? Where did they settle?


1135 A.D. to 1154 A.D.—19 years.

1< Stephen, Earl of Blois, although he had sworn to support Maud, claimed the crown; and many of the nobles and clergy were in his favour, as they did not like to be governed by a woman. He also promised that they should no longer pay Dane-geld, and should be allowed to build castles on their estates, and hunt in their own forests. By these and other promises he gained over a great party, and was crowned.

2.    But David, King of Scotland, being the uncle of Maud, invaded England, ravaged the county of Northumberland, and entered Yorkshire. Here he was met by Stephen’s barons, and a great battle was fought, in which the Scots were defeated. This was called the Battle of the Standard, pecause the English carried into the field a large cross hung with flags and banners (1138).

3.    Soon after this, Maud landed in England with one hundred and forty knights. Eor some time the country was a scene of bloodshed. At last Stephen was defeated at Lincoln, taken prisoner, and cast into a dungeon in Bristol Castle (1141).

4.    Maud now became Queen ; but her haughty spirit displéased the nation, and so great was the power raised against her that she was compelled to flee. Her half-brother and chief supporter, Robert Earl of Gloucester, was taken prisoner at Winchester. He was exchanged for Stephen, who once more sat upon the throne.

The following winter, Maud was besieged at Oxford; and, the ground being covered with snow, she dressed herself in white that she might not be seen, crossed the Thames on the ice, and soon after escaped to N ormandy.

5.    Maud had a son named Henry, now almost grown up. In the year 1152 he invaded England to claim the throne. But Stephen agreed that at his death Henry should have the crown ; and so the dispute ended. Henry had not to wait long, for Stephen died in 1154. after a reign of nineteen years.

6.    During this reign one hundred and twenty-six castles were built by permission of Stephen, and the barons became very powerful.


1.    Who succeeded Henry I. ? How long did he reign ? Give the dates. Who were in his favour ? Why ? What promises did he make ?

2.    Who invaded England to support Maud? What harm did he do? How far did he go ? By whom was he met ? What was the consequence? What was this battle called? Why?

3.    Who came to England soon afterwards ? What was the state of the country for some time ? Where was

Stephen at last defeated? How was he treated ?

4.    Did Maud long wear the crown Why not? How did Stephen recover his liberty ? Where was Maud afterwards besieged? Did she escape? How?

5.    Who invaded England in 1152 ? Why? What agreement was made? When did Stephen die ?

6.    How many castles were built in Stephen’s reign? What was the consequence of this ?


1058 A.D to 1154 A.D.

LEADING FEATURE:—The Scottish Alliance with the Old English

Royal Family.

1.    Authentic Scottish history does not begin until the reign of Malcolm Canmore, the contemporary of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror. Earlier events are wrapped in fable.

Macbeth slew Duncan in 1041, and reigned for seventeen years. Then Malcolm Canmore, with the aid of an English army, defeated and slew Macbeth in 1056. In the following year, Malcolm III. was crowned King of Scotland.

2.    In 1068 Malcolm married an English princess — Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling, who, with her brother and other Englishmen, sought a refuge in Scotland after the Norman Conquest.

Their daughter. Matilda, became the wife of Henry I. of England, whose descendants were thus representatives both of the English and of the Norman royal line.

3. Three of Malcolm’s sons filled the Scottish throne in succession. Thus, while Frenchmen filled the English throne, the crown of Scotland was worn by the sons of an Englishwoman. All three were remarkable for the favour they showed to the clergy. Th& youngest of them, David I.,—who fought for Maud, his niece, against Stephen,— founded and endowed six of the chief abbeys in Scotland.

So lavish was he in his gifts to the Church, that one of his successors called him “ a sore saint for the Crown.” He died in 1153, a year before Stephen.


1.    When does authentic Scottish history begin? What is its leading feature during the Norman Period? When was Malcolm crowned king? Whom had he defeated and slain ?

2.    AYliom did Malcolm marry? Whose wife did his daughter become? What union did this effect?

3. How many of Malcolm’s sons filled the throne? To what nation did the contemporary kings in England belong ? For what were Malcolm’s sons remarkable ? Who was the youngest of them ? How many abbeys did he found ? What did one of his successors call him ? When did he die ?


800 A.D. to 1154 A.D.

LEADING FEATURES:—Danish Invasions, and Civil Wars,

1.    The Danes began to ravage the coasts of Ireland at the beginning of the ninth century; and they continued to make frequent descents upon it, sometimes overrunning the whole island, during a period of two hundred years.

2.    At last a deliverer arose in Brian Eoru, King of Munster, who expelled the Danes from his own realm, and then received the crown of the whole island in 994.

The Danes returned, however, and in 1014 Brian defeated them decisively at Clontarf; but he was treacherously murdered in his tent, after the battle.

3.    Brian’s death was followed by dissensions and civil war, which continued till Turlogh, a contemporary of William the Conqueror, secured the throne. In 1152, a synod of the Irish clergy acknowledged the supremacy of the See of Rome.


1.    With whose ravages is the early history of Ireland associated? When did they begin their descents ? How long did they continue ?

2.    What deliverer arose ? What did he receive after expelling the Danes?

When and where did he finally defeat them ? What was his fate ?

3. By what was his death followed ? When did the civil war come to an end ? What took place in 1152? What are the leading features of this period 1


. 1068 . 1085 . 1086 . 1096

Prince William drowned (Henry I.) 1120 Battle of the Standard (Stephen), 1138

Malcolm III. marries Margaret .

The Feudal System introduced.. Domesday Book compiled.......

First Crusade (William II.) .....

Henry I. marries Matilda........1101


Ingulf—Abbot of Croyland—liisto- I William of Malmesbury—historian rian—died a.d. 1109.    | —died a.d. 1143.




Case-ment, window-frame.

Chan-cel, that part of a church where the altar stands.

Charles’s Wain, the churl’s or farmer’s waggon; a cluster of stars, commonly called the Plough.

Copse, underwood, for cutting. Fal-low lea., untilled meadow. Gran-ar-y, a storehouse for grain.

I’ the mould, in the grave. _ Mign-0-nette/ (min-yo-n£tr), a sweet-scented flower.

If you’re waking, call me early, call me early, mother dear,

For I would see the sun rise upon the glad New Year:

It is the last New Year that I shall ever see;

Then you may lay me low i’ the mould,* and think no more of me.

To-night I saw the sun set; he set, and left behind The good old year, the dear old time, and all my peace of mind : And the New Year’s coming up, mother; but I shall never see The blossom on the black thorn, the leaf upon the tree.

Last May we made a crown of flowers ;—we had a merry day ! Beneath the hawthorn on the green they made me Queen of May; And we danced about the May-pole, and in the hazel copse,* Till Charles’s* Wain came out above the tall white chimney tops.

There’s not a flower on all the hills; the frost is on the pane;

I only wish to live till the snow-drops come again:

I wish the snow would melt, and the sun come out on high;

I long to see a flower so, before the day I die.

The building rook will caw from the wipdy, tall elm tree;

And the tufted plover pipe along the fallow* lea;

And the swallow ’ill come back again with summer o’er the wave;

But I shall lie alone, mother, within the mouldering grave.

(31)    ft

Upon the chancel* casement,* and upon that grave of mine,

In the early, early morning, the summer sun ’ill shine,

Before the red cock crows from the farm upon the hill,

When you are warm asleep, mother, and all the world is still.

When the flowers come again, mother, beneath the waning light, You’ll never see me more, in the long gray fields at night; You’ll bury me, my mother, just beneath the hawthorn shade, And you’ll come sometimes and see me where I am lowly laid.

I have been wild and wayward, but you’ll forgive me now; You’ll kiss me, my own mother, and forgive me ere I go:

Nay, nay, you must not weep, nor let your grief be wild;

You should not fret for me, mother,—you have another child.

Good night, good night: when I have said good night for evermore,

And you see me carried out from the threshold of the door, Don’t let EfAe come to see me till my grave be growing green She’ll be a better child to you than ever I have been.

She’ll find my garden tools upon the granary* floor;

Let her take ’em; they are hers—I shall never garden more But tell her, when I’m gone, to train the rose-bush that I set About the parlour window, and the box of mignonette.*

Good night, sweet mother! call me before the day is born;

All night I lie awake, but I fall asleep at morn;

But I would see the sun rise upon the glad New Year;

So, if you’re waking, call me, call me early, mother dear.



Good night, sweet mother! call me before the day is born;    •

All night I lie awake, but I fall asleep at morn ;

But / would see the sun rise upon the glad New Year; So, if you’re waking, call me, call me early, mother dear.



Ci’in-kled, marked with wrinkles or I Down, a barren plain, or slope, folds.    I Mot-tled, spotted; speckled.

Where does the song come from ? We are sitting

on the green, open down.* There are no trees near us to shelter any birds; not a living creature is to be seen anywhere, except the shepherd boy, who lies on the grass, gazing up into the sky. Yet we certainly do hear a song, —a happy, joyous song: the air seems quite full of it; where can the singer be?

Look up, look up ; it is the sk}7-iark’s song, and there is the sky-lark itself, so high in the air that we can


see it only as a dark speck against the white clouds over our heads. Now it has gone as high as it cares to go, and it is coming down again, down, down, singing all the while, till it drops like a stone a little way from us, and we get a good look at our friend at last. A brown, sober-feathered bird, a spotted breast, with just a tinge of yellow upon it, and a little crest upon its head—that is all. It has no particular beauty. God meant the lark for singing, and sing it does, with all its might.

Most birds sing their song through, and then stop a minute, as if to take breath ; but all the time it is in the air the sky-lark never pauses, and never seems to tire. Most birds sing upon a bough, but the sky-lark sings in the air. It never perches on a tree. Its claws are straight, so that it could not clasp the spray ; they are made for running swiftly through the thick grass or clover where it lives and makes its nest.

It has a relation, the wood-lark, which lives partly on trees and partly on the ground; but the sky-lark itself is never seen upon a tree. If it is not singing in the air, it is down in some lowly spot upon the ground. That is where it always springs from; as if to teach you and me that the humblest place is, after all, the nearest to heaven.

The sky-lark sings nearly all the year round. As soon as the first daisy opens its yellow eye, the lark thinks it is full time for it to begin its work too. By-and-bv the primrose peeps out from its crisp crinkled* leaves, and then it sings more cheerily still. Then comes the honey-suckle, then the wild-rose of summer ; the corn-fields turn yellow, the apples grow red, the leaves fade and presently fall. All the while the sky-lark sings on, and its song blends with every season ; it seems to say out for us what we feel in our hearts, and to thank God for us for the summer dowers and the autumn fruits.

The sky-lark is an early riser; it makes a point of springing up to greet the morning sun. It sings at intervals all the day long; and, as the sun sinks in the west it sinks down too, into its grassy home, to begin the day again just the same to-morrow.

For a nest, it simply lines a hole in the ground with dry stalks and bits of grass ; and there it lays bve or six dark mottled" brown eggs. It chooses a

place in the meadow or clover-field, or even on the open down.^ Yet the nest is not so often found as you may suppose ; and even if once found, it is difficult to hit upon the same spot again.

Questions.—Where does the sky-lark go when it sings ? When does it stop its song ? What is its colour ? What has it on its head ? Why

does it not perch on trees ? What are its claws made for ? What kind of lark lives partly on trees? What does it teach us by springing from the ground ? During what seasons does it sing ? When does it rise ? When does it go to rest? What has it for a nest ? How many eggs does it lay ? Where does it prefer to build ?





Pronounce in syllables •— shel-ter    par-tic-u-lar    hum-blest

crea-ture    min-ute    prim-rose

cer-tain-ly    clo-ver    cheerfl-ly

sky-lark    re-la-tion    yel-low

Dictation :—

Larks are distinguished from other birds by the extreme length of their hinder daws, which extend in an almost straight line behind. From this formation, they have scarcely any power of seizing branches of trees.



Di-et, habitual food.    |    May-hap', perhaps.

Sky-larks are plentiful everywhere in Europe, and in winter they fly about in large flocks.' Their summer food is mostly earth-worms, but in winter they are driven to vegetable diet.* We call the wild • plants weeds, and the garden ones flowers; but each alike bears its little seeds after its own kind, and each of these little seeds has its own work to do. We gather the pods of our sweet-peas and our lupines, and store them carefully away till we plant them the following summer. And the wild-flower seeds—does nobody gather them? Yes; God lays them in his storehouse, and not one is wasted. Some fall to the ground, ready to take root and grow up in the spring-time, but the greater part are for the spreading of the little birds’ table. The larks especially feed on these seeds in the winter, and all the cold weather through they come and eat, and are satisfied.

Everybody loves the sky-lark’s song; and sometimes, when people have gone away to otfier lands, they have taken a sky-lark with them, to remind them of their own old home. There was once a poor old widow, who, finding it hard work to get her living at home, thought that she would like to go to the gold-diggings in Australia. So she crossed the sea to that far-off country. The only treasures she possessed she took with her. One of these was a pet sky-lark, which had been used to live in a small wicker cage, outside her cottage window. .

When she got to Australia, she hired a. hut, and got her living by washing the gold-diggers’ clothes and cooking their dinners. Day after day, the lark sang his happy song beside her door. She listened, and it cheered her at her work. Some of the golddiggers listened too : it was years since they had heard that familiar song, and many offered to buy the lark, if the widow would only sell it. She shook her head. “No, no, I’ll never do that; but you may come on Sundays and hear him sing. Mayhap* it’ll do you good.” Alas ! they had no church there ; nothing to make Sundays different from other days. But,' Sunday after Sunday, they did come ; and the lark’s song told them of the green valleys of England; it brought back memories of their childhood—of the prayers learned at their mothers’ knees—of the thoughts they once had about God and about heaven ; alas ! how sadly forgotten now ! The rough men’s hearts were softened; I think—• nay, I am quite sure—they were better men for it. The sky-lark preached a little sermon to them. He did not know it, he did not mean it, but God meant it, and God sent it; and I think, as the poor woman said, “it did them good.”

The lark is up—I hear him sing—

See how he mounts upon the wing !

And with a voice so loud and strong,

Pours forth to Heaven his thrilling song.

I listened to his early hymn,

While yet the dawning light was dim ;

And bent my head for very shame,

That from my heart no music came.

Oh, shame ! to let a little bird Thus get the start and first be heard !

Come, then, and let us tune our throats,

And join its song with grateful notes.

Questions.—Where are sky-larks plentiful? How do they fly about in winter ? What is their food in summer ? and in winter ? What did the old widow take to Australia? Who heard its song? What did they wish to do ? What did she answer ? When did the men come to hear it sing ? Of what did its song remind them ? What did it preach to them ?







Pronounce in syllables:— plen-ti-ful    e-spec-ial-ly

veg-e-ta-ble    sat-is-fied

care-ful-ly    pos-sessed'

Dictation :—

The sky-lark is famed for singing during flight; and there is something uery delightful in listening to its melodious strains, as it soars aloft beyond the reach of human eye.



I thought to pass away before, and yet alive I am;

And in the fields all round I hear the bleating of the lamb.

How sadly, I remember, rose the morning of the year!

To die before the snowdrop came—and now the violet’s here.

It seemed so hard at first, mother, to leave the blessed sun; And now it seems as hard to stay; and yet,—His will be done! But still I think it can’t be long before I find release;

And that good man, the clergyman, has told me words of peace.

0 blessings on his kindly voice, and on his silver hair!

And blessings on his whole life long, until he meet me there!

O blessings on his kindly heart, and on his silver head!

A thousand times I blessed him as he knelt beside my bed.

He taught me all the mercy, for he showed me all the sin: Now, though my lamp was lighted late, there’s One will let me in: Nor would I now be well, mother, again, if that could be;

For my desire is but to pass to Him that died for me.

O look ! the sun begins to rise, the heavens are in a glow;

He shines upon a hundred fields, and all of them I know:

And there I move no longer now, and there his light may shine— Wild flowers in the valley for other hands than mine.

0 sweet and strange it seems to me, that, ere this day is done, The voice that now is speaking may be beyond the sun !—

For ever and for ever with those just souls and true !—

And what is life that we should moan? why make we such ado?

For ever and for ever all in a blessed home !—

And there to wait a little while till you and Effie come!

To lie within the light of God, as I lie upon your breast—

And the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest.

-    Tennyson.

Pronounce in syllables

bleat-ing    re-lease'    de-sire'    be-yond'

re-mem-ber    cler-gy-man    hun-dred    troub-ling


Ex-ter-mi-nat-ed. entirely destroyed; I Pem-mi-can, preserved meat, used in made to disappear.    | exploring voyages.

The bison, or buffalo as it is popularly called in America, inhabits the interior of the North American continent, especially the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. There, vast flocks of the wild-looking animals, numbering often as many as ten thousand in a single herd, roam over the prairies and snowy plains.

Let us look at the bison as he stands facing us on his native plains, his red eyes glowing like coals of fire from amid the mass of dark-brown or black hair which hangs over his head and neck and the whole fore part of his body, mingling with a beard that descends from the lower jaw to the knee.

From his very awkward and heavy appearance, when seen at a distance, it would not be supposed that he is extremely active, capable of moving at a rapid rate, and of continuing his headlong career for an immense distance. So sure of foot is he, also, that he can pass over ground where no horse could follow; his limbs being in reality slender, and his body far more finely proportioned than would be supposed from its thick coating of hair.

While his thick coat protects him from the cold, he is also provided with a broad, strong, and tough nose, with which he can shovel away the snow, and lay bare the grass on which he feeds.

Many tribes of Indians are indebted to the bison for their means of living. It affords them not only food, but materials for their tents, clothing, and domestic utensils. Indeed, so entirely are the tribes of the far West dependent on the bison, that if it were exterminated,* the Indians would perish too.

Its flesh is their chief, sometimes their only food. It is prepared in a variety of ways. When cut up into long strips, and dried in the sun till it becomes black and hard, it will keep for.a long time. It is also pounded with the fat of the animal and converted into pemmican—a nourishing food, which, if kept dry, will continue in good order for several years.

The prairie Indians make use of the hide for many purposes. They scrape off the hair and tan it, when it serves them for coverings for their tents, as well as for the bales into which the buffalo meat is packed.

When carefully dressed, it is soft and waterproof, and is used for clothing by day and for bedding by night. Of the coarser parts they make saddles and halters, as well as shields which will resist an arrow, and even turn aside a bullet.

Indirectly, the hide is still more valuable to the Indians as the chief article of their trade with the whites. It is therefore the means by which they supply themselves with knives, guns, blankets, and other useful articles.

Of the horns they make drinking-cups, powder-flasks, and other utensils. They make the sinews into bow-strings and thread ; the finer bones into needles, the broader into chisels ; and of the ribs they make an ingenious and powerful kind of bow.

Questions.—What is the bison usually called in America ? What region does it chiefly inhabit ? How many often go in a herd ? What gives the bison his fierce aspect ? What use does he make of his broad nose ? What is pemmican ? What uses are made of its skin ? Why is this indirectly of so great value to the Indian ? What is made of its horns ? of its sinews ? of its bones ?

Pronounce in syllables .—

pop-u-lar-ly    A-mer-i-can    de-scend-ing    in-ge-ni-ous

in-hab-its    con-ti-nent    pro-por-tioned    nour-ish-ing

in-te-ri-or    e-spec-ial-ly    u-ten-sils    pow-er-ful


Bisons are being gradually driven westward, and are now neuer found east of the Mississippi.


Ee-tide', happen, arise.    | La-va, burning, like volcanic fire.

I love it, I love it; and who shall dare To chide me for loving that old arm-chair ?

I’ve treasured it long as a sainted prize,—    %

I’ve bedewed it with tears and embalmed it with sighs ’Tis bound by a thousand bands to my heart;

Not a tie will break, not a link will start.

Would ye learn the spell? A mother sat there ;

And a sacred thing is that old arm-chair.

In childhood’s hour I lingered near    .

The hallowed seat with listening ear,

And heeded the words of truth that fell From the lips of a mother that loved me well.

She told me shame would never betide,*

With truth for my creed and God for my guide;

She taught me to lisp my earliest prayer As I knelt beside that old arm-chair.

I sat and watched her many a day,

When her eye grew dim and her locks were gray ;

And I almost worshipped her when she smiled,

And turned from her Bible to bless her child.

Years rolled on ; but the last one sped—

My idol was shattered, my earth-star fled ;

I learned how much the heart can bear When I saw her die in that old arm-chair.

’Tis past! ’tis past! but I gaze on it now With quivering breath and throbbing brow :

’Twas there she nursed me; ’twas there she died;

And memory flows with lava* tide.

Say it is folly, and deem me weak.

While the scalding drops start down my cheek;

But I love it, I love it, and cannot tear My soul from my mother’s old arm-chair.

Eliza Cook.


Braved, met with courage ; encoun- I Rods, measures of 16^ feet each, tered.    | Stani-pede^ drive, in a panic.

The bison is hunted on horseback both by whites and by Indians, though the sport is one in which a

considerable amount of danger must be braved/ Let us set off from a farm in the far Western States, on the border of the prairie.

Mounting our horses by break of day, after an early breakfast, we ride on with the wind in our faces, and at length discover across the plain a number of dark objects moving slowly. They are buffaloes, feeding as they go.

It is proposed that some of our party should ride round, so as to stampede* the herd back towards us ; and by dividing them, enable us to reach the centre. We wait for some time, when we see a vast mass of hairy monsters come tearing over a hill towards us.

As the herd approaches us, it swings round its front, at right angles, and makes off westward. We dash forward and divide it into two parties. We also separate, some of our hunters following one part of the herd ; the others, the remainder.

We get closer and closer to the buffaloes, when a loud thundering of trampling hoofs sounds'behind us. Looking over our shoulders, there, in plain sight, a.ppears another herd, tearing down on our rear.

For nearly a mile in width there stretches a line of angry faces, a rolling surf of wind-blown hair, a row of quivering lights, burning with a reddish-brown hue—the eyes of the infuriated animals. Should our horses stumble, our fate will be sealed. It is certain death to be caught in the herd.

So it is, to turn back. In an instant we should be trampled and gored to death. Our only hope is to ride steadily in the line of the stampede, till we can break out through the side of the herd. Yet the hope of doing so is but small.

On we rush, rapidly as before, when suddenly, to our great satisfaction, the herd before us divides into two columns, to pass round a low hill in front. On we go, pushing our horses up the height. We reach the summit, the horses panting fearfully, the moisture trickling in streams from their sides.

But now the rear column comes on. They see us not fifty rods * off, but happily pay no attention to us. We dismount and face the furious creatures. Should they not divide, but come over the hill, in a few instants we must be trampled to death.

The herd approaches to within a hundred yards of the hill. At that point they divide, and the next moment we are standing on a desert island, a sea of billowing backs flowing round on either side in a half-mile current of crazy buffaloes.

The herd is fully five minutes in passing us. We watch them as they come ; and as the last laggers pant by the mound, we look westward and see the stampeders halting.

We soon understand the cause. They have come up with the main herd. Yes, there, in full sight of us, is the buffalo army, fully ten thousand strong, extending its deep line as far as the western horizon!

Having selected the most useful and portable parts of the animals our party had killed, we returned to the farm with our spoils.

Questions.—What plan was adopted for reaching the centre of the herd? When the herd approached the hunters, what did it do ? Why did they at that moment dash forward ? What did they hear as they got closer to the buffaloes ? What was in their rear ? How wide was the line ? To what dangers were the hunters now exposed ? How did they escape from their perilous situation? How long did the herd in the rear take to pass them? When did they halt? How many must there have been in the great buffalo army ?

Pronounce in syllables:—

con-sid-er-a-ble    re-main-der    sat-is-fac-tion    stam-pe-ders

ap-proach-es    thun-der-ing    rap-id-ly    ho-ri-zon

sep-a-rate    in-fu-ri-at-ed    buf-fal-oes    con-gre-gat-ed


The hunters found themselves between two vast herds of buffaloes. Suddenly the herd in front divided, to pass a small hill.

The hunters galloped on to the top of that hill, and then faced the herd in their rear. They also divided to pass the hill, and the hunters escaped.


Ed-dies, side currents, with circular I Nook, corner; recess, motion.    I Squalls, violent gusts of wind.


From the mountain-pass the widow’s dwelling was ten miles off, and no human habitation was nearer than her own. She had undertaken a long journey, carrying with her her only child, a boy two years old.

The morning when the widow left her home gave promise of a lovely day. But before noon a sudden change took place in the weather. Northward, the sky became black and lowering. Masses of clouds rested upon the hills. Sudden gusts of wind began to whistle among the rocks, and to ruffle, with black squalls/ the surface of the lake.

The wind was followed by rain, and the rain by sleet, and the sleet by a heavy fall of snow. It was the month of May—for that storm is yet remembered as “ the great May storm.” The wildest day of winter never beheld flakes of snow falling heavier or faster, or whirling with more fury through the mountain-pass, filling every hollow and whitening every rock!

Weary, and wet, and cold, the widow reached that pass with her child. She knew that, a mile beyond it, there was a mountain hut which could give shelter; but the moment _ she attempted to face the storm of snow which was rushing1 through the gorge, all hope of proceeding in that direction failed. To turn home was equally impossible. She

(31    9 must find shelter. The wild cat’s or the fox’s den would be welcome.

After wandering for some time among the huge fragments of granite which skirted the base of the overhanging precipices, she at last found a sheltered nook.* She crouched beneath a projecting rock, and pressed her child to her trembling bosom.

The storm continued to rage. The snow was accumulating overhead. Hour after hour passed. It became bitterly cold. The evening approached. The widow’s heart was sick with fear and anxiety. Her child—her only child—was all she thought of. She wrapped him in her shawl. But the poor thing had been scantily clad, and the shawl was thin and worn.

The widow was poor, and her clothing could hardly defend her from the piercing cold of such a night as that. But, whatever might become of herself, her child must be preserved. The snow, in whirling eddies,* entered the recess, which afforded them at best but miserable shelter.

The night came on. The wretched mother then stripped off almost all her own clothing and wrapped it round her child, whom at last, in despair, she put into a deep crevice of the rock, among some heather and fern.

And now she resolves, at all hazards, to brave the storm, and return home in order to get assistance for her babe, or perish in the attempt. Clasping her infant to her heart, and covering his face with tears and kisses, she laid him softly down in sleep, and rushed into the snowy drift.

That night of storm was succeeded by a peaceful

morning. The sun shone from a clear blue sky, and wreaths of mist hung along the tops of the mountains, while a thousand waterfalls poured down their sides.

Dark figures, made visible at a distance by the white ground, may now be seen with long poles, examining every hollow near the mountain-pass.

They are people from the village, who are searching for the widow and her son.

They have reached the pass. A cry is uttered by one of the shepherds, as he sees a hit of a tartan cloak among the snow. They have found the widow —dead ! her arms stretched forth, as if imploring assistance ! Before noon, they discovered her child by his cries. He was safe in the crevice of the rock. The story of that woman’s affection for her child was soon read in language which all understood.

Many a tear was shed, many a sigh of affection was uttered from sorrowing hearts, when, on that evening, the aged pastor gathered the villagers into the deserted house of mourning, and, by prayer and fatherly exhortation, sought to improve for their souls’ good an event so sorrowful.

More than half a century passed away. That aged and faithful man of God had long1 ago been gathered to his fathers, though his memory still lingered in many a retired glen, among the children’s children of parents he had baptized. His son, whose locks were white with age, was preaching to a congregation of Highlanders in one of our great cities.

The subject of his discourse was the love of Christ. In illustrating the self-sacrificing nature of that “ love which seeketh not her own,” he narrated the preceding story of the Highland widow, whom he himself had known in his boyhood ; and he asked: “ If that child is now alive, what would you think of his heart if he did not cherish an affection for his mother’s memory, and if the sight of her poor tattered shawl, which she had wrapped round him in order to save his life at the cost of her own, did not till him with gratitude and love too deep for words ? Yet what hearts have you, my hearers, if, in memory of your Saviour’s sacrifice of himself, you do not feel them glow with deeper love and with adoring gratitude ? ”

A few days later, a message was sent to this clergyman by a dying man who requested to see him. The request was speedily complied with.

The sick man seized the minister by the hand, and, gazing intently in his face, said : “ You do not, you cannot recognize me. But I know you, and I knew your father before you. I have been a wanderer in many lands. I have visited every quarter of the globe, and fought and bled for my king and country.

“ I came to this town a few weeks aofo in bad health. Last Lord’s day I entered your church— the church of my countrymen—where I could once more hear, in the language of my youth and of my heart, the gospel preached. I heard you tell the story of the widow and her son.” Here the voice of the old soldier faltered, his emotion almost choked his utterance ; but, recovering himself for a moment, he cried, “ I am that son ! ” and burst into a flood of tears.    ■

“ Yes,” he continued, “ I am that son ! Never, never did I forget my mother’s, love. Well might you ask what a heart would mine have been if she had been forgotten by me. Dear, very dear to me, is her memory; and my only desire now is to lay

my bones beside hers in the old churchyard among the hills.

“ But, sir, what breaks my heart and covers me with shame is this—until now I never truly saw the love of my Saviour in giving himself for me. I confess it! I confess it! ” he cried, looking up to heaven, his eyes streaming with tears; and pressing the minister’s hand close to his breast, he added, “ It was God who made you tell that story.

“ Praise be to his holy name that my dear mother did not die in vain, and that the prayers which, I was told, she used to offer for me have been at last answered; for the love of my mother has been blessed in making me see, as I never saw before, the love of my Saviour. I see it; I believe it. I have found deliverance in old age where I found it in my childhood—in the clift of. the rock ; but it is the Rock of Ages ! ”

And clasping his hands he repeated, with intense fervour: “ Can a mother forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb ? They may forget, yet will I not forget thee! ”

Questions.—Who were out in the storm? What part did she succeed in reaching ? How far off was her cottage ? Where did she at last find shelter? What did she do with her child? What did she resolve to do when night came on? What did the villagers find on the next morning ? How did they discover her cliild ? Wdiat did the pastor do in the evening? Who referred to the incident more than half a century afterwards? Where? For what purpose? Who sent for the preacher a few days later ? Whom did he declare himself to be? What were his feelings towards his mother’s memory? What covered him with shame ? What effect had the story had upon him ?

Pronounce in syllables:—







Dictation : —




















More than half a century later, the child, grown to be a battered old soldier, heard from the pulpit the story of his mother’s death, and was thereby led to see the self-sacrificing loue of his Saviour.


Hast thou sounded the depth of j^onder sea,

And counted the sands that under it he?

Hast thou measured the height of heaven above ? Then may’st thou mete out a mother’s love.

There is not a grand, inspiring thought,

There is not a truth by wisdom taught,

There is not a feeling pure and high,

That may not be read in a mother’s eye.

And ever since earth began, that look Has been to the wise an open book,

To win them back from the love they prize To the holier love that edifies.

There are teachings on earth, and sky, and air,

The heavens the glory of God declare ;

But more loud than the voice beneath, above He is heard to speak through a mother’s love.

Emily Taylor.


Boil-ny, pretty.    I    Wight, man.

Water-wraith, water-spirit.    |    Win-some, lovely

A chieftain to the Highlands bound Cries, “ Boatman, do not tarry,

And I’ll give thee a silver pound To row us o’er the ferry !”—

“ Now who be ye would cross Lochgyle, This dark and stormy water?”—

“ Oh ! I’m the chief of Ulva’s isle ;

And this, Lord Ullin’s daughter:

“ And fast before her father’s men Three days we’ve fled together;

For should he find us in the glen,

My blood would stain the heather.

“ His horsemen hard behind us ride;— Should they our steps discover,

Then who will cheer my bonny* bride, When they have slain her lover?”

Out spoke the hardy Highland wight,* “ I’ll go, my chief—I’m ready !—

It is not for your silver bright,

But for your winsome* lady !

'c And by my word ! the bonny bird In danger shall not tarry;

So, though the waves are raging white, I’ll row you o’er the ferry ! ”    ’

By this the storm grew loud apace,

The water-wraith* was shrieking ; And in the scowl of heaven each face Grew dark as they were speaking.

Bat still as wilder blew the wind,

And as the night grew drearer, Adown the glen rode armed men, Their trampling sounded nearer.

“ Oh, haste thee, haste ! ” the lady cries, “ Though tempests round us gather ; I’ll meet the raging of the skies,

But not an angry father ! ”

The boat has left a stormy land,

A stormy sea before her,—

When, O ! too strong for human hand The tempest gathered o’er her.

And still they rowed amidst the roar Of waters fast prevailing :

Lord Ullin reached that fatal shore,—-His wrath was changed to wailing :

For sore dismayed, through storm and shade, His child he did discover :

One lovely hand she stretched for aid,

And one was round her lover.

“ Come back ! come back ! ” he cried in grief, “Across this stormy water ;

And I’ll forgive your Highland chief,

My daughter !—oh, my daughter ! ”

Twas vain : the loud waves lashed the shore, Return or aid preventing :—

The waters wild went o’er his child,

And he was left lamenting.



Dictation :—

Thomas Campbell, the author of this poem, and of “Ye Manners of England“The Battle of the Baltic,” &c., mas born at Glasgow in 1777, and died in 1844.

His most elaborate poem is “The Pleasures of Hope. ”


Pil-chard, a kind of herring Sound-ing, diving. Vo-ra-cious, greedy.

Bol-lard, a post in the bow of a boat, to which ropes are fastened.

Dor-sal, on the back.

In the wide ocean which extends between Greenland and Nova Zembla, the huge rorqual rules, the undisputed monarch of the watery wilds. Though much greater in length than the Greenland whale (varying from 100 to 121 feet), its body is more slender, and its muzzle considerably more pointed.

Being active and fearless, it is avoided by the whalers ; especially as, in consequence of the small amount of oil it produces, and the short length and inferior quality of the whale-bone in its mouth, it is of much less value than the true whale.

Having a large gullet, it is able to swallow fish of considerable size; and it is stated that in the stomach of one captured there were found no fewer than six hundred large cod fish, with no small number of pilchards* besides ! This will give some idea of the havoc it makes among shoals of fish. To satisfy its voracious* appetite, it follows them in all directions, frequently leaving the Arctic seas in search of its prey ; and it has been found hovering round the fishing grounds off the coast of Great Britain.

From its savage disposition, it is a very dangerous animal to attack ; for not only -does it swim off at rapid speed when a harpoon is struck into it, carrying out line after line, but it often turns on its assailants with open mouth, or dashes their boats to pieces by the strokes ol its powerful tail!

Captain Scoresby, the well-known naturalist and commander of Arctic whale-ships, made several attempts to capture one of these monsters. His plan was to assail it by harpoons attached to short lines of only four hundred yards in length, secured to buoys, so as to tire out the monster.

The first whale struck, immediately dived, and tore off the buoys as it dragged them against the surface of the water. Again the attempt was made; but in this case the line was almost immediately severed,—probably by friction against the dorsal* fin.

A fearful accident occurred to the boat’s crew of another whaler when attacking a rorqual. A whale was seen between the ship and the ice-field. The boats were lowered, in hope of easily capturing the prize. The leading boat dashes on. The harpooner stands up with his weapon in hand. The whale awaits their approach, floating on the surface. In a minute more he will be down.

The boats are up to him. The weapon flies, plunging deep into his side. As the line runs rapidly out, the harpooner secures it to the bollard.* The monster, instead of sounding,* darts impetuously forward. The boat holds fast by the line. The water hisses, and dense clouds of spray fly over her bows.

The whale continues his onward course. The crew, accustomed only to the less powerful true whale of Baffin Bay, believe that he must soon be tired out. Now they see before them a long, unbroken ice-field. Unwilling to lose their prize, no one gives the order to cut the line.

On, on they dash. Almost before they are aware of it, they are on the edge of the ice.

With the speed of lightning the whale plunges beneath the wide-extending sheet of ice, and in another instant the boat’s bow strikes it. Before a hand can be raised to cut the rope, and almost before the crew can utter a despairing cry, downward the boat is drawn; and those who are watching her at a distance, with horror see her and all on board disappear! They row up to the spot, but not a trace of the boat nor of their companions is to be found.

Questions. — Where is the rorqual found ? What is its length ? Wherein does it differ from the Greenland whale ? Why is it usually avoided by whalers ? What enables the rorqual to eat larger fish than the true whale ? What quantity of fish has been found in the stomach of one ? What may this convey some idea of ? What does it sometimes do when it is attacked? What plan did Captain Scoresby adopt to capture it? Did this plan succeed? Why not? What fearful accident occurred to a boat attacking a rorqual near an icefield ? How might the crew have saved themselves ? Why was this not done ?

Pronounce in syllables:— ror-qual    ob-tained'

un-dis-put-ed    pro-duc-es

mon-arch    in-fe-ri-or

con-sid-er-a-bly    cap-tured









Dictation :—

The rorqual, which is probably the longest of the whole animal creation, is also called the razor-bached whale, from its having a prominent ridge or spine on its bach.

Its usual length is above one hundred feet, and it is from thirty to thirty-five feet in circumference.


Ab-er-broth-ok', Arbroath, in Forfarshire, Scotland.

Break-ers, waves breaking upon the coast or rocks.

Float, raft to which the bell was attached.

Inch-cape Rock, a dangerous rock twenty miles from the coast of For

farshire. The Bell Rock light house now stands upon it.

Me-thinks', it seems to me.

Plague, annoy.

Quoth, said.

Ro-ver, pirate.

Scoured, swept over in quest of plunder.

No stir in the air, no stir in the sea,

The ship was as still as she could be :

Her sails from heaven received no motion, . Her keel was steady in the ocean.

Without either sign or sound of their shock, The waves flowed over the Inchcape* Rock ; So little they rose, so little they fell,

They did not move the Inchcape Bell.

The good old Abbot of Aberbrothok*

Had placed that bell on the Inchcape Rock ; On a buoy in the storm it floated and swung, And over the waves its warning rung.

When the rock was hid by the surge’s swell, The mariners heard the warning bell ;

And then they knew the perilous rock,

And blessed the Abbot of Aberbrothok.

The buoy of the Inchcape Bell was seen,

A darker speck on the ocean green ;

Sir Ralph the Rover* walked his deck,

And he fixed his eye on the darker speck.

His eye was on the Inchcape float :*

Quoth* he, “My men, put out the boat,

And row me to the Inchcape Rock,

And I’ll plague* the priest of Aberbrothok.”

The boat is lowered, the boatmen row,

And to the Inchcape Rock they go :

Sir Ralph bent over from the boat,

And he cut the bell from the Inchcape float.

Down sunk the bell with a gurgling sound,

The bubbles rose and burst around ;

Quoth Sir Ralph, “ The next who comes to the rock Won’t bless the Abbot of Aberbrotliok.”

Sir Ralph the Rover sailed away, lie scoured* the seas for many a day ;

And now, grown rich with plundered store, lie steers his course for Scotland’s shore.

So thick a haze o’erspreads the sky,

They cannot see the sun on high :

The wind hath blown a gale all day,

At evening it hath died away.

“ Canst hear,” said one, “ the breakers* roar 1 For methinks* we should be near the shore ;

Now where we are I cannot tell,

But I wish I could hear the Inclicape Bell ! ”

They hear no sound, the swell is strong ;

Though the wind hath fallen, they drift along,

Till the vessel strikes with a shivering shock—

Cried they, “ It is the Inchcape Rock 1 ”

Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair ;

He cursed himself in his despair :

The waves rush in on every side,

The ship is sinking beneath the tide. Southey

Questions.—Who had floated a bell on the Inchcape Rock? For what purpose? What did Sir Ralph the Rover do to it? Why? And what was his fate ?

Pronounce in syllables:—

re-ceived'    tem-pest    low-ered    o’er-spreads'

wor-thy    mar-i-ners    gur-gling    shiv-er-ing

warn-ing    per-il-ous    plun-dered    des-pair'


A pirate, who had in jest cut the warning-bell from the float on the Inchcape Roch, was himself afterwards wrecked upon that rock, and drowned with all his crew.



Myr-i-ads, immense numbers. | Tor-pid, inactive ; asleep.

The winter was long and dreary ; but it is all over now. Indeed you have almost forgotten it, as you sally forth on this sweet spring morning, to gather primroses from the bank, and to see if the cowslips are out in the fields.

Everything is full of life and joy ; and just as you stoop over the green springing meadow-grass, to look for those golden honeycups, something black skims along in front of you, and is awa}^ in an instant. “ Ah, there is the first swallow ! ” you say. And the old man coming along the foot-path at the same moment lodks after it just as eagerly as you do, though he has seen it come and go for seventy years, and you only for a few summers. Yes! and if you grow to be seventy, you will find, I hope, that you have still a welcome to give to the returning swallow.

It has been spending the winter in the sunny lands of the South ; and now it has come back to its old home, to rear its young and live its life anew. Why it should depart, and how it finds its way over land and sea back to the very spot which it left last year, are questions which we cannot answer; and the uncertainty and the mystery give a kind of romantic interest to all birds of passage, as they are called, but especially to the swallows.

The swallows gay In sunshine play,

And frolic all the summer day.

On nimble wing,

Alert, they spring,

Then wheel about in airy ring.

New troops advance,

In mazy dance,

Then onward shoot with lightning glance.

Far off we spy Their play-place high,

In the blue vault of summer sky ;

And fain would know Which way they go Ere winter brings its frost and snow.

As they live entirely upon insects, and as the insect tribes either die or remain torpid* in the winter, something warns them that they must leave the place which can no longer supply them with food. But when the warmth of spring hatches the insect eggs, and brings out myriads* of tiny creatures into the sunshine, the same something teaches them to return again to the place whence they came. VVe call it instinct; but that is only another name for the guiding hand of that great Creator who, as the Bible tells us, bids the swallow observe the time of her coming.

There are four different species of swallow which visit us—the swift, the chimney swallow, the house martin, and the sand martin. They are all much alike as we see them on the wing, except that the first two are of swifter flight. The martins, are smaller, and have more white about their under parts, so that on a summer evening the rays of the setting sun are thrown back from their snowy breasts like flashes of light.

The house martin makes his nest against the sides of houses, as you must often have seen. It is formed of mud taken from the ruts in the lanes and the edges of ponds. The eggs are of a beautiful clear white. He is a cunning as well as a clever little workman ; so he only builds a small bit of his house-wall every day, and that early in the morning, that the heat of the sun may dry it well before he goes on.

Last summer, I watched a pair of martins at their work, and it took them five days, from the time that they stuck the first dab of mud against the house, till^ the outside was finished. After that, they had to put the inside to rights, and make it snug and comfortable, which took several days more.

They almost always avoid a south aspect, as they know that the heat of the mid-day sun would crack r»i)    10

their mud-built house. Next year, the same pair will come back again; and, if possible, they will put the old nest in repair, instead of making a new one.

The swallows are the first to return to us ; the martins follow : and they always keep the same order. They all go away together; but when they come back we only see them as stragglers—first one, then another, and at last numbers.

Questions.—When do the swallows return? Where do they spend the winter ? What leads them to depart and return? What is instinct only another name for ? Name the four different species of swallow ? What is the chief difference between martins and other swallows? Why does the house martin build only in the early morning ? Hew long does he take to build his nest ? What aspect do they avoid ? Why ? Which return to us first ?









Pronounce in syllables:— for-got-ten    spend-ing

prim-rose    de-part'

hon-ey-cups    ques-tions

instant    un-cer-tain-ty

Dictation :—

The swallow is the glad prophet of the year, the harbinger of the best season. Winter is unknown to him. He flies from land to land, and Hues in constant summer.



Com-pla-cent, expressing pleasure. | Gos-sa-mer, cob-web.

Those who have watched swallows closely, think them weak of flight and less vigorous when they first appear. They could hardly be tired with the

journey ! What is a thousand miles to those light and graceful wings, which can with ease fly sixty miles an hour ? Probably when they first return, insects are not plentiful enough to give them their full supply of food : at any rate, it is two or three weeks before they think of beginning house-keeping.

When they do begin, there is no more play, but real and earnest business. You must not think they are only amusing themselves as they dart over your heads, and you fancy what an easy life they must have of it, and how fresh the air must feel to them, and how pleasant it must be to have nothing to do but to play. No ! life is work to them ; as it is, or ought to be, to every other living creature. Their feet are so formed that they can rise from the ground only with difficulty; and so they rarely settle. But there is no need: the sky is their home; and their eating, drinking, washing, and nearly all the occupations of their lives, are done upon the wing.

The chimney-swallow builds her nest in chimneys, five or six feet down ! It is made of clay or mud, or like the house-martin’s, and lined with grass and feathers. There she lays five or six eggs thickly spotted with pink.

When the young are hatched, there is indeed no play-work ; for they have tremendous appetites, and from early dawn till dark the old birds are on the wing to Supply their wants. „

It is pleasant to wake up in the early summer mornings, and hear the low twitter of the swallow-brood in the chimney, as they wonder in their

narrow nursery what the great world is like. Other nestlings can peep out and see something of it; but the young swallows know nothing till at last, some happy morning, their father and mother contrive to get them up into the air and place them in a row upon the house-top.

There, in the middle of summer, you may often see them, and the parents feeding them. By degrees they learn to fly, but they still require to be fed. At a given signal, the young one flies to meet the old one, uttering a little complacent" squeak, which I suppose means “ Thank you.” They meet for a moment, and part again ; but in that moment the young bird has eaten his dinner—consisting of several courses, too, for the parent supplies him with a whole mouthful of collected insects at once.

At last the young are able to shift for themselves. Will the old birds be now able to take breath after their labours, and to enjoy themselves a little ? No such thing. They begin at once to think about a second family; for they rear two broods every season, and the summer is not long enough to allow of a rest between them. But, you know, if our work is our happiness, we do not care to take much time for play. So the old nest is used again, and the same course is gone through.

When the second brood are on the win<r it is


high time to think about the journey. The nights (rrow lonor and chilly, and the chestnut-leaves have turned quite yellow, and insects are not nearly so plentiful as they were a month before.

The swallows know that they must depart. For a

while we see them in large companies perched upon the house-tops, or wheeling round in a state of great excitement, as in chattering swallow language they discuss their plans and settle their route.

At last all is adjusted. We get up some fresh October morning, and find that they are gojie. The dew lies thick upon the grass, as it did yesterday, and the gossamer* is covering the hedges with its fairy net-work ; but the summer birds have left us, —we shall see them no more till spring.

Others lead you when you are young, and you have only to follow. But when, in after years, you find that you have to walk alone, and you know not the path which you ought to tread, remember that the God who, over land and sea, guides the swallow, will most assuredly guide you.

Questions.—What has been remarked about swallows when they first appear? What is the probable cause of this? How many miles can a swallow fly in an hour? What is peculiar about their feet? Where does the chimney-swallow build ? Where are the young birds placed when they are to be taught to fly? How many broods do

swallows rear in

one season ? What

may they be seen

doing before

they take flight ?

Pronounce in syllables


















Swallows fly with ease at the ratew of a mile a minute, or sixty miles an hour. They are usually on the wing ten hours a-day ; so their auerage daily flight is six hundred miles !


Braced, nerved; strengthened. Clew, thread.

Di-vine , guess; understand.

Gos-sips, story-tellers.

Pon-dered, considered; weighed the matter in his mind.

King Bruce of Scotland flung himself down, In a lonely mood to think ;

True, he was a monarch, and wore'a crown, But his heart was beginning to sink.

For he had been trying to do a great deed,

To make his people glad ;

He had tried and tried, but could not succeed, And so he became quite sad.

He flung himself down in low despair,

As grieved as man could be ;

And after a while he pondered* there,—

“ 111 give it up,” said he.

Now just at the moment a spider dropped.

With its silken filmy clew;*


And the kin" in the midst of his thinking To see what the spider would do.

’Twas a long way up to the ceiling dome. And it hung by a rope so fine,


That how it would get to its cobweb home King Bruce could not divine.*

It soon began to cling and crawl Straight up with strong endeavour ;

But down it came with a slipping sprawl, As near to the ground as ever.

Up, up it ran, nor a second did stay,

To utter the least complaint,

Till it fell still lower ; and there it lay A little dizzy and faint.

Its head grew steady—again it went,

And travelled a half yard higher ;

Twas a delicate thread it had to tread, And a road where its feet would tire.

Again it fell, and swung below;

But up it quickly mounted,

Till up and down, now fast, now slow, Nine brave attempts were counted.

Sure,” said the king, “ that foolish thing Will strive no more to climb,

When it toils so hard to reach and cling, And tumbles every time.”

But up the insect went once more;

Ah me ! ;tis an anxious minute :


He’s only a foot from his cobweb door; Oh, say,-will he lose or win it?

Steadily, steadily, inch by inch, Higher and higher he got,

And ;i bold little run at the very last pinch Put him into the wished-for spot.

“ Bravo ! bravo ! the king cried out;

“ All honour to those who try:

The spider up there defied despair;—

He conquered, and why should not I ]"

And Bruce of Scotland braced* his mind,

And gossips* tell the tale,

That he tried once more as he tried before,

And that time he did not fail.

Pay goodly heed, all ye who read,

And beware of saying, I can’t; ”

Tis a cowardly word, and apt to lead To idleness, folly, and want.

Eliza Cook.

Questions.—In what state of mind did Bruce fling himself down? Why was he in despair ? What did he cry ? What happened at that moment ? What did the spider try to do ? How often did it try before it succeeded ? What did the king cry out then ? Hid he try again ? With what result ? What is “ I can’t ” apt to lead to ?









Pronounce in syllables mon-arch    ceil-ing

be-gin-ning    en-deav-our

de-spair'    com-plaint'

mo-ment    del-i-cate


King Robert the Bruce, in the days of his aduersity, flung himself doiun in despair in a lonely caue.

He had made up his mind to give up the struggle, when he noticed a spider fail nine times to climb up its slender thread.

But it made another attempt, and succeeded. Bruce resolued also to make another effort; and he deliuered his country and recouered his throne.


An-i -ma-tion, liveliness ; spirit. Ec-sta-sy, very great joy. Fas-ci-na-tion, holding spell-bound.

In-trep-id, fearless; bold In-vet-er-ate,never-failing; constant. Ob-sti-nate, stubborn.

The sweetest musician in the American forests is the mocking-bird. His voice is strong, and clear, and musical, and seems to fill the woods with a flood of delicious melody. He not only imitates the notes of the other birds, but the sons; from his throat is richer and more harmonious than when it is uttered by the original songster.

Full of animation/ he seems inspired by his own music. He expands his wings and tail, and sweeps round and round in ecstasy.* He mounts or falls, as his song rises or dies away ; and pours forth such streams of song, that any one, not seeing him, might fancy a chorus of birds were singing, instead of only one.

Perhaps the best time to hear him is in the stillness of a moonlight night, when all is silent in the forest, and every bird has gone to roost. Then the mocking-bird begins, and, like the nightingale, sings the whole night through.

He is an admirable mimic, and very mischievous; for he loves to play tricks upon his feathered neighbours. He will scream like a hawk, and then they will hide themselves, fancying that their enemy is upon them ; or he will imitate the call of the birds to their mates, and draw them off their nests!

Even the sportsman is often led astray by him ; and goes in search of birds that are hundreds of miles away, fancying they are close at hand. In fact, there is no end to the mimicking powers of the mocking-bird ; and the ancient Mexicans very properly called him by a hard name, that means “four hundred languages.”

Besides being a musician and a mimic, the mocking-bird is, in his way, a hero. He fights obstinate* battles with the black snake, the inveterate* enemy of the forest birds; for the black snake loves to suck their eggs, and devour their young ones.

Often, when the mocking-bird is watching by the nest in which his mate is sitting, a rustling is heard among the leaves at the foot of the tree. Then two bright eyes glisten through the foliage; and presently a shining body begins to wreathe itself round and round the trunk, and slowly to ascend. It is the black snake, who has scented the eggs of the mocking-bird, and is determined to make a feast of them.


The mocking-bird gets into a furious passion at the sight of his enemy. He darts upon him with the rapidity of an arrow ; and keeping out of the reach of his fangs, strikes him violently on the head, —the part where he is most easily hurt. The snake, tinding he has met his match, draws back a little ; and the mocking-bird redoubles his blows. *

The snake seems to think that he had better get out of the scrape as quickly as he can; and, descending to the ground, he tries to glide away, and hide himself among the bushes. But the intrepid" bird follows him, and continues the battle with great spirit.

The snake gets decidedly the worst of it. His powers of fascination* avail him nothing. The mocking-bird, seizing him, lifts him from the ground, and then lets him drop, beating him all the time with his wings. Indeed, he never rests until he has pecked him to death.

Then he flies back to the tree, and settling himself on the highest branch, pours forth a torrent of song, as if in praise of his victory.

Questions.—What kind of voice has the mocking-bird? How does he improve upon nature? What could any one not seeing him fancy, while he sings ? What is the best time to hear him ? How does lie play tricks upon other birds ? Whom besides the birds does he often deceive ? What is the meaning of the name given to him by the Mexicans ? With what does he fight battles ? What does the snake try to do ? How does the bird attack him ? Which generally is victorious ? How does he celebrate his victory ?

Pronounce in syllables

har-mo-ni-ous o-rig-i-nal





im-i-tates night-in-gale


mis-chiev-ous mim-ick-ing




ra-pid-i-ty vi-o-lent-ly





Brawn-y, muscular ; powerful.

Forge, furnace, or smithy fire.

Like tile tan, sunburnt ; of a brown colour like tan for tanning hides.

Shaped, must be shaped.. Sin-ew-y, full of sinews ; strong. Sledge, a large, heavy hammer sledge-hammer.


Under a spreading chestnut tree The village smithy stands ;

The smith, a mighty man is he,

With large and sinewy* hands ;

And the muscles of his brawny* arms Are strong as iron bands.

His hair is crisp, and black, and long : His face is like* the tan ;

His brow is wet with honest sweat;

He earns whate’er he can ;

And looks the whole world in the face, For he owes not any man.

Week in, week out, from morn till night You can hear his bellows blow ;

You can hear him swing his heavy sledge," With measured beat and slow,

Like a sexton ringing the village bell,

When the evening sun is low.

And children coming home from school Look in at the open door ;

They love to see the flaming forge,"

And hear the bellows roar,

And catch the burning sparks that fly Like chaff from a threshing-floor.

lie goes on Sunday to the church,

And sits among his boys ;    •

lie hears the parson pray and preach ;

Me hears his daughter’s voice,

Singing in the village choir,

And it makes his heart rejoice.

It sounds to him like her mother’s voice Singing in Paradise !

Me needs must think of her once more,

How in the grave she lies ;

And with his hard rough hand he wipes A tear out of his eves.

Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing,

Onward through life he goes ;

Each morning sees some task begin.

Each evening sees it close ;

Something attempted, something done,

Has earned a night’s repose.


Thanks, thanks to thee, my worthy friend.

. For the lesson thou hast taught !

Thus at the flaming forge^of life Our fortunes must be wrought:

Thus on its sounding anvil shaped*

Each burning deed and thought:




Ae-rie (e-ry), the nest of an eagle

or a bird of prey.

Bairn (Sc.), child.

Brakes, tall, coarse ferns, form

ing a thicket.

Copse, brush-wood. Joc-und, lively; merry.

On-y (Sc.), any.

Pair (Sc.), poor Shin-gle, loose gravel Strath, valley.

Ta’en (Sc.), taken.

Wains, waggons.

Wee wean (Sc.), little child

Almost all the people in the parish were leading in their meadow-hay on the same day of midsummer, so drying was the sunshine and the wind ; and huge heaped-up wains,* that almost hid from view the horses that drew them alon^ the sward beo-inninof to get green with second growth, were moving in all directions toward the snug farm-yards. Never before had the parish seemed so populous. Jocund' was the balmy air with laughter, whistle, and song.

But the trees threw the shadow of “one o’clock” on the green dial-face of the earth ; the horses were unyoked, and took instantly to grazing ; groups of men, women, and children collected under grove, and bush, and hedge-row; and the great Being, who gave them that day their daily bread, looked down from his eternal home on many a thankful heart.

The great golden eagle, the pride and the pest of the parish, stooped down, and tiew away with something in its talons. One single, ’sudden, female shriek arose ; and then shouts and outcries, as if a church spire had tumbled down on a congregation at service. “ Hannah Lamond’s bairn !* Hannah Lamond’s bairn ! ” was the loud, fast-spreading

cry;—“the eagle lias ta’en* off Hannah Lamond’s bairn ! ”

And many hundred feet were in another instant hurrying toward the mountain. Two miles of hill and dale, and copse* and shingle,* and many brooks, lay between ; but in an incredibly short time the foot of the mountain was alive with people.

The aerie* was well known, and both the old birds were visible on the rocky ledge. But who shall scale that dizzy cliff, which Mark Steuart, the sailor, who had been at the storming of many a fort, attempted in vain ? All kept gazing, weeping, wringing their hands, rooted to the ground, or running backward and forward, like so many ants essaying their new wings. “ What’s the use—what’s-*the use o’ ony* puir* human means ? We have mb power but in prayer ! ” and many knelt down*—fathers and mothers thinking of their own babies.

Hannah Lamond had all this while been sitting on a rock, with a face perfectly white, and eyes like those of a mad person, fixed on the aerie. Nobody had noticed her ; for strong as all sympathies with her had been at the swoop of the eagle, they were now swallowed up in the agony of eye-siglit.

“ Only last week was my sweet wee* wean baptized ! ” and on uttering these words, she flew off through the brakes* and over the huge stones, up —up—up—faster than ever huntsman ran in to the death, fearless as a goat playing among the precipices.

No one doubted—no one could doubt—that she would soon be dashed to pieces.



No stop, no stay. She knew not that she drew her breath. Beneath her feet Providence fastened every loose stone, and to her hands strengthened every root. How was she ever to descend ? That fear but once crossed her heart, as she went up-up—up—to the little image of her own flesh and blood. “ The God who holds me now from perish-

in«*,—will not the same God save me when my child is on my bosom ? ” Down came the fierce rushing of the eagles" wings, each savage bird dashing close to her head, so that she saw the yellow of their wrathful eyes!

All at once they quailed and were cowe(^. Yelling, they flew off to the stump of an ash jutting out of a cliff, a thousand feet above the cataract; and the frantic mother, falling across the aerie, in the midst of bones and blood, clasped her child—not dead, as she had expected, but unmangled and untorn, and swaddled just as it was when she laid it down asleep among the fresh hay, in a nook of the harvest field!

Oh, what a pang of perfect blessedness transfixed her heart from that faint, feeble cry, “ It lives—it 1 ives—it lives !” and baring her bosom, with loud laughter, and eyes dry as stones, she felt the lips of the unconscious innocent once more murmuring at the fount of life and love !

Below were cliffs, chasms, blocks of stone, and the skeletons of old trees, far, far down, and dwindled into specks; and a thousand creatures of her own kind, stationary, or running to and fro !

Was that the sound of the waterfall, or the faint

roar of voices ? Is that her native strath ?* and

that tuft of trees, does it contain the hut in which

stands the cradle of her child ? Never more shall


it be rocked by her foot! Here must she die; and, when her breast is exhausted, her baby too! And these horrid beaks, and eyes, and talons, will return, and her child will be devoured at last,


even within the dead bosom that can protect it no

m0ie *    Professor Wilson.

Questions.—What were the people doing in the fields? What did they do at one o’clock ? What alarm was raised ? Where did the people hasten ? Who attempted to scale the cliff in vain ? Who then darted up the mountain side ? What did the eagles do all at once as she went near the nest ? What did she find in the nest? In what state was it ? What was the first thing she then did ?

Pronounce in syllables:—

mid-sum-mer    un-yoked'    cofi-gre-ga-tion    at-tempt-ed

di-rec-tions    col-lect-ed    hur-ry-ing    wring-ing

pop-u-lous    e-ter-nal    in-cred-i-bly    sta-tion-ar-y


The golden eagle is the largest and noblest of the European eagles. Its usual length is three feet, three inches ; the extent of its wings, seuen feet, six inches; and its weight, from twelue to sixteen pounds.



Bit (Sc.), little.

Cal-lous, insensible ; hardened.

Lang claes (Sc.), long clothes.

Maun hae (Sc.), must have. [yard. Reefed, taken in, and fastened to the

Snood-ed, wearing a snood or fillet round the hair. The snood is worn only by maidens.

Wark (Sc.), work.

Wauk-en (Sc.), awake.

Where, all this time, was Mark Steuart, the sailor? Half way up the cliffs. But his eye had got dim, and his heart sick ; and he, who had so often reefed" the top-gallant-sail, when at midnight the coming of the gale was heard afar, covered his face with his hands, and dared not look on the swimming heights.

“ And who will take care of my poor bed-ridden

mother ? ” thought Hannah, whose soul, through the exhaustion of so many passions, could no more retain in its grasp that hope which it had clutched in despair. A voice whispered, “ God.” She looked around, expecting to see an angel ; but nothing moved except a rotten branch, that, under its own weight, broke off from the crumbling rock. Her eye watched its fall ; and it seemed to stop, not far off, on a small platform.

Her child was bound within her bosom—she remembered not how or when, but it was safe ; and, scarcely daring to open her eyes, she slid down the rocks, and found herself on a small piece of firm, root-bound soil, with bushes appearing below.

With fingers suddenly strengthened into the power of iron, she swung herself down by brier, and broom, and heather, and dwarf-bircli. There, a loosened stone leaped over a ledge, and no sound was heard, so far down was its fall. There, the shingle rattled down the rocks, and she hesitated not to follow. Her feet bounded against the huge stone that stopped them, but she felt no pain. Her body was callous* as the cljff.

Steep as the upright wall of a house was now the face of the precipice. But it was matted with ivy, centuries old, long ago dead, and without a single green leaf, but with thousands of arm-thick stems, petrified into the rock, and covering it as with a trellis. She bound her baby to Tier neck, and, with hands and feet, clung to that fearful ladder.

Turning round her head and looking down, lo ! the whole population of the parish—so great was

the multitude—on their knees ! And hush! the voice of psalms ! a hymn, breathing the spirit of one united prayer ! Sad and solemn was the strain, but nothing dirge-like—breathing not of death, but of deliverance. An unseen hand seemed fastening her fingers to the ribs of ivy ; and, in sudden inspiration, believing that her life was to be saved, she became almost as fearless as if she had been changed into a winged creature.

Again her feet touched stones and earth. The psalm was hushed ; but a tremulous, sobbing voice was close beside her, and, lo ! a she-goat, with two little kids, at her feet! “Wild heights,” thought she, “ do these creatures climb, but the dam will lead down her kids by the easiest paths; for oh, even in the brute creatures, what is the power of a mother’s love!” and, turning her head, she kissed her sleeping baby, and, for the first time, she wept.

Overhead frowned the front of the precipice, never before touched by human hand or foot. No one had ever dreamed of scaling it; and the golden eagles knew that well in their instinct, as, before they built their aerie, they had brushed it with their wings. But all the rest of this part of the mountainside, though scarred, and seamed, and chasmed, was yet accessible; and more than one person in the parish had reached the bottom of the Glead’s Cliff

Many were now attempting it; and, ere the cautious mother had followed her dumb guides a hundred yards, through dangers that, although enough to terrify the stoutest heart, were traversed by her without a shudder, the head of one man appeared, and then the head of another ; and she knew that God had

delivered her and her child in safety into the care of their fellow-creatures.

Not a word was spoken—eyes said enough. She hushed her friends with her hands, and, with uplifted eyes, pointed to the guides lent to her by Heaven. Small green plats, where tho^ creatures nibble the wild-flowers, became now more frequent; trodden lines, almost as easy as sheep-paths, showed that the dam had not led her vouim into danger ; and now the brushwood dwindled into straggling shrubs, and the party stood on a little eminence forming part of the strath.    •

There had been, trouble and agitation, much sobbing and many tears, among the multitude, while the mother was scaling the cliffs ; sublime was the shout that echoed afar, the moment she reached the aerie ; then had succeeded a silence, deep as death ; in a little while arose that hymning prayer, succeeded by mute supplication ; the wildness of thankful and congratulatory joy had next its sway ; and now that her preservation was sure, the great crowd rustled like a wind-swept wood.

And for whose sake was all this alternation of agony ? A poor, humble creature, unknown to many even by name ; one who had but few friends, nor wished for more; contented to work all day, here, there, anywhere, that she might be able to support her aged mother and her little child ; and who on the Lord’s day took her seat in an obscure pew, set apart for paupers, in the church !

“ Fall back, and give her fresh air,” said the old minister of the parish ; and the close circle of faces

widened around her, lying as in death. “ Give me the bonnie bit* bairn into my arms,” cried first one mother, and then another; and it was tenderly handed around the circle of kisses, many of the snooded* maidens bathing its face in tears. “ There’s no a scratch about the puir innocent; for the eagle, you see, maun* hae stuck its talons into the lang* claes and the shawl. Blin’, blm maun they be who see not the finger o’ God in this thing! ”

Hannah started up from her swoon, and, looking wildly around, cried, “ Oh ! the bird ! the bird ! the eagle ! the eagle ! the eagle has carried off my bonnie wee Walter ! Is there none to pursue ? ” A neighbour put her baby to her breast, and, shutting her eyes and smiting her forehead, the sorely bewildered creature said, in a low voice, “Am I wauken* ? oh ! tell me if I’m wauken, or if a’ this be the wark* o’

a fever, ¿ind the delirium o’ a dream ? ”

Professor Wilson.

Questions.—Where did Hannah carry her child in the descent? How did she get down the steep cliff ? What did she hear ? In what attitude were the people? What animals did she come upon in her way down? As what did she use them? Who now came to her help ? What happened when she reached the strath ? What did she say when she awoke? What, when her child was given to her?

Pronounce in syllables:—

ex-hau.st-ion    cen-tu-ries    mul-ti-tude    sup-pli-ca-tion

strength-ened pet-ri-fied    de-liv-er-ance con-grat-u-la-tor-y

hes-i-tat-ed    pop-u-la-tion    trem-u-lous    be-wil-dered


The golden eagle builds its nest on the top of a rock or lofty cliff. The nest is eery large and strong, being composed of twigs or branches, interlaced and couered by layers of rushes and heath.


They grew in beauty, side by side,

They tilled one home with glee—

Their graves are severed far and wide,

By mount, and stream, and sea !

_ %

The same fond mother bent at night

O’er each fair sleeping brow,

She had each folded flower in sight—

Where are those dreamers now ?

One, ’midst the forests of the West,

By a dark stream is laid,—

The Indian knows his place of rest,

Far in the cedar shade.

The sea, the blue lone sea, hath one,—

He lies where pearls lie deep: lie was the loved of all, yet none O’er his low bed may weep.

One sleeps where southern vines are dressed Above the noble slain :

He wrapped his colours round his breast, On a blood-red field of Spain.

A ad one—o’er her the myrtle showers Its leaves, by soft winds fanned ;

She faded ’midst Italian flowers,—

The last of that bright band.

And parted thus they rest who played Beneath the same green tree;

Whose voices mingled as they prayed Around one parent knee !

Tfiey that with smiles lit up the hall,

And cheered with song the hearth—

Alas for love, if thou wert all,

And naught beyond, O earth!    .

Mrs. Hemans.


(a.d. 1314.)


Pal-frey, a small horse fit for ladies.

Re-coiled', fell back.

Sic-car-ly, surely ; assuredly Sur-coats, overcoats. Vet-er-an, aged; experienced.

King Robert the Bruce, well aware of the mighty force advancing against him, mustered his army. It did not exceed 30,000 fighting men, while the English host numbered altogether more than 100,000. Bruce’s plan was to await the enemy on ground where their vast cavalry should not have room to act with effect. He chose his position in what was then called the New Park, near Stirling—a space of ground studded and encumbered with trees.

The Scottish army, fronting to the expected advance of the English, looked towards the southeast. The enemy could not get in upon their right, for it was protected by the Bannock Burn, whose banks were steep and wooded.

On the left, again, where the ground was open, Bruce caused a vast number of pits to be dug, and covered carefully with turf; so that the field, which looked level and firm to the eye, was in reality like a honeycomb, and perfectly impassable to cavalry. The front of the position was so far protected by a marsh that only one way of approach was left open to the English.

On Sunday the 23rd of June they came in sight. Countless banners, standards, and pennons floated gaily above their broad and dense battalions. The sun shone brightly, and the land seemed in a blaze

with their burnished helmets, and the brilliant colours of the surcoats' which the knights wore above their mail. They came so near, that it seemed as if they were going to attack at once.

Bruce was in front of his own line, arraying his

men. He had his full armour on, and a battle-axe . . ,% * in his hand, but he rode only a little palfrey.‘ He

could easily be known by a light crown of gold

which he wore upon his helmet. He was laughing

and talking gaily as he rode along the line.

An English knight, Sir Henry de Bohun, riding out a bow-shot from the front, knew the king by the crown on his helmet. Seeing him so poorly horsed, he thought that he could easily have him at his will. Levelling his spear and spurring his charger, he came on at speed.

The king, measuring him with steady eye, awaits his approach. He comes rushing at full career ; the Bruce, by a touch on his palfrey’s rein, avoids the shock, and rising in his stirrups as the English knight sweeps past, smites him fiercely on the helmet with his battle-axe. The axe crashes through helmet and skull deep into the brain, and the riderless steed gallops wildly away ! This was the first stroke of the fight.

It was not the purpose of the English, however, to attack that night. They drew off and encamped. All night long, sounds of revelry were heard from their lines. The Scots lay in arms upon the field.

Early in the morning the English host advanced, pressed by the narrowness of the ground into one immense, unwieldy column. When King Edward

came near enough to have a full view of the Scots, he was astonished to see so small a force awaiting on foot, on a level field, the attack of his mighty army. He could scarce believe it possible.

“Will yon Scotsmen fight?” he asked of Sir Ingram de Umfraville, a veteran* leader in his father’s wars, who chanced to be at his side. “Yea, siccarly,* sire,” said the knight.

At this moment the Scots, as their custom was on the edge of battle, all knelt down, and made a short prayer to God. When the English king saw them kneeling, he cried, “Yon folk kneel to ask mercy.” Umfraville answered, “You say truth; they ask mercy, but not of you. Believe me, yon men will win or die.” “Be it so,” said the king, and immediately ordered the trumpets to sound the charge.

The English horse, spurred to full speed, rushed to the shock. The Scots, with their long spears levelled, stood like a wall. The crash of their meeting and the breaking of spears could be heard far off. Many a good horse fell, and threw its rider to the earth. Many a bold rider, unable to recover himself, was slain on the ground.

The ranks behind came dashing on. Their horses either fell dead from deep spear wounds, or, stabbed and maddened, they reared and recoiled,* and rushed masterless, with blood-streaming breasts, spreading disorder among the advancing squadrons.

Randolph now came up with his division and attacked the English. So small, in comparison, was his force, that they seemed to be lost in the crowd, as if they had plunged into a sea oi

steel. The third division of the Scots also closed, and the battle was presently general along the whole front.

Questions.—What was the strength of the English army? and of the Scottish? Where did Bruce choose his position? How was lie protected on the right? and on the left? What happened on the evening before the battle? What astonished King Eiward next morning? What did he ask Umfraville? What was his answer? What did Edward say when he saw the Scots kneeling? What did Umfraville reply? How did the battle begin? How was the English force thrown into disorder ?

Pronounce in syllables



pur-pose    nai-row-ness    as-ton-ished

rev-el-ry    un-wield-y    re-cov-er


Bannockburn means Bannock-stream. It is a village on the Bannock, near Stirling. The battle was fought in 1314, to prevent the English army from relieving the garrison of Stirling Castle, then besieged by the Scots.



Sheen, brightness.

Symp-toms, signs; indications.

The English archers, 10,000 strong, had taken up their position on a piece of elevated ground, whence they shot their arrows thick and fast upon the Scots. If that sharp and deadly shower were to last, it would go hard with them.    ^

But King Robert has an eye to everything. At his signal, a body of five hundred horsemen, kept ready for the purpose, are let go. They dash in

among the archers, spearing and scattering them. The archers, having neither spear nor axe to defend themselves at close quarters, are so utterly broken and dispersed that they never rally again. Their bow-strings are effectually cut, for this time at least.

Meanwhile a battle grim and great was raging. The shouts and cries, the groans of the wounded and the dying, the clang of blows struck in the fierceness of deadly hate, made a noise which it was hideous to hear. The field was red with blood. Whoever lost his footing in that fierce tumult never rose again.

Many a valiant knight lay upon the ground, tho sheen* of his armour dimmed in blood, and his gay surcoat all foul by the trampling of feet dyed in the gory grass. The vast and dense mass of the English rocked to and fro like waves of the sea, and their banners rose and fell as the battle swayed this way or that.

At length they visibly wavered. The cry rose from the Scottish ranks, “On them, on them! they fail!” With that they charged in so compact and solid a mass, so swiftly and so fiercely withal, that the English were borne back a good space beyond the point where the battle began.

At this moment a singular event occurred, which had an effect in deciding the battle. The king had left his baggage and camp-followers behind a small hill immediately to the rear of his position. These camp-followers and servants numbered about fifteen thousand.

They made banners of sheets and blankets fixed on sticks and tent-poles, and forming themselves into a column, appeared marching down the hill, and looked like a new army coming to the assistance of the Scots. King Robert, depend upon it, knew all about the stratagem.

His eagle eye now detected symptoms' of wavering among the English. Shouting his war-cry, he charged in person at the head of his own division upon their reeling squadrons. The other divisions of the Scottish army advanced. The English masses were rent in pieces and scattered in complete rout.

Many of them were drowned in the river Forth. Many were overthrown and slain among the pits which Bruce had dug on his left wing. Others, attempting to cross the rugged valley of the Bannock stream, were overtaken and slain in such numbers, that the bodies of men and horses filled up the hollow, and formed a bridge over which the pursuers passed from bank to bank. Thirty thousand English dead remained to rot on Scottish earth.

Edward, sufficiently convinced by this time that the Scots meant fighting, fled to Dunbar, without -drawing bridle, accompanied by no more than five hundred horsemen. All the way of his sixty miles’ gallop he was followed by the good Lord James, with a handful of riders.

Dunbar Castle was in the hands of a friend of Edward’s, and lowered its drawbridge to take him in. Thence he escaped to his own dominions in a fishing-boat.

Such was the Battle of Bannockburn, by which the independence of Scotland was completely secured. Fourteen years later, this was formally acknowledged by an English parliament which met at York.

Questions.—Where were the English archers posted? How were they dislodged? What cry arose from the Scots when the English wavered? What singular incident then occurred? What did the English mistake it for? When did King Robert charge in person? What was the result ? How many did the English leave dead upon the field ? What became of King Edward ?


By this battle the independence of Scotland was com* pletely secured. This was formally achnow/edged by England in 1328. In 1329 Robert the Bruce died



Be-tide', happen.    Rout, uproar and confns'on.

De-scry', see ; discover.    Wreaths, volumes ; curls

There was joy in the ship, as she furrowed the foam; Kor fond hearts within her were dreaming of home.

The young mother pressed fondly her babe to her breast And sang a sweet song as she rocked it to rest;

And the husband sat cheerily down by her side,

And looked with delight in the face of his bride.

Oh, happy !” said he, “ when our roaming is o’er,

We’ll dwell in a cottage that stands by the shore! Already in fancy its roof I (Jescry,* '

And the smoke of its hearth curling up to the sky;

Its garden so green, and its vine-covered wall,

And the kind friends awaiting to welcome us all”

Hark ! liark !—what was that ? Hark ! hark to the shont!— “ Fire ! tire !”—then a tramp and a rush and a rood,*

And an uproar of voices arose in the air :

And the mother knelt down ; and the half-spoken prayer That she offered to God in her agony wild,

Was, “ Father, have mercy ! look down on my child !”

She flew to her husband, she clung to his side;—

Oh ! there was her refuge whatever betide !*

Fire ! fire ! it is raging above and below;

And the smoke and hot cinders all blindingly blow.

The cheek of the sailor grew pale at the sight,

And his eyes glistened wild in the glare of the light.

The smoke in thick wreaths* mounted higher and higher!— O God ! it is fearful to perish by fire !

Alone with destruction !—alone on the sea !

Great Father of Mercy, our hope is in thee!

They prayed for the light, and at noontide about The sun o’er the waters shone joyously out.

“ A sail, ho ! a sail!” cried the man on the lee ;

“ A sail!” and they turned their glad eyes o’er the sea.

“ They see us ! they see us ! the signal is waved !

They bear down upon us!—thank God ! we are saved !”

Charles Mackay.

Questions.—Who were returning home in the ship referred to? What did the husband see in fancy ? By what cry were they alarmed What was the mother’s prayer? What did the man on the lee cry? What was the result ?









Pronounce in syllables .— fur-rowed    de-light'

dream-ing    roam-ing

hus-band    al-read-y

cheer-i-ly    a-wait-ing

Dictation :—

There was joy in the ship, as she furrowed the foam : For fond hearts within her were dreaming of home.

The young mother pressed fondly her babe to her breast And sang a sweet song as she rocked it to rest.


Av-a-lanclie, a mass of snow and ice, Sled, a vehicle, on runners, foi carryrolling down a mountain.    ing loads over snow.

When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy the second time (a.d. 1800), he led his army across the cold and stormy Alps, where the snow lies deep %all the year round, and the roads are often blocked up by masses of ice. (See %)icture.)

He himself crossed by the St. Bernard Pass in May; and a few months later he ordered one of his generals, Marshal Macdonald, to cross by the Splugen,1 with 15,000 soldiers, and join him on the plains below. It was then the end of November, and the winter storms were raging among the mountain passes.

It was a perilous undertaking, yet he must obey ; and the men began their terrible march, through narrow defiles, past overhanging precipices, six thousand feet up, up, up among the gloomy solitudes of the Alps!

The cannon were placed on rough sleds,* each drawn by a long team of soldiers, or, when the roads permitted, by oxen; and the ammunition was packed on mules. First came the guides, driving their long black poles into the snow in order to find the path ; then came workmen to clear away the drifts; then the dragoons, mounted on their most powerful hordes, to beat down the track; after whom followed the main body of the army.

They encountered severe storms and piercing

1 Pronounce Splil'-gen (g hard). 12

;y \%



W\V «.    . \W-&,



Vt cold. When half way up ; ' the mountains, a rumbling

"§h\    •    i    -j    ,i

noise was heard among tne f cliffs. The guides looked at each other in alarm, for they knew well what it meant. • It grew louder arid louder. “An avalanche*! an avalanche!” they shrieked; and the next moment a field of ice and snow came leaping down the mountains, striking the line of march and sweeping away thirty dragoons

in its wild plunge. The black forms of the horses and their riders were seen for an instant struggling for life, and then they disappeared for ever.

The sight struck the soldiers with horror ; they crouched and shivered in the blast. Their enemy was not now flesh and blood, but wild winter storms —swords and bayonets could not defend tTiem from the desolating avalanche. Flight or retreat was hopeless ; for all around lay the drifted snow, like a vast winding-sheet. On they must go, or death was certain; and the brave men struggled forward.

“ Soldiers!” exclaimed their commander, “you are called to Italy ; your general needs you. Advance and conquer—first the mountain and the snow, then the plains and the enemy.”

Blinded by the winds, benumbed with the cold, and far beyond the reach of aid, Macdonald pressed on. Sometimes a whole company of soldiers was suddenly swept away. On one occasion, a poor drummer, crawling out from the mass of snow which had torn him from his comrades, began to beat his drum for relief. The muffled sound came up from his gloomy resting-place, and was heard by his brother soldiers, but none could go to his rescue. For an hour he beat rapidly; then the strokes grew fainter and fainter, until they were heard no more, and the poor drummer laid himself down to die !

Two weeks were occupied in this perilous march, and two hundred men perished in the undertaking.

This passage of the Splugen is one of the bravest exploits in the history of Napoleon’s generals, and illustrates the truth of the well-known saying, “ Where there is a will, there is a way.” No one can read of heroic deeds like this, of brave men grappling with danger and death, without a feeling of respect and admiration. But heroic deeds are always the fruit of toil and self-sacrifice. No one can accomplish great things, unless he aims at great things, and pursues that aim with determined courage and perseverance.

Questions.—How did Napoleon lead his army into Italy the second time ? By what pass did Macdonald cross ? In what season ? How were the cannon transported? What noise was heard, when they were half way up the mountains ? What was the cause of it ? What damage did it do? Relate the incident of the drummer. How long did the march occupy? How many men perished in the undertaking? What proverb does the exploit illustrate?







Pronounce in syllables Splu-gen    sol-i-tudes

per-il-ous    am-mu-ni-tion

prec-i-pice    en-coun-tered


The chief passes of the Alps are the Great St. Bernard, the St Gothard, the Simplon, the Splugen, and the Steluio pass in the Tyrol, which is the highest of all.

Napoleon crossed the Alps by the St. Bernard pass; the same by which Hannibal had invaded Italy two thousand years before.

Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Ajaccio, in the island of Corsica, in 17G9. He became Emperor of the French in 1804. After the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, he was sent by the English Government to St. Helena, where he died in 1821.

His remains were removed to France in 1810, by consent of England, and reinterred at Paris.


Low-ered, darkened the sky; threatened.

Me-thouglit', it seemed to me.

Pal-let, a small rude bed. Wolf^-scar-ing fag-ot, a fire of wood to drive the wolves from the slain.

Our bugles sang truce, for the night-cloud had lowered,* And the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky;

And thousands had sunk on the ground, overpowered,— The weary to sleep, and the wounded to die.

When reposing that night on my pallet“' of straw,

By the wolf-scaring* fagot that guarded the slain,

At the dead of the night a sweet vision I saw,

And thrice ere the morning I dreamt it again. ’

Methought,* from the battle-field’s dreadful array Far, far I had roamed on a desolate track :

Twas autumn,—and sunshine arose on the way

To the home of my fathers, that welcomed me back.

I flew to the pleasant fields traversed so oft

In life’s morning march, when my bosom was young;

I heard my own mountain-goats bleating aloft,

And knew the sweet strain that the corn-reapers sung.

Then pledged we the wine-cup, and fondly I swore

From my home and my weeping friends never to part:

My little ones kissed me a thousand times o’er,

And my wife sobbed aloud in her fulness of heart:—

“ Stay, stay with us,—rest, thou art weary and worn ; ”

And fain was their war-broken soldier to stay;

But sorrow returned with the dawning of morn,

And the voice in my dreaming ear melted away.

'    Campbell.

Pronounce in syllables:—    "

sen-ti-nel    dread-ful    trav-ersed    sor-row

o-ver-pow-ered    des-o-late    bleat-ing    re-turned'

re-pos-ing    pieas-ant    ful-ness    dream-ing


Free-boot-er, robber. Out-soar', fly higher than. Pois-es, balances. Sur-ges, waves.

Ar-dour, eagerness.

Clam-or-ous-ly, with loud cries. E-merg-ing, coming out of the water. Fledge-lings, newly fledged birds.

The white-headed or bald eao-le takes the foremost


place among the feathered tribes of America, both because he stands first in natural order, and because he has been selected by the people of the United States as a type of their nation. Their choice was, by-the-by, objected to by Benjamin Franklin, on the plea “ that he is a bird of bad moral character, and does not get his living honestly.” There was justice in the remark ; for the bald eagle is a determined robber, and a perfect tyrant.

He is, however, a magnificent bird. His wings, when expanded, measure nearly eight feet from tip to tip. His body is three and a half feet in length. His snow-white head, from which he takes his name, shines in the sun. He has a large hooked yellow beak, with which he tears his prey.

The bald eagle preys chiefly on fish, but sometimes also on sea-fowl and other animals. He may often be seen darting down upon fish as they swim near the surface of the water.

He does not always take the trouble to fish for himself, but freely avails himself of the labours of others. He keeps a careful look-out for the appearance of the fish-hawk; and when he sees him settling over his victim, he earnestly watches him.

His eye, says Wilson, kindles at the sight, and balancing himself with half-opened wings on the

rock or branch on which he sits, he eagerly waits for the result. Down, rapid as an arrow from heaven, descends the fish-hawk, the roar of its wings reaching the ear as it disappears in the deep, making the surges* foam around.

At this moment the look of the eagle is all ardour;* and, levelling his neck for flight, he sees the fish-hawk once more emerging,* struggling with his prey, and mounting in the air with screams of triumph.

This is the signal for the eagle to give chase. He gains on the fish-hawk.

Each exerts his utmost power to out-soar* the other. At last the fish-hawk, heavily laden with his prey, is overtaken bv the savage freebooter,* and, with a cry of despair, he drops his fish.

The eagle


poises* himself for a moment, as if to take more certain aim, then descending like a whirlwind, he snatches the fish ere it reaches the water, and bears it away to the woods.

These birds build their nest in some lofty tree amid a swamp ; and as they repair and add to it every season, it becomes of great size. Its position is generally known by the offensive odour arising from the refuse of fish scattered around.

Robbers as they are, the white-headed eagles exhibit great parental affection, tending their young as long as they are helpless and unfledged ; nor will they forsake them even should the tree in which their nest is built be surrounded by flames !

Wilson mentions seeing a tree cut down in order to obtain an eagle’s nest. The parent birds continued flying clamorously* around, and could only with great difficulty be driven away from the bodies of their fledgelings,* which were killed by the fall of the lofty pine.

Questions.—Why does the white-headed eagle take precedence amongst the birds of America? Who objected to it as a national emblem? On what ground? What is the span of his wings? On what does he feed ? Of what bird’s labours does he sometimes take advantage ? How does he do this ? Where do these birds build their nest ? Why does it become of great size ? What instance of their parental affection does Wilson mention?









Pronounce in syllables :— nat-u-ral    de-ter-mined

se-lect-ed    ty-rant

ob-ject-ed    mag-nif-i-cent

hon-est-ly    ex-pand-ed


The nest of the white-headed eagle is formed of large sticks, sods, moss, hay, &c. it is usually found in a lofty tree, in a swamp or morass, and as it is increased and repaired euery season, it becomes of great size.


Corse, dead body; corpse. Dis-charged', fired.

Go-ry, covered with blood.

Mar-tial, military.

Ram-part, a mound of earth in fortifications.

Ran-dom, not aimed at a particular object.

Reck, care.

Shroud, winding-sheet.

Sods, turfs.

Sul-len-ly, in gloomy anger.

Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note, As his corse* to the rampart* we hurried; Not a soldier discharged* his farewell shot O’er the grave where our hero we buried.

We buried him darkly at dead of night, The sods* with our bayonets turning.

By the struggling moonbeams’ misty light, And the lantern dimly burning.

No useless coffin enclosed his breast,

Not in sheet nor in shroud* we wound him ; But he lay like a warrior taking his rest,

With his martial* cloak around him.

Few and short were the prayers we said,

And we spoke not a word of sorrow;

But we steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead,

And we bitterly thought of the morrow.

We thought, as we hollowed his narrow bed.

And smoothed down his lonely pillow,

That the foe and the stranger would tread o’er his head And we far away on the billow.

Lightly they’ll talk of the spirit that’s gone,

And o’er his cold ashes upbraid him ;

But little he’ll reck,* if they let him sleep on In the grave where a Briton has laid him.


But half of our heavy task was done,

When the clock struck the hour for retiring;

And we heard the distant and random* gun That the foe was sullenly* firing.

Slowly and sadly we laid him down,

From the field of his fame fresh and gory ;*

We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone,

♦ But we left him alone with his glory !

& J    W OLfTE.

Pronounce in syllables:—

fu-ner-al    strug-gling    bit-ter-ly    spir-it

bur-ied    en-closed'    hol-lowed    re-tlr-ing

bay-o-nets    stead-fast-ly    light-ly    dis-tant


Sir John Moore defeated the French at Corunna, 16th January 1809. He receiued a mortal wound in the battle, and died soon after the uictory was won.

Before daybreak next morning, when his troops had to embark, his body, wrapped in his martial cloak, was buried on the ramparts of the town.


Am-bus-cade/, place of concealment; ambush.

Cov-ert, hiding-place.

De-coy', tempt; entice. In-ev-i-ta-ble, unavoidable; certain.

In-vest-ed, besieged; surrounded by an enemy.

Pi-O-neers', first settlers, who prepare the way for others.

Ren-e-gade, runaway; deserter.

Upon the banks of a river in the State of Kentucky, there was once a fort to which the settlers frequently resorted as a place of refuge from the savages. Its gallant defence by a handful of pioneers* against the allied Indians of Ohio, led by two renegade* white men, was one of the most desperate affairs in the Indian wars of the West.

The pioneers had not the slightest idea of their approach, when, in a moment, a thousand rifles gleamed in the corn-fields one summer night! That very evening the garrison had chanced to gather

under arms, to march to the relief of another station that was similarly invested/ They were therefore unexpectedly prepared for the attack.

The Indians saw at a glance that the moment was not favourable to them ; and having failed to surprise the garrison, they attempted to dec^y* them from the fastness by presenting themselves in small parties before it. The whites were too wise to risk a battle till help should arrive, so they resolved to stand a siege.

But the fort, which was merely a collection of log cabins, arranged in a hollow square, was unhappily not supplied with water; and the besieged were aware that the enemy had placed his real force in ambush near a neighbouring spring. The females of the station determined to supply it with water from this very spring!

But how ? Woman’s wit never devised a bolder plan, and woman’s courage never carried one more dangerous into successful execution.


These brave women, being in the habit of fetching the water every morning, saw that if armed men were now to take that duty upon them, the Indians would perceive that their ambuscade* had been discovered, and would instantly commence the assault.

Morning came, and the random shots of the decoy-party were returned with a quick fire from one side of the fort, while the women issued from the other, as if they expected no enemy in that quarter.

Could anything be more appalling than the task before them ? But they shrink not from it; they move carelessly from the gate ; they advance with

composure in a body to the spring ; they are within shot of five hundred warriors ! The slightest alarm will betray them. If they show that they are aware of their thrilling situation, their doom is inevitable/ But their nerves do not shrink ; they wait calmly for each other, till each fills her bucket in succession.

The Indians are completely deceived, and not a shot is fired. The band of heroines retrace their steps with steady feet; their movements soon become more agitated, and areNat last hurried. But tradition says that the only water spilt was as their buckets crowded together in passing the gate.

A sheet of living fire from the garrison, and the shrieks of the wounded Indians around the spring, at once proclaimed the safety of the women and the triumph of the white men. Insane with wrath to be thus outwitted, the foe rushed from his covert,' and advanced with fury upon iiie rifles of the pioneers. But who could conquer' the fathers and brothers of such women ? The Indians renewed the attack again and again ; but they were foiled every time, and at last withdrew their forces. Hoffman.

Questions.—Where was the fort here spoken of? Who attacked it ? By whom led ? Who defended it ? Why was the garrison under arms at the time of the attack ? What plan did the Indians adopt when they failed to surprise the garrison ? Where did they place their real force ?

What did the females of the fort resolve to do? What if armed men had done this ? On which side of the fort was the attack returned ? What did the women do at the same time? What did they wish the Indians to suppose ? How did they therefore advance ? How did they retm’n ? Where was the only water spilt ? What proclaimed their safety ? What did the Indians then begin ? With what result ?


Bass-in-et, a light helmet.

Glove of Ar-gen-tine, in token of his having accepted a challenge to fight him.

Plan-ta-ge-net, King Edward’s family name.

Selle, saddle, or seat on horseback The whiles, whilst.

Tour-ney, tournament Trun-cheon, a baton of oilie.e. Van, front of his army.

Wight, powerful.

The Monarch rode along the van,*

The foe’s approaching force to scan.

His line to marshal and to range,

And ranks to square, and fronts to change. Alone he rode—from head to heel Sheathed in his ready arms of steel;

Nor mounted yet on war-horse wight,*

But, till more near the shock of fight,

Reining a palfrey low and light.

A diadem of gold was set Above his bright steel bassinet ;*

And clasped within its glittering twine Was seen the glove* of Argentine ;

Truncheon* or leading stall' he lacks,

Bearing, instead, a battle-axe.

He ranged his soldiers for the fight Accoutred thus, in open sight Of either host.—Three bow-shots far,

Paused the deep front of England’s war,

And rested on their arms a while,

To close and rank their warlike file,

And hold high council, if that night Should view the strife, or dawning light.

Oh, gay, yet fearful to behold,

Flashing with steel and rough with gold,

And bristled o’er with bills and spears,

With plumes and pennons waving fair,

Was that bright battle-front ! for there Rode England’s King and Peers :

And who, that saw that Monarch ride,

His kingdom battled by his side,

Could then his direful doom foretell ?—

Fair was his seat in knightly selle,*

And in his sprightly eye was set Some spark of the Plantagenet.*

Though light and wandering was his glance, It flashed at sight of shield and lance.

“ Know’st thou,” he said, “ De Argentine,

Yon knight who marshals thus their line ■ “ The tokens on his helmet tell The Bruce, my liege : I know him well.”—

“ And shall the audacious traitor brave The presence where our banners wave?”—

“ So please my liege,” said Argentine,

“ Were he but horsed on steed like mine,

To give him fair and knightly chance,

I would adventure forth my lance.”—

“ In battle day,” the King replied,

“ Nice tourney* rules are set aside.—

Still must the rebel dare our wrath 1 Set on him !—sweep him from our path ! ” And, at King Edward’s signal, soon Dashed from the ranks Sir Henry Bonne.

Of Hereford’s high blood he came,

A race renowned for knightly fame.

He burned before his Monarch’s eye To do some deed of chivalry.

He spurred his steed, he couched his lance, And darted on the Bruce at once.—

As motionless as rocks that bide The wrath of the advancing tide,

The Bruce stood fast.—Each breast beat high, And dazzled was each gazing eye :

The heart had hardly time to think,

The eyelid scarce had time to wink,

While on the King, like flash of flame, Spurred to full speed, the war-horse came !

The partridge may the falcon mock,

If that slight palfrey stand the shock But swerving from the knight’s career,

Just as they met, Bruce shunned the spear.

Onward the baffled warrior bore

His course—but soon his course was o’er !

High in his stirrups stood the King,

And irave his battle-axe the swing.

Right on De Boune, the* whiles he passed,

Fell that stern dint—the tirst, the last!

Such strength upon the blow was put,

The helmet crashed like hazel-nut;

The axe-shaft, with its brazen clasp,

Was shivered to the gauntlet grasp !

Springs from the blow the startled horse,

Drops to the plain the lifeless corse.—

First of that fatal field, how soon,

How sudden, fell the fierce De Boune !

Scott.—Lord of the Isles.



(Continued from page 112.)



1154 A.D. to 1399 A.D.— 245 years.—8 Kings.

LEADING FEATURES:—Feudalism in its prime and its decay — Struggles between Kings and Barons—Rise of the Commons; and foundation of English freedom.

Henry II.........began to reign 1154

Richard I. (son)................1189

John (brother)..................1199

Henry III. (son)................1216


1154 A.D. to 1189 A.D.—35 years.

1.    Henry II. was the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, and Maud, daughter of Henry I. He was the most powerful king of his time—ruling not only England, but also the greater part of France. He also subdued Wales and Ireland.

2.    His first care was to lessen the power of the barons ; and this he did by causing many of their castles to be destroyed. Then, wishing

to rule the clergy, he took into his favour one Thomas a Becket, a man of Norman race, but born in England, gave him great wealth and power, and made him Archbishop of Canterbury.

But Becket, when he had got this great power, did not do as Henry wished. He gave up his rich and costly manner of living, and all his long train of attendants, began to eat coarse food, wore sackcloth next his skin, keeping it on until it was full of dirt and vermin, and daily washed the feet of thirteen beggars.

He then took the part of the clergy against Henry, and gave him so much trouble, that one day, when Henry was in France, and heard of Becket’s determined opposition, he became very angry, and said, ‘‘ Is there not one of my cowardly knights eating of my bread that will rid me of this turbulent priest ? ”

Four of his knights, hearing what was said, and being very jealous of Becket’s power, went away secretly, crossed over to England, and proceeded to Canterbury to murder Becket. They found him in the cathedral, at the altar, where they fell upon him and dashed out his brains (1170).

When Henry heard of this horrid murder, he was not only very sorry, but also much afraid of the Pope’s anger; so he had a splendid tomb built for Becket, and did penance by walking barefoot through Canter bury, falling down before the tomb, and allowing himself to be scourged with knotted cords (1174).

3.    The chief event of Henry’s reign was the invasion of Ireland. That country was at this time divided into six provinces, ruled by as many kings. Two of the most powerful of these quarrelled, and one of them applied to Henry for help. Henry allowed some of his nobles with their knights to go to his assistance, and soon after went himself, and received the homage of the chieftains (1172).

4.    Henry had four sons, Henry, Geoffrey, Richard, and John, who were very rebellious, and caused their father much trouble in the latter I »art of his reign. They even persuaded the kings of France and Scotland to help them ; but Henry put to flight all his enemies. He died, however, of a broken heart, because his favourite son John was amongst the rebels.

5.    In this reign London became the capital of England—Winchester,

the old capital, having been laid in ruins during the civil wars in Stephen’s reign.    _


1. How many years does the period of the I’lantagenets proper include? Give the first and last dates. What

are the leading features of the period ? Name the Plantagenets proper. Give the dates of their accession. What was

the surname of Henry II. ? How long did he reign? Whose son was he? What relation to Henry I. ? What is said of his power?

2. What was his first care ? What means did he use ? Whom did he take into favour? Why? To what dignity was Becket raised? What was his conduct ? Whose part did he take ? What effect had this on Henry? How did he express his anger ? What was the consequence? Where was Becket murdered? How did it affect the king? What did he do to atone for the murder ?

3.    What was the chief event in Henry’s reign? What led to the invasion? Give the date.

4.    Name Henry’s sons. What was their conduct ? Whom did they ask for help? Were they successful ? What caused Henry’s death ? ^

5.    What was the former capital of England ? Why was the change made ?


1189 A.D. to 1199 A.D.—10 years.

1.    Richard I. succeeded to the throne, his elder brothers having died before their father. He cared very little for the welfare of his subjects; and though king for ten years, he only spent six months in England.

2.    Wishing to join the Third Crusade, he began his reign by raising all the money he could; and for this purpose he used improper means, —selling the offices of State, and taking away by force much wealth from the Jews, who at that time were very rich. Many of them were basely murdered, and their dwellings were plundered and burned to the ground.

3.    Richard was joined in the Crusade by the King of France. They raised an immense army, and at Acre, a town in Palestine, fought a great battle, in which thousands were slain. After taking this strong city, Richard marched to Jerusalem ; but his army was not strong enough to take it, so he left for England (1192).

4.    On his way home, he was shipwrecked on the north coast of the Gulf of Venice; and was making his way through Germany, in the dress of a pilgrim, when he was seized by the Duke of Austria, and sold for a great sum of money to the Emperor of Germany, who cast him into prison.

It is said that a French musician, who knew Richard, happened to arrive at the walls of the very castle where he was confined, and beneath the grated window of his cell played upon his harp a tune which Richard had composed. Richard, hearing it, remembered the harper, and sang the same tune in reply.    „

The harper immediately knew the voice of the king, and went and made known in England the place of his confinement. A great ransom was paid for Richard’s freedom, and he returned home (1194).

5.    During his absence the country was in a shocking state. It was

(31)    1 3

infested by bands of robbers, and no man’s life or property was safe. The famous Robin Hood lived about this time.

Shortly after Richard’s return from the Holy Land he was besieging a castle in France, when he was shot by an archer from the walls. The wound mortified and caused his death.


1.    Who succeeded Henry II. ? How long did he reign? Did he care much for his people ? Give proof.

2.    In what war did he engage ? How did he raise money? What is said of the sufferings of the Jews ?

3.    Who jGined Richard in the Crusade? What city was taken ? Whither did he next march ?

4.    What happened on his way home ? How did he try to get home ? What befell him in Germany? Who discovered the place of his confinement ? How? What afterwards took place?

5.    What was the state of the country during his absence ? What famous outlaw lived about this time? How did Richard come by his death?


1199 A.D. to 1216 A.D.—17 years.

1.    John was the youngest son of Henry II., and brother of the late king. He was not the rightful heir, as Geoffrey, his elder brother, had left a son named Arthur, now twelve years old. John’s first care, therefore, was to get rid of Arthur ; and having shut him up in the Castle of Rouen, he there murdered him, it is said, with his own hands.

By this act he so enraged the King of France and other princes, that they took away from him all his French provinces (1205).

2.    Soon after this, John quarrelled with the Pope about the choice of an Archbishop of Canterbury. John set the Pope at defiance. The Pope, in return, caused all the churches in the land to be shut up for six years, and forbade any service to be read at burials (1206).

He then told the King of France to invade England, and take possession of the throne. This so alarmed the cowardly John, that he submitted to the Pope, acknowledged him as his over-lord, and even agreed to pay him rent for the crown (1213).

3.    John, being now free from danger, began to use his subjects very cruelly—making the rich pay him very heavy fines, and giving the highest offices of State to his foreign favourites. By these acts he so roused the spirit of the barons, that they drew up an agreement, in which they made the king promise never more to oppress the people, nor take away their rights, but to govern according to the laws of the land.

This document was called Magna Charta, or the Great Charter. In order to compel John to sign it, they collected a large force and took

possession of London. John at last consented; and in the year 1215, at Runnymeade, near Windsor, this Great Charter of liberty was signed. It is still carefully preserved in the British Museum.

4. When John had signed the deed, and the barons were gone away, he raved like a madman, and as soon as possible raised an army of hired soldiers, and began to lay waste the country with fire and sword. The barons, in their fear, sent to the son of the King of France, asking him to come and take the crown. They were led to think of him because he had married John’s niece (1216).

Louis wras not slow to accept the offer, and landed with an army in Kent. John marched to meet him ; but as he was crossing the Wash, the tide rose so fast that he and his army had scarcely time to escape from the waves; and, in their hurry and fear, the crown, jewels, and money were lost. This had such an effect on the king that it threw

him into a fever. He was carried to Newark Castle, where he died,


despised and hated by every one.


1.    Who succeeded Richard? What relation to him ? Whose son was J ohn ? Was he the rightful heir? Why not? What was his first care ? What means did he use? What effect had this murder ?

2.    With whom did John quarrel? About what? How did the Pope act? Who threatened an invasion? What effect had this upon John ?

3.    How did John now treat his subjects ? Whose anger did he thus rouse ?

How did they act? What was the deed called? Why did John sign it? When? Where? Where is it still kept?

4. What was John’s conduct after he had signed Magna Charta ? Whose protection did the barons seek ? Why did they think of him ? Did he come ? Where did he land? What did John do? What occurred on his march? What effect had it upon him? Where did he die? With what feelings was he regarded ?


1216 A.D. to 1272 A.D.—56 years.

1.    Henry III., eldest son of John, was only nine years old when he came to the throne; and the Earl of Pembroke, a wise and prudent man, was made Protector.

2.    Louis of France, however, who had invaded the southern counties, was not willing "to return home without making a struggle for the English crown ; but the barons who had invited him had now changed their minds, and instead of favouring his plans, raised all their forces to oppose him.

He was completely defeated at Lincoln. His fleet was also destroyed off the coast of Kent, the sailors being blinded by quicklime which the

English threw in their faces. Louis was therefore compelled to return to France.

Henry afterwards invaded France, to regain the provinces which John had lost; but through his cowardice and weakness he returned without success (1242).

3.    The king at length lost the esteem of his subjects, by showing favour to foreigners ; and a great rebellion was raised, headed by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester. A battle was fought at Lewes in Sussex, the king’s army was defeated, and he and his son Edward were taken prisoners (1264).

During their imprisonment, Montfort called together a Parliament. This consisted not of nobles only, as before, but also of members from towns and cities, chosen by the people. This is the first outline of Parliament as we now have it (1266).

4.    Edward soon found means to escape from confinement. Being allowed to ride out with his guards, one day he set them to ride races with each other, until all their horses were tired; then putting spurs to his own, which he had kept fresh, he soon left them far behind !

He quickly collected a large army, marched to meet Montfort, and fought the Battle of Evesham. Montfort, knowing Edward’s bravery, and fearing he should lose the battle, basely placed the king in front that he might be slain. Henry, however, saved himself by crying out, “ I am Henry of Winchester, your king ! ” Edward knew his father’s voice, and hastened to his assistance. In this battle Montfort was killed, and almost torn to pieces.

6. Young Edward afterwards went to the Crusades, taking with him his wife Eleanor, who saved his life by sucking the venom from a wound he received from a poisoned arrow. During his absence his father died, after having reigned longer than any English monarch, before or since, except George III.

6. In this reign the linen manufacture was introduced into England. About the same time, the mariner’s compass was invented ; also magic-lanterns and magnifying glasses by Roger Bacon, a learned English monk.


1.    How long did Henry III. reign? Give dates. Whose son was he ? How old was he ? Who was made Protector ?

2.    How did the barons treat Louis of France? Where was he defeated? What became of his fleet? How was it defeated? What did Henry afterwards do? Was he successful?

3. How did he lose the esteem of his people? Who headed the rebellion? What battle was fought? With what result? What took place during the

king’s confinement? Relate the particulars ?

4. How did the prince escape? What battle followed? What base act did Montfort commit ? How was the king saved ? What became of Montfort ?

6. Whither did Edward afterwards go? Who went with him? How did Eleanor save his life ? What happened in his absence ? What is remarkable about the length of Henry’s reign ?

6. What manufacture was introduced in this reign? Name three inventions of this time. Who was Roger Bacon ?


1272 A.D. to 1307 A.D.—35 years.

1.    Edward I., eldest son of Henry III., was a wise and prudent king. He began his reign by restoring order in the kingdom, and making many wise laws. He then led an army into Wales, as the Welsh had been very troublesome. He gained a great battle over them, in which their prince, Llewellyn, was slain (1282).

2.    The Welsh, however, were not easily conquered. For a long time they held out amongst the mountains, and would not consent to acknowledge Edward as their king. But at last, Edward had a son born in Wales, at Caernarvon Castle which he had just built, and him they promised to obey as king. Ever since that time the eldest son of the English sovereign has been called Prince of Wales (1284).

3.    Edward now turned his attention to Scotland, which he resolved to subdue. But Sir William Wallace gained a great victory over the English near Stirling, and for several years defied the armies of Edward. A few years afterwards, Robert Bruce drove the English forces out of his country, and was crowned king. This so enraged the warlike Edward that he set out for Scotland with a large army, swearing that he would never return until he had subdued it; but before he reached Scotland he was taken ill and died. His last request was, that his body should be carried before the army and not buried until Scotland were conquered.

4.    During this reign it was enacted that no tax should be raised by the king without the consent of Parliament. The Jews, who had already suffered unnumbered cruelties, were banished from the kingdom.


1.    How long did Edward I. reign ? Give dates. Whose son was he ? What was his character? How did he begin his reign ? What country did he subdue ? What prince was slain ?

2.    Where did the Welsh hold out against Edward ? Whom did they agree to obey ? Where was the first Prince of Wales born ?

3.    What was Edward’s next undertaking? Who opposed him ? What battle was fought? With what success? Who was the next Scottish hero ? What did he do ? How did Edward act ? What took place on his march ? What was his last request ?

4.    What law was made in this reign ? How were the Jews treated .'


1307 A.D. to 1327 A.D.—20 years.

1.    Edward of Caernarvon took little notice of his father’s dying wish. He buried his body at Westminster, and gave up the war with Scotland. Like Henry III., he forfeited the esteem of his people by his partiality for worthless foreigners; and so roused the anger of the nobles that they seized his three chief favourites and put them to death.

2.    In the seventh year of his reign he renewed the war with Scotland, and crossed the Border with an army of 100,000 men—the largest that had ever marched out of England. He was met at Bannockburn, near Stirling, by Bruce with 30,000 men, and completely defeated (see p. 1G8). Edward himself narrowly escaped with his life (1314).

3.    Edward’s queen, Isabella, was a very wicked woman, and caused the king many troubles, having allied herself with a worthless man named Mortimer. An open quarrel ensued. The queen fled to Erance, raised an army, and returned. The barons declared in her favour, and Edward was forced to flee. He went into Wales, but was taken prisoner; and his son was crowned king in his stead.

4.    Edward was removed from prison to prison, and treated with the greatest cruelty. His brutal keepers one day shaved him for sport in the open fields, using dirty water from a ditch.

He was at last imprisoned in Berkeley Castle. The stillness of one dark night was broken by fearful shrieks which came from his dungeon; and next morning the body of the murdered king was openly shown to the people of Bristol.    _


3.    Who was Edward’s wife? What was her character? With whom did she ally herself ? What ensued? How did Isabella then act ? What were the consequences ?

4.    How was the king treated ? Where was he at last confined? And what took place there ?


1327 A.D. to 1377 A.D.—50 years.

1. Edward III., eldest son of Edward II., was only fifteen years of age when he came to the throne, and all the power was in the hands of the queen and Mortimer. But when Edward came of age, he caused

Mortimer to be seized at Nottingham Castle, in presence of Isabella, carried to Tyburn, and hanged on a gibbet. The guilty queen was imprisoned in Nottingham Castle during the rest of her life.

2.    Edward next marched to Scotland, to support the claim of Edward Baliol to the throne; and fought the Battle of Halidon Hill, in which the Scots were signally defeated (1333).

3.    But his greatest desire was to reign over France as well as England; and as there was at that time a dispute about the crown of that country, he collected all the money lie could and went over to try foi1 it himself.

After fighting several battles, he marched towards Calais, and was met by the French army at Crecy, where a great victory was gained by the English, chiefly through the bravery of Edward, Prince of Wales, then a young lad of only fifteen years of age, surnamed the Black Prince from^the colour of his armour (1346).

^A. Whilst Edward was carrying on the war with France, David IT., King of Scotland, invaded England; but Philippa, Edward’s wife, bravely put herself at the head of some English troops, defeated the Scottish army at Nevil’s Cross, and took the king prisoner.

5.    Edward, after the Battle of Cregy, laid siege to Calais. This brave little city held out against him nearly a year : but when all the food was gone, the inhabitants were forced to submit. Edward was so enraged at their resistance, that he demanded that six of the chief citizens should be sent to him, barefoot^ with ropes round their necks, ready to be put to death !

Six brave men offered themselves, and went to the king, who ordered them immediately to be executed. But his queen, Philippa, who had just arrived at Calais, threw herself at his|eet, and by her tears and entreaties obtained their pardon (1347).

6.    In the year 1349 a stop was put to the war by a terrible plague, called the Black Death, which, after raging through Europe, visited England, and carried off 50,000 people.

7.    Ten years after the Battle of Cregy, the French war was again commenced by the Black Prince, and the great Battle of Poictiers was fought, in which a very small English force put to flight the French army of seven times their number. The French king and his son were taken prisoners, and brought over to England. Thus there were two kings prisoners in England at the same time—David of Scotland and John of France (1356).

8.    In the year 1376 the brave and generous Prince of Wales died of consumption ; and the king, his father, was so grieved at his loss that he died the following year, after a reign of half a century. He was brave, wise, and merciful.

9.    It must be remembered that from the sons of Edward III. sprang the Houses of York and Lancaster ;—the House of York from Lionel, Duke of Clarence; and that of Lancaster from John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a younger brother. The descendants of these two sons, in their contests for the crown in after years, deluged England with blood.

10.    In this reign the Lords and Commons began to sit in separate houses. The title of Duke again came into use, the Black Prince being made Duke of Cornwall—a title since borne by every Prince of Wales. Windsor Castle was no longer used as a fortress, but as a royal residence. The weaving of cloth and blankets was introduced. Gunpowder was invented by Schwartz, a German monk.


1.    Who succeeded Edward II. ? How long did he reign ? Give dates. Whose son was he ? Who had the power ? What became of Mortimer afterwards? How was the queen treated?

2.    What was Edward's next undertaking ? What battle was fought ? And with what result ?

3.    What was his greatest desire ? What means did he use? What great battle was fought? Who gained the victory ? Through whose bravery ?

4.    Who now invaded England? Who opposed him ? With what effect ?

5.    What siege took place after the Battle of Cregy ? How long did it last ? How did Edward show his anger ? Who just then arrived at Calais? What act of mercy did she do ?

6.    What stopped the war? When?

How many died of the Black Death in England ?

7.    When was the war resumed? Under whose command ? What battle was fought ? What was the relative strength of the two armies? Who won? Who were taken prisoners ?

8.    What took place in 1376? And in the following year ? What was Edward’s character ?

9.    What Houses sprang from the sons of Edward III. ? Who was the head of the House of York? Of the House of Lancaster ?

10.    What change in Parliament was made ? What title again Came into use ? To whom was it given ? What is said of Windsor Castle? What manufacture was introduced? Who invented gunpowder ?


1377 A.D. to 1399 A.D.—22 years.

1.    Richard II., the son of the Black Prince, and grandson of the late king, came to the throne when only eleven years .of age; and the kingdom was ruled by a council of twelve nobles until he came of age.

2.    The first great event of his reign was a rebellion of the common people, headed by a blacksmith named Wat Tyler. It was caused by a tax of one shilling a head on every person above fifteen years of age.

This tax was felt to be unjust, as the poor had to pay as much as the rich. A great mob of lawless men, therefore, with Tyler at their head,

entered London, destroyed the houses of the nobility, and murdered every one they met that looked like a gentleman.

The king next day met them in Smithfield, when Wat Tyler spoke to him with such insolence that Sir William Walworth, the Lord Mayor, struck him from his horse with a blow of his mace, and one of the king’s knights rode up and slew him. The rebels were preparing to take vengeance; but the young Richard bravely rode up to them, and told them not to be concerned at Tyler’s death—he himself would now be their leader, and remove all their grievances (1381).

This bold and yet gracious address at once quieted the rebels, who soon returned peaceably to their homes. Richard, however, did not keep his promise; and many hundreds of the rebels were afterwards hanged on the gibbet.

3.    When Richard came into power, he was found to be a vain, weak, and foolish king—quite unable to rule the fierce spirits of the time. He soon therefore lost the esteem and affection of his subjects ; -and at length an event happened which cost him his crown and life.

A quarrel having arisen between the Dukes of Hereford and Norfolk, Richard ordered them to decide it by single combat. When they entered the lists, Richard would not allow them to fight, but banished them both—Hereford for ten years, and Norfolk for life (1398).

Soon afterwards, Hereford’s father, the Duke of Lancaster, died, and Richard seized his estates. When Hereford heard of this, he was so enraged that he resolved to attempt the king’s destruction. He landed at Raven spur in Yorkshire with a few followers; and finding the nobles very much in his favour, soon raised an army of 60,000 men, and entered London.

4.    Richard was at this time in Ireland, and when he returned he found that his kingdom had changed hands ; and he who left England as king was compelled to surrender himself a captive to Hereford, who had now become Duke of Lancaster. He was conveyed to London, where he gave up the crown; and was afterwards confined in Pontefract Castle, where he was murdered, in the thirty-fourth year of his age.

5.    Richard II. was fond of show, and lived in grand style. There were in his household ten thousand persons—in his kitchen alone, three hundred. During his reign the celebrated John Wycliffe lived. He translated the Bible into English. His followers were called Lollards.

6.    Under the Plantagenets proper, the English language, modified by its contact with Norman-French during two centuries, began to assume its present form. Learning was chiefly confined to the clergy, who were also the best gardeners and farmers. The nobles cared more for war and sports than for learning. Few of them could either read or

write ! The population of England was only about three millions,—a number now exceeded by London alone.


1.    Who succeeded Edward III.? How long did he reign ? Give dates. Whose son was he? How old? Who ruled during his minority ?

2.    What was the first great event of his reign ? What was the cause ? Who headed the rebels ? What damage did they do? Where did the king meet them ? What was Tyler’s conduct ? How was he punished? Describe the conduct of Richard. And its effect. How did Richard break Ris promise?

3.    What was Richard’s character when he came into power? What two nobles quarrelled ? How did Richard act ? For how long did he banish them ? What took place in Hereford’s absence? What

effect had it on Hereford? Where did he land ? To what number did his followers increase? Where did he then go?

4.    Where was Richard at this time ? What did he find on his return? To whom did he surrender ? Whither was he taken? What did he do there? In what castle was he murdered? In what year of his age?

5.    In what style did he live? What great reformer lived in his reign ? What literary work did Wycliffe do? What were his followers called ?

6.    What change took place in the English language during the Plantagenet Period ? What was the state of learning ? What was the population ?


1154 A.D. to 1370 A.D.

LEADING FEATURE:—Struggles for Independence crowned with


1.    After the Battle of the Standard, Northumberland and Cumberland, which had previously been claimed by the Scottish kings, were secured to Scotland by treaty. This was done by Stephen, who was willing to buy off in this way a dangerous enemy.

But Henry II., taking advantage of the youth and weakness of Malcolm the Maiden, induced him to give up to England all claim to the northern counties (1165).

2.    An attempt was made by William the Lion, Malcolm’s brother and successor, to recover these counties in 1174. He led an army into England, but he was surprised and taken prisoner.

The wily Henry now resolved to push his success a step further. As the condition of his release, William was required not only to resign his claim to the northern counties, but also to swear fealty to the English king as Over-lord of Scotland. It was on this concession that Edward I. afterwards founded his claim to the lordship of Scotland ; but when Bichard of the Lion-Heart was in need of money for the Cru sades, he gave it up for 10,000 marks.

3.    When Alexander III., a'boy of ten, went to York to marry Mar-

garet the daughter of Henry III. (1251), the latter tried to extract from the boy king a promise of fealty. But this trick failed, either because the young king was too sharp, or because he was well advised by shrewd counsellors. So there is an end for the present to the English claims.

4.    At this time, all the Scottish isles, from Shetland to the Isle of Man, were in the possession of Norsemen, who were as troublesome to Scotland as they had ever been to England or Ireland. In some places, as at Caithness, they had settled on the mainland; and they were always ready to join the enemies of the Scottish king, whether they were the English, or the wild Scots of Galloway, or the Highland Celts.

Alexander III. determined to subdue them. He sent a fleet and an army to the Hebrides, and all the chiefs who refused to own themselves vassals of the King of Scotland were driven out. They carried their complaints to Haco, King of Norway, their over-lord ; and he, ere long, entered the Firth of Clyde with a fleet of one hundred and sixty ships.

A storm drove many of them ashore near Largs; and when the Norsemen landed to Irescue them, Alexander fell upon them, and drove them to their ships with terrible slaughter.

Thus were the Western Isles united to the Scottish crown ; and there was peace between the Scots and the Norse, confirmed by the marriage of Alexander’s daughter, Margaret, to Eric, the young King of Norway.

5.    Unhappily for Scotland, this Alexander, who was a wise as well as a brave king, was cut off in the prime of his days. While riding along the Fife shore on a dark night, he fell over a cliff near Kinghom, and was taken up dead (1286).

All his children had died before him ; but one grandchild survived him—Margaret, the daughter of Eric of Norway. So this tender Maid of Norway (as she was called) became Queen of Scotland in the fourth year of her age.

Edward I. of England, who had lately revived the claim of his ancestors to the lordship of Scotland, proposed a marriage between his son and Margaret, with a view to the union of the two crowns.

A treaty was entered into for this purpose. But on her way from Norway to Scotland, the Maid of Norway died at Orkney (1290); and then began that struggle for the crown which laid Scotland for many years under the English yoke.

6.    Twelve competitors for the Scottish crown now appeared, the chief of whom were Robert Bruce (the elder) and John Baliol. Edward got himself appointed umpire, and placed Baliorl on the throne as a vassal of England.

By insults and annoyances, the over-lord soon contrived to goad his vassal into revolt; and he made this an excuse for overrunning Scotland

with an army and subduing it to himself. Baliol was dethroned, and Scotland was placed in the hands of English governors.

7.    But the Scots did not tamely submit to the English yoke. Eirst, William Wallace arose to be the champion of Scottish independence. He defeated the English governor at Stirling Bridge in 1297. Soon not an English soldier remained north of the Tweed, and Wallace was elected Governor of Scotland.

For eight years, in spite of the coldness and jealousy of the old nobility, and the treachery of the English, he nobly maintained Scotland’s cause. At last he was betrayed by a false friend, and hanged in London (1305).

8.    Then Robert Bruce (the younger) claimed the crown. He had a rival in the Red Comyn. But Comyn made a secret compact with Bruce, to help him to secure the crown on condition of receiving Bruce’s lands.

Comyn betrayed this compact to Edward. Bruce stabbed Comyn in the Greyfriars’ Church at Dumfries. This rash deed of bloodshed committed Bruce to making Scotland’s cause his own.

He was crowned at Scone in 1306. Reverses compelled him for a time to retire to the north of Ireland ; but he soon returned, and by an unbroken series of successes, he recovered nearly the whole of Scotland. His work was made much easier by the death of Edward I. in 1307; and in a few years he expelled the English garrisons from every fortress in Scotland, except Stirling Castle alone.

Edward II. made a great effort to relieve Stirling; but the great victory of Bannockburn (1314) not only led to the surrender of Stirling, but completely broke the fetters with which, for upwards of twenty years, the English had held Scotland in bondage {see page 168).

The independence of Scotland was formally acknowledged by an English Parliament at York in 1328. In 1329, Robert Bruce died.

9.    While Edward III. was engaged in his French war, David II. of Scotland, the Bruce’s son, led an army into England. But Queen Philippa, marching northward, met him at Nevil’s Cross, where he was not only beaten, but also made prisoner. He obtained his freedom, after a captivity of eleven years, by promising a very large ransom.

He tried to sell the independence of his country by making the English king his heir, in return for the remission of his ransom. But the Scottish people were so indignant and furious when they heard of the base bargain, that it had to be given up.


1. When were Northumberland and I land ? By whom were they regained Cumberland annexed by treaty to Scot- I for England ?

2.    Who attempted to recover them for Scotland? With what result? What was William obliged to do, besides resigning his claim to these counties ? When and how was the English claim given up?

3.    How did Henry III. try to recover it? With what success?

4.    Who had possession of the Scottish isles at this time ? How did they harass the Scottish kings? Who determined to subdue them ? What did he therefore do ? To whom did the expelled Danes complain ? What did Haco do ? Where was he defeated? How was the peace between the Scots and the Norsemen confirmed?

5.    How did Alexander III. die ? Who succeeded him ? What proposal did the King of England make ? What prevented its accomplishment ? What struggle then began ?

6.    Who were the chief competitors ? Who was made umpire ? Whom did he place on the throne? On what condition ? Why did Edward insult and annoy Baliol ? What did he make that an excuse for ? What were the consequences ?

7.    Who was the first champion of Scottish independence? Where did he defeat the English governor ? How long did he maintain the struggle? What had he to encounter ? What was his end ?

8.    Who was the second Scottish cham

pion ? Who was his rival for the crown ? Why did Bruce stab Comyn ? Where was Bruce crowned ? What had he to do for a time ? What made his work easier? What was the last English garrison in Scotland? Who made a great effort to relieve it ? What battle was fought? With wThat result? When was the independence of Scotland formally acknowledged ?    .

9.    What befell David II. ? How did he obtain his freedom ? How did he try to escape from paying his ransom ? What prevented this bargain from being completed ?


1154 A.D. to 1400 A.D.

LEADING FEATUREInternal Strife leading to English Intervention.

1.    When Dermot, King of Leinster, was driven from his throne by O’Connor, he asked Henry II. to allow him to seek the aid of liis subjects in order to recover it. Henry readily gave his consent, hoping thereby to gain the island for himself.

The chief of the Englishmen who agreed to join Dermot were Fitzstephen, Fitzgerald, and Richard le Clare, Earl of Pembroke, sur-named Strongbow.

2.    Dermot recovered his throne, but his English allies were loath to depart. He had promised to make Strongbow his heir, if he regained his crown; so Strongbow now married Eva, Dermot’s daughter; and as Dermot died soon after, the English adventurer became master of Leinster, and prepared to extend his authority over all Ireland.

Henry II., jealous of the success of his own subjects, then crossed the sea, and spent a few months at Dublin, where he received homage from every part of the island except the north (1171-1172). Thus did the English power obtain its first footing in the island.

3.    But Ireland was not yet wholly subdued. Not more than one-third

of the country—chiefly the coasts on the east and south—owned English authority. This part of Ireland, called the Pale, was subjected to English law in the reign of King John.

4.    A desperate but unsuccessful effort to recover their lost independence was made by the Prince of Connaught and O’Neill of Tyrone in the reign of Henry III.

The English barons settled in Ireland showed a brutal tyranny towards the natives, and a savage jealousy of each other. The latter feeling broke out into open strife in the time of Edward I., and the land was reduced to a most wretched condition.

5.    Robert Bruce sympathized with the down-trodden Irish, and wished to see them freed from the English yoke. He therefore encouraged his brother Edward Bruce (1315) to invade Ulster at the head of 6000 men.

The Irish flocked to his banner, and he inflicted several severe defeats on the English. But he was defeated and slain at Fagher, near Dundalk ; and the hopes of Ireland for delivery by Scottish help were at an end.

6.    As the descendants of the first English settlers had come to be on friendly terms with the natives, it was resolved, in the reign of Edward III., to exclude the former from office, and to import a fresh set of Englishmen to fill their places.

A bitter feud thus arose between these new comers and the old English settlers, who naturally allied themselves with the native Irish.

This, as wrell as an Act called the Statute of Kilkenny, forbidding the English and Irish to intermarry, weakened very much the hold of the English upon Ireland; and of the twelve counties which formed the Pale under John, only four submitted to the English law under Edward III.

Richard II. made two attempts to re-establish the English authority in Ireland by force of arms, but he was only partially successful; and he returned to England on the second occasion to find himself discrowned.    _


1.    What led the English to interfere in Irish affairs? Why did Henry II. agree to Dermot’s request ? Who were the chief Englishmen who joined him ?

2.    What was the result of the enterprise? What promise had Dermot made to Strongbow ? How was it confirmed ? Who then crossed to Ireland? What part of the country withheld its homage?

3.    What part of the country chiefly owned English authority ? What was it called? When was it subjected to English law ?

4.    Who made a determined effort to recover their independence ? How did the English barons treat the natives? What feeling did they show towards each other? When did this lead to open strife ?

5.    Who sympathized with the Irish ? Whom did he encourage to invade Ulster ? In what year ? With how many men? How was he received by the Irish ? AVhat was the result of the expedition ?

6.    Why were more Englishmen sent over to Ireland in Edward the Third’s reign? What feud did this cause? Whom did the old English settlers join? AVhat did the Statute of Kilkenny forbid? Of how many counties did the Pale then consist ? How many in the reign of John? AATio attempted to re-establish English authority in Ireland? AVith what success ?


Battle of Bannockburn (Edward

II. )...........................1314

Battle of Halidon Hill (Edward

III. )........................ 1333

Battle of Cre^y (Edward III.).....1346

Battle of Nevil’s Cross (Edward


Calais taken (Edward III.)........1347

Battle of Poictiers (Edward III.).. 1356 Tyler’s Rebellion (Richard II.)..,. 1381


John Gower—moral poet—died a.d. 1408.

Geoffrey Chaucer—father of English poetry—wrote Canterbury Tales —died a.d. 1400.

John AA^ycliffe— first English Reformer—translated the Bible—died a.d. 1384.

John Barbour—wrote The Acts of Robert Bruce, about a.d. 1376.




De-nounced', threatened. En-hanced', increased. In-no-va-tion, change in usual custom.

Pri-va-tions, need ; destitution. Sub-ter-ra-ne-ous, under-ground Trun-dle-bed, a low bed, on wheels.

Somewhere about the year 1752, any one passing along a certain obscure alley in Preston, then a mere village, might have observed projecting from the entrance to the under-ground flat of one of the houses a blue and white pole, with a battered tin plate dangling at the end of it.

The object of the sign was to intimate that if any one wanted his hair cut, or his chin shaved, he had only to step down-stairs, and the owner of the sign would be delighted to accommodate him.

But Richard Arkwright, the owner of the pole and plate, had few opportunities of displaying his talents. He spent most of his time in whetting his razors on a long piece of leather, and in keeping the hot water and the soap ready for customers who seldom or never came.

As he sat one night, before tumbling into his trundle-bed,* meditating on the 'hardness of the times, a bright idea struck him. If he could not get customers to come to him to be shaved for twopence—then the standard charge—it occurred to him that they might be induced to try his powers

if he asked a lower fee. Accordingly, the next morning the attractions of the sign-pole were enhanced/ by a staring placard, bearing the urgent invitation :—

Come to the


_ %

He Shaves for a Penny !!

As soon as this innovation* became known, we can fancy how indignant the fraternity were at the unprincipled conduct of one of their number—how they denounced* him, and prophesied his speedy ruin.

A number of people, tickled with the originality of the placard, and not unmindful of the penny saved, began to patronize the “ Subterraneous Barber; ” and he soon drew so many customers away from the higher-priced shops that they were obliged to come down, after a while, to a penny as well. Not to be outdone, Arkwright lowered his charge to a half-penny, and so retained his rank as the cheapest barber in the place.

Arkwright’s parents had been very poor people ; and as he was the youngest of a family of thirteen, it may be readily supposed that all the schooling he got was of the most meagre kind,—if, indeed, he ever was at school at all. He was of a very ardent temperament, however, and when he once took a thing in hand, he stubbornly persevered in carrying it through to the end.

About the year 1760, being 'then nearly thirty years of age, Arkwright got tired of the shaving, which brought him but a very scanty livelihood, and

(31)    1 4

resolved to try his fortune in a trade where there was more scope for his activity. He therefore began business as a dealer in hair, travelling up and down the country to collect it, dressing it himself, and then disposing of it in a prepared state to the wig-makers.

He throve so well, that in a short time he was able to lay by a little money and to marry. H$ was very fond of spending what leisure time he had in making experiments in mechanics; and for a while he was very much taken up with an attempt to solve the attractive problem of perpetual motion. Although he of course left the question unsolved, the bent thus given to his thoughts had most valuable consequences.

Living in the midst of a manufacturing population, Arkwright was accustomed to hear daily complaints of the difficulty of procuring sufficient yarn to keep the looms employed, and of the restriction thus placed on the manufacture of cotton goods. Being of a mechanical turn, he was led to think how the difficulty might be lessened, if not got rid of altogether.

Arkwright, assisted by a clock-maker of the name of Kay, soon became so engrossed in his new task, and so confident of success, that he began to neglect his regular business. All his thoughts, and nearly all his time, were given up to the great work he had taken in- hand. His trade fell off; he spent all his savings in buying materials for1 models, and in getting them put together ; and he got into very poor circumstances.

His wife reasoned with him on what she considered his foolishness, but in vain ; and one day,

in a rage at what she believed to be the cause of all their privations,* she broke some of his models. Such an outrage was more than Arkwright could bear, and they separated.

In 1768, Arkwright, having completed the model of a machine for spinning cotton thread, removed to Preston. At this time he had hardly a penny in the .world, and was almost in rags. On the occasion of a contested election, the party with whom he voted had to supply him with a decent suit of clothes before he could present himself at the polling-booth ! He got leave, however, to set up his machine in the dwelling-house attached to the Free Grammar School; but, afraid of the hostility of the spinners, he thought it best to leave Lancashire, and go to Nottingham.

Poor and friendless, it may easily be supposed that Arkwright found it a hard matter to get any one to back him in a speculation which people then regarded as hopeless. He at length succeeded in convincing Messrs. Need and Strutt, stocking-weavers in the place, of the value of his invention, and induced them to enter into partnership with him. In 1769 he took out a patent for the spinning-frame as its inventor, and a mill, worked by horse-power, was erected for spinning cotton by the new machine.

In a year or two, the success of Arkwright’s invention was fairly established. The manufacturers were fully alive to its importance ; and Arkwright now reaped the reward of all the toil 'and danger he had undergone, in the shape of a disgraceful attempt to rob him of his patent rights.

\ • ,

Besides trying to defraud him, the rival manufacturers did their best to discountenance the use of the yarns he made, although they were much superior to those made by them. Arkwright retaliated by working up his own yarn into stockings and calicoes ; which became a very profitable business.

For the first five years, Arkwright’s mills yielded little or no profit ; but after that, the adverse tide against which he had struggled so bravely turned, and he followed a prosperous and honourable career till his death. He died in 1792, leaving a fortune of about half a million sterling !

Questions.—What was Arkwright’s first trade? Where was his shop ? About what time was that ? What placard did he hang out one morning ? With what result ? What did the other barbers do ? What did he then do? What trade did he next try? With what success ? How did he spend his leisure time ? What complaint did he often hear? What did he think of trying ? Who joined him ? Why did his wife leave him Ì Where did he go when he had completed his model ? Why did he leave Preston Ì Where did he go ? Who entered into partnership with him ? How did the manufacturers try to injure him ? What was the result of the first five years of his mills ? What after that ? When did he die ? What fortune did he leave ?

Pronounce in syllables :—

pro-ject-ing    dis-play-ing    in-dig-nant    me-chan-i-cal

de-light-ed    cus-tom-ers    un-prin-ci-pled    im-port-ance

ac-com-mo-date tem-per-a-ment ex-per-i-ments dis-coun-te-nance op-por-tu-ni-ties    med-i-tat-ing    con-se-quence    pros-per-ous


Sir Richard Arhwright, born at Preston in 1732, invented the spinning-frame in 1769.

As hand-labour was thereby dispensed with, and the production of yarn was greatly accelerated, he may be considered the founder of the cotton manufacture.


Am-bi-ent, surrounding Bald-ric, belt.

Ben-i-son, blessing.

Buck-ler, shield.

Cres-cent, the emblem of the Turkish power.

Dight, adorned.

Fane, temple: Melrose Abbey, in which the heart of Bruce was buried.

Gage, pledge ; namely, the royal heart Mel-ee, a confused fight.

Mos-lem, Mussulman, or Mohammedan.

Os-myn, the Moorish King or SultaD of Granada.    %

Phil-ip of Valois, King of France Recks, matters.

Sluys, a port in Holland

A galley seeks the port of Sluys,*

And o’er the azure wave Rode never bark more fair than she, More royal and more brave.

The white sails swelling to the breeze Are mirrored in those summer seas,

As ocean birds with snowy wing O’er the blue deep their shadows fling ; And round the prow the dancing spray Blushes to catch the sunny ray,

And melts in ambient* air away.

High on the prow a warrior band In trim array are seen to stand;

Banner and pennon, sword and spear, And mace and battle-axe are there; And crested helm, and armour bright, Buckler* and baldric* richly dight.* They do not come with sword and lance To devastate the fields of France;

Nor, led by policy, resort A mission to King Philip’s* court:

They come not with rich merchandise To seek the crowded mart;

But pilgrims to Jerusalem,

They bear King Robert’s heart.

And chief among the gallant throng Was Douglas—he for whom so long Woke the wild harp of Scottish song;

Whom still a fond tradition names With benison,* “ The good Sir James.”—

He was both bold and blithe of mood,

Of faith unstained, and lineage good ;

Loyal of heart and free of hand As any knight in Christian land;

Fair largess he to minstrels gave,

And loved the faithful and the brave.

So many graces did commend

The knight who was King Robert's friend.

* * * *

For as in Cardross’ sea-washed tower He stood beside the bed Whereon, in life’s departing hour,

Was good King Robert laid,—

Whose failing breath and nerveless form Bespoke him brother of the worm,

While visions of the days gone by Flitted before his glazing eye,

And the old monarch’s failing breath Spoke of the fast approach of death—

Brave Douglas kissed the feeble hand That once had fought for fair Scotland,

And pledged his knightly word That he the Bruce’s heart would bear • Unto the Holy Sepulchre Of our most blessed Lord.

[.Alphonso, King of Castile, induced the Douglas to fight with him against the Moors of Granada. ]

On rushed the Douglas—never knight More valiant sought the field of fight.

Amidst the fray his snowy crest Danced like the foam on ocean’s breast :

Like lightning brand his broad-sword flashed, And foemen bent and helmets crashed !

With stalwart arm and giant form He charged like spirit of the storm !

And, as upon the mountain side,

So late the trackless forest’s pride,

Uprooted by the wintry blast,

The prostrate sapling oaks are cast;

So where he spread his dread career Bent Moslem* crest and Moslem spear;

While ever ;midst the melee,* high And clear pealed forth his battle cr}\

It seemed, indeed, a spell of power Nerved Douglas’ arm that fatal hour;

For, lo ! to his faithful bosom pressed, %

In its jewelled casket of orient gold,

The heart that once throbbed in the Bruce’s breast Was borne into fight by that baron bold.

Marvel ye, then, that his arm was strong ?

That he humbled the pride of the Moslem throng ? That where’er he turned, from his dreaded track The Moors, in their wild dismay, drew back ?•

* * * *

“ Pass on, brave heart, as thou wert wont

The embattled hosts before :

Douglas will die or follow thee

To conquest, as of yore !”

They met, they closed ; dread was the strife—

More dear the gage* than fame or life :

There, foot to foot, and hand to hand,

They stood opposed, and brand crossed brand!

Steel rang on steel—the war-steeds’ tread

Trampled the dying and the dead;

The lurid clouds of dust on high

Bose eddying to the darkened sky;

The vulture snuffed the scent of blood,

And, screaming, roused her loathsome brood.

But the pale Crescent* waned—the host

Of Osmyn* saw the battle lost;

And loath to fly, but forced to yield,

Abandoned sullenly the field.

Where was the Douglas ?—-On the plain They found him, ’midst the heap of slain Faithful in death, his good right hand Held with firm grasp his broken brand;

While, o’er the sacred casket laid,

A bulwark of his corse he made.

And deem ye not, though fallen there,

The dying Douglas breathed a prayer For that far land he loved the best,—

The land where Bruce’s ashes rest;—

For Scotland’s worth, and Scotland’s weal;

For truth to guide, for peace to heal;

For freedom and for equal laws,

And men to strive for freedom’s cause ?

The fane* is fallen, the rite is o’er,

The choral anthem peals no more;

The moonbeam strays through nave and aisle,

And the verdant ivy clings round the pile.

It recks* not—like dew ’neath the sunny ray,

The crumbling fabric may pass away ;

It recks not—for deep in the patriot’s breast The names of his country’s heroes rest;

And a thrill of pride it will aye impart,

That Scottish earth wraps the prince’s heart.

Lady Flora Hastings.

Questions.—What was Bruce’s dying request to Lord James Douglas ? Where did Douglas fight on his way to Palestine ? What befell him there ? How did he address the royal heart, before he fell ? Where was the casket found after the battle ? Where was it at last deposited ?


King Robert Bruce, on his death-bed, at Cardross on the Clyde, charged Lord Douglas to bury his heart in Jerusalem. Douglas, faithful to his promise, sailed for the Holy Land; but on the Spanish plains, near Gibraltar, he died in battle with the Moors.

When he saw that death was certain, he threw the king’s heart among the enemy, crying, “ Pass first in fight, as thou wert wont to do, and Douglas will follow thee or die. ”



Clear-ing, a space cleared of trees. En-gines, military machines for throwing missiles.

Gal-leys, low flat-built boats navigated with oars.

Le-gion, a body of infantry, of from three to five thousand men.

Quern (kwern), a flour-mill turned by the hand.

Stock-ade', fence made of stakes.

It was the afternoon of a September day* and the forest leaves were already touched with the first tints of autumn, when Julius Caesar’s fleet of eighty ships drew up off the shore of Kent. The natives lined the beach with horse, foot, and chariots, and stood prepared to defend their island home. The Roman soldiers, clad as they were in heavy plate-armour of brass, and afraid of being struck down before they could gain firm footing, hesitated to leap into the water.

Caesar opened on the Britons a heavy discharge of stones and darts from the engines* used in sieges, which his galleys* had on board. This made the enemy give back a little. Still the soldiers hesitated to leap from the ships. Then the standard-bearer of the tenth legion,* crying “Leap, comrades, unless you wish to see your standard taken by the enemy! ” sprang overboard, and began to carry forward the standard.

Roused by his example, the whole twelve thousand soldiers dashed at once into the sea. The Britons met them in the water. A fierce and deadly struggle took place, and much brave blood reddened the waves. Gradually the Romans fought their way to land. They formed and charged, and the terrible rush of their disciplined battalions swept the Britons before them.

Roman province, the Romans possessed no land north of the Solway Firth.

This was the beginning of the Roman invasion of Britain. Nearly a century and a half passed after this, however, before they invaded Scotland. Up to the year 80 after Christ, while nearly the whole of England had been reduced to the condition of a


\/Tn that year, Agricola, governor of the province, led an army across the border, and began to hew his way into the Caledonian forests. The wary general advanced slowly, and secured his ground as he advanced, by building forts in commanding situations. The native tribes struggled bravely against the formidable invader, but having little union or combination among themselves, they were taken singly, and o.vercome in detail. The Romans carried on their operations with merciless vigour. Tacitus, Agricola’s son-in-law, who writes an account of his life, tells us that it was his policy to overcome the Britons by the terror of his ravages. We understand what that means.

Yonder, for example, in a forest clearing,* is a native village, fenced with its ditch and stockade* of posts. It has children playing, cattle feeding, and patches of growing corn. The women sing the quern-song as they grind the meal for the evening repast in the quern* or hand-mill. Some of the men

are doing a little smith-work, or bit of homely carpentry ; others are away hunting.

Suddenly, at the edge of the forest, there is a gleam as of the sun s rays on polished metal. A body of armed men, sheathed in brass, issue from the wood, and sweep across the clearing, their burnished mail Hashing as they go. The lightsome quern-song changes into shrieks of terror. The villagers close the gate of their stockade, and grasp their bows. The arrows shot through the openings of the posts rattle vainly against the strong plate-armour of the assailants. The gate goes down before the strokes of the axe ; sword and torch do the rest. The cattle are driven away, and the crops destroyed.

The village hunters, alarmed by the smoke seen rising high over the forest, hasten back, and find a waste of blackened ruin, with the women and children wailing over the slain.

Yonder, again, is a British hill-fort. It is provided with ditch and rampart, and the natives have gathered their families and most valuable effects into it for security. The Romans have come to the foot of the hill, and prepare to carry the fort by storm. They form a “tortoise” as they called it; that is to say, they advance to the attack covered with their great shields, overlapping each other like the plates in the shell of the tortoise, or as slates do on a roof.

They take their way up the^ hill with swift and firm tread. The shower of darts and arrows, from the rampart above, falls harmless on the roof of shields. The defenders loosen a block of stone on


the bill-top, and roll it over. The mass comes thundering down, crashes through the “tortoise,” and leaves behind it a ghastly and bloody lane. The stern assailants close up their cleft roof without delaying their rapid advance for a moment. They reach the ditch, push planks and ladders across it, storm over the rampart, and put the defenders to the sword to the last man.

Such, no doubt, was the style of the Roman doings. In three of these stern campaigns Agricola penetrated to the Firths of Forth and Clyde. These two arms of the sea run so far inland that the distance between them, from water to water, is less thaD

forty miles. Across this neck of land Agricola built a chain of forts at regular intervals. This line of fortified posts was meant to defend the conquered territory against the warlike tribes of the north.

Dreading an attack from the northern tribes, Agricola resolved to strike them within their own bounds. Leaving his fortified line, and crossing the Forth at Queensferry, he advanced northward through Fife. The clans rose for the defence of their country against the fierce people whose lust of dominion had brought them so far; and they put a chief named Galgacus at their head.

What manner of man he was who has come down to us under this name, what life he lived, or what death he died, we have no means of knowing; but the man around whom these old clans gathered, to bleed and die for country and freedom, must have had in him some of the stuff of which heroes are made.

The Romans found the Caledonian army drawn up on the moor of Ardoch, in Perthshire, at the foot of the Grampian mountains (a.d. 84). Tacitus says that they were 30,000 strong—the Romans 26,000. The Caledonians fought with desperate courage, but the vastly superior discipline and arms of the Romans gave them every advantage.

They fought with a large, oblong shield, and a short, heavy sword, formed either to thrust or to cut. The Caledonians fought with small, round shields, and long, heavy swords without a point. The mighty downward stroke of the Caledonian sword was received on the upper edge of the Roman

shield. Pushing it up, the Roman plunged his short keen sword into the body of his adversary.

The Caledonians were defeated with great slaughter. Night alone put a stop to the carnage. Next morning 10,000 dead lay on the face of the moor. Agricola led back his army to the south.    Then,

when the retiring host was out of sight, the natives would venture down to search for their dead on the field of slaughter. The raven beat his wings and croaked hoarsely when disturbed in his feast; and the wolf looked up and growled fiercely when the widow

tried to scare him from the corpse of her husband.


Questions.—At what part of the coast did Julius Caesar land? Why did the Roman soldiers hesitate to leave their ships ? Who was the first to leap into the water ? Where did a fierce struggle take place? What gave the Romans the advantage ? How long was it after that before they invaded Scotland? Under what governor? What was his policy for overcoming the Britons ? Describe an attack on a native village ; and on a hill-fort. How far did Agricola penetrate into Scotland ? How did he defend the conquered territory ? In what great battle did he afterwards defeat the North Britons ? Where is Ardoch?

Who was the British leader ?

car-pen-try de-stroyed' val-u-a-ble se-cu-ri-ty





Pronounce in syllables:— hes-i-tat-ed    in-vad-ed

com-rades    Cal-e-do-ni-an

dis-ci-plined    com-mand-ing

bat-tal-ions    sit-u-a-tions

Dictation :—

Julius Caesar; during an interval in -his Gallic Wars, invaded Britain first in B. C. 55. He returned in the follobuing year; but the Romans did not plant themselves firmly in the island till the time of Agricola, A.D. 78-87.


Har-mo-ny, the musical art Mien, bearing; manner. Prog-e-ny, race; descendants

Dru-id, one of the priests of the ancient Britons; so called because they worshipped under the oak.

When the British warrior Queen.

Bleeding from the Roman rods, Sought, with an indignant mien,* Counsel of her country’s gods;

Sage beneath a spreading oak Sat the Druid,* hoary chief; Every burning word he spoke Full of rage and full of grief:—

• Princess ! if our aged eyes

Weep upon thy matchless wrongs, Tis because resentment ties All the terrors of our tongues.

“ Rome shall perish !—write that word In the blood that she has spilt! Perish, hopeless and abhorred,

Deep in ruin as in guilt.

“ Rome, for empire far renowned, Tramples on a thousand states;

Soon her pride shall kiss the ground— Hark ! the Gaul is at her gates!

u Other Romans shall arise,

Heedless of a soldier’s name; Sounds, not arms, shall win the prize, Harmony* the path to fame.


<c Then the progeny* that springs From the forests of our land,

Armed with thunder, clad with wings, Shall a wider world command.

“ Regions Caesar never knew Thy posterity shall sway ; Where his eagles never flew— None invincible as they.”—

Such the bard’s prophetic words.

Pregnant with celestial tire, Bending as he swept the chords Of his sweet but awful lyre.

She, with all a monarch’s pride,

Felt them in her bosom glow ; Rushed to battle, fought, and died,— Dying, hurled them at the foe :

“ Ruffians! pitiless as proud,

Heaven awards the vengeance due : Empire is on us bestowed,—

Shame and ruin wait for you !”


Pronounce in syllables:— in-dig-nant

















Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni, was shamefully scourged by the Romans, though her husband, at his death, had left them half his wealth.

She raised an army, to auenge her wrongs and deliuer the country. London was reduced to ashes, and seventy thousand Romans were massacred.

The Roman general auenged this cruelty in a great battle, in which eighty thousand Britons were killed.

Boadicea poisoned herself rather than fall into the hands of her enemies.



Bal-dric, belt or girdle.

Brag-g'art, boaster.

Cra-ven, coward.

Dis-com-fit-ure, defeat. New-mar-ket, the head-quarters of racing in England.

No-ble, a gold coin, value 6s. 8d. O-ver-Shoot', shoot better than ; excel in shooting.

Per-emp-tor-y, positive; unavoid-Serfs, vassals; slaves. ^ [able. Sil-van, belonging to the woods.

The yeomen and commons/’ said De Bracy, “ must not be dismissed discontented, for lack of their share in the sports.”

“The day,” said Waldemar, “is not yet very far spent—let the archers shoot a few rounds at * the target, and the prize be adjudged. This will be an abundant fulfilment of the prince’s promises, so far as this herd of Saxon serfs* is concerned.”

“I thank thee, Waldemar,” said the prince; “ thou remindest me, too, that I have a debt to pay to that insolent peasant who yesterday insulted our person.”

The sound of the trumpets soon recalled those spectators who had already begun to leave the field; and proclamation was made that Prince John, suddenly called by high and peremptory* public duties, held himself obliged to discontinue the entertainments of to-morrow’s festival; nevertheless, that, unwilling so many good yeomen should depart without a trial of skill, he was pleased to appoint them, before' leaving the ground, presently to execute the competition of archery intended for the morrow. To the best archer a prize was to be awarded, being a bugle-horn mounted with silver,

.31)    15



and a silken baldric* richly ornamented with a medallion of Saint Hubert, the patron of silvan* sport.

More than thirty yeomen at first presented themselves as competitors, several of whom were rangers and under-keepers in the royal forests of Need wood and Charnwood. When, however, the archers understood with whom they were to be matched, upwards of twenty withdrew themselves from the contest, unwilling to encounter the dishonour of almost certain defeat. For in those days the skill of each celebrated marksman was as well known, for many miles around him, as the qualities of a horse trained at Newmarket" are familiar to those who frequent that well-known meeting.

The diminished list of competitors for silvan fame still amounted to eight. Prince John stepped from his royal seat to view more closely the persons of these chosen yeomen, several of whom wore the royal livery. Having satisfied his curiosity by this investigation, he looked for the object of his resentment, whom he observed standing on the same spot, and with the same composed countenance which he had exhibited upon the preceding day.

“Fellow,” said Prince John, “I guessed by thy insolent babble thou wert no true lover of the longbow, and I see thou darest not adventure thy skill among such merry-men as stand yonder.”

“ Under favour, sir,” replied the yeoman, “I have another reason for refraining to shoot, besides fearing discomfiture* and disgrace.”

“ And what is thy other reason ? ” said Prince

John, who, for some cause which perhaps he could not himself have explained, felt a painful curiosity respecting this individual.

Because,” replied the woodsman, “ I know not if these yeomen and I are used to shoot at the same marks; and because, moreover, I know not how your Grace might relish the winning of a third prize by one who has unwittingly fallen under your displeasure.”

Prince John coloured as he put the question, “ What is thy name, yeoman ? ”

“Locksley,” answered the yeoman.

“Then, Locksley,” said Prince John, “thou shalt shoot in thy turn, when these yeomen have displayed their skill. If thou earnest the prize, I will add to it twenty nobles ;* but if thou losest it, thou shalt be stripped of thy Lincoln green, and scourged out of the lists with bow-strings, for a wordy and insolent braggart.”*

“And how if I refuse to shoot on such a wager?” said the yeoman.—“Your Grace’s power, supported as it is by so many men-at-arms, may indeed easily strip and scourge me, but cannot compel me to bend or to draw my bow.”

“ If thou refusest my fair proffer,” said the prince, “the provost of the lists shall cut thy bow-string, break thy bow and arrows, and expel thee from the presence as a faint-hearted craven.”*

“This is no fair chance you put on me, proud prince,” said the yeoman, “to compel me to peril myself against the best archers of Leicester and Staffordshire, under the penalty of infamy if they

should overshoot* me. Nevertheless, I will obey your pleasure.”

A target was placed at the upper end of the southern avenue which led to the lists. The contending archers took their station in turn at the bottom of the southern access; the distance between that station and the mark allowing full scope for what was called a shot at rovers. The archers, having previously determined by lot their order of precedence, were to shoot each three shafts in succession. The sports were regulated by an officer of inferior rank, termed the Provost of the Games; for the high rank of the marshals of the lists would have been held degraded had they condescended to superintend the sports of the yeomanry.

Sir Walter Scott.

tended the sports ?

Questions.—Why were the sports to be discontinued? What did Waldemar propose? What prize was to be given to the best archer? How many competitors were there at first? Why did a number with draw? How many remained? Whom did Prince John then address? What reasons did he give for not competing ? What was his name ? On what terms was he ordered to compete ? What mark was set for them to shoot at ? Who superin

Pronounce in syllables

in-di-vid-u-al    pre-ce-dence

un-wit-ting-ly con-de-scend-ed pre-vi-ous-ly    su-per-in-tend/

de-ter-mined    yeo-man-ry

dis-con-tent-ed com-pe-ti-tion ful-fil-ment    coun-te-nance

in-so-lent    ad-vent-ure

en-ter-tain^-ments re-frain-ing


The great pastime of the people in Norman England was archerg. They were euen bound by royal proclamation to practise it on Sundaysand holy-days, after diuine seruice.



Ju-bi-lee, a general shout Sith, since.

Wliit-tle, a small knife.

Buck-lers, the baldric, (fee., forming the prize.

Clout, the centre of the target.

One by one the archers, stepping forward, ^delivered their shafts yeoman-like and bravely. Of twenty-four arrows, shot in succession, ten were fixed in the target; and the others ranged so near it, that, considering the distance of the mark, it was accounted good archery. Of the ten shafts which hit the target, two within the inner ring were shot by Hubert, a forester in the service of Malvoisin; who was accordingly pronounced victorious.

“Now, Locksley,” said Prince John to the bold yeoman, with a bitter smile, “wilt thou try conclusions with Hubert, or wilt thou yield up bow, baldric, and quiver to the provost of the sports ? ”

“Sith* it be no better,” said Locksley, “I am content to try my fortune, on condition that when I have shot two shafts at yonder mark of Hubert’s, he shall be bound to shoot one at that which I shall propose.”

“That is but fair,” answered Prince John, “and it shall not be refused thee.—If thou dost beat this braggart, Hubert, I will fill the bugle with silver pennies for thee.”

“A man can do but his best,” answered Hubert;


“ but my grandsire drew a good long-bow at Hastings, and I trust not to dishonour his memory.”

The former target was now removed, and a. fresh

one of the same size placed in its room. Hubert, who, as victor in the first trial of skill, had the right to shoot first, took his aim with great deliberation, long measuring the distance with his eye, while he held in his hand his bended bow, with the arrow placed on the string.

At length he made a step forward, and raising the bow at the full stretch of his left arm, till the centre or grasping-place was nigh level with his face, he drew his bow-string to his ear. The arrow whistled through the air, and lighted within the inner ring of the target, but not exactly in the centre.

“You have not allowed for the wind, Hubert,” said his antagonist, bending his bow, “or that had been a better shot.”

So saying, and without showing the least anxiety to pause upon his aim, Locksley stepped to the appointed station, and shot his arrow as carelessly, in appearance, as if he had not even looked at the mark. He was speaking almost at the instant that the shaft left the bow-string, yet it alighted in the target two inches nearer to the white spot which marked the centre than that of Hubert.

Hubert resumed his place, and, not neglecting the caution which he had received from his adversary, he made the necessary allowance for a very light air of wind which had just arisen, and shot so successfully that his arrow alighted in the very centre of the target.

“A Hubert! a Hubert!” shouted the populace, more interested in a known person than in a



stranger. “In the clout !* in the clout!—a Hubert for ever! ”

“Thou canst not mend that shot, Locksley,” said the prince, with an insulting smile.

“ I will notch his shaft for him, however,” replied Locksley. And letting fly his arrow with a little more precaution than before, it lighted right upon that of his competitor, which it split to shivers ! The people who stood around were so astonished at his wonderful dexterity, that they could not even give vent to their surprise in their usual clamour. “Who can this be? ” whispered the yeomen to each other; “ such archery was never seen since a'bow was first bent in Britain.”

“ And now,” said Locksley, “ I will crave your Grace’s permission to plant such a mark as is used in the North Country, and welcome every brave yeoman who shall try a shot at it.”

He then turned to leave the lists. “ Let your guards attend me,” he said, “if you please—I go but to cut a rod from the next willow bush.”

Prince John made a signal that some attendants should follow him in case of his escape; but the cry of “Shame! shame!” which burst from the multitude, induced him to alter his ungenerous purpose.

Locksley returned almost instantly with a willow wand about six feet in length perfectly straight, and rather thicker than a man’s thumb. He began to peel this with great composure, observing, at the same time, that to ask a good' woodsman to shoot at a target so broad as had hitherto been used was to put shame upon his skill.

“For liis own part,” be said, “and in the land where he was bred, men would as soon take for their mark King Arthur’s round-table, which held sixty knights around it. A child of seven years old,” he said, “ might hit yonder target with a headless shaft; but,” added he, walking deliberately to the other end of the lists, and sticking the willow wand upright in the ground, “he that hits that rod at five-score yards, I call him an archer fit to bear both bow and quiver before a king, though it were the stout King Richard himself.”

“My grandsire,” said Hubert, “drew a good bow at the Battle of Hastings, and never shot at such a mark in his life—and neither will I. If this yeoman can cleave that rod, I give him the bucklers," •—or rather, I yield to the Evil One that is in him, and not to any human skill : a man can but do his best, and I will not shoot where I am sure to miss. I might as well shoot at the edge of our parson’s whittle,* or at a wheat straw, or at a sunbeam, as at a twinkling white streak which I can hardly see.”

“Cowardly dog!” said Prince John.—“Sirrah Locksley, do thou shoot; but if thou hittest such a mark, I will say thou art the first man that ever did so. Howe’er it be, thou shalt not crow over us with a mere show of superior skill.”

“ I will do my best, as Hubert says,” answered Locksley ; “no man can do more.”

So saying, he again bent his bow, but on the present occasion looked with attention to his weapon, and changed the string, which he thought was no

longer truly round, having been a little frayed by the two former shots He then took his aim with some deliberation, and the multitude awaited the event in breathless silence. The archer vindicated their opinion of his skill;—his arrow split the willow rod against which it was aimed ! A jubilee* of acclamations followed; and even Prince John, in admiration of Locksley’s skill, lost for an instant his dislike to his person.

“These twenty nobles,” he said, “which, with the bugle, thou hast fairly won, are thine own ; we will make them fifty, if thou wilt take livery and service with us as a yeoman of our body-guard, and be near to our person. For never did so strong a hand bend a bow, or so true an eye direct a shaft.”

“Pardon me, noble prince,” said Locksley ; “but I have vowed, that if I ever took service it should be with your royal brother, King Richard. These twenty nobles I leave to Hubert, who has this day drawn as brave a bow as his grandsire did at Hastings. Had his modesty not refused the trial, he would have hit the wand as well as I.”

Hubert shook his head as he received with reluctance the bounty of the stranger; and Locksley, anxious to escape further observation, mixed with the crowd, and was seen no more. SlK Walter Soott

Questions.—Who was pronounced victorious ? On what condition did Locksley agree to compete with him ? Where did Hubert’s first arrow light? Where did Locksley’s? And Hubert’s second? And Locksley’s second ? What mark did the latter then set up? What did Hubert say when asked to shoot at it ? What success had Locksley ? What offer did Prince John then make to him? What did he reply? What did he do with the twenty nobles ?


Bale-fire, signal-fire.

Barn (Sc.), streamlet. De-lir-i-um, raving.

Din-na ye (Sc.), do you not. Gow-an-gem (Sc.), the daisy. Hur-tles, sounds loudly, clashes.

Lea, meadow.

Pi-broch (pe-broch), the martial music of the Scottish bagpipe.

Slo-gan (Sc.), war-cry, gathering-word Swart, black.

Tru-ant, wandering

[The incident on which this spirited piece is founded is said to have occurred while the British were besieged in Lucknow, during the Indian Mutiny, and when despair was at its height. Jessie Brown, the wife of a corporal, had all through the siege been in a state of high excitement, and was labouring under a constant fever. “At last,” says the lady correspondent of the Pays, “she lay down on the ground and fell into a profound slumber, her head resting in my lap. 1 myself could no longer resist the inclination to sleep, in spite of the continual roar of cannon. Suddenly I was aroused by a wild, unearthly scream, close to my ear. My companion stood upright beside me, her arms raised, and her head bent forward in the attitude of listening. A look of intense delight broke over her countenance. She grasped my hand, drew me towards her, and exclaimed, ‘ Dinna ye hear it ? dinna ye hear it ? Ay, I’in no dreamin’: it’s the slogan o’ the Highlanders ! We’re saved ! we’re saved ! ’ It is to be regretted that subsequent information threw discredit on this romantic story; yet even with this drawback the editor cannot refrain from inserting the poem.]

In her veins the red river is fast running high,

The bale-fire* of fever is lit in her eye;

And by Reason unmastered her truant* thoughts roam— Roam o’er the ocean-wave, back to her home.

There, where the gowan-gem* spangles the lea ;*

There, where the laughing burn* flits to the sea ;

There is she waiting the set of the sun,

For the ploughman’s return when the ploughing is done!

“ Wake me,” she said, “ when the ploughing is done,

And my father returns at the set of the sun.”

Wrapped in her Highland plaid, sunk on the sod, She’s asleep—she is still—Is her spirit with God? Breathless and motionless, there doth she lie,

While the boom of the battle-field hurtles* on high;

And still as she lies, round the walls of the dwelling All wildly a host of black demons is yelling.

Why springs she from earth as the hind from her lair! What meaneth that scream as an eagle’s in air ?

“ Dinna* ye hear it? What! dinna ye hear?

O God, we are saved! for the clansmen are near.”

Was it only an echo borne down on the air?

Was it only the hope that is born of despair?

Was it only the dream that delirium* may bring,

When the wild brood of fancy is all on the wing ?

Was it only—’Tis false ! She’s awake ! She is sane !—

“ What! dinna ye hear it? I hear it again !

’Tis the pibroch* Diarmid played ages ago—

’Tis the slogan* Clan Alpine still hurls on the foe!

The Campbells are coming ! M‘Gregor is near !—    •

Oh! dinna ye hear it yet? dinna ye hear?”

They are come, the avengers ! Their bayonets gleam !

It was not delirium, it was not a dream.

They are come ! they are come ! Of that Highland array Is it maid, is it matron, that pointeth the way ?

Shamed, outraged, maimed, murdered, their phantoms arise, But shrink in their shame from their countrymen’s eyes! By each warrior’s side a child-cherub hath stood,

And it pointeth—“ its bright hair ” all “ dabbled with blood;”    '

And the bayonet gleams, and with yell of despair,

At each thrust a swart* demon flies back to his lair.

Professor Webb.

Pronounce in syllables:—




fe-ver    laugh-ing    clans-men

un-mas-tered    plough-man    a-veng-ers

span-gles    breath-less    bay-on-ets


The Mutiny at Lucknow broke out on May 30, 1857.


The British besieged in the Residency were joined by Havelock and Outram on Sept. 23. The garrison was finally rescued by Sir Colin Campbell on Nov. 17.


Ac -cu-mu-la-tion, collection; heaping De-vot-ed, doomed.    [up.

Fran-tic, wild; mad-like.

Per-cep-ti-ble, able to be seen. Pro-trac-tion, drawing out; prolong ing of misery.

The most striking feature of North America is the vast chain of lakes which separates Canada from the United States.

Lake Superior, the greatest of these inland seas, is the largest body of fresh water in the world. The four other principal lakes are, Lakes Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario; from the last of which issues the noble river St. Lawrence, which runs an uninterrupted course of seven hundred miles before it reaches the Atlantic. There is thus a continuous current from the most remote tributary of Lake Superior to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, a distance of more than two thousand miles.

Lakes Erie and Ontario are united by the river Niagara, the length of which is thirty-three and a half miles. On this river, about twenty miles from Lake Erie, the celebrated Falls are situated.

The Niagara, as it leaves Lake Erie, is three quarters of a mile in width. Before reaching the falls it is one mile broad, and twenty-five feet deep, and flows with great swiftness. An island, on the verge of the cataract, divides it into two sheets of water. One of these, called from its shape the Horse-shoe Fall, is six hundred yards wide and one hundred and fifty-eight feet in height. The other, called the American Fall, is two hundred yards wide and one hundred and sixty-four feet high.

About once in ten years—generally in January or in the beginning of February—the ice at the foot of the falls makes a complete bridge from the one shore to the other. A great frozen mass, of irregular shape, is formed on the edge next to the cataract, from blocks of ice being forced under the surface and raising it up, and from the accumulation* of frozen spray.

When this -breaks up in the spring, the crashing of the several fragments, driven together by the force of the waters, rivals the noise of the falls themselves. In a mild winter, the ice of Lake Erie sometimes breaks up, and large pieces float over the falls. These are smashed to atoms, and rise to the surface .in immense quantities of a substance like wetted snow. A severe night's frost binds this into a solid mass, and forms a large portion of the bridge.

The rise and fall of the great body of the water is very slight at any season ; but, as you watch the plunging stream, it seems to tumble down sometimes in gushes, as if every now and then an additional influence came into play.

About the centre of the Horse-shoe, or Canadian Fall, there is a clear, unbroken spout of water, twenty feet in depth before its leap. For seventy feet below, it continues deep, and of a pure blue ; presently it becomes shrouded in a soft spray, which waves like a plume in the wind, at times tinted with all the colours of the rainbow. When the weather is very calm, this beautiful mist rises to a great height into the air, becoming finer by degrees, till at last it is no longer perceptible.*

There is already a list of fearful accidents at this place, though frequented by civilized man for so short a time. The last few years have been fertile in them. Perhaps the most frightful of all was one which happened in May 1843.

A Canadian villager was engaged in dragging sand from the river three miles above the falls. Seated in his cart, he backed the horses into the water, ignorant of the depth. The cart sank ; but a box on which he sat floated, and was soon driven by a high wind from the land into the strong but smooth current. He was unable to swim, but he clung to the box.

A boat was on the shore ; but, by the mismanagement of the bystanders, it was let loose into the stream, and floated past the unhappy man, empty and useless. There was no other for two miles lower down. Beyond that point aid was impossible.

The people on the banks, instead of hastening to get a boat ready to meet him lower down, ran along the shore talking to him of help, which their stupidity rendered of no avail. He knew that he was doomed. “I’m lost! I’m lost!” sounded fainter and fainter as the distance widened.

This dreadful protraction* lasted nearly an hour, the current being very slow. At first he scarcely appears to move ; but the strength’of the current increases, the waters become more troubled, he spins about in the eddies, still clinging with the energy of despair to his support. He passes close to an island—so close, that the box touches and stops for

one moment; but the next it twists slowly round, and is sucked into the current again.

The last hope is that a boat may be ready on the shore at his native village. It is vain; there are none there but frail canoes, and these are all high up on the bank. By the time that one of them is launched, the boldest boatman dares not embark.

Just above the falls, they see the devoted* victim whirled round and round in the foaming waves, appealing for aid with frantic* gestures. His frightful screams pierce through the dull roar of the torrent—“ I’m lost! I’m lost!”

He is now in the smooth flood of blue unbroken water, twenty feet in depth, in the centre of the Canadian Fall. Yet another moment, and he has loosed his hold. His hands are clasped, as if in prayer; his voice is silent. Smoothly, but quickly, as an arrow’s flight, he glides over, and is seen no more, nor any trace of him from that time. Warburton.

Questions. —Out of what lake does the river Niagara flow? What is its breadth as it leaves the lake? How broad does it become before reaching the falls? and how deep? What divides the cataract into two parts? What are they called? How wide is the Horse-shoe Fall? and how high ? How wide is the American Fall ? and how high ? What sometimes forms a bridge at the foot of the falls ? How often does this occur? At what point is the water resolved into a beautiful mist? To whom did the frightful accident in 1843 happen ? How did it occur ? On what was the man carried down the stream ? What mistake did the people on shore make ? What was his last act ?

Pronounce in Ni-ag^-ar-a




Jan-u-ar-y syllables:—





im-mense' sub-stance











The cataract of Niagara is diuided into two parts by an island on its verge.

One of these, called from its shape the Horse-shoe Fall, is six hundred yards wide and one hundred and fifty-eight feet in height.

The other, called the American Fall, is two hundred yards wide and one hundred and sixty-four feet high.


Re-sent-ment, anger ; wrath. | Un-a-vail-ing, useless ; vain

If Fortune, with a smiling face,

Strew roses on our way,

When shall we stoop to pick them up i— To-day, my friend, to-day.

But should she frown with face of care,

And talk of coming sorrow,

When shall we grieve, if grieve we must ?— To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

If those who have wronged us own their fault And kindly pity pray,

When shall we listen and forgive ?—

To-day, my friend, to-day.

But if stern justice urge rebuke,

And warmth from memory borrow,

When shall we chide, if chide we dare ?— To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

If those to whom we owe a debt Are harmed unless we pay,

When shall we struggle to be just ?—

To-day, my friend, to-day.

But if our debtor fail our hope,

And plead his ruin, thorough,

When shall we weigh his breach of faith ?— To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

For virtuous acts and harmless joys The minutes will not stay;—

We have always time to welcome them To-day, my friend, to-day.

But care, resentment,* angry words,

And unavailing* sorrow,    *

Come far too soon, if they appear

To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

Charles Mackay.

Questions.—When should we gather Fortune’s roses ? When grieve over her cares ? When should we forgive the penitent ? When should we chide them? When strive to pay our debts? When blame our debtor? When welcome virtuous acts and harmless joys? Mention the different things we should do to-day, and to-morrow. What things come too soon to-morrow ?

Pronounce in syllables

smil-ing    list-en    mem-o-ry    vir-tu-ous

sor-row    for-give'    debt-or    harm-less

kind-ly    jus-tice    thor-ough    wel-come


For virtuous acts and harmless joys The minutes will not stay We have always time to welcome them To-day my friend, to-day.

But care, resentment, angry wordsT And unavailing sorrow,

Borne, far too soon, if they appear To-morrow, friend, to-mprrow.


Lar-board, the left-hand side, looking forward.

Lay-to , slackened sail, and moved slowly.

Lee-ward, the side of a ship opposite

to the quarter from which the wind blows.

Scut-tle, hatchway; opening in the deck.

Stu-pen-dous, of wonderful size.

At twelve o’clock we went below, and had just got through dinner, when the cook put his head down the scuttle,* and told us to come on deck and see the finest sight that we had ever seen.

“ Where away, cook ? ” asked the first man who went up. “ On the larboard* bow.” And there lay, floating in the ocean several miles off, an immense irregular mass, its top and points covered with snow, and its centre of a deep indigo colour. This was an iceberg, one of the largest size, as one of our men said who had been in the Northern Ocean.

As far as the eye could reach, the sea in every direction was of a deep blue colour, the waves running high and fresh, and sparkling in the light; and in the midst lay this immense mountain-island, its cavities and valleys thrown into deep shade, and its points and pinnacles glittering in the sun.

All hands were soon on deck looking at it, and admiring in various ways its beauty and grandeur; but no description can give any idea of the strangeness, splendour, and real sublimity of the sight.

Its great size—for it must have been from two to three miles in circumference, and several hundred feet in height; its slow motion, as its base rose and sank in the water, and its high points nodded against the clouds ; the dashing of the waves upon

it, which, breaking high with foam, covered its base with a white crust; and the thundering sound of the cracking of the mass, and the breaking and tumbling down of huge pieces, together with its nearness and approach, which added a slight element of fear,—all combined to give it the character of true sublimity.

The main body of the mass was, as I have said, of an indigo colour; its base was crusted with frozen foam ; and as it grew thin and transparent towards the edges and top, its colour shaded off from a deep blue to the whiteness of snow. It seemed to be drifting slowly towards the north, so that we kept away and avoided it.

It was in sight all the afternoon ; and as we got to leeward* of it the wind died away, so that we lay-to* quite near it for the greater part of the night. Unfortunately there was no moon ; but it was a clear night, and we could plainly mark the long, regular heaving of the stupendous* mass, as its edges moved slowly against the stars.

Several times in our watch, loud cracks were heard, which sounded as though they must have run through the whole length of the iceberg; and several pieces fell down with a thundering crash, plunging heavily into the sea. Towards morning a strong breeze sprung up, so we filled away and left it astern, and at daylight it was out of sight, p

Questions. —At what distance was the iceberg seen ? With what was its top covered ? What colour was its centre ? What did its circumference measure? How high was it ? How did it move ? With what was its base covered ? What caused the thundering sounds which came from it ? In what direction was it drifting ? What did the ship do during the night ? When did it leave the iceberg ?

Pronounce in syllables :—





















Dictation    t

The sun beholds no mirror, in his race,

That shows a brighter image of his face; The stars, in their nocturnal uigi/s, rest Like signal fires on its illumined crest.



Cal-e-do-ni-a, Scotland. |    Pelf, riches

Breathes there a man with soul so dead.

Who never to himself hath said,

“ This is my own, my native land ! ”

Whose heart hath ne’er within him burned,

As home his footsteps he hath turned From wandering on a foreign strand ?

If such there be, go, mark him well:

For him no minstrel raptures swell,

High though his titles, proud his name,

Boundless his wealth as wish can claim:

Despite those titles, power, and pelf,*    .

The wretch, concentred all in self,

Living, shall forfeit fair renown ;

And, doubly dying, shall go down To the vile dust, from whence he sprung,

Unwept, unlionoured, and unsung.

O Caledonia ! * stern and wild,

Meet nurse for a poetic child !

Land of brown heath and shaggy wood,

Land of the mountain and the Hood,

Land of my sires! what mortal hand Can e’er untie the filial band That knits me to thy rugged strand!

Scott.—Lay of the Last Minstrel.

Pronounce in syllables:—

min-strel    de-spite'    for-feit    un-hon-oured

rap-tures    con-cen-tred    re-nown    po-et-ic


Sir Walter Scott was born at Edinburgh in 1771. His chief poems are “The Lay of the Last Minstrel, ” “Mar-mion,” and “The Lady of the lahe.” “ Wauerley/' the first of his noue/s, appeared in 1814. He died at Abbotsford in 1882.


En-hance-ment, increase in value. Trans-fixed', immovable; spell


Be-hold-en, indebted. De-vi-ous, crooked. Dis-cor-daiit, inharmonious.

In many respects the organ of touch, as embodied in the hand, is the most wonderful of the senses. The organs of the other senses are passive: the organ of touch alone is active. The eye, the ear, and the nostril stand simply open: light, sound, and fragrauce enter, and we are compelled to see, to hear, and to smell; but the hand selects what it shall touch, and touches what it pleases.

It puts away from it the things which it hates, and beckons towards it the things which it desires; unlike the eye, which must often gaze transfixed* at horrible sights from which it cannot turn ; and the ear, which cannot escape from the torture of discordant* sounds; and the nostril, which cannot protect itself from hateful odours.

Moreover, the hand cares not only for its own wants, but, when the other organs of the senses are rendered useless, takes their duties upon it. The hand of the blind man goes with him as an eye through the streets, and safely threads for him all the devious* way : it looks for him at the faces of his friends, and tells him whose kindly features are gazing on him; it peruses books for him, and quickens the long hours by its silent readings.

It ministers as willingly to the deaf; and when the tongue is dumb and the ear stopped, its fingers



speak eloquently to the eye, and enable it to discharge the unwonted office of a listener.


The organs of all the other senses, also, even in their greatest perfection, are beholden* to the hand for the enhancement* and the exaltation of their powers. It constructs for the eye a copy of itself, and thus gives it a telescope with which to range among the stars ; and by another copy on a slightly different plan, furnishes it with a microscope, and introduces it into a new world of wonders.

It constructs for the ear the instruments by which it is educated, and sounds them in its hearing till its powers are trained to the full. It plucks for the nostril the flower which it longs to smell, and distils for it the fragrance which it covets. As for the tongue, if it had not the hand to serve it, it might abdicate its throne as the Lord of Taste. In short, the organ of touch is the minister of its sister senses, and, without any play of words, is the handmaid of them all.

And if the hand thus munificently serves the body, not less amply does it give expression to the genius and the wit, the courage and the affection, the will and the power of man.

Put a sword into it, and it will fight for him ; put a plough into it, and it will till for him ; put a harp into it, and it will play for him; put a pencil into it, and it will paint for him ; put a pen into it, and it will speak for him, plead for him, pray for him.

What will it not do ? What has it not done ? A steam-engine is but a larger hand, made to extend

its powers by the little hand of man ! An electric telegraph is but a long pen for that little hand to write with ! All our huge cannons and other weapons of war, with which we so effectually slay our brethren, are only Cain’s hand made bigger, and stronger, and bloodier!

What, moreover, is a ship, a railway, a light-house, or a palace ; what, indeed, is a whole city, a whole continent of cities, all the cities of the globe, nay, the very globe itself, in so far as man has changed it, but the work of that giant hand, with which the human race, acting as one mighty man, has executed its will!

When I think of all that the human hand has wrought, from the day when Eve put forth her erring hand to pluck the fruit of the forbidden tree to that dark hour when the pierced hands of the Saviour of the world were nailed to the predicted tree of shame, and of all that human hands have done of good and evil since, I lift up my hand and gaze upon it with wonder and awe.

There is no implement which it cannot wield, and it should never in working hours be without one. We unwisely restrict the term “ handicraftsman,” or hand-worker, to the more laborious callings; but it belongs to all honest, earnest men and women, and is a title which each should covet.

For the Queen’s hand there is the sceptre, and for the soldier’s hand the sword ; for the carpenter’s hand the saw, and for the smith’s hand the hammer; for the farmer’s hand the plough ; for the miner’s hand the spade; for the sailor’s hand the oar; for

the painter’s hand the brush; for the sculptors hand the chisel; for the poet’s hand the pen; and for the woman’s hand the needle.

If none of these or the like will fit us, the felon’s chain should be round our wrist, and our hand on the prisoner’s crank. But for each willing man and woman there is a tool which they may learn to handle ; for all there is the command, “ Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy

might.    George Wilson.

Questions.—What great difference is there between the organ of touch and the organs of the other senses ? Illustrate this. How does it take upon it the duties of the eye ? and of the ear ? How does it increase the powers of the eye ? and of the ear ? What does the hand give expression to in man ? What may a steam-engine be considered ? and an electric telegraph? and weapons of war? To whom does the term handicraftsman properly apply?

Pronounce in syllables :—


























Dr. George Wilson was born at Edinburgh in 1818. His life was denoted to the study of Natural Science.

He was appointed to the Chair of Technology in the University of Edinburgh in 1855, and died in November 1859.


Brae, hill; steep road.    I Gentle Lady’s halls, Balmoral Castle,

Flinch, shrink ; yield.    I Queen Victoria’s Highland residence.

A horseman sweeps at the dead of night Through the forest braes* of Mar;

And headlong is his star-lit flight—•

The messenger of war!

Wildly panteth his foaming steed,

Yet for brae nor bank stays he,

But flies, with a Highland eagle’s speed,

By the rushing waves of Dee.

In the cot the herd-boy lifts his head At the strange and startling sound ;

And stares, with slumber’s wondering dread,

As the hoof-sparks flash around.

The roe-buck springs from his lonely lair Beneath the birch-tree’s branches fair,

While down his sides the fear-drops stream ;

And the white owl sails through the troubled air,

Like the creature of a dream !

But on flies the steed, with flowing mane,

On his dark and desolate track,

And proudly he champeth the useless rein,

For Vict’ry rides on his glossy back !    •

On to the gentle Lady’s halls*

Who wears old Scotland’s crown ;

And “ Hurrah ! hurrah !” the horseman calls,

“ Sebastopol is down ! ”

Swift as light is the tidings’ flight,

And with beating heart, but air serene,

’Neath the glorious stars of a Highland night,

Forth steps the Queen !

“ Fire the pile on Craig-gowan height! ”

The fair Victoria cries,

While the triumph-glance of Britannia’s might Beams through her queenly eyes ;— k‘ Light the pile on Craig-gowan high,

Light the mountain’s head,

Till every peak heath my Highland sky With the victory-fire is red!

Let it tell with its mighty tongue of flame To Scottish heath and town,

That my foot stands on the proudest gem Of the Russian tyrant’s crown !

Let it flush the glens with its glorious light, Where my kilted lads were bong Who led the fight up Alma’s height On the dreadful battle morn ;

The men who nobly know to die,

But cannot learn to flinch* or fly;—

Who on Balaklava’s plain,

When the death-shot poured like rain,

Bore the waving feathers high In face of Russia’s chivalry;

And bade them in their might come on,

Till the fiery horsemen’s shock . Broke like spray on granite rock,

Where my Highland bayonets shone!

“ Oh ! that yonder flame could light The liill-tops of the world,

Till sighing and down-trodden Right Its sunny flag unfurled—

Till, with the bonds of serfdom riven By his own triumphant sword,

Man proudly raised his eyes to heaven— The freeman of the Lord !

“ But fire the pile on Craig-gowan height,

Light mountain, glen, and sky—

Right tramples on the throat of Might—

Light, light the bonfire high !” w g Daniel.


On receipt of the intelligence of the capture of Sebastopol (8th September 1855), a 'bonfire was, by the Queen's orders, immediately hind led on Craig-gowan Hill, which ouerloohs Balmoral Castle.


Hi-er-o-glyph-ic, symbolic ; by signs or pictures.

In-ex-o-ra-ble, inflexible.

Men-ace, threat.

Re-doubt', an out-work. Re-tal-i-a-tion, return of like for like

A YOUNG officer (in what army no matter) had so far forgotten himself, in a moment of irritation, as to strike a private soldier, full of personal dignity (as sometimes happens in all ranks), and distinguished for his courage. The inexorable* laws of military discipline forbade to the injured soldier any redress, —he could look for no retaliation* by acts. Words only were at his command, and, in a tumult of indignation, as he turned away, the soldier said to his officer that he would “make him repent it!”

This, wearing the shape of a menace,* naturally rekindled the officer’s anger, and intercepted any disposition which might be rising within him toward a sentiment of remorse ; and thus the irritation between the two young men grew hotter than before.

Some weeks after this, a partial action took place with the enemy. Suppose yourself a spectator, and looking down into a valley occupied by the two armies. They are facing each other, you see, in martial array. But it is no more than a skirmish which is going on ; in the course of which, however, an occasion suddenly arises for a desperate service. A redoubt,* which has fallen into the enemy’s hands, must be recaptured at any price, and under circumstances of all but hopeless difficulty.

A strong party has volunteered for the service ; there is a cry for somebody to head them ; you see

a soldier step out from the ranks to assume this dangerous leadership. The party moves rapidly forward ; in a few minutes it is swallowed up from your eyes in clouds of smoke; for one half-hour, from behind these clouds you receive hieroglyphic* reports of bloody strife—fierce repeating signals, flashes from the guns, rolling musketry, and exulting hurrahs, advancing or receding, slackening or redoubling.

At length all is over; the redoubt has been recovered ; that which was lost is found again ; the jewel which had been made captive is ransomed with blood. Crimsoned with glorious gore, the wreck of the conquering party is relieved, and at liberty to return.

From the river you see it ascending. The plume-crested officer in command rushes forward, with his left hand raising his hat in homage to the blackened fragments of what once was a flag, whilst with his right hand he seizes that of the leader, though no more than a private from the ranks.

That perplexes you not; mystery you see none in that. For distinctions of order perish, ranks are confounded ; “ high and low” are words without a meaning ; and to wreck goes every notion or feeling that divides the noble from the noble, or the brave man from the brave.

But wherefore is it that now, when suddenly they wheel into mutual recognition, suddenly they pause ? This soldier, this officer—who are they ? Oh, reader ! once before they had stood face to face—the soldier that was struck, the officer who struck him ! Once again they are meeting, and the gaze of armies is

upon them. If for a moment a doubt divided them, in a moment the doubt has perished. One glance exchanged between them publishes the forgiveness that is sealed for ever.

As one who recovers a brother whom he has accounted dead, the officer sprang forward, threw his arms around the neck of the soldier, and kissed him, as if he were some martyr glorified by that shadow of death from which he was returning; whilst, on his part, the soldier, stepping back, and carrying his open hand through the beautiful motions of the military salute to a superior, makes this immortal answer—that answer which shut up for ever the memory of the indignity offered to him, even while for the last time alluding to it: Sir/’ he said, “ I told you before that I would make you repent it! ”

Thomas de Quincey.

Questions.—Whom did the young officer strike? Tor what was the private distinguished ? Why could he have no redress ? What did he say as he turned away? What effect had his words? What occasion arose for a desperate service? Who led the storming party? What was the result ? Who rushed forward to meet the wreck of the conquering party ? Whose hand did he seize ? Why did they suddenly pause? Who were thus brought face to face? What did the officer then do ? What did the private do ? And what did he say ?







Pronounce in syllables dis-tiii-guished in-dig-na-tion mil-i-tar-y    in-ter-cept-ed

dis-ci-pline    sen-ti-ment


A private soldier, being struck by a young officer, said he would wake him repent it; and he did so, not by any vengeful act, but by extorting from the officer admiration for his noble courage.


Ari-ker, a cask containing ten gallons. Boom, a bar stretched across a river or harbour.

Flitch, the side of a hog, pickled. Foyle, the river on which Londonderry stands.

It was the thirtieth of July. The sun had just set; the evening sermon in the cathedral was o^r: and the heart-broken congregation had separated, when the sentinels on the tower saw the sails of three vessels coming up the Foyle/ Soon there was a stir in the Irish camp. The besiegers were on the alert for miles along both shores.

The ships were in extreme peril; for the river was low, and the only navigable channel ran very near to the left bank, where the head-quarters of the enemy had been fixed, and where the batteries were most numerous. Leake1 performed his duty with a skill and spirit worthy of his noble profession, exposed his frigate to cover the merchantmen, and used his guns with great effect.

At length the little squadron came to the place of peril. Then the Mountjoy took the lead, and went right at the boom/ The huge barricade cracked and gave way; but the shock was such that the Mountjoy rebounded and stuck in the mud ! A yell of triumph rose from the banks; the Irish rushed to their boats, and were preparing to board ; but the Dartmouth poured on them a well-directed broadside, which threw them into disorder.

Just then the Phoenix dashed at the breach

1 Captain John Leake, afterwards Admiral Leake, commanded the Dartmouth, a thirty-six gun frigate.

which the Mountjoy had made, and was in a moment within the fence. Meantime the tide was rising fast. The Mountjoy began to move, and soon passed safe through the broken stakes and floating spars. But her brave master was no more. A shot from one of the batteries had struck him ; and he died by the most enviable of all deaths,— in sight of the city which was his birth-place, which was his home, and which had just been saved by his courage and self-devotion from the most frightful form of destruction.

The night had closed in before the conflict at the boom began ; but the flash of the guns was seen, and the noise heard, by the lean and ghastly multitude which covered the walls of the city. When the Mountjoy grounded, and when the shout of triumph rose from the Irish on both sides of the river, the hearts of the besieged died within them. One who endured the unutterable anguish of that moment has told us that they looked fearfully livid in each other’s eyes.

Even after the barricade had been passed, there was a terrible half hour of suspense. It was ten o’clock before the ships arrived at the quay. The whole population was there to welcome them. A screen made of casks filled with earth was hastily thrown up to protect the landing-place from the batteries on the other side of the river; and then the work of unloading began.

First were rolled on shore barrels containing six thousand bushels of meal. Then came great cheeses, casks of beef, flitches* of bacon, kegs of butter, sacks

of pease and biscuit, ankers* of brandy. Not many hours before, half a pound of tallow and three quarters of a pound of salted hide had been weighed out with niggardly care to every fighting man. The ration which each now received was three pounds of flour, two pounds of beef, and^a.pint of pease.

It is easy to imagine with what tears grace was said over the suppers of that evening. There was little sleep on either side of the wall. The bonfires shone bright along the whole circuit of the ramparts. The Irish guns continued to roar all night; and all night the bells of the rescued city made answer to the Irish guns with a peal of joyous defiance.

Through the whole of the thirty-first of July the

batteries of the enemy continued to play. But,

soon after the sun had again gone down, flames

were seen arising from the camp; and, when the

first of August dawned, a line of smoking ruins

marked the site lately occupied by the huts of the

besiegers; and the citizens saw far off the long

column of pikes and standards retreating up the left

bank of the Foyle towards Strabane. __

*    Macaulay.

Questions.—Wliat did the evening sentinels see coming up the Foyle? Why were the ships in great danger? Which went at the boom ? With what effect ? What did the Irish prepare to do ? What prevented them? What did the Phoenix do? How did the Mountjoy get afloat again? When did^the ships reach the quay? What ration did each man then receive ? What had they received not many hours before? How did the besieged celebrate their triumph? What did the besiegers do all night? How did the city make answer? When did the besiegers finally withdraw from the city?

(31)    17

Pronounce in syllables:—

















Dictation :—

The siege of Londonderry, in 1689, was conducted by the generals of the exiled King of England, James IT, whom Louis XIV. of France sought to restore to the British throne.

The inhabitants of the town remained faithful to the interest of William III., Prince of Orange; and under the leadership of George Walker, a clergyman, bravely endured the worst miseries of famine for three months.


Dun, dark; gloomy.

Frank, the French.

Hun, the Austrians.

I-ser, a tributary of the Danube, not far from Hohenlinden.

Lin-den, poetical form of Hohenlinden.

Mu-nich, the capital of Bavaria. Rev-el-ry, tumult of battle.

Riv-en, rent asunder.

Sul-pliu-rous can-o-py, the air filled with the smoke and smell of gunpowder.

On Linden,* when the sun was low,

All bloodless lay the untrodden snow, And dark as winter was the flow Of Iser,* rolling rapidly.

But Linden saw another sight,

When the drum beat, at dead of night Commanding fires of death to light The darkness of her scenery.

By torch and trumpet fast arrayed Each horseman drew his battle-blade,

And furious every charger neighed To join the dreadful revelry.*

Then shook the hills with thunder riven *

_ %

Then rushed the steed to battle driven And louder than the bolts of heaven Far flashed the red artillery.

But redder yet that light shall glow On Linden’s hills of stained snow,

And bloodier yet the torrent flow

Of Iser, rolling rapidly.    ,

’Tis morn; but scarce yon level sun Can pierce the war-clouds, rolling dun,* Where furious Frank* and fiery Hun* Shout in their sulph’rous* canopy.

The combat deepens. On, ye brave,

Who rush to glory, or the grave !

Wave, Munich !* all thy banners wave, And charge with all thy chivalry!

Few, few, shall part, where many meet; The snow shall be their winding-sheet; And every turf beneath their feet

Shall be a soldier’s sepulchre.    p

Pronounce in syllables blood-less    dark-ness

nn-trod-den rap-id-ly com-mand-ing





char-ger dread-ful tlmn-der ar-til-ler-y





The war between France and Austria was renewed

in 1799. In 1800, Napoleon defeated the Austrians at Marengo.

On the 3rd of November, in the same year, one of his generals, Moreau, defeated them with great slaughter at Hohenlinden, a village in Bavaria.


Bab-blers, foolish talkers. Clam-our-ing, shouting. [votion. Coil-stan-cy, firmness of purpose; de-

Dis-ci-pline, obedience to orders. Flank, side.

Thrilled, trembled; vibrated.

The Birkenhead, a large troop-ship, with G32 souls on board, was sailing oft' the coast of Africa on a clear night in February 1852. As the captain was anxious to shorten the voyage, and the sea was calm, he kept as near as possible to the shore.

Off Cape Danger, the vessel was steaming at the rate of nine miles an hour. Suddenly she struck upon a sunken rock with such force that in a few minutes she was a wreck.

The roll of the drum called the soldiers to arms on the upper deck. The call was promptly obeyed, though every man knew that it was his death-summons. There they stood, as if on parade, no man showing restlessness or fear, though the ship was every moment going down, down.

Their commander, Colonel Seton of the 7 4th Highlanders, told them that there were only boats enough to carry the women and children to shore, and that these must be saved first.

No man muttered an objection. Orders were given coolly and obeyed promptly. ' The boats were got ready and lowered. Everything was done quickly, for there was no time to lose ; but there was no haste, no panic, no wailings of despair.

The women and children were got into the boats. They pushed off, and made for the shore, landed their freight, and returned for another. Again and

again this was done, till all, or nearly all, the women and children were saved—the soldiers all the while giving help or looking on without a murmur.

All was now done that could be done. There were no boats for the troops; and the ship was sinking so fast that it was vain to expect the boats to return in time to save any of them.

The soldiers stood on deck in their ranks, shoulder to shoulder, officers and men together, watching the sharks that were waiting for them in the waves, and patiently abiding the end.

And the end soon came. In half an hour from the time when she struck, the Birkenhead went to the bottom, and the waves closed over a band of the truest heroes the world has ever seen.

The following verses (by Sir F. H. Doyle) are put into the mouth of a soldier who is supposed to have survived:—

Eight on our flank* the crimson sun went down,

The deep sea rolled around in dark repose,

When, like the wild shriek from some captured town,

A cry of women rose.

The stout ship Birkenhead lay hard and fast,

Caught, without hope, upon a hidden rock;

ITer timbers thrilled* as nerves, when through them passed The spirit of that shock.

And ever, like base cowards who leave their ranks In danger’s hour, before the rr^h of steel,

Drifted away, disorderly, the planks,

From underneath her keel.

Confusion spread; for, though the coast seemed near, Sharks hovered thick along that white sea-brink.

The boats could hold'?—not all—and it was clear She was about to sink.

“ Out with those boats, and let us haste away,”

Cried one, “ ere yet yon sea the bark devours.”

The man thus clamouring* was, I scarce need say,

No officer of ours.

Our English hearts beat true—we did not stir;

The base appeal we heard, but heeded not;

On land, on sea, we had our colours, sir,

To keep without a spot.

We knew our duty better than to care

For such loose babblers,* and made no reply;

Till our good colonel gave the word, and there Formed us in line—to die.

There rose no murmur from the ranks, no thought By shameful strength unhonoured life to seek;

Our post to quit we were not trained, nor taught To trample down the weak.

So we made women with their children go.

The oars ply back again, and yet again ;

Whilst, inch by inch, the drowning ship sank low,

Still under steadfast men.

What followed why recall? The brave who died,

Died without flinching in the bloody surf..

They sleep as well beneath that purple tide,

As others under turf.

They sleep as well; and, roused from their wild grave, Wearing their wounds like stars, shall rise again,

Joint-heirs with Christ, because they died to save His weak ones—not in vain!

There stands in Greenwich Hospital a monument, erected by command of Queen Victoria, in memory of the “ heroic constancy" and unbroken discipline*” which officers and men displayed.

Questions.—Where was the Birkenhead lost ? When ? How many souls were on board ? What was the cause of the wreck ? Why was the drum sounded when she struck ? What did their commander tell the soldiers ? What did they do ? Who were put in the boats ? How did the troops stand while this was going on ? What became of them? How is their memory preserved ? How is their conduct described there ?


Baf-fled, disappointed ; beaten. Con-stau-cy, fixedness ; absence of change.

Surge, swell ; rise to a great height. Un-fath^om-a-ble, that cannot be

fathomed, or measured.


Here, the winds, free from that cramped prison called the Earth, are out upon the waste of waters. Here, roaring, raging, shrieking, howling, all night long.

On, on, on, over the countless miles of angry space roll the long heaving billows. Mountains and caves are here, and yet are not: for what is now the one, is now the other ; then all is but a boiling heap of rushing water.

Pursuit, and flight, and mad return of wave on wave, and savage struggling, ending in a spouting up of foam that whitens the black night; ceaseless change of place, and form, and hue ; constancy* in nothing but eternal strife !

On, on, on they roll, and darker grows the night, and louder howl the winds, and more clamorous and fierce become the million voices in the sea, when the wild cry goes forth upon the storm, “ A ship !” Onward she comes, in gallant combat with the elements, her tall masts trembling, and her timbers starting on the strain; onward sire comes—now high upon the curling billows—now low down in the hollows of the sea, as if hiding for the moment from its fury ; and every storm-voice- in the air and water cries more loudly yet, “ A ship!”

Still she comes striving on : and at her boldness and the spreading cry, the angry waves rise up above each others hoary heads to look ; and round about

the vessel, far as the mariners on her decks can pierce into the gloom, they press upon her, forcing each other down, and starting up, and rushing forward from afar, in dreadful curiosity. High over her they break, and round her surge * and roar; and, giving place to others, moaningly depart, and dash themselves to fragments in their baffled* anger : still she comes onward bravely.

And though the eager multitude crowd thick and fast upon her all the night, and dawn of day discovers the untiring train yet bearing down upon the ship in an eternity of troubled water, onward she comes, with dim lights burning in her hull, and people there, asleep ; as if no deadly element were

peering in at every seam and chink, and no drowned

seaman’s grave, with but a plank to cover it, were

yawning in the unfathomable* depths below.

Charles Dickens.




Pronounce in syllables:— shriek-ing    gal-lant    cu-ri-os-i-ty

cease-less    trem-bling    frag-ments

clam-or-ous    mar-i-ners    mul-ti-tude


On, on, on they roll, and darker grows the night, and louder howl the winds, and more clamorous and fierce become the million voices in the sea, when the wild cry goes forth upon the storm, “ A ship! ”



[Continued from page 207.)


1399 A.D. to 1461 A.D.— 62 years.—3 kings.

LEADING FEATURE :—Rise and Fall of the English Power in France.

Henry IV. (son of John of    Henry V. (son)................. 1413

Gaunt)..........began to reign 1399 Henry VI. (son)............1422-1461


1399 A.D. to 1413 A.D.—14 years.

1.    Henry IV., having obtained the crown by unjust means, found it no easy task to manage the fiery spirits of the nobles. Many were the quarrels and disputes amongst them, and many were the plots laid to deprive him of the throne; but he was watchful and active, and well knew the temper of the people he had to govern.

2.    The greatest rebellion of his reign was that raised by the Earl of Northumberland, who, with his son Harry Percy, surnamed Hotspur,

raised an army, and, assisted by the Scots and Welsh, fought the bloody Battle of Shrewsbury (1403). The rebels were defeated, and Hotspur slain.

3.    Henry’s latter days were troubled by the vices and follies of his son Henry, called Madcap Harry. This youth, though brave and generous, was fond of low company, and with his riotous companions often got into mischief. On one occasion they even went so far as tc commit a robbery on the highway.

Some of his companions having been captured and brought to justice, Harry went into court and requested their release ; and being refused, struck the judge in the face ! He was immediately sent to prison ; but seeing he had done wrong, he quietly submitted to the punishment. When the king heard of it, he said that he was “ happy in having a judge with courage to execute the laws, and happier still in having a son willing to obey them. ”

4.    Henry died in a fit of epilepsy (1413). During his reign the Lollards, followers of Wycliffe, were much persecuted, and several of them burned to death in Smithfield. The first English Protestant martyr was a priest named William Sawtr^ (1401).

The power of the Commons continued to increase. In particular, they established their right to vote supplies of money and to inquire into the expenditure.


1.    Name the Kings of the House of Lancaster. What is the leading feature of the period ? Whose son was Henry IV.? How long did he reign? Give dates. What difficulties did he meet with? What was his character?

2.    Between whom was the Battle of Shrewsbury fought ? What gave rise to it ? How did it end ?

3.    How were Henry’s latter days

troubled? What was his son called? Relate the circumstances that caused his son’s imprisonment. What did the king say of it ?

4. What caused Henry’s death ? Who suffered persecution in his reign? Where were some of them burned to death ? Who was the first martyr ? How was the power of the Commons increased ?


1413 A.D. to 1422 A.D.—9 years.

1.    When young Henry became king, his first act was to send for his wild companions, tell them that he was determined to lead a new life, and beg them to follow his example. He took into his favour the judge who had sent him to prison, and called to his assistance the wisest and best men in the land. But in his religious zeal he persecuted the Lollards.

2.    His great ambition was to obtain possession of France. He there-

fore invaded it with an army of 30,000 men, and took Harfleur. But Ids army was soon wasted by disease ; and when, on his march to Calais, he was met at Agincourt by the French army of 100,000 men, under the Duke of Orleans, he could only raise about 12,000, and these were almost worn out by hunger and fatigue.

During a dark and rainy night Henry’s little army ^ay encamped in sight of the French watch-fires. The French soldiers passed the night in idle jollity; but Henry, like a wise general, laid down his plans for battle.

Early in the morning the English archers led the way, and pouring in upon the French a deadly shower of arrows, threw them into disorder. Then the whole force rushed forward with sword and battle-axe, and gained a complete victory. The French lost 8000 knights and nobles, besides common soldiers ; the English only a few sco*re in all.

After this great victory Henry returned to England. He was warmly welcomed home; many even rushed into the sea to meet the boat that was bringing him to land ; and Parliament voted him large supplies of money (1415).

3.    Two years later, Henry returned to France; and after gaining several successes, he was made Pegent of France, and married the daughter of the French king (1420). He took the field again in 1422; but just when he seemed about to reach the height of his glory, he was seized by illness and died.

He was a brave warrior and a clever statesman. His widow, Catherine, married a Welsh gentleman named Owen Tudor ; and from them sprang the royal house of Tudor, of which the first king was Henry VII.

4.    During this reign it was enacted that no law should have force until agreed to by the Commons. It was also ordered that every citizen of London should hang a lantern at his door on winter nights : hence the custom of lighting the streets of towns. Richard Whittington, thrice Lord Mayor of London, made his fortune as a merchant by trading with a ship called the Cat: hence the tale of “ Whittington and his Cat.”


1.    Who succeeded Henry IV. ? How long did he reign ? Give dates. What was young Henry’s first act ? Whom did he take into favour ? Whom did he persecute?

2.    What was Henry’s great ambition? What means did he use ? What place did he take? Whither did he then march ? By whom was he met ? Where ?

What was the condition of his army? Their number ? And that of the French ? How did they pass the night ? Describe the battle. What was the loss on the side of the French ? Of the English ? What did Henry now do ? How was he welcomed home ?

3. When did he revisit France? What was he made? Whom did he marry ?


[A.D. 1460.

4. Name two Acts passed in this reign. What famous merchant wa3 made thrice Lord Mayor of London ?

What was his character? Whom did Catherine afterwards marry? What royal house sprang from the union?


1422 A.D. to 1461 A.D.—39 years.

1.    Henry VI., son of the late king, being an infant when his father died, a council of twenty, with the Duke of Glouc.est.lT at their head, managed the affairs of the nation. The_ Duke of Bedford went to France as English Regent. There several battles”were fought, and fresh conquests made by the English forces.

Siege was then laid to Orleans; and it was thought that this too would fall into their hands. But suddenly a change came, by which almost all that had been gained was lost.

2.    In a certain village of France there lived a country girl, named Joan ofArc, who imagined that Heaven had raised her up to save her country from the English armies. This was told to the French king, who, being much alarmed at the successes of the English, was 'willing to do anything to check their progress.

He therefore put Joan at the head of some troops ; and the soldiers, quite believing in her mission, fought under her command with the greatest bravery (1429). She entered Orleans, drove the English from before the walls, defeated them in several battles, and restored to the French king the provinces he had lost. By these successes she gained the name of “ The Maid of Orleans.”

Thus all the blood shed in the last reign for the conquest of France had been shed in vain ; and no part now remained in the hands of the English but Calais. Joan of Arc was afterwards taken prisoner by the English, and, it is said, was burned as a witch at Rouen (1431).

3.    To Henry’s foreign troubles were added greater troubles at home;

for the Duke of Gloucester and Cardinal Beaufort, the two most powerful friends of the House of Lancaster, died ; and there was growing up a great rival in the person of Richard, Duke of York, who was really the rightful heir to the throne.    •

And now commenced that long and bloody contest known as the Wars of the Roses, which lasted thirty years. Those who were on the side of the Duke of York wore a white rose, and those who favoured that of Lancaster a red one. Many and fierce were the battles fought between them, Henry being sometimes victorious, and at other times a prisoner.

At the Battle of Wakefield Green (1460), Margaret, Henry’s wife, defeated the Yorkists ; the Duke of York was slain, and his head stuck

upon the walls of York; but his son Edward continued the contest, and at last obtained the crown as Edward IY.

Henry was deposed in 1461, after a reign of thirty-nine years, and Edward was declared to be the lawful king.

4. In this reign a rebellion was raised in Kent by one Jack Cade, who, pretending that he was heir to the crown, defeated the royal army, and took possession of London. He was, however, defeated in turn, and killed by a gentleman in whose garden he had hidden himself (1450). About this time the art of printing was invented in Germany.


1.    Who succeeded Henry V. ? How long did he reign? Give dates. How old was Henry YI. when his father died? Who governed the kingdom? Who was regent in France ? What then took place ? What town was besieged by the English ?

2.    Who defeated the English forces? What was Joan of Arc? How did she get the command of troops? How did her soldiers fight? Why? What name did she gain ? What successes followed ? What became of Joan of Arc afterwards '(

3.    Where did fresh troubles now arise? What friends of Henry died? What great rival arose ? What contest commenced? How long did it last? Why was it so called? In what great battle were the Yorkists defeated ? By whom ? Who was slain ? Who then continued to oppose Henry ? With what success ? When was Henry deposed ?

4.    What rebellion took place in this reign? With what success? What became of Cade ? What art was at this time invented in Germany?


1461 A.D. to 1485 A.D.—24 years.—3 kings.

LEADING FEATURES:—Civil War—Destruction of the Nobility-

Extinction of Feudalism.

Edward IV. (son of Richard of    I Edward V. (son)................ 1483

York)............began to reign 1461 | Richard III. (uncle)........1483-1485


'    1461 A.D. to 1483 A.D.—22 years.

1.    Though young Edward had obtained the crown, he was not allowed to enjoy it in peace. The northern parts of the country were still in favour of Henry, and raised for him considerable forces. Several battles were fought, in which Henry was worsted; and at last he was taken prisoner and thrown into the Tower.

2.    But the Earl of Warwick, called The King-maker, the most power-fid noble in the land, having lost some of his influence at Court by

Edward’s marriage, took offence, and resolved to try to deprive him of the throne. Assisted by the Duke of Clarence, Edward’s brother, and Margaret, Henry’s queen, he raised so great an army that Edward was obliged to flee ; and Henry was once more released from prison, and set on the throne.

3.    Edward, however, soon returned from Holland, where he had taken refuge ; and was joined by vast numbers. The two armies met at Barnet (1471) ; and a terrible battle was fought, in which the Lancastrians were defeated, and Warwick slain.

Henry was again thrown into the Tower ; but Margaret was resolved to strike another blow for her royal husband, and met Edward’s forces at Tewkesbury (1471). She was defeated, and she and her son Henry were taken prisoners. Edward had them brought before him ; and, enraged at the dauntless bearing of the young prince, cruelly struck him in the face with his iron glove. Clarence and Gloucester then stabbed the noble youth to death with their daggers.

It is said that after this Gloucester went privately into the Tower, where the unfortunate King Henry was confined, and murdered him in cold blood.

4.    Edward’s life was almost made up of bloody deeds and wicked pleasures. Great numbers of gentlemen were put to death for favouring the House of Lancaster; and his brother Clarence was murdered in the Tower by being drowned in a butt of wine. Edward died in 1483.

5.    In this reign the art of printing was brought into England from Germany by William Caxton, a silk-mercer, who set up a press at Westminster Abbey. The first book printed in England was called The Game and Playe of the Chesse. Letters were for the first time carried by post from London to Scotland, horsemen being placed at distances of twenty miles apart all along the road.


1.    Name the kings of the House of York? What are the leading features of the period ? How long did Edward IY. reign ? Give dates. Did he reign in peace? Why not?' Where was Henry imprisoned ?

2.    What powerful noble took offence at Edward? Why? What did he resolve to attempt? By whom was he assisted ? What was the consequence ?

8. Where had Edward taken refuge ? How was he received on his return ? Where did the armies meet ? Who was victorious ? W ho was slain ? Wliat followed? Where was the next battle fought ? How did it end ? Give date. What cruel q,ct of Edward and his brothers followed ? What is said of the death of King Henry YI. ?

4.    What was the character of Edward IV. ? How were the Lancastrians treated during his reign? AVhat became of the Duke of Clarence ?

5.    What art was brought into England ? Whence ? By whom ? Where was the first press set up ? What was the first book called ? Mention another improvement effected in this reign.


1483 A.D., April to June.—2 months.

1.    This little prince was only twelve years of age at the death of the late king his father; and, though proclaimed king, was never crowned. His uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was Protectory and wanted to be king. He therefore had the young king and his little brother, the Duke of York, conveyed to the Tower, pretending that it was for their safety; though, in reality, it was that they might be completely in his power.

2.    Richard’s next step was to get rid of all those nobles who were faithful to the young king. Accordingly, Lords Rivers, Grey, and Hastings were falsely accused of treason, and beheaded without trial.

After this he spread a report that young Edward was not the rightful king. The crown was then offered to him by some nobles whose favour he had gained; and after a pretence of unwillingness, he accepted it, and was proclaimed king.


1. Who succeeded Edward IV. ? How long did he reign ? Give date. What was his age? Who was Protector ? How did he act ?

2. What was Gloucester’s next step? Whom did he cause to be put to death ? What report was then spread ? What followed ?


1483 A.D. to 1485 A.D.—2 years.

1.    Richard then hired assassins to go and murder the little Princes in the Tower. These ruffians accordingly went in the dead of night to their bed-room, where they found the innocent children locked in each other’s arms asleep; so they took up the pillows, and forcing them down upon their faces, smothered them, and buried their dead bodies at the foot of the stone stair that led to their room.

Two hundred years afterwards, as some alterations were being made in the Tower, the bones of the unfortunate princes were discovered, and removed to Westminster Abbey. -

2.    Richard, though he had waded through blood to the throne, did not long wear the crown he had so foully obtained ; and his life was one of great misery, through the constant fear of being murdered, and the torments of a guilty conscience. It is said that his nights were sleepless, or else disturbed by horrid dreams which often made him start from his bed with a cry of terror.

There was also a strong party in the nation against him ; and it was proposed that Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, who was of the House of Lancaster, should have the crown.

3.    Richmond accordingly sailed from Normandy with about 2000 men, and landed at Milford Haven in Wales. His army soon increased to 6000. Richard met him at Boswortli Field, near Leicester, with a larger force, and a desperate battle ensued, in which Richmond was victorious (1485).

When Richard saw that his cause was lost, he ran furiously into the midst of his enemies, fighting with the rage of a wild beast, and fell covered with wounds. His crown, which he had worn in the battle, was found in a hawthorn bush close by. It was placed on the head of Richmond by Lord Stanley, who proclaimed him “King Henry the Seventh.”

The body of Richard, the last of the Plantagenets, was found amongst heaps of slain. It was thrown across a horse, carried to Leicester, and there buried.

4.    During the reigns of the Houses of Lancaster and York, very little progress was made in art, science, or civilization. Hundreds of towns and villages were destroyed, many castles laid in ruins, and the fields in many parts of the country left uncultivated.

The Feudal System, which had flourished under the early Plantagenets, now came to an end, together with villenage or slavery, which had been common in England for many centuries.

The government of the country became then what it is now—a limited monarchy. The king could make no law, nor lay any tax upon the people, without the consent of Parliament. The language became settled by the writings of the great poets Gower and Chaucer, though the spelling of words was very various.


1. How did Richard now proceed? Relate the account of the murder of the princes. Were the bodies ever found? When ? Whither were their bones carried ?

2; How long did Crookback Richard reign? Give dates. Was he happy? Why not ? What was his state of mind ? What was proposed by his enemies?

3. Whence did Richmond sail? With what force? Where did he land? To what number did his army increase?

By whom was he met? Where? Who won? What did Richard do? Where was the crown found ? Who placed it on Richmond’s head? What became of Richard’s body ?

4. What was the state of the country during the last six reigns? In what was little progress made? What system came to an end? And what else was put an end to ? What change took place in the constitution? What is said of the language?


1370 A.D. to 1488 A.D.

LEADING FEATURESLawlessness—Frequent Regencies—Feuds of

Rival Factions.

1.    David II. having died childless, the crown passed ft) his nephew, Robert Stewart, the first king of the famous but unfortunate Stewart line. Robert II. was the son of Marjorie Bruce (daughter of the great Robert) and of Walter, the High Steward of Scotland. The family name was thus originally the name of an office.

One of the forays or inroads, which the Scots frequently made into England, led, in the reign of Robert II., to the famous Battle of Otter-burn (1388), celebrated in old ballads, in which Earl Douglas was slain, and Hotspur, Earl Percy, was taken prisoner.

2.    Robert’s son John assumed the sceptre in 1390, under the name of Robert III.; for Baliol had made the name John ominous of evil. He was a weak and gentle prince, and the change of his name could not change his nature.

The government was really managed by his brother, the Duke of Albany, as Regent. David, the king’s eldest son, having defied the power of his uncle, the regent imprisoned him in Falkland Castle, where he was starved to death.

To save his second son, James, a boy of eleven, from a similar fate, the king sent him off to France; but the ship in which he sailed was boarded by an English vessel, and the prince was carried a prisoner to the court of Henry IV. (1405). His father died soon afterwards, and the young prisoner was a king.    •

3.    The captivity of James I. lasted for nineteen years, during thirteen of which Albany was regent.

The march of Donald, Lord of the Isles, into the heart of Scotland is an instance of the wild lawlessness that prevailed. He laid claim to Ross, and ravaged that district when opposed. The Earl of Mar and the men of Aberdeen then met him at Harlaw (1411), and, after great slaughter, drove the Islesmen out of the field.

When James returned to Scotland in 1424, he found his country in a state of almost hopeless tumult and disorder. But he set himself resolutely to the work of spreading enlightenment and enforcing respect for the laws.

The iron rigour of his rule was distasteful to some of his subjects, who formed a plot against his life, and murdered him in the Dominican Monastery at Perth in 1437.

4.    His son, James II., was then only six years old ; and Scotland had

(31)    1 8

again the distressing prospect of a long regency. During the king’s minority, the land was, as usual, convulsed by factions.

At length the house of Douglas gained the ascendency, and threatened even to overturn the throne of the Stewarts. James, when he became king, could only break their power by stooping to murder. In Stirling Castle he stabbed the Douglas with his own hand.

This crime led to a war with England, during which James was killed by the bursting of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle (1460).

5. The new king, James III., was only eight years of age; and Scot land was once more plunged into the horrors of a minority.

When James became a man, he submitted himself entirely to the influence of mean and unworthy favourites. This incensed the nobles, who resolved to get rid of the tailors and fencing-masters with whom the king associated.

But who was to take the bold step? who was to “ bell the cat? ” Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, undertook the task. Six of the king’s favourites were hanged on the Bridge of Lauder; and Angus was known ever afterwards as “ Bell-the-Cat.”

The nobles then rose in open revolt, and placed Prince James, the king’s eldest son, at the head of their movement. They defeated the king in the Battle of Sauchieburn, in Stirlingshire. While galloping from the field, his horse was startled, and threw him. And, as he lay in a cottage close by, in a half-conscious state, a straggler from the field, who pretended to be a priest, stabbed him to the heart (1488).


1.    Who succeeded David II. ? What dynasty did lie found ? What is the origin of the name of Stewart? What famous battle was fought in the reign of Robert II. ?

2.    What was Robert the Third’s proper name? Why was it changed? What was his character? Who really managed the government ? Who defied his power ? What was his fate ? How did the king try to save his second son? What befell him?

3.    How long did the captivity of James I. last? Who was regent during the greater part of that time ? Who ravaged Ross? In what battle was he overthrown ? In what state was Scotland when James returned to it ? What task did he set to himself? What led to a plot against his life? What was the result ?

4.    How old was James II. when his father died? In what state was the country during his minority? What house gained the ascendant ? How did he break the power of the Douglases ? Where and how did the king die?

5.    What incensed the nobles against James III. ? AVhat name did the Earl of Angus acquire? Why? Where were six of the king’s favourites hanged? Whom did the nobles place at their head? In what battle was the king defeated ? How did he die ?

IRELAND.—1400 A D. to 1485 A.D.

LEADING FEATURESThree Opposing Parties-Sympathy with the


1.    In the reign of Henry IY. of England, the Scots gained a footing in Ulster, from which they were never afterwards entirely dislodged. There were at that time three opposing parties in Ireland, all more or less hating one another: the native Celts ; the descendants of the original English settlers, who inclined to sympathize with the Celts ; and the recently imported English, who treated both the other factions with unbounded contempt.

2.    A better day seemed to dawn for Ireland when Richard, Duke of York, who began the Wars of the Roses, held the vice-royalty of the island. He contrived to reconcile the contending factions ; and when he raised the standard of the White Rose in England, numbers of Irish soldiers were ranged under his banner.

Yet the Irish were by no means reconciled to the English yoke. During the reign of Henry VI., the English rule did not extend much beyond the county of Dublin. But Ireland continued to adhere faithfully to the White Rose, even after fortune finally forsook it on the field of Bosworth (1485).    _


1.    Who gained a footing in Ulster in the time of Henry IV. ? What were the three opposing factions in Ireland at that time ?

2.    When did a better day seem to

dawn for Ireland ? What was the secret of his success ? What proves his popularity ? To what area was the English rule chiefly confined? To which English faction did the Irish chiefly adhere?


Battle of Shrewsbury (Henry IV.) 1403 Battle of Agincourt (Henry V.) .. 1415 English possessions in France lost

except Calais (Henry VI.)...... 1453

Wars of the Roses commenced by the first Battle of St. Albans (Henry VI.)................... 1455

Battle of Wakefield Green (Heniy

VI.)........................... 1460

Battle of Barnet (Edward IV.)____ 1471

Battle of Tewkesbury (Edward IV. ) 1471 First book printed in England.... 1474 Battle of Bosworth Field (Richard III.).......................... 1485


James I.King of Scotland—studied Chaucer when a prisoner in England —wrote The King's Quhair, or Book —died in 1437

Thomas Walsingham—monk and historian— flourished about 1440.

John Lydgate—monk and poet — wrote History of the Siege of Troy, and many other works—died 1461


William Caxton—first English printer— died about 1491.


1488 A.D. to 1603 A.D.

LEADING FEATURES:—The Reformation—The Union of the Crowns.

1.    As a penance for the part he had been forced to take against his father, James IV. is said to have worn round his body an iron belt, which he caused to be made heavier each year of his life. Yet never had the Scottish court been so gay as in the time of this king, whose character was a strange mixture of devotion and wild gaiety.

In 1502 James married Margaret, the eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England—a marriage which led in 1603 to the union of the English and Scottish Crowns.

James IV. was the founder of the Scottish Navy. In this work he was greatly assisted by two famous merchant-seamen, Sir Andrew Wood of Largo and Sir Andrew Barton. Barton’s ship, the Great Michael, was the largest ship then known in the world.

In 1513 James, by request, it is said, of the fair Queen of France, picked a quarrel with his brother-in-law, Henry VIII., and invaded England. The Earl of Surrey marched northwards with a powerful army, and met him on Flodden Field (1513).

James foolishly allowed the English force to cross the Till and march between him and Scotland without attacking them. This fatal blunder lost him the day. The bravest and noblest of the Scots formed a ring around the king, and ere evening fell he and they were hewn down as they stood.

2.    As James V. was then only three years old, the troubles of a long minority were again inflicted on the country. James ultimately fell into the hands of the Douglases, who kept him in Falkland Palace for two years.

At sixteen he escaped to Stirling, and took the reins of government into his own hands. He vowed vengeance on the Earl of Douglas; and the latter found it necessary to leave Scotland, not to return so long as James lived.

The progress of the Reformation in Scotland caused James much trouble and anxiety. The persecution of the Protestants was commenced at St. Andrews; but this did not check the progress of their doctrines. James took as his second wife Mary of Guise, and thus allied himself with the Catholics of France. But all his efforts to check the rising power of the new faith were vain.

Henry VIII. asked James to assist him in his quarrel with the Pope. James refused, and Henry made war upon him. James’s nobles



turned against him, and refused to fight. One of his favourites led an army into Cumberland, but it was scattered by a small body of English horsemen, and many Scots perished on Solway Moss (1542). This broke James’s heart. A few days before his death a daughter was born to him—the celebrated Mary Queen of Scots.

3. Yet another minority; and this time the minor is a girl a few days old. The Earl of Arran was made regent; but the real power was in the hands of Cardinal Beatoun, who had the regent entirely under his control.

Henry VIII. proposed a marriage between the young queen and his son, afterwards Edward VI., and a treaty was signed at Holyrood completing the contract. But Cardinal Beatoun and the queen mother, Mary of Guise, naturally preferred an alliance with Erance; and the regent was easily induced to tear up the English treaty. To .avenge this breach of faith, Henry sent a fleet to the Forth, which sacked Leith, and burned Edinburgh for three days (1544).

George Wishart provoked Beatoun by the boldness with which he preached the reformed doctrines. He was seized near Haddington, and burned opposite Beatoun’s Castle of St. Andrews, the cardinal viewing the sight from his windows, March 1546. Three months later the castle was taken by a band of the reforming party. The cardinal was put to death, and his bleeding body was thrown upon the battlements in sight of the citizens.

On the accession of Edward VI., the marriage project was renewed by the Protector, who marched an army of 18,000 men into Scotland to compel the Scots to consent to it. He defeated Arran at Pinkie with terrible slaughter on Black Saturday in 1547. But he could not thus force the wooing; and the Scots, to put their young queen out of harm’s way, sent her to Erance, where she married the Dauphin (1560). But her husband died before they had been a year married, and Mary returned to Scotland (1561).

Meantime the Deformation had taken firm root in Scotland, chiefly through the energy and fiery eloquence of John Knox. When Mary returned from France, where she had imbibed the most violent hatred of the reformers, she found the country divided into two powerful parties—the Catholics and the Protestants—and she very naturally sympathized with the former.    -

Her frivolous mode of life soon alienated from her the best and ablest men in Scotland. By marrying her cousin, Lord Darnley (1565), she disappointed Elizabeth of England, to whom she had promised to submit herself in the choice of a husband ; and lost the favour of her halfbrother, the Earl of Murray, now the head of the Protestant party.

Darnley joined Lord Ruthven and others in a conspiracy against an Italian musician named Rizzio, whom Mary had made her secretary and chief favourite. One night, at supper time, Rizzio was dragged from the queen’s presence, in Holyrood, and murdered in an adjoining passage (1566). A few months afterwards, Darnley was himself murdered in the Kirk of Field, on the outskirts of Edinburgh, the house in which he lived being blown up at midnight.

Three months later, Mary married the Earl of Bothwell, though he had been strongly suspected of Darnley’s murder. No wonder that this brought suspicion upon Mary herself, and lost her the affections of her people. The nobles then took up arms against her. Deserted by her followers, she surrendered at Carberry Hill (1567), and was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle. There she abdicated in favour of her son James, then one year old, and appointed the Earl of Murray regent.

After eleven months of captivity Mary escaped from Lochleven, and found an army of 6000 men prepared to fight under her banner. Murray, with 4000 men, defeated her army at Langside, and she escaped to England, where she threw herself on the mercy of Elizabeth. By her she was confined, in different prisons successively, for nineteen years, and was beheaded in 1587.

4. For nearly three years after the flight of Mary, Murray, known as The Good Regent, held power in Scotland. After his death (by the hand of an assassin in the main street of Linlithgow) the Earls of Lennox, Mar, and Morton held the regency in succession. In 1578 the king, though only twelve years of age, began to reign in person.

Educated by the famous George Buchanan, James became a good scholar, but a wretched pedant, and a man of a mean and shuffling spirit. At the beginning of his reign, he gave himself up to the guidance of unworthy favourites. The nobles removed him from their influence for a time by an event known as the Raid of Ruthven (1582), by which the Earl of Gowrie and his friends kept him in their hands for nearly a year.

Eighteen years later, a mysterious affair, known as the Gowrie Conspiracy, in which the Ruthvens also figure, madei a great noise in the land. It was said that the king had been decoyed to Gowrie House, and attacked or threatened by Alexander Ruthven; that, having called for help, his attendants burst in, and slew first Ruthven, and then the Earl of Gowrie, his brother. It remains uncertain whether the conspiracy was formed by the Ruthvens against the king, or by the king against the Ruthvens, to avenge himself for the Raid of Ruthven and its consequences (1600).

The feuds of the Border clans came to an end in this reign, the last

clan-battle, between the Maxwells and the Johnsons, having been fought near Lockerby in 1593.

The death of Elizabeth in 1603 made James VI. the unquestioned king of the whole island. All the descendants of Henry VIII. were dead. It therefore became necessary to revert to the line of Henry VII., from whose daughter Margaret (the wife of James IV.) James VI. was directly descended. This event is called the Pinion of the Crowns.


1.    Mention the leading features of this period of Scottish history. Why did James IV. wear an iron belt? Of what was his character a mixture? Whom did he marry? What did this lead to? Who assisted him in founding the Scottish Navy? Why did he invade England? Who marched against him? Where did they meet? Who won? What was James’s fatal blunder ? What was the fate of Jam es ? Give the date of this battle.

2.    Who succeeded to the crown ? How old was he then? Into whose hands did he fall? When did he begin to reign in person? What became of Earl Douglas? What caused James much trouble? How did he try to check it? Whom did he marry? Why did Henry VIII. make war upon him? Where were his troops scattered ? What effect had this upon him? When did he die?

3.    Who succeeded? How old was she? Who was made regent? In whose hands was the real power? What proposal did Henry VIII. make? How was it ratified ? At whose instigation was this treaty broken? Why? What did Henry do? What was the fate of

Wishart? and of Beatoun ? Give the *

date. Who renewed the marriage project? How did he try to enforce it? What battle was fought? With what result ? Give the date. What did the

Scots then do with their queen ? Whom did she marry ? When did she return to Scotland ? Why ? Who was the chief Scottish reformer? With which party did Mary sympathize? Why? How did she disappoint Elizabeth? Whose favour did this also lose her? Into what conspiracy did Darnley enter? What was the result? What was the fate of Darnley? Who was suspected of the crime? What brought suspicion on Mary herself ? Where did she surrender to the nobles? Give the date. Where was she imprisoned ? For how long? What change in the government then took place ? Where was she finally defeated? On whose mercy did she then throw herself? How long was she a prisoner? When and how did she die?

4. How long did Murray continue regent of Scotland ? What was he called ? How did he die? Who were then regents in succession ? When and at what age did James VI. begin to reign in person? Who educated him ? What was the Raid of Ruthven? Why did the nobles seize the king ? What was the Gowrie Conspiracy ? What is uncertain about it? When did it take place? When and between whom was the last clan-battle fought ? What did the death of Elizabeth make James? Why did he succeed her? What is the event called? Give the date.


A or an signifies at, in, or on.


Literal Meanings.

Secondary Meanings, Synonymous Phrases


Afloat .......







.... in sleep.............

to make quiet, to stop, to dim, to obscure, to moisten, to wet. to assist, to favour, to amuse, to deceive, to contradict, to falsify, to blind, to deceive, to serve, to benefit, to confer, to present, to signify, to show by signs to promise in marriage to fascinate, to charm.

Be signifies to make, and prefixed to Substantives forms Verbs. Becalm.......... to make calm..............hence

Becloud.......... to    raise clouds over

Bedew........... to    let dew fall upon.

Befriend........ to    act as a friend to.

Beguile.......... to    use guile towards

Belie............ to    give the lie to ....

Benight.......... to    cover with night .

Bestead.......... to    go in place of....

Bestow.......... to    give a place to .. .

Betoken.......... to    give a token to.. .

Betroth.......... to    give troth to.....

Bewitch......... to    act as a witch to .

over, for. soil.

adorn, to ornament, surround, to encirclo. lament, to weep, entreat, to implore, become, to befit, surround, to enclose, order beforehand, scatter water over, scatter, to sprinkle, resort to.

consider, to recollect.

Be prefixed to Verbs signifies about,

Bedaub ....





Beseem ....


Bespeak... Besprinkle Bestrew ...



..... to daub over..............hence to

.... to deck over.................... to

.... to gird about................... to

..... to moan over................... to

..... to seek for.................... to

..... to seem suitable for............ to

.... to set about.................... to

..... to speak for................. • to

..... to sprinkle over................ to

.... to strew over................... to

.... to take over.................... to

..... to think about.................. to

In Adverbs or Prepositions be has the force of by or in.

Because.......... by cause of................hence for this reason.

Before........... in front of...................... in preference to.

Behind.......... in the rear of................... after, remaining.

Below............ in lower place.................. inferior in rank.

Beneath......... in nether, or lower place........ unworthy of, unbecoming

Beside........... by the side of................... near, in addition to.

Betimes.......... in time......................... seasonably, early.

Beyond.......... by yopdor....................... at a distance, further    on.

En signifies to make en becomes cm before b or p.

Enable.......... to make able..............hence to give power.

Endear.......... to    make    dear................... to    bind by ties of affection.

Enfeeble......... to    make    feeble.................. to    weaken, to enervate.

Enfranchise ..... to make    free.................... to    liberate, to naturalizo.

Enlarge.......... to    make    large.................. to    increase.

Enliven ......... to    make    lively......... ........ to    gladden^ to animate. -

Ennoble_________ to    make    noble.................. to    elevate, to exalt.

Enrich.......... to    make    rich.................... to    supply, to fertilize.

Enslave.......... to    make    a slave of.............. to    put in bondage

Embellish....... to make    beautiful.............. to    adorn, to decorate.

Embolden....... to make    bold................... to    encourage, to inspirit.

Empower........ to give power to................ to authorize, to warrant.

En signifies on, in, or into.






Embody......... to

put into love with......hence to charm, to captivate.

put into a cage.............. to    shut up, to confine.

form into a camp............ to    pitch tents, to settle.

put into a circle.............. to    surround, to environ.

close in...................... to fence in, to encompass.

put courage into............. to    animate, to incite.

put into danger.............. to    hazard, to risk.

put into the throat.......... to    swallow', to devour.

set on fire.................... to    inflame, to arouse.

put on a list................. to    enroll.

put on a throne.............. to    install.

put in balsam................ to    preserve from decay.

go into a bark (ship).......... to    engage in any pursuit.

put in battle order........... to furnish with battlements

form into a body............. to incorporate, to include.

Fore signifies before, either in time or place.

Pore-arm ...... to arm beforehand.........hence to prepare.

Forefathers.....fathers gone before.............. ancestors.

Forefinger....... the finger which points forward., an index.

Foreground...... ground in front................. lower part (of a picture).

Foreland........ land pointing forward.......... a cape, a promontory.

Fore-ordain...... to ordain beforehand............ to predestinate.

Forerunner...... one who runs before............ a messenger, a herald.

Foreshadow..... to shadow forth................ to typify.

Foresight........ seeing beforehand.............. prudence.

Foretell.......... to tell beforehand.............. to predict,    to    prophesy

Forewarn........ to warn beforehand............. to caution,    to    admonish.

Mis signifies ill, wrong.



Misbehaviour ... Miscomputation.





an ill adventure............ hence unlucky accident.

to apply improperly............ to embezzle.

ill behaviour................... improper conduct.

wrong computation............. false reckoning.

bad conduct.................... wrong management.

to doubt amiss.................. to suspect.

ill fortune...................... calamity, disaster

to guide wrongly............... to.lead astray.

Mislay . Misrule





Outgrow... Outlandish




Outspread . Outstretch Outstrip...


Overbear... Overcast ... Overcome...

Overdo .....



Overpower .



Overshadow Overshoot... Overtask... Overwhelm.


Unbelief.., Unburden . Uncover... Unfetter...


Unhealthy Unusual ..

Undergo.... Underhand. Undertake . Undervalue. Underwood.




to lay in a wrong place.....hence to lose.

bad rule........................ disorder, confusion.

Out signifies above, beyond.

to bid above...............hence to offer a higher price.

one cast beyond (society)........ an exile.

a crying above (usual).......... clamour, uproar.

to do more..................... to excel, to surpass.

to grow beyond................. to surpass.

beyond (our) land.............. foreign.

one beyond the law............. a robber.

position beyond camp.......... a picket, a guard.

the setting out.................. beginning, opening.

to spread beyond............... to diffuse, to extend.

to stretch above................ to expand.

to go beyond.................. to outrun.

Over signifies above, too much.

to cause too much fear.....hence to    terrify.

to bear too heavily.............. to    repress, to use harshly

to cast above................... to    darken (as with clouds).

to come over.................... to    conquer.

to do too much................. to    fatigue

to flow over.................... to    deluge, to rise, to abound

to look above others............ to    superintend, to omit.

to act with too much power..... to    subdue, to vanquish.

to rule above.......... to    control, to disallow.

to see over others............... to    inspect, to superintend.

to place a shadow over.......... to    protect, to shelter.

to shoot over, or beyond........ to    excel in shooting.

to task too much............... to    oppress.

to whelm over.................. to    crush down.

Tin signifies not, or the opposite of.

the opposite of to bar......hence to open.

the opposite of belief............ infidelity.

the opposite    of    to    burden........ to ease, to relieve.

the opposite    of    to    cover......... to open, to disclose.

the opposite    of    to    fetter......... to set at liberty.

the opposite    of    to    fold.......... to disclose, to declare.

the opposite of healthy.......... sickly.

the opposite of usual............ rare, strange.

Under signifies beneath.    ,

to go under................hence to endure, to suffer.

beneath hand.................. sly, secret,    clandestine.

to take in hand................. to bargain,    to    contract.

to value below real worth....... to despise.

small trees beneath larger...... coppice, thicket.

With signifies from or against.

to draw from..............hence to recall, to retire

to hold from.................... to refuse, to restrain.

to stand against................ to oppose, to resist.


A, ah, or abs, signifies from or away.

_    #    Secondary Meanings, or

Examples.    Literal Meanings.    Synonymous Phrases.

Avoid......... to    part    from.......

Avert......... to    turn    away    from.

Abjure........ to swear away from

Abscond...... to hide from.......

Abstain....... to hold from.......

Aberration____ a wandering from hence to shun. %

..... to prevent.

..... to abandon,    to    renounce.

..... to conceal,    to    withdraw.

..... to refrain.

..... a departure from right.

Ad, with its forms, a, ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, signifies to.

Accept ........








Ascend ........



to take to (oneself).......hence

to put to the van..............

to fix to......................

to give heaviness to...........

to send to....................

to tie to......................

to hang to....................

to come to the shore..........

to climb to...................

to stand to..................

to touch or reach to...........

to receive.

to promote, to improve, to join, to connect. • to exaggerate, to make worse, to declare, to quote, to cite, to unite, to affix, to add, to attach, to reach, to attain by effort, to rise, to mount, to help, to succour, to gain, to accomplish.

Ante or anti means before, in time or place.

Anticipate.... to take beforehand.......hence to foresee, to prevent.

Antechamber, chamber before principal one., waiting-room.

Circum means round about.

Circumscribe., to write around..........hence to enclose, to limit.

Circumvent... to come round another........ to cheat.

Circumstance, that which stands around...... something relative to a fact.

Con, with its forms, co, cog, col, com, cor, means together.

Coincide...... to fall in together........hence to concur, to agree.

Collect........ to gather together............ to accumulate, to infer.

Combat........ to fight together.............. to oppose, to resist.

Correct........ to make straight with......... to rectify, to amend, to punish

Conflict........ a dashing together............ strife, struggle.

Commerce ....    a trading together............ barter, interchange of goods.

Cognate....... born together................. of the same family or root.

Contra or counter signifies against, in opposition to.

Contradict.... to speak against..........hence to assert the contrary.

Counteract.... to act against................. to hinder, to frustrate.

Countermand.    to order against............... to revoke orders.

Contrast...... to make to stand against...... to oppose, to show difference.

De signifies a moving down or from, hence separation.

Decapitate____ to take the head from..    ..hence to behead.

Decay ......... to fall down.................. to fail, to decline.

Decide........ to    cut down..............hence    to end, to settle

Deduct........ to lead from.................. to subtract, to take off.

Decline........ to lead downwards............ to fall, to deviate, to refuse.

Dis signifies not, or the opposite of.

Disable........ opposite of enable........hence    to hurt, to maim.

Disagree...... opposite of agree.............. to differ, to quarrel.

Disappear .... opposite of appear............ to hide, to flee, to abscond.

Disarm........ opposite of arm............... to strip, to deprive.

Dis, with its forms di and dif, signifies asunder or apart.

Dissect........ to    cut asunder..........hence    to divide, to anatomize.

Distract...... to draw asunder.............. to perplex, to derange.

Digress........ to go aside.................... to wander from the subject.

Divert........ to turn aside.................. to amuse, to entertain.

Differ.......... to bear apart.................. to disagree, to be distinct.

Diffuse........ to pour apart................. to spread, to scatter.

Ex, with its forms e, ec, ef, signifies out of, out.

Exceed........ to    go beyond.............hence    to surpass, to excel

Eccentric..... out of the centre.............. peculiar, odd.

Educate....... to lead out.................... to train, to cultivate.

Eject ....... ... to throw out.................. to dismiss, to drive away.

Elect....... — to choose out................. to pick out, to prefer.

Effect.......... to work out................... to produce, to accomplish.

Event......... a coming out.................. occurrence, incident.

Extra signifies beyond.

Extraordinary beyond ordinary.........hence remarkable, uncommon.

Extravagant., wandering beyond limits...... wild, wasteful, prodigal

In, with its forms il, im, ir, signifies in, into, on, in Verbs and Nouns,

Illuminate.. .. to put light upon........hence to enlighten.

Incline........ to    bend towards.............. to    lean, to be disposed.

Include....... to    shut in.................... to    comprise, to contain.

Inscribe...... to    write upon................. to    address, to dedicate.

Impel......... to    drive on.................... to    force, to incite to action.

Irradiate...... to    let rays upon............... to    brighten.

In, with










its forms ig, il, im, ir, signifies not, in Adjectives.

not done with care.......hence erroneous, not correct.

not straight together.......... faulty, not exact.

not noble..................... mean, worthless, base.

not knowing.................. not acquainted with.

not free or generous........... of a contracted mind.

not acquainted with letters.... ignorant, untaught.

not dying..................... endless, continual.

not prudent.................. indiscreet, rash, heedless

not according to rule.......... uneven, vicious.

Inter signifies between or amongst.

to take between............... to stop by the way.

Intercede...... to go between ............hence to mediate, to plead for


Interdict...... to speak between........hence to prohibit, to hinder.

Intermit...... to send between............... to stop for a time.

Intro signifies within.

Introduce..... to lead within............hence to make acquainted.

Intromit...... to send in.................... to admit, to allow, to enter

Oh, with its forms oc, of, op, signifies in the way o& against,

Object... Obstruct Occupy . Occur... Offend... Oppose..

to throw against.........hence to find fault, to oppose.

to build in the way of......... to interrupt, to stop.

to take what is in the way... .. to hold for use, to employ

to run in the way of........... to happen, to appear.

to strike against.............. to attack, to displease.

to place against............... to resist.

Per or pel signifies through or thoroughly.

Perforate...... to bore through..........hence to pierce, to make holes.

Perfect........ thoroughly done.............. complete, finished.

Permanent.... staying through (time)........ durable, lasting.

Pellucid....... bright through and    through... clear, transparent.

Pervert....... to turn completely............ to corrupt.

Post signifies after.

Postpone...... to put after..............hence to delay.

Postscript..... something written after....... addition to a letter.

Posterity...... those going after.............. children, descendants.

Pre signifies before.

Prefer......... to choose before another, hence to    regard, to advance.

Preside........ to sit in front of others........ to    rule over, to direct.

Presume...... to take before (given)........ to    venture, to suppose.

Pretend....... to stretch before.............. to    feign.

Prevent....... to come before................ to    hinder, to obstruct.

Preposterous., having the back in front...... absurd, ridiculous.

Pro or pur signifies for, forth, or forward.









Redeem... —




to go forward............hence to advance.

to throw forward.............. to plan, to scheme.

to move forward.............. to advance, to prefer.

to put a cover forth........... to shelter, to shield.

to look forward............... to prepare.

to follow after................ to chase.

something put forth.......... design, intention.

Re signifies hack or again.

to lean back.............hence to repose, to rest.

to buy back................... to ransom, to save.

to carry back................. to appeal.

to bend again................. to turn, to meditate.

to form again................. to improve, to amend.

Retro signifies backward.

Retrograde.... to step backward........hence to become worse.

Retrospect.... a looking backward........... a review.

Se signifies aside, from.

Secede........ to go aside...............hence to withdraw, to leave.

Seclude........ to shut apart................. to separate.

Select........ to choose from................ to pick, to cull.

Security...... freedom from care............ safety.

Sine, sin, or sim, signifies without.

Sinecure...... without care.............hence an office with pay but no work

Sincere........ without wax.................. real, unfeigned.

Simple........ without a fold................ single, plain, artless.

Sub, with its forms, sue, suf, sug, sup, sus, signifies under.



Succeed _____






to send under............hence to yield, to resign

to throw under............... to    expose, to conquer

to go under or after........... to    follow, to prosper.

to bear up under.............. to    endure, to permit.

to bring under................ to    hint, to propose first.

to carry from beneath......... to    uphold, to maintain

to look under................ to    apprehend danger.

to hold from beneath......... to    uphold, to suffer

Super or sur signifies above or over.

Superintend .. Superlative... Supernatural.



Transcribe.... Transgress....



to direct from above.....hence to have charge, to oversee.

carried above................. highest, best.

above natural................ miraculous.

to mount over................ to overcome.

to pass over.................. to excel.

Trans, tra, or traf, signifies beyond, across.

to write over again.......hence to copy.

to go beyond.................. to break a law, to offend

to turn across................ to wander.

to pass goods across........... to trade.

Ultra signifies beyond.

Ultramarine., beyond the sea..........hence a colour brought from Asia

Ultramontane beyond the mountains........ foreign.



Burke, to murder or destroy......from

Ci-ce-ro-ne, a guide who describes what

he shows...........................

Da-guerre-O-type, a sun-picture on


Da-vy-lamp, a safety-lamp, used in mines.

Fri-day, the sixth day of the week... Gal-van-ism, chemical electricity.


Burke, a notorious murderer (1829). Cicero, the Roman orator.

| Daguerre, the inventor.

Sir Humphry Davy, the inventor.

Frigg, the wife of Odin.

Galvani of Bologna, the discoverer (died 1798).










Guil-lo-tine, an instrument for beheading .. ......................from

Han-som, alight two-wheeled cab.. ..

Jer-e-mi-ad, a doleful story..........

Jo-vi-al, merry, cheerful.............

La-zar, a diseased person............

Mac-ad-am-ize, to pave a road with

small stones........................

Mack-in-tosh, a waterproof overcoat. Mar-tial, warlike....................

Mar-ti-net, a strict disciplinaiian ....

Mau-so-le-um, a splendid tomb......

Mer-CU-ry, quicksilver..............

Ni-CO-tian, belonging to tobacco......

Pan-ic, sudden fright................

Phil-ip-pic, a discourse full of invective ................................

Pla-ton-ic, pure, free from baseness .. Sat-ur-day, the seventh day of the week...............................

Sat-ur-nine, grave, gloomy...........

Spen-cer, a short over-jacket..........

Sten-to-ri-an, very loud.............

Tan-ta-lize', to torment by offering pleasures which cannot be reached..

Thurs-day, the fifth day of the week.. Tues-day, the third day of the week..

Vol-ta-ism, galvanism...............

Wednes-day, the fourth day of the week...............................

Guillotin, a physician, the inventor.

Hansom, the inventor.

Jeremiah the prophet, author of Lain-entations.

Jovis (of Jupiter).

Lazarus, the leprous beggar (Luke xvi.). Macadam, the inventor (died 1836).

Mackintosh, the inventor.

Mars, the Roman god of war.

Martinet, an officer in the French army, under Louis XIV.

Mausolus, a king of Caria, to whom his widow erected a magnificent tomb.

Mercury, the active messenger of the gods.

Nicot, who introduced toffiacco into France (1560).

Pan, the god of the woods, who often startled shepherds in the fields.

Philip of Macedon, against whom Demosthenes thundered his Philippics.

riato, the Greek philosopher.

Saeter, a Northern god ; probably the same as the Latin Saturn.

Saturn, the planet, whose influence was so described by the astrologers.

Lord Spencer, by whom it was made fashionable.

Stentor, a Homeric herald, who had a powerful voice.

Tantalus, in Greek mythology, who was made to stand up to his chin in water, which receded when he tried to drink, &c.

Thor, the chief god of the Goths. Tui, or Tuisco, a Gothic hero. Volta, an Italian, the discoverer

Woden, or Odin, a Gothic god.


> Bayonne

Bay-on-et, a dagger fixed on the end of a rifle or musket............from

Bed-lam, a lunatic asylum ...........

Cal-i-co, cotton cloth............... ..

Cam-bric, tine linen.................

Can-ter, an easy gallop..............

in France.

Bethlehem, a monastery in London.

afterwards used as an asylum. Calicut, in Asia.

Cam bray, in Flanders.

Canterbury : from the easy pace of the pilgrims who rode to Becket’s shrine.

Cash-mere,____'ll . , .. , .    . x

Cas-si-mere, ... Va t?c 1 -1" 0 ^°° ]• Cashmere, in India.

Ker-sey-mere, j len cloth... ./rom i    ’

Cham-pagne', a light, sparkling wine. Champagne, in France.

Cher-ry, a bright red stone-fruit...... Cerasus, on the Black Sea.

Cop-per, a reddish-coloured metal____ Cyprus, an island in the Levant.

Cur-rant, a small fruit of the grape ) Cor. in Greece


Cy-press, an evergreen, used as an )    an igland .Q the Levant

emblem of death....................)

Dam-ask, figured linen............... Damascus, in Syria.

Fust-iail, coarse, twilled cotton cloth. Fustat (Cairo), in Egypt.

Gin, an alcoholic liquor flavoured with Geneya> .Q Switzerland. juniper berries......................i

_ . ,    .    ( Guinea, in Africa, which yielded the

Gum-ea, an old gold coin — -Is.......j gold of which it was first made.

Guinea-fowl, a dark-gray fowl, with )    jn Africa

white spots.........................)

.    ( Egypt, in Africa, whence they were sup-

Gyp-sy, one of a wandering race......posed to have


Hol-land, a kind of linen............(    jjodand_

Hol-lands, a kind of gin.............f _    ‘

In-di-go, a blue dye.................. India.

Jer-sey, a woollen jacket ............ Jersey, one of the Channel Islands.

,,    ,    „    .    fKersey, in Suffolk, where a woollen

Ker-sey, coarse woollen cloth.....| trade was once    carried on.

„    ,    ,    .    f    Madeira,    an    island    on    the north-west

Ma-dei-ra, a rich wine.............|    of    Africa

Mag;neisi-a, a medicinal powder .. | eg. L dia>

Mag-net, the load-stone............J

Malm-sey, a strong sweet wine..... Malvasia, in Greece.

, ,    f Meander, a winding river in Asia

Me-an-der, a winding course.......i    Minor

Mil-lin-er, a maker of bonnets and\MUan -n Ital

head-dresses...................... J

Mo-roc-CO, a fine kind of leather— Morocco, in Africa.

Mus-lin, a fine kind of cotton cloth. Mosul, in Kurdistan.

Nankeen', a buff-coloured cotton^| Na    in china

Pis-tol, a small hand-gun........... Pistoja (Pistola), in Italy.

Port, a dark-purple wine............ Oporto, in Portugal.

Sher-ry, a light amber-coloured wine Xeres, in Spain.

Span-iel, a kind of dog............. Spain.

Tar-iff, a table of duties or prices____ Tarifa, in Spain.'

To-le-do, a finely-tempered sword-1lToled0) in Spain. blade.............................J

.    f Turkey,    whence    it was erroneously sup

Tur-key, a large domestic fowl......j    pQsed    to have    come.

,    ,    ,    f Worsted (now Worsteaa), near Norwich

Worst-ed, twisted thread or yarn    .q England



A-bil-i-ty, power ; capacity. Ex-pe-di-tion, a journey of disco very.

Ex-plor-a-tion, thorough examination of a country.


In-trep-id, bold ; fearless. Me-mo-ri-al, a petition; written request,

Nav-i-ga-tors, sailors who make discoveries.

When Captain Hunter, who commanded the first fleet which brought colonists from England to Australia, was sent out, in 1795, to succeed Governor Phillip at Sydney, there were under his command two remarkable men. These were Matthew Flinders, midshipman, and George Bass, surgeon. While on the voyage, Flinders and Bass planned an expedition/ and a month after their arrival in Sydney harbour preparations were made for carrying it out.

They bought a small boat eight feet long, named it the Tom Thumb, and with a crew consisting of one small boy, embarked in it to make discoveries on the Australian coast. A sail was hoisted, which Flinders managed, while Bass .steered, and the boy was kept to bale. They tacked to and fro about the harbour to test their sailing ability/ and then stood boldly out of the heads into the ocean. The Tom Thumb danced about like a feather on the waves, but she succeeded in reaching Botany Bay. teD    19    m

The first exploration" was ascending the George River. The adventurous voyagers then returned to sea, and got back safely to Sydney.

In March 1796, the Tom Thumb was again launched. Bass and Flinders sailed from Port Jackson, and drifted about till a spot called the Red Point was reached. Here some natives were seen. The passage back was very dangerous, but the Tom Thumb, with its two intrepid adventurers, arrived safely in Sydney.

After their return, Flinders was sent on a surveying expedition. Bass, too energetic to continue idle, started off to explore the Blue Mountains. Here his courage and daring were signally displayed. Arming his feet and his hands with iron hooks, he made repeated efforts to climb the craggy cliffs and cross the yawning chasms that opposed his passage; but after fifteen days of great exertion and fatigue he was compelled to return.

When he came back to Sydney, he drew up a memorialx to the governor, asking for the means for another expedition along the coast. His request was granted. He only needed a whale boat, a crew of eight men, and provisions for six weeks. With this slender equipment he started from Sydney in December 1797. Clearing the heads of Port Jackson, the crew found themselves in the broad Pacific.

After sailing south for some days, and exploring the harbour and river of Shoalhaven, as well as Jervis and Twofold Bays, Cape Howe was sighted. The coast seemed to trend to the south-west, and Bass was burning to decide the question whether or

not Tasmania was united to Australia. The weather, however, was rough, and there was not a chance of shelter upon that shore; but there was an open sea before them, and every heavy roller which came from the west sent a thrill of pleasure through

Bass: for he believed that the strait which now

bears his name was discovered. Proceeding westward, he found the fine harbour of Western Port; but the time at his disposal did not enable him to examine it. He returned to Sydney without fully settling the question whether Tasmania was separated from the continent or was but a part of it.

When Bass brought back to Sydney his report of the supposed strait existing between the continent and Van Diemen’s Land, a small vessel, the Norfolk, was put under the command of Flinders and himself, with instructions to complete the survey of the southern coast, They weighed anchor on the 7th of October 1798, and on the 4th of November the northern side of Van Diemen’s Land was sighted, —a part of the island which had never been seen before. The fine harbour on this coast, and the river in which it was found to end, were named respectively Port Dalrymple and the Tamar. The Norfolk sailed round the island, and thus solved the problem that had baffled so many navigators/

Bass shortly after left Sydney in a vessel bound for England, but never arrived there. It is uncertain what was his fate. According to one story, his ship was taken by the Spaniards, and he was sent to work in the silver mines of Peru. When and where this brave Englishman died is unknown.

Questions.—When was Captain Hunter sent out to Australia? Who were two remarkable men under his command ? What did they plan? What was the name of their boat? Of whom did the crew consist? What was their first exploration? What spot did they reach on their next voyage ? Where was Flinders next sent ? What did Bass do ? How soon did he return ? What places were explored on his next voyage? What sent a thrill of pleasure through him? For what purpose was Bass again sent out? What place was seen for the first time? What were the river and harbour on this coast called? What is said to have been the fate of Bass?

Pronounce in syllables:—





















Dictation :—

Bass Strait, which separates Australia from Tasmania, is called after George Bass, who was a surgeon in Captain Hunter’s fleet, and who explored and surueyed the south-eastern coast of Australia, and sailed round the island of Tasmania.



Bar-ter, an exchange of goods.

Mon-soons', winds which blow over the Indian Ocean for the one half of the year in one direction, and for the other half in the opposite direction.

Plan-tains, tropical fruits, like bananas.

Scur-vy, a skin disease.

Ten-der, a small vessel accompanying a larger one.

Matthew Flinders, a lieutenant in t'he Royal Navy, who accompanied Bass in his voyage round Tasmania in 1798, was a navigator and explorer of the highest class. In 1802, he was promoted to be captain of His Majesty’s ship Investigator, specially fitted out to make accurate surveys of the Australian coast.

He sailed from Sydney on the 22nd of July, taking with him as a tender ‘ the Lady Kelson, surveying ship. The object of the expedition was to examine Hervey, Keppel, and Shoal water Bays, which had been only imperfectly seen both by Cook and by himself. Flinders was then to proceed through Torres Strait, and to examine the Gulf of Carpentaria. The first part of the voyage was uneventful. Port Curtis on the east coast was surveyed and named:    .

At Keppel Bay good land was found, but the country near the coast was not inviting. A party of savages threw stones at a boat’s crew of the voyagers; but a volley of small shot fired over their heads speedily dispersed them, and no harm was done on either side.

On the 18th of August, Flinders left Keppel Bay, and proceeded to Port Bowen, which he named, and thence passed into Torres Strait, after with difficulty passing through the Barrier Reef.

At the Murray Islands, scarcely had he anchored, when forty or fifty savages came oft" in canoes. They would not come alongside of the ship, but lay oft" at a little distance, holding up cocoa-nuts, joints of bamboo filled with water, plantains," and bows and arrows. A barter" was soon commenced, which was carried on in a curious manner. A hatchet or a piece of iron being held up by one of the ship’s crew, the savages offered an armful of cocoa-nuts, a bunch of green plantains, a bow and quiver full of arrows, or the like, in exchange. One of the savages then leaped overboard, swam to the ship,

and made the exchange. They did not show the slightest fear.

Farther westward, a large opening presented itself to view, but the water was too shallow to allow of the ship entering it. This opening was the Gulf of Carpentaria. On the 6 th of September, a breeze sprang up and carried the Investigator along the low coast of the gulf. Here Flinders was in the track of the early Dutch navigators. The voyage, as respects fresh adventures, was a perfect blank ; but the Investigator was beginning to give symptoms of breaking up. An examination of her condition showed that there was scarcely a sound timber remaining in her hull. The seamen were alarmed ; for how were they ever to get back again in such a rotten vessel ? Still, Flinders never flinched from his mission. He resolved upon making Port Jackson, if possible; if not successful, he would try to reach India.

On some of the islands in the gulf they saw many natives, who were in the habit of escaping from view in a very remarkable manner. On examination, it was found that they hid themselves in caves dug in the ground. Sometimes a cave contained two compartments, each large enough for a man to lie down in.

On the 5th of March 1803, Flinders left the inhospitable shores of the gulf. The south-east monsoons* had set in; his ship was leaky and rotten, and the crew were suffering so severely from scurvy that a return to Sydney without fresh provisions was impossible. Reaching Timor, provisions in


abundance were procured; but, unhappily, dysentery began to scourge the crew. All haste was made to reach Port Jackson, but many of the sailors were stricken down before the Investigator reached its desired haven.    *

Questions.—Of what ship was Flinders made captain in 1802? Where was he sent? For what purpose? What tender had he? VVhat was the first adventure on the voyage ? What places on the east coast did Flinders name? What happened at the Murray Islands? Where did the Investigator then go ? What alarmed the sailors ? What place did Flinders resolve to make for? What method of escape had the natives of the islands? When did Flinders leave the gulf? What made it almost impossible to reach Sydney ? WThat fresh misfortune befell the crew at Timor? In what state were they when they reached Sydney ?

Pronounce in syllables

lieu-ten-ant im-per-fect-ly symptoms    in-hos-pi-ta-ble

In-ves-ti-ga-tor Car-pen-ta-ri-a ex-am-i-na-tion pro-cured' ac-cu-rate un-e-vent-ful com-part-ments dys-en-ter-y


Matthew Flinders, one of the most untiring and ad-uenturous of the nauigators Australian waters, circumnavigated Australia for the first time in 1802. He also sailed into and partially surueyed Port Phillip.




Pass-port, an authority to travel through a foreign country. Rig-or-ous-ly, strictly.

Sch(ftm-er, a two-masted sailing vessel.

Ad-mi-ral-ty, tile State department which manages naval matters. Contort, a ship sailing in company with another ship.

The spirit of the heroic Flinders never flagged. Notwithstanding the dangers of the voyage to Torres Strait, he made application for another vessel to complete his explorations in the north; but

the governor had no vessel to give him, and the Investigator was quite worn out. There was nothing for it but to return to England and ask for another ship from the Admiralty.* Accordingly, Flinders embarked in the Porpoise in the end of July, and sailed from Sydney, accompanied by two trading vessels, the Cato and the Bridgewater.

In passing through Torres Strait, on the night of the 17th of August, the Porpoise struck on a coral reef and took a fearful heel over. The Bridgewater was also on the point of striking, but, the Cato giving way, the former merely grazed the reef and escaped, while the latter struck and went over. After his escape, the captain of the Bridgewater; one Palmer, sailed away in spite of the remonstrances of his mate, without making an effort to aid his companions.

When the Porpoise and the Cato were thus aban- . doned by their consort,* Flinders took the command, safely landed the crews of the two vessels on a sand-bank, of which a narrow space was clear at high water, collected stores, erected tents, formed an encampment, and established a disciplined order of proceedings. The reef was a mere patch of sand, about three hundred yards long and one hundred broad, on which not a blade of vegetation was growing.

It was determined that two decked boats, capable of conveying all but one boat’s crew, should be built from the materials of the wreck, and that the largest cutter should be repaired and despatched, under the command of Flinders, to Port Jackson—a


voyage of seven hundred and fifty miles. On the 26th of August the cutter was launched, and was named the Hope; and on the Cth of September Flinders safely reached Sydney.

It was a daring voyage, and bravely conducted. The only vessel that Flinders could procure in place of the wrecked Porpoise was a leaky schooner of only twenty-nine tons burden, named the Camber-land. He set Sail, accompanied by two trading vessels, and reached the shipwrecked crew in safety, by whom he was received with frantic cheers of joy. Then he set out with all his old companions to * make the voyage to England in his miserable craft.

When Mauritius was sighted, the leaky state of the vessel compelled him to put in there for repairs. War was then raging between France and England. Although he held a passport" from the British Admiralty, Flinders was detained a prisoner by the governor of the island, which was then a French colony, and the journals and charts of his Australian discoveries were seized.

During Flinders’s detention, Baudin, a French navigator who had previously met Flinders, and been hospitably entertained by him, called at Mauritius. Instead, however, of procuring the release of his former friend, he persuaded the governor to confine Flinders more rigorously.* Then, having taken copies of his charts, he sailed for France, where he published a book, and received great applause from the French nation; while Flinders, the real discoverer, was languishing in prison. For six long years the great Australian navigator and explorer was kept in captivity at Mauritius, the French Government refusing to order his release. At last, in 1810, he was allowed to return to England, where he commenced to write his great book.

After four years of incessant labour his work was ready for publication; but the hardships he had endured during his voyages and his imprisonment had so seriously injured his health that he died just as his book was published. The name and fame of Flinders stand next to those of Cook on the illustrious roll of the founders of Australia. Flinders’s work was one of love : he sought no reward, and obtained none. He lived laboriously, and did honourable

service to mankind; yet lie died comparatively unknown ; but he left a name which the world is every year more and more disposed to honour.

Questions.—Why did Flinders go to England ? What vessel was granted him? What trading vessels went with it? Where did they go? What happened to the Porpoise and the Cato? Who was the captain of the Bridgewater ? What was his conduct on this occasion ? What did the two shipwrecked crews do? On what sort of place were they ? How did they manage to build two boats ? What was the cutter called? How far did these voyage? What ship did Flinders obtain in place of the Porpoise ? Where did he go in it first ? What place did he then set out for? How far did he get? What treatment did he meet with? What became of his charts and journals*? When did he go to England? How did he occupy himself there? How long did he live after his return to England ?

Pronounce in syllables:—

be-ro-ic    dis-ci-plined    re-lease'    in-ces-sant

ap-pli-ca-tion    veg-e-ta-tion    pub-lished    pub-li-ca-tion

ac-com-pa-nied    jour-nals    ap-plause'    se-ri-ous- iy

re-mon-strang-es    hos-pit-a-bly    lan-guish-ing    il-lus-tri-ous

a-ban-doned en-ter-tained' cap-tiv-i-ty com-par-a-tive-ly

Dictation :—

Matthew Flinders, whose career as a navigator and explorer was, unfortunately, cut short by his cruel detention in Mauritius, was born in the year 1774. He came to Australia in 1795, and until 1803 he was actively engaged in the work of surveying and exploring the coasts of Australia and Tasmania. He died in 1814.


Im-pet-U-OUS, very rapid. In-san-i-ty, madness.

Set-tle-ment, the planting of a colony.

Pri-va-tion, want; hunger.

Ag-ri-cult-ure, farming; growing crops.

Com-miln-i-ca-tion, passing from one place to another.

Fis-sures, breaks in the ground.

The first British settlement* in Australia was made at Sydney, on Port Jackson, in the year 1788.

For twenty-five years afterwards the attempts at exploring the country inland were limited to a part of about fifty miles wide, between the Blue Mountains and the sea. Several efforts were made to cross those mountains, but no man could find a way to the region which lay beyond. Rewards were offered for the discovery of a mere sheep-track. The more adventurous citizens risked life and limb, sometimes with fatal results, in climbing up and down their craggy sides and peeping into their black fissures/ Three gentlemen, named Lawson, Blax-land, and Wentworth, led an expedition into the mountains, and at length the long-sought pass was discovered. Immediately the pent-up flocks and herds of the colonists poured themselves out over Bathurst plains and the western districts of New South Wales; and the people of Sydney began to desert their town gardens for sheep-feeding and wool-growing.

But the newly-discovered land was of little value from the want of water. The Government surveyors were instructed to be always on the look-out for rivers. At length, in 1815, the Lachlan was discovered, and traced in a south-westerly direction for three hundred miles. Then the Macquarie River was found, and named after the 'governor. But the discoverers of these rivers were surprised to find them ending in vast reedy marshes, not flowing into the ocean as rivers usually do. From this circumstance it was supposed that the interior of the continent was an immense sea, into which all the rivers emptied themselves.

For the purpose of exploring this supposed inland sea, Captain Sturt, an English officer stationed in Sydney, set out on an expedition in 1828. He traced the Macquarie River downwards to the marshes, but found no great lake or ^ea. The channel which had promised so well, without any change in its breadth or depth, ceased altogether ; and while the explorers were yet lost in astonishment at so abrupt a termination, the boat grounded. The reeds were still there, but the whole country beyond, so far as the party could travel, contained not a drop of water.

Abandoning all hope of taking up the Macquarie again, Captain Sturt struck into a more northern course, and came upon the Darling, a river far exceeding in size the Lachlan or the Macquarie. From a sloping bank on which his party stood, there stretched some forty feet below them a magnificent stream, seventy or eighty yards broad, very deep, and covered with pelicans and other wild fowl. Eagerly the men, parched under an almost tropical sun, and after several days’ toil, rushed down its green bank to taste its waters. “ Nor shall I ever forget,” wrote Captain Sturt, “ the cry of amazement that followed their doing so, or the looks of terror and disappointment with which they called out to inform me that thè water was so salt as to be unfit to drink.” Further search was now impossible, and a hasty retreat was made to Sydney.

The question as to where the great rivers ended was still unanswered. Captain Sturt accordingly started on a second expedition in 1829 He traced

the Murrumbidgee River downwards from Yass plains, about two hundred miles from Sydney, until he reached a desert, and the drays could not proceed any further. Still the river was broad and deep and impetuous/ Whither did it flow ? Sturt made his men nail together the timbers of an old whaleboat ; and a small raft, capable of carrying a few bags of flour, was constructed from the fallen timber on the river’s bank. Half a dozen picked men were retained. The remainder, with the drays, were sent back to Sydney. Next morning this small boat’s crew dropped down the stream, bound for that mysterious and unknown interior which the European and the savage of the coast alike regarded with curiosity and awe.

The voyage down the Murrumbidgee was toilsome and dangerous. On the seventh day the boat unexpectedly shot out into a broad and noble river, the Murray, running at right angles to thé Murrumbidgee. In a country very deficient in streams, and uncertain in its means of communication* by water, they had discovered a river not unworthy to be classed with the greatest water-courses of Europe, and doubtless owing its broad stream to the unfailing snows of the Australian Alps. Captain Sturt directed the Union Jack to be hoisted, and the men stood up in the boat and gave three cheers.

The expedition sailed down the Murray ; and on the thirty-third day reached the broad surface of Lake Alexandrina. The lake is separated from the ocean by only a narrow bar of shifting sand ; but its shores were clothed with green pasture, and the

surrounding district seemed well adapted for agriculture/ Thus a fine and fertile country was opened up for settlement.

But time did not allow the explorers to examine their discoveries. They had a long ancPweary row up stream before them. They were already on famine allowance, and even famine allowance would last them only on condition that they rowed up the stream in the same number of days in which they had rowed down. This they accomplished after great exertion and suffering, prolonging their journey into each night until they had reached their former camping-ground. When relief arrived from Sydney, they had divided their last morsel of food; and owing to privation and incessant toiling at the oar, symptoms of insanity* had already appeared among the men.

Questions.—When and where was the first British settlement made in Australia? How many years passed before the Blue Mountains were crossed? Who first crossed them? What new occupation sprang up amongst the Sydney people ? What was still the great want of the settlers? What two large rivers were first discovered? Into what did these rivers flow ? What was inferred from this strange fact ? Who first started in search of the supposed inland sea? What river did, he sail down ? In what way did the river disappear? What river did Sturt next find? In his second expedition, how far did Sturt trace the Murrumbidgee ? For how many days did the explorers sail down that river? What great river did they then discover? What divides the Murray from tjie ocean? What kind of country surrounds the lake? In what state were the men, when relief arrived from Sydney ?

Pronounce in syllables

ex-plor-ing    in-struct-ed    mag-nif-i-cent    con-struct-ed

lim-it-ed    cir-cum-stance    pel-i-cans    mys-te-ri-ous

re-gion    in-te-ri-or    dis-ap-point-ment cu-ri-os-i-ty

ad-vent-dr-ous as-ton-ish-ment im-pos-si-ble un-ex-pect-ed-ly cit-i-zens    ter-min-a-tion    Mur-rum-bid-gee    al-low-ance

Dictation :—

Captain Charles Sturt was one of the most illustrious of Australian explorers. He discovered the riuer Darling, and was the first European to trace the course of the Murray from its junction with the Murrum-bidgee to its mouth. He thus opened up the whole interior of Australia to English enterprise. He died at Cheltenham, England, in 7869.


Ap-pre-ci-a-tion, good opinion En-count-ered, met with. [ous. En-ter-prls-ing, spirited; adventur-Fas-Ci-nat-ing, attractive; winning admiration.

Jour-nal, an account written from day to day.

Pre-dic-tion, a prophecy; a foretelling.

Trav-ers-ing, crossing.

The Murrumbidgee River, which Sturt explored, had been discovered in the year 1819 by Hamilton Hume, an enterprising* young settler, born in New South Wales.

The exploring party consisted of eight persons, and started from Lake George in New South Wales. After swimming the Murrumbidgee, and with great difficulty traversing* very mountainous and broken country, they discovered the Upper Murray. After crossing this near Albury, and the rivers Ovens and Goulburn, and travelling in a south-westerly direction for some weeks, the explorers reached the coast at Corio Bay. The return journey to Lake George was safely accomplished by a somewhat different route. This was the first overland journey through what is now the flourishing colony of Victoria.

The next important exploration of this colony

major mitchell’s exploration of victoria. 305

was made by Major, afterwards Sir Thomas, Mitchell, Surveyor-General of New South Wales, who in 1836 traversed the western portion of Australia Felix, as he named it, from Swan Hill to Portland Bay. In this famous journey Major Mitchell discovered the rivers Avoca, Wimmera, Wannon, and Glenelg, ascended Mount William, and saw and named Mount Arapiles, the Victorian Range, the Grampians, and many other peaks. The difficulties he encountered* on the journey were the opposite of those usually met with by Australian explorers. Instead of sandy deserts and dried-up streams, his journal* speaks of such obstacles as dense forests, flooded creeks with soft banks, and marshy or boggy ground, impassable by the drays; for the journey was made during the winter months.

On arriving near Portland Bay, Mitchell was astonished to see houses, and a vessel at anchor. The settlement proved to be a farm of the Messrs. Henty, formed two years before to supply the whalers with fresh provisions. Major Mitchell was hospitably received, and was supplied with some flour, and as many vegetables as his party could carry. He describes the country near the coast as generally low and almost swampy, but with a rich soil and abundance of water, and well fitted for agriculture, Mitchells return journey was in a north-easterly direction. He skirted the southern end of the Grampians, crossed the Pyrenees near the site of the little village of Lexton, passed close to what is now the town of Castlemaine, directed his course thence to the junction of the Ovens and the King, (31)    20    m

where is now built the town of Wangaratta, and recrossed the Murray about thirty miles west of Albury.

While his party was repairing one of the drays near Mount Alexander, the leader made a detour to Mount Macedon, and obtained from its summit a view of Port Phillip. Major Mitchell speaks of his route homeward as being through a country of the most varied and fascinating" description, and one most favourable for colonization. “ It was evident,5’ he says, “ that the reign of solitude in these beautiful vales was near a close,”—a prediction* which was speedily and amply fulfilled.

On the homeward route, the cattle which drew the drays became so exhausted that Major Mitchell was obliged to leave most of his party in camp near the Grampians, while he himself, with a few companions, pushed on to obtain provisions. He reached a station in New South Wales three days after his supplies were exhausted, and when the want of food had been very severely felt. Here, however, provisions were obtained and sent back to the remainder of the exploring party, which shortly afterwards crossed the Murray.

The British Government showed their appreciation of the valuable services which Major Mitchell had rendered by conferring on him the honour of knighthood.

Sir Thomas Mitchell made several other expeditions of discovery to the west and the north of New South Wales.

He died in the year 1855, after a life spent in honourable and useful services to his country.

Questions.—When and by whom was the Murrumbidgee River discovered? Who first explored Victoria? What rivers did the explorers cross? What part of the coast did they reach? Who conducted the next expedition into Victoria? Through what part of the colony did he travel? What rivers and mountains did he discover and name? What were the chief difficulties the explorers had to intend against? What was the time of year ? What did the party find on the coast ? How and by whom were they received? How does Major Mitchell describe the country? In what direction did the party return? Near what places did they pass? Where was the Murray crossed? What high mountain did the leader ascend? What did he see from the summit? Through what kind of country was the homeward route? Why did Major Mitchell divide his party in returning? With what object did he push on? In what state was his party when -it reached New South Wales? What honour did the British Government bestow on Mitchell ? When did Sir Thomas Mitchell die ? Describe his life.

Pronounce in syllables

















Dictation :—

Sir Thomas Mitchell, who had been an officer in the Peninsular War, distinguished himself by his shill and daring as an explorer while Surveyor-General of New South Wales. His most celebrated journey was that through the colony of Victoria. As a mark of appreciation of his valuable services, he received the honour of knighthood.




Ab-O-rig-in-al, belonging to the na- O-ver-se-er, manager; director, tive tribes.    Re-cruit', refresh.

The colony of South Australia was founded in 1836 ; but for some years afterwards the colonists

could not discover any land available for depasturing their flocks and herds to the north or the west of Adelaide, the capital. All seemed barren and waterless. In 1840 an expedition was fitted out to explore the northern country, and the command was given to Edward John Eyre, a settler in the colony, who was already noted as an explorer.

He examined the shores of Lake Torrens, but found them desolate and dreary. He then explored the Flinders range of hills, but there was no water to be found, and the range ended in a broad sandy and waterless plain. Returning to the head of Spencer Gulf, he attempted to force a passage northward from that part of the coast. At every point, when advancing a few miles inland, impenetrable scrub, and a total absence of water and food for the cattle, drove the expedition back. Nor did it appear an easier task to advance along the coast itself.

Leaving the main portion of his men at Fowler Bay, Eyre made three several attempts to reach the Great Bight, hoping that, after passing that portion of the coast, the country would be found to be of a better character inland. But after encountering great hardships, and losing several of his horses, he rounded the Great Bight only to behold the same impenetrable country. He therefore returned to Fowler Bay, and sent his men back to Adelaide.

Eyre then resolved on traversing the coast round the head of the Great Bight, from Fowler Bay to King George’s Sound, a distance of 1,500 miles. Up to that time no white man had ever trod those desolate shores. In undertaking this perilous task

Eyre had determined to risk the life of no European save himself. But the overseer* of the party refused to leave his leader. In addition, he retained three aboriginal* young men, one of them named Wylie.

The officers and men of the disbanded expedition had made known, on their return to Adelaide, the great difficulties Eyre had experienced in his efforts to round the Great Bight. From these it appeared that he was advancing to certain destruction, and a sloop was despatched to Fowler Bay, with a recommendation from the governor to return. But Eyre’s resolution was not to be changed.

“ We’re now alone,” he writes, “ myself, my overseer, and the three native boys, with a fearful task before us. The bridge was broken down behind us, and we must either succeed in reaching King

o    o

George’s Sound, or perish. No middle course remains.” Having constructed bags to hold water, and given the cattle sufficient rest, Eyre commenced his journey. His stock of provisions consisted of some sheep and a few bags of flour. The barren country was found to extend all along the Great Bight, the only vegetation being a few scattered tufts of grass, and the only water being procured from beneath the sand-hills, which occurred at intervals of one hundred or two hundred miles. That *

man or beast should have trayelled through such a country is indeed wonderful. Sometimes a group of sand-hills occurred at the end of one or two days’ march; more frequently, scarcely a blade of grass and not a drop of water were met with for the whole week.

Eyre’s progress during one of those long intervals be-

tween water and water may be thus sketched:—After a halt of three or four days at one of the groups of sand-hills to recruit," the horses were again loaded for a fresh start, the bags were filled with water, and the sheep were let out of their pen. For two or three days the horses were able to carry the few bags of flour, and water, and the other necessary baggage. On the fourth day their strength began to fail, and it became necessary to lighten their loads, the rejected articles being left on the track. On the fifth and sixth days the horses became exhausted, and no exertions could force them to proceed further.

Leaving them also stretched on the track, Eyre and his men, with the empty water-bags, hurried forward until the next group of sand-hills appeared above the horizon. Arriving at these, they immediately proceeded to scoop out a well. Having reached the water, they quenched their thirst, and took a few hours’ rest while the water-bags were filling. The party then shouldered their bags, and went back to the horses ; these they generally succeeded in bringing on by easy stages to the sand-hills, though sometimes they found one of the worn-out animals in its last struggles. Their provisions, and a few indispensable articles, were still strewed along their track; and it was necessary to go back and collect them, Eyre and his men carrying them on their backs a distance of sometimes forty or fifty miles.

The want of water made the horses restless during the night, and, when not closely watched, they seized every opportunity to return to the last watering place. The scattered position of the few tufts

of herbage rendered it impossible to tether them. Eyre and the overseer, therefore, agreed to divide each night between them, so as by strict watch to insure the possession of the horses in the morning. In this manner Eyre and his party had toiled on for a couple of months, and had accomplished more than half their journey, when an appalling act of treachery seemed to render his escape hopeless.

Questions.—When was the colony of South Australia founded? What is the name of its chief city ? In what year was the first expedition to explore the northern districts fitted out ? Who had command of the expedition? What part of the country did Eyre first examine ? What kind of country did he find it to be ? Where did he next explore ? To what place did he return ? What direction did he next take ? \\ hat stopped his advance ? Where did Eyre leave a portion of his men? What part of the coast did he try to reach ? What course did Eyre next resolve to pursue ? What distance did he propose to travel ? Of whom did Eyre’s party consist ? What provisions did they take with them ? How was the water carried ? What kind of country did Eyre find ? Where only was water to be found ? How did Eyre manage to travel from one range of sand-hills to another ?

Pronounce in a-vail-a-ble de-past-tlr-ing des-o-late im-pen-e-tra-ble en-count-er-ing













Edward John Eyre was the leader of an expedition fitted out in 1840 for the exploration of Northern Australia. In spite of many obstacles and grievous hardships, he accomplished, in two months, more than half of his journey.



Con-vul-sions, violent movements of the body or limbs

Har-row-mg, terrifying; very painful.

Par-a-lyze, render powerless; unnerve.

U-ni-SOll, harmony; at one tone with. Wel-ter-ing, lying steeped or wet.

In one of the long stages between water and water, Eyre and the party had encamped for the night, and Eyre had taken the first watch. It was near midnight; the horses in their restlessness had led him some distance from the camp, when the report of a gun was heard in these desolate wilds. Startled by so unusual an occurrence, Eyre hastened back to the camp. He writes:—“I met the King George’s Sound native, Wylie, running towards me, and in great alarm, crying, ‘ O massa, O massa, come here !’ but could gain no information from him as to what had occurred. Upon reaching the encampment, which I did in about five minutes after the shot was fired, I was horror-struck to find my poor overseer weltering* in his blood, and in the last agonies of death. Glancing hastily around the camp, I found it deserted by the two younger native boys ; whilst the scattered fragments of our baggage, which I had left carefully piled up under the oilskin, lay thrown about in wild disorder, and at once revealed the cause of the harrowing* scene before me.

“Upon raising the body of my faithful but ill-fated follower, I found that he was beyond all human aid. He had been shot through the left breast with a ball. The last convulsions"' of death

were upon him, and he expired almost immediately after cur arrival. The frightful, the appalling truth now burst upon me, that I was alone in the desert. He who had faithfully served me for many years, who had followed my fortunes in adversity and in prosperity, who had accompanied me in all my wanderings, and whose attachment to me had been his sole inducement to remain with me in this last, and to him, alas ! fatal journey, was now no more.

“ For an instant I was almost tempted to wish that it had been my own fate instead of his. The horrors of my situation glared upon me with such startling reality as, for an instant, almost to paralyze" the mind. At the dead hour of night, in the wildest and most inhospitable wastes of Australia, with a fierce wind raging in unison" with the scene of violence before me, I was left with a single native, whose fidelity I could not rely upon, and who, for aught I knew, might be in league with the other two, who perhaps were even now lurking about, with a view of taking away my own life, as they had done that of the overseer.

“ Three days had passed away since we left the last water, and it was very doubtful when we might find any more. Six hundred miles of country had to be traversed before I could hope to obtain the slightest aid or assistance of any kind, whilst I knew not that a single drop of water or an ounce of flour had been left by those murderers from a stock that had previously been so small.”

Their small store of flour had been the incentive to this horrible deed. The two natives had taken

with them all the flour and water they could carry, and the guns of Eyre and the overseer, leaving behind them only a brace of pistols and a rifle, which was useless for the time. The encampment showed that they had laid their plan for murdering the overseer that night; but as the country around was entirely destitute of food, it is probable that they perished as soon as their stock of flour was exhausted.

Eyre proceeds with his story:—“After obtaining possession of all the remaining arms, useless as they were at the moment, with some ammunition, I made no examination then, but hurried away from the frightful scene, accompanied by the King George’s Sound native, to search for the horses, knowing that if they got away now, no chance whatever would remain of saving our lives. Already the wretched animals had wandered to a considerable distance; and although the night was moonlight, yet the belts of scrub intersecting the plains were so numerous and dense that for a long time we could not find them. Having succeeded in doing so at last, Wylie and I remained with them, watching them during the remainder of the night; but they were very restless, and gave us. a deal of trouble. With an aching heart, and in most painful reflection, I passed this dreadful night, every moment appearing to be protracted to an hour, and it seemed as if the daylight would never appear.

“ About midnight the wind ceased, and it became bitterly cold and frosty. I had nothing on but a shirt and a pair of trowsers, and suffered most acutely from the cold. To mental anguish was now

added intense bodily pain. Suffering and distress had well-nigh overwhelmed me, and life seemed hardly worth the effort necessary to prolong it. Ages can never efface the horrors of this single night, nor would the wealth of the world tempt me to go through similar ones again.”

With daylight, Eyre and Wylie prepared to hasten from this dreadful scene. The sheep had all been consumed or had perished on the journey. Forty pounds of flour was their only stock of provision ; and abandoning everything else save his charts and papers, Eyre hurried from the spot with his solitary attendant. The two natives again appeared before starting, and made efforts to gain over Wylie ; but they could not be induced to speak to Eyre, and after a short time they disappeared in the desert.

The two travellers were now obliged to live chiefly on their horses, curing the flesh in the sun, and carrying on a sufficient quantity for some days consumption. The cliffs retired inland, and they were able to gain access to the sea-shore, where they sometimes caught a stinging ray-fish. At length, when they were beginning to sink under such long-continued exposure, and when to reach King George’s Sound appeared beyond their strength, a whaling vessel was sighted off* the coast. On perceiving their signals, the commander sent a boat for them, and they were received on board with much hospitality.

After recruiting themselves here for some weeks, they were again landed within easy reach, of the settlement, where they arrived in July 1841, after an absence of over twelve months from Adelaide.

Questions.—Describe what happened one night when Eyre was on the watch. Who murdered the overseer ? What was the name of the faithful black ? How many hundred miles had Eyre still to go ? Why had the natives murdered the overseer ? Describe the journey of Eyre and the native afterwards. What did the two natives try to do? What vessel did Eyre and his companion descry out at sea? How were they relieved ? At what date did they arrive again at Adelaide ? How long had they been absent ?





Pronounce in un-u-su-al oc-cur-rence ag-o-nies ad-vers-i-ty











After enduring the pangs of hunger and thirst, the horrors of treachery, the terrible prospect of being left atone in the desert, Eyre, attended by one natiue, buas relieved by a whaling vessel and was landed near Adelaide in July 1847.



De-pdt' (de-por), a place where things are Pro-trM-ed, pushed itself out. Ex-ca-vat-ed, dug out. [stored. Pyr-a-mid, a pointed heap. In-ter-ment, burial.    Quartz, a hard whitish rock.

Lit-ter, a bed that can be carried. Trib-U-tar-ies, small streams flowing Par-al-lel, running side by side.    into a river.

Pic-tttr-esque, like a picture.    U-ni-form-i-ty, exact similarity.


Until the year 1844 no attempt had been made to cross the Australian continent ' from south to north, nor was anything known of the nature of the country far inland. Some believed it to be a vast lake or sea; others supposed that it was a dreary desert. To settle this question, Captain Sturt started with an expedition, consisting of sixteen men, with Mr. Poole as second in command.

The expedition left the Darling River, and followed up one of its tributaries* for some distance. But its waters quickly failed, and pasture was becoming daily more scarce. The sun was beginning to dry up the pools, and no time was* to be lost. By means of forced marches, Sturt and his men passed over an inhospitable tract of country, when they unexpectedly came upon a picturesque* spot, well watered and supplied with food for the cattle.

To this was given the name of Rocky Glen Depot,* and here both men and horses recruited for some time, whilst Sturt explored the country beyond, for the purpose of selecting the safest northern route. With dismay he ascertained that the Rocky Glen ceased as suddenly towards the north as it had opened, and the country beyond became an absolute desert. Retreat was cut off. The summer’s sun had dried up every pond and creek which had supplied them on their line of march, and'six months’ imprisonment in the Rocky Glen Depot became certain.

For six months no rain fell. The violence of the sun became insupportable. To escape from its rays, a large under-ground chamber was excavated,* to which the men retired during the heat of the day. The whole vegetation of the Rocky Glen became mere snuff, and was carried away by the hot blast. Nothing was left but the naked rocks and the pool of water on which their lives depended. Day by day, too, it yielded to the fury of the sun. “ Under its effects,” wrote Sturt, “ every screw in our boxes had been drawn, and the horn handles of cur instru-

merits, as well as our combs, were split into thin plates. The lead dropped out of our pencils ; our signal-rockets were entirely spoiled; our hair, as well as the wool on the sheep, ceased to grow ; and our nails had become as brittle as glass.” Scurvy attacked the party, and Mr. Poole was dying.

In this condition, the winter months came slowly round, and the first refreshing shower fell. A litter* of boughs and dried leaves was prepared, and six of the men endeavoured to make a retreat on Adelaide with Mr. Poole. But he died a few hours after his attendants had quitted the camp, and his body was brought back just as Sturt and the remainder of the expedition were about to start on •their northern course. His companions raised a pyramid* of stones on a hill t© mark the place of his interment.*

About fifty miles further on, a fresh halting-place was discovered, and was called Park Depot. Accompanied by four men Sturt started from this point, bearing right down on the centre of the continent. In a short time the country assumed all the appearance of a desert. Neither grass nor water was visible, and the eye rested on nothing but reddish-brown sand. As they advanced, this sand swelled into long parallel * ridges fifty or sixty feet high, and succeeding each ether in endless uniformity.* At the distance of about two hundred miles from Park Dep&t this singular country ended, and the explorers stood before what is now known as Sturt’s Stony Desert.

It was an immense level plain, thickly strewn

with fragments of quartz/ firmly packed together, and rounded as if water-worn. Neither herb nor shrub protruded" through the soil. No sound or movement could be heard or seen all round, and the dray wheels and the hoofs of the horse* left no impression on the surface of the plainr All that could sustain animal and vegetable life, nature seemed to have excluded from this scene of desolation. Thus the sun went down, and Sturt and his men encamped for the night in the Stony Desert.

With the morning the party started again, and at the distance of about thirty miles the Stony Desert came to an end. An immense plain of dried mud lay before them, destitute of vegetation. No water could be found, and the earth was cracked by the heat of the sun into immense fissures. At length


the party arrived at the termination of this plain, and found the tall sand-ridges reappear precisely as before.

Again the explorers toiled over this solid ocean of red sand billows, till a small creek appeared ahead and revived their hopes. It contained some good water, but it soon died out on the desert, leaving a country as destitute of vegetation as that already traversed. They were more than four hundred miles from Park Depot, and had advanced two hundred miles beyond the Stony Desert, without any permanent change in the nature of the country. Both men and horses were so weak that further advance would endanger their retreat. Sturt decided to return. The party regained the main expedition with difficulty, and in a most exhausted condition.

Questions.—Until what year was the interior of Australia unexplored ? What was supposed to be the nature of the country far inland ? Who first explored the interior ? Whence did the expedition start? What kind of country was travelled over? What pleasant spot did the explorers find in the desert ? What kind of country lay to the north of it ? How long was the expedition confined in Rocky Glen Depot? What did the explorers do to shield themselves from the heat of the sun ? What effect had the intense heat upon them ? Which of them died from his sufferings? How is his burial-place marked ? What was the next station at which the party rested ? How many men did Sturt take with him to continue the journey? What part did they reach after travelling two hundred miles? Describe briefly the Stony Desert. How many miles was it across? What kind of country was then reached ? How far did the party travel from Park Depot ?

en-deav-oured des-o-la-tion at-tend-ants    fis-sures

ex-clûd-ed    pre-cise-ly

Pronounce in syllables :— as-cer-tained'    vi-o-lence

ab-sol-ute    in-sup-port-a-ble

im-pris-on-ment veg-e-ta-tion


In 7844, Captain Sturt, with a party of sixteen men, and with food for eighteen months, started on an expedition to reach the centre of the continent. With four men he made a detour through successive deserts of sand, mud, and stones, but was ultimately forced to rejoin the main expedition.



As-so-ci-at-ed, connected, [gether. I Mus-Cles, fleshy parts of the body. Con-tract-ed, shortened; drew to- I PrOS-tra-tion, entire loss of strength.

After a short rest at Park Depot, Sturt again started with three men. Some days’ travelling brought the explorers to the banks of a fine creek, flowing through a tract of pastoral country. This was Cooper’s Creek, so sadly associatedA afterwards

with the fate of Burke and Wills. But they were soon again toiling over the red sand-ridges, and another week’s travelling brought them back to the Stony Desert. Reluctantly the horses’ heads were turned, and the effort to reach the centre of the continent was finally abandoned.

The party hastened back to Cooper’s Creek, the nearest halting-place, two hundred miles distant. It was a journey for life or death. The horses that refused to proceed were abandoned on the way. When a horse fell, his baggage was distributed among the rest, and the retreat continued. Night and day they retreated. At night one of the men went before with a lantern; and, thus assisted, the explorers safely reached Cooper’s Creek. On the morning of their arrival a hot wind began to blow, and towards mid-day raged with great fury* Blinding torrents of fine sand, driven before the wind, were poured over the Cooper’s Creek district, blistering the skin, and causing it to smart. Every living thing turned from the glow. In all probability had this tempest overtaken the party in the desert, all would have perished.

Passing through the Cooper’s Creek district, Sturt, with his men, again joined the expedition at Park Depot. On the following day he w7as unable to walk. His muscles* became rigid, his limbs contracted,* and his skin blackened. The least movement put him to torture, and he was reduced to a state of perfect prostration.*

But Park Depot was many hundreds of miles from Adelaide, and a retreat was now necessary, (31)    21    M

Summer had come round again, and the sun was drying up all the pools and water-courses on the way. Unless Flood’s Creek, about one hundred andfifty miles nearer Adelaide, contained sufficient water, it would be dangerous to move the expedition; and it was determined to learn the condition of the creek. A bullock’s hide was sewn together to form a watertight bag. This, filled with water, was placed on the way some seventy miles in advance, and on the following morning one of the party started with a spring cart, containing about thirty gallons of water. By this contrivance he was able to supply himself and his horse with water half way on his journey, without encroaching on the store he carried with him. Anxiously the men watched for his return.

On the eighth day they came to Sturt’s tent to tell him that the explorer had appeared in sight, and in a few minutes he stood before his leader. “ Well, Brown,” said Sturt, “ what news ? Is it to be good, or bad ?”    “ There is still water in the creek,” he

answered, “ but that is all I can say. What there is, is as black as ink; and we must make haste, for in a week it will be all gone.” A bed of leaves was placed in one of the carts, into which Sturt was lifted, and the expedition commenced its retreat.

Flood’s Creek was safely reached, and it enabled them to push on to the Murray. The news was carried down the Murray that Sturt, now nineteen months absent, and supposed dead, was returning. The settlers along its banks hastened to place their carriages at the service of himself and his exhausted men. Under the light of an Australian moon, they

again passed the clustering vines and golden wheat-fields which surrounded Adelaide.

Questions.—With how many men did Sturt start again? What creek did he find and name ? How far did Sturt travel from Cooper’s Creek towards the centre of the continent? What occurred the morning after his return to Cooper’s Creek? Where did Sturt’s party rejoin the rest of the expedition ? What was Sturt’s condition ? How far were they from Adelaide ? Where and how far off was their rmxt supply of water ? How many days did it take one of the party to reach this creek and return to the camp? What river did the exploring party reach ? How long had they been absent from Adelaide?

Pronounce in syllables:—

as-so-ci-at-ed    dis-trib-dt-ed    pros-tra-tion    en-croach-ing

re-luc-tant-ly    prob-a-bil-i-ty    con-trlv-ance    sur-round-ed


The farthest point was reached in September 1845; but the expedition seemed to be doomed to failure, and Sturt was compelled to return without having achieved his object. A gratifying reception awaited him on his return to Adelaide.


De-tec-tion, being found out. Dis-as-trous, unfortunate. E-ma-ci-at-ed, thin; wasted. Ex-plO-Sion, bursting.

Rock-ing-ham, a bay on the east coast of Northern Australia. Tom-a-hawk, a hatchet.

Tri-an-gle, a three-sided figure.

York Peninsula is that enormous triangle* which forms the eastern arm of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Up to 1848 it was an unknown country; and Mr. Kennedy, a Government surveyor, was sent to explore it. He was to examine the peninsula on its Pacific side, from Rockingham* Bay to Cape York. A sloop was to be oflf Cape York, to supply stores to the party on their arrival there ; they were then to turn, and examine the gulf side down to its head.

Kennedy and a party of twelve men, including a

native black, named Jacky Jacky, were landed at Rockingham Bay, and the sloop took up its post off Cape York. Month after month passed, and the man on the look-out at the mast-head of the sloop reported no signal from the shore.

At length, at the end of six months, the signalman called the officers to witness a strange appearance on the sea-beach. A native, naked, emaciated,* and apparently dying, was seen to crawl from the woods which overhung Cape York. He held a bough in his hand. Gaining the beach, he waved the bough in the direction of the sloop. A boat was lowered, and the native was brought on board. He proved to be Jacky Jacky, at death’s door, from wounds and hunger. For fourteen days, he said, he had tasted nothing but water. His clothes, which he had received from the Government store at Sydney, he had used to bury Kennedy.    •

While he devoured the food placed before him, the officers and men of the sloop listened to his tale. When the party landed at Rockingham Bay, they found the country covered with dense tall scrub. For four months they cut their way towards Cape York, through this scrub, with saws and hatchets, seldom making more than a mile or two a day. Their provisions became exhausted, and they ate their horses. They were still two hundred miles from Cape York. The soil was most unhealthy. Most of the men, from sickness and insufficient food, were too weak to proceed further.

In these straits Kennedy placed eight of the party

in camp, near the sea-shore, and, taking Jacky Jacky and three of the strongest men with him, set forward to procure assistance from the sloop. A savage tribe appeared on their track. After some days’ travelling, a dangerous accident happened to one of the men from the explosion* of a gun, and he could not be moved.

Leaving the other two men to protect him, Kennedy again hurried on with Jacky Jacky. The blacks got ahead of them. At Escape River, spears were showered on them. Jacky Jacky was wounded in the face. Kennedy received several spears in the back, leg, and sides. He fell, but stood up again, fired his gun, and then fell again. Jacky Jacky stood over him with his gun cocked. It missed fire, but he still covered the savages. Kennedy’s aim had been true—one savage was writhing in the agonies of death. The rest drew back and peered from behind the trees. Jacky seized his master, and carried him down to the stream through a belt of the scrub.

“ He said,” continued the faithful fellow, “ ‘ Don’t carry me far.’ Then Mr. Kennedy looked this way [imitating him], very bad. I said to him, ‘ Don’t look far away,’ as I thought he would be frightened. I asked him often, ‘ Are you well now?’ and he said,

' I don’t care for the spear-wound in my leg, but for the other two spear-wounds in,my side and back;’ and he said, ‘ I am bad inside, Jacky.’ I told him,

' Black fellow always die when he gets spear in there/ He said, ‘I am out of wind, Jacky.’ I asked him, c Mr. Kennedy, are you going to leave me ? ’ and he said, ‘ Yes, my boy, I am going to leave you/ He

said,‘ I am very bad, Jacky. You take the books to the captain of the sloop ; but not the big ones. The Governor of New South Wales will give anything for them.’ I then tied up the papers.

“ He then said, ‘ Jacky, give me paper, and I will write.’ I gave him paper and pencil, and he tried to write; and he then fell back and died. And I caught him as he fell, and held him ; and I then turned round myself and cried. I was crying a good while until I got well. That was about an hour, and then I buried him. I digged up the ground with a tomahawk," and covered him over with logs, then grass, and my shirt and trowsers.”

Jacky kept watch until dark, then he slipped silently into the stream, and waded up its channel, keeping his head above water, until he was far enough to escape detection.* From Escape River he crept on through the woods, exhausted by wounds and hunger, and falling asleep for whole days beside ponds and water-holes, until at length he reached Cape York.

On hearing his story, the sloop was got under way, and haste made to relieve the remainder of the party. Jacky pointed out where the woundect man and his two companions had been left along the coast. The captain landed, but could find none of them. Nor has their fate ever been discovered, although portions of European clothing were found among the savages in the neighbourhood—a fact which left little doubt that the three men had been murdered.

From this point the sloop sailed to Weymouth

Bay, where the remainder of the party had been left in camp. On landing, the ship’s officers discovered a European at a well side, sitting on his pitcher. They hastened to him, but he was quite dead. They proceeded to the camp. Five bodies were lying in beds, where they had lain for some weeks. Two beds showed signs of having been occupied within some hours. Their owners were looking for sliell-iish on the beach. They had seen the sloop, and now staggered back to camp, mere skin and bone, and so weak that they had been unable to drag their dead companions out of their beds to bury them. Search was next made for the body of Kennedy, but his grave had been opened and the body removed. No trace of it, or of his papers, has ever been discovered. Jacky said he hid the papers in the hollow of a tree, but they could not be found. So ended this gallant but most disastrous* expedition.

Questions.—Where is York Peninsula? What is its shape? When and by whom was it first explored? Whence was the explorer to start ? What party did he take with him ? What was the name of his faithful native attendant? How long did the sloop lie off Cape York, waiting for Kennedy? Whom did the men on board see coming to them? In what condition was he? How long were Kennedy and his party cutting their way through the scrub ? How far were they from the Cape at the end of this time ? What did Kennedy do then ? What accident happened to the party ? Who stopped their advance? What was the fate of Kennedy ? Give briefly the story told by Jacky Jacky. When the sloop went in search of Kennedy’s party, how many were found ? In what state was the grave of Kennedy found ?

Pronounce in syllables









Pen-in-su-la ap-par-ent-Iy e-nor-mous    di-rec-tion

ar-riv-al    hatch-ets

ap-pear-ance ex-haust-ed

Dictation :—

Mr. Kennedy, a Government surveyor, was in 7848 appointed leader of a small party sent to explore the unvisited region of York Peninsula; the native hostility, however, and the unhealthy nature of the soil, combined to defeat utterly the brave efforts of the explorers.



As-tron-om-i-cal,relating to the stars. E-lapsecF, passed.

Lux-U-ri-ant, in great abundance.

Men-in-die, a station on the Murray. Par-lia-ment, the body that makes Sut)-si-dy, a grant of money. [laws.

In 1858, Ambrose Kyte, a citizen of Melbourne, offered a sum of £1,000 as a contribution to a fund for fitting out a party to explore Central Australia. The Parliament* added a subsidy/ and voted £5,500 for the purchase of twenty-five camels from India. It was resolved that the expedition should start from Cooper’s Creek, which Sturt had struck in 1845.

The command was intrusted to Robert O’Hara Burke, and William John Wills, as surveyor and astronomical* observer. The expedition started from Melbourne on the 20th August 18GO, and by the end of the month the Darling was reached. Burke established his first depot at Menindie* on that river.

The spring season was far advanced, and the summer sun would soon wither the grasses and dry up the water on the plains. Under these circumstances, Burke decided to divide his party; and having secured the services of Wright as guide, he pushed on with seven companions to Cooper’s Creek. The feeding and the water on the route were good;

and when half the distance had been traversed, Burke sent Wright back to Menindie to bring forward the rear party to Cooper’s Creek, Burke himself proceeding to that place with his seven men.

At Cooper’s Creek they formed a depoE and lived for some time, waiting for Wright, who did not appear. The horses and camels improved greatly in condition. But Burke grew tired of waiting ; and as he was now near the centre of Australia, he determined to make a bold dash across to the Gulf of Carpentaria. He left one of his men, Brahe, and three assistants, with six camels and twelve horses, giving them instructions to remain for three months, and telling them that if within that time he did not return, they might consider him lost, and would be at liberty to return to Menindie.

On the 16th of December, Burke and Wills, with King and Gray, started on their perilous journey, taking with them six camels and one horse, with provisions for three months. They followed Cooper’s Creek for some distance, and then struck off to the north, till they reached Eyre Creek. From this they obtained abundance of water, and they kept along its banks till it turned to the eastward; then, abandoning it, they kept due north.

Six weeks after leaving Cooper’s Creek, they came upon a fine stream running north, and found that it entered a large river, on the banks of which were lux-unant vegetation and clusters of palm trees. They felt certain that it flowed into the Gulf of Carpentaria, and that by keeping close to it they had nothing to fear. But they had brought only three months’

provisions with them ; more than half that time had now elapsed,* and they were still one hundred and fifty miles from the sea.

They lost no time, but hurried on so fast that, one after another, the camels sank exhausted. Burke and Wills took their only horse to carry a small quantity of provisions, and, leaving Gray and King behind, set out by themselves on foot. They had to cross swampy ground, and the horse, becoming bogged, was unable to go further. Burke and Wills hurried on by themselves, till they reached a narrow inlet on the Gulf of Carpentaria, and found that the river they had been following was the Flinders, discovered by Stokes in 1842. They were anxious to view the open sea, but this would have required another couple of days, and their provisions were already exhausted ; they were therefore obliged to hasten back as quickly as possible.

When at length the provisions were reached, the travellers were not able to go forward so quickly as it was necessary to do, if they wished to be safe. They recovered the horse and the camels, and managed to move south towards home. But their journey to the north had told severely on their constitutions. Gray became ill, and it was necessary to be so careful with their supplies that he had little chance of regaining his lost strength. Towards the end of March, when provisions began to fail, they killed a camel, and dried its flesh. At the beginning of April this was gone, and they killed the horse. Gray breathed his last a day or two later, and was buried in the wilderness.

Burke and Wills were utterly worn out; they were so weak that they tottered rather than walked along. At last, on the 23rd of April, they came in sight of the depot at Cooper’s Creek, four months and a half after leaving it. Great was their alarm on seeing no sign of people about the place; and their hearts sank within them when they found a note stating that Brahe had left that very morning, and was seven hours’ march away! The three men looked at one another in blank dismay; but they could not possibly move forward with any hope of overtaking Brahe’s party. On looking round, they saw the word “ Dig ” cut on a tree ; and when they turned up the soil, a small supply of provisions was found.

Questions.—Who first proposed the expedition on which Burke and Wills set out ? What animals were the explorers to take with them ? Who was chosen as the leader ? Who was second in command ? On what date did the explorers leave Melbourne ? What river did they reach ? Whom did Burke take with him from Menindie ? What instructions did Burke give Wright? Where did Burke wait some time? What did he then resolve to do? What instructions did he give Brahe ? How many formed the party that started for the gulf ? Describe their journey northward. What river had they been following? Describe the journey back to Cooper’s Creek. On what date did Burke and Wills reach the depot there? How long had they been absent ? What had become of Brahe’s party ? How did Burke’s party discover the provisions ?

Pronounce in syllables:—

con-trib-u-tion    in-struc-tions    veg-e-ta-tion con-stit-u-tions

as-sist-ants ^    per-il-ous    ex-haust-ed    re-gain-ing

Dictation :—

From the Cooper’s Creeh dep the explorers set out to make an exploration at the Gulf of Carpentaria. When a journey of two days would have brought them to the open sea, they were compelled to retrace their steps, owing to lack of provisions.



Di-mm-ish-ing, growing less. En-sued', followed. In-terred', buried. Loy-al-ty, fidelity.

Mal-a-dy, illness. Nu-trl-tiOUS, nourishing.

A-ban-doned, deserted.

An-nu-i-ty, a yearly payment. Com-pe-ten-cy, sufficient means of support.

De-lib-er-at-ing, considering together.

Brahe had remained a month and a half longer than he had been told to wait; and as his provisions were fast diminishing/ and there seemed to he no signs of Wright with the remainder of the expedition, he thought it unsafe to delay any longer. Wright was the cause of all the disasters that ensued/ Instead of following closely on Burke, he had loitered at Menindie for three months; and when he did set out, he had travelled so leisurely that Brahe was half-way back to the Darling before they met.

On the evening when they entered the depot, Burke, Wills, and King made a hearty supper; then for a couple of days they stretched their weary limbs at rest. But inaction was dangerous, for the stock of provisions would only serve to take them safely to the Darling. After deliberating" as to their future course, Burke decided to go to Adelaide, because there was a large sheep station in that direction, about one hundred and fifty miles away.

Following Cooper’s Creek for many miles, the party entered a region of frightful barrenness. They made a halt, and found that scarcely any provisions were left, while their clothes were falling to pieces. Their last camel was killed, and a short rest was taken. The party turned southward, but they were

too weak to travel day after day over these dreary plains. At length they turned to go back.

Cooper’s Creek was once more reached, but with provisions for only a day or two. They sat down to consider their position, and Burke s^d he had heard that the natives lived chiefly on the seed of a plant called nardoo. tie and King set out to seek a native encampment; and having found one, they were kindly received by the blacks, who showed them how to gather the little black seeds from the plant, which grows close to the ground. With this information they returned to Wills; and as the nardoo seed was abundant, they began to gather it; but they found that it was by no means nutritious/ and gave them no strength.

Brahe, meantime, on his way home, had met Wright coming up, and hastened back with him to the depot; but when they reached it, they saw no signs of Burke and Wills, although the explorers had been there a few days before. Brahe, therefore, supposed that they were dead, and once more set out for home.

(§* Meanwhile, Burke thought it possible that a relief party might have reached the creek, and Wills volunteered to go to the depot to see if any one was there. He set out by himself, and, after journeying three or four days, reached the place ; but only to find it deserted. He examined it carefully, but could see no trace of its having been recently visited; and he turned back to share the doom of his companions.

He began to endure fearful pangs from hunger, when he met a native tribe. The black men

were exceedingly kind. They gave him food; and while he was eating he saw a great quantity of fish on the fire: when they were cooked, the plentiful repast was placed before him ; the natives clapped their hands with delight when they saw him eat heartily. He stayed with them for four days, and


then set out to bring his friends to enjoy the native hospitality. It took him some days to reach the place where he had left them ; but when they heard his good news, no time was lost in seeking their native benefactors.

On account of their weakness, the three men trav-

elled slowly, and when they reached the encampment, it was deserted. They had no idea whither the natives had gone; they struggled on a good distance further; but their feebleness overcame them, and they were forced to sink in despair. Ml day they toiled hard to prepare nardoo seed, but their small strength could not provide enough to support them.

Burke now thought that their only chance was to find the blacks, and proposed that he and King should set off for that purpose. They were loath to leave Wills, but no other course was possible.' They laid him softly within a hut, and placed at his head enough of nardoo to last him for eight days. Wills asked Burke to take his watch, and a letter he had written for his father; the two men pressed his hands, smoothed his couch tenderly for the last time, and set out. There, in the utter silence of the wilderness, the dying man lay for a day or two; no ear heard his last sigh; but his end was as gentle as his life had been free from reproach.

Burke and King walked out on their desperate errand. On the first day they traversed a fair distance, but on the second they had not proceeded two miles when Burke lay down, saying he could go no further. King entreated him to make another effort, and he dragged himself to a little clump of bushes, where he stretched his limbs very wearily. An hour or two afterwards he” was stiff and unable to move. Burke asked King to take his watch and pocket-book, and to give them to his friends in Melbourne; then he begged his companion not to depart tilhhe Was quite dead, for he knew he should

not live long, and he wished some one to he near him to the last. He spoke with difficulty, but directed King not to bury him, but to let him lie above ground, with a pistol in his right hand. They passed a weary and lonesome night; and in the morning, at eight o’clock, Burke’s restless life was ended.

King wandered for some time forlorn, but, by good fortune, came upon an abandoned4' encampment, where the blacks had left a bag of nardoo, sufficient to last him a fortnight; and with this he hastened back to the hut where Wills had been laid. All he could do now was to dig a grave in the sand for the body of his friend; and having performed that last sad duty, he set out once more on his search, and found a tribe differing from that which he had already seen. The blacks were very kind, but were not anxious to keep him, until, having shot some birds, and having cured their chief of a malady,* King was found to be of some use. He soon became a great favourite with them. They made a trip to the body of Burke, but, respecting his last wishes, they did not seek to bury it, and merely covered it gently with a layer of leafy boughs.

Meanwhile a light party, under the leadership of Alfred Howitt, was despatched to.seek for the explorers. Near Swan Hill he met Brahe, and both returned to Melbourne to tell how Burke had not got back to the depot. Howitt was reinforced, and sent forward to Cooper’s Creek. He succeeded in rescuing King, who was with the natives. He also found the journals of the expedition, and the bodies

of the dead explorers, and gave them decent burial.

Howitt was again sent up to bring the remains to Melbourne, where the colonists had decreed to them a public funeral. The bodies lay in state for twenty days before the funeral, which took place in the Melbourne Cemetery on the 21st of January 1863, in the presence of many thousands of persons, A monument of granite, weighing thirty-four tons, was placed over them; and a bronze statue of Burke and Wills, from a design by Summers, was erected in Collins Street. An annuity* of £ 18 0 per annum was granted to King, the survivor, and grants’ were also made to the relations and dependants of both explorers. King died on the 15th of January 1872, and was interred* in the Melbourne Cemetery.

The disaster which befell this expedition created a strong and painful feeling in the public mind. The expedition had succeeded, but the brave explorers had perished! From the shores of Port Phillip to the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria they had laid down a direct and practicable route, and had returned to their depot at Cooper’s Creek, to find it abandoned and to die ! In his despatch to the British Government, announcing the results of the expedition, Sir Henry Barkly, the Governor of Victoria, wrote of their fate in these terms :—“ So fell two as gallant spirits as ever sacrificed life f<5r the extension of science or the cause of mankind. Both were in their prime ; both resigned comfort and competency* to embark in an enterprise by which they hoped to render their names glorious ; both died without a

murmur, evincing their loyalty* and devotion to their country to the last.”

Questions.—Who was it that caused all the disasters that followed? What should Wright have done? How long did Burke, Wills, and King remain at Cooper’s Creek ? In what direction did they set out to return ? What drove them back ? What was the name of the plant the seed of which they ate ? Which of them started in search of the native camp? Describe Brahe’s proceedings after leaving Cooper’s Creek. How was it that he missed Burke and Wills at Cooper’s Creek? Who went back from the depot to the native camp ? How was he received by the blacks? What did Burke and King then propose to do ? What was the fate of Wills ? Describe the death of Burke. What saved the life of King? Who led the relief party that was senv. out in search of Wills? Where did he meet Brahe? Whom did Howitt find near Cooper’s Creek ? Where were the remains of Burke and Wills buried? What was the date of the funeral? What was the date of King’s death ? Who was governor of the colony at the time? How did he write of Burke and Wills?

Pronounce in syllables :— lei-sure-ly in-ac-tion















Dictation :—

The disastrous termination of the expedition of Burke and Wills was especially deplorable, since the explorers were more completely equipped than any previous party, and the misfortunes which befell them were due to mismanagement

/ i'7

I ^





   Who succeeded Edward I. ? How long did he reign? Did he fulfil his father’s dying wish ? What did he do instead? How did he offend the nobles? What was the result ?