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THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. 1, No. 1.]    MELBOURNE.    [June, 1897.

( The Honorable the Minister of Public Instruction desires that all pupils of the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth classes in every State School in the Colony of Victoria will obtain the first two numbers of this Paper, and carefully read for their general information the articles contained therein relating to Queen Victoria, her life, times, and reign.)

A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE OF QUEEN VICTORIA AND OF SOME OF THE EVENTS IN HER REIGN.

Ac-ces-sion, coming to the throne. RePer-ence, allusion.

Deemed, thought.

Ob-tain-a-ble, able to be got. Ac-quiredi gained.


Prep-a-ra-tions, arrangements |niade beforehand.

Cel^e-brate, duly keep up.

An-ni-ver-sa-ry, annual return of the day on which any notable event took place.

Throughout the wide extent of the British Empire, preparations are being made to celebrate with thanksgiving and joy the 20th of June, the 60th anniversary of our Queen’s accession.

No other monarch1 of whom there is record in history has reigned so long, not one has been held more dear by the people.

So numerous have been the interesting events which have taken place, so great has been the progress of the nation during the last sixty years, that, in the space available in this Paper, no reference can be made to many things that may be deemed important.

It is hoped, therefore, that those who read this brief history will turn for more information to some of the many books which treat of the subject. Such books are easily obtainable. A knowledge of our own times ought to be acquired by every person who is desirous of being educated.

THE PERSONAL LIFE OF THE QUEEN.

THE INFANCY OF THE QUEEN.

Re-ceived; got.

Prince Reagent, the Prince of Wales, ruling-in the place of his father, George III., who was disabled by illness from reigning.

Vac^ci-nat^ed, having had vaccine matter introduced into the blood.

Nat-u-ral-ly, according to the usual course of things.

•De-scribed' gave an account.

Lan-guage, speech.

Hes-i-tate, waver.

Re-ferredi alluded.

On the 24th of May, 1819, there was born at Kensington Palace, near London, a child who is now known as Queen Victoria. Her father was the Duke of Kent, fourth son of the reigning King, George III.

KENSINGTON PALACE.

From The Sovereign Reader.


She received the names, Alexandrina Victoria—the former, at the request of the Prince Regent, after Alexander, the Emperor of Russia, and the latter, because it was her mother’s name. She was called  Little Drina” all through her early years.

Little Drina was the first member of royal blood to be vaccinated. Soon after this was done, she wras taken by her father and mother to a town on the coast of England. It was here that she had the first of her many narrow escapes from death.

A young man, shooting sparrows, came too near the house, and was so careless in the use of his gun that some of the shot went through the window of the room in which Little Drina was, and passed quite close to her head.

Shortly afterwards, when she was eight months old, her father died. The Duchess of Kent was a German, and her thoughts naturally turned to her home in Germany. Some years afterwards, she thus described her position on the death of her husband. “ We stood alone, almost friendless, and unknown in the country. I could not even speak the language of it. I did not hesitate how to act. I gave up my home, my kindred, and other duties to devote myself to a duty which was the sole object of my future life.”

The “ duty ” she referred to was the training of her little daughter for the high position—that of Queen of England — which it was probable she would be called to fill. To carry this out the Duchess with her little child went to live at Kensington Palace. For eighteen years this was their home.

THE GIRLHOOD OF THE QUEEN.

Right-eous-ness, godliness; uprightness. Re-proach' disgrace.

Revere-a-tion, amusement; pastime. Per-mit-ted, allowed

Suc-ces-sion, right of becoming king or queen. Gen-e-a-log-ic-al, pertaining to the descent of a person from an ancestor Nec-es-sa-ry, such as must be.

Dif-fi-eul-ty, trouble.


Re-spon-si-foil-i-ty, state of being answerable as for a trust, &c.

Ap-pear-ance, look.

Com-plex-ion, colour of the skin.

Saxe-Co-burg-Go-tha, small state now forming part of the German Empire.

So-Ci-e-ty, company ; people of rank. In-sist-ed, said it must be ; urged.

As soon as her daughter was old enough, and before she could read the Bible for herself, the Duchess used to read to her out of it every day. Doubtless, she learnt the lesson, even when a child, that “Righteousness exalteth a nation ; but sin is a reproach to any people.”

The recreation of the young Princess was to walk, or ride in a little carriage round Kensington Garden, or have a scamper through the rooms and passages of the palace. Very little of Court life was the child permitted to see.

Till she was thirteen years old, she was under the care of a governess ; but at that age Dr. Davys was appointed her teacher.

There could not have been many idle moments in the Princess’s day at this time. She had to learn drawing, painting, singing, French, German, and Italian, besides other subjects, such as arithmetic and geography. Bnt all these studies were not allowed to shut out the study of God’s Word.

Concerning the manner in which the Princess was informed of her place in the succession to the throne, the following account is given by her governess:—“With her mother’s consent, but. unknown to the Princess, I put the genealogical table into the book of history she was studying. When the Princess opened the book, and noticed the paper, she said, ‘ I never saw that before.’

“‘It was not thought necessary you should, Princess,’ the governess replied.

“ ‘ I see,’ continued the Princess, ‘ I am nearer the throne than I thought.’

“ ‘ So it is, madam,’ was the reply.

“After some moments, the Princess answered, ‘Now, many a child would boast, hut they don’t know the difficulty. There is much splendour, hut there is more responsibility ; ’ and, laying her hand in that of the governess, she said, ‘ I will he good. I understand now why you urged me so much to learn even Latin.’ ”

Her appearance when a girl has been thus described :—“ She was not tall, but upright and graceful, with a fresh, pink-and-white complexion, and large, well-opened, blue eyes.”

When she was about seventeen, her two cousins, Prince Ernest and Prince Albert, of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, came with their father to pay a visit to the Duchess of Kent at Kensington Palace. The young-people saw much of each other, and went about to view the sights of London together. After a stay of several weeks, Prince Albert returned to his home in Germany, but he and the Princess often heard of each other through friends.

From the time of this visit, Princess Victoria went more into society. Towards the end of his reign, William IV. insisted upon her going to Court, even against the wish of her mother.

THE MAIDEN MONARCH : VICTORIA REGINA.

DOC-U-mentS, written or printed papers. Proc-la-ma-tion, general notice. Of-fl£cial, made by authority. In-ti-ma-tion, announcement.

Liege, sovereign.

Af-fect-ed, overcome; moved. In-ci-dent, event.


Re-gin^a, Latin word, meaning queen. Oc-curredi took place.

Can-ter-bur-y, town in the south-east of England.

Coun-cil, body of men elected or appointed to give advice.

Gov-ern-ment, ruling power.

Pre-Sid-ed, occupied the place of chairman.

King William IV.’s death took place during the night of the 19th of June, 1837. Though this had been almost hourly expected for some days before it really occurred, the little household at Kensington Palace went on as usual, till it was aroused by a loud knocking at the outer gate in the early morn of the 20th. The porter hastily called some of the servants, and told them that the Archbishop of Canterbury and a nobleman had come to see the Princess.

“ But she is asleep, and it is only five o’clock in the morning,” said one of the surprised servants.

“ No matter what time it is, we must see the Princess at once,” said the Archbishop; and so the servant went to call her.

The lady did not keep them waiting so long as the servant had done. In a white dressing-gown, with a shawl drawn round her shoulders, her long, fair hair falling down her back, she hastened to see the visitors. On being told that she was now Queen of England, she stood silent for a minute, and, then, with much feeling, said to the Archbishop, “ I ask your prayers on my behalf.”

At 11 o’clock the young Queen held her first Council. There were about a hundred members present—Ministers of the Crown and Nobles.

She seated herself at the head of the Council-board, and took the usual oaths respecting the government of the kingdom. One who was present records that she presided with as much ease, as though she had done nothing else all her life.

In signing the State documents put before her the Queen wrote “ Victoria ” only ; not “ Alexandrina Victoria ” as it was thought she would.


The public proclamation took place next day in front of St. James’s Palace. It was the official intimation of the death of King William IV., of the vacant throne, and of the accession of “ the high and mighty Princess Alexandrina Victoria,” who is “ become our only lawful and rightful liege lady, Victoria, by the Grace of God, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the Faith.”

When the concluding words “ God save the Queen ” were uttered, a royal salute was fired, the bands played the National Anthem, and cheer after cheer arose from the crowds of people on every coronation chair.    side. The Queen was much affected, and,

turning to her mother, burst into tears. England’s well-known poetess, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, thus describes the incident :—

VICTORIA’S TEARS.


Maj-es-ty, state which inspires awe. Strick-en, struck; afflicted. Heark-en-ing, listening.

“ ‘0 maiden heir of kings,

A king has left his place ;

The majesty of Death has swept All other from his face,

And thou upon thy mother’s breast No longer lean adown—•

But take the glory from the rest,

And rule the land that loves thee best.’ The maiden wept;

She wept to wear a crown !

“They decked her courtly halls—

They reined her hundred steeds— They shouted at her palace gates,

‘ A noble Queen succeeds ! ’

Her name has stirred the mountain’s sleep,

Her praise has filled the town ;

And mourners God had stricken deep Looked hearkening up, and did not weep ! Alone she wept,

Who wept to wear a crown !


Pur-ple, imperial or regal colour; reddish blue. Pag-ean-tries, shows.

Her-alds, officers whose duty it is to make certain proclamations.

“ She saw no purples shine,

For tears had dimmed her eyes ;

She only knew her childhood’s flowers Were happier pageantries.

And while her heralds played their part, For million shouts to drown—

‘ God save the Queen,’ from hill to mart— She heard through all her beating heart,

And turned and wept ;

She wept to wear a crown !

“ God bless thee, weeping Queen,

With blessings more divine !

And fill with happier love than Earth’s ’ That tender heart of thine !

That when the thrones of earth shall be As low as graves brought down,

A pierced hand may give to thee The crown, which angels shout to see ! Thou wilt not weep To wear that heavenly crown.”


THE QUEEN IN HER CORONATION ROBES.

It was not till the 28th of June, 1838, that the grand and solemn ceremony of crowning the Queen took place.

When the Queen ascended the throne, the affairs of the nation were in the hands of a Ministry, at the head of which was Lord Melbourne. He thus became, and for some years remained, her chief adviser.

It was in 1837 that Governor Bourke visited from Sydney a little village on the Yarra Yarra River in order to inspect the planning out of its streets. He named the place Melbourne after the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

THE QUEEN’S MARRIED LIFE.

Be-trothedi promised with a view to marriage. Pro-ces-sion, train of persons advancing in order.

Coun-te-nance, face.

Au-gured, betokened ; seemed to promise. In-dUS-tri-OUS, not slothful or idle. Par-lia-ment.an assembly of the representatives of a nation having authority to make laws.


LORD MELBOURNE.


Hon-our-a-ble, worthy of respect and honour. Man-U-al, done by the hand.

Do-mes-tic, relating to home life.

Men-tal, pertaining to the mind.

Phys-i-cal, relating to the body. En-cour-a-ging, helping forward.

In 1839, Prince Ernest and Prince Albert again came over from the Continent to pay a visit to their cousin of England. After they had been at Windsor Castle a short time, the nation was rejoiced to hear that the Queen was betrothed to Prince Albert.

The marriage took place early in the following year. The morning of the wedding-day was wet, cold, and foggy; but, in spite of the bad weather, people were out in crowds to see the procession. We are told that the Queen’s eyes were swollen with tears, but great happiness was shown in her countenance. Her look of trust and comfort at the Prince as they walked away, man and wife, augured well for their future happiness.

Her trust was not misplaced. He proved a loving husband and father, a virtuous, wise, and industrious prince. He was known, and will be known hereafter, through the ages, as Albert the Good. Parliament, to show its trust in him, bestowed upon him the honourable title of Prince Consort. Throughout the twenty-one years of their married life, the Queen turned to him in all her difficulties.

PRINCE ALBERT AT THE AGE OF TWENTY-TWO.

As years rolled on, the nursery was filled with young children. Victoria Adelaide Mary, the Princess Royal, was the first of these. At the age of eighteen, she was married to the late Emperor of Germany. The present Emperor of that country is her son, and, therefore, the grandson of our Queen.

Then came the Prince of Wales on November 9th, 1841.

The Royal couple often went on tours through the country to the delight of the people. They also visited Ireland, Scotland, and the Continent.

Prince Albert bought two estates, and had beautiful mansions built upon them. One—Balmoral Castle—is in the Highlands of Scotland,

on] the River Dee. The other—Osborne House—is the Queen’s seaside home in the Isle of Wight. It was the habit of the Prince to retire with his wife and children to these at times in order to enjoy freedom and rest.

While living here, as elsewhere, the Queen speni^a part of her time in visiting the poor and the sick, bringing comfort and joy into many a home.

Once, when herbirthday came round, the Queen surprised her children and gave them much delight, by presenting them with a building known as Swiss Cottage, which was situated about a mile from Osborne House.

It was not to be merely a playhouse for them, but was to serve as a school, in which they could be taught manual exercises and domestic duties. Among other things, it had a kitchen, dairy, and carpenter’s workshop. There was also a garden around it, in which the children had to work under the direction of a gardener.

It is plain then that, not only were the mental powers of the Royal children fostered by the study of books, but their physical and domestic training was also attended to by means of manual work.

There was no scheme for the public good which the Prince Consort was not ready to forward. Always earnest in encouraging peace and good-will among men, he began to busy himself about the year 1850 in arranging an exhibition of the industries of all nations.

THE “GREAT” EXHIBITION OF 1851.

Myr^i-ads, immense numbers. Sen-sa^tion, feeling.

Tre-men-dous, very great. Im-men-Si-ty, very great size. Civ-i-lized, released from a savage state.


De-struc-tion, ruin.

RiWal-ry, strife.

Im-mensei very large.

Im-pres-sions, thoughts on what she saw. £n-tiLU-Si-asitiC, filled with joy and zeal. Tran-sept, that part of a large building, such as a church, which crosses at right angles to the greatest length.

This Exhibition was the first of its kind, though there have been many since. All nations were invited to join, not, as they had so often done, in trying their strength against one another in war and destruction, but in friendly rivalry for the good of mankind. To hold the exhibits an immense structure of glass and iron, designed by Mr. Joseph Paxton, and now known as the Crystal Palace, was built in Hyde Park, near London. Crowds of people from all parts of the world flocked to see the novel sight.

The Exhibition was opened by the Queen, who thus describes what her impressions were:—“The great event has taken place—a complete and beautiful triumph—a glorious and touching sight, one which I shall ever be proud of for my beloved Albert and my country. .    .    .

The Green Park and Hyde Park were one densely crowded mass of human beings, in the highest good humour and most enthusiastic. .    .    . The glimpse of the transept through the iron gates,

the waving palms, flowers, statues, myriads of people filling the galleries

and seats around, with the flourish of trumpets as we entered, gave us a sensation which I can never forget, and I felt much moved. .    .    .

“ The tremendous cheers, the joy expressed in every face, the immensity of the building, the organ with two hundred instruments and six hundred voices, and my beloved husband the author of this peace festival, which united the industry of all nations of the earth—all this was moving indeed, and it was, and is a day to live for ever.”

There was, at that time, peace all over the civilized world, and this Exhibition was often mentioned as the festival to open the long reign of peace upon the earth. Unhappily, the day had not yet come when the races of mankind would forgo1 their rival interests, subdue their ambitions, and curb their passions. The Crimean War began shortly after the Exhibition was closed. It was followed by the Indian Mutiny. Several “ little ” wars, as they are sometimes called in the newspapers, have since that time been carried on against savage and semi-savage peoples. Many wars also have taken place among foreign nations.

In 1861, the Prince Consort, when in the prime of life, died from typhoid fever. The whole nation sorrowed with the Queen for her loss, which was also theirs. For many years after this sad event, the Queen was rarely seen by her subjects.

1 _ See- /Ca-f-e &2L -fo*    *f -farjo

MARRIAGE OF THE PRINCE OF WALES.

Ju-bi-lant, exulting.

BliSS-ful, happy in the highest degree. Wit-nessed, was present at. En-ti-tled, named.

Al-li-ances, unions.

Prompt-ly, at once.


Con-sid-er-a-ble, of importance. De-scend^ed, derived from.

Bla-zon, display far and wide.

Ju-bi-lee, season of general joy ; strictly speaking, the joyful celebration held on the fiftieth anniversary of any event. -    \

/ G The marriage of the Prince of Wales, the heir to the throne, was the great event of the year 1863. The interest of the people in this union was unbounded. Not only were celebrations held in Britain, but the colonists also showed in many ways their delight at the marriage. The parents of many of the readers of this Paper will remember the revels that took place on the occasion in most of the towns of Victoria. The Princess was known to be a charming woman; moreover, she was a Dane, one of the race from which a considerable portion of the English people is descended. Tennyson expressed the nation’s feelings in a poem entitled “A Welcome to Alexandra,” from which the following lines are taken:—S

Sea-king’s daughter from over the sea,

Alexandra !

Saxon and Norman and Dane are we,

But all of us Danes in our welcome to thee,

Alexandra !

The Queen has witnessed the marriages of many of her children and grandchildren. Her own children numbered nine (four sons and five daughters), of whom two are dead.

THE PRINCESS OF WALES.

Mrs. Tooley, in her book entitled The Personal Life of Queen Victoria, says—“ Queen Victoria is honoured in the Courts of Europe as no English monarch has been before. It seems, indeed, that the Continent is rapidly coming under the sphere of British influence through the alliances made by her children, grandchildren, and greatgrandchildren. When Russian Ministers propose any course of action * likely to upset the peace of Europe and bring England into the fray, the young Czar and Czarina promptly reply, ‘It must not be ; we cannot have Grandmamma worried.’ ”

THE JUBILEE OF VICTORIA,

REGINA ET IMPERATRIX—(Queen and Empress).

Un-par-al-leledi not equalled. Il-lu-min-a-tions, decorations of buildings with lights.    .

Ex-traor-di-na-ry, wonderful. In-scrip-tions, writings on boards, walls, arches, &c.

Par-tlc-i-pa-ted, shared in.


THE PRINCE OF WALES.


Im-per-a-trix, Latin word, meaning’ empress.

Fem. of imperator.

Mem-O-ra-ble, very important ; worth remembering.

Dem£on-stra-tions, shows.

In-sti-tu-tions, establishments of a public character.

Among' the many incidents in the Queen’s life during her widowhood, none, probably, possessed more interest for the people than the celebration of her Jubilee—the completion of the fiftieth year of her reign—which took place on the 21st of June, 1887.

Mr. G. A. Henty, in The Sovereign Reader, thus briefly describes what took place :—“In all parts of the world the Queen’s subjects

celebrated this memorable event with great rejoicings. The Colonies and India vied with each other in loyal demonstrations and in showing their joy at the event, not only with feasting and rejoicing*, but by the

foundation of useful institutions. The rejoicings upon the occasion throughout Great Britain were unparalleled in our history. In every

town there were festivals, decorations, and illuminations. Great bonfires blazed on the top of some 200 of the highest hills in England, Scotland, and Wales. In London the occasion was observed with extraordinary pomp and ceremony. Every court in Europe sent members of its royal family, the Kings of Denmark, Saxony, and Greece being personally present, while several of the great Princes of India came over to pay the Queen their homage. From end to end London was gaily decorated with flags, banners, and loyal inscriptions, and an enormous crowd assembled to witness the passage of the Queen, her family, and royal guests to Westminster Abbey, where a solemn thanksgiving service was held. At night the whole city was illuminated. Many other splendid fêtes took place in honour of the occasion : a great review of the troops was held by the Queen at Aldershot and of the navy at Spithead. In London and in many towns throughout the country feasts were given to vast numbers ofi school children, and it may be said that all classes participated in the rejoicing.”

THE DIAMOND JUBILEE.

The above account gives an idea of what will take place on a yet larger scale by way of celebrating the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee—the completion of the sixtieth year of her glorious reign.

(Articles on “ The EmpireSixty Years of Progressand on the principal events of the reign will appear in the next issue of this Paper.)

NEWS AND NOTES.

The Princess of Wales, a few weeks ago, asked for donations towards a fund for providing the poorest people of London with dinners during the Diamond Jubilee week. It has been calculated that there will be 400,000 (more than the population of Melbourne and suburbs) to feed, and that the cost will be about £20,000. When her request became known in Melbourne, the following message was cabled :—“ Australia is sending 20,000 fat sheep and 500 fat bullocks to the Princess of Wales for her dinners to the poor.” Many leading graziers have taken the matter in hand, and there is no doubt that the promise will be carried out.

The Royal procession from Buckingham Palace to St. Paul’s Cathedral will be about a mile long. It will traverse six miles of streets, occupying, it is expected, from 11 to 2 o’clock. Twenty-five thousand troops (Redcoats, Cavalry, and Bluejackets) are to line the thoroughfare for the six miles. High prices are being paid for permission to occupy windows, house-tops, and platforms, and, in fact, every place where standing room can be had along the route.

An exhibition of pictures and other objects connected with the personal history of the Queen is to be opened shortly at the Public Library. It should prove both interesting and instructive. Her Majesty has lent a famous picture of “ The Marriage of the Princess Royal” from her great collection at Windsor Castle. The assistance thus given, and the interest the Queen evidently has in their efforts, must be very gratifying to the trustees of our Library.

The work of establishing a central Government for all the Australian colonies is progressing steadily At Adelaide, fifty representatives chosen from the colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania, drew up a Bill, in which certain terms and conditions were stated. As soon as possible these are to be taken into consideration by the Parliaments of each of the colonies. Another meeting of the Convention will then be held to make final arrangements. Should this take place during the present year, there can be little doubt that historians, in the future, will say that, as far as Australia is concerned, the most important event in the Diamond Jubilee Year was the establishment of its Federal Government.



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THE HUNDREDTH PSALM.

‘    Tune : ‘ ‘ Old Hundredth.

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Sing- to the Lord with cheerful voice. Him serve with fear, His praise forth tell, Come ye before Him and rejoice.

Oh ! enter then His gates with praise, Approach with joy His courts unto : Praise, laud, and bless His Name always, For it is seemly so to do.


For why ? the Lord our God is good ;

His mercy is for ever sure ;

His truth at all times firmly stood,

And shall from age to age endure.


The Lord, ye know, is God indeed ;

Without our aid He did us make :

We are His flock, He doth us feed,

And for His sheep He doth us take.

GOD SAVE THE QUEEN.

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O Lord our God, arise,

Scatter our enemies,

And make them fall; Confound their politics, Frustrate their knavish tricks, On Thee our hopes we fix :

God save us all.

Thy choicest gifts in store On her be pleased to pour, Long may she reign.

May she defend our laws, And ever give us cause To sing with heart and voioe, “ God save the Queen.”

The first time that this tune and the words (substituting King ” for “ Queen”) printed above, were sung in public, was at Drury Lane Theatre, in 1745, during the reign of George II. Charles Edward Stuart was threatening to invade England. His father, the “Pretender,” son of James II., had been proclaimed king as “James the Eighth” at Edinburgh, by the Jacobites, and some of the inhabitants of London thus took the opportunity of showing in song their allegiance to George II. From that hour “God Save the King,” or “ Queen,” as the case may be, has held the first place among the national anthems of the world. It is a bond between English-speaking people wherever throughout the wide world they are to be found.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. L, No. 2.]    MELBOURNE.    [July, 1897.

( The Honorable the Minister of Public Instruction desires that all pupils of the Fourth, Fifth, and, Sixth classes in every State School in the Colony of Victoria will obtain the first two numbers of this Paper, and carefully read the articles contained therein relating to Queen Victoria, her life, times, and reign.)

SIXTY YEARS OF NATIONAL PROGRESS.

EDUCATION.

Gov-ern-ment, the ruling powers. An-nu-al-ly, year by year. Ac-ces-sion, coming to the throne. Im-mensei very great.

Realm, kingdom.


Na^tion-al, of or belonging' to a race or people. Im-prove-ment, advance.

In^flu-ence, sway; power.

Ad-e-quate-ly, sufficiently.

Ban-ish-ing, doing away with.

On looking back over the sixty years which have passed since the Queen came to the throne, we cannot but be struck by the marked improvement in the condition of the people, and by the growth in power and influence of the British Empire.

It is a great mistake to talk about the ugood old times.” Men and women have never been so well off, so learned, and so adequately provided with the means of enjoying themselves, as they are to-day; boys and girls are better taught, better fed, better clothed, and better cared for than boys and girls ever were in the past.

In 1837, education in England was carried on by private means, except for a small grant of £20,000 a year made by the Government towards the expenses of building schools. A great advance was made in 1870, when the nation entered, in good earnest, upon the work of banishing ignorance by educating every child living under its rule. Progress since that time has been rapid. The amount voted annually for education by the British Parliament is now about ten million pounds.

As an educational power in the land, newspapers must be mentioned. They have vastly increased in number, and have greatly improved since the accession of the Queen, and have been brought within the reach of the poorest. They, therefore, wield an immense influence. It has been said that the Press is the fourth estate of the

Price Id.

realm. By this is meant, that it lias almost an equal share with the Lords Spiritual, the Lords Temporal (who form the House of Lords), and the Commons, in the government of the country.

ST. PAUL’S CATHEDRAL, WHERE THE THANKSGIVING SERVICE WAS HELD ON THE 22nd OF JUNE.


THE STATE OF THE POOR.

Airy, iii his Text-book of English History, thus describes the state of the poor in the early years of this century :—“ No adequate idea can here be given of the wretchedness of the poor in our great towns. In 1841, 800,OUO hand-loom weavers earned only 24d. a day; in


Cen-tu-ry, hundred years.

Ad-e-quate, complete; full.

Ven-til-a-ted, providfd with means for lettingin fresh air, and allowing impure air to escape. Dis -ease, sickness.

Seized, laid hold of.

Pro-tract' lengthen.

Dis-tricts, divisions or parts of a country. Ma-chin-er-y, machines in general.


Par-lia-ment (par-li-ment), body of men entrusted with making laws, &c., for their country.

Reg-U-late, bring under rule.

Dis-po-si-tion, inclination ; wish. Do-min-ion, extent of its rule.

En-list-ed, employed.

An-tic-i-pa-ting, doing beforehand.

Tri-bu nal, court.

Ap-pro-ba-tion, approval expressed ; praise.


Manchester Is. a week was a common wage. Crowded in courts, alleys, cellars—one-tenth of the population of Manchester and one-seventh of that of Liverpool lived in cellars, neither drained nor ventilated— or in houses run up without the slightest provision for decency or health, the poor were a prey to starvation, vice, and disease. Starving men and women, or, worse still, women seeing their children starving-


before their eyes, readily seized the vilest substances which enabled them to protract for a few hours longer their miserable lives. In the country districts things were as bad.”

The following additional details are taken ~ with some changes of ~ words from Mackenzie’s _ | History of the 19th Cen-1 s tury

~ t “ Children were emo t ployed in great numbers z ^ to attend the machinery § « that had been introduced m ^ into the factories. Child-x eS ren of six, it was found u o in 1834, were often put to < | work in factories. The oc § hours of labour ranged g from thirteen to fifteen x daily, and even more °f when trade was good. The  children often fell asleep & over their work, and the overseers beat them without mercy to keep them awake. Factory children were pale, thin, and stunted in size, and were apt to catch diseases from which they rarely recovered.

“ Women, and even children, worked in coalpits. They dragged about little waggons by chains fastened round the waist ; they crawled like beasts on hands and feet in the darkness of the mine.


20


THE SCHOOL PAPER.    [July,

The horrors among which they liyecl induced disease and early death. There was no machinery to raise the coals to the surface, and women climbed long, wooden ladders with baskets of coal upon their heads.”

Many Acts of Parliament have been passed since those days to regulate the hours and conditions of labour. The State now compels employers to be more thoughtful of the lives and comfort of those who work for them.

People used to employ little boys, and sometimes little girls, of five or six,Js6 sweep chimneys. The child was forced to crawl up them, often driven by blows, to his horrid work. Sometimes the child was butned. Often he stuck fast in a narrow flue, and it was not easy, to get him out. Sometimes, even, he was taken out dead. This method of cleaning chimneys was not put down by law till 1840.

Though we still have wickedness and poverty among us, there are now fewer cases of crime, and more healthful surroundings in the factory, the workshop, and the home, than formerly. Hot only statesmen, but many noble men and women of all classes, are devoting their lives to helping those who will help themselves, and trying, by better dwellings, better schools, better arrangements for the employment of labour, to lessen the number of the struggling poor.

The disposition to raise the fallen, to befriend the outcast and friendless, has become one of the governing powers of the world. Every year its dominion widens, and even now, a strong and growing public spirit is enlisted in its support. The man on whom public opinion, anticipating the award of the highest tribunal, bestows its approbation, is the man who labours lhat he may leave other men better and happier than he found them.

MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS.

Sci-en-tif-ic, of or pertaining to science.

In-ven-tions, contrivances or constructions that have not before existed.

Re-gard-ed, thought of.

CiV-i-lized, released from a savage state.

Per-form-ance, feat; thing done or carried through.

Tel-e-graph, instrument for sending news rapidly between two places.

Re-motei distant.


Con-nect-ed, joined.

Gut-ta per-cha, a substance like india-rubber. Ur-gent, pressing ; instantly important. Es-tabUistied, founded ; brought into use. Ac-cord-ance, agreement.

Op-po-si-tion, resistance ; attempt to stop. U-ni-fOrm, not changing according to distance. In-dus-tries, kinds of work which employ much labour and money.

Spin-dles, certain parts of a spinning-machine.

One feature of the period covered by the Queen’s reign, has been the putting to general use of the scientific inventions which were, indeed, known in the early years of the century, but not much regarded.

In 1830, the first railway in England, or, in fact, in the world, was opened for the carriage of passengers and goods. So slowly did-the people take to this form of travelling that it was looked upon by many as a venturesome thing for the Queen, in 1842, to make a trip of a few miles by rail. Shortly afterwards, however, many companies were formed for the purpose of building railways; and iron roads began to extend rapidly, not only over England, but over the civilized world.

In the second year of Her Majesty’s reign, a steam-boat, for the first time, crossed the Atlantic from England. Sailing vessels used to take six weeks for this voyage ; now the great Atlantic steamers do it in eight days or less. For a ship then to go to Australia and return in nine months, was a great thing to do; now the voyage is accomplished in three.    _

The first telegraph was used for sending messages in 1837. Since then, remote regions of the earth have been connected, so that we can read in the newspapers to-day what happened yesterday in places thousands of miles away. But it was not till 1866 that success crowned the many efforts that had been made to lay a telegraph cable—wire enclosed in gutta-percha—between the British Isles and America. In 1876, Australia was joined by wire with Europe.

News and messages to people at a distance, if not very urgent, are usually sent through the post. It was not always so easy to send

INTERIOR OF A COTTON-SPINNING FACTORY.

—{From the “Raleigh History Readers.")

letters as it is now. Before 1839, when the postal system as we know it was established in accordance with the plan brought before the public by Mr. (afterwards Sir) Rowland Hill, letters were not prepaid.

It was reckoned at the time that on an average it took the postman two minutes to collect the postage on each letter left at the door. A letter from one part to another of a town cost 2d.; one from Reading to London, 7d.; from Aberdeen, Is. 3^-d.; from Belfast, Is. 4d. Hill’s proposal, which was carried in Parliament after some opposition, was that the uniform charge should be Id. prepaid. When the system got into working order, it proved a great success. The number of letters sent increased to such an extent that the money obtained from the sale of stamps quite covered the cost incurred by the Government.

“ Nothing is more remarkable than the way in which most of the great industries of England have grown during the last fifty years. Take, for example, the cotton industry. At the present moment, half the spindles in the world spinning cotton are at work in England.

“ The woollen trade has grown almost as fast as the cotton trade. In both cases many more men are employed now than formerly. It is the same with the coal and iron industries.” (Industrial and Social Life and the Empire, by Strachey.)

The Queen has always shown keen interest in everything that concerns the welfare and progress of her people, and they have given her in return a throne in their hearts. May we not hope that if improvement is as rapid in the future as it has been during the last sixty years, another such period will not have passed away, before ignorance and poverty will have almost disappeared from our land ? To bring about such a desirable condition all should work, taking as their motto this verse from Longfellow’s “ Psalm of Life —

‘ ‘ Let us then be up and doing,

With a heart for any fate,

Still achieving, still pursuing,

Learn to labour, and to wait. ”

THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

Re-ferredi alluded.

Pos-ses-sions, what it occupies, owns, or controls.

Mil-i-ta-ry, held by soldiers.

Con-tin-U-OUS, unbroken.

Hos-tile, unfriendly.

De-scend-ants, those sprung from them. Con-grat-U-la-tions, joyful wishes. Sen-ti-nels, those who watch or guard. Ben-e-dic-tion, blessing.


Me-rid-i-an, imaginary greaf. circle on the surface of the earth passing through the poles and any given place.

Sym-bol, visible sign.

Mazed, bewildered.

Keys, very small islands.

Hal-liard or hal-yard, rope for hoisting or lowering sails, flags, &c.

Liz-ard, cape, south-west of England.

Taint-less, pure.

A great American orator, Daniel Webster, once referred to. the British Empire “ as a power to which Rome in the height of her glory was not to be compared—a power which has dotted over the whole surface of the globe with its possessions and military posts—whose morning drum-beat, following the sun, and keeping company with the hours, circles the earth daily with one continuous and unbroken stream of its martial airs.” >

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or, as it may be called, Britain, is the centre of this Empire. From their island home, once divided into four parts hostile to one another, hut now happily united under one Crown, went forth Englishmen, Welshmen, Scotchmen, and Irishmen to conquer and people lands across the ocean. Because they and their descendants speak the English tongue, they may well be called Englishmen.

It is a well-known saying, that “ The sun never sets on the British Empire.” It is always day in some land occupied by an Englishspeaking people. The Queen rules over nearly 400 millions of human beings—more than one-fourth of mankind.

These occupy or control about one-fifth of the land surface of the globe. The extent of this empire is happily brought before us in the following passage adapted from The Life of Queen Victoria—(Nelson and Sons) :—

“ Ere the guns of the Tower of London at noon on the 22nd of June, 1897, have ceased to thunder forth the congratulations of the nation, all Canada is awake, and the West Indies are in full activity, and five or six millions more, who are proud to call themselves British subjects —together, doubtless, with the sixty millions of English-speaking people in the United States—-take up the song, ‘ God save the Queen ! ’

“ Its echoes have not died out in Victoria, the capital of British Columbia, before the colonists of New Zealand take up the loyal cry.

“ One hour later, the dawn reaches Australia and Tasmania, and there thousands of loyal hearts are ready to respond to the prayer,  God save the Queen ! ’

“Next it is taken up by the busy merchants of Hong Kong and Singapore, and is passed on by them to the millions of India who own Victoria as their Empress.

“ Before the day is an hour old at Bombay, it has dawned on Mauritius.

Next it awakens the watchmen of Aden. Almost at the same time it flushes the mountains of Natal and Cape Colony, where there are thousands of Englishmen eager to shout, ‘ God save the Queen !’

“Anon, Malta is reached ; and, ont hour later, the new dawn tells the sentinels at Windsor that the joyous benediction has travelled with the sun-light from meridian to meridian, round the globe.”


CROSS OF ST. ANDREW.

FLAGS.

[For hundreds of years the Red Cross (upright) of St. George upon a white ground was the Flag of England. In 1606, three years after the Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland, the Cross of St.

Andrew—a white cross (shaped thus x) upon a blue ground was added. At the Union of the Parliaments of these countries in 1707, the use of the first Union Flag was confirmed, and for the first time sanctioned on land as well as sea. The Cross of St. Patrick, which is of the same shape as the Cross of St. Andrew, but is red upon a white ground, was added in 1801 on the Union of the Parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland. A narrow line of white was also added to separate the colours, red and blue. Thus the “ Union Jack” was made up.]

The Union Jack—the symbol of the union which binds Englishmen all the world over—should be honoured and loved by all the subjects of the Queen.

Mr. Rudyard Kipling has written a noble poem entitled, “ What is the Flag of England ?” from which the following extracts are taken :—-

“ What is the Flag of England? Winds of the World, declare !

*********

“The North Wind blew :—    *****

‘ The lean white bear hath seen it in the long, long arctic night,

The musk-ox knows the standard that flouts the northern light:

What is the Flag of England ? Ye have but my bergs to dare,

Ye have but my drifts to conquer. Go forth, for it is there.’

“ The South Wind sighed:—    *****

‘ Strayed amid lonely islets, mazed amid outer keys,

I waked the palms to laughter—I tossed the scud in the breeze—

Never was isle so little, never was sea so lone,

But over the scud and the palm-tree an English flag was flown. ’

* I have wrenched it free from the halliard to hang for a wisp on the Horn;

I have chased it north to the Lizard—ribboned and rolled and torn ;

I have spread its fold o’er the dying adrift in a hopeless sea ;

I have hurled it swift on the slaver, and seen the slave set free. ’

“ The East Wind roared :—    *****

‘ The desert dust hath dimmed it, the flying wild-ass knows,

The scared white leopard winds it across the taintless snows.

What is the Flag of England ? Ye have but my sun to dare,

Ye have but my sands to travel. Go forth, for it is there.’

“ The West Wind called:—    *    *    *    *    *

The dead dumb fog hath wrapped it—the frozen dews have kissed —

The naked stars have seen it, a fellow-star in the mist.

What is the Flag of England ? Ye have but my breath to dare,

Ye have but my waves to conquer. Go forth, for it is there.’ ”

AUSTRALIA IN 1837 AND 1897.

Let us compare the two maps. Looking at No. 1 we see that, with the exception of the eastern portion of New South Wales, and of small portions round Brisbane, Melbourne, Portland, Adelaide, Albany, and Perth, Australia was given over to ihe emu, kangaroo, and a few wandering savages. We notice that Victoria, then the district of Port Phillip, and Queensland, then the district of Moreton Bay, were included in New South Wales. In Victoria, except to a distance of 20 or 30 miles on each side of the Sydney-road, settlement had not extended farther than the places now known as Colac, Inverleigh, Kyneton, Dandenong, and Western Port. And when we speak of  settled districts,” for the most part we mean merely that the country was occupied by squatters, whose sheep or cattle, tended by a few shepherds or stockmen, roamed over the unfenced plains.

Let us now look at map Ho. 2. What a change 60 years have brought about. We see Australia, save a portion east and west of the boundary between South and Western Australia, occupied and turned to use, Victoria and Queensland separated from Hew South Wales,

and the northern boundary of South Australia extended to the Arafura Sea. In that period small towns have grown into mighty cities, and where once the kangaroo hounded, or the sheep grazed, stand the crowded hives of human industry.

THE EASTERN QUESTION AND THE CRIMEAN WAR.

Dis-as-trous, attended with suffering and loss. Sig-nal, notable.

Ar-ma-da, fleet of armed vessels. Sus-pi-cious, distrustful; jealous.

En-VOy, messenger of a Government.


Ap-proach-es, roads.

A-meer' ruler of Afghanistan.

Dis-missedi sent away.

De-spisedi looked down upon with contempt. Im-por-tance, consequence.


It is a curious fact that during the reign of each English queen there has been one great war. Mary had her disastrous contest with the French, and lost Calais. England’s struggle with Spain took place during Elizabeth’s reign, the most signal event in it being the defeat of the Spanish Armada. The victories of Marlborough made Queen Anne’s reign famous. Victoria saw with sorrow the Crimean war.

England and Russia throughout the whole of Her Majesty’s reign have viewed with suspicious eyes the actions of each other in connection with Afghanistan and Turkey.

During the early years of this century, the steady advance of Russia in Central Asia had begun to excite England’s fears that she had designs upon India. When England learnt, in 1837, that a Russian envoy had been received at Cabul, the capital of Afghanistan, which commands the approaches to India on the north-west, a demand was sent to the Ameer of Afghanistan that he should be dismissed. As the Ameer refused to obey the order, British troops invaded the country. This was the beginning of many and costly wars with the Afghans, a people who are not to be despised as soldiers, and with whom it is of great importance for England to be friendly.

Pos-ses-sion, ownership. Re-sist-ed, striven against. Czar, ruler of Russia.

In par-ticiu-lar, specially. Ac-knowl-edge, admit. Con-duct-ed, carried out. Trans-port-ed, carried across. Af-ford-ed, gave.


Ac-comp-lished, carried out.

En-dur-ance, a continuing under pain without being overcome.

An-nals, history; accounts.

ViC-tO-ri-OUS, successful in battle. De-ter-mi-na-tion, firmness.

For-ti-tude, endurance.

Fa-mil-iar, well known.

The wish of Russia to drive the Turks from Europe, and to get possession of Constantinople and the Dardanelles, so as to become a Mediterranean power, has been, for many years past, steadily resisted by England, as well as by the other Great Powers of Europe.

In 1853, a dispute arose between the Czar of Russia and the Sultan of Turkey concerning various matters. In particular, the Czar demanded that the Sultan, who is a Mahometan, should acknowledge his right, as head of the Greek Church, to protect the Christian subjects of Turkey.

This demand, if granted, would have made Russia all-powerful in Turkey, for three-fourths of the population of Turkey in Europe at that time belonged to the Greek Church. Thus the “ balance of power ” in Europe would, it was feared, be destroyed.

The Great Powers, consequently, were not more agreeable to such a state of things than the Sultan himself was. Therefore, when Russia invaded Turkey in support of her claim, the English, who had been very active in the dispute, joined with the French in helping the Turks.

Englishmen, at the present time, are doubtful whether it was wise to undertake this war. The way in which it was conducted has helped to increase this feeling. Without sufficient care and preparation an army was sent from England to Turkey, whence it was transported across the Black Sea to capture the strong fortress of Sebastopol. The allies—the English, French, and Turks—after about a year’s costly warfare, succeeded, however, in forcing Russia to submit to their terms.

Mackenzie, in his History of the 19th Century, thus describes the wretched state of the soldiers during the long winter when Sebastopol was being besieged :—“ The men were often half-fed ; they were clothed in rags ; they might almost as well have walked barefooted for any benefit which their boots afforded ; they slept on the wet ground, under the imperfect shelter of tents ; they toiled for many hours every day in the trenches, ankle-deep in mud. Fuel was not to be had and it was often impossible for them to cook their food. .    .    . Our total

THE SEAT OF WAR IN THE CRIMEA.

loss in this miserable war was 20,656. Of these, only 2,598 were slain in battle ; 18,058 died in hospital.”

During that winter of suffering, many English ladies, headed by Miss Florence Nightingale, went out to the Crimea to nurse the sick and wounded. They accomplished their self-imposed tasks with a bravery and endurance that has never been surpassed in the annals of war.

Yet, in spite of the mismanagement and mistakes of their leaders, the British army was almost always victorious. Brave lives, thus sacrificed, were not spent in vain. The splendid exhibition that was furnished of the high, warlike qualities, of the patience and determination of the British race, was a striking lesson to the world. Britain was justly proud of her brave soldiers, and Alma, Balaklava, and Inkerman—battles in which their valour and fortitude were so splendidly shown—became as familiar as household words.

THE HERO OF THE ALMA.

[In the Crimean war the English and their allies were storming the heights above the River Alma. At the top of the hill was a fortification called the Great Redoubt,_ and as the soldiers got near it they were astonished to see the smoke clear away, showing that the Russians had fled. Anstruther, a boy ensign of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, ran forward, leaped on the parapet, and planted on it the regimental colours. At that moment a shot struck him, and he fell, wrapped in the folds of the flag he had carried so bravely.]


For-ti-fi-ca-tion, work built to defend a place against attack.

Re-doubt' kind of fort.

En-sign, officer who carried the flag; now colour sergeant.


Through the vineyards to the river, Pushing on as best we might;

Panting, though the grapes hung ready, Toiling, though the sun shone bright ! Then straight on into the water,

While the shots came raining fast; Some men went down—none wavered !

Not a backward glance was cast ! Comrades we had left behind us,

And stood gathered close and still ; When the welcome order reached us—

“ All forward !—up the hill! ”

To the Great Redoubt before us !

It was there for us to gain !

And the living heeded bullets Just as little as the slain.

We could not fire for panting,

Though the parapet grew white,


Reg-i-men-tal, belonging to a regiment. Wa-vered, were unsettled as to what to do. Com-rades, mates ; companions. Par-a-pet, low wall.


And not a word was uttered

As we pressed hard up the height. Right and left our men were falling— Right and left our men went on— When a shout arose—“ They’re moving ! On ! The Great Redoubt is won ! ”

Then a child-like youth rushed forward, And the blood within us stirred,

For his small hands bore the colours Of the gallant Twenty-third !

He ran fast, in boyish fashion,

Gained the parapet, took breath ;

He saw the face of soldiers !

We saw the face of death !

For a Russian shot had found him,

And he fell, without a word,

With the crimson colours round him Of the'gallant Twenty-third !

.    '    — Cecil W. Franklyn.


De-feat-ing, overcoming- in battle. Oc-CU-pa-tion, taking possession. Pr0V-in-ces, certain divisions of a country. In-sist-ed, said it must be.

Sub-mit-ted., laid before for consideration. Con-gress, gathering of representatives. Con-senti agree.


Cri-sis, turning point.

Bul-wark (wiirk), means of .protection. Mis-gov-ern-ment, bad rule. Pros-per-i-ty, welfare.

De-pend-ent on, subject to keeping. Route, course or way which is travelled. Con-trol[ ruling power ; power to regulate.


Again, in 1878, England, but this time without bloodshed, acted as a check upon Russia. The Russian forces, after defeating the Turks

in a number of battles, were within sight of Constantinople ; but they found that the British fleet had steamed through the Dardanelles, and was also lying within sight of that city. Native troops, too, of the same religion as the Turks but British subjects, had been brought from India to Malta. Thus it was plain that England would resist the occupation of Constantinople by Russia. The Russian forces came no farther.

A treaty was shortly afterwards signed between Russia and Turkey, which took away from the latter some of her provinces. England, however, insisted that this treaty should be submitted to a congress of the Great Powers. Russia had to consent, and the congress was Held at Berlin.

During this crisis, the fact that military forces could be drawn from India and the colonies, to strengthen those of the United Kingdom, was first brought under the notice of European nations. It caused them to recognise, as they had, perhaps, not done before, the immense extent, strength, and resources of the British Empire.

“ The problem to be solved in the East of Europe was, and is, how to keep the Turkish Empire together as a bulwark against Russia, and, at the same time, to improve the condition of the Christians suffering from Turkish misgovernment: this is generally called the Eastern Question.”—( Taylor.)

The Eastern Question concerns Australia closely, for her prosperity is to a large extent dependent on the shortest route to England—that through the Suez Canal—being under British control, as it is at present, and on its being out of the power of Russia to interfere with that control. It is feared this control might be endangered, should Russia become a Mediterranean power.

/ I / /    /    /

NEWS AND NOTES.

The following verses have been written by different authors to take the place, of the original second verse of u God 'Save the Queen,” which begins with the words, “ 0 Lord our God arise, Scatter our

God, hear our nation’s prayer-Safe in Thy loving care

Guard Thou our Queen, Till her work finished be ; Then take her, Lord, to Thee, / And in eternity

God save the Queen.”


enemies :—

“ Seed sown through sixty years, Sown on in smiles or tears, Grant her to reap ;

Her heritage of fame,

Her pure and stainless name, Her people free from shame, Guard Thou and keep. ”


The drought that has fallen upon those parts of our colony north of the Dividing Range is causing much suffering and loss. It is sad enough even for dwellers in towns to hear of cattle and sheep dying

from starvation; but what must it be for the owners to witness it day after day ? Food of any kind for live stock is very scarce. The ground in many districts is said to be quite bare of grass. As a result of the absence of sufficient rain for such a long period, articles of food, such as bread, butter, eggs, and milk, have risen very much in price. Townsfolk are thus made to share to some extent in the calamity.

*#*###*

Recently, His Excellency the Governor, unveiled a statue of the late Francis Ormond, which had been erected at the cost of about £1,000. It stands near the Working Men’s College.

During his lifetime, Mr. Ormond gave large sums of money to provide the means of obtaining education at a small cost for those who would not otherwise have been able to get it. Through his generosity, Ormond College and the Working Men’s College were built. The value of these institutions cannot be over-estimated. There are about 2,000 students on the rolls of the Working Men’s College alone.

In the streets of Melbourne are now erected four statues—-Burke and Wills, the explorers; Gordon, soldier and philanthropist ; Sir Redmond Barry, one of the founders of the Melbourne Public Library ; and Francis Ormond, public benefactor.

Ballarat has statues of the poets, Moore and Burns, of the patriot, William Wallace, and of Peter Lalor, for many years Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Victoria.

The Queen’s State Crown was made in 1838, by command of Her Majesty. It consists of diamonds, pearls, rubies, sapphires, and emeralds, set in silver and gold ; it has a crimson velvet cap with ermine border, and is lined with white silk. Its weight is 39ozs. 5dwts. troy. In the front of the crown, and in the centre of a diamond Maltese cross, is the famous ruby said to have been given to Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Edward III., called the “Black Prince,” by Don Pedro, King of Castile, after the battle of Poictiers.

#**#*#*

In the bed of the English Channel there are thirty-four telegraph cables connecting England and France.

#**##*#

It might be expected by the readers of the July number of The School Paper that, on this “ News and Notes ” page, some account would be given of the rejoicings held in honour of the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee ; but, as these paragraphs have to be ready for the printer before the middle of the month, it was not possible to supply any such description. We can only hope that, throughout your lives, you will have pleasant memories of the time when the Diamond Jubilee of the great and good Queen Victoria was celebrated.

THE SONG OF AUSTRALIA.

Words by Mrs. C. J. Carleton.    Music by Carl Linger.

Moderato.    ,

IE


=F=fe


'


* y- - y

There is a land where sum-mer skies Are gleam-ing with a thou-sand dyes,

cresc. -    -    - f    dolce


t=3t


-**±-


&


=t


Blend-ing in witch-ing har - mo - nies, In har - mo - nies ; And gras-sy knoll and

cresc. -    -    -

=t

sy light, And all a - bove is

f .


for - est height Are flush-ing in the

-    - mf

a - zure bright, Aus - tra • li - a, Aus - tra - li - a, Aus - tra

There is a land where honey flows, Where laughing corn luxuriant grows, Land of the myrtle and the rose,

Land of the rose ;

On hill and plain the clust’ring vine Is gushing out with purple wine,

And cups are quaffed to thee and thine, Australia, Australia, Australia!

* ^

There is a land where treasures shine Deep in the dark unfathom’d mine,

For worshippers at Mammon’s shrine, At Mammon’s shrine ;

Where gold lies hid, and rubies gleam, And fabled wealth no more doth seem The idle fancy of a dream,

Australia, Australia. Australia!


There is a land where homesteads peep From sunny plain and woodland steep, And love and joy bright vigils keep, Bright vigils keep ;

Where the glad voice of childish glee Is mingling with the melody Of nature’s hidden minstrelsy,

Australia, Australia, Australia I

There is a land where floating free,

From mountain top to girdling sea,

A proud flag waves exultingly, Exultingly;

And freedom’s sons the banner bear,

No shackled slave can breathe the air, Fairest of Britain’s daughters fair, Australia, Australia, Australia!


PSALM I.

Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful.

But his delight is in the law of the Lord; and in liis law doth he meditate day and night.

And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his fruit in his season; his leaf also shall not wither ; and whatsoever he doeth shall prosper.

The ungodly are not so : but are like the chaff which the wind driveth away.

Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous.

For the Lord knoweth the way of the righteous : but the way of the ungodly shall perish.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. I., No. 3.]    MELBOURNE.    [August, 1897.

EARN IT.

Sci-ence, knowledge. An-ces-tors, forefathers. Le-git-i-mate, real; lawful.


Cen-tU-ries, periods of a hundred years. In-her-it-ed, received from ancestors. Mer-it-ed, deserved.

Of course you are proud that your fathers were good ;

’Tis a pleasure to know they were great In the field, on the bench, or in science or art,

Or as leaders in matters of state.

But we all should remember our ancestors’ fame Is not for their children to wear ;

To the fame of the great man, the family name Is the only legitimate heir.

The fame that is yours is the fame you have won ;

If you’ve not won it yet, look ahead.

But don’t claim an honour, because you’re the son Of ancestors centuries dead.

Of proud ones who live on the fame of their sires Examples in-plenty are found ;

Like the turnip and parsnip, they seem not to know That the best of them lies underground.

Look ahead to the future—the past is not yours ;

Eor your prize trust the future alone.

The fame of the past is another’s reward ;

Make the yield of the present your own.

Inherited titles of honour are vain.

In the heat of Fame’s handicap chase,

The plain man looks forward, the noble looks back,

And oftentimes loses the race.

Look forward, toil onward ; and, when in the end Well-merited honours you’ve won,

Be proud that your claim to the prize did not lie In being a Somebody’s son.

—R. W. McAlpine in Harper's Young People.

SHE CONSIDERED THE LILY.

In-ci-dent, event. Oc-curredf happened. Re-lat-ed, told. Il-lus-trate, make clear.


In-flu-ence, power.

Char-ac-ter, nature.

Slums, dirty, back streets of a city Ad-mired; looked at with wonder and delight.

This is an account of an incident that occurred in a school in New York, the largest city in the United States. It was related by a teacher in order to illustrate the influence of beautiful objects upon the character and conduct of young pupils.

Price Id.

One day, into this school, made up chiefly of children from the slums, the teacher carried a beautiful lily. Of course, the children gathered about the pure, waxy blossom in great delight.


One of them was a little girl, who had no care bestowed upon her, as was clearly to be seen from the dirty, ragged condition she was always in. Not only was her clothing much soiled, but her face and hands seemed to be greatly in need of soap and water. ^

As the little one came near the lovely flower, she suddenly turned and ran away down the stairs and out of the building. In a few minutes, she returned with her hands washed quite clean, and pushed her way up to the flower. Then she stood and admired it with wide-opened eyes.

“ It would seem,” continued the lady, “ that when the child saw the lily in its spotless purity, she at once felt that she was not worthy to come near it. She, therefore, fled away to make herself fit for such companionship.” Did this not have an elevating, refining effect on the child ? Let us gather all the beauty we can into the school-room. Adapted from a: reprint in the American Journal of Education.

THE PRESSURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

Ex-per-i-ment, test; trial.

Ap-pear-ance, look.

Cor-rect-ly, properly.

Chal-lenged, called on or invited to answer As-ton-ished, surprised greatly. In-quired; asked.


In-creas-ing, growing; becoming greater. Bright-en-ing, growing bright.

Tre-men-dous, very great.

Ceil-ing, inside roof of a room.

Con-clu-sions, thoughts; decisions. Im-ag-ined, supposed.

“Tom ! have you been spilling water over this table ?”

“ Yes, Jane, I spilt a little, but it is clean water ; I will wipe it up again. I was trying an experiment, andfthe things didn’t act quite

right. I filled a tumbler with water, and turned it upside down to see whether any would run out.”

“ Well, I declare; you must be quite silly, Tom, to think the water would stop in the tumbler after you had turned it upside down.”

“ Don’t be quite so fast, Jane ; suppose I tell you that the water did keep up in the tumbler, what would you say then ? ”

“ By the appearance of the table, Tom, I should say that only a very little of it remained in the glass.”

“ That,” said Tom, “ was because I made a mistake at first ; I did not perform the experiment correctly ; hut, after one or two trials, not a single drop of water ran out.”

THE TUMBLER EXPERIMENT.

The paper and water are supported by the upward pressure of the air.


“ Do you mean to say,” asked Jane, “that, if you have a tumbler of water, and do not stop it up with anything, you can turn the glass right over without the water running out ? ”

“ I mean to say,” answered Tom,

“that, if I fill a tumbler and put a card over it, so that the card touches the water all round, I can then turn the glass quite over and hold it up by its lower part, and no water will run out.”

“ Let me see you do it, Tom, then I will believe it.”

Thus challenged, Master Tom set to work and performed the experiment with perfect success.

“ Wonderful! quite wonderful! ” cried the astonished sister ; and just at that instant in came Uncle John.

“ Capital, Tom ! capital! Who showed you how to do that ? ”

“ Good evening, uncle ; I am glad you have come. A school friend told me about this, but he didn’t understand it any more than I do.”

“ What is it you want to understand, Tom,” asked his uncle.

“ I want to know,” said Tom, uwhy the water remains in the glass, and what it is that keeps up the piece of card. I should have thought the water would run out and fall on the ground.”

“ Why would you have thought so ? ” inquired his uncle.

“ Because,” replied Tom, “ the water is heavy; there is at least half a pound of water in the glass.”

“ If there is that quantity,” said his uncle, “ then, certainly, there must he a pressure against the upper surface of that card, I mean the side of the card touching the water, of at least half a pound.”    •

“ Just so,” said Tom ; “ that is what I can’t make out. Because, if the water presses against the upper surface of the card with a pressure of half a pound, and yet the card does not fall away, there

must be something pressing up against the, under surface of the card with a pressure of at least a half pound ; but there is nothing.”

“ How do you know there’s nothing ? ” asked his uncle.

“Why,” said Jane, who had been listening to all this with increasing wonder, “ you see there is nothing ; nobody is touching the card ; it keeps up itself, of course.”

“ Is there nothing in this world, Jane, but what you can see ! Air is something, I suppose,” remarked Uncle John gravely ; “ and yet, no one has ever seen air, and no one ever will.”

“I do believe,” said Tom, his eyes sparkling, and his face all brightening up with the light of a new idea, “ that I can see the reason of it all. It is the air pressing upwards against the card that keeps it there. I have read, or somebody has told me, that air presses with a force of fifteen pounds on the square inch, but I never understood what that meant; now I begin to see through it all. Of course, it is the pressure of the air. That piece of card is three or four square inches in size, so there must be a pressure upwards, ever so much more than the pressure of the water downwards.”

“ Right, Tom! Quite right, my boy! You are becoming quite a thoughtful lad,” said his uncle, quite pleased with the boy’s remarks.

I don’t understand it a bit,” said Jane.

“You don’t?” cried Tom ; “ why it’s as plain as anything can be. It is quite certain something is pressing up underneath the card, and, as there is nothing touching it but the air, it must be the air that is pressing.”

“ Is there any air pressing up underneath this table ? ” asked Jane.

SUCKER.

Ti e downward pressure of the air keeps the sucker attached to the smooth surface of the stone.


“ Of course there is,” replied Tom. “ A tremendous pressure.”

“ Tremendous ?” again Jane asked. “ Yes,” said Tom.

“ More than the weight of the table ? ” inquired Jane.

“Ever so much more,” answered Tom.

“ Then why does that table still keep on the floor ? Why does it not rise, or why is it not lifted right up to the ceiling ? ”

“Jane,” said Uncle John, “I think you have rather puzzled Tom.”

“ I am not sorry, uncle; because, just before you came in, Tom said I was rather fast in my conclusions, but perhaps I’m not quite so fast as some one else,” said Jane, giving a knowing little laugh at Tom.

“ Just wait a minute,” quietly remarked his uncle. “ Have you a ( sucker,’ Tom ? ”

u Do you mean a round piece of leather with a long string through a little hole in the middle of it, that hoys make wet and then lift things with ? ”

44 Yes,” replied his uncle.

“ I have one,” said Tom, and he at once brought it to his uncle.

44 There,” said his uncle, “get on the table, put the 4 sucker ’ to the top and press it down with your foot; now take your foot away and pull with the string. What makes the 4 sucker ’ stick so tight to the table?”    ,

441 don’t know,” said Tom.

44 It is the same thing,” said his uncle, 44 as makes the card keep up against the glass ; it is the pressure of the air. The air presses in all directions. So that it not only presses with fifteen pounds on the under side of the table, but also on the upper side or top. It is that pressure that keeps the ‘sucker’ down, and which balances the pressure on the under side of the table, and prevents it rising to the ceiling as Jane imagined.”

—Adapted from 44 The Scholar.”

LET NOT THE SUN GO DOWN UPON YOUR WRATH.

Check-ered, marked with both joys and sorrows.

Coun-sels, advice.

Lan-guage, speech.

Di-vine' godlike.

Kin-died, caused to begin burning.


Dearth, want; lack.

Venge-ance, punishment inflicted return for an injury.

Ves-per, evening.

Balm, anything that soothes or heals pain.

Re-mem-bered, kept in mind.

“Father, forgive us,” is our daily prayer,

When the worn spirit feels its helpless dearth ;

Yet in our lowly greatness, do we dare

To seek from Heaven what we refuse on earth.

Too often will the bosom, sternly proud,

Bear shafts of vengeance on its graveward path ;

Deaf to the teaching that has cried aloud,

“ Let not the Sun go down upon your Wrath.”

We ask for mercy from the Throne above,

In morning worship, and in vesper song ;

And let us kindly shed the balm of love,

To heal and soothe a brother’s deed of wrong.

If ye would crush the bitter thorns of strife,

And strew the bloom of peace around your path—

If ye would drink the sweetest streams of life,

“Let not the Sun go down upon your Wrath.”

Were this remembered, many a human lot

Would find more blessings in our home below;

The checkered world would lose its darkest blot,

And mortal record tell much less of woe.

The sacred counsels of the Wise impart 1 No holier words in all that language hath ;

Fot light divine is kindled, where the heart

Lets not the Sun go down upon its Wrath.    »

■> '    ' c w i    .    —Eliza'Cook.

WHEN THE SUN WENT DOWN.

Crev-ice, narrow opening. De-sert^ed, abandoned; left. For-ta-nate-ly, luckily. Bail-ing, dipping water from. Per-spi-ra^tion, sweat Dis-tinct-ly, plainly.


In^ex-pe-ri-ence, lack of practical knowledge. Ad-mit-ted, owned to or confessed. A-pol-O-gised, expressed sorrow for. Sen-si-tive, easily affected or moved. Thor^ough-ly, fully.

Treach-er-OUS, not to be trusted ; loose and crumbly.

Jack Drew sat on the edge of the shaft, with his foot in the loop and one hand on the rope, ready to descend. His elder brother, Tom, stood at one end of the windlass, and the third mate at the other. Jack paused before swinging off, looked up at his brother, and held out his hand.


“ You are not going to let thejsun go down, are you, Tom ? ”

But Tom kept both hands on the windlass-handle, and said nothing.

“ Lower away ! ”

They lowered him to the bottom, and Tom shouldered his pick in silence and walked off to the tent. He found the tin-plate, pint-pot, and things set ready for him on the rough slab table under the bush shed. The tea was made, the cabbage and potatoes strained and placed in a billy near the fire. He found the fried bacon and steak between two plates in the camp-oven. He sat down to the table, but he could not eat. He felt mean. The inexperience and hasty temper of his brother had caused the quarrel between them that morning ; but then Jack admitted that, and apologised when he first tried to make it up.

Tom moved round uneasily and tried to smoke : he could not get Jack’s last appeal out of his ears—“ You are not going to let the sun go down, Tom ? ”

Tom found himself glancing at the sun. It was less than two hours from sunset. He thought of the sacred verse ; its words began to haunt him : u Let not the sun go down upon your wrath—Let not the sun go down upon your wrath.”

Quick-tempered men are often the most sensitive; and, when they let the sun go down on the aforesaid wrath, that feeling is likely to get them down and worry them during the night.

Tom started to go to the claim, but checked himself, and sat down and tried to draw comfort from his pipe. He understood his brother thoroughly, but his brother never understood him—that was where the trouble was. Presently, he got thinking how Jack would worry about the quarrel and have no heart for his work. Perhaps, he was fretting over it now, all alone by himself, down at the end of the damp, dark drive.

He had almost made up his mind to go below again, on some excuse, when his mate shouted from the top of the shaft.

“ Tom ! Tom ! Quick! Come here! ”

Tom’s heart gave a great thump, and he ran like a kangaroo to the shaft. All the diggers within hearing were soon on the spot. They saw at a glance what had happened. It was madness to sink without timber in such treacherous ground. The sides of the shaft mere closing in. Tom sprang forward and shouted through the crevice:

“ To the face, Jack! To the face, for your life !”

u The old workings!” he cried, turning to the diggers. Bring a fan and tools. We’ll dig him out.”

A few minutes later, a fan was rigged over a deserted shaft close by, where, fortunately, the windlass had been left for bailing purposes, and men were down in the old drive. Tom knew that he and his mates had driven very close to the old workings.

He knelt in the damp clay before the face, and worked like a madman; he refused to take turn about, and only dropped the pick to seize a shovel in his strong hands, and snatch back the loose clay from under his feet; he reckoned that he had six or, perhaps, eight feet to drive, and he knew that the air could not last long in the new drive—even if that had not already fallen in and crushed his brother.

Great drops of perspiration stood out on Tom’s forehead, and his breath began to come in choking sobs, but he still struck strong, savage blows into the clay before him, and the drive lengthened quickly. Once lie paused a moment to listen, and then distinctly heard a sound as of a tool or stone being struck against the end of the new drive.

Jack was safe !

Tom dug on until the clay suddenly fell away from his pick and left a hole, about the size of a plate, in the “ face ” before him. “ Thank God ! ” said a hoarse, strained voice at the other side.

“ All right, Jack?”

u Yes, old man; you are just in time; I’ve hardly got room to stand in, and I’m nearly smothered.”

He was crouching against the “ face ” of the new drive.

Tom dropped his pick, and fell back against the man behind him.

“ Oh, my back ! ” he cried.

Suddenly, he struggled to his knees, and then fell forward on his hands, and dragged himself close to the hole in the end of the drive.

“ Jack ! ” he gasped, “ Jack ! ”

“ Right, old fellow ; what’s the matter ? ”

“ I've hurt my heart, Jack !—Put your hand—-quick!    .    .    .

The sun’s going down.”

Jack’s hand came out through the hole; Tom gripped it, and then fell with his face in the damp clay.

They half carried, half dragged him from the drive, for the roof was low, and they were obliged to stoop. They took him to the shaft and sent him up, lashed to the rope.

A few blows of the pick, and Jack scrambled from his prison, went to the surface, and knelt on the grass by the body of his brother. The diggers gathered round, and took off their hats. {And the sun—went—down.

With some slight alterations from While the Billy Boils, hy

HENRY Lawson. {By permission of Messrs. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.)

INDIA AND THE INDIAN MUTINY.

At-tract-ed, drawn.

Con-troL rule.

Es-ti-ma-ted, calculated roughly.

Proph-e-cy, statement of something- to come ; foretelling.

Ful-filled; brought to pass.

Ru-mour, flying or popular report. Reg-i-ment, body of soldiers, about a thousand in number, commanded by a colonel. Car-tridge, complete charge for a firearm, contained in a case.


Prac-tice, custom; usage.

Con-spir-a-cy, combination of men for an evil purpose; plot.

Mu-tin-y, forcible resistance to lawful authority in military or naval service.

Re-spon-si-ble, answerable.

Cer-e-mo-ny acts connected with the proclamation.

Proc-la-ma-tion, official or general notice.

Vied, contended in a friendly spirit.


In the year 1600, towards the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a company of merchants, under the name of the East India Company, was formed in England to trade with India.

During the seventeenth century and the first half of the eighteenth, the number of the Company’s trading posts increased, and its influence extended slowly but surely.

About the middle of the eighteenth century, its servants came into conflict with some Frenchmen, who had also been attracted to India by the openings which that extensive and populous country presented for trade. A deadly contest for the control of India took place between the French and English, and ended in the victory of the latter.

In various ways, but, sad to say, by war in many cases, a large portion of India was speedily brought under the rule of England. Our most important victory was gained at Plassey, a town some distance north of Calcutta, where 900 Europeans and 1,500 native allies completely defeated 50,000 natives opposed to them.


The number of European soldiers employed in this conquest was but small, the Company’s forces consisting largely of native soldiers termed sepoys. So many natives enlisted that, as the years went by, the bulk of the army consisted of these sepoys, some of whom held the religion of Mahomet, while others held that called Hin-dooism.

The area of India is half that of Australia, or eighteen times greater than that of Victoria. It is densely peopled in parts. Its population at the present time is estimated at nearly 290 millions.    a Mahometan Indian chief.

In the year 1856, several things united to cause feelings of discontent in the native army. In the first place, there is no doubt that the natives were treated very unkindly by some of the English residents.

Then, a prophecy spread among the natives that the English rule was to last only one hundred years ; and, as that rule dated from the battle of Plassey (1757), the prophecy was expected to be fulfilled in 1857.

Some plotters against the English also spread among the sepoys a rumour that the Government was about to force them all to become Christians.

Things being in this state, something happened, very small in itself, but quite enough to change lurking discontent into open revolt.

It was determined to supply all the regiments with what was then a new rifle, though now out of date. With these rifles were used cartridges made by wrapping powder and ball in greased paper. The paper was greased to keep the damp out. A workman employed in making these cartridges told one of the sepoys that they were being greased with a mixture of pig’s fat and beef fat. Now, it was necessary, in order to let the powder reach the nipple, to bite off the ends of the cartridges before putting them into the guns. The Mahometans are forbidden by their religion to touch the flesh of pigs ; and the cow is the sacred animal of the Hindoos.

The news spread like wildfire; the foolish sepoys believed that the Government was plotting to make them act contrary to the rules of their religion ; and, though everything was done on the part of the Government to show them their error, all was in vain.

“ A general conspiracy was planned throughout the vast sepoy army, which we had spent more than a hundred years in bringing to perfection, for the revolt of every regiment, at every station in Hindostán, on the last Sunday in May, 1857, at the hour of church service, when all Europeans were to be murdered without regard to age or sex.”

A STREET IN LUCKNOW.

In some places, the regiments, however, would not wait, hut, before the appointed day, broke into a revolt, and killed their officers. The mutiny spread to other places, and many Europeans were murdered. The murders at Delhi and Oawnpore were especially cruel, women and children being among the victims.

To make matters worse, the number of English troops in the country was very small, and, at one time, it seemed as if all India must be lost to ns.

Additional forces, however, were sent out under Sir Colin Campbell, and the mutiny was put down; but not until fearful sufferings had been endured by many of the English residents.

When peace and order were restored, it was felt that the government of British India could no longer be left in the hands of the East India Company.

It was accordingly determined to place the country under the direct authority of the Crown. The British Parliament passed an Act in 1858 which put an end to the East India Company, and declared that India should henceforth be governed by a Governor-General acting through a British Secretary of State responsible to Parliament. A ■council of persons acquainted with Indian affairs was also' appointed to assist the Secretary of State.

In 1876, the Prince of Wales visited India, and won the hearts of the native princes and people by his kindly manners. He was warmly received by the natives in all parts.

In 1877, as a means of binding the Indian subjects closer to the Empire, the Queen was proclaimed Empress of India. The ceremony took place outside the walls of Delhi, where the mutiny had raged the fiercest. The proclamation was received with every mark of approval.

Since that event, the inhabitants of India have vied with their fellow-subjects in other parts of the globe in showing their loyalty on all possible occasions. Our young readers will, no doubt, have observed that a body of Indian troops took part in the Jubilee procession last month in London.

—Adapted in part from The First Principles of Modern History,” by T. S. Taylor.

OF


THE PIPES

Dron-ing, low humming sound.

Braes, hillsides.

Plaid-ed, clothec in a kind of shawl called a p.aid.

Moun^tain-eer one who dwells among mountains«

PKbroch, stirring war music.

Loch, lake.

Glade, opening in a wood.

Jung-le, thicket of bushes.

Pi pes of the misty moorlands,

Voice of the glens and hills;

The droning of the torrents,

The treble of the rills !

Not the braes of broom and heather,

Nor the mountains dark with rain,

Nor maiden bower, nor border tower2 Have heard your sweetest strain!

Dear to the Lowland reaper,

And plaided mountaineer,3

i LUCKNOW.1

Be-wail-ing, cries of grief.

Le-gions, large bodies of soldiers. Blithe-some-ly, gaily; cheerfully.

Mosque, a Mahometan church.

Tar-tan, woollen cloth, crossbarred with narrow bands of various colours.

Tur-ban, headdress worn bv most Mahometan boys and men.

Gael-iC (gdl-ic), belonging to the Gaels—a name for the Highlanders of Scotland.

To the cottage and the castle The Scottish pipes are dear;—

Sweet sounds the ancient pibroch O’er mountain, loch, and glade;

But the sweetest of all music The pipes at Lucknow played.

Day by day the Indian tiger4 Louder yelled, and nearer crept; Round and round the jungle-serpent Near and nearer circles swept.

“Pray for rescue, wives and mothers,— Pray to-day ! ” the soldier said;

“ To-morrow, death’s between us And the wrrong and shame we dread. ”

Oh, they listened, looked, and waited, Till their hope became despair;

And the sobs of low bewailing Pilled the pauses of their prayer.

Then up spoke a Scottish maiden,

With her ear unto the ground;

“Dinna5 ye hear it?—Dinna ye hear it? The pipes o’ Havelock sound! ”

Oh, they listened, dumb and breathless, And they caught the sound at last;

Paint and far beyond the Goomtee,6 Rose and fell the piper’s blast!

Then a burst of wild thanksgiving Mingled woman’s voice and man’s;

‘ God be praised ? — the march of Havelock! The piping of the clans.”

Louder, nearer, fierce as vengeance, Sharp and shrill as words at strife,

Came the wild Macgregor’s clan-call, Stinging all the air to life.

But when the far-off dust-cloud To plaided legions grew,

Full tenderly and blithesomely The pipes of rescue blew!

Round the silver domes of Lucknow, Moslem mosque,8 and Pagan shrine,Breathed the air to Britons dearest,

The air of “ Auld Lang Syne.”

O’er the cruel roll of war-drums

Rose that sweet and home-like strain; And the tartan clove the turban,10 As the Goomtee cleaves the plain.

Dear to the corn-land reaper,

And plaided mountaineer,—

To the cottage and the castle The piper’s song is dear.

Sweet sounds the Gaelic pibroch O’er mountain, glen, and glade;

But the sweetest of all music The pipes at Lucknow played.

—J. G. Whittier.

1.    Luck-now, Capital of Oude, a province of Northern India. Here, during the Indian Mutiny, Sir Henry

Lawrence and the English garrison of five hundred soldiers were shut in. In addition to fighting night and day for weeks against tens of thousands of besiegers, they suffered much from want of food. Generals Havelock and Outram succeeded with much difficulty in forcing their way through the rebels, and rescuing those who were alive. The army, with which Havelock set out on his march, numbered only 2,800 men.

2.    Bor-der tow-er, castle on the border between England and Scotland, where, in days gone by, bagpipes

were often heard in war.

3.    Plaid-ed moun-tain-eer' the Highlander as distinguished from those who dwell in the southern parts

of Scotland, and are called Lowlanders.

4.    In-di-an ti-ger, Indian rebels, who were so cruel that they are likened by the poet to tigers and

serpents.

5.    Din-na, Scotch for “ do not.”    6. Goom-tee, river running into the Ganges.

7. Mac-greg-or, famous Scotch clan.    8. Mos-lem mosque, Mahometan place of worship.

9.    Pa-gan shrine, heathen temple.

10,    The tar-tan clove the tur-ban. The “tartan” stands for the Scotch, and th “turban” for the Hindoo rebels.


SIR HENRY HAVELOCK.


THE CADET DEMONSTRATION.

Carlton, 10th July, 1897.

My Dear Jack,

I was sorry that yon were not occupying your old post in the company on the 25th of June, when the cadets of the colony took a share in the Jubilee celebrations. Our parade formed one of the  notable features ” of Jubilee week.

Well, as it will soon be my turn, as it was yours last Christmas, to bid good-bye to my mates, and “ go up country,” I feel that the least I can do is to spend an evening in writing you such an account of the affair as I should be pleased to get, were I in your position.

We are very grateful to the Minister of Education, Mr. Peacock, and to the officers of the Department, for having given us an opportunity of taking part publicly as cadets in the Jubilee rejoicings. Though the whole world, one might say, knows from our past deeds that Victorians are patriotic, still we are loth to miss a chance of showing it when we can. Some of us got such a chance on that Friday—a great day in the history of the cadet movement in Victoria.

On being joined near the Flinders-street Railway Station by our comrades from the country, whom we were delighted to see in such numbers, we marched, 2,000 strong, to the Exhibition, through the principal streets of the city, to the strains of the band of the Senior Cadets and the bugle bands of the Junior Cadets.

You may be sure that, though the morning was not a pleasant one on account of the drizzling rain, we felt proud and happy as we marched along; and, without a doubt, the people, who stood in thousands watching, also felt proud of us, for they cheered again and again.

The brigade consisted of four battalions—two from country schools, and two from schools in and around Melbourne. The first battalion was under Major Garrard. It was made up of detachments from the Geelong Grammar School and College, and from the Geelong, Western District, and Gippsland State schools. The second battalion, under Captain Waters, comprised detachments from the State schools of Bendigo, Ballarat, Daylesford, Stawell, Creswick, and the North Eastern District. The third battalion (Major Eddy’s) numbering 650 was the strongest. It was composed of detachments from the Melbourne Grammar School, Wesley College, and St. Ignatius’ Roman Catholic School, with which were associated several companies from metropolitan State schools. The fourth battalion (Major Gamble’s) also consisted of detachments from Melbourne and suburban State schools, and carried the Holled-Smith pennant awarded for meritorious work during 1896. Lieutenant-Colonel Henry was in command, attended by Major Brodribb, the quarter-master, and Captain Somerset, staff-officer. The parade as a whole was under the supervision of Colonel Bingham, R.A.

We found, when we arrived at the Exhibition, that everything was ready for us. Major Eddy, who had charge of the whole of the

arrangements, had forgotten nothing. We piled arms in the Sports’ Oval, and were then marched in to lunch. Ah, that lunch ! Meat, potatoes, salad, and tea for a beginning, with tarts, oranges, lollies, and ice-cream to follow. Think ! Two thousand of us eating for half an hour, with the knowledge that the Education Department was standing treat!

Above the clatter as we were eating, there came the sound of cheering from a neighbouring room in the Exhibition. We learned later that Mr. Peacock and his guests, among whom were the Minister of Defence, Mr. Bagge, the Secretary of Education, Mr. Stewart, the InspectorGeneral, and several of the inspectors, had also been satisfying the “ inner man ” ; and that, before dispersing, Mr. Peacock had expressed his thanks to those who had assisted in making the demonstration a success, concluding his remarks by calling for cheers for the Queen.

Soon afterwards, we ourselves had the pleasure of listening to a short speech from the same gentleman. Though he spoke with ease in a loud, clear tone, and used words that we could all understand, I was so anxious about the last bit of my ice-cream that I don’t now clearly remember what he did say. To be on the safe side, I shall give you a newspaper report of it :—“ Mr. Peacock, on behalf of the Government, thanked the cadets for having so readily responded to the invitation of the Government to come to Melbourne, and show the people of Victoria wdiat the cadet force was. He was confident that the result would be to surprise the people of Melbourne, and to make them proud of this small arm of the defence force. The boys would be the men of the next generation, and in years to come would be proud to have taken part in this great event. He was glad to find that so many of the boys had come from places outside Melbourne, and that both State and private schools were represented. In conclusion, he called on them to give three cheers for the Queen.”

You may imagine that in cheering for the Queen we fairly lifted the roof, and didn’t forget to send up another just as hearty for our popular Minister.    _

After lunch, we were marched back into the Oval, and drawn up for inspection. His Excellency the Governor, accompanied by Lady Brassey, Major-General Sir Charles Holled-Smith, the Mayor of Melbourne, and others, was received on his arrival with the Royal Salute, and with cheers for the Queen.

The inspection over, the band of the Senior Cadets played the “British Grenadiers,” and we executed the march past. We did our best, of course, and, from what I can hear, our “ best ” was considered first rate.

It was a happy thought to invite old soldiers living in Melbourne to be present. For cadets to see men who had served in the Crimean War, and had shared in some of the horrors of the Indian Mutiny, was an interesting and stimulating experience. As our teacher read from the Argus a description of these veteran heroes, and gave us a piece

from it for dictation, I think that he considers it to be a hit of good writing, therefore I can’t do better than quote it in conclusion:—

THE GOVERNOR, LADV BRASSES AND PART* WATCHING THE CADET EVOLUTIONS.


“ On His Excellency’s right, there was drawn up a little detachment of 48 men, mainly in mufti, though here and there a faded uniform

made a strong note of colour in the ranks. All wore red and purple rosettes, and public attention was drawn to them as veterans of the Imperial naval and military forces, drawn by loyalty to lend their assistance to the celebration of the record reign. Many of these heroes of old time were so decrepit that they had to lean on sticks; many wore a breastplate of medals ; some even the Victoria Cross ; others still preserved the ‘set-up’ of the veteran soldier. But there they stood, stiff, silent, starched, their hands at the salute, while the little group of brilliantly-uniformed officers passed in and out of the ranks of the cadets.

“At last, the Governor and his staff passed towards them, stopping now and then to interview some war-worn veteran, whose numerous medals spoke of long service in the field. When, at length, the long regiment of cadets had passed the saluting point to muster at the rear of the Oval, the turn of these ancient warriors came to step forward once more at the notes of the old familiar war-tune, a wild cheer arose from the packed audience outside the rails. 4 Hats off ! ’ cried a voice, and from the Governor to the humblest man every hat was raised. Then a silence fell as the little band went by, sticks forgotten, bent backs straightening themselves once more, heads proudly lifted in the air, and bodies swinging along at the old quickstep. Far away across the ground, the acclamations of the crowd were repeated in shriller echo: the cadets were cheering the veterans. Then the little group, halting at the signal, lifted their worn voices in an answering cry. They cheered for the Qneen, for the Governor, for the cadets ; and then the 4 Dismiss ’ sounded, and the pageant faded away.”

My letter is so long that I am forced to hold over ordinary news till my next. With best wishes, I remain,

Your old friend,

HAROLD.

The photograph from which the picture on page 47 has been produced was kindly lent by the proprietors of The Australasian.]

PSALM VIII.

O Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all]the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens.

Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger.

When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained ;

What is man, that thou art mindful of him ? and the son of man, that thou visitest him ?

For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour.

Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet:

All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field ;

The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.

O Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth !

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. L, No. 4.]    MELBOURNE.    [Sept. 1897.

DAILY WORK.

Ap-point-ed, fixed ; marked out.

Com-mits? does.

Pro-por-tioned, equal.

Feud, strife.

Frac-tion, portion.

Who lags for dread of daily work,

And his appointed task would shirk, Commits a folly and a crime ;

A soulless slave—

A paltry knave—

A clog upon the wheels of time.

With work to do, and store of health, The man’s unworthy to be free, Who will not give,

That he may live,

His daily toil for daily fee.

No ! Let us work ! We only ask

Reward proportioned to our task ;

We have no quarrel with the great, No feud with rank,

With mill, or bank—

No envy of a lord’s estate.

If we can earn sufficient store To satisfy our daily need ;

And can retain,

For age and pain,

A fraction, we are rich indeed.


In-de-pend-ence, power to think and act for himself.

Com-pe-tence, property or means sufficient for living in comfort.

Lei-sure, spare time.

No dread of toil have we or ours;

Weknow our worth and weigh ourpowers; The more we work the more we win: Success to trade !

Success to spade !

And to the corn that’s coming in !

And joy to him who, o’er his task, Remembers toil is Nature’s plan ;

Who, working, thinks And never sinks His independence as a man.

Who only asks for humblest wealth,

Enough for competence and health,

And leisure, when his work is done,

To read his book By chimney-nook,

Or stroll at setting of the sun ;

Who toils, as every man should toil,

For fair reward erect and free ;

These are the men—

The best of men—

These are the men we mean to be.

—Charles Mackay.

RESPECT FOR THE AGED.

Re-served? set apart.

Re-ceived? took.

Ap-plause? praise shown by cheering, clapping, or the like.

Prac-tise, do often.


The-a-tre, large place with stage on which plays are acted.

Suit-a-ble, fitting.

Dif-fi-cul-ty, trouble; distress.

In-Vit-ed, asked.

It happened at Athens, the capital of Greece, while- a play was being produced in connection with some public rejoicings, that an old gentleman came into the theatre too late for a place suitable to his age and rank.

A number of young men, seeing the difficulty and confusion the old man was in, made signs to him that they would give him a seat, if he came where they were sitting.

Price Id.

The good man, therefore, made haste through the crowd; but, when he came to the seats to which he had been invited, the jest among the young fellows was to sit close, and still further confuse him within view of all the people.

This they kept on doing till the fun went round all the benches set apart for the Athenians.

But there were on this occasion certain places in the theatre kept for visitors from other countries.

When the good man, covered with confusion, came towards the seats reserved for the Spartans, these honest, though less polished people rose from their places, and, with the greatest respect, received the old gentleman among them.

The Athenians, being suddenly touched with a sense of the Spartans’ politeness and their own misconduct, gave a thunder of applause. Thereupon, the old man rose and said, “ The Athenians understand what is good, but the Spartans practise it.”

NANSEN’S EXPLORATIONS.

Ex-ploits, deeds.

Ob-ser-va-tions, what he noticed.

Sbeath-ing, covering of a ship’s bottom and sides.

Pro-tect-ed, shielded; guarded.

Can-vas, coarse cloth.

Judg-ment, opinion.

Pa-tient-ly, in a patient manner; calmly.


Ro-tatesf turns round an axis like a top.

Ax-is, straight line through a body, on which it rotates.

De-sir-ous, eager.

Lat-i-tude, distance north or south of the equator, measured on a meridian. Chris-ti-a-ni-a, capital of Norway. In-dus-tri-ous, not slothful or idle. Rec-Og-nis-ing, perceiving clearly.

The Earth rotates on its axis, with a motion like that of a top, once in twenty-four hours before the sun. The ends of the axis are called the poles.

From the time of Queen Elizabeth, the English have been strongly desirous of reaching the North Pole. Many brave men have gone out at their own expense, or have been sent to explore the Arctic regions ; but no one has yet reached the sought-for spot—90 degrees north latitude, the position of the Pole.

Norway, however, can now claim the honour of having produced the most successful explorer. Almost every one has heard of Nansen, the hardy and daring Arctic traveller, who recently penetrated into these ice-bound regions two hundred miles farther north than any one else had done, and to within a few hundred miles of the Pole itself.

Nansen was born near Christiania, the capital of Norway, in 1861. When four years old he could skate well. He nearly lost his life at that age in attempting to skate down a steep hill near his home.

At school, he was a reckless climber, often scaling wild heights regardless of life and limb. He was a big, strong boy, and, though he had many narrow escapes, he was never badly hurt.

While fond of adventure and sport, he was also industrious in other ways, recognising that “ There are no gains without pains.” He made natural history his study, and became professor of that subject in the University of Christiania.

FRIDTJOF NANSEN

When a youth, he performed many dangerous exploits, and traversed long distances on ski, a kind of skate used in travelling over snow. When the snow is fairly hard, a good walker can cover sixty or seventy miles a day on them. Some years ago, Hansen crossed Greenland, doing most of the journey on ski.

His observations in that extensive snow-covered land led him to think that, if a ship could be taken to the north-east of Siberia, it might get into a current there that would carry it across the Pole and onward to the east of Greenland.

When Hansen had made up his mind to put his idea to the test, he at once set to work to plan a ship that could withstand the pressure of the ice.

The result was that his ship, the From (“ Forward ”), differed from all others that had been previously built. It was rounded on both

TRAVELLING ON SKI.”

sides so as to prevent the ice getting a grip of it. The beams and

../'O- sheathing were very strong. It had | three masts, and the cabins and saloon, where the men would have to spend most of their time, were pro-¡¡Ü tected from the cold by layers of cork, hair, canvas, and felt. The ship was one hundred and one feet in length, weighed four hundred tons, and re-jj sembled more a huge ferry-boat than HI it resembled the vessels usually employed in Arctic waters.

With a firm resolve to accomplish M the task that they had set themselves, he hold crew of the little Fram, thirteen all told, put out to sea on the 24th of June, 1893, from Christiania. They were bound for the regions of polar darkness, of white frost, and thick-ribbed ice, and knew that two or three years at least must pass before they would see their homes again* if ever they did.

departure of the fram.”    After voyaging eastward along the

(FromFridtjof Nanser^hu^^ndExplorations, nor[}iern coast of Norway and Russia,

Here in latitude 78 degrees north and longitude 133 degrees east, with firm trust in their captain’s judgment, they made fast to a floe. Then they prepared themselves to wait patiently for the months to go by, while they were being slowly carried across the Pole itself towards the dear water on the east coast of Greenland. In other words, they “ took a ticket by the ice and, though this was the first occasion in which such a mode of travelling was attempted, in the end they were not altogether disappointed.

—F. H. R.

(To be continued.)


through the Kara Sea, and onward along the coast of Siberia, they became hemmed in by the ice off the Hew Siberian Islands.

FIRST MEETING THE ICE.


The following are the seven wonders of antiquity:—The pyramids of Egypt, the hanging gardens of Babylon, the tomb of Mausolos, the temple of Diana at Ephesus, the Colossus at Rhodes, the statue of Zeus (Jupiter) by Phidias, the Pharos of Egypt, or else the palace of Cyrus, cemented with gold.

In class—“ Thomas, where is the North Pole ?” “I don’t know, sir.” What ! you don’t know where the North Pole is? Are you not ashamed of such ignorance?” “ Well, sir, please, Franklin, Nansen, and all the rest of them couldn’t find it.”

ENERGY AND PERSEVERANCE.

Suc-cess-ful, prosperous.

Nec-es-sa-ry, needful.

Re-ceived; got.

En-er-gy, power of doing work ; activity. Per-se-ver-ance, keeping at any work once begun; steadiness.

Im-pos-si-ble, that cannot be done.


Bril-liant, splendid.

Gen-ius, person having superior inborn powers of mind.

Hus-bands, employs to good purpose. In-sig-nif-i-cant, without weight of character or social standing.

De-ter-mi-na-tion, firmness; fixed resolution.


Some time ago, a letter was sent to a number of the most successful merchants in New York, asking them to set forth in a few words the qualities they considered most necessary in order to succeed in business. The replies received might in most cases have been summed up in the words “ energy ” and u perseverance.” All other things being equal, there is nothing impossible to the man who possesses a good share of the qualities expressed in these words. Remember, it is not always the brilliant genius who comes out ahead in the contest for life’s best prizes ; more often, it is the patient plodder, the man who works hard, who husbands his time, and turns every moment to good account. “ The longer I live,” says Sir Thomas F. JBuxton, “ the more am I certain that the great difference between men, between the strong and powerful, the weak and insignificant, is energy—invincible determination—a purpose once fixed, and then death or victory. This quality will enable a man to do anything a man can do, and no twolegged creature can be a man without it.”

—Educational News (England).

THE WATTLE IS IN BLOOM.

Mur^mur-ing, making low sounds.

Cbat-ter-ing, rapidly uttering sounds like speech.

Ver-dant, green.

Bowsers, shady places among the leaves.

A happy magpie whistles low Within a blackwood tree ;

The southern breezes softly blow,

Up from the distant sea,

And stir the leaves to murm’ring rhyme, Where, seeking honeyed flow’rs,

The chatt’ring parrots cling afid climb Amid the verdant bow’rs.

Afar, the mountain ranges stand, Athwart the cloudless sky,

And gaze across the smiling land,

Where town and forest lie.


A-thwartf across.

Rip-pling, flowing with little, curling waves. Clus-tered, gathered into groups or bunches. Per-fume, scent; pleasant odour.

Tril-ling, uttering notes that quaver or shake.

And in the vales, along the banks Of all the rippling streams,

Where grow the reeds in clustered ranks, The golden wattle gleams.

The faint sweet perfume slowly floats, And fills the quiv’ring air ;

The joyous birds in silver notes Are trilling ev’rywhere.

The morning mist has passed away,

And with it gone the gloom,

All Nature, singing, seems to say :

“ The wattle is in bloom.”

—Pkrcival C. Cole, in the Argus.


Sir Isaac Newton, near the close of his life, said to a friend, If I have accomplished anything above the average of men, it has been by the power of patient work.”

THE KING AND THE GOOSE-HERD.

Tres-pass, for injury done.

Con-troli rule.

Re-spon-si-ble, answerable. De-cid-ed, settled.

Spe-cial, beyond the ordinary. Ac-cus-tomed, usual. Com-mand^er, ruler. Per-spi-ra-tion, sweat. Dif-fi-CUl-ty, trouble.

Mon-arch, highest ruler in a country. As-ton-ish-ed, wondering.


Ba-va-ri-a, state in the south of the German Empire.

Sul^tri-ness, hot and moist condition. Tend-ing, looking after.

Flor-in, silver coin. It varies in value in different countries. In England, it is worth two shillings.

Lib-er-al, large.

Con-sid-er, think.

Hes-i-ta-ted, did not begin to act; was in doubt. Sim-ple-ton, silly person.

One hot summer, Maximilian, King- of Bavaria, dressed in plain clothes, went out to walk alone in the fine park surrounding his castle. After walking awhile, he sat down, took a book from his pocket, and began to read.

The sultriness of the air and the stillness of the place soon caused him to drop into a doze. He did not sleep long, however, and, on waking, he continued his walk, but forgot his book.

He had gone some distance before he missed his volume. He did not wish to lose a book he valued, neither did he wish to go back ; so he looked round for some one whom he could send to find it.

The only person he could see was a boy tending a large flock of geese. The King went to him, and said : “ My lad, do you think you could find a book which I left on a bench near the castle ? I will give you two florins if you bring it to me.”

The boy, who had never before seen the King, cast a very doubting-look on the gentleman who made so liberal an offer, and turned away, saying : “ I am not so stupid as you take me to be.” “ Why do you think I consider you stupid ? ” asked the King.

“ Because you offer me two florins for doing so little. So much money cannot be earned so easily,” was the sturdy reply. “But see, here are the two florins. Take them, and bring me the book,” said the King.

The boy’s eyes sparkled as he held in his hand a sum of money equal to the whole of his summer’s wages ; and yet he hesitated. “ How now ! ” cried the King ; “ why don’t you set off at once ? ”

“ I should be pleased to do so, but I dare not,” said the boy ; “ for, if the villagers learn that I have left the geese, they will turn me off ; and how shall I earn my bread then P ” “ Simpleton ! ” exclaimed the King, “ I will herd the geese till you return.”

You! ” cried the boy ; “ you would make a pretty goose-herd ; you are much too stout and stiff. Suppose they should break away and get into the crops yonder, I should have more trespass money to pay than I can earn in a year.”

The King checked a burst of laughter, and again said to the boy : “ Don’t you believe 1 can manage geese as easily as I can manage men ? I have plenty of them to control.”

You ! ” again cried the boy, looking at the King from head to foot. “ But, even if you can, I can tell you men are much more easily managed than geese.”

“ It may be so,” said the King. “ But, come, bring me the book. I’ll be responsible for the geese, and pay all damages, if there be any.” This decided the matter. After telling him to give special attention to a stately gander, the boy placed his whip in the hand of the stranger, and started on his errand.

The geese soon discovered that the whip was no longer in the hands of their accustomed commander. The old gander, presently, stretched out his long neck, flapped his wings, and gave two or three shrill screams.

The whole flock rose at once into the air, and flew screaming to the crops, over which they spread in all directions. It was in vain that the King cried “ Halt! ” and tried to crack the whip at them; he only increased their speed, and threw himself into a perspiration.

Meanwhile, the boy had found the book, and had nearly returned to the King, when he heard the geese and saw them flying in the direction of the crops. “ There ! ” cried he ; “I knew how it would be. Did I not say from the first that you could not manage geese ? You must help me to get them back, that you must.”

With great difficulty, the boy, assisted by the King, got the geese back to their patch of ground. He then scolded the King, and ended by saying : “ Never shall any one get my whip from me again, or tempt me to leave my geese-—no, not the King himself.”

“ You are quite right there,” said the good-natured Maximilian, bursting into a laugh ; “ he understands goose-herding quite as well as I do.” “And you laugh at it too,” grumbled the offended boy. “ Well, look you now,” said the monarch ; “ I am the King.”

You ! ” once more exclaimed the boy. “ I am not such a fool as to believe that—not I. So take your book, and I’ll watch my geese.” The King quietly took the volume, saying, as he handed four more florins to the astonished boy : “ I give you my word I’ll never undertake to herd geese again.”

The boy fixed his eyes on the giver of such a liberal gift; then added : “You are a kind gentleman, whoever you may be ; but you will never make a good goose-herd.”

OVER THE RANGE.

Puz-zled, thought deeply.    |    Es-trangel part.

BIOS-'som-ing, bearing-flowers.    I    Fi-nal, last.

Little bush maiden, wondering-eyed,

Playing alone in the creek-bed dry,

In the small green flat on every side Walled in by the Moonbi Ranges high ;

Tell us the tale of your lonely life,

’Mid the great gray forests that know no change. “ I never have left my home,” she said,

“ I have never been over the Moonbi Range.

‘ ‘ Father and mother are both long dead,

‘ ‘ And I live with granny in yon wee place. ”

“ Where are your father and mother ? ” we said.

She puzzled awhile with thoughtful face ;

Then a light came into the shy brown eye,

And she smiled, for she thought the question strange On a thing so certain—“When people (lie,

They go to the country over the range. ”

“ And what is this country like, my lass?”

“ There are blossoming trees and pretty flowers,

“ And shining creeks where the golden grass “ Is fresh and sweet from the summer showers.

“ They never need work, nor want, nor weep ;

“ No troubles can come their hearts to estrange.

“ Some summer night I shall fall asleep,

“ And wake in the country over the range.”

Child, you are wise in your simple trust,

For the wisest man knows no more than you.

Ashes to ashes, and dust to dust ” :

Our views by a range are bounded too ;

But we know that God hath this gift in store,

That when we come to the final change,

We shall meet with our loved ones gone before To the beautiful country over the range.

—A. B. Paterson in The Man from Snowy River.

“MERRI-JIG.”

Yams, plants having a tuber, which is in some kinds like a small white turnip radish.

A-bode! dwelling.

Oc-CU-py-ing, having possession of.

Wad-dy, club.

Boom-er-ang, curved stick of hal'd wood used for throwing.

Of-fence, attack.

De-fence, protection ; guard.


In-flictf impose ; give.

Pun-ish-ment, pain or loss a person is made to suffer because of a crime or offence done by him. Oc-cur-rence, event.

Con-stant-ly, always.

Tom-a-hawks, small axes.

In-cur! bring down upon himself. Ac-com-pa-nied, attended.

Ex-pect-ing, looking out for.

In-ten-tion, purpose.

When the early settlers came to this country, they found it occupied by a race of black people. These blacks lived chiefly on the flesh of the opossum and kangaroo, on fish, and on yams. They had no fixed place of abode, but wandered about, hunting on the hills and plains, or fishing in the clear streams that flowed through the land.

There were several tribes occupying Victoria, each of which had its own hunting grounds. The members of a tribe were supposed to hunt only within their own borders. If they were found within those of another tribe, fighting usually followed. Their weapons of offence were the waddy, spear, and boomerang ; and of defence, a shield.

After runs had been taken up and stations formed in various parts of the colony, the blacks were not content with the wild animals they found, but often speared the sheep and cattle of the squatters. The latter, made angry by their losses, would in some cases inflict cruel punishment on the blacks in return. The result was that, after such an occurrence, the squatters and their men had to be constantly on their guard. In spite of all their care, however, many a white man lost his life through a spear wound.

But all the squatters and their men did not treat the blacks with harshness. Indeed, some of them were very kind, and gave them blankets, tomahawks, and food.

Amongst those who did not incur the hatred of the natives was a gentleman named Carter, whose station was in the western

AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES OR BLACKS.

district of Victoria. His kindness was the means of saving his life, as the following story, which he used to tell, will

show :—

One day in summer, I, accompanied by one of my men, was returning from Geelong with a dray-load of stores for the station. When we were in the middle of a thick scrub, through which the track wound, we came upon a large number of blacks.

“ As we were not expecting such a thing, we were not at all prepared to defend ourselves against them, if they should attack us.

“ We saw with much concern that they had taken care to surround us, and were drawing nearer, but with caution, having a great dread of the white man’s fire-arms. It was clearly their intention to carry off the stores that the dray contained ; and, in order to be able to do so, they would probably spear us.

u As we watched, we saw them getting their spears ready. But, just as they were raising them, three of their number rushed in front of the others, and motioned to the rest not to throw, at the same time calling out—■ Merri-jig Carter, merri-jig Carter.’ ‘ Merri-jig,’ in their language meant ‘ very good.’ When the other blacks heard it, to our surprise and delight they lowered their spears. After a while they came toward us, making signs of friendship. We gave them some of the stores so as to put them in good spirits; and were very glad to see them disappear shortly afterwards into the bush.

“ My kindness to the blacks on former occasions had brought its reward.”

—J. D. Hambrook, Brimspring State School.

THE ABYSSINIAN WAR.

Des^tiued, marked out; appointed. En-er-get-iC, active; full of vigour. Free-boot-ers, plunderers; robbers.

Ad-ven-tures, perils; stirring events.

Con-sul, official stationed in a country to attend to the interests of the people of the country that has appointed him.

Ad-mit^ted, allowed to come in.


Mis-sion-a-ries, persons sent to spread the knowledge of a religion.

Dis-ap-point^ed, defeated of expectation or hope; not realising.

De-ter-mined, agreed upon ; settled. Sem-i-sav-age, half savage.

Re-al-ise, understand the reality of.

Trea-ties, agreements between two countries.


In Africa, south of Southern Egypt or Nubia, and not far from the Red Sea, lies the country of Abyssinia, a land of lofty and rugged mountains, the tops of which are often crowned with snow.

In the early part of this century, there was a penniless boy, Kasa by name, living in an Abyssinian convent, who was destined to shape the history of that country. Daring and energetic, but very cruel, he, when grown to manhood, became chief of a band of freebooters.

After many adventures, he forced his way to the throne, and was crowned King of Abyssinia, under the title of Theodore I.

Hoping to get help from England against Egypt, with which country he was at war, he courted the favour of the' British Consul at Massowah (Mas'-so-wa) on the Red Sea, and admitted Protestant missionaries. Disappointed in this hope, he threw into prison the missionaries and the British subjects in his dominions, amounting in all to sixty persons.

Several messengers were sent to him demanding the release of the prisoners, but without result, in fact, he added them to the number of his captives. It was, therefore, determined to effect their release by force of arms.

An army of 12,000 men under Sir Robert Napier, was sent from India, and reached Abyssinia in the beginning of 1868. The Abyssinian troops were quite unable to stand against ours ; in one short conflict, they left 349 dead (besides wounded) on the field, while our loss was one man killed and twenty wounded.

Theodore then set the captives free. But, as he would not surrender, his fortress, Magdala, was attacked and taken. Those who first entered found Theodore’s dead body inside the gate. Defeated and despairing, he had died by his own hand. After destroying the fortress, Sir Robert Napier returned with his force to the coast.

Although this war produced no great results, yet it is important as being a type of the difficulties with which the government of such an Empire as the British has to deal.

MAGDALA (Mag^da-la).

(From Gurling’s Outlines of the History of England.)

When our countrymen are brought into contact with semi-savage and ignorant rulers, these judge of the power and importance of England by the small British force that comes under their notice. Unable to realise the enormous strength and resources of our Empire, and having an undue idea of their own power and greatness, they break treaties, and let loose all the passions of their savage nature, and commit many acts of murder and cruelty. Then, when the patience of onr country has come to an end, they pay the penalty of their rashness as did King Theodore, and others since his time.

LONDON, 22nd


Vas-sals, servants; subjects.

En-shrinedi cherished as something- sacred. Tu-mult, stir; bustle.

Fes-ti-val, rejoicings.

The trumpeters in a row,

With a note as clear as a bell,

And all the flutes and the fifes below, And the brazen throats, and the strings of fire,

To let the people know That the Mother, the Queen, the heart’s desire,

From her palace forth doth go.

Princes, form in array !

Great ye are, and greater may be ;

But only guards and vassals to-day To the Lady enshrined in duty and love ;

Pacing forth on her way In weakness of age, and in power above All words we can sing or say.

The streets that sound like the sea When the tumult of life is high,

Now, in a murmur of voices free,

Hum, and ripple, and rustle, and stir, Straining each eye to see—

To gaze, and to watch, and to wait for Her

Whose subjects and lovers they be.2

JUNE, 1897.

Ren-der-ing, returning; giving.

Plau-ditS, applause.

Mul-ti-tude, throng ; crowd.

Se-rene, calm.

Sons, and lovers, and subjects all,

The high and low together—    d

From Princes that ride in the festival Tous in the crowd who but shout and gaze;

Rendering, every man and all,

Thanks to our God for her lengthened days

And the nation’s festival.

Hark ! what is this which hushes the crowd !

A sound of silence amid the noise;

The sweep of a pause through the plaudits loud—

A moment, a stillness, a start, a stir— The great heart of the multitude H' lding its breath as it waits for Her, One being in all the crowd.

“She is coming, is coming ! the Queen ! the Queen ! ”

Hers is our moment in all the day.

One voice for all, and the air serene Quivers, as if a storm blew by :

A little more, and there had been Gates burst apart in the very sky,

To hear a whole nation shouting on high— “The Queen ! the. Queen! the Queen !’’

—Blackwood’s Magazine.

TREATMENT

Con-vertf cause to change from one religion to another.

Hea-then, those who worship idols and do not acknowledge the true God.

Re-strainf hold back ; stop.

Or ANIMALS.

An-noy-ing, teasing.

At-tackedf set upon.

Vul-tures, large birds. They feed chiefly on carrion.

We send missionaries to India to convert the heathen ; but they are ahead of ns in some things.

Australian boys do not seem able to restrain themselves from chasing, catching, annoying, or hurting every living thing they see and are not afraid of.

But, in India, no native boy ever thinks of throwing a stone at a bird, or hurting any animal unless he is attacked. Therefore, you will see crows and vultures move slowly out of the way as you pass ; while sparrows and other little birds hop about the doors quite tamely, picking up the crumbs.

—The Children’s Hour, S.A.

AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT.

For the picture of arums on page 34 of our last month’s number, we are indebted to Mr. J. Bee, who kindly supplied the photograph. These flowers are popularly called “ lilies,” though they do not belong to the “ Lily ” order, according to botanists.

AN EXPLANATION.

In line 11 on page 10 of the June number of The School Paper—Class IV., occurs the word “forgo ” meaning give up. It is derived from the A.S. “ forgan,” properly to go past., hence, to abstain from. The following note is from Webster’s International Dictionary:—“This word in spelling has been confused with, and almost superseded by, ‘forego,’ to go before. Etymologically the form ‘forgo’ is correct.”

TOPICS OF THE MONTH.

A short account was given in the July number of The School Paper—Class III. of the search for the lost explorers, Messrs. C. F. Wells and G. L. Jones, and of the finding of their dead bodies. The Hoyal Geographical Society of Australasia (Victorian Branch) has placed upon their tomb a brass plate bearing this inscription : —“ Honour the brave. The Royal Geographical Society of Australasia mourns the death of C. F. Wells and G. L. Jones, who perished in the exploration of North-west Australia in 1897.”

We take from an article in The Children's Hour, S.A., the following pathetic description of the last acts of these explorers, and the fitting exhortation that accompanies it:—

“ The sad news at last came that the two brave fellows had been found admidst the burning sands, where first one and then the other had lain down to die. With his last feeble strength the elder of the two had buried the younger, in loving, lonely silence, perhaps, with only the stars and the angels looking on. So two more heroes have gone to rest, and to join so many others whose bones have been frozen bv the North Pole's strand, or been bleached by the burning sun and desert sands of Africa and Australia. Even in that terrible last hour, as he felt his life ebbing slowly away, young Jones, in his loving letter to his father and mother, must have been comforted by the thought that he was only one of a long line of brave Englishmen who had died for the good or the honour of their country, for he wrote :—

‘And how can man die better Than facing fearful odds,

For the ashes of his fathers,

And the temples of his gods ? ’

I would have all you boys try to remember these words, and think under what terrible conditions they were written. Let each one say to himself:—‘My country shall never want for a noble boy or a brave man.’

‘ Now let the noble words resound,

And echo far aud free,

Wherever English hearts are found On English shore or sea,

The iron nerve of dutj’, joined With golden vein of love,

Can dare to do and dare to wait,

With courage from above. ’ ”

“Her Majesty rode in a state carriage, drawn by eight cream horses, most elaborately harnessed, and ridden by postilions, while four grooms, in State uniform, walked beside them. The Queen was in black, with a touch of white in her bonnet, and she carried a spotless white sunshade to protect herself from the sun, which was just then shining brightly. With her was the Princess of Wales, in heliotrope, and Princess Christian in white. The Prince of Wales and the Duke of Connaught rode on the right, and the Duke of Cambridge on the left.”


The Australasian.

x= *

To note the rapid improvement in the state of the country since the break-up of the drought is very cheering. The warmth in the soil, the mildness, on the whole, of the weather, and the gentle rains are causing an almost magical spring in the crops and pastures.

PSALM XIX.

The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handiwork.

Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.

There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.

Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,

Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.*

His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.

The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.

The statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes.

The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.

More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold : sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.

Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.

Who can understand his errors? cleanse thou me from secret faults.

Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not have dominion over me : then shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression.

Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, 0 Lord, my strength, and my redeemer.

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Diphthong made

up of i and e.

When the diphthong rhymes with key

The i must go before the e,

Unless the diphthon

g follows C.

Examples.

achieve

lief

relief

AFTER

belief

liege

relieve

believe

mien

reprieve

ceiling

brief

mischief

retrieve

conceit

chief

mischievous

shield

conceive

field

niece

siege

deceit

fiend

piece

thief

deceive

fierce

pier

thieve

perceive

grief

pierce

wield

receipt

grieve

priest

yield

receive

Exceptions.-

—Either, neither, plebeian, seize,

weird.

(Many people pronounce “either” as ither, and “neither” as nither. These two words, therefore, are also given below.)

When the diphthong made up of e and i has any other sound but that of key, the e always goes before the i.

Examples.

deign

feint

heinous

neigh

skein

vein

eider

forfeit

heir

neighbour

sleight

weigh

eight

freight

inveigh

neither

surfeit

either

heifer

inveigle

reign

their

feign

height

leisure

rein

veil

—Meiklejohn’s

Spelling Book.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. L, No. 5.]    MELBOURNE.    [Oct. 1897.

A FAREWELL.

My fairest child, I have no*song to give you ;

No lark could pipe^in skies so dull and gray ;

Yet, if jfcu will, one quiet hint I’ll leave you,    *

' '“'For every day.M

^8*    I

I’ll tell you how to sing a clearer carol    *

Than lark who hails the dawn or breezy down,

To earn yourself a purer poet’s laurel Than Shakespeage’s crown.

.    Vi

Be good, sweet maid, and let who can be clever ;

Do lovely things, not dream them, all day long ;

And so make Life, and Death, and that For Ever,

One grand, sweet song.

—Charles Kingsley.

NANSEN’S EXPLORATIONS —continued.

Ex-pec-ta-tions, what was looked forward to as likely to take place.

Re-posedf placed.

Nec-es-sa-ries, things that one cannot do without.

Kay-ak, light canoe, made of skins stretched over a frame.

Serv-ice-a-ble, useful to an end; fit for doing certain work.

Hill-OCkS, small hills.

Floe, flat mass of floating ice.

Fa-tigu-ing (fa-teg-ing), wearying.

Daunt-less, bold ; fearless.


Im-mensei very great; vast.

Hor-ri-fied, thrown into a state of great fe tr. Pos-sessedi had; owned.

Dif-fi-cul-ty, trouble.

Auk, kind of Arctic sea bird.

Ex-haust-ed, worn out.

I-Ci-Cles, hanging pieces of ice. Con-sist-ing, made up of.

Sim-mer-ing, boiling gently.

Ef-facedi caused to disappear. Ad-ven-tures, risks.

He-ro-ic, daring.


True to expectations the ship drifted on, and the land was soon lost to view. In March, 1895, it was in latitude 84 degrees north. Then, Nansen, seeing that it would not reach the Pole by the course it was being carried by the current, made up his mind to leave the vessel, and attempt to reach that point with dogs, sledges, canoes, and ski.

He chose, as his sole companion on this perilous journey, one of the crew named Johansen—a good-tempered, powerful man, who proved himself worthy of the trust reposed in him. It may be noted that,

Price Id.

though this journey was full of danger, every one on the Fram was as eager to go as Johansen.

{Adapted from the map in “Fridtjof Nansen's ‘Farthest North Macmillans Colonial Library.)


With a supply of food and other necessaries for 100 days, the two men set out with three sledges, 28 dogs, and two kayaks, hoping before


their food was exhausted to reach on their return journey Spitzbergen1 or some other inhabited land.

The travelling at first was easy, but afterwards became more and more difficult. The dogs did not prove as serviceable as had been expected. The trials the explorers had with them, the blinding snowstorms, the rugged hillocks of ice, and the floes in constant motion were most fatiguing, yet, with dauntless energy, Nansen and his companion continued to push northwards. Often, they were face to face with death, but, somehow, they escaped any serious injury.

On one occasion, while dragging their sledges along a narrow path between two hillocks of ice, they were met by a polar bear. Johansen caught the animal by the throat, and held it at arm’s length, while Nansen gave it a bullet from his rifle.

On another occasion, they had been travelling in their kayaks across some open water, and, having landed on a sheet of ice in order to stretch their legs, were horrified to see their boats, which contained everything they possessed, drifting away. It was a question of life or death, and Nansen jumped into the icy sea. He swam to the boat, but was so cold fliat he could hardly climb into it. He says:—

“ There I sat, but so stiff and cold that I had difficulty in paddling. The cold had robbed my whole body of feeling, but, when the gusts of wind came, they seemed to go right through me as I sat in my thin, wet woollen shirt. I shivered, my teeth chattered, and I was numb almost all over ; but I could still use the paddle, and I knew«I should become warm when I got back on the ice again.

“ Two auks were swimming close to the bow, and the thought of having auk for supper was too tempting; w'e were much in want of food at the time. I got hold of my gun, and shot them with one discharge. Johansen said afterwards that he started at the report, thinking some accident had happened, and could not understand what I was about. But, when he saw me paddle and pick up two birds, he thought that I had gone out of my mind.

“ At last, I managed to reach the edge of the ice ; but the current had driven me a long way from our landing place. Johansen came along the edge of the ice, jumped into the kayak beside me, and we soon got back to our place.

“I was quite exhausted, and could barely manage to crawl out of the kayak. I could scarcely stand, and, while I shook and trembled

DRAGGING A SLEDGE.

all over, Johansen had to pull off the wet things I had on, put on the few dry ones I still had in reserve , and spread the sleeping-bag out upon the ice. I packed myself into it, and he covered me with the sail and everything he could find to keep out the cold air.

There I lay shivering for a long time ; but, gradually, the warmth began to return to my body. For some time longer, however, my feet had no more feeling in them than icicles, for they had been partly naked in the water. While Johansen put up the tent, and prepared supper, consisting of my two auks, I fell asleep. He let me sleep quietly ; and, when I awoke, supper had been ready for some time, and stood simmering over the fire. Auk and hot soup soon effaced the last traces of my swim. During the night, my clothes were hung up to dry, and, the next day, were all nearly dry again."'

A little beyond latitude 86 degrees, the ice became so rough that Nansen considered it unwise to continue their course polewards, and they decided to go south to Spitzbergen, by way of Franz Josef Land.2

Day after day for four months, they travelled in a south-westerly direction. The stock of food they had brought from the Fram became almost exhausted, and the dogs were starving. It became necessary to kill some of the dogs to make food for the rest. A cartridge was too valuable to use for such a purpose, and the two men could not bring themselves to slaughter their own faithful followers in cold blood, so Nansen killed Johansen’s sledge dogs, while Johansen killed his chief’s. The time came at last when they had to drag the sledges themselves.

In August, they reached Franz Josef Land, and built themselves a hut to spend the winter in. There they remained for 267 days, passing much of the time in sleep. They had many exciting adventures with the animals of that frozen land, the foxes and bears often coming to the door of their tiny dwelling (8ft. by 6ft.) in search of food. They lived like the Eskimos3 on the blubber of the seal and walrus, varied by the flesh of the bear and fox.

In the spring of 1896, they tried twice to reach Spitzbergen and failed ; but, in June, on setting out the third time, much to their surprise and delight, they met with friends. While Johansen was asleep, Nansen, who was cooking, heard the barking of dogs, and an English explorer, named Jackson, came in sight. He and his companions had been camped also on Franz Josef Land during the winter. It was not long before Nansen was on his way to his home in Norway.

Meanwhile, the little Fram, which Nansen had left to the mercy of the currents and floes, drifted on slowly, but, as he had expected, without being seriously injured by the pressure of the ice. During part of its course it moved only ten miles in four months. It did not reach clear water till more than three years after its departure from Christiania in 1893. Strange to say, it arrived in Norway only six days later than its heroic and now famous commander.

—F.H.R.

1. Spitz-berg-en, group of islands in the Arctic Ocean, north of Norway.

2 Franz' Jo-sef Land, North of Nova Zeinbla, Arctic Ocean.

a. Es-ki-UlOS, or Es-qui-maux, race inhabiting Arctic America and Greenland.

DAME BARBARA.

Reb-el, resisting lawful rule.

Slouched, with wide, soft brim hanging down.

Shiv-ered, broke into small pieces or splinters.


Fam-ished, starving.

Hauled, dragged.

AUtiC, room just under the roof of a house. Loy-al, true; faithful—(in this case to the cause of the Northern States).

Eleven Southern States of the United States separated in 1861 from the Union, and formed themselves into a nation with a president of their own. A terrible war tvas the result. It did not come to a close, till, in 1865, the Southerners tvere quite subdued, and their capital taken.

In the following verses the American poet, Whittier, describes an incident in the war.

Maryland was one of the states that did not rebel. The Southerners invaded it, and in the town of Fredericsburg (“ Frederick ” in the poem) met with no resistance. With the exception of “ Old Dame Barbara,” its inhabitants were afraid of making any sign that they favoured the Northern cause.

4.    Lee, Commander-in-Chief of the Southern forces. He was one of the great

est of modern generals. •

5.    Flag, the “Stars and Stripes,” the national ensign of the United States. The

thirteen stripes are kept, one for each of the states which declared their independence of Great Britain in 1776; but a star has been added for each state that has been taken into the Union since.

6.    Stonewall Jackson, Thomas Jackson, the most famous of Lee’s generals.

He got the name “ Stonewall ” through his bravery at the battle of Bull’s Run, fought 1861.

7.    Free-flag. The poet gives the “Stars and Stripes” this title, because the

people of the Northern States were fighting for the freedom of the slaves.


1.    Gar-den of the Lord, the garden of Eden.    .

2.    Reb-el horde, army of the Southern States which had revolted from the Union. Their chief reason

for doing so was that the people of the Northern States were against slavery, and would not allow it to be established in the new lands that were being brought into the Union.    3. Fall, autumn.


Up from the meadows rich with corn, Clear in the cool September morn,

The clustered spires of Frederick stand, Green-walled by the hills of Maryland.

Round about them orchards sweep, Apple and fruit-tree fruited deep,

Fair as the garden of the Lord1

To the eyes of the famished rebel horde.2

On the pleasant morn of the early fall,3 When Lee4 marched over the mountain wall,

Over the mountain winding down,

Horse and foot, into Frederick town,

Forty flags, with their silver stars,

Forty flags, with their crimson bars,

Flapped in the morning wind : the sun Of noon looked down, and saw not one.


Up rose old Dame Barbara then,

Bowed with her fourscore years and ten,

Bravest of all in Frederick town,

She took up the flag5 the men hauled down.

In her attic window the staff she set,

To show that one heart was loyal yet.

Up the street came the rebel tread, Stonewall Jackson6 riding ahead.

Under his slouched hat left and right He glanced ; the old flag met his sight.


“Halt!” the dust-brown ranks stood fast,

“ Fire ! ” out blazed the rifle-blast.

It shivered the window, pane and sash ; It rent the banner with seam and gash.

Quick, as it fell, from the broken staff Dame Barbara snatched the silken scarf.

She leaned far out on the window-sill, And shook it forth with a royal will,

“ Shoot, if you must, this old gray head, But spare your country’s flag ! ” she said.

A shade of sadness, a blush of shame, Over the face of the leader came,

The nobler nature within him stirred To life, at that woman’s deed and word :

“ Who touches a hair on yon gray head Dies like a dog ! March on ! ” he said.


All day long through Frederick street, Sounded the tread of marching feet;

All day long the free-flag7 tost Over the heads of the rebel host.

Ever its torn folds rose and fell On the loyal winds that loved it well;

And through the hill-gaps sunset light Shone over it with a warm good-night. * * * *

—J. G. Whittier.



THE WHISTLE.

Di-rect-ly, at once.

Charmed, much delighted.

Of-fered, expressed willingness to give. Dis-turb-ing, disquieting ; annoying. Bar-gain, purchase.

Vex-a-tion, annoyance Im-pres-sion, effect.

Un-nec-es-sa-ry, needless.

Am-bi-tiOUS Of, very eager for.

At-tend^ance, act of being present at. Sac-ri-fic-ing, giving up one thing for another of less value.    .

Re-pose', rest; quiet.


Pop-u-lar-i-ty, favour of the people.

Lib-er-ty, freedom.

Pol-i-tiCS, science of government.

Neg-lect-ing, not attending to with care and attention.

Miiser, one who hoards wealth.

Be-nev-O-lent, fond of doing good; charitable. Ac-cu-mu-la^ting, gathering; saving up. Ap-pear-an-ces, outward show.

Car-eerJ course ; life’s work.

Es-ti-mates, opinions as to worth or value; rough calculations.


When I was a child, seven years old, my friends, on a holiday, filled my pockets with coppers. I went directly towards a shop where they sold toys for children. On my way, being charmed with the sound of a whistle that I saw in the hands of another boy, I, of my own accord, offered him all my. money for it.

I then came home, and went whistling all over the house, much pleased with my whistle, but disturbing all the family. My brothers, and sisters, and cousins, understanding the bargain I had made, told me I had given four times as much for it as it was worth.

This put me in mind what good things I might have bought with the rest of the money; and they laughed at me so much for my folly, that I cried with vexation. My experience on this occasion was afterwards of use to me, for the impression continued on my mind, so that, often, when I was tempted to buy some unnecessary thing, I said to myself, “Don't give too much for the whistleand so I saved my money.

As I grew up, came into the world, and observed the actions of men, I thought I met with many, very many, who u gave too much for their whistle.”

When I saw any one too ambitious of the favour of the great, wasting his time in attendance at public dinners, sacrificing his repose, his liberty, his virtue, and perhaps his friends, to attain it, I have said to myself, “ This man gives too much for his whistle.”

When I saw another fond of popularity, constantly employing himself in politics, neglecting his own affairs, and ruining them by that neglect; “ He pays, indeedf said I, “too much for his whistle.”

If I knew a miser, who gave up every kind of comfortable living, all the pleasure of doing good to others, and the esteem of his fellow-citizens, and the joys of benevolent friendship, for the sake of accumulating wealth; “Poor man!" said I, “you pay too much for your whistle.”

When I met with a man of pleasure, sacrificing the improvement of his mind, or of his fortune, to mere bodily comfort; “ Mistaken man!" said I, “you are providing pain for yourself\ instead of pleasure ; you give too much for your whistle.”

If I saw one fond of appearances, of fine clothes, fine furniture, fine horses, all above his fortune, for which he ran into debt, and ended his career in prison ; “Alas!” said I, u he has paid dear, very dear, for his whistle.”

In short, I believe that a great part of the miseries of mankind are brought upon them by the false estimates they have made of the value of things, and by their giving too much for their whistles.

Yet I ought to have charity for these unhappy people, when I consider that, with all this wisdom of which I am boasting, there are certain things in the world so tempting, I might very easily be led to ruin myself in the purchase of them, and find that I had once more given too much for the whistle.

—Adapted from Dr. Benjamin Franklin.

CONTEST BETWEEN THE NOSE AND THE EYES.

Spec-ta-cles, two lenses worn to assist siaht. Chief-Barton, presiding judge.

Dis-cern-ing, seeing or understanding differences.

Un-doubtred-ly, without question or doubt. Strad-dle, curve.

I'e-Signedi planned ; intended.


Vis-age, countenance.

Connate-nance, face; features. Aftgu-ments, reasons offered in proof. Pleaded, put forward arguments. De-creed' ordered; gave as his decision. De-ci-sive, positive.


Between Nose and Eyes a strange contest arose,

The spectacles set them unhappily wrong;

The point in dispute was, as all the world knows,

To which the said spectacles ought to belong.

So Tongue was the lawyer, and argued the cause

With a great deal of skill, and a wig full of learning;

While Chief-Baron Ear sat to balance the laws,

So famed for his talent in nicely discerning.

“ On behalf of the Nose it will quickly appear,

And your lordship,” he said, “ will undoubtedly find,

That the Nose has had spectacles always in wear,

Which amounts to possession time out of mind. ”

Then holding the spectacles up to the court—

“ Your lordship observes they are made with a straddle,

As wide as the ridge of the Nose is; in short,

Design’d to sit close to it, just like a saddle.

“Again; would your lordship a moment suppose (’Tis a case that has happen’d, and may be again)

That the visage or countenance had not a Nose,

Pray who would, or who could, wear spectacles then?

“ On the whole it appears, and my argument-shows,

With a reasoning the court will never condemn,

That the spectacles plainly were made for the Nose,

And the Nose was as plainly intended for them.”

Then, shifting his side (as a lawyer knows how),

He pleaded again on behalf of the Eyes:

But what were his arguments few people know',

For the court did not think they were equally wise.

So his lordship decreed with a grave, solemn tone,

Decisive and clear, without one if or but—

“ That, whenever the Nose put spectacles on,

By daylight or candlelight—Eyes should be shut!”

— William Cowper

ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES: A STORY FROM THE “ARABIAN NIGHTS.1

Dis-tin-guished, saw ; made out Sus-pect-ed, thought with some reason. De-ter-mined, made up his mind.

Ses-a-me, kind of grain.

Pro-nouncedi spoke.

Wal-let, bag or sack for carrying about the person.

De-scend-ed, came down Re-mem^ber-ing, keeping in mind. Cu-ri-OS-i-ty, strong desire; wish to find out. Ac-cord-ing-ly, therefore; so.

Pro-Vi-Sions, things to eat; food.


Suc-ceed-ed, taken the place of.

Pan-ni-ers, wicker baskets—usually in pairs — slung over the back of a horse or ass and used for carrying things.

Art-ful-ly, with cunning

Mis-er-a-bly, very; wretchedly.

Haugbt^i-ly, in an overbearing or proud way.

Im-me-di-ate-ly, at once

Nec-es-sa-ry, needful; that cannot be done without.

Fran-tic, mad ; raving.


There once lived in a town of Persia two brothers, one named Cassini, and the other Ali Baba.2 Their father, at his death, divided equally between them what property he possessed, which was not much. Cassini married a rich wife, and became a very rich merchant. Ali Baba married a woman as poor as himself, and lived by cutting wood, and bringing it upon three asses into the town to sell.

One day, when Ali Baba was in the forest, and had just cut wood enough to load his asses, he saw at a distance a great cloud of dust, which seemed to be approaching him. He observed it with attention, and distinguished soon after a body of horsemen, whom he suspected to be robbers. He determined to leave his asses and to save himself. He climbed up into a large tree, planted on a high rock, whose branches were thick enough to conceal him, and yet enabled him to see all that passed.

The troop, who were to the number of forty, all well mounted and armed, came to the foot of the rock on which the tree stood, and there dismounted. Every man unbridled his horse, tied him to some shrub, and hung about his neck a bag of corn which he had brought behind him. Then, each of them took off his saddle-bag, which, from its weight, seemed to Ali Baba to be full of gold and silver. One, whom he took to be their captain, came under the tree in which Ali Baba was concealed; and, making his way through some shrubs, pronounced these words, “Open, Sesame! ” As soon as the captain of the robbers had thus spoken, a door opened in the rock; and, after he had made all his troop enter before him, he followed them, when the door shut again of itself.

The robbers stayed some time within the rock, during which, Ali Baba, fearful of being caught, remained in the tree.

At last, the door opened again, and, as the captain went in last, so he came out first, and stood to see them all pass by him. Then Ali Baba heard him make the door close by pronouncing these words, “ Shut, Sesame ! ” Every man at once went and bridled his horse, fastened his wallet, and mounted again. When the captain saw them all ready, he put himself at their head, and they returned the way they had come.

Ali Baba followed them with his eyes as far as he could see them ; and, afterwards, stayed some time before he descended the tree. Remembering the words the captain of the robbers used to cause the door to open and shut, he had the curiosity to try if his pronouncing them would have the same effect. Accordingly, he went among the shrubs, and, seeing the door concealed behind them, he stood before it, and said, “ Open, Sesame ! ” The door, at once, flew wide open.

Ali Baba, w'ho expected to find a dark, dismal cavern, was surprised to see a well-lighted and roomy chamber, which received the light from an opening at the top of the rock, and in which were all sorts of provisions, rich bales of silk, stuff, and valuable carpets piled upon one another, gold and silver in great heaps, and money in bags. The sight of all these riches made him suppose that this cave must have been occupied for ages by robbers, who had succeeded one another.

Ali Baba went boldly into the cave, and collected as much of the gold coin, which was in bags, as he thought his three asses could carry. When he had loaded the asses with the bags, he laid wood over them in such a manner that they could not be seen. When he had passed in and out as often as he wished, he stood before the door, and pronouncing the words, “ Shut, Sesame ! ” the door closed of itself. He then made the best of his way to town.

When Ali Baba got home, he drove his asses into a little yard, shut the gates very carefully, threw off the wood that covered the panniers, carried the bags into his house, and ranged them in order before his wife. He at once emptied the bags, which raised such a great heap of gold as dazzled his wife’s eyes. Then he told her the whole adventure from beginning to end ; and, above all, urged her to keep it secret.

The wife rejoiced greatly at their good fortune, and wanted to count all the gold, piece by piece. “ Wife,” replied Ali Baba, “ you do not know what you would be undertaking, were you to attempt to count the money ; you would never be done. I will dig a hole and bury it. There is no time to be lost.” “ You are right, husband,” replied she ;

“ but let us know, as nearly as possible, how much we have. I will borrow a small measure, and measure it, while you dig the hole.”

Away the wife ran to her brother-in-law Cassim, who lived just by, and asked his wife to lend her a measure for a little while. Her sister- . in-law wished to know whether she would have a large or a small one. The other asked for a small one. She bade (bad) her stay a little, and went at once to fetch one.

The sister-in-law knew of Ali Baba’s poverty, and was curious to find out what sort of grain his wife wanted to measure. Therefore, artfully putting some suet at the bottom of the measure, she brought it to her, with an excuse that she was sorry that she had kept her so long, but that she could not find it sooner.

Ali Baba’s wife went home, set the measure upon the heap of gold, filled it, and emptied it, over and over again upon the sofa, till she had done. She was very well satisfied to find the number of measures

amounted to so many as they did, and went to tell her husband, who had almost finished digging the hole. While Ali Paha was burying the gold, his wife carried the measure back again, but without taking notice that a piece of gold had stuck to the bottom. “ Sister,” said she, giving it to her again, “you see that I have not kept your measure long. I am obliged to you for it, and return it with thanks.”

As soon as Ali Baba’s wife was gone, her sister-in-law looked at the bottom of the measure, and was much surprised to find a piece of gold sticking to it. Envy at once took possession of her. “ What,” said she, “ has Ali Baba gold so plentiful as to measure it ? Whence has he all this wealth ? ”

Cassim, her husband, was at his office. When he came home, his wife said to him : “ Cassim, I know you think yourself rich, but Ali Baba is very much richer than you. He does not count his money, but measures it.” Cassim desired her to explain the riddle, which she did by telling him the trick she had used to make the discovery. She also showed him the piece of money, which was so old that they could not tell in what prince’s reign it was coined.

Cassim, after he had married the rich widow, had never treated Ali Baba as a brother, but neglected him ; and, now, instead of being pleased, he basely envied his brother's good fortune. He could not sleep all that night, and went to him in the morning before sunrise. “Ali Baba," said he, “I am surprised at you; you pretend to be miserably poor, and yet you measure gold. My wife found this at the bottom of the measure you borrowed yesterday.”

By these words, Ali Baba perceived that Cassim and his wife, through his own wife’s carelessness, knew what they had so much reason to conceal; but what was done could not be undone. Therefore, without showing the least surprise or trouble, he confessed all, and offered his brother part of his treasure to keep the secret.

“ I expected as much,” replied Cassim, haughtily ; “ but I must know exactly where this treasure is, and how I may visit it myself when I choose ; otherwise, I will go and inform against you; and then you will not only get no more, but will lose all you have, and I shall receive a share for my information.”

Ali Baba told him all he desired, even to the very words he was to use to gain an entrance into the cave.

Cassim rose the next morning long before the sun, and set out for the forest with ten mules bearing great chests, which he intended to fill. It was not long before he reached the rock, and found out the place by the tree and other marks which his brother had given him. When he came to the door of the cavern, he pronounced the words, “ Open, Sesame ! ” The door immediately opened, and, when he was in, closed upon him. In examining the cave, he was greatly delighted to find far more riches than he had expected from Ali llaba’s account. He quickly laid as many bags of gold as he could carry at the door of the cavern ; but his thoughts were so full of the great riches he was about to possess that he could not think of the necessary word to make it open. Instead of “ Sesame ” he said, “ Open, Barley ! ” and was much amazed to find that the door remained fast shut. He named several sorts of grain, but still the door would not open.

Cassini had never expected such a thing, and was so alarmed at the danger he was in that the more he tried to remember the word “Sesame” the more his memory became confused; and he had as much forgotten it, as if he had never heard it mentioned. He threw down the bags he had loaded himself with, and walked, in a frantic state, up and down the cave, without having the least regard to the riches that were around him.

About noon, the robbers visited their cave. When some distance off, they saw Cassini’s mules with great boxes on their backs grazing about the rock. Alarmed at- this, they galloped at full speed to the cave. They drove away the mules, who strayed through the forest so far that they were soon out of sight, and went directly, with their naked swords in their hands, to the door, which, on their captain pronouncing the proper words, immediately opened.

(To be continued.)

1.    A-ra'-bi-an Nights, one of the most celebrated collections of stories in the world. The reason for the name is a curious one. It is said that a certain Sultan, being offended with his wife, had her killed, and then swore to marry a fresh one every day, and have her killed in turn the next morning.

After several had lost their lives in this way, a brave woman, prompted by the desire of preventing such bloodshed, presented herself as a candidate for marriage with tlie Sultan. She knew well the risk she was running ; but she had formed an ingenious plan to prevent the monarch from carrying out his purpose. This was to begin to tell him a story, and to leave off at an interesting point, so that the Sultan would have to spare her for another day, if he wished to hear the end of the tale. She knew so many stories, and told them so well, that she kept up the Sultan’s interest for a thousand and one nights. When these were over, he was so pleased with the way he had been entertained that he spaied the lady’s life, and thought no more about the oath he had sworn.

2.    Al'-i Ba'-ba («' -le, “ a” as in “ arm,” or as in “hate”; bd'-bit, the first “a” in “arm,” the second as in “ ask”—ah'-lee or ay'lee bah'-bah.)

THE LEIPOA (LOWAN OR MALLEE HEN) AND “NEST.”

Mal-lee, stunted eucalyptus or “ gum.” Re-sem-bles, is like.

Motrtled, marked with spots of different colours. Do-mes-tic, tame as distinguished from wild. Coin-pact, closely built.

Pi-O-neers, first- settlers.

In-stinct, power which the lower animals possess of knowing- and doing certain things with.ut being taught.

In-tel-li-gence, reasoning power.


Com-bine', join Clr-cu-lar, round.

Di-am-e-ter, measurement across a circle through the cent re.

Hur-ried-ly, hastily.

De-com-pose, rot or decay.

U^su-al-ly, as a rule ; commonly.

Tiers (ters), rows placed one higher than another.

In-CU-ba^tion, hatching process.


In the north-western part of Victoria, known as the Mallee District, is to be found a bird of strange and wonderful habits. In shape and size, it resembles a grayish, mottled, domestic turkey ; but is smaller,

more compact, and has stouter legs. It is called by some the Iowan? but the pioneers of the Mallee generally refer to it as the mallee hen.

THE LEiPOA    called also in Victoria the Lowan or Mallee Hen.

(Photographed at the National Museum by kind permission of the Director, Sir Frederick McCoy, F.R.S.)

In preparing a place in which its eggs may be hatched, this bird shows remarkable instinct amounting almost to intelligence. One who has not seen it at work finds it difficult to believe the accounts he hears.

THE MOUND OF THE LEIPOA.

Early in summer, many of these birds combine ; and, with their wings and feet, scrape together a circular mound of sand, sometimes twenty feet in diameter, and about two feet in height. One that was examined was reckoned to contain 150 cubic feet of material. The mound is shaped towards the middle like a dish ; and, into the hollow, the birds scrape about a couple of barrow-loads of leaves and bark.

The first stage of the work is now finished ; and the birds wait, sometimes during weary months, for rain to fall. As soon as it does, and the rubbish becomes damp, the lowans hurriedly cover it up, at the same time raising the height of the mound to about three or four feet.

In a little time, the rubbish, thus treated, begins to decompose, and heat is produced. The birds are on the look-out for this ; and, their cleverly constructed hot-house being now ready, they burrow down into the middle of it, and commence laying their eggs.

kWld

THE MOUND OPENED TO SHOW THE POSITION OF THE EGGS.

The eggs are brownish-pink in colour, and are almost as large as a goose egg. They are placed, with the small end downwards, in circles; and each circle is smaller than the one below it, so that one egg is never directly above another. There are, usually, from 12 to 16 eggs in one of these circular tiers, each bird laying two a week.

The laying season extends over two months; and, as the hatching is going on at the same time, eggs are found in the mound in all stages of incubation.

The shell of the egg is very strong; and, when the young one is able to break through, he is a hardy little fellow, almost fully feathered. As soon as he finds himself free from his prison, he burrows his way to the surface, feet uppermost; and, at once, runs off to begin life on his own account.

As the mallee is rolled down, and the land put under crop, the lowans disappear. They are being driven further and further back into the timbered country. One cannot but feel sorry that this bird with its strange habits should, in a few years hence, disappear almost altogether from Victoria.

—C. M. Waters, Sutton State School.

1. Lowan.—This bird, which is to be found in Western Australia, in South Australia, and in the north-western parts of Victoria, is called by naturalists the leipoa or native pheasant. It is a very shy bird, and to observe its habits closely is a difficult matter. The accounts given of them in different books do not agree, therefore the above description obtained from old residents in the Mallee, in addition to being interesting, is valuable.

TOPICS OF THE MONTH.

The Victorian riflemen who went to England to compete in certain firing matches, have been very successful. Their winning of the Kolapore Challenge Cup, in the competition for which were a team of British volunteers, and teams from India, Canada, and several of the colonies, was a great victory. They obtained 751 points out of a possible 840, their score being 85 more than the winners—a Canadian team—made last year. The New Zealanders were second, and only three points behind.

* * * * * *

Cape Colony recently offered the British Government, as a gift, a first-class battle ship, to be employed, not in protecting Cape Colony, but wherever the British naval authorities might think fit. This vessel will cost close upon a million pounds. The offer, which was accepted, has attracted a large share of attention, for to what extent the colonies should assist the mother country in providing means to protect the British Empire is a subject much discussed. Mr. Goschen, the First Lord of the Admiralty, in a speech delivered at a banquet in London, thus referred to the gift:—“I have received the present of an ironclad at the hands of a British colony. There was no ceremony, there was no great reception, there was no flourish of trumpets ; but Sir Gordon Sprigg simply came to the First Lord of the Admiralty, and told me that Cape Colony was prepared to place an ironclad of the first class at the disposal of the Empire. I thank him on behalf of the English nation, I thank him on behalf of the Government, and I thank him also on behalf of the nation at large, of which Cape Colony is so distinguished a part.”

The Australian colonies give a large sum of money every year towards the maintenance of a navy. Each contributes according to the number of its people. Victoria’s share last year, was £36,000.

During years past, there has been a good demand for opossums’ skins, with which excellent rugs, mats, and other things can be made. This has led to the trapping and shooting of these animals on a large scale, chiefly during the winter months, when the fur is thick and in good condition. Opossums have, therefore, become scarce in Victoria, and, in order to prevent their disappearing altogether, it has lately been decided by the Government to place them among animals protected by law, such as the platypus, jackass, magpie, and certain kinds of kangaroos. The close season, that is, the period during which it will be unlawful to kill the opossum, is to extend from the 31st of October to the 30th of April, beginning, probably, this year.

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule II.—Words ending in y with a consonant before it change the y into i when a suffix is added ; but if the y has a vowel before it, no change takes place.

Short Form :—Consonant + y changes ;

Vowel + y does not change.

ally

ally

bury

cherry

fairy

greedy


Y WITH A CONSONANT BEFORE IT.


allies

allied

burial

cherries

fairies

greedier


Y WITH A VOWEL BEFORE IT.

alley (narrow street) alleys chimney    chimney s

gray    grayer

journey    journeys

money    moneyed

play    playful


.


Exceptions—(i.) Where the suffix begins with i (as ing, ish, ist), the y is always retained, to prevent tAvo i’s from coming together.

cry

crying

carry

carrying

dry

drying

copy

copyist

baby

babyish

envy

envying

.) In the before it

following words y is

changed into i,

although the y l

day

daily

say

said

gay

gaiety

say

saith

gay

gaily

slay

slain

lay

laid

stay

staid

pay

paid

array

[ar-]raiment

a


a


(iii.) In the following words y remains unchanged, although it has consonant before it:—

dry    dryly    dryness

shy    shyly    shyness

sly    slyly    slyness

—Adapted from Meiklejoiin’s Spelling Book.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. I., No. 6.]    MELBOURNE.    [Nov. 1897.

THE BLIND WEAVER.

Loom, machine for weaving cloth. Fab-ric, cloth of any kind.

A blind, boy stood beside the loom, And wove a fabric. To and fro, Beneath his firm ai^d steady touch,

He made the busy shuttle go.

And oft the teacher passed that way, And gave the colours, thread by thread;

But by the boy the pattern fair

Was all unseen; its hues were dead.


Hues, colours.

Pat-tern, design.

“ How can you weave ? ” we, pitying cried.

The blind boy smiled. “I do my best; I make the fabric firm and strong,

And one who sees does all the rest. ”

Oh, happy thought ! besides life’s loom, We blindly strive out best to do,

And He who marked the pattern out, ' And holds the threads, will make it true.


STRICTLY TRUTHFUL.

Anx-ious, very desirous; eager. Ex-cel-ling, surpassing others. Suc-ceed-ed, did what he was trying to do. Hon-our, credit.

Award-ed, given after careful consideration-Dif-fi-cult, not easy.


Su-pe-ri-or, better.

Tern-pie, space on either side of the head, behind the eye and forehead.

Cer-tain-ly, of course.

Grieved, made sorrowful.

Im-pres-sion, effect; idea; notion.


Frank Goodson was a boy who had not had much chance of going to school; hence he was behind the other boys in all his studies except writing, for which he had a great fancy.

There were prizes given in Frank’s school, and he was anxious to win one. As he had no hope of excelling in anything but writing, he made up his mind to try with all his might for the prize in that subject. He strove so hard, and succeeded so well, that his copybook would have done honour to a boy twice his age.

When the prizes were awarded, the Chairman of the Board of Advice held up two copybooks, and said:—“ It would be difficult to say which of these books is better than the other, were it not for one ’copy in Frank Goodson’s, which is not only superior to all in this, but to every other copy in the same book.”

Frank’s heart beat high with hope, which was not unmixed with fear. Blushing to his temples, he said, ^Flegse, sir, may I see that

Copy?    •)    v ..’O; y iUM u .. '    • . '-I; Op

Price Id.

“ Certainly,” replied the chairman, looking somewhat surprised. -Frank glanced at the copy, and then, handing back the hook, said: “ Please, sir, that is not my writing. It was written by a boy in the sixth class, who took my book instead of his own, one day," by mistake.”

“ Oh, ho ! ” said the chairman, “ that may alter the case.”

The two books were laid before the judges again, who, after comparing them carefully, decided that Frank’s was not so good as the other.

Frank was much grieved that he did not win the prize. The boys laughed at him. Said one very rude boy : “ You were a stupid to say anything about that mistake !”

I wouldn’t have told !” cried another boy.

“ Nor I,” added a third boy, laughing. “ The copy was in your book, and you had a right to enjoy the benefit of it. I tell you it doesn’t pay, Frank, to be so honest as that.”

But, in spite of all they said, Frank felt that he was right. “ It would not have been the truth,” he replied, “ if I had not told them who wrote the copy. I would rather never have a prize than get it by claiming the work of some one else.”

u Hurrah for Frank ! ” “ Three cheers for Frank !” shouted most of the boys. Frank went home feeling happier than he would have done, if, by means of a silent lie, he had won the prize.

You see that, if Frank had kept quiet, he would have told a silent lie. His silence would have given a wrong impression, and he would have cheated his schoolmate out of the prize. Now that you know what a silent lie is, I hope you will resolve never to be guilty of silent lying. Hold fast the truth !

THE BYADUK STONES.

Seared, scorched.

Sub^ter-ra-ne-an, under ground. Pen-e-tra-ting, extending ; going into. Ap^pli-ca-tion, putting forth.

Veg-e-ta^tion, plants in general.

Chasms, clefts ; deep openings.

Ap-pear-ance, look; aspect.

Con-i-cal, round at the base and tapering to a point at the top.

La-va, melted rock.

Mol-ten, melted.


Tract, region; area.

Ex-tincg put out; quenched.

Vol-ca-no, opening in the ground through which come melted rock, stones, and gases. Ex-cel-lent, very good.

Har-bour, shelter; refuge.

Brack-en, fern.

Em-bed^ded, fixed; planted.

Cre-vi-ces, cracks; narrow openings.

A-brupti steep; as if broken off. De-pres-sions, hollows.


In the Western District of Victoria, extending from the extinct volcano, Mt. Napier,1 to the Condah Swamp2—a distance of about 16 miles—lies a narrow tract of country known as the Byaduk Stones.

It is nothing but a mass of stones, broken and honey-combed— quite distinct from the surrounding country, where sheep are kept

ONE OF THE BYADUK CAVES.

and crops raised. Though quite useless for these purposes, it forms an excellent harbour for kangaroos, emus, foxes, and rabbits. There

they are safe from dogs and horsemen owing to the rugged nature of the place.

A plentiful growth of bracken is everywhere to be seen; and it is quite common to meet with trees of moderate size, which flourish, though their roots are embedded merely in the crevices of rocks.


In some parts, there are deep and abrupt depressions, with steep, upright sides that have in the course of ages become undermined. The Byaduk Caves are the most striking examples of this formation. Their blackened and seared sides are adorned in places with beautiful ferns and hanging plants, whilst their floors consist of fragments of broken stone varying in size from pebbles to great blocks, among 'which tree-ferns grow.

There are numerous subterranean passages, some of them 30 to 40 feet wide, and 60 to 70 feet in height, and penetrating to unknown depths. Their roofs are arched and very irregular, being composed of huge masses, which, in some cases, seem to need the application of very

little force to bring them down upon the explorer, as he gropes his way along, candle in hand. Vegetation is to be found only at the mouths of these caves and passages, where the plants get the light of day.

Chasms, open to the sky, are crossed here and there with natural

bridges of rock.

This tract of stony country is level with the surrounding ground near the Mount; but, farther away, it, for the most part, has high banks on both sides, which give it the appearance of a river bed. In its lower part, numerous mounds are found—conical masses of rough masonry on a plain of stone.

It is supposed that this band of rock was formed in the following way.

Ages ago, a stream of lava, or molten rock, issued from where Mt. Napier now stands. It flowed along boiling and bubbling, filling up hollows in its course, and becoming narrower and shallower. When the molten rock cooled, it appeared as a mass of honey-combed rock.

The action of air and water by degrees broke up its surface into large and small pieces. Caves were formed, which, with the lapse of time, have become larger. Finally, in crevices, a little soil gathered; and here seeds, carried by the wind and birds, sprouted, and grew into plants, clothing and beautifying the naked surface.

—B. N.

1. Mt. Na-pi-er (nd-pe-er), about fourteen miles j 2. Con-dah Swamp, about half way in a direct south of Hamilton.    I    line between Hamilton and Portland.

THE DYING CHRISTIAN TO HIS SOUL.

Vi-tal, living’.

Mor-tal, subject to death.

Lan-guish, faint; pass away.

Vital spark of heavenly flame !

Quit, oh quit this mortal frame ! Trembling, hoping, lingering, flying, Oh the pain, the bliss of dying ! Cease, fond nature, cease thy strife, And let me languish into life !


Ah-sorbsf swallows up ; takes possession o . Re-cedes; moves back.

Se-raph-ic, angelic.

Hark ! they whisper ; angels say, Sister spirit, come away !

What is this absorbs me quite, Steals my senses, shuts my sight, Drowns my spirits, draws my breath ? Tell me, my soul, can this be death ?


The world recedes ; it disappears !

Heaven opens on my eyes ! my ears With sounds seraphic ring :

Lend, lend your wings ! I mount ! I fly !

O Grave ! where is thy victory ?

O Death, where is thy sting ?    —Pope.

ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES : A STORY FROM THE “ARABIAN


Cassim, who heard the noise of the horses’ feet, at once guessed the arrival of the robbers, and resolved to make one effort for his life. He


Per-suad-ed, prevailed on ; induced.

Pa-tient-ly, in a calm manner.

Re-pent-ed, felt sorrow or regret.    .

Cu-ri-OS-i-ty, desire to inquire, or seek after information.

Pro-nouncedf uttered.

Dllë, that which law or custom requires to be done.

Strict-est, closest.

Se-cre-cy, care in concealing a matter.

Con-tra-ry to, against ; opposed.

In-cense, odours given off by certain spices and gums when burned.


NIGHTS ”—(continued).

Rites, acts of religion or other solemn duty.

At-t end-ants, those employed at.

Mosque, Mahometan place of worship.

Re-citedf repeated something already prepared in some way.

Pro-ces-sion, number of persons advancing in order.

La-ment-ing, bemoaning; expressing sorrow.

Lam-en-ta-tion, wailing.

Con-cealed; hidden ; kept from knowledge.

Man-age-ment, control; the work of carrying on.


rushed to the door, and no sooner saw it open than he ran out and threw the leader down ; hut he could not escape the other robbers, who, with their swords, soon slew him.

The first care of the robbers after this was to examine the cave. They found all the bags which Cassim had brought to the door to be ready to load his males, and carried them again to their places; hut they did not miss what Ali Baba had taken away before. Then, holding a meeting, they talked over the matter. They guessed that Cassim, when he was in, could not get out again; but they could not imagine how he had learned the secret words by which alone he could enter. They could not deny the fact of his being there ; and, to frighten any person who should attempt the same thing, they agreed to cut Cassim’s body into four quarters—to hang two on one side, and two on the other, within the door of the cave. They did this, and, there being nothing more to keep them, left the place well closed, and rode away.

In the meantime, Cassim’s wife was very uneasy when night came, and her husband had not returned. She ran to Ali Baba in great alarm, and said : “ I believe, brother-in-law, that you know Cassim is gone to the forest, and upon what account; it is now night, and he has not returned; I am afraid some misfortune has happened to him.” Ali Baba told her that she need not frighten herself, for that certainly Cassim would not think it proper to come home till far on into the night.

Cassim’s wife, knowing how much it concerned her husband to keep the business secret, was the more easily persuaded to believe her brother-in-law. She went home again, and waited patiently till midnight. Then her fear redoubled, and her grief was the greater because she was forced to keep it to herself. She repented of her foolish curiosity, and wished that she had never thought of prying into the affairs of her brother and sister-in-law. She spent all the night in weeping; and, as soon as it was day, she went to them, telling them, by her tears, the cause of her coming.

Ali Baba did not wait for his sister-in-law to desire him to go to see what was become of Cassim, but at once began to get ready, begging of her not to grieve so much. He went to the forest, and, when he came near the rock, having seen neither his brother nor the mules in his way, was much alarmed at finding some blood spilt near the door. When he had pronounced the word, and the door had opened, he was struck with horror at the sight of his brother's body,

He was not long in making up his mind how he should pay the last dues to his brother ; and, without thinking of the little brotherly affection Cassim had shown for him, he went into the cave to find something to enshroud his remains ; and, having loaded one of his asses with them, covered them over with wood. The other two asses he loaded with bags of gold, covering them with wood also, as before ; and then, bidding the door to shut, he came away; hut was so cautious as to stop some time at the end of the forest, that he might not go into the town before niglit. When he came home, he drove the two asses loaded with gold into his little yard, and left the care of unloading them to his wife, while he led the other to his sister-in-law’s house.

Ali Baba knocked at the door, which was opened by Morgiana, a clever, intelligent slave. When he came into the court, he unloaded the ass, and, taking Morgiana aside said to her : “ You must observe the strictest secrecy. Your master’s body is contained in these two panniers. We must bury him as if he had died a natural death. Go now and tell your mistress. I leave the matter to your wit and skill.”

Ali Baba helped to place the body in Cassim’s house, again urged Morgiana to act her part well, and then returned with his ass.

Morgiana went out early the next morning to a chemist’s, and asked for a sort of powder which was considered good for the most dangerous disorders. The chemist inquired who was ill. She replied, with a sigh, her good master, Cassim himself; and that he could neither eat nor speak.

In the evening, Morgiana went to the same chemist’s again, and, with tears in her eyes, asked for a mixture which they used to give to sick people only when at the point of death. “ Alas ! ” said she, taking it from the chemist, I am afraid this remedy will have no better effect than the powders, and that I shall lose my good master.”

On the other hand, as Ali Baba and his wife were often seen to go between Cassim’s and their own house all that day, and to seem very sad. nobody was surprised in the evening to hear sounds of mourning from Cassim’s wife and Morgiana, who gave out everywhere that her master was dead. The next morning, at daybreak, Morgiana went to an old tailor, whom she knew to be always early at his stall, and, bidding him good day, put a piece of gold into his hand saying, “ Baba Mustapha, you must bring with you your needles and thread, and come with me ; but I must tell you I shall blindfold you when you come to such a place.”

Baba Mustapha seemed to hesitate a little at these words. “ Oh ! Oh! ” replied he, “ you would have me do something against my honour ? ”    “ Oh, no,” said Morgiana, putting another piece of gold

into his hand, “ I would never ask anything that is contrary to your honour ! only come along with me, and fear nothing.”

Baba Mustapha went with Morgiana, who, after she had bound his eyes with a handkerchief at the place she had mentioned, took him to her dead master’s house, and never unloosed his eyes till he had entered the room where she had put the corpse together. “ Baba Mustapha,” said she, u you must make haste and sew the parts of this body together ; and, when you have done, I will give you another piece of gold.”

After Baba Mustapha had finished his task, she blindfolded him again, gave him the third piece of gold, as she had promised, and, urging him to say nothing to any one, carried him back to the place where she first bound his eyes, pulled off the bandage, and let him go home. She watched him till he was quite out of sight, for fear he should have the curiosity to return and follow her ; she then went home.

Morgiana, on her return, warmed some water to wash the body ; and, at the same time, Ali Baba perfumed it with incense, and wrapped it in the burying clothes with the usual rites. Hot long after, the proper officer brought the bier ; and, when the attendants of the mosque, whose business it was to wash the dead, offered to perform their duty, she told them that it had been done already. Shortly after this, the ministers of the mosque arrived. Four neighbours carried the corpse to the burying-ground, following the chief minister, who recited some prayers. Ali Baba came after with some neighbours, who took their turn in carrying the bier. Morgiana followed in the procession, weeping, beating her breast, and tearing her hair. Cassim’s wife stayed at home mourning, crying, and lamenting with the women of the neighbourhood, who came, according to custom, during the funeral, and joining their lamentations with hers, filled the quarter far and near with sounds of sorrow.

In this manner, Cassim’s death was concealed, and hushed up between Ali Baba, his widow, and Morgiana, his slave, with so much skill that nobody in the city had the least knowledge of the cause of it. Three or four days after the funeral, Ali Baba removed his few goods openly to his sister-in-law’s house, in which it was agreed that he should in future live ; but the money that he had taken from the robbers he conveyed thither by night. As for Cassim’s warehouse, as he had left no children, Ali Baba gave the management of it to his own eldest son.

[To be continued.)

THE MALLEE DISTRICT.

Mal-lee, stunted eucalyptus or “gum.”

Stunt-ed, dwarfed ; short.

Pe-cul-iar, strange ; unusual.

Com-mencedi began.

Im-pos-si-ble, not able to be done. Dif-fi-cul-ty, drawback ; obstacle.

In -ven-tion, making or construction of that which has not before existed.

Harrow, farming implement consisting of cross pieces set with teeth.


Sep-a-ra-ted, divided.

Ex-cep-tion, leaving out; omission. E-reCt-ing, putting up ; building.

Barbed, provided with barbs or points. De-fy-ing, braving ; treating with contempt the efforts of.

Ex-treme' farthest; most remote.

As-pect, look; appearance.

Anx-i^e-ty, care; uneasiness.

A-re-a, extent of surface.

Cul-ti-va-tion, tillage.


In the north-west of Victoria, lies a large extent of country overgrown with dense mallee scrub ; hence it has received the name of the Mallee District.

Some years ago, this land was considered of little value, for the stunted trees grew too close together to allow herbage or grass of any kind to flourish. Besides, owing to the peculiar formation of this scrub—several shoots springing from a large bulb-like stem—it was not possible to clear the land by the usual process of grubbing, that is, taking the trees out by the roots.

Thus it happened that this large district remained almost unsettled, and of little use, until some persons, who had had farms in similar country in South Australia, came to it. They, at once, commenced to clear the land by means of large, heavy rollers.

These rollers are usually made from the trunks of large trees. They are, as a rule, drawn by bullocks, as horses are found to be almost useless for this purpose, because they plunge and struggle when their legs get caught between the fallen scrub, which they have to walk over. Bullocks, however, go steadily, and pick their way over it.

A MALLEE SCRUB ROLLER AND HORSE TEAM.

The rolling generally takes place in the spring, so that the summer sun may dry the fallen trees. About the end of January, and during February, the dry timber is set on fire. If it is a calm, hot day, almost every stick will be burnt.

Now, it must be remembered that, although the scrub has been burnt, the bulb-like stumps, two or three inches high, remain, so that it would seem impossible to plough the ground. This difficulty has been overcome by the invention of a plough, called a “ stump-jump ” plough.

When the toe of this plough comes in contact with a stump, certain little levers work, thus causing the foot to rise, and the toe

to glide over the stump, and enter the ground on the other side. In this way, although the land is almost covered with stumps, no soil remains unploughed.


As soon as the burning is over, the ground is ploughed, and the seed sown. For the purpose of covering the seed, a peculiar hind of harrow is used, also . termed a sturnp-o jump” harrow. The o teeth of this har-uj row keep in the j soil till they touch | the stumps, when < they glide over z them in much the “ same way as the gj plough does.

£ After a short “ time, shoots grow w from the stumps, for, although the latter have been scorched by the fire, most of them continue to live for some years.

If these shoots are allowed to grow, the farmer will not be able to gather in the harvest, because they will be higher than the crop. In order that this may not happen, he cuts them down with slashers,

or shoot-cutters, which consist of a steel blade fastened to a wooden handle.

The stumps again send forth shoots, but by this time, the corn has grown ; and, when ripe, is much higher than the leaves of the shoots.

Strippers, which only strip the heads off the straw, are used to gather in the harvest. The grain is then separated from the husk, or “ cockey ” chaff, by a machine called a winnower.

When the harvesting is over, the grain, with the exception of that needed for the next year’s seed, is carted over heavy, dusty roads to the market town, often 20 or 30 miles away.

As the stumps prevent the farmer from using a reaping-machine to cut the crop, very little hay is grown, so he takes great care to save all the “ cockey ” chaff as food for the horses during the following winter. This kind of food is very dry, and not of much use, unless a quantity of bran, pollard, or oats is mixed with it.

Most of the straw, which is left standing in the field, is eaten by the stock. What they leave has to be burnt by the farmer before he can again plough the ground.

Whilst the crop was growing, the farmer was very busy in erecting sheds, rolling down more mallee, picking up and carting loose stumps and roots from the paddocks, and putting up fences. These are of the simplest kind, for they usually consist of one or two barbed wires, fastened to posts, a chain or so apart.

Dams were also made to store water for the hot summer, and autumn months, otherwise the farmer would have to leave his harvesting to cart water, sometimes a distance of 10 or 20 miles. The want of water in the Mallee District often results in great loss to the farmer.

Another thing that used to trouble the early settlers was the great rabbit plague. Millions of those animals used to live in the dense scrub, defying both men and dogs to get rid of them. After many thousands of pounds had been spent in the work, most of them disappeared, being either destroyed, or else driven farther back to the sand-hills in the extreme north-west of the colony.

The aspect of the Mallee has greatly changed since people began to settle in it. Now miles of open land may be seen where once only dense scrub existed.

Although the past two or three seasons have been very dry, thus causing the failure of the crops, and bringing much anxiety and suffering to the farmers, still the area under cultivation continues to increase. In a few years, we may safely expect the Mallee to become the chief grain-producing district in Victoria.

—W.A.W.

A BOOK LOVER’S REQUEST.

If this is borrowed by a friend, Right welcome shall he be To read, to study, not to lend, But to return to me.


Not that imparted knowledge doth Diminish learning’s store,

But books, I find, if often lent, Return to me no more.


THE BOTTLE-TREE.

Ex-Citei rouse.

Girth, measurement round.

Im-pliesi denotes; means.

Ta-per-ing, becoming- gradually thinner. Fo-li-age, leafage; leaves on a plant.

Fi-bre, threadlike substance.

Suit^a-ble, fit; adapted.

Gout-y, swollen.

Read-i-ly, quickly; freely.

Tis-sue, one of the materials of which plants or animals are composed.


Ed-i-ble, fit to be eaten as food.

Nu-tri-tiOUS, nourishing.

Var-i-e-ty, kind.

Ad-apt-ed, suited.

Av-e-nues, roads or paths.

Pal -a-ta-ble, agreeable to the taste.

Ab-O-rig^i-nes, earliest known inhabitants of a country.

Lav-ish, great; profuse.

Fi-brous, consisting of fibres or threads.


Among trees of a peculiar shape, few excite more interest than the


bottle-tree of Queensland.

As the name implies, it is bottle-shaped, increasing in girth for several feet from the ground, and then tapering towards the top. The trunk divides into two or more huge branches, bearing foliage composed of narrow, lance-shaped leaves, from four to seven inches long. The bark is rugged, and the foliage the same in old and young trees.

It sometimes grows to the height of sixty feet, and measures nearly thirty feet around the trunk. Many of of them are supposed to be thousands of years old.

This tree is not without its uses. Because its bark yields a tough fibre, suitable for making cord and nets, the natives called the bottle-tree “ Currijong a name they seem to have given to any and every plant whose bark possessed a similar quality.

The trunk is not composed of solid wood throughout like most of our trees. The inner part is soft and

BOTTLE-TREE OF QUEENSLAND    t ,    •    ,__„

(-from Great Thoughts).    spongy, and contains stores

of a sweet, gummy liquid; hence the gouty stem is often tapped by the thirsty traveller to obtain the supply of liquid which the tree so readily gives.

The inner pith-like tissue, too, may he eaten, though it is not good food. The seeds, and the tender roots and tips of the branches of young trees are also edible. The natives used the gum, which is wholesome and nutritious, as an article of diet.

BOTTLE-TREE OF VICTORIA (photographed at Geelong).


A poplar-leaved variety of the hottle-tree grows wild in the northern parts of Victoria, and may, also, he seen in some gardens in the southern parts. Like many of its tribe, it has glossy, pointed leaves which resemble those of the poplar. It is a handsome tree, well-adapted for planting in avenues, and it is as useful as it is elegant.

Its roots are quite palatable when boiled, while its seeds formed a regular article of food among the aborigines, and its leaves produce nutritious food for stock in dry seasons.

Perhaps one of the most striking among our many wonderful Australian plants, is the flame-tree, which is another member of the bottle-tree family. A flame-tree in full bloom is a sight never to be forgotten. In such rich profusion are its bright scarlet flowers borne, that, when seen at a distance, it has been compared to flame. Not only are the flowers themselves ol so rich a colour, but the flower-stalks partake of the same hue, and increase the brilliant effect. To make room for this lavish production of immense sprays of flowers, the leaves fall off, and this still farther heightens the effect. When several of these trees in bloom are seen growing together, the sight is one which is beyond description.

Owing to the appearance of its fibrous bark, the flame-tree is sometimes called the lace-bark.

—-G. H. Adcock, Flinders State School, Geelong.

HASTE NOT, REST NOT.

Mot-tO, short saying A-tonei make up for.

Ac-tion, deed.

* Sub-lime' noble.

1.    Without haste, and without rest; Bind this motto to your breast; Bear it with you as a spell1 ;

Storm or sunshine, guard it well ; Heed not flowers that round you

bloom,

Bear it onward to the tomb.

2.    Haste not—let no thoughtless deed Mar2 your spirit’s steady speed ; Ponder well and know the right, Onward then with all your might ; Haste not—years can ne’er atone For one reckless action done.


Con-quer (kon'-ker), overcome.

Glo-ri-OUS, grand.

Be-tide' befall; happen.

Con-flicts, struggles; efforts.

*

3.    Rest not—life is sweeping by,

Do and dare before you die ; Something worthy and sublime Leave behind to conquer time, Glorious ’tis to live for aye,

When these forms have passed

away.

4.    Haste not, rest not—calm in strife ; Meekly bear the storms of life ; Duty be your polar guide3

Do the right whate’er betide ;

Haste not, rest not—conflicts past, God shall crown your work at last.

—From the German of Goethe,


1. Spell, charm ; words supposed to have a magic power.    2. Mar, rain ; damage.

3. Pol-ar guide, reference to the compass, the needle of which always points to the North Pole.

TOPICS OF THE MONTH.

It will, no doubt, interest you to hear that a team selected from the teachers of New South Wales intends to visit Melbourne to play a cricket match against Victorian teachers. A committee has been formed here to make arrangements for the visit, and to pick an eleven to represent us. Its members will be chosen from various parts of the colony.

The Hon. A. J. Peacock, Minister of Public Instruction, and the officers of the Education Department have kindly granted their patronage. The match will be played on the Fitzroy Cricket Ground, on Thursday and Friday, December the 30th and 31st.

* * * * * *

At Belfast, in the north-east of Ireland, workmen are busily engaged in building what will be the largest and longest vessel that has ever been constructed. She will be launched, it is expected, in January of next year. Her length is 705 feet, depth 50 feet, and breadth at the main deck nearly 83 feet. It is intended that this vessel, which is to be named the “ Oceanic,” will run between Liverpool and New York, and it is believed that she will be able to do the trip in four days. The record up to the present time is five days four hours.

*******

It has been ascertained that the inhabitants of the British Empire write far more letters than those of any other country. The

following figures show that, during 1896, Victoria, with her one and a quarter millions of people only, contributed a good share towards this result. Oar Postal Department sold the enormous number of 70,202,584 stamps (including duty stamps), wrappers, post cards, letter cards, and stamped envelopes, and received for them £567,307 7s. 4d.

A strange visitor in the shape of* a white seal, or, more properly speaking, sea leopard, lately made its appearance on the St. Kilda beach. Seals of this colour are uncommon, even where there are thousands of these animals; still more so in Hobson’s Bay, which is far from their haunts. Years ago, these animals were plentiful on the islands in Bass Strait, but almost all of them have been killed for the sake of their fur and oil. Some, however, may still be seen on Lady Julia Percy Island, E. of Portland Bay, where they are protected. This white seal would have been a great prize for the Melbourne Aquarium ; but, unfortunately, it was killed by a blow of a hammer, wielded by a man who was at work near the place where it had come ashore. The animal measured 8 feet 7 inches from the tip of its snout to the end of its tail, and weighed between 700 and 800 pounds.

Since writing the preceding paragraph, we see from the newspapers that two other seals, very like the one that was killed, but having darker fur, have come ashore, one at Williamstown, the other at Port Melbourne. They were both caught without receiving much injury. The trustees of the Aquarium bought them, and had them placed in the seal-pond. One died, but the other is to be seen there.

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule III.—Words ending in a single accented consonant double the consonant before an English vowel-suffix, wherever this is necessary in order to preserve the vowel-sound of the accented syllable unaltered.

Short Form :—Accent on a single final consonant doubles it.

Consonant

ACCENTED.

Vowel

ACCENTED.

bar

barring

bear

bearing

bat

batting

bait

baiting

bet

betting

beat

beating

blot

blotted

bloat

bloated

drum

drummer

dream,

dreamer

mad

madden

maid

maiden

slop

sloppy

sleep

sleepy

allot

allotted

impair

impaired

Exceptions.Gas forms its plural gases.

Wool doubles the 1 in woollen, although the sound does not require it.

—Adapted from Meiklejohn’s Spelling Book.

GOD BLESS THE PRINCE OF WALES.

Brinley Richards.


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Should hostile bands or dangers    I    Above the throne of England

E’er threaten our fair isle,    |    May Fortune’s star long shine,

May God’s strong arm protect us,    I    And round her sacred bulwarks

May Heaven still on us smile.    |    The olive branches twine.

Chorus : Among our ancient mountains, &c.

This National Song is published in various forms by Robert Cocks and Co., 6 New Burlington-street W., London.

By Authority: Rost. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. I., No. 7.]    MELBOURNE.    [Dec. 1897.

ADDRESS TO THE DEITY.

Centre, middle point. Sphere, heavenly body. Quick-en-ing, life-giving.


Gra-cious, kind; merciful. Noon-tide, midday. Lus-tre, brightness.


Lord of all being, throned afar,

Thy glory flames from sun and star;

Centre and soul of every sphere,

Yet to each loving heart how dear.

Sun of our life, Thy quickening ray Sheds on our path the glow of day;

Star of our hope, Thy softened light Cheers the long watches1 of the night.

Our midnight is Thy smile withdrawn ;

Our noontide is Thy gracious dawn ;

Our rainbow arch, Thy mercy’s sign ;

All, save the clouds of sin, are Thine.

Lord of all life, below, above,

Whose light is truth, whose warmth is love, Before Thy ever-blazing throne We seek no lustre of our own.

Grant us Thy truth to make us free,

And kindly hearts that burn for Thee,

Till all Thy living altars2 claim One holy light, one heavenly flame.

1 Watch-es, portions of time.    |    2 Liv-'ing al-tars, human hearts.

—O. W. Holmes.

SANTA CLAUS.

Care^ful-ly, in a painstaking manner. Con-sultsl asks advice of.

Se-Crets, things kept from general knowledge. Im-ag-ined, formed an idea or notion of. Hos^pi-tal, place in which the sick and injured are received and treated.


Or-phan-age, place in which children who have lost their parents are cared for.

De-light ed, very pleased.

Mer-ri-er, more cheerful.

Christmas-tide, the Christian season or time of rejoicing.    .


Dear Children,—Christmas is almost here again, and with it comes your dear, old friend, Santa Claus, or Father Christmas, as some people call him. How carefully, no doubt, you are counting ’the days till he comes, and wondering what he will put in your stockino-g. Of course, not one of you ever sees him, hut your mothers and aunts know him very well indeed. He often consults them about what you would like best to find in the stockings which you hang up on Price Id.

Christmas Eve. However do mothers and sisters and aunts keep the secrets he tells them P Do you think you could ? I am afraid not.

Has any one of yon ever imagined a Christmas morning without a well-filled stocking ? What must it be like for a little girl or boy to get up on the 25th of December and find nothing at all in it ?

Oh, it must be very sad indeed ! Yet there are some poor, little children who never even hang up their stockings, and to whom Santa Claus never comes. Do you not pity them very much ?

I do, for I remember so well my delight the first time dear old Santa came to me, and crammed my tiny stocking on Christmas Eve. Never since, I think, have I been so truly happy as I was that Christmas morning, when my little sister woke me up “ to see what Santa had brought us.” Many a time since, it has given me great pleasure to assist the old gentleman in filling stockings for other little girls and boys. Perhaps you think he does not need help ; but that is a great mistake. He is always pleased to get presents for poor little ones who have no mothers and sisters to care whether they hang up their stockings or not on the night before Christmas. If any of you who read this have toys, books, or cards of which you are tired, I am sure Santa Claus would be most happy to take charge of them, and put them in the proper place on Christmas Eve, when he goes his midnight rounds.

There are many little ones at the Children’s Hospitals and the Orphanages, who would be delighted with your half-worn books and toys. I am sure that you yourselves would have a lighter heart, and a brighter and merrier Christmastide, if you tried in some little way to help “ Old Father Christmas ” to bring brightness and happiness to some of the poor, and sick, and orphaned little ones around you.

Wishing you all a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year,

I remain, sincerely yours,

Uncle Tom.

FRIENDS AND FOES IN THE GARDEN.

In-for-ma^tion, knowledge supplied.

Mos-qui-to, kind of gnat.

A£phis (a-fis, the “a” as in ale), kind of small fly ; the green-fly or plant-louse ; blight. The plural is aphides (af-i-dez).

Nat^U-ral-ist, one who studies natural history, especially the natural history of animals. De-scend^ants, offspring.

Mag-ni-fy-ing, causing objects to appear larger than they really are.

Pe-CU-li-ar, strange.

“ Ladybird ! Ladybird !

Your house is on fire, 3

sang little Frank. He had been on the lawn, when his attention insect. He held the tiny beetle


Mi -cro-scope, instrument for making an enlarged image of an object which is too small to be viewed by the naked eye.

Lib-er-al-ly, plentifully.

Apipe-tite, desire for food.

In^ter-est-ed, having the attention engaged.

Cal-i-for-ni-a, state bordering on the Pacific Ocean, south-west of the United States of America.

Or-ang-er-ies, plantations of orange trees.

Fun-gus, kind of plant. Mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, smut, and mildew are fungi ( fun-jt).

fly away home, four children are gone,”

trying in vain to stand on his head was attracted by the pretty little carefully on his hand while he


sang to it, then, tossing it gently into the air, he gave it its freedom again. His father was reading under the shade of a tree in the garden, and to him the little fellow went, as usual, for some information.

LADYBIRDS.


“ Ladybirds are ever so much nicer and prettier than mosquitoes,” he said, looking sadly at his blotched hands.

“I wonder what they feed on. Can you tell me, please, father P ”

The father put down his book, and, taking Frank and his sister Ethel, who had just joined them, to a rose-bush, he drew their attention to swarms of tiny green insects

that thickly covered its leaves and young shoots.

They do much One aphis could


“ What are these ? ” asked Frank.

“They are aphis insects,” replied his father, harm to plants. Sometimes they ruin whole crops.    _

not do much injury by itself, because it is very small, but these tiny creatures increase very fast in number. See how thickly these plants are covered with them. Naturalists tell us that a single aphis may have several millions of descendants before its short life is done.”

WINGED APHIS.*    APHIS WITH DROPS OF HONEY-DEW AT THE

ENDS OF THE TUBES.*


“ Oh! look,” cried Ethel, “ some of them nearly stand on their heads every now and then. What are they doing that for ? ”

“ They are driving their sharp beaks through the tender bark, and sucking up the sap,” said her father.

* These pictures have been adapted from an article in a recent number of The Strand Magazine entitled “The Cows that Ants milk,” by Mr. Grant Allen.

How, if Frank will run into the house and get a magnifying glass, we shall be better able to see these tiny pests. Each insect has a sharp beak. When we go in, we must examine this peculiar organ under the microscope. It is through this, as I have already said, that they suck up the juice of the plant. As this sap passes through the body of the aphis, it is changed into a sweet substance which goes by the name of  honey-dew.’ Look with this glass and you will see two tiny bristles standing out, one on either side of the insect’s back. They are really tubes through which the honey-dew is given off drop by drop. As it falls on the leaves it blocks up the little pores or breathing holes with which all leaves are s) liberally provided ; and this injures the plant still more.”

“ What are these ants doing ? ” asked Frank, pointing to some of the busy little insects that were running up and down the twigs.

“ Ants, as you know, are very fond of sweet things. They follow the aphides, and lick up the honey-dew. They even tap the tubes


gently with their horns to make them give off the s weet substance. On account of this, the aphis is sometimes called the ‘ant cow.’”

“ But you haven’t told us anything about the ladybird yet, father,” said Frank.

“Well, now I am coming to it. Do you see that strange little grub ? It is from one of the ladybird’s eggs. She always lays her eggs where aphides or similar insects are plentiful, so that there will be no lack of food for the cottony cushion scALE.~(A/ter French.) grubs when they are hatched.

This singular little creature feeds on the aphides, and a wonderful appetite it has, too. See how busy it is. How savagely it seizes and eats all it can. The perfect insect also does the same. So, you see, they are our friends, and help to keep our enemies in check.”

“ Do the ladybirds eat any other kind of insect ? ” enquired Ethel, who was deeply interested.

“ Yes,” answered her father ; “ they also greedily devour several of the numerous kinds of scale insects that cause so much damage in gardens and orchards. Some years ago, the orange growers in California were in great distress. A little scale insect was rapidly destroying their orange trees. They sent over to Australia and Hew Zealand for ladybirds, which they let loose in their orangeries, and soon they had the pest under control.

“ The same method of dealing with the scale insects has also been tried with success in Cape Colony. You will agree with me that we ought never to kill a ladybird, because it is of so much nse in onr orchards and gardens.”

“What makes this plant look so black ?” asked Frank. “It looks as if some one had covered it all over with soot. Is this the work of the aphis or of the scale insect ? ”

“ That,” said his father, “ is called the soot-fungus. It is not the work of an insect, but it is a sure sign that some of the tiny insect pests are at work on the plant. It grows on the sweet honey-dew which is given out by several insects such as aphides and scale. As soon as they are removed, the sooty substance does not long remain, as it has then nothing to live on.

“ But there is the tea hell. We must go now, and continue our talk about our tiny friends and foes at some future time.”

Geel&ßip:


—G. H. Adcock, Flinders State School,

WILLOW THE KING AND THE LEATHERY DUKE.

(A CRICKETING SONG.)

Court-iers (Jcörl'-yers), persons in attendance at the court of a prince ; attendants. Here the three wickets.    [creases.

Walls Of his cas-tle, bowling and popping


Wil-lOW, wood of which cricket bats are made.


Every day when the sun shines bright, The walls of his castle are painted white, And all the company bow their backs To the King with his collar of cobbler’s wax.

Soho ! soho ! may the courtiers sing : Honour and life to Willow the King !

Willow, King Willow, thy guard hold tight!

Trouble is coming before the night ; Hopping and galloping, short and strong, Comes the Leathery Duke along ;

And down the courtiers tumble fast


Gal-lop-ing, bounding along.

Skir-mished, waved about; hit out. Boast-ing-ly, with pride.

Baize, coarse woollen cloth.

Win-try or Win-ter-y, cold and wet.

When once the Leathery Duke gets past. Soho ! soho ! may the courtiers sing: Honour and life to Willow the King 1

“Who is this, King Willow he swore,

“ Hops like that to a gentleman’s door ?

“ Who’s afraid of a Duke like him ?

“ Fiddle-de-dee,” says the monarch slim ; W7hat do you say, my courtiers three ?” And the courtiers all said “ Fiddle-de-dee ! ”

Soho ! soho ! may the courtiers sing : Honour and life to Willow the King I

Willow the King stood forward bold, Three good feet from his castle hold ;

Willow the King stepped back so light, Skirmished gay to the left and right; But the Duke rushed by with leap and fling—

0 dear me ! ” says Willow the King. Soho ! soho ! may the courtiers sing: Honour and life to Willow the King I

Loud the crash, and sad to see ;

Right and left fall the courtiers three ! Each one lays, in his fear and dread, Down on the grass his brass- bound head; Each one kicks, as he downward goes, Up in the air his pointed toes.

Soho ! soho ! may the courtiers sing : Honour and life to Willow the King !


CROSSING THE FORD,” BY MR. J. W. CURTIS.

We reproduce this beautiful picture by the kind permission of the owner, Dr. P. Moloney, and the courtesy of the Trustees of the Melbourne Public Library, from the original in “ The Diamond Jubilee Loan Exhibition.”


But. the Leathery Duke he jumped so high,

Jumped till he almost touched the sky ; “ A fig for King Willow ! ” he boastingly said ;

“Carry this gentleman off to bed ! ”


So they put him to bed in a bag of green baize,

Where he’ll rest in peace many wintry days.

Soho ! soho ! still his courtiers sing : Honour and life to Willow the King !

—E. E. Bowen (somewhat altered).


MORAL COURAGE.

In-stinct, natural inward impulse.

Prinici-ple, settled rule of conduct. Con-cerned' had to do with.

Temp-ta-tion, something that draws one into evil.

Im-pulse, feeling.

Nec-es-sa-ry, needful.

Scenes, stage of a theatre, with its fittings,, Ac-com-pa-ny, go with.

The£a-tre, large room with stage on which plays are acted.

Quit-ted, left.

Anx-ious, full of painful unrest.

Qual-i-ty, nature.

a theatre in Bath, little Barbara


Treas-ur-er, one who has charge of collected money.

Re-ducedi brought down.

Star-va-tion, state of dying from hunger. Re-spect-ed, thought well of.

Com-ic, acting a part intended to cause mirth. Hu-mour, fun.

Ap^pe-tite, strong desire ; eagerness.

Dain-ty, nice or tasty piece of food. Spec-ta-tors, those looking on.

Re-lievedf gave ease to.

At ran^dom, without a settled plan.

Sen-si-ble, aware.

Sov-er-eign, gold coin worth twenty shillings.

At the desk of the treasurer was standing.


The parents of Barbara had been fairly well to do. The father had been a chemist in the town ; but his business, from various causes, was now reduced to nothing. They were, in fact, in the very teeth of starvation, when the manager of the theatre, who had known the father in better days, and had respected him, took little Barbara into his company.

Her slender earnings were at times almost the sole support of the family, which consisted of father, mother, two younger sisters, and herself. Oat of the little money she received on Saturday came what was required for a meal on Sunday, the only day on which they had meat.

One thing only I will mention. When once acting some child’s part in a play, she was to sup off a roast fowl. A comic actor, in the misguided humour of his part, threw over the dish such a quantity of salt, that, when Barbara crammed a portion of it into her mouth, she was obliged to reject it. What with shame at her ill-acted part, and pain of real appetite at missing such a dainty, her little heart sobbed almost to breaking. At length, a flood of tears, which the well-fed spectators were quite unable to understand, relieved her.

This was the little, starved maid who stood before old Ravenscroft, the treasurer, for her Saturday’s payment.

Ravenscroft was a man—I have heard many besides himself say— of all men the least fitted for a treasurer. He had no head for accounts, paid away at random, kept scarcely any books, and, at the week’s end, if he found himself a pound or so short, rejoiced that it was no worse.

How, Barbara’s weekly fee was half-a-sovereign. By mistake, he popped into her hand a whole one.

Barbara tripped away down the stairs.

She was quite unaware at first of the mistake ; but, when she got to the first landing-place, she became sensible of an unusual weight of metal pressing in her hand.

How, mark the struggle !

The little girl was by nature a good child. She had no instinct to evil, but then she might be said to have no fixed principle. She had heard honesty praised, but never dreamed for a moment that it had anything to do with herself. She thought of it as something which concerned grown-up people—men and women. She had never known temptation, or thought of preparing herself against it.

Her first impulse was to go back to the old treasurer, and explain to him the blunder. He was already so confused with age, that she would have had some difficulty in making him understand it.

She saw that in an instant. But oh ! it was such a bit of money ! And then the image of a larger piece of meat on their table next day came across her, till her eyes glistened, and her mouth watered.

But then Mr. Ravenscroft had always been so good-natured, and had stood her friend behind the scenes, and helped her in her little parts. But again, the old man was said to be worth a lot of money. He was supposed to have fifty pounds a year clear of the theatre !

And then came staring at her the figures of her little stockingless and shoeless sisters. She looked at her own neat stockings and shoes, which her situation at the theatre had rendered it necessary for her mother to provide, with hard straining and pinching from the family stock; and thought how glad she should be to cover their feet with the same. Then, 0 joy, they could accompany her to the theatre, which they had hitherto been hindered from doing by reason of their poor clothing !

With these thoughts she turned again to go down the stairs.

How, virtue support Barbara !

And that never-failing friend did step in ; for, at that moment, a strength not her own, I have heard her say, came to her help. She found herself back at the desk she had just quitted : and her hand slipped into the old hand of Ravenscroft, who, in silence, took back the money. He had been sitting, good man, without noting the flight of the minutes which to her had seemed anxious ages.

From that moment, a deep peace fell upon Barbara’s heart, and she knew the quality of honesty.

—Chaeles Lamb.

THE LADDER OF ST. AUGUSTINE.

Vinces, errors; evil habits.

As-Cendi climb ; mount up.

Im-pedesi stands in the way of; hinders.

Tram^pled, trod under foot.

Re-nown' fame.

Cleave, divide.

Gi-gan/tic, huge ; very high.

St. Augustine ! well hast thou said That of our vices we can frame

A ladder, if we will but tread

Beneath our feet each deed of shame.

All common things, each day’s events, That with the hour begin and end ;

Our pleasures and our discontents,

Are rounds by which we may ascend.

All thoughts of ill—all evil deeds

That have their root in thoughts of ill;

Whatever hinders, or impedes The action of the nobler will—

All these must first be trampled down Beneath our feet, if we would gain

In the bright field of fair renown The right of eminent domain.1


Up-rear; raise; lift up.

At-tainedf reached; gained.

Dis-cem; see plainly.

Des-ti-nies, fortunes; what is fixed for one. Ir-rev-o-ca-ble, cannot be recalled.

Whol-ly, completely; altogether.

Wrecks, ruins.

We have not wings, we cannot soar,

But we have feet to scale and climb By slow degrees, by more and more,

The cloudy summits of our time.

The mighty pyramids2 of stone

That wedge-like cleave the desert airs, When nearer seen, and better known, Are but gigantic flights of stairs.

The distant mountains that uprear Their frowning foreheads to the skies, Are crossed by pathways, that appear As we to higher levels rise.

The heights by great men reached and kept

Were not attained by sudden flight; But they, while their companions slept Were toiling upward in the night.


AT.T BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES: A STORY FROM THE “ARABIAN NIGHTS”—(continued).

Skil-ful, clever. Im-por£tance, consequence Treach-er-y, broken faith. Judg-ment, opinion. Com-rades, mates. Per-ceiv-ing, seeing. Af-fect-ed, assumed; put on. A-maze-ment, great wonder. Rec-Og-nise, know again. Gratri-fy, please ; satisfy.


Standing on what too long we bore With shoulders bent and downcast We may discern, unseen before, [eyes, A path to higher destinies.


Nor deem the irrevocable past As wholly wasted, wholly vain,

If rising on its wrecks, at last To something nobler we attain.3

—Longfellow (1807-1882), American poet.


1    Envhn-ent do-main' full possession.

2    Pyr-a-mids, ancient Egyptian buildings on a

square base, with triangular sides meeting in a point at the top.


“I held it truth, with him who sings To one clear harp in divers tones,

That men may rise on stepping-stones Of their dead selves to higher things.” Tennyson's In Memoriam, stanza I., verse 1.


Er-rand, message.

In-ten-tion, design; purpose. Re-joined, went again to. Sat-is-fac-tion, contentment; pleasure. Ad-dress-ing, speaking to. Sus-pi-cion, distrust; doubt. Ap-proved' Of, thought favourably of. Res-i-dence, dwelling; abode, sim-i-lar-ly, in like manner.

As-sured' declared to solemnly.

While these things were being done, the forty robbers again visited their cave in the forest. Great, then, was their surprise to find Cassim’s body taken away, with some of their bags of gold.

u We are certainly discovered,” said the captain. “ The removal of the body, and the loss of some of onr money, plainly shows that the man whom we killed had a mate ; and, for our own lives’ sake, we mnst try and find him. What say yon, my lads ? ”

All the robbers agreed with the captain.

“Well,” said the captain, “one of yon, the boldest and most skilful, mnst go into the town, dressed as a traveller and a stranger, to try if he can hear any talk of the man whom we have killed, and endeavour to find out who he was and where he lived. This is a matter of the first importance, and, for fear of any treachery, I propose that whoever undertakes this business without success, though the failure should arise only from an error of judgment, shall suffer death.” Without waiting for his companions, one of the robbers started up, and said, “ I submit to this condition, and think it an honour to expose my life to serve the troop.”

After this robber had received much praise from the captain and his comrades, he disguised himself so that nobody would take him for what he was, and went into the town just at daybreak. There he walked up and down, till, by chance, he came to Baba Mustapha’s stall, which was always open before any of the shops.

Baba Mustapha (Mus-ta-fa) was seated with a needle in his hand, just going to work. The robber bade him good day ; and, perceiving that he was old, said : “ Honest man, you begin to work very early;

is it possible that one of your age can see so well ? I question, even if it were somewhat lighter, whether you could see to stitch.”

“ You do not know me,” replied Baba Mustapha ; “ for old as I am, I have very good eyes ; and you will not doubt it, when I tell you that I sewed the body of a dead man together, in a place where I had not so much light as I have now.”

“ A dead body ! ” exclaimed the robber, with affected amazement. “Yes, yes,” answered Baba Mustapha, “I see you want to have me speak out, but you shall know no more.”

The robber felt sure that he had discovered what he sought. He pulled out a piece of gold, and, putting it into Baba Mustapha’s hand, said to him : “ I do not want to learn your secret, though I can assure you that you might safely trust me with it. The only thing I desire of you is to show me the house where you stitched up the dead body.”

“ If I were willing to do you that favour,” replied Baba Mustapha, “ I assure you I could not. I was taken to a certain place, whence I was led blindfold to the house, and afterwards brought back again in the same manner ; you see, therefore, that I cannot do what you desire.”

“ Well,” replied the robber, “you may remember a little of the way that you were led blindfold. Come, let me blind your eyes at the same place. We will walk together ; perhaps you may recognise some part ; and, as everybody ought to be paid for his trouble, there is another piece of gold for you ; gratify me in what I ask you.” So saying, he put another piece of gold into the old man’s hand.

The two pieces of gold were very tempting to Baba Mustapha. He looked at them in his hand a long time without saying a word, but, at last, he pulled out his purse and put them in. “ I cannot promise,” said he to the robber, “ that I can remember the way exactly ; but, since you desire it, I will try what I can do.”

At these words Baba Mustapha rose up, to the great joy of the robber, and led him to the place where Morgiana (Mor'-ji-d-na) had bound his eyes. “ It was here,” said Baba Mustapha, “I was blindfolded ; and I turned this way.” The robber tied his handkerchief over his eyes, and walked by him till he stopped directly at Cassim’s house, where Ali Baba then lived. The thief, before he pulled off the band, marked the door with a piece of chalk, which he had ready, and then asked him if he knew whose house that was ; to which Baba Mustapha replied that, as he did not live in the neighbourhood, he could not tell.

The robber, finding he could discover no more from Baba Mustapha, thanked him for the trouble he had taken, and left him to go back to his stall, while he himself returned to the forest, feeling that he should be very well received.

A little after the robber and Baba Mustapha had parted, Morgiana went out of Ali Baba’s house upon some errand, and, upon her return, seeing the mark the robber had made, stopped to look at it.

u What can he the meaning of this mark ? ” said she to herself; “ somebody intends my master no good ; however, with whatever intention it was done, it is well to guard against the worst.” Accordingly, she fetched a piece of chalk, and marked two or three doors on each side, in the same manner, without saying a word to her master or mistress.

In the meantime, the robber rejoined his troop in the forest, and told them of his success, dwelling upon his good fortune in meeting so soon with the only person who could inform him of what he wanted to know. All the robbers listened to him with the utmost satisfaction. Then the captain, after praising him for his cleverness, addressing himself to them all, said : “ Comrades, we have no time to lose; let us set off well armed, without its appearing who we are ; but, that we may not excite any suspicion, let only one or two go into the town together, and we will all meet at the great square. In the meantime, our comrade who brought us the good news will go with me to the house, that we may consult what had best be done.”

This speech and plan were approved of by all, and they were soon ready. They went off in parties of two each, after some interval of time, and got into the town without being in the least suspected. The captain and he who had visited the town in the morning as spy came in the last. The spy led the captain into the street where he had marked Ali Baba’s residence ; and, when they came to the first of the houses which Morgiana had marked, he pointed it out. But the captain observed that the next door was chalked in the same manner, and in the same place ; and, showing it to his guide, asked him which house it was, that or the first. The guide was so confounded that he knew not what answer to make ; but still more puzzled, when he and the captain saw five or six houses similarly marked. He assured the captain that he had marked but one, and could not tell who had chalked the rest, so that he could not distinguish the house which the tailor had stopped at.

The captain, finding that their plan had proved useless, went directly to the great square, and told his troop that they had lost their labour, and must return to their cave. He himself set them the example, and they returned as they had come.

When they were all assembled, the captain gave them the reason of their returning ; and, presently, the spy was declared by all to be worthy of death. He admitted that he ought to have taken more care, and prepared to receive the stroke from him who was appointed to cut off his head.

(To be, continued.)

No satisfactory evidence of camels existing in a wild state has ever been produced. They have, in fact, been domesticated from the earliest times.

The petrified remains of a whale eighty feet in length have been found in California a few miles from the sea.

O

oo


“BREAKING AWAY,” BY MR. J. H. SCHELTEMA.

We reproduce this attractive picture by the kind permission of the Committee of the Australian Club, and the courtesy of the Trustees of the Melbourne Public Library, from the original in “The Diamond Jubilee Loan Exhibition.”


THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.    [Deo.


HONOUR TO HINDOSTAN.

Hin-do-stan' or Hin'du-stani Persian name of i Fron-tier-hold' fort on the border of a country. India.    I Weal, welfare; prosperity.

SEPTEMBER, 1897.1 Wherever there floats the Empire Flag,

Let the story he told and told Of the courage of men, who made no brag,

But died in their frontier-hold!

Hied for a Queen they had never seen,

For an Empress who reigned afar;

Hied for the glory of what had been,

And the honour of India’s Star;2 Put down their lives for the common weal That makes all our Empire one,

And gives us the silent pride we feel When we speak of the unset sun.

Wherever there floats the Empire Flag,

On continent, island, or sea,

Let the story be told of the frontier-hold That was kept, and ever will be,

By the men—-what matter if brown or black?—

Who could die for the rag called the Union Jack!

'    —London Punch.

1    Fór the past three months, a fierce fight has been waged by some of our Indian forces against the rebellious tribesmen on the north-west boundary of Hindostán. The following brief extracts from cablegrams received in Victoria will give an idea of what prompted these spirited verses:—

A force of 1,000 tribesmen has stormed the Saragari post. Twenty-one men of the 30th regiment (Sikh) Bengal Infantry defended the post with great heroism for six hours, every one of them being killed. One man alone defended the guardroom singlehanded, and was at length burnt to death where he stood, after he had killed 20 of his assailants.

The Anglo-Indian troops stormed the position of the tribesmen in the Gogra hills in the most brilliant manner.

2    India’s coat of arms consists of a star.


WHY WE SHOULD HONOUR OUR NATIONAL FLAG.

A few months ago, the Earl and Countess of Jersey opened a large school for boys near London. Lady Jersey, on rising to unfurl the National Flag (which is to be displayed in the school on all national


Na-tion-al, of or belonging to a race or people. En-deav-our, try.

Sym-bol, sign; type.

Pa-tron (pa-trun), guardian; protecting. De-scent( birth; extraction.

Tra-di-tion, tale or account handed down from ancient times without, in the first place, the aid of writing.

Per-pet-U-ate, cause to endure or last. For-eign-er, one who belongs to another nation.


Cen-tu-ry, period of a hundred years. Tra-fal-gar, cape and bay south-west of Spain. Scene of a naval battle.

Wa:ter-loo; battlefield nine miles south-east of Brussels, the capital of Belgium.

Spheres, stations; occupations.

Reg-i-ment, body of men. A regiment is commanded by a colonel, and usually consists of ten companies.

Tri-um-phant, victorious.


occasions), was received with loud applause. The following is a portion of her speech :—

“ I have never yet known a hoy or girl, and I have known a great many, who did not like to have to do with a flag; and I only wish I could ask one of the boys to unfurl this flag, for I am sure he would do it much better than I can. But all of us have to obey orders, and, as I am told that I am the one who must unfurl the flag, I will endeavour to do my best. I am glad to see that you cheer that flag, because you know that it is your flag, and must be to you, as it is to us all, a memory, a symbol, and a hope.

CROSS OF ST. GEORGE. CROSS OF ST. ANDREW. CROSS OF ST. PATRICK. FIRST UNION FLAG. TIIE UNION JACK.

FLAGS.

“ You know, boys, that it is a memory ; and it is a memory that dates back many, many years. You see that red cross in the middle. That straight one is the Cross of the patron Saint of England, St. George. You all know his story, how he went out, and how he caught and killed the dragon, and brought home in triumph the Princess whom he rescued.

“ You see, also, behind that cross the white cross. That is the Cross of St. Andrew, the patron Saint of Scotland. If there are any Scotch boys, or boys of Scottish descent here, I am sure that they will all be proud of that white cross, which is the symbol of him who was faithful unto death.

“The slanting red cross which comes next is the Cross of St. Patrick, the patron Saint of Ireland, and will be of interest to Irish boys. They will be proud of that cross, because it was the cross, old and dear, which was carried and brought to others the good news of the Gospel of Christ. If the tradition be true, St. Patrick rid his land of all snakes and serpents, so that they could no longer waste his country.

“ When you read of these crosses, you will know that they perpetuate the memory of men whom you will be proud to imitate ; and the flag will be the symbol to you of your united country—of your country, not only in these little islands, but far away, wherever Englishmen, Scotchmen, Irishmen, and Welshmen have gone. We need fear no foe at home or abroad wdiile it remains united; no foreigner, whether in the arts of peace or in the arts of wrar, can ever make us waver while a common flag flies above us.

“ It has been said to you just now that this is a century in which you ought to be grateful to have been born ; a century in which that united cross has been carried farther than it ever was before. It has floated above the cannons of Trafalgar, when they raised the echoes of the Spanish seas ; it has passed over the well-won field of Waterloo ;

and the armies of England have gone through Africa and other parts of the world, carrying with them the Union Jack.

“ Well, boys, that flag is the symbol of our union, and it is also for you the symbol of hope. The present century is drawing to a close, and very soon another century will dawn upon us, and you hoys will be the men of England. If you do your duty now, not only by winning your cricket and football matches, and gaining your school prizes, but in the varied spheres of your lives, then we can hope that you will form one regiment in that great army which, in war and in peace, will make our England triumphant in the future as it has been in the past.”

-The Educational Record.

NEWS AND NOTES.

There was an ancient custom for young people to go about on New Year’s Eve with a Wassail Bowl of spiced ale, and sing verses from door to door. “Wassail” is derived from the Anglo-Saxon “wees hml,” he in good health. They accepted little presents on the occasion from the people upon whom they called to offer their annual congratulations and good wishes.

# * # # # *

“ As people,” says an old writer, “ are always very careful to end the old year well, so they are no less anxious to make a good beginning of the new one. The old one is ended with drinking large draughts of liquor. The new one is opened with the sending of presents, which are termed New Year’s Gifts, to friends and acquaintances.”

The former custom is happily dying out. The latter still exists, and good reasons may be given why it should do so.

We rejoice with our friends after having escaped the dangers that attend every year, and wish one another a continuance of happiness and prosperity.

Concerning the giving of New Year’s gifts an old writer remarks:— “ The value of the thing given, or, if it is a thing of small worth, its novelty, or the excellence of the work, and the place where it is given, make it more acceptable; but, above all, the time of giving it, which makes some presents pass for a mark of good-will at the beginning of the year, that would appear unsuitable at any other season.”

* * * * * *

Twelfth Day—the twelfth from Christmas Day—used to be considered the last of the holidays, and was kept up with much zest.

A Mr. Beckwith, writing in a magazine about a hundred years ago, states that “ near Leeds, in Yorkshire, when he was a boy, it was usual for many families, on the Twelfth Eve of Christmas, to invite their relatives, friends, and neighbours to their houses to play at games, and to partake of a supper, at which mince pies were always a principal dish. After supper, the Wassail Bowl was brought in. Out of it, every one drank to the health of the company, wishing all a merry Christmas and a happy New Year.”

* # *    *

You all noticed, no doubt, the Yukon River on the map of Nansen’s route given in the October number of The School Paper—Class IV, Nansen’s journey did not take him near this river, but it was marked on the map so that you might note its position, which is of interest to many at the present time. During the past few months, accounts of the Klondyke gold-field in British Columbia, on the Yukon River, have appeared in the newspapers far and wide. The field is said to be wonderfully rich, but, as it is situated a long distance north of the equator, the weather in winter is terribly cold. The country is very rugged, and travelling through it is attended with much danger, and, indeed, cannot be undertaken in winter. In spite of these drawbacks, however, so great is the desire to become rich, that half a million persons, it is said, will leave the United States for the Yukon early in spring. The Canadian Government advise people to take food for at least twelve months, for no amount of money can buy provisions in some of the places that the gold-seekers are trying to reach.

It was recently reported that a gold-field has been discovered in Alaska similar in richness to the Klondyke field in British Columbia.

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule IY.—Words ending in a single consonant, but not accented On the last Syllable, do not double the consonant when added to, because the vowel-sound remains of itself unaltered.

Short Form :—Unaccented final consonant is not doubled.

alter

beggar

garden

murmur

quiet


altering

beggary

gardener

murmuring

quieter


benefit

develop

minister

revisit

surrender


Exceptions.—Worship makes worshipped, worshipper.


benefited

developed

ministering

revisited

surrendered

worshipping,


Bias makes biassed and unbiassed.


Adapted from Meiklejoiin’s Spelling Book.

He prayeth well, who loveth well Both man, and bird, and beast.

He prayeth best, who loveth best All things both great and small ;

For the dear God who loveth us,

He made and loveth all.    —Coleridge.

By Authority: Kobt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. L, No. 8.]    MELBOURNE.    [Feb. 1898.

THE RULE OF GOD.

Can'o-py, covering overhead.

An-guish, keen grief.

Re^maini continue to be.

Lab-y-rinth, place full of winding passages; maze.

Is-sue out, have its end.

Di-vers, many.

I say to thee—Do thou repeat To the first man thou mayest meet,

In lane, highway, or open street,

That he, and we, and all men move Under a canopy of love,

As broad as the blue sky above;

That doubt and trouble, fear and pain,

And anguish, all are shadows vain,

That death itself shall not remain :

That weary deserts we may tread,

A dreary labyrinth may thread,

Through dark ways underground be led ;

Yet, if we will one Guide obey,

The dreariest path, the darkest way Shall issue out in heavenly day ;


Per-il-OUS, dangerous.

Per-fect, complete.

Be-lievef feel sure.

Fore-go' or for-gof give up ; quit. De-spite' of, in spite of.

Rife, plentiful; abounding.

And we, on divers shores now cast, Shall meet, our perilous voyage past, All in our Father’s house at last.

And, ere thou leave him, say thou this : Yet one word more—They only miss The winning of that perfect bliss,

Who will not count it true, that love— Blessing, not cursing—rules above ;

And that in it we live and move.

And one thing further make him know : That to believe these things are so,

This firm faith never to forego —

Despite of all that seems at strife With blessing, all with curses rife,— That this is blessing, this is life.

—Archbishop Trench.


THE CULTIVATION OF SUGAR, BEET.

Com-pan-ion, mate ; associate. Cul-ti-va'tion, production by tillage. In-for-ma-tion, knowledge given by others. Ex-tract-ing, drawing or pressing out. A-bun-dant-ly, plentifully ; in large measure. Se-lect-ed, chosen.


In-dus-try, business that requires labour and capital.

Thor-OUgh-ly, fully ; in a complete manner. In-ter-rupt-ed, broke in.

Man-u-fac-tur-ing, making wares or other products.

“ Fred, do you know anything about sugar beet ? ” said Harry to his companion. “ Father has promised my brother Jack and myself a present, if, at the end of this month, we hand him a good essay on the cultivation of sugar beet.”

“ No, Harry, I really know nothing about it beyond what I have read, and that isn’t much. I have learnt that it is cultivated in large quantities in Germany and France. But here comes Willie Martin, who has just returned from a visit to Maffra, where, I think, the work of growing the sugar beet has been commenced on a large scale. He

Price Id.


is one who doesn’t go abont with his eyes shut; and, if he can’t give you the information you want, I am very much mistaken.”

Willie had hardly reached the pair, before Fred asked him to give them an account of his late visit. Being as ready to impart information as he is anxious to obtain it, he at once began.

“Well, Maffra, as you perhaps know, is near Sale, in Gippsland, and about 130 miles east of Melbourne. After I had got out of the train, one of the first things to strike my attention was an immense building, that is being erected for the purpose of crushing beets, and extracting the juice, which yields sugar abundantly.

“ I was told that one hundred tons would give from twelve to eighteen tons of pure sugar; and that the machinery that is being erected at the Maffra factory will be capable of crushing three hundred tons of beets a day.

“ You must understand that the sugar beet is white—not red like that sold as a vegetable for the table.”

“ Why has Maffra been selected as a site for such large works ? ” asked Harry.

CROP OF SUGAR BEET WITH THE MAFFRA FACTORY IN THE DISTANCE.


“Well,” explained Willie, “ simply because it is necessary to have very good soil, a cool climate, and plenty of moisture for the growth of the beet; and Maffra is possessed of these. There is little doubt, however, that, in the course of time, the industry will be carried on in other parts of Victoria.”

“The best soil for the growth of the root,” continued Willie, “is a deep, black loam. The ground must be thoroughly prepared for the seed by ploughing, harrowing, and rolling till it is quite smooth and friable.

Then, about the middle of September, the little, rough seeds, nearly the size of a small pea, are sown by means of a strange-looking machine, at the rate of ten or eleven pounds to the acre, in drills or rows about fourteen inches apart.

“Eight or nine days afterwards, two little green blades, which spring from each seed, peep above the ground. When about two inches high, the plants are thinned out, till they stand seven inches apart. Boys are usually employed at this work, and receive a weekly wage of fifteen shillings, without board and lodging.

“ The soil is kept quite free from weeds ; and, in the month of April, the roots are large enough to be taken from the ground. The largest roots are not the best, as they do not yield so much sugar as those of moderate size. They are carefully dug out with a fork, and, when the leaves have been cut off, are carted to the factory to be crushed.”

u How interesting it must be to watch the machinery at work crushing the juice out of the beets ! ” interrupted Harry.

“ Yes,” replied Willie, “ it is ; and, as I expect to get another trip to Maffra soon, I hope I may have a chance of seeing the factory in full swing.

“ By the way, I have a photograph at home of a block of land under sugar beet, with a view of the factory in the distance. I shall be glad to show it to you at any time you may call.

“ I should have told you that the farmers expect to obtain from sixteen to eighteen tons of beets to the acre. As the roots will probably be worth sixteen shillings a ton, you can see that, after paying expenses, there will be a good balance on the right side.”

“ Hark ! ” exclaimed Harry, “ there’s the school bell, so we must be off. Don’t forget if you do go to Maffra, that we should much like an account of the work of crushing the beets, and manufacturing sugar from the juice. At any rate, thanks to you, I shall now be able, I hope, to turn out a fair essay on the cultivation of sugar beet.”

—E. J., Maffra State School.

RAIN IN SUMMER,

Neigh-bour-ing, lying near ; adjacent. Wont-ed (wimt-ed), usual.

Com-mo-tion, stir; disturbance.

Mim-ic, imitating on a small scale. Treach-er-ous, deceiving.

In-gulfs" or en-gulfs; swallows up. Tar-bu-lent, disturbed; in violent commotion.


Leopard, spotted animal of the cat kind. En-cum-bered, laden.

Di-lat-ed, widely opened.

In-hale; breathe in.

Clo-ver-scent-ed, smelling of clover. Lus-trous, shining.

In-ces-sant, continual; unceasing.


H ow beautiful is the rain ! After the dust and heat,

In the broad and fiery street, In the narrow lane,

How beautiful is the rain !


How it clatters along the roofs,

Like the tramp of hoofs !

spout!


How it gushes and struggles out From the throat of the overflowing

Across the window-pane It pours and pours ;

And swift and wide,

With a muddy tide,

Like a river down the gutter roars The rain, the welcome rain !

From the neighbouring school Come the boys,

With more than their wonted noise And commotion;

And down the wet streets Sail their mimic fleets,

Till the treacherous pool Ingulfs them in its whirling And turbulent ocean.

In the country, on every side,

Where far and wide,

Like a leopard’s tawny and spotted hide, Stretches the plain,

To the dry grass and the drier grain, How welcome is the rain !


In the furrowed land

The toilsome and patient oxen stand ;

Lifting the yoke-encumbered head,

With their dilated nostrils spread

They silently inhale

The clover-scented gale,

And the vapours that arise

From the well-watered and smoky soil.

For this rest in the furrow after toil,

Their large and lustrous eyes

Seem to thank the Lord,

More than man’s spoken word.

Near at hand,

From under the sheltering trees,

The farmer sees

His pastures, and his fields of grain,

As they bend their tops

To the numberless beating drops

Of the incessant rain.

He counts it as no sin That he sees therein Only his own thrift and gain.

—H. W. Longfellow.


WONDERFUL CONTRIVANCES IN OUR BODIES.

Con-tri-vances, devices; arrangements. Con-struct-or, one who makes.

Mus-Cle. organ of the body, which, by its contraction, produces motion.

Suf-fi-Cient, enough.

En-cum-ber, load; oppress.

Nec-es-sa-ry, such as must he; needful. De-vice; means of doing ; contrivance. Vi-bra^tion, quick motion to and fro.


In-flamed; thrown into a heated and swollen state.

Ep-i-glot-tis, kind of lid that closes the glottis or entrance to the windpipe.

Sac, cavity, or bag usually containing fluid. Reg-U-la-ted, arranged so as to work according to rule.

Mi-crobes, exceedingly small creatures.


Onr bodies are constructed with wonderful skill, yet few j>eople seem to be aware of the fact.

The Muscles that move the Eye.

1, Eye-ball; 2, Pulley and Tendon.


Who would think that, connected with the eye-ball, there is a block with a pulley, as complete as those with which the mainsails of a ship are hoisted? There is, however, and whenever we look at the tip of our noses, the muscle that moves our eyeballs works over a pulley. In other parts of the body, also, there are pulleys.

Nature like a good constructor always uses the smallest quantity of material sufficient for strength. In making the bones of the face, she had to provide a large surface, to which to attach the muscles ; but, as she did not wish to encumber us with heavy heads, she bored hundreds of little holes, called air cells, in the bones, and thus, while maintaining the necessary strength, secured large surface, and lightness.

For the same reason, she made the long bones of the legs and arms hollow in the middle. This is a great saving, for a hollow shaft of hone, or iron, or, in fact, any other substance, is about twice as strong as a solid shaft containing the same quantity of material.

Upper portion of Femur or Thigh Bone.


We may be reminded, when we get a severe cold,

of the presence of another cunning device — the Eustachian (u-sta -ki-on) tube. This tube is two inches long, and passes from the inside of the ear to the back of the mouth. It was put there to keep the air at the same pressure the pressures were not


Diagram of Ear.

1, Eustachian Tube ; 2, Tympanic membrane or drum.

If

Opening of Eustachian Tube.

Uvula.

Epiglottis. '

Body of Vertebra. Intervertebral Pad.

Trachea or Windpipe., Section of Mouth,


inside the drum of the ear as it is outside, the same, there would be no vibration of the drum, and the result would be a state of total deafness.

When we get a had cold, this tube sometimes becomes inflamed and blocked, and we become deaf.

Most people know the use of the epiglottis, which saves us from the danger of death every time we swallow a piece of food. At the back of the mouth, the air passage and the food passage cross one another.

(Esophagus or Gullet. Nose, &c.—1, Glottis.


Whenever we are swallowing food, it would for certain go into the windpipe and choke us, only

that the epiglottis shuts down like a trap-door and covers the entrance.

Again, the heart and lungs are the very seat of life. They are in constant motion ; and, if allowed to rub against the walls of the chest in which they are contained, would become inflamed, or wear away. To prevent such results, Nature has surrounded them with a double sac ; and, between the outer and inner layers of it, she has placed a quantity of fluid which secures smooth working .

Another safeguard from danger is afforded us by the supply of a small quantity of hydrochloric (hy-dro-chlor-ic) acid to the stomach. There are in the stomach little contrivances that make this acid from the salt we eat. They are so regulated that they produce a quantity of acid equal to one-fifth of one per cent, (that is, one five-hundredth) of the contents of the stomach. Experiment shows that this is exactly the quantity required to destroy the microbes which we swallow in thousands in our food. But for this provision of nature we should probably catch a disease of one kind or another at every meal.

—Adapted from a reprint in The Southern Cross.

ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES: A STORY FROM THE “ ARABIAN NIGHTS "—(continued).

Suc-ceed, be successful.

Of-fered, put forward; presented. Pre-cau-tion, previous care. Dis-tin-guish-ing, separating from by marks. Dif-fi-cul-ty, trouble; perplexity. Dis-satris-fied, not contented ; discontented. Pur-SU-ing, following up.

Com-rades, mates ; companions


Ex-e-CU-tion, the act of doing; performan ce. Ap-proved' of, thought well or favourably of. Hos-pi-tal-i-ty, receiving strangers or guests. Sus-pi-cion, mistrust; doubt.

Nat-U-ral-ly, of course; as was to be expected. Ad-mit-ted, allowed to enter.

Sti-fle, choke; suffocate Ex-e-CU-ted, carried out; performed.


But, as the safety of the troop required the discovery of the second intruder into the cave, another of the gang, who thought that he would succeed better, offered himself, and his offer was accepted. He went and gave Baba Mustapha (Mus'-ta-fa*) money as the other had done ; and, being shown the house, marked it with red chalk in a place more remote from sight.

Not long after, Morgiana, whose eyes nothing could escape, went out, and seeing the red chalk marks, again marked the neighbours’ houses in the same place and manner.

The robber, on his return to the company, prided himself much on the precaution he had taken, which he looked upon as a sure way of distinguishing Ali Baba’s house from the others ; and the captain and all of them thought it must succeed. They proceeded to the town ; but, when the robber and his captain came to the street, they found the same difficulty as before ; at which the captain was enraged, and the robber as much puzzled as the first had been.

Thus the captain and his troop were forced to retire a second time, and much more dissatisfied ; while the robber who had been the author of the mistake suffered the same punishment as his comrade.

The captain, having lost two brave fellows of his troop, was afraid of lessening it too much by pursuing this plan to get information of the home of their plunderer. He found by their actions that their heads were not so good as their hands on such occasions ; and, therefore, he resolved to take upon himself the task.

Accordingly, he went and spoke to Baba Mustapha, who did him the same service as he had done for the other robbers. The captain did not set any mark on the house, but examined and observed it so carefully, by passing often before it, that it was impossible for him to mistake it.

The captain, well satisfied with what he had done, and knowing what he wanted, returned to the forest. When he came into the cave where the troop waited for him, he said:—“ Now, comrades, nothing can prevent our full revenge, as I am certain of the house ; and, on my way hither, I have thought how to put it into execution ; but, if any one can form a better plan, let him speak.” He then told them his plan ; and, as they approved of it, he ordered them to go into the villages around, and buy nineteen mules, with thirty-eight large leather jars, one full of oil and the others empty.

In two or three days’ time, the robbers had purchased the mules and jars; and, as the mouths of the jars were rather too narrow for his purpose, the captain caused them to be widened. He then put one of his men into each, with the weapons which he thought fit, and, leaving open the seam which had been undone, to let the air enter freely, he rubbed the jars on the outside with oil from the full vessel.

Things being thus prepared, when the nineteen mules were loaded with thirty-seven robbers in jars, and the jar of oil, the captain, as their driver, set out with them, and reached the town by the dusk of the evening, as he had planned. He led them through the streets till he came to Ali Baba’s house, at whose door he intended to knock; but was prevented by seeing Ali Baba sitting there after supper to take a little fresh air. The captain stopped his mules, and said to Ali Baba :—1“ I have brought some oil a great way to sell at to-morrow’s market ; and it is now so late that I do not know where to lodge. If I should not be troublesome to you, do me the favour to let me pass the night with you, and I shall be very much obliged by your hospitality.”

Though Ali Baba had seen the captain of the robbers in the forest, and had heard him speak, he did not know him in the disguise of an oil merchant. He told him that he was welcome, and, at once, opened his gates for the mules to go into the yard. At the same time, he called for a slave, and ordered him, when the mules were unloaded, to put them into the stable and to feed them. He then went to Morgiana to bid her get a good supper for his guest. After they had finished supper, Ali Baba, charging Morgiana afresh to take care of his guest, said to her “ To-morrow morning, I intend to go to the bath before daylight ; take care my bathing linen is ready ; give them to Abdalla (which was the slave’s name), and make me some good broth against my return.” After this, he went to bed.

In the meantime, the captain of the robbers went into the yard, took off the lid of each jar, and gave his people orders what to do-Beginning at the first jar, and so on to the last, he said to each man : —“ As soon as I throw some stones out of the chamber window where I lie, do not fail to come out, and I will at once join you.” After this, he returned to the house, when Morgiana, taking up a light, conducted him to his chamber, where she left him ; and he, to avoid any suspicion, put the light out soon after, and laid himself down in his clothes, that he might be the more ready to rise.

Morgiana, remembering Ali Baba’s orders, got his bathing linen ready, and ordered Abdalla to set on the pot for the broth ; but, while she was preparing it, the lamp went out, and there was no more oil in the house, nor any candles. What to do she did not know, for the broth must be made. Abdalla, seeing her very uneasy, said, “ Do not fret and tease yourself, but go into the yard and take some oil out of one of the jars.”

Morgiana thanked Abdalla for his advice, took the oil pot, and went into the yard; when, as she came near the first jar, the robber within said softly, “ Is it time ? ”

Though naturally much surprised at finding a man in the jar instead of the oil she wanted, she with much presence of mind kept silence for a few moments, as Ali Baba, his family, and herself were in great danger ; then collecting her thoughts, she answered, “ Hot yet, but presently.” She went quietly in this manner to all the jars, giving the same answer, till she came to the jar of oil.

By this means Morgiana found that her master, Ali Baba, had admitted thirty-eight robbers into his house, and that this pretended oil merchant was their captain. She made what haste she could to fill her oil pot, and returned into the kitchen. As soon as she had lighted her lamp, she took a great kettle, went again to the oil jar, filled the kettle, set it on a large wood fire, and, as soon as it had boiled, went and poured enough oil into every jar to stifle the robber within.

When this action, worthy of the courage of Morgiana, was executed without any noise, she returned into the kitchen with the empty kettle. Having put out the great fire she had made to boil the oil, but leaving just enough to make the broth, she put out the lamp also, and remained silent, resolving not to go to rest till she had observed what might follow. To do this she took up her position at a window of the kitchen, which opened into the yard.

She had not waited long before the captain of the robbers got up, opened the window, and, finding no light, and hearing no noise nor any one stirring in the house, gave the appointed signal, by throwing little stones, several of which hit the jars, as he doubted not by the sound they gave. He then listened, but, not hearing or seeing anything whereby he could judge that his companions stirred, he began to grow very uneasy, threw stones a second, and also a third time, and could not understand why none of them answered his signal. Much alarmed, he went softly down into the yard, and, going to the first jar, whilst asking the robber, whom he thought alive, if he was in readiness, he smelt the hot, boiled oil, which sent forth a steam out of the jar. Hence he suspected that his plot to murder Ali Baba and plunder his house was discovered. Examining all the jars one after another, he found that all his gang were dead ; and, enraged at having failed in his design, he forced the lock of a door that led from the yard to the garden, and, climbing over the walls, made his escape.

When Ali Baba was informed of the great services Morgiana had rendered him, he freed her at once from slavery, and arranged, shortly afterwards, for her marriage to his son.

THE HOLLY TREE.

Con-tem-platas, views with attention. Per-ceivesf sees.

In-tel-li-gence, understanding.

Con-found; overthrow; rebut.

A-the-ist, one who denies the existence of God.


Soph-ist-ries, false reasoning or arguments. Mor-al-ise, draw lessons from.

Em-blems, visible signs.

Aus-tere; stern ; severe.

Lei-sure, time free from employment. As-per-i-ties, harsh words and ways.


0    reader ! hast thou ever stood to see

The holly tree ?

The eye that contemplates it well perceives Its glossy leaves,

Ordered by an intelligence so wise As might confound the Atheist’s sophistries.

Below, a circling fence, its leaves are seen Wrinkled and keen;

No grazing cattle through their prickly round Can reach to wound ;

But, as they grow where nothing is to fear,

Smooth and unarmed the pointless leaves appear.

1    love to view these things with curious eyes,

And moralise :

And in this wisdom of the holly tree Can emblems see

Wherewith, perchance, to make a plea,sant rhyme, One which may profit in the after-time.

Thus, though abroad, perchance, I might appear Harsh and austere;

To those who on my leisure would intrude, Reserved and rude;

Gentle at home amid my friends I’d be Like the high leaves upon the holly tree.

And should my youth, as youth is apt I know, ¡Some harshness show,

All vain asperities I, day by day,

Would wear away,

Till the smooth temper of my age should be Like the high leaves upon the holly tree.

And, as, when all the summer trees are seen So bright and green,

The holly leaves a sober hue display Less bright than they ;

But when the bare and wintry woods we see, What then so cheerful as the holly tree ?

So serious should my youth appear among The thoughtless throng;

So would I seem, amid the young and gay, More grave than they ;

That, in my age, as cheerful I might be As the green winter of the holly tree.

—Southey.

THE MURRAY RIVER, ABOUT HALF-WAY BETWEEN ECHUCA AND SWAN HILL.

Ad-ja-cent, lying near; neighbouring.

Ex-tendi stretch out.

Ed-dies, currents of water running backwards, or in a circular direction.

A-bun-dant, plentiful.

Vi-Cin-i-ty, neighbourhood; places near. La-goon; shallow lake.

Dis-turbed; roused up; molested.

De-fi-ant, ready to fight.


Ne<Ses-sa-ry, needful ; that should he done.

An-gling, fishing with hook and line.

Dis-trict, portion of a country ; region.

Ga-lah; aboriginal name for the rose-breasted cockatoo. It-has a white head, a slate-coloured back, and pink under-parts.

De-struc^tive, causing havoc or ruin ; ruinous.

Ther-mom-e-ter, instrument for measuring temperature.


The Murray River, about half-way between Echuca and Swan Hill, is a smooth, shining sheet of water, which presents a fine sight when high, as it hurries rapidly along, filling its channel to the very top of its banks.

Here and there, it overflows them, and spreads in shallow sheets of water over the adjacent level ground, forming large swamps which sometimes extend for a couple of miles out on the plain.

When it is confined to its channel, it looks like a wide, smooth, shining roadway hemmed in on both sides by giant red gums, which grow very thickly together. When full, it is about 100 yards wide, and often 40 feet deep ; and when low, about 80 yards wide.

At one place, as the river moves onward between its thickly-wooded banks, it makes a sharp bend, and comes almost straight back. Then another bend is made, and the great mass of water struggles forward, twisting and turning in eddies and gurgling whirlpools.

Near this point, also, its waters divide into two channels, forming, on the New South Wales side, an island, called Campbell’s Island, which is about two miles long, flat, and thickly covered with red gums, underwood, and reeds.

On both sides of the river, there is a belt of red-gum timber, a couple of miles wide. This marks the line to which the flood waters

STEAMER AND BARGE ON THE MURRAY RIVER.


used to spread, before the river was banked in. We know this, because the red gum is very fond of water, and will flourish only where it is abundant.

It is here that the deadly tiger snake makes its home. It rarely leaves the vicinity of a river or lagoon, for it loves the water, in which it swims almost as easily as an eel. As it rarely runs ont of the way when disturbed, hut lies defiant, with its head slightly raised, and its neck flattened out ready to strike, it is necessary to keep a sharp look-out lest you tread on one and get bitten.

Cod, bream, and catfish inhabit the waters of the Murray. The cod vary from an ounce to a hundred pounds in weight. Any one fond of angling may be sure of excellent sport, though only when the river is falling, for that is when they bite.

The district abounds in game, waterfowl of all kinds being numerous, as well as turkeys, galahs, cockatoos, native companions, and emus. Birds are so plentiful as to be very destructive to the crops.

There are wild pigs also on the banks of the Murray, chiefly on the New South Wales side. These provide good sport for bold huntsmen, who follow them on horseback with rifles through the thick undergrowth and tall reeds, often over marshy ground. The boars are very fierce, and, when attacked, will charge boldly.

The climate in these parts is hot in summer, and the air is as a rule dry. The thermometer sometimes shows 116 degrees in the shade. In winter, mild' and pleasant weather is the rule.

—J. T. Sadlek.

THE SEWER DISASTER AT SOUTH YARRA.

Her-O-ism, bravery with unselfishness. Com-rades, mates.

Oc-curred' took place.

Im-pos-si-ble, not able to be done. Es-teemedf regarded; reckoned. Dis-played' shown.

In-spir-ing, giving spirit or courage to.


Hid-e-OUS, dreadful; hateful.

Sew-er, underground drain or passage to carry off water and filth.

Sur-viv-or, one who outlives an event, or another person.

Stench, had smell.

Lock, contrivance separating one part of the workings from another part.

By people in Melbourne the Christmas of 1897 will long be remembered with a shudder. Not only did great heat change the season of joy into one of discomfort, but death in one of its most hideous forms came up out of its darkness and claimed four brave men at their post of duty. A blast of sewer gas struck them in the face, and caused them to fall over each other limp and helpless, to die a horrible death, unless some brave hand should drag them into safety.

On reading the accounts of the sad event, one’s first thought must be—the pity of it. The risk run was needless. The presence of deadly sewer gas in the tunnel was known, and the men were warned against

it. But those who live in the presence of danger come to underrate the risk they run. A few days before, there had been some tools left behind in the tunnel, and it appeared a simple thing for four men to go and bring them away. The poor fellows thought that, if the bad air grew too strong, they could at once turn back. They were clearly not aware of the nature of their terrible foe. A little knowledge would have saved their lives.

The account given by the survivor of the first four men who went down is as follows :—

44 I had just begun to notice an awful stench, when Chris, said in a choking kind of voice, 4 Mates, I’ve had enough of this.’ He turned to clear out, but had moved only a step or two when he fell. Then poor Harry Porter looked at me, turned towards the lock, and dropped like a stone. We must have been nearly 800 feet in. Jim Stevens said,

4 Mick, mate, we must get them out of this.’ So I picked Harry up, and Jim fastened on to Chris., when, suddenly, I felt a fearful pain grip me round the lower part of the back, and down I dropped, letting poor Harry go.”

There is a world of heroism in those few words, 44 Mick, mate, we must get them out of this.” Their first thought was not retreat—not to save their own lives, but to assist their mates.

The men tried to drag their fallen comrades into a place of safety, but failed ; and had to crawl along the tunnel for 300 feet before they could get a breath of pure air to partly restore themselves. One then went up for help, and the other promised to remain quietly below till it came. Then followed an act of heroism equal to the most brilliant that ever occurred on the battlefield.

The man whose first thought had been to 44 get them out of this,” did not wait for help to come. He crept back into those jaws of death, and made another effort to drag one of the stricken men out of the embrace of the enemy. He must have had in his mind the full knowledge of the peril he was facing. He undertook an impossible task out of pure love for a fellow-creature. 44 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.” He fell on the dead body of the man he tried to save, and 44 in death they were not divided.”

Heroism is esteemed so precious a thing that, even when displayed on the field of battle in efforts to destroy our kind, men never cease to praise those who have shown it. How much more, then, is that bravery beautiful which filled the breast of the workman, Jim Stevens ? His self-sacrifice was equal to his courage, both inspiring him to creep back into that terrible place of death on the mere chance of making a rescue.

No one can read the sad account of how he died for his mate, without feeling that his was as brave a soul as any that ever winged its flight out of the smoke and slaughter of a battle-charge.

—Abridged and adapted from an article in The Age.

TOPICS OF THE MONTH.

A couple of mouths ago, we recorded with pleasure, that Master David Miller, a pupil of the Merino State School, had been awarded a special certificate by the Department in recognition of his continuous attendance for the space of three years. Since then, the head teacher of the Stawell School has brought under the notice of the Minister of Education a still more remarkable case of regular attendance. Miss Isabella Green, now a temporary monitress in that school, has completed her tenth year of unbroken attendance—nearly eight years as a scholar, and two as a teacher. During this long period, Miss Green has never been absent for a single day.

*******

On December the 10th, 1897, the annual rifle matches of the Victorian Cadets were held at the Williamstown ranges. The entries were more numerous than last year. The shooting, in spite of a strong wind, was on the whole better than that done at last year’s meeting. There were about 700 present, and 15,000 rounds of ammunition were consumed. The officer in command expressed himself well satisfied with the general appearance and organisation of the teams, and with the excellent supervision of the officers in charge.

In the Senior Teams’ Match for the Sargood Shield, the Geelong College boys won from the holders, the Geelong Grammar School boys, with 6 points to spare.

In the Junior Teams’ Match for the Sargood Shield (a separate trophy), a team from the Thorpdale State School was top with 198 points out of a possible 250, a good performance. The Colac State School second team came second with 182.

The distinction of Champion Senior Shot was gained by Sergeant W. M. Robertson, of Geelong College.

The gold medal (the gift of Mr. Jas. Bagge, Secretary for Education), for the Champion Junior Shot, was won by A. Scott, of Seymour.

In the Open Schools’ Match, individual firing, H. Gill, of Colac, was top scorer.

J. Moysey, Carlton State School, won the first prize in the Consolation Match.

At the conclusion of the matches, the prizes were presented to the winners by Lady Holled-Smith, who herself gave a special prize for the best turned out non-commissioned officer. This was won after a very careful test by Colour-Sergeant Booth, of Daylesford.

*******

On the 19th of November, 1897, the annual inspection of the Metropolitan Junior Cadet battalions was held at Albert Park by Colonel Hoad, in the absence through sickness of the Military Commandant, Sir Charles Holled-Smith.

REVIEW OF METROPOLITAN CADETS—THE INSPECTION.


REVIEW OF METROPOLITAN CADETS THE SALUTE,


1898.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.    127


Though the parade had been postponed from Thursday on account of wet weather, the attendance was very good. From the combined 2nd and 7th battalions, under Major F. C. Eddy, the parade state showed 504 ; and from the 8th battalion, under Major Gamble, 506, making with the cadet staff, a total of 1,013.

Colonel Hoad, accompanied by Captain Stanley Low, A.D.C., made a minute inspection- of the parade, which included the march past, manual and firing exercises, and some difficult battalion movements.

At the conclusion, Colonel Hoad said it would give him very great pleasure to report to the Commandant that general improvement had been shown on last year’s work, and he complimented the officers on the excellent turn-out and drill. Lieutenant-Colonel Henry, assisted by his adjutant, Captain Somerset, was in command of the brigade. Though the day was very warm, only two cases had to be dealt with by Surgeon Captain Steel, the medical officer on duty.

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule V.—Words ending in a single 1 double the 1 before an English vowel-suffix.

apparel

apparelled

label

. labelled

barrel

double- barrelled

model

modelled

cancel

cancelling

quarrel

quarrelling

chisel

chiselled

revel

reveller

equal

equalled

shovel

shovelling

jewel

jeweller

travel

traveller

Exception

—Parallel makes paralleled a

ud unparalleled.

—Adapted from Meiklejohn’s Spelling Book.

PROVERBS.

Never judge merely from appearances.

Never make a mountain of a molehill.

Never sound the trumpet of your own praise.

Never think yourself too old to learn.

Never trust to fine promises.

Never trust to another what you should do yourself. Never venture out of your depth till you can swim.

NOTICE.

In The School Paper—Class IV. on p. 38, the word “bailing” with the meaning “ dipping water from” occurs. This is the form preferred by lexicographers,, though “ baling from “bale” with the same meaning is also found and allowed.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbour»«.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. I., No. 9.]    MELBOURNE.    [Maroh, 1898.

AUSTRALIAN

In-di-vis-i-ble, without break or division.

Sto dried, told in history.

En-ter-prise, bold, energetic work.

Neg-li-gent, careless.

In-teg-ri-ty, wholeness ; uprightness.

FEDERATION.

Mam-'mon, the god of riches.

Un-fil-i-al, not becoming sons and daughters. Va-ri-ance, disagreement.

An-cient, old ; belonging to times past. Pen-i-tent, feeling sorrow on account of offences.

From all division let our land be free,

For God has made her one; complete she lies Within the unbroken circle of the skies,

And round her indivisible the sea Breaks on her single shore; while only we,

Her foster children, bound with sacred ties Of one dear blood, one storied enterprise,

Are negligent of her integrity.—

Her seamless garment, at great Mammon’s nod,

With hands unfilial we have basely rent,

With petty variance our souls are spent,

And ancient kinship under foot is trod:

0 let us rise, united, penitent,

And be one people,—mighty, serving God!

— William Gay.

At Bendigo, last December, Mr. Gay died at the age of thirty-two. He was a Scotchman, and, some years ago, came to Victoria for the benefit of his health. Australians should honour his memory for the inspiring thoughts expressed in ihe sonnet printed above.

THE FOUNDING OF THE FIRST COLONY IN AUSTRALIA.

Fed-er-a-tion, union of states under a central government.

Ob-serv-ance, celebration.

AS-SO-ci-a-tions, union of persons in a company or society.

Un-fort:u-nate-ly, unhappily.

Prac-tice, usage; custom.

Ter-ri-to-ry, tract of land.

Nat-U-ral-ist, one who studies plants and animals.


Par-lia-msnt, body of men selected to make laws for a country.

Dis-ap-point-'ment, failure of hope.

Prep a-ra-tions, arrangements. Ex-pe-ri-en-cing, feeling.

Pro-mot-er, one who forwards.

Doc-u-ments, official papers. Es-tab-lish-ment, act of founding. Gov-ern-ment, control.


In all the Australian colonies except South Australia, January the 26th has been set apart as a holiday, and is called Foundation Lay. As the colonies have, year by year, come nearer federation, the observance of this day by associations of Australian natives has drawn to it increased public notice. Why the British Government planned a Price Id.

settlement on Australian soil, and how its wishes were carried out, is a story we should all know, although it has, unfortunately, features in it we cannot be proud of.

When, in 1775, the thirteen British colonies that, a year later, became the United States of America, declared war against the mother country, it became impossible for the British Government to continue its practice of sending persons convicted of crime to those colonies to work out their sentences. As the gaols were overcrowded, it was necessary, therefore, to choose some other place to which to transport them.

STATUE IN SYDNEY.

In 1770, Captain Cook had discovered and examined the eastern coast of Terra Australis,1 had called it JSTew South Wales, and had taken possession of it in the name of George III., King of Great Britain. The account he had given of the new territory as a place for settlement was very favourable. Sir Joseph Banks, a naturalist that had

DOUBLE BAY, A PORTION OF SYDNEY HARBOUR, AS PORT JACKSON IS NOW CALLED.

sailed with Cook, being asked to advise the Government in its difficulty, stated that Botany Bay, on the shores of which the expedition had spent some time, was a very suitable place for planting a settlement.


It was decided, therefore, to found a colony at that spot; and Lord Sydney, the Secretary of State,was entrusted with the carrying out of the scheme. A hill was passed through the British Parliament to provide for the government of the colony ; ' and Captain Arthur Phillip was chosen for the position of governor.

A long time was spent in preparations; hut, after many delays, on the 13th of May, 1787, a fleet of 11 vessels, afterwards known as “The"First Fleet ” set sail. Of officers and soldiers, some of whom had wives and children, there were on board about 250, and of convicts about 800. The fleet touched at Teneriffe3 and Rio Janeiro,4 and on the 13th of October, reached the Cape of Good Hope. The

Dutch Governor5 treated his visitors with much kindness ; and Phillip took in provisions and live-stock. “The ships having on board no less than 500 animals of different kinds, but chiefly poultry, put on an appearance which naturally enough excited the idea of Noah’s ark.”

Having sailed round the south of Van Diemen’s Land,6 for Bass Strait had not yet been discovered, the first ship of the little fleet cast anchor in Botany Bay on the 18th of January, 1788, and was followed by the rest during the next two or three days. The voyage had taken 35 weeks !

Phillip was not satisfied with any site for a settlement around Botany Bay. The harbour was not safe ; and, instead of the profusion of flowers that the settlers expected to see, they found all the vegetation dried up and water scarce. It was a season of drought.

On the 22nd, Phillip set out with three boats to examine Port Jackson, a bay lying to the north, mentioned but not examined by Captain Cook. Here all doubt and disappointment vanished. No one ever entered Port Jackson, with its many and varied beauties, without experiencing within him a strong feeling of wondering pleasure. With such feelings the breast of Governor Phillip and his companions must have glowed. But the need of a good harbour was, doubtless, first in the Governor’s thoughts. Fresh from visiting Rio Janeiro, one of the finest harbours in the world, he yet told Lord Sydney, “ This harbour is in extent and security very superior to any that 1 have ever seen ; in it a thousand sail of the line might ride in perfect security.”

He, at once, began to examine the different coves, and selected for a landing place one into which a stream of pure water was flowing. It had another advantage. The sea was deep right to the shore, so that a pier would not be necessary.

Having spent three days in the work of examination, the explorers returned to Botany Bay, and preparations were at once made to remove to the new site.

On the 26th of January, 1788, the whole of the fleet was in Port Jackson, and Governor Phillip having disembarked some of his crew and soldiers, hoisted the British flag on shore and called the officers together round the flagstaff. Then, they drank the King’s health and success to the settlement, and founded a town, naming it Sydney, after the chief promoter of the enterprise.

Time and labour were required to land the settlers and their stores; and it was not till the 7th of February that Governor Phillip could assemble his subjects—1,030 in all—and formally read the Act of Parliament and other documents that gave authority for the establishment and government of the colony.

Such was the founding of New South Wales—the first of many colonies of English speaking men and women on the shores of Australia —colonies destined, we hope, soon to draw together, and to form the Greater Britain of the South.

—Adapted in part from Rusden’s History of Australia.

1.    Ter^ra Aus-tra-lis, the Southern Land, one of the names first given to what is now Australia

2.    Sec-re-ta-ry Of state, person who conducts the correspondence of a state with foreign states.

3.    Tender-iffe' (ten'er-if'), one of the Canary Islands, which lie to the north-west of Africa.

4.    Ri-0 Ja-nei-'ro (re-o ja-ne-ro), capital of Brazil.

5.    Dutch Gov£er-nor. At that time Cape Colony belonged to Holland.

6.    Van Die-men’s Laud, the name given by Tasman, its discoverer, to what is now called Tasmania.

TRAVELLERS’ WONDERS.

Per-nHciOUS, harmful. A-bom-i-na-ble, unpleasant. De-li-cious, delightful; very nice. Tem-per-a-ture, degree of'heat. Con-sti-tu-ted, formed. Par-tic-U-lar-ly, in a high degree. Tol-er-a-bly, fairly.

Cred-i-bly, on good authority. Fan-tas-tic, fanciful.

Dis-guis-ing, hiding

Fe -rOC-i-ty, savage wildness; fierceness.

Ca-ressed' fondled.

For-eign-er, native of another country. Sa-lut-ing, greeting.


En-ter-tained' had the attention pleasantly occupied.

Load-stonei stone having the power of attracting iron, nickel, and some other substances.

Par-tic-u-lars, details.

In-hahii-tants, those who dwell permanently in a place.

Qu.ad-ru-ped, animal having four feet.

Un-pal-a-ta-hle, unpleasant to the taste.

Ato-SO-lute-ly, quite.

Nau-seous, disgusting to the taste.

In-gre-di-ents, component parts.

In-tox-i-ca-ting, making drunk.

Pun-gent, biting.

Sal-u-ta-ry, healthful.

One winter’s evening, as Captain Compass was sitting by the fireside with his children all round him, little Jack said to him, u Papa, pray tell us some stories about what you have seen in your voyages. I have been vastly entertained whilst you were abroad, with Gulliver’s Travels and the Adventures of Sinbad the Sailor ; and, I think, as you have gone round and round the world, you must have met with things as wonderful as they did.”

“No, my dear,” said the Captain, “ I never met with Lilliputians1 or Brobdingnagians2 (Brob-ding-na-gians), I assure you, nor ever saw the black loadstone mountain, or the valley of diamonds3; but, to be sure, I have seen a great variety of people, and their different manners and ways of living : and, if it will be any entertainment to yon, I will tell you some curious particulars of what I observed.”

“ Pray, do, Papa,” cried Jack and all his brothers and sisters ; so they drew close around him, and he began as follows :—

“Well, then, I was once, about this time of the year, in a country where it was very cold, and the poor inhabitants had much ado to keep themselves from starving. They were clad partly in the skins of beasts, made smooth and soft by a particular art, but chiefly in garments made from the outer covering of a middle-sized quadruped, which they were so cruel as to strip off his back while he was alive. They dwelt in habitations, part of which was sunk under ground. The materials were either stones, or earth hardened by fire ; and so violent, in that country, were the storms of wind and rain, that many of them covered their roofs all over with stones. The walls of their houses had holes to let in the light; hut, to prevent the cold air and wet from coming in, they were covered by a sort of transparent stone, made of melted sand or flints. As wood was rather scarce, I know not what they would have done for firing, had they not discovered in the earth, a very extraordinary kind of stone, which, when put among burning wood, caught fire and flamed like a torch.”

“ Dear me,” said Jack, “what a wonderful stone ! ”

“Well, but their diet, too, was remarkable. Some of them ate fish that had been hung up in the smoke till it was quite dry and hard; and, along with it, they ate either the roots of plants, or a sort of coarse black cake made of powdered seeds. These were the poorer class ; the richer had a white kind of cake, which they were fond of daubing over with a greasy matter that was the product of a large animal among them. This grease they used, too, in almost all their dishes, and, when fresh, it really was not unpalatable. They likewise devoured the flesh of many birds and beasts when they could get it; and ate the leaves and other parts of a variety of vegetables growing in the country, some absolutely raw, others variously prepared by the aid of fire. Another great article of food was the curd of milk, pressed into a hard mass and salted. This had so rank a smell that persons of weak stomachs often could not bear to come near it.

For drink, they made great use of the water in which certain dry leaves had been steeped. These leaves, I was told, came from a great distance. They had likewise a method of preparing a drink from the seeds of a grass-like plant, by steeping them along with a bitter herb in water, and then setting them to work or ferment. I was prevailed upon to taste it, and thought it at first nauseous enough, but in time I liked it pretty well. When a large quantity of the ingredients is used, it becomes perfectly intoxicating. But what astonished me most, was their use of a liquor so excessively hot and pungent that it seems like liquid fire. I once got a mouthful of it by mistake, taking it for water, which it resembles in appearance; but I thought it would instantly have taken away my breath. Indeed, people are not unfrequently killed by it; and yet many of them will swallow it greedily whenever they can get it. This, too, is said to be prepared from the seeds above mentioned, which are innocent and salutary in their natural state, though made to yield such a pernicious juice.

“ The strangest custom that, I believe, prevails in any nation, I found here; which was, that some take a mighty pleasure in filling their mouths full of abominable smoke; and others, in thrusting a nasty powder up their nostrils.”

“I should think it would choke them,” said Jack. “It almost choked me,” answered his father, “ only to stand by while they did it; but use, it is truly said, is second nature.

“ I was glad enough to leave this cold climate ; and, about half a year after, I fell in with a people enjoying a delicious temperature of air, and a country full of beauty and verdure. The trees and shrubs were furnished with a great variety of fruits, which, with other vegetable products, constituted a large part of the food of the inhabitants. I particularly relished certain berries growing in bunches, some white and some red, of a pleasant sourish taste, and so transparent, that one might see the seed at their very centre. Here were whole fields full of sweet-smelling flowers, which they told me were succeeded by pods bearing seeds, that afforded good nourishment to man and beast. A great variety of birds enlivened the groves and woods; among which I was entertained with one, that, without any teaching, spoke almost as well as a parrot, though, indeed, all it said was a single word.

“ The people were tolerably gentle and civilized, and possessed many of the arts of life. Their dress was very various. Many were clad only in a thin cloth made of the long fibres of the stalks of a plant cultivated for the purpose, which they prepared by soaking in water, and then beating with large mallets. Others wore cloth woven from a sort of vegetable wool, growing in pods upon bushes. But the most singular material was a fine glossy stuff, used chiefly by the richer classes, which, as I was credibly informed, is manufactured out of the webs of caterpillars; a most wonderful circumstance, if we consider the immense number of caterpillars necessary to the production of so large a quantity of stuff as I saw used. These people are very fantastic in their dress, especially the women, whose apparel consists of a great number of articles impossible to be described, and strangely disguising the natural form of the body. Like most Indian nations, they use feathers in the head-dress. One thing surprised me much, which was, that they bring up in their houses an animal of the tiger kind, with formidable teeth and claws, which, notwithstanding its natural ferocity, is played with and caressed by the most timid and delicate of their women.”

“ I am sure I would not play with it,” said Jack.

“ Why, you might chance to get an ugly scratch, if you did,” said the Captain.

“ The language of this nation seems very harsh to a foreigner, vet they converse among one another with great ease and quickness. One of the oddest customs is that which men use on saluting each other. Let the weather be what it will, they uncover their heads, and remain uncovered for some time, if they mean to be very respectful.”

“Why that’s like pulling off our hats,” said Jack.

“ Ah, ah ! Papa,” cried Betsy, “ I have found you out. You have been telling us of our own country, and what is done at home, all this while.”

“ But,” said Jack, “ we don’t burn stones, or eat grease and powdered seeds, or wear skins and caterpillars’ webs, or play with tigers.”

“ Ho ! ” said the Captain ; “pray what are coals but stones ; and is not butter, grease ; and corn, seeds ; and leather, skins.; and silk, the

web of a kind of caterpillar; and may we not as well call a cat an animal of the tiger kind, as a tiger an animal of the cat kind ? So, if you will recollect what I have been describing, you will find, with Betsy’s help, that all the other wonderful things I have told you of, are matters familiar among ourselves. But I meant to show you that a foreigner might easily represent every thing as equally strange and wonderful among us, as we could do with respect to his country; and also to make you sensible that we daily call a great many things by their names, without inquiring into their nature and properties; so that in reality, it is only the names, and not the things themselves, with which we are acquainted.”    —Evenings at Home.

1.    Lil-li-pu-tians, tiny people described in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels.

2.    Brob-ding-na^gians, giant people described in Gulliver’s Travels.

3- Black load-stone'' moun-'tain and val-ley of dUa-monds, described in “Sinbad the Sailor”—a tale in “The Arabian Nights.”

RECESSIONAL.

Dune, low hill of drifting sand. Gen-tiles, foreigner; heathen. Reek-ing, full of fumes ; smoking. Shard, piece or fragment of shell Val-iant, brave.

Fran-tic, rash; violent. .


Re-ces^sion-al, abating something from the height and strictness of our pretences ; hymn sung in a procession returning from the choir of a church to the robing- room.

Aw-ful, striking with fear and reverence.

Sac-ri-fi.ee, offering to God.

Con-trite, deeply sorrowful for sin.

God of our fathers, known of old — Lord of our far-flung battle-line— Beneath Whose awful hand we hold Dominion over palm and pine 1— Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, Lest we forget—lest we forget !

The tumult and the shouting dies— The captains and the kings depart; Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice,

A humble and a contrite heart. Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, Lest we forget—lest we forget!


Far-called our navies melt away—

On dune and headland sinks the fire — Lo, all our pomp of yesterday Is one with Nineveh 3 and Tyre 4 ! Judge of the nations, spare us yet,

Lest w^e forget—lest we forget !

If, drunk with sight of power, we loose Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe —

Such boasting as the Gentiles use 5 Or lesser breeds without the law— Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,

Lest we forget—lest we forget !

For heathen heart that puts her trust In reeking tube and iron shard—

All valiant dust that builds on dust,

And guarding calls not Thee to guard—    '

For frantic boast and foolish word,

Thy mercy on Thy people, Lord !—Amen.

— Rudyard Kipling.

1.    Palm and pine. By these words the wide extent of the British Empire is brought before the mind.

2.    Pomp Of yes-ter-day. These verses were written shortly after the Jubilee celebrations, and the

reference is, probably, to them.

3.    Nin-e-veh, ancient city on the Tigris in Assyria. Its ruins are very extensive.

4.    Tyre, ancient city in Syria, on the Levant.

5.    Use, are accustomed to utter.

CHIPS.

I wrould not enter on my list of friends,

Though graced with polished manners and fine sense,

Yet wanting sensibility, the man

Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.    —Cowper.

LOVE THY NEIGHBOUR.

Ex-ceed-ing, much.    j    Cheer-i-ly, in a pleasant manner.

Ac-COrcR consent.    i    Vanished, went out of sight; disappeared.

Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase !)

Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace,

And saw within the moonlight of his room,

Making it rich and like a lily bloom,

An angel writing in a book of gold :—

Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold,

And, to the Presence in the room he said,

“What writest thou ? ” The Vision raised its head,

And, with a look full of all sweet accord,

Answered, “The names of those who love the Lord.”

“ And is mine one?” said Abou, “ Nay, not so,”

Replied the Angel, Abou spoke more low,

But cheerily still; and said, “I pray thee, then,

Write me as one that loves his fellow men.”

The Angel wrote and vanished. The next night,

It came again with a great wakening light,

And showed the names whom love of God had blest,

And lo ! Ben Adhern’s name led all the rest.

—Leigh Hunt (1784-1859).

THE UTILITY OF THE MAGPIE.

Brough-ty, dry; wanting rain.

Mis-for-tune, calamity; ill; harm. Jn-ju^ri-ous, hurtful; causing harm.

Con-troR regulate; direct.

Pro-teething, guarding; preserving in safety. Cat^er-pil-lar, one of the states through which butterflies and moths pass.


Or-na-ment-aR beautifying.

Me-lo-di-ous, musical; sweet-sounding. Com-ic-al, funny.

Laugh-a-ble, causing laughter.

Pit-i-a-ble, sad ; deserving pity.

Spercies, kind ; group of things having similar qualities


Next to a droughty season, the greatest misfortune, probably, that can befall a farmer, is a plague of insects injurious to his crops. We cannot control the weather, but we can to a certain extent control insect pests by protecting our insect-eating birds. These do much towards keeping in check grubs, caterpillars, and the swarms of locusts (commonly called grasshoppers), which at times eat up every green thing in portions of Victoria.

As an insect-destroyer one of the most useful of birds is the magpie. It has, moreover, proved itself to be a bird that does not disappear as settlement spreads. In this respect it differs from most other Australian birds, which, as man advances, are driven farther back into the bush, or die out altogether.

Magpies, in their native state, procure most of their food upon the ground, and devour almost everything that creeps, including lizards, and, no doubt, small snakes. Now and then, in dry or cold seasons, when they are pushed for food, they eat grain, berries, and fruit.

Because these birds sometimes take a little grain (though they do so only when it is soft or in a milky condition while springing), some farmers would have them destroyed. Others, however, make up their minds to watch their crops from sunrise to sunset during the few weeks the magpies are likely to attack the springing grain, or to put up with any slight loss they are likely to suffer, on account of the benefits they receive in return through these birds keeping dojvn certain insect pests during the remainder of the year.

THE BLACK-BACKED MAGPIE OR PIPING CROW-SHRIKE-W^ Gould).

A gentleman who has been a farmer and fruit-grower in Victoria for thirty-one years, says that he finds the bird to be a friend to farmers, and the best insect-destroyer they have. He further states that, every season, magpies build their nests within a few yards of his house, and he has observed that they feed their young on insects and nothing else.

The magpie should be protected, not only because it is useful, but also because, with its showy black and white plumage, it is an ornamental bird, and its flute-like notes are the most melodious sounds to be heard in the country.

MAGPIE’S NEST.

(By permission from an article by Mr. Campbell onThe Magpie.” It was printed in The

AirSTR ALASI AN.)

At the first streak of dawn, the magpie, from a belt of timber, heralds the coming day. It is always the first to lift up its voice, though it is quickly followed by its comical neighbour the laughing-jackass. By the time the sun is gilding the dewy leaves, all the magpies have betaken themselves in ones, twos, or in small companies, to the plains or open ground to feed. During the day, they pay frequent visits to their timbered retreats, and, towards evening, may be seen again on the open ground, seeking their supper before they fly swiftly home at sunset to roost for the night. Mr. J. B. O’Hara very

aptly and prettily describes the magpies’ homeward flight in a poem with that title of which the following is the first verse

‘•Now twilight scatters from her hand The shadows faintly falling,

And far I hear along the land The gray-plumed plover calling;


With hues half-stolen from the night They come while day is dying,

By twos and threes in broken flight, The magpies homeward flying.”


Some time ago, at a sheep station in Riverina,1 there was a tame magpie, of which the writer was given the following account:—

When he was about two years old, Charlie, as he was called, took as a mate a wild bird of his own kind. The pair built a nest in a gum-tree near the homestead. Not for one season only, but for seven seasons, these birds had a nest in the neighbourhood, and reared a brood.

For his mate when upon the nest, and for her squeaking family. Charlie used to procure food from wherever he could get it, even stealing it, sometimes, from the meat block or the kitchen table. Once, his wing was clipped, and he had then, instead of flying to his nest, to climb to it as best he could. On another occasion, he managed to leave a portion of a leg behind him in a rabbit trap, into which he had stepped. This, however, did not prevent him from feeding his young ones. It was laughable as well as pitiable to see the plucky little fellow using the stump of his leg in climbing the tree.

It may be well to state that magpies belong to what is called the crow-shrike family. There are two species in Victoria—-one in the northern parts called the black-backed magpie, and the other in the south, called the wdiite-backed magpie. The female of the latter species has a silvery-gray back.

—A. J Campbell.

1. “ Riv-er-i-na is the name generally, but rather loosfely, applied to the extensive and level pastoral district north of the Murray River after it descends from the hills.”Buckley’s Class-book of Geography.    .

A BUSH-FIRE INCIDENT.

Among the many deeds of heroism performed in connection with the recent awful bush fires, it would be hard to find one more deserving of notice than that of Mr. E. J. Fowler of Warragul, who rescued a farmer and his child from the midst of a circle of devouring flames.

About three miles from Warragul was the farm of Mr. Loader. One day early in February, being in need of provisions, Mrs. Loader with two children had gone to Warragul, leaving her husband and one child, a little girl of three years, at home.

During the afternoon, the fire, which was not visible when she left, sw'ept over the farm, catching the tall trees and spreading rapidly on all sides, until the house was completely encircled. Mr. Loader single-handed fought the flames, but, at last, wras forced to give in, having just strength enough left to drag himself with his little child to the well for refuge.

Thinking that he might be in danger, a party from Warragul went to render assistance, hut could not get within half a mile of the house, so dense was the smoke, and so fierce the heat. All believed that the poor man and his child would he burnt to death.

About 9 o’clock, Mr. Fowler, the Captain of the Warragul Fire Brigade, and a member of the Mounted Rides, who was riding home, after being at work all day fighting the common foe, came upon the scene. On learning that human beings were in the midst of the fire, he expressed his intention of making an' attempt to save them. He hurried home, put on a leather cap, jacket, and leggings, and was soon back.

There was little choice possible of a place to get through the flames, so he urged his horse haphazard into them, and was speedily hidden from view. Crash went a giant tree, blazing from top to bottom, and the bystanders expected never to see the gallant man again alive. The tree, however, had not hurt him ; and on he went till he reached the spot where the house had stood a few hours before. Naught but ruin met his anxious gaze. He searched about, and was nearly giving up in despair, when he caught sight of Mr. Loader sitting on the top of the well, with his child nestling to his breast. Jumping from his horse, Mr. Fowler took off his leather jacket, and wrapped the child in it. Then mounting again, he galloped through the flames, and reached the men outside in safety.

He could not bring out in the same way Mr. Loader,who was halfdead and nearly blind ; he, therefore, tried to lead a horse back for him. The horse proving unmanageable, Mr. McNab volunteered to go and help. Between them, they got Mr Loader to a place of safety.

Such have the world's heroes ever been.

THE TEACHING OF SWIMMING TO STATE SCHOOL CHILDREN.

During the Christmas holidays, Mr. Southwell, Secretary of the Public Schools’ Athletic Association of New South Wales, had an interview with the Honourable A. J. Peacock, Minister of Public Instruction, with reference to the teaching of swimming to the children of Victorian State schools. A few days afterwards, a meeting of Melbourne teachers was held to hear Mr. Southwell describe what was being done in regard to instructing the children of the schools of New South Wales in swimming. Before the meeting dispersed, rules were drawn up for the formation of clubs, and a committee was appointed to further the movement.    .

The two most important rules are:—(1) A club maybe formed, if twenty boys or twenty girls are willing to join and have received their parents’ consent. (2) On one afternoon in each week, the members of the club may, in charge of a teacher, leave school at 3 o’clock for swimming practice.

Copies of the rules were sent to all the Melbourne schools, and already replies have been received which show that about 2,000 children are willing to form clubs.

Teachers, in any part of the colony where there are places for bathing, are invited to promote the formation of clubs in their schools.

Copies of the rules and any other information may be obtained from the Acting Secretary to the Committee, Mr. A. Hanson, State School, No. 2462, Yere-street, Collingwood.    .

CONCERNING OUR TEN FIGURES OR NUMBER SYMBOLS.

Every schoolboy doing his sums, every grown person wmrking at his accounts, uses in the course of the day a large number of figures. At school, the boy is taught that we use the Arabic (Ar'-a-bic) system of notation ; but of the origin of the figures—symbols to represent numbers—he, probably, hears nothing. It has, however, been discovered that our present figure characters originated not in Arabia but in Hindostan, and here is their original form :—

One mark represented number one, thus : |. Two horizontal marks with a connecting line stood for two :    Three similar marks with

connecting lines stood for three :    ; and four, in the form of a triangle

with one side produced, thus :    for four, originally written Q. Five

in this form was the original figure five; and the same with one extra line jjjjj the original six. Seven was composed of two squares with one of the sides wanting jjj, and eight the two full squares Jjj. Nine added

■B|

one more line to eight and became while the zero or cipher was always a perfect circle

It is easy and interesting to trace present forms of our numerals from these ancient figures.

—Adapted from Answers.

NOTICE.

Two new books for Class I., to take the place of the three now in use, will he published shortly after Easter. These books are amended editions of the First Primer, Second Primer, and Introductory Reader.

Schools that are unable to obtain the Introductory Reader may use Part I. of Royal Reader, No. II., in the Higher First Class.

In all schools Royal Readers, Nos. II. and VI., and in Fourth Class Schools and upwards, Royal Reader, No. V., will continue to be the books for examination during 1898.    '

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule VI.— Words ending in e drop the e before a vowel-suffix, but retain it before a consonant-suffix.

Short Form :—Final e is dropped before a vowel.

abate

care

free


VOWEL-

SUFFIX;

abating

caring

fre-er


COXSONANTSUFFIX.

abatement

careless

freedom


hate

love

move


VOWEL-

SUFFIX.

hating

lovable

movable


CONSONANT-

SUFFIX.

hateful

lovely

movement


Exceptions—(i) Words ending in ce and ge retain the e before the suffixes able and OIIS | this being necessary in order to keep the soft sound of C and g.

advantage    advantageous    |    notice    noticeable

manage    manageable    |    peace    peaceable

(ii) Words ending in ee, oe, ye, retain the final e before illg.

flee    fleeing    I    dye    dyeing

hoe    hoeing    |    eye    eyeing

while agree retains it even in agreeable.

y before ing.

tying

vying


(iii) Words ending in ie change the ending into

tie

vie


die    dying

lie    lying

(iv) glue makes gluey.

consonant-suffix in the following

abridge

acknowledge

judge

true


j


abridgment

acknowledgment

judgment

truly

t « . rc .


whole    wholly

woe    woful

and a few others.

CHIPS.

There are four bridges which every boy, setting out on the road of life with the hope of becoming a man, in the true sense of the word, must be always ready to cross. These bridges are classified as follows ¡—Truth, obedience, effort, and patience. The first needs courage to take you across it, the second faith, the third determination, the fourth strength. These four qualities go to make up a true man. Over the first bridge lies honour; over the second, peace; over the third, success; over the fourth, rest.

Ttie deepest bore-hole iti the world is said to be at a place in the north of Austria. It is 6,571 ft. below the surface of the soil, and was made in searching for coal. The hole was 12 ins. in diameter at the beginning, and was lined with a tube about four-tenths of an inch thick. The bore was reduced somewhat in size as it got deeper. The greatest difficulty the workmen had to contend with was the weight of the boring rods. They broke frequently at the lower depths; and at last, the work had go be stopped owing to 4,500 ft. of rods falling to the bottom of the bore Their upper end became jammed under the lining tube, and to free it was found to be an impossibility. The temperature increased l3 F. for each 63 ft. of descent.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

TIE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. I., No. 10.] MELBOURNE.    [April, 1898.

TWILIGHT.

Twi-light, the faint light before the rising and after the setting of the sun.

Rud-di-er, redder.

The twilight is sad and cloudy,

The wind blows wild and free,

And like the wings of sea-birds Flash the white caps' of the sea.

But in the fisherman’s cottage,

There shines a ruddier light;

And a little face at the window Peers out into the night.

Close, close it is pressed to the window, As if those childish eyes

Were looking into the darkness,

To see some form arise.

CeiBing, inner roof of a room.

Cra-zy, broken; weakened.

Case-ment, window that opens on hinges.

And a woman’s waving shadow Is passing to and fro,

Now rising to the ceiling,

Now bowing and bending low.

What tale do the roaring ocean,

And the night-wind, bleak and wild,

As they beat at the crazy casement,

Tell to that little child" ?

And why do the roaring ocean,

And the night-wind, wild and bleak,

As they beat at the heart of the mother, Drive the colour from her cheek ?

—F. W. Longfellow (1807-82).

1. White caps, crests, or foamy, feather-like tops of the waves.


A VISIT TO THE ROYAL MINT, MELBOURNE.

Con-duct^or, guide.

Cor-ri-dor, broad passage off which rooms open. Pro-tect-ed, shielded from injury; guarded. Dross, impure or waste matter.

Plum-ba-go, black lead. (It is used for pencils.) In-tense( very great.

Ap-pliedi used ; put to.

Suf-fi-cient, enough.

In-gOtS, masses of metal cast in a mould.

Pu-ri-fied, made pure or clear from admixture with any other substance.

Al-loyi substance made up of two or more metals. Discs, flat, circular plates. Rep-re-sen-ta-tion, picture or model. Cir-CU-la-tion, the act of passing from person to person.

Ac-cu-rate-ly, without error.

Ad-just-ed, arranged.

During the Christmas holidays, I was one of a party that visited the Melbourne Mint. The work of coining sovereigns was in full swing ; and, as we passed through the rooms, our conductor explained the various processes. What we saw and heard was so interesting that I have been tempted to try and give the readers of The School Paper an account of it,

After passing through a corridor, we entered an inner courtyard, where a sprinkler was at work on a lawn, green, aud carefully clipped.

Price Id.

From a stone-paved verandah facing this, we entered the furnace room. What a contrast it was to the place we had just left! Outside, the air was cool and pleasant; inside, it was charged with heat from the furnaces in full blast. How hot the workmen looked, as, with sleeves rolled up, and protected by leathern gloves and aprons, they tended these furnaces !

The first process in the coining of a sovereign is to melt the gold as bought from the miner in order to get rid of any dross it may contain. To do this, it is placed in a pot made of plumbago, a substance that does not melt or crack with the intense heat that has to be applied.

When the gold has been in the furnace a sufficient length of time, it is taken out, and poured into moulds, where it cools and forms ingots varying in size according to the amount of gold that has been melted. Those we saw weighed about 300 ounces. The gold is, afterwards, further purified by passing chlorine gas through it.

To make standard gold for coining (pure gold would be too soft), copper is added to gold in such proportion that the alloy shall consist of eleven-twelfths of gold and one-twelfth of copper.

THE ROLLING MACHINE.

The gold leaves the furnace room in the form of bars or strips, two feet long, one and a third inches broad, and one-third of an inch thick.

These pass to the rolling machine, by which they are rolled out till they are about one-twentieth of an inch thick and about twelve feet long.

CUTTING OUT BLANKS.

Then follows the cutting out, which is done by means of a steel punch. This comes down with a force of many tons, and cuts the strips of gold into discs, called “ blanks,” as easily as a boy does a slice of potato with a goose-quill. So fast does the machine work that it turns out 77 blanks a minute.

The process that comes next is that of softening the blanks, so that they can take a clearer impression. About 3,000 of them are placed in an iron tube, and thrust into a furnace. The tube has a plug of charcoal at each end to prevent the blanks from turning black, which they would do on exposure to the air after being removed from the furnace. They remain in the furnace for thirty-five minutes, are allowed to cool for ten minutes, and are then plunged into cold water.

If you look at the edge of a sovereign, you will see a number of parallel grooves round it, called ‘‘milling.” This work is done in the coining press. The machine, at the same time that it mills the coins, also stamps them, on one side with the image of Queen

Victoria, and, on the other with a representation of St. George slaying the dragon. Sixty sovereigns are milled and stamped in a

THE COINING PRESS.


minute.

Our sovereigns are not yet quite ready for circulation. Their weight has to be tested. This is done by a machine, which, of all of the machines in the mint, is, perhaps, the most wonderful. The coins are put into it, and it disposes of them at the rate of about twenty-six a minute. The machine has three divisions. One is for the coins that are of the correct weight. These shoot along a groove, and fall with a click into the middle division. The heavy weights glide off to the right side, and the light weights to the left.

The standard weight of a sovereign is 123^^ grains, hut a difference of a fifth of a grain on each side of that is allowed by law.

—C. D. Coverdale, Boola Boola State School.

Remember in all things that, if you do not begin, you will never come to an end. The first weed pulled up in the garden, the first seed put in the ground, the first shilling put in the savings bank, and the first mile travelled on a journey, are all very important things. They make a beginning, and thereby a promise, a pledge, an assurance is given that you are in earnest with what you have undertaken. How many a poor, idle, erring outcast is now creeping and crawling his way through the world, who might have held up his head and prospered, if, instead of putting off his resolution of amendment and industry, he had only made a beginning.

—Conduct and Duty, by W. T. Pylce.

There is nothing so kingly as kindness, And nothing so royal as truth.

THE CHILDREN.

(This poem is supposed to have been written by Charles Dickens, the great novelist. After his death, it was found in a drawer in his study.)

Tem-per, soften.

Ser-aph, angel of the highest order. Ban-ished, put entirely away. Dun-geon, secure prison. Suf-fi-'cient, ample; enough. Cor-rec-tion, punishment. Trav-erse, cross.

Mus-tered, gathered.

Del-i-cate, small and tender.


Dis-missed? let out; sent away, djfc Ha-loes, circles of light.

Part-ner, sharer.

In-no-cent, pure ; free from guilt.

I-dols, persons or things greatly loved.

An-gelS, spiritual beings.

Dis-guisei dress or covering put on to deceive people.

Tru-ants, those who stay away without permission.

Ra-di-ant, beaming with brightness.

When the lessons and tasks are all ended, And the school for the day is dismissed, And the little ones gather around me To bid me good night and be kissed;

Oh, the little white arms that encircle My neck in a tender embrace !

Oh, the smiles that are haloes-of heaven, Shedding sunshine of love on my face !

And, when they are gone, I sit dreaming Of my childhood too lovely to last;

Of love that my heart will remember,

While it wakes to the pulse of the past; Ere the world and its wickedness made me

A partner of sorrow and sin ;

When the glory of God was about me,

And the glory of glaclness within.

Yes, my heart grows as weak as a woman’s,

And the fountains of feeling will flow, When I think of the paths, steep and strong,

Where the feet of the dear ones must go;

Of the mountains of sin hanging o’er them,

Of the tempest of fate blowing wild ;—

Oh, there’s nothing on earth half so holy As the innocent heart of a child !

They are idols of hearts and of households ;

They are angels of God in disguise;

His sunlight still sleeps in their tresses ;

His glory still gleams in their eyes.

Oh, those truants from home and from heaven,

They have made me more manly and mild;

And I know now how Jesus could liken The kingdom of God to a child.

&'HaJoe-S — /l >7y A-a.


I ask not a life for the dear ones All radiant, as others have done,

But that life may have just enough shadow

To temper the glare of the sun;

I would pray God to guard them from evil,

But my prayer would bound back to myself ;

Oh, a seraph may pray for a sinner,

But a sinner must pray for himself !

The twig is so easily bended,

I have banished the rule and the rod,

I have taught them the goodness of . knowledge,

They have taught me the wisdom of God.

My heart is a dungeon of darkness, Where I shut them from breaking a rule,

My frown is sufficient correction,

My love is the law of the school.

I shall leave the old house in the autumn, To traverse its threshold no more ;

Ah, how I shall sigh for the dear ones That mustered each morn at the door! I shall miss the “ good nights ” and the kisses,

And the gush of their innocent glee, The group on the green, and the flowers That are brought every morning to me.

I shall miss them at morn and at eve, Their song in the school and the street, I shall miss the low hum of their voices, And the tramp of their delicate feet. When the lessons and tasks are all ended, And Death says, “The school is dismissed,”

May the little ones gather around me To bid me “good night” and be kissed.

2os. "

INDUSTRY.

“Sloth makes all things difficult, but Industry all easy; and he that riseth late must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night; while Laziness travels so slowly, that Poverty soon overtakes him.”—Franklin.

A BRAVE DEED.

Se-ces-sion, act of separating from association with others.

Un-gain-ly, awkward.

Un-at-tend-ed, not looked after or cared for.

Hor-ri-bly, terribly ; very greatly.

Ap-peals' begging words ; entreaties.

Pit-e-OUS, very sad.

Reg^i-ment, body of soldiers commanded by a colonel, and consisting of a number of companies, usually eight.


Can-teen? vessel used by soldiers for carrying water or other drink.

Hoist-ed, lifted up.

Su-i-Cide, self-murder.

Em-bank-ment, bank of earth, stones, or other material.

Ter-ri-ble, fearful; very great.

Gratri-tude, thankfulness.


One evening, several soldiers were relating to one another stories of deeds of bravery and adventure that had taken place during the terrible War of Secession.1 A Southerner told the following story :—

“ It was a hot July day in 1864, and General Grant2 was pressing hard upon us. Our men had hurriedly dug rifle-pits to protect themselves from the Northern sharpshooters, and dead and dying Northerners were lying around up to the very mouths of those pits.

“ In one of the pits was a big, ungainly boy. He said very little at any time ; and we didn’t pay much attention to him one way or another.

“ The wounded had been lying unattended before the pits, and the sun was getting hotter and hotter. They were suffering horribly from pain and thirst. Not fifteen feet from us lay a wounded officer belonging to the enemy. •

“ As the heat increased, this officer’s cries for water became more frequent. He was evidently dying, and his appeals were of the most piteous nature. The boy beside us found it hard to bear them. He had but recently joined the regiment, and was not yet hardened to suffering. At last, with tears flooding his grimy face, he exclaimed:—

u 11 can’t stand it any longer ! I’m going to take that poor fellow my canteen.’

“For answer to this foolhardy speech, one of us stuck a cap on a ramrod, and hoisted it above the pit. Instantly it was pierced by a dozen bullets. To venture a step outside would be nothing but suicide. All the while, we could hear the officer’s moans and his pleading words,—

Water ! water ! Just one droji, somebody ! Only one drop ! ’

“ The tender-hearted boy could stand the appeal no longer. Once, twice, three times, in spite of our warnings, he tried without success to spring out of the pit. At last, by a great effort, he leaped the embankment. When on the other side, he threw himself flat upon the ground, and crawled towards his dying foe. Because of the terrible fire, he could not get quite to him, so he broke off a bough from a small bush, tied to it his precious canteen, and contrived to put it within reach of the sufferer’s trembling hand.

“ You, probably, never heard such words of gratitude in your life. The officer wanted to tie his gold watch on the stick and hand it back as a slight return for what he had received. The boy would not, permit him to do this, but smiling happily a good-bye, he at once began to crawl back. When he reached the mound on the edge of the pit, he called ont to his comrades to clear the way for him, and, with a mighty leap, he was among ns once more. He had not received the slightest wound.

“ He took our praise calmly. We said it was the bravest deed we had seen during the war. He did not answer. His eyes had a soft, musing look.

“ ‘ What caused you to do it?’ I asked in a whisper later, when the crack of the rifles ceased for a moment.

It was something I thought of,’ he said, simply. ‘ Something my mother used to say to me. “ I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink,” she said. She read it to me out of the Bible, and she taught it to me until I never could forget it. When I heard that man crying for water, I remembered it. The words came into my mind again and again ; I couldn’t get rid of them, so I thought they were meant for me—and I went. That’s all.’ ”

—The Youth’s Companion {Adapted).

1.    War of Se-ces-sion, a war (1861-5) between the eleven Southern States of the United States of America

that had withdrawn from the Union and the rest of the States.

2.    Gen-er-al Grant, a celebrated leader on the Northern side. The army was under his command when

the war was brought to an end.

A PET LYRE BIRD.

Sing-U-lar, rare; uncommon. Pe-cul-iar, one’s own; special. Ti-mid-i-ty, fear; want of courage. Spec-ial, particular.

Com-plete-ly, wholly. Qui-ver-ing, trembling.

Ab sorbed? engaged wholly. Con-scious, aware.


Var-i-e-ty, collection of different things. Im-i-ta-tion, likeness to.

O-rig-in-al, copy; model.

Vi-O-lin, musical instrument of four strings played with a bow ; also called a fiddle. Eas-i-ly, in an easy way.

Fam-i-ly, all those living in one house under one head.

Two years ago, there appeared in The School Paper a short account of a tame lyre bird. Some of our readers may recollect that his name was Jack, and that he was about eleven years old. The following extended account of him was obtained at a recent visit to Drouin, Jack’s home.

By the kindness of Mr. R. Skewes, of Coburg, the picture of the bird, and of the tail that he shed last September, is before you. From them, you will be able to form a good idea of his handsome figure. Owing to his timidity before strangers, taking his likeness was no easy task.

To secure a full display of his singular powers, the aid of some young friends had to be sought, as Jack is very fond of children. When he hears them at their play, his eye (he has only one, the other having been lost by an accident) glistens with delight, and he shows the greatest eagerness to get out of his cage to them. While in this excited state, he repeats peculiar sounds, not unlike those made by a player touching the strings of a harp.

When taken from the nest, Jack was too young to feed himself. His food was then mainly bread-crumbs, grubs and small pieces ot

earthworms being also given to him. As he grew up, he was allowed to wander about with the fowls. At this stage, he was often taken to the bush to scratch for insects, snails, and worms. Now, to prevent any danger befalling him, he has to be kept in a roomy cage. -

He is very fond of bathing, and delights to splash the water all over his body. His tail, of which he is justly proud, receives special attention and he spends a considerable time in dressing its splendid feathers.

Over his tail Jack has great control. It consists of three kinds of feathers, sixteen in number. When at rest, its silvery grey side is underneath. While the bird is performing, his tail is thrown forward, and its feathers are opened out like a fan, his head being then completely covered. In this position, the beautiful feathers are constantly quivering, and the tail is raised and lowered most gracefully. His wings all the while hang like a fowl’s on a hot day. At the same time, the feathers on the crown of his head stand up, and form a top-knot.

With his plumage arranged in this fashion, he goes through his graceful movements, dancing round his cage and becoming quite absorbed in the performance. Every motion is that of a bird keenly conscious of the delight of life and action.

As he dances about, a great variety of wild cries and musical sounds pour from his throat. In fact, there appears to be no end to his wonderful powers of mimicry. The ear is altogether deceived ; so perfectly are these sounds rendered. The imitation is quite equal to the original.

The yelping of a puppy in distress is heard ; then, the squeaking of pigs and the clucking of hens quickly follow ; next, the listener is surprised to hear the harsh laugh of the jackass, the shrill screech of the cockatoo, and the flute-like note of the magpie. While uttering these varied sounds, he introduces some of his own native notes.

THE TAIL THAT JACK SHED IN SEPTEMBER, 1897.

He does not restrict himself to repeating the cries of living creatures, hut seems to take an equal delight in imitating musical instruments. The tuning of the strings of a violin succeeds the clear notes of the cornet, these sounds being sometimes varied by the playing of a boy’s penny-whistle.

Such harsh noises as the turning of a grindstone, the creaking of a wheelbarrow, and the rattling of waggon chains sometimes find a place in his brilliant performances.

Jack does not talk much. He can imitate the call of his mistress when feeding the fowls, and the “Gee up” and “Whoa back” of the men while driving their horses. In a gruff voice he will call out “ Hulloa Jack,” and the names of the horses on the farm. He has also learnt to make a peculiar cough which the members of the family know as “ Jack’s cough.”

It can easily be seen that Jack is a general favourite. He never fails to interest. His affection for his master and mistress is remarkable. They prize him very highly, and regard him as one of the family.

—S. S.

THE BATTLE OF BLENHEIM.

Riv-U-let, small river; “littlestream”(seel. 38). Ex-pect-ant, eagerly waiting.

Vic-tO-ry, battle gained ; triumph.

It was a summer evening,

Old Kaspar’s work was done ;

And he before his cottage door Was sitting in the sun ;

And by him sported on the green His little grandchild Wilhelmine.2

She saw her brother Peterkin Roll something large and round,

That he beside the rivulet,3 In playing there, had found ;

He came to ask what he had found,

That was so large and smooth and round.

Old Kaspar took it from the boy,

Who stood expectant by ;

And then the old man shook his head, And with a natural sigh,

:Tis some poor fellow’s skull,” said he, “ Who fell in the great victory.

‘ ‘ I find them in the garden, for There’s many 4 here about;

And, often, when I go to plough,

The ploughshare turns them out;

For many thousand men,” said he,

“ Were slain in the great victory.”

“ Now tell us what ’twas all about,” Young Peterkin he cries ;

And little Wilhelmine looks up With wonder-waiting eyes ;

“ Now tell us all about the war,

And what they killed each other for.”


Rout, confusion ; defeat.

Griev-ing, greatly sorrowing.

Quoth, said.

“ It was the English,” Kaspar cried,

‘ ‘ That put the French to rout;

But what they killed each other for,

I could not well make out.

But everybody said,” quoth he,

“ That ’twas a famous victory.

“My father lived at Blenheim then,5 Yon little stream hard by,

They burnt his dwelling to the ground, And he was forced to fly ;

So with his wife and child he fled,

Nor had he where to rest his head.

‘ ‘ With fire and sword the country round Was wasted far and wide,

And many a grieving mother then,

And new-born baby died.

But things like that, you know, must be At every famous victory.

‘ ‘ They say it was a shocking sight After the field was won ;

For many thousand bodies here Lay rotting in the sun ;

But things like that, you know, must be After a famous victory.

“ Great praise the Duke of Marlbro’6 won And our good Prince Eugene.” “ Why, ’twas a very wicked thing !” Said little Wilhelmine.

“Nay—nay—my little girl,” quoth he,

“ It was a famous victory.


“ And everybody praised the Duke Who such great fight did win.”

“ But what good came of it at last ? ”

Quoth little Peterkin.

“ Why, that I cannot tell,” said he ;

“But’twas a famous victory.”

—Robert Southey (1774-1843).

1.    Blen-heim (blen-Mm), village on the Danube in Bavaria, one of the southern states of the German Empire. Here, in 1704, the English and the Allies (Dutch, Germans, and Austrians) under the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy won a great victory over the French and Bavarians under Marshal Tallard.

2.    Wil-hel-mine is put for Wil-hel-min-a, the feminine of Wilhelm, which is the German for William. Note that “ mine ” in Wilhelmine rhymes with “ green ” and also with “ Eugene.”

3.    RiV-U-let. This runs into the Danube, and had to be crossed by the English, before they could attack the French, who were posted at Blenheim.

4.    There’s many is put for There are many.”

5.    Kaspar was, therefore, a Bavarian. The poet is in error in making him call Eugene our good Prince” (see 1. 56).

8. Marl-bro' stands for Marl-borough.

7. Prince Eu gene' (you-jeen'), the commander of the Allies.

BEWAEE OP DYNAMITE CAPS!4

Dy-na-mite (di-na-mit), an explosive substance. Ex-plod-ed, burst with violence.

Nec-es-sa-ry, such as must be; needful. Am^pu-tate, cut off, as a limb.

Det-O-nat-Or, tube containing a highly explosive substance.

Infju-ry, damage.


Di-am-e-ter, length of a straight line through the centre of a circle, and terminated at the circumference.

Ex-plO-sion, bursting with violence.

Ig-no-rance, want of knowledge.

Care-less-ness, heedlessness ; inattention.

Crip^ples, those deprived of the use of the limbs, particularly of the legs and feet.


Ill Melbourne, lately, two boys were searching for stamps among some rubbish from an office, when they came upon a number of small, copper tubes. They did not know what these tubes were, but, noticing something white inside them, they began with the aid of a nail to try to get it out.

The tubes were dynamite caps, and it was not long before one of them exploded, bruising and tearing the hands of the boy that was


DETONATOR AND FUSE.    DETONATOR, FUSE, AND DYNAMITE

CARTRIDGE.

holding it. To have his wounds dressed, he was at one taken to the hospital, where it was found necessary to amputate two of his fingers.

A dynamite cap, or detonator, appears to be a very harmless thing, blit it has within it the power of doing great injury. It is a round, hollow tube of bright copper, one and a half inches long, and about a quarter of an inch in diameter. The tube is closed at one end, and is partly filled with an explosive mixture, which, when heated sufficiently (to 360 degrees Fahrenheit's scale), by fire or friction, will go off with great force. Even scratching it with a pin is enough to cause it to explode.

Dynamite caps are used for exploding dynamite and similar substances used in mining and quarrying. To explode dynamite, the end of a fuse is pushed into a cap and fixed there by squeezing the cap near the open end with a pair of nippers. Then the cap is placed in the dynamite, and the explosion follows shortly after the fuse is lit.

Many a boy has picked up one of these caps, and, with a pin, or nail, or piece of wood, tried to find out what was inside. The result has almost always been the loss of at least some of his fingers. In the course of a year, the newspapers record far more such accidents than one would think could possibly happen.

Parents and workmen that use dynamite caps should be careful to keep them out of the way of children ; and the children who read this should, likewise, be careful, if they happen to see any little, copper tubes about, to let them alone, and warn others against touching them.

It is sad to think that many, through their own ignorance or carelessness, have become cripples for life, and perhaps burdens upon others.

1. This lesson has been inserted at the suggestion of the Ballarat Board of Advice, the correspondent of which (Mr. Wm, Fleay) kindly supplied much of the information.

GOOD DOCTORS.

In mod-er-a-tion, in a manner that keeps within bounds; sparingly, A-VOid-ance, act of keeping away from. Ex-Cite-ment, agitation ; state of being roused into action. 4

Coup-let, two lines of verse t hat rhyme with each other.

Tem-per-ance, moderation.

Re-pose; rest of mind ; quiet.

1 ~ r*'

lo i

NEWS AND NOTES.

The Honourable Edmund Barton, Q.C., M.L.C.

For some years past, the idea of federating the colonies of Australia under one Government has occupied the thoughts of many of its people; and not a few of its ablest thinkers have spent much time, and have laboured hard to devise a scheme that would meet with general approval.

THE HONOURABLE EDMUND BARTON, Q.C., M.L.C.

To prepare a Bill for the purpose, a Federal Convention, consisting of fifty delegates—ten from each of the colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and Western Australia_has

held three sessions. It has just brought its arduous work to a successful close by agreeing to the Commonwealth Constitution Bill.

The next step will be for the various Governments to refer this Bill to the electors of their respective colonies for acceptance or rejection.

After that has been done, and the electors of three or more colonies have accepted the Bill, it will be forwarded to Her Majesty for her sanction and that of the Imperial Parliament. This having been granted, the federation of those colonies will be complete.

Through his position as Leader of the Federal Convention during its sessions at Adelaide, Sydney, and Melbourne, the Honourable Edmund Barton, Q.C., M.L.C., has become one of the best known men in Australia. From the beginning of the movement, he has taken a prominent part in the work of bringing into existence the Commonwealth of Australia. The leadership of the Convention was looked upon as his by right, and he was pressed to accept it by his colleagues. The confidence that the people of his own colony—Hew South Wales, the mother colony of the group—have in him was shown at the election of the delegates to the Convention by his polling nearly 99,000 votes—a higher number by about 14,000 votes than was recorded for any other candidate.

Mr. Barton is a native of Hew South Wales, and was born in 1849. He had a brilliant career as a pupil at the Sydney Grammar School, and as a student at the Sydney University.

After taking many scholarships and his degree in Arts, he began practice as a barrister. He soon gave proof of his skill and ability, and now stands in the foremost rank of his profession. The honourable title of Q.C. (“Queen’s Counsel,” a dignity conferred by the Queen on distinguished barristers in the British Empire) was bestowed upon him in 1889.

At the age of thirty he entered Parliament, and has since held some of the highest positions in the State, having been Speaker, Attorney-General (twice), and Acting Premier. He has occupied a seat in both the Upper and the Lower House, and has been for many years a Fellow of the Senate of the Sydney University, and a Trustee of the Free Public Library.

#****#«=«=

The population of Australasia at the end of 1897 was estimated at 4,410,124. The numbers for the several colonies were as follow:—

(1.) Hew South Wales, 1,323,460.

(2.) Victoria, 1,176,238.

(3.) Hew Zealand, 729,056.

(4.) Queensland, 484,700.

(5.) South Australia, 363,044.

(6.) Tasmania, 171,718.

(7.) Western Australia, 161,908.

A Dream.

The tale goes that a labourer of Dundee lately told his wife a curious dream, which, he said, he had had during the night. He dreamed that he saw coming towards him in order four rats. The first one was very fat, and was followed by two lean rats, the rear rat being blind.

The dreamer was greatly perplexed as to what evil might follow, as it has been understood that to dream of rats denotes coming calamity. He appealed to his wife concerning this, but she, poor woman, could not help him.

His son, a sharp lad, who had heard his father relate the dream, volunteered to be the interpreter. “ The fat rat,” said he, “ is the man that keeps the public-hoose that ye gang till sae aften; an’ the twa lean yins are me an’ ma mither.” “ An’ the blin’ yin ? ” asked the lather. “ Oh, the blin’ yin’s jist yersel ! ”

* * * * * * # *

The formation of swimming clubs in the Metropolitan schools has been carried out with energy, and the result is very satisfactory. There are now in existence 22 clubs, having a membership of 1,745 boys and 880 girls.

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule IV.—Words ending In 11 lose one 1 when they are compounded. Thus full + 1111=fulfil.    To this rule, however, there are many

exceptions.

Short Form.—Double 11 loses one 1 when compounded.

all

almighty

all

almost

chill

chilblain

dull

dulness

full

bagful

full

careful

full

pocketful


install

instalment

roll

enrol

skill

skilful

spell

gospel

till

until

well

welfare

will

wilful


Exceptions.—In the following compounds, 11 is retained.

all

allspice

still

stillness

call

miscall

tell

foretell

fall

befall

well

farewell

ill

illness

well

wellbeing

roll

unroll

will

goodwill

REST.

Rest is not quitting

’Tis loving and serving

The busy career;

The highest and best;

Rest is the fitting

"Tis onward,

unswerving,

Of self to one’s sphere.

And this is true rest.

HOME.

Mozart.

Words from Montgomery.



J h    ~    -'t ‘

v, n Oo

. sceptre, pageantry and pride, While in his soften’d looks benignly blend The sire, the

son,


-s^p-


O'


» P

V V

the husband, brother, friend


mg


his soften’d looks benignly blend

*


f> c


Here woman reigns, the mother, daughter, Oh, thou shalt find, howe'er thy footsteps


~\f—ir

9 *-

The son, the husband, brother, friend :


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. I., No. 11.] MELBOURNE.    [May, 1898.

THE SONG OF THE WOOD.

“ What are you singing of, soft and mild,

Green leaves, waving your gentle hands ?

Is it a song for a little child,

Or a song God only understands ?

Is it a song of hope or fear ?

A song of regret that you must die ?

Is it a song of welcome cheer ?

Is it a song of a sad good-bye ?

Is it some message that you bring,

Hanging there ’mid the earth and sky ?

Who has taught you the song you sing ?

Or do you sing though you know not why ? ”

Answered the green leaves, soft and mild,

Whispered the green leaves, soft and clear,

“ It is a song for every child,

It is a song God loves to hear;

It is the only song we know ;

We never question how or why ;

’Tis not a song of fear or woe,

A song of regret that we must die :

Ever at morn and at eventide

This is our song in the deep old wood :

‘ Earth is beautiful, Heaven is wide,

And we are happy, for God is good ! ’ ”

—F. E. Weatherly.

.    a party at all,” said Alice ;

if there is to be one, I think I ought to invite the guests.”

“We gave you the opportunity of doing it,” the red remarked; “ but I daresay you’ve not had many lessons jet.”

Price Id.


ALICE’S

In-vitei ask.

Op-por-tu^ni-ty, chance; suitable time and conditions.

In-ter-rupt-ed, broke in upon.

Con-sid-ered, pondered; thought over with care.

Cau^tious-ly, in a wary or guarded manner.

Tri-um-phant-ly, in a manner showing delight on account of a victory gained.

Em-pha-sis, stress laid on a word or words in speaking.

“ I didn’t know I was to have


DREAM.

Cir-cum-stan-ces, conditions.

Dis-COUr^aged, disheartened.

Anx-ious-ly, in a concerned manner. Bar-gains, agreements.

Light-ning, a discharge of electricity, commonly from one cloud to another, sometimes from a cloud to the earth.

De-cidied-ly, in a positive manner. Con-se-quen-ces, effect; result.

“ but

queen in manners


“ Manners are not taught in lessons,” said Alice. “ Lessons teach you to do sums, and things of that sort.”

“Can you do addition?” the white queen asked. “What’s one and one, and one and one, and one and one, and one and one, and one and one?”

“ I don’t know,” said Alice. “ I lost count.”

“ She can’t do addition,” the red queen interrupted. “ Can you do subtraction? Take nine from eight.”

“ Nine from eight I can’t, you know,” Alice replied very readily ; “ but ”—

“ She can’t do subtraction,” said the white queen. “ Can you do division? Divide a loaf by a knife—what’s the answer to that?” “I suppose ”—Alice was beginning; but the red queen answered for her. “ Bread and butter, of course. Try another subtraction sum. Take a bone from a dog : what remains?”

Alice considered. “ The bone wouldn’t remain, of course, if I took it; and the dog wouldn’t remain, it would come to bite me ; and I’m sure I shouldn’t remain !”

“ Then you think nothing would remain?” said the red queen.

“ I think that’s the answer.”

“Wrong as usual,” said the red queen; “the dog’s temper would remain.”

“ But I don’t see how”—

“ Why, look here! ” the red queen cried. “The dog would lose his temper, wouldn’t he?”

“ Perhaps he would,” Alice replied cautiously.

“ Then, if the dog went away, its temper would remain!” the queen exclaimed triumphantly.

Alice said, as gravely as she could, “ They might go different ways.” But she couldn’t help thinking to herself, “ What dreadful nonsense we’re talking! ”

“ She can’t do sums a bit!” the queens said together, with great emphasis.    _

“Cany<mdo sums?” Alice said, turning suddenly on the white queen, for she*didn’t like being found fault with so much.

The queen gasped, and shut her eyes. “ I can do addition,” she said, “ if you give me time; but I can’t do subtraction under any circumstances! ”    ^

“ Of course you know your A B C?” said the red queen.

“ To be sure I do,” said Alice.

“ So do I,” the white queen whispered; “ we’ll often say it over together, dear. And I’ll tell you a secret,—I can read words of one letter! Isn’t that grand! However, don’t be discouraged; you’ll come

to it in time.”    _

Here the red queen began again. “ Can you answer useful questions ?” she said. “ How is bread made ? ”

“I know that ! ” Alice cried quickly. “ You take some flour-”

u Where do yon pick the flower?” the white queen asked. In a garden, or in the hedges ? ”

“ Well it isn’t picked at all,” Alice explained ; ££ its ground-”

u How many acres of ground?” said the white queen. ££ You mustn’t leave out so many things.”

££ Fan her head! ” the red queen anxiously interrupted. ££ She’ll be feverish after so much thinking.” So they set to work, and fanned her with branches of leaves, till she had to beg them to leave off, it blew her hair about so.

u She’s all right again now,” said the red queen. “ Do you know languages ? What’s the French for fiddle-de-dee ?”

“ Fiddle-de-dee’s not English,” Alice replied gravely.

££ Whoever said it was ? ” said the red queen.

Alice thought she saw a way out of the difficulty this time. ££ If you’ll tell me what language £ fiddle-de-dee ’ is, I’ll tell you the French for it ! ” she exclaimed triumphantly.

But the red queen drew herself up rather stiffly, and said, “ Queens never make bargains.”

££ I wish queens never asked questions,” Alice thought to herself.

££ Don’t let us quarrel,” the white queen said, in an anxious tone. “ What is the cause of lightning ? ”

££ The cause of lightning,” Alice said very decidedly, for she felt

quite certain about this, ££is the thunder-no, no!” she hastily

corrected herself “ I meant the other way.”

It's too late to correct it,” said the red queen ; ££ when you’ve once said a thing, that fixes it, and you must take the consequences.”

—From Through the Looking Glass, by Lewis Carroll.

[The- Rev. C. L. Dodgson, who wrote under the name of Lewis Carroll,” was born in 1833, and died recently. He spent most of his life at Oxford, where he was a college lecturer. He was a very clever man, and the author of many bocks. Two of them—Alices Adventures in Wonderland and its continuation, Through a Looking Glass—made him famous. They have not only been read widely by English boys and girls, but have also been translated into most of the languages.of Europe.]

INDIA-RUBBER.

Trop-i-cal, being within the tropics, that is, the circles situated at a distance of 23J degrees on each side of the equator.

Fo-li-age, leaves.

Ad-he-sive, sticky.

Sur-fi-Cient, enough; equal to the end proposed.

Con-ven-i-ent, suitable.

Pe-cul-i-ar, singular ; strange.


E-las-tiC, able to return to the shape from which it has been bent, stretched, or pressed. Im-pos-si-ble, not able to be done.

Flex-i-ble, capable of being bent.

Con-sumed] used up.

Pro-por-tion, arrangement of parts. Bo-tan-i-cal, where plants are gfown for the purpose of illustrating the science of botany


India-rubber is the hardened, milky juice of various trees and climbers that grow in tropical regions. The chief supplies of this useful article come from Brazil, the Gnianas,1 Central America,

Tropical Africa, India, and the East and West Indies. That which is obtained from Brazil, in South America, is the best. It is the produce of a slender, smooth-stemmed tree that grows to a height of between


60 and 100 feet, and has a spreading top of thick, glossy foliage. That from Africa is the produce of a climber, the stems of which are as thick as a man’s wrist.

The Brazilian method of collecting the juice is to make in the wood of the tree cuts about an inch wide and an inch deep ; and to place under them earthen cups, which are kept in their place by means of adhesive clay.

The milk thus collected, which is of dazzling whiteness, is poured over clay moulds. It is then held in the dense smoke, caused by burning the nuts of a certain palm, till it is hard enough to bear another coating. The process is repeated till the substance is of sufficient thickness, when the mould is broken and removed. Formerly, the moulds were in the form of shoes or bottles ; but now a more convenient shape is used, namely, that of a broad bat.

The method of collecting the juice from the climbers growing in Central Trojncal Africa is peculiar. The milk dries so quickly that a ridge forms on the wound, which stops the flow. The natives, therefore, make long cuts in the bark with a knife ; and, when the juice flows out, they wipe it away with their ______fingers, and smear it on their

COLLECTING AND SMOKING INDIA-RUBBER.    & ’i i i    i i    ,

(From Chatterbox.)    arms, shoulders, and breasts,

India-rubber has neither taste nor smell. It is elastic and waterproof. For many years after its discovery by Europeans, it was used only for rubbing out blots and errors in writing ; and it is from this use that the substance got its name of “rubber.”

till a thick coating is formed. They then peel it off, and cut it into small squares.



So many things are made of india-rubber that it is impossible to give here the names of all. Some that are often seen are bags, rugs, caps, shoes,coats, and cloaks.

To manufacture water-proof cloth, a layer of liquid india-rubber is spread between two sheets of suitable material, and portion of the trunk of the india-rubber the three are then    TREE W,TH collecting cups attached.

i i ;    ii    (From an illustrated sheet published with The Practical Teacher.)

passed between rollers.

In Cayenne, the capital of French Guiana, india-rubber torches are used to give light.

Stoppers of bottles and flexible tubing made of this material are much used by chemists. A large quantity is consumed in the manufacture of bicycle tires and hose for conveying liquids.

A hard compound known as ebonite is produced by mixing india-rubber and sulphur in such a proportion that, in a hundred parts of the substance, there are from thirty to fifty of sulphur. Ebonite can be coloured to any shade, and can be cut like ivory, and used for combs, backs of brushes, walking-sticks, &c.

The Director of the Botanical Gardens, Adelaide, writing in The Scientific Australian states that there is one kind of rubber-tree that could be tapped when five or six years old. This tree should flourish, in the northern parts of Queensland and in the Northern Territory.5 It is very probable that rubber-tree cultivation would yield a good return to the planter.

1.    The Gui-a-nas (ge-a-nas), region in South America, north of Brazil, including British, Dutch, and French Guiana.

YE MARINERS

Mar-i-ners, seamen.

Stand-ard, flag-; banner.

Bri-tan-ni-a, Latin word for Britain.

Bul-V/arks (bool-'warks), any means of defence ; forts. Sometimes the word means the sides of a ship above the upper deck.

ROBERT BLAKE (¡598 1657).

Ye mariners of England That guard our native seas,

Whose flag has braved, a thousand-years,

The battle and the breeze !

Your glorious standard launch again To match another foe !

And sweep through the deep,

While the stormy winds do blow; While the battle rages loud and long, And the stormy winds do blow.

The spirits of your fathers

Shall start from every wave !—

For the deck it was their field of fame, And ocean was their grave :

Where Blake1 and mighty Nelson2 fell, Your manly hearts shall glow,

As ye sweep through the deep,

While the stormy winds do blow ; While the battle rages loud and long, And the stormy winds do blow.

OF ENGLAND.

Steep, rocky shore.

Quells, overpowers.

Me-te-or, shooting-star.

Ter-rif-ic, causing great fear or dread. War-riors, men engaged in war ; soidiers; champions.

Ceased, topped; given up.

Britannia needs no bulwarks,

No towers along the steep ;

Her march is o’er the mountain wave, Her home is on the deep.

With thunders from her native oak,3 She quells the floods below,As they roar on the shore,

When the stormy winds do blow ; When the battle rages loud and long, And the stormy winds do blow.

HORATIO NELSON (|758 1805).

The meteor flag5 of England Shall yet terrific burn,

Till danger’s troubled night depart, And the star of peace return.

Then, then, ye ocean warriors,

Our song and feast shall flow To the fame of your name,

When the storm has ceased to blow : When the fiery fight is heard no more, And the storm has ceased to blow.

—T. Campbell (1777-1844).

1.    Blake, a great English admiral. He defeated the Dutch in 1652 and 1653.

2.    Nelson, the greatest of English admirals. His most famous victories were over the French at the Nile (1798), over the Danish at Copenhagen (1801), and over the French and Spanish at Trafalgar (1805). He was killed at Trafalgar.

3.    With thun-ders from her na-tive oak, with the booming of cannon from her ships, which used to be built of oak.

4.    She quells the floods. On account of the noise made by the firing, the sound of the waves cannot be heard

5.    Me-te-or flag. The flag, borne rapidly from place to place, is compared to a meteor or shootingstar.


THE HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, AND HIS DISCOVERY

OF AMERICA.

Regions, lands.

Be-lievedi thought.

In-hab-it-ants, those dwelling in a place. Charts, maps intended especially for the use of seamen.

For-eign, outside one’s country.

De-rivedi obtained; received.

En-dured; underwent.

Ob-served; noticed with care.

Oc-cur-rence, event.

Ob-ser-va-tions, what he noticed.

Ad-vent :ur-er, one who attempts bold deeds or enterprises.

Cir-cum-stan-ces, incidents.

Oc-cur-ring, taking place ; happening.

Cu-ri -OS-i-ty, desire to gratify the mind with new information, or with objects of interest. Re-flect-ing On, thinking deeply over.


The parts of the world which were known 450 years ago were Europe, Asia, and Africa. The people of those regions traded with one another, and believed themselves to be the only inhabitants of the world. They had never ventured to sail out into the great ocean that surrounded them.

The most westerly lands known to the people of Europe were the Madeira Islands,1 the Canary Islands,2 and the Azores.3 And when we look into the map, and see how far out in the great sea those islands are situated, we cannot but admire the bravery of the man who first dared to venture out so far as to reach them. Sailors now, indeed, cross all parts of the Atlantic Ocean without much danger ; but those who first discovered these islands, and explored the ocean which surrounds them, had no charts to guide their course.

In the year 1446, Christopher Columbus was born. His father was a poor hard-working man, who lived in Genoa,4 a city of Italy. Poor as he was, however, he took care that his son should be taught reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Columbus was fond of studying maps, and reading accounts of foreign countries. The subject of geography, as he grew up, occupied more of his time than any other employment; and the pleasure he derived from this study made him long to visit other countries. At 14 years of age, he became a sailor ; and, during his youth, he sailed about the Mediterranean Sea, sometimes in merchant vessels, and sometimes in men-of-war. He endured many hardships, but he gained the advantage of learning the management of a ship ; and thus became, while yet a young man, a tried and clever sailor.

His daring spirit soon urged him to extend his voyages beyond the Mediterranean Sea. He sailed through the Straits of Gibraltar into the Atlantic Ocean, and made a voyage to the west coast of Africa. During these voyages, he carefully observed every new occurrence, and stored up all the knowledge that he could obtain from other sailors.

It was by these observations and inquiries that he was first led to suppose that there might be land to the westward of the Azores. “ The Azores,” thought he, “ were once unknown, but it only required some man a little bolder than others to discover them ; and why may there not be land to the westward of the Azores also, which it only remains for some other fortunate adventurer to make known ! ”

Some of thfe facts which caused Columbus to believe that there was land to the west of the Azores are very curious. He had learned that, at the Madeiras and the Azores, trunks of huge pine trees, such as did not grow in these islands, had been washed on shore by westerly winds. Pieces of wood, cut and carved in strange shapes, had been picked up. But, above all, two dead bodies of men,jyith features quite unlike those of the people of Europe, Asia, or Africa^iad been cast on one of these islands, and had caused much wonc^mj

These strange circumstances, o'bcurring at different times, appear to have been regarded as mere objectVr^f idle curiosity; till Columbus, reflecting on them, was led to think that the trees must have grown on land, that the carved wood must have been worked by men’s hands, and that, as all these things came from the west, land, as yet unknown to Europeans, was to be found in that direction.

1.    Ma-dei-ra (ma-de-ra), islands off the north-west coast of Africa, belonging to Portugal.

2.    Ca-na-ry, islands off the north-west coast of Africa, belonging to Spain.

8. A-zOresi islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south-west of Portugal, to which country they belong.

4. Gen-O-a, city, north-west of Italy, on the Gulf of Genoa.

Res^i-dence, abode; home.

Pre-sent-ed, brought into the presence of.

Dif-ii-CUl-ties, troubles; things hard to do or deal with.

A-wait-ed, was in store for.

Ex-pe-di-tion, number of persons setting out on an important undertaking at some distance.

Ac-com-pa-ny, go with.


Re-solvedi made up his mind ; determined.

Gov-ern-or, chief ruler.

Nec-es-sa-ry, needful.

Dis-ap-point-ed, cast down ; depressed in spirit.

Por-tu-gUGSe, natives of Portugal.

Dis-hon-est-ly, in an unjust manner.

Pre-tend-ing to, making a show.

Fa-tigue' (fa-teeg'), weariness.    "t*'!

So sure did Columbus feel that there were new countries towards the west, that he was willing to risk his own life, and to sail over that vast untried ocean in search of them. But he was a poor man, with neither money nor rich friends to assist him. Even if he could have procured a ship, he had no rewards to offer, with which to persuade daring men to accompany him on the voyage.

At length, he resolved to try to persuade the king or governor of some country to fit out for him the necessary ships, so that lie migh go at once and make the intended discovery.

Haying been born in Genoa, he first offered his plan to the chief men of that city ; but they only laughed at him, and refused to listen to or assist him. Much disappointed, but still resolved to persevere,, he went to the King of Portugal. At this time, the Portuguese were the best sailors in Europe, and had made the longest voyages. Columbus was not laughed at this time, but he was treated dishonestly. Pretending to listen to him, the King of Portugal got from him part of his plan ; and then, refusing to assist him, sent out one of his own captains with some ships to make the very discovery which the ill-used Columbus had been the first to propose. However, the captain who was sent out did not succeed : he met with stormy weather, became alarmed, and soon returned to Portugal.

As soon as Columbus heard of the return of these ships, he departed for Spain He was so poor that he was obliged to beg as he went along.

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS (I446--I506),


One cold, windy night, a stranger, carrying a young child on his back, arrived at a small village in the south of Spain. He begged for bread and water, saying that he and his child were faint with hunger and fatigue.

Some kind people took him into their house, and gave him food. This stranger was Columbus, journeying towards Cordova,1 which was then the chief town of Spain, and the residence of the King and Queen. The people that assisted him in his misery were so much interested in his behalf2 that they gave him money to continue his journey; and some of them even went with him, and, when they arrived at Cordova, presented him to the Queen, and obtained her promise to support him.

But his difficulties were not yet over. Many years passed away before the Queen could resolve really to perform her promise. During this time, Columbus had need of much patience. The people about the palace were too ignorant to understand his reasons for believing there might be countries beyond the seas ; and they laughed at him for his poverty, and called him a dreamer.

At last, the Queen gave orders that three ships should be lent to him, and furnished him with money to engage sailors and prepare everything for the voyage. Disappointment, however, still awaited poor Columbus ; the sailors disliked to go ; they were afraid to embark on such an expedition, and refused to accompany him.

An order from the Queen at last forced 120 men on board the vessels. Their friends took leave of them as of men who were never to return. Columbus, full of hope and joy, cheered them with promises of success ; hut he still saw only despair in the faces of the sailors. Two of his friends joined the expedition ; and to each of them he gave the command of a vessel.

1.    Cor-do-va, city in the south of Spain, on the Guadalquiver River.

2.    In-ter-est-ed in his he-halfi stirred up to aid him.

THE OLD OAKEN BUCKET.

Rec-ol-lec-tioil, memory. In-fan-cy, early childhood. Cat-a-ract, great fall of water. Ex-qui-site, delightful.

Ar-dent, eager.

Em-blem, sign; symbol.

Poised, balanced.

In-clined; sloped, or tipped towards. Gob-let, large drinking cup or bowl.


Nec^tar, the drink of the gods of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Ju-pit-er, the king of the gods of the ancient Romans.

Sit-u-a-tion, place.

In-tru-Sive-ly, against one’s will; unbidden. Re-verts' turns back.

Pian-ta-tion, in America, a tobacco, cotton, or sugar farm.


How dear to this heart are the scenes of my childhood,

When fond recollection presents them to view !

The orchard, the meadow, the deep-tangled wildwood,

And every loved spot that my infancy knew ;—

The wide-spreading pond, and the mill that stood by it,

The bridge, and the rock where the cataract fell;

The cot of my father, the dairy-house nigh it,

And e’en the rude bucket that hung in the well—

The old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket,

The moss-covered bucket that hung in the well.

That moss-covered vessel I hail as a treasure ;

For often, at noon, when returned from the field,

I found it the source of an exquisite pleasure,

The purest and sweetest that nature can yield.

How ardent I seized it, with hands that were glowing !

And quick to the white-pebbled bottom it fell;

Then soon, with the emblem of truth overflowing,

And dripping with coolness, it rose from the well—

The old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket,

The moss-covered bucket, arose from the well.

How sweet from the green, mossy brim to receive it,

As, poised on the curb, it inclined to my lips !

Not a full, blushing goblet could tempt me to leave it,

Though filled with the nectar that Jupiter sips.

And, now, far removed from the loved situation,

A tear of regret will intrusively swell,

As fancy reverts to my father’s plantation,

And sighs for the bucket that hangs in the well—

The old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket,

The moss-covered bucket that hangs in the well.

—Samuel Woodworth, an American.

THE RAPIDS.

Rapids, part of a river where the current moves more swiftly than usual.

Tur-moil, disturbance.

Wake, track left by a vessel in the water.

En-joy-ment, pleasure.

Ex-cur-sion, trip; jaunt.

Shriek-ing, uttering loud, shrill cries. Hope-less-ly, without hope ; in despair.

THE NIAGARA FALLS.


was the reply. “ Is it possible that only a mile from us we shall find the water in the turmoil which it must show when near the Falls?” “ You will find it so, sir.” And so I found it ; and that first sight of the Niagara I shall never forget.

Now launch your bark on that Niagara River ; it is bright, smooth^ beautiful, and glassy. There is a ripple at the bow ; the silvery wake you leave behind adds to your enjoyment. Down the stream you glide,—oars, sails, and helm in proper trim,—and you set out on your pleasure excursion.

Suddenly, some one cries out from the bank, “ Young men, ahoy! ” “ What is it ? ” “ The rapids are below you.”—“ Ha ! ha ! we have heard of the rapids, but we are not such fools as to get there. If we go too fast, then we shall up with the helm, and steer to the shore ; we will set the mast in the socket, hoist the sail, and speed to land. Haste away ? ”

“Young men, ahoy there!” “What is it?” “The rapids are below you.” “ Ha, ha ! Never fear ! Time enough to steer out of danger when we are sailing swiftly with the current. On ! On ! ”

“Young men, ahoy!” “What is it?” “Beware! Beware! The rapids are below you. Now you see the water foaming all around. See how fast you pass that point! Up with the helm ! Now turn ! Pull hard !—quick ! quick!—pull for your lives ! pull till the blood starts from the nostrils, and the veins stand like whipcord upon the brow ! Set the mast in the socket!—hoist the sail! Ah, ah ! it is too late. Shrieking hopelessly, over you go.”

Thousands go over “ rapids ”3 every year, heedless of the still, small warning voice.4

—J. B. Gough (a celebrated American lecturer on temperance).

1.    Buf-fa-lo, city north-east of the United States of America, at the east end of Lake Erie.

2.    Ni-ag-a-ra Falls, 150 feet high and more than half a mile wide, are on the Niagara River, which connects Lakes Erie and Ontario.

3. “Rap£ids,” namely, of intemperance, gambling, and other vices.

4.    The still, small warning voice, conscience.

SEAWEEDS.

Par-terre/ (par-tare), arrangement of beds in    Ex.-qui-site, matchless; perfect.

which flowers are cultivated ; garden with    Fragile, (frazil), easily broken ; frail.

Call us not weeds, we are flowers of the sea,

For lovely and bright and gay-tinted are we ;

Our blush is as deep as the rose of thy bowers,

Then call us not weeds, we are ocean’s fair flowers. Not nursed like the plants of a summer parterre, Whose gales are but sighs of an evening air,

Our exquisite, fragile, and delicate forms

Are rocked by the ocean, and reared by its storms.

TOPICS OF THE MONTH.

OUR QUEEN.

On the 24th of this month, Queen Victoria will be seventy-nine years of age. Her Majesty is the only child of Edward, Duke of Kent, the brother of William IV., and was born at Kensington Palace on

VICTORIA, QUEEN OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, AND EMPRESS OF INDIA.

May 24th, 1819. Her father died in 1820 ; and, when William IV. died on June 20th, 1837, leaving no children, Victoria ascended the throne.

Concerning the Queen’s work and personal influence during her long reign, Dean Farrar thus spoke last year at the conclusion of a lecture entitled “ Progress in the Reign of Queen Victoria”—

“We should he indeed ungrateful, were we to overlook the personal share which our Sovereign has had in the initiation and furtherance of the many blessings I have referred to. She has honoured science ; she has fostered art and music; she has encouraged literature; she has recognised greatness ; she has stimulated progress. She has kindled the light of a sweet and loving home ; she has taken her people into her confidence ; and, rejoicing with them that do rejoice, and weeping with them that wept, she has ever shown deep sympathy with the very humblest of her subjects, and set the high example of ‘ a heart at leisure from itself.’

“ Which of all our Sovereigns would you place before her in simple goodness and faithfulness ? She is worthy of the gladdest cheers from millions of voices.

“ May God bless her, and protect her from all her enemies ! May He make her crown flourish! May He grant that the sunset of her long day may show a brighter and ever brighter lustre, and he golden to its very close! ” What a beautiful and fitting prayer this would be for her subjects to offer up on the morning of the anniversary of her seventy-ninth birthday, May the 24th, 1898 !

The Queen has always shown marked kindness and consideration, not only for the people about her, but also for her dumb pets. In this connection, the following incident is but one of many that might be related :—

After the coronation was over, and the young Queen had returned to Buckingham Palace, crowned and robed, through miles of crowded and cheering people, she heard her dog, Dash, barking with joy at her return. Her splendid robes were instantly thrown aside, and Dash was caressed and comforted.

* # # «■= *= *

The British Empire is larger than any known to history. The Russian Empire is the next in size ; and then comes China.

The population of the British Empire is estimated at 400 millions. It is supposed to be more populous than China, which has long held the pride of place.

The Queen rules over nearly one-third of mankind.

The English language is spoken by 115 millions of white people.

The shipping (vessels of 100 tons and upwards) owned in the United Kingdom and her Colonies amounts to 13,482,87(3 tons; that in the rest of the countries of the world to 12,424,575 tons.

In a suburb of Adelaide, lately, several boys wbo had been kept from school on account of heavy rain falling just at school time, were playing in the bed of a creek, a tributary of the Torrens River, when a rush of water, the result of a downpour on the Mount Lofty Ranges, swept five of them away. Sad to relate, three of the boys were drowned.

One boy was rescued by Mr. J. H. Lake, who was working on a building close to the creek, and, hearing the cries of the children as they were being carried along by the current, ran to see what was wrong. He placed a ladder against a bridge, and, when the boy caught hold of it, levered the ladder up, and so saved him.

The other boy was rescued in a plucky manner by Mr. T. H. Allen, who, though an elderly gentleman, rushed into the stream that was travelling at the rate of over ten miles an hour, seized the boy, and brought him to land.

One of the three boys that were drowned is said to have jumped into the water to save a little fellow that had been placed under his charge. The last words his companions heard him say were, “Save my baby.”

* * * * * #

The warning against meddling with dynamite caps that appeared in the April number of The School Paper—Class IV. came, alas ! too late, even if he could have read it, for a little boy, seven years old, living at Eaglehawk. On the 31st of March, he was playing with a dynamite cap, when it exploded, injuring one of his hands, and shattering the other so badly that it had to be amputated.

*******

Estimated population of the capitals (including suburbs) of the Australasian Colonies at the end of 1897—

Melbourne, 458,610.

Sydney, 410,150.

Adelaide, 145,669.

Brisbane, 103,324.

Hobart, 38,264.

Wellington, 42,931.

Perth, 28,317.

* * * * * *

“England Expects every Man to do his Duty.”

At Armadale, on the 19th of February, there passed away from among us, at the ripe age of eighty-one, beloved and respected by all who knew him, Commander Robert Pasco, R.N. He may, in one sense, be said to have been a link between our times and those of Nelson. He was the son of Admiral Pasco, who was Flag-Lieutenant on the Victory at Trafalgar, and he was accustomed to recall with pride his father’s account of his conversation with Nelson on the subject of the

famous signal. In his autobiography, published last year, Commander Pasco gave the conversation, as follows:—

u Mr. Pasco,” said the Admiral, “ I wish to say to the fleet, England confides that every man will do his duty, and,” he added, “ you must be quick, for I have one more signal to make, which is, ‘ Close for action.’”

“ If your lordship will permit me,” said the lieutenant, “ to substitute 6 expects ’ for ‘ confides,’ the signal will soon be completed, because the word ‘ expects ’ is in the signal vocabulary, but the word  confides ’ must be spelt at length.”

“ That will do, Pasco ; make it at once,” said the Admiral, apparently pleased with the alteration.

And soon from the mainmast of the Victory were fluttering the flags which made known to the whole of the fleet the never-to-be-forgotten signalu England expects every man to do his duty.”

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule YIII.—Some nouns ending in o, especially if the o is preceded by a consonant, form their plural by adding es. Such are :—Buffalo, calico, cargo, domino, echo, flamingo, hero, mosquito, motto, negro, no, potato, tomato, tornado, volcano, and others.

Exceptions.—Many nouns ending in o take s only. Such are :— Bamboo, cameo, grotto, h.alO,# portico, quarto, solo, tyro, zero, folio, oratorio, portfolio, and others in io.

Proper nouns in o tending to common form their plural by adding S : as Cato, Catos ; Cicero, Ciceros.

NOTICES.

HISTORY SYLLABUS (Circular 98/5).

The word “ known ” is a misprint for “shown ” in “ 5 ” of the c< Notes.”

NEW SCHOOL PAPER.

The School Paper for Glasses V. and VI. will be issued on the 1st of September next.

Thz Royal Readers now being read in the schools will be used at the examinations to be held in 1898.

RESULT EXAMINATIONS.

At result examinations, tests in spelling and dictation will be taken only from those lessons in The School Papers to which lists of words and their meanings are prefixed.

JAMES BAGGE,

Secretary of Education.

1

Louis XIV., who came to the throne of France when he was five years old, reigned seventy-two years, but he was twenty-three before he really exercised power.

Price Id.

2

Be, an old form, put for are."

3

Final e is dropped before a words :—

4

once knew an old gentleman who never seemed to be ill. He was strong ; he was active ; he was cheerful; and he had been so as long as I could remember. I asked him how it was that he always kept so well and so happy.

He said that he owed it to four doctors ; and he gave their names thus:—

“Dr. Air, and Dr. Diet,

Dr. Horse, and Dr. Quiet.”

Dr. Air, that is, plenty of fresh air. Dr. Diet, that is, wholesome food, taken in moderation. Dr. Horse, that is, active exercise. Dr. Quiet, that is, the avoidance of worry and unhealthy excitement.

Remember these things, children. If you want health, choose these doctors. Be sure also that you avoid idleness, bad companions, late hours, and strong drink. They are the curses of many a life.

5

   North-ern Ter-ri-to-ry, the northern portion o South Australia. The 26th parallel of south latitude divides it from South Australia proper. In extent it is rather more than half the colony.

6

On page 149 of the April number of The School Paper—Class IV, the plural of “ halo ” is not formed in accordance with the best usage. It should be “ halos.”