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EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

V"OL. II., No. 1.]    MELBOURNE.    [June, 1898.

A VOICE FROM THE WEST.

Twain, two. Main, ocean.


Sen^ti-nel, soldier set to watch. Loy-al-ly, faithfully.

[Recently, the Chinese Government leased small portions of its territory, and gave certain trading rights to some of the leading European nations. As all were not treated alike, great jealousy arose in connection with the concessions made. On more than one occasion, it seemed that Great Britain, in order to maintain her position, would be compelled to go to war. The people of the United States showed much sympathy for our country, and a disposition to support her claims if the need should arise.

In the following verses, the poet-laureate 1 embodies this expression of good-will, and replies on behalf of the British people.    .

The poem was written before the United States declared war against Spain. ]

—From The Daily News, by Alfred Austin, Poet-laureate.

1.    Po-et-laiFre-ate, a poet whose duty it is to compose an ode annually on the sovereign's birthday, and other suitable occasions. He is appointed bjr the British Government. It is said that the title was first given in England in the time of Edward IV.

2.    The tale Of an an-cient wrong. The poet is referring to the American War of Independence and the causes that led to it. The eastern states of the present United States of America were colonised from England, the first permanent settlement, Virginia, being founded in 1607. On account of an attempt being made by the British Parliament to tax the colonists, they revolted from the mother country, and declared their independence in 1776. Their action led to a long war in which they were successful.


1.    What is the voice I hear

On the wind of the western sea ? Sentinel ! listen from out Cape Clear,

And say what the voice may be.

“’Tis a proud, free people calling loud to a people proud and free.

2.    “And it says to them, ‘ Kinsmen, hail!

We severed have been too long ; Now let us have done with a worn-out tale,

The tale of an ancient wrong,1

And our friendship last long as love doth last, and be stronger than death is strong ?5

3.    Answer them, sons of the self-same

race,

And blood of the self-same clan,

Let us speak to each other, face to face,

And answer as man to man;

And loyally love and trust each other, as none but free men can.


Price Id.


4. Now, fling them out to the breeze,

Shamrock, Thistle, and Rose !

And the Star-spangled Banner unfurl with these,

A message to friends and foes,

Wherever the sails of peace are seen, and wherever the war-wind blows.

o. A message to bond and thrall to wake,

For, wherever we come, we twain, The throne of the tyrant shall rock and quake,

And his menace be void and vain ;

For you are lords of a strong, young land, and we are lords of the main.

6. Yes, this is the voice on the bluff March gale,

“We severed have been too long, But now we have done with a worn-out tale,

The tale of an ancient wrong ;

May our friendship last long as love doth last, and be stronger than death is strong.”


THE HISTORY OF COLUMBUS, AND HIS DISCOVERY OF

AMERICA—(continued).

Haz-ard-OUS, dangerous; perilous. De-tained' delayed ; kept from proceeding. Op-posed' striven against; resisted. Ob-Stin-ate, not yielding to reason; stubborn. Beau^ti-ful-ly, quickly and pleasantly. Dis-con-tent-ed, uneasy; dissatisfied. Pro-ceed-ed, gone.

Ap-pear-anc-es, things seen.

De-creas-ing, becoming less.

Dis-ap-point-ment, failure of hope.

Pro -vis ions, stock of food.

Ex-haust-ed, used up.

De-spond-en-cy, discouragement; state of having no hope.

Fa-tigu-ing, tiring.

Ex-ceed-ing-ly, very much.

Ac-cus-tomed, used.

Op-por-tU-ni-ty, fit or convenient time.

1. The ships given him to undertake a long and hazardous voyage were old and almost worn out; two of them, indeed, were little better than open boats. On the 3rd of August, 1492, the vessels sailed. Columbus first directed his course to the Canary Islands, intending, when he had reached them, to steer due west. 1 2

COLUMBUS’S SHIP, THE “SANTA MARIA.”

HARVEST HYMN.

Of-fer, present as an act of worship Im-parts,' grants; gives. De-sir-est, wishest much for.


Al-might-y, possessing all power. Re-fresh-ing, making fresh again; reviving. Ac-cepti receive.

We plough the fields, and scatter The good seed on the land ;

But it is fed and watered By God’s almighty hand.

He sends the frost in winter,

The warmth to swell the grain,

The breezes and the sunshine,

And soft, refreshing rain.

All good gifts around us

Are sent from heaven above ;

Then thank the Lord, oh, thank the Lord For all His love.

He only is the Maker

Of all things near and far ;

He paints the wayside flower,

He lights the evening star.

The winds and waves obey Him,

By Him the birds are fed ;

Much more to us His children He gives our daily bread.

All good gifts around us Are sent from heaven above;

Then thank the Lord, oh, thank the Lord For all His love.

We thank Thee, then, 0 Father,

For all things bright and good,—

The seed-time and the harvest,

Our life, our health, our food.

Accept the praise we offer For all Thy love imparts ;

And what Thou most desirest,—

Our thankful, humble hearts.

All good gifts around us

Are sent from heaven above ;

Then thank the Lord, oh, thank the Lord For all His love.

THE BUTTERFLY.

At-tenGive-ly, carefully.

Per-ceivef see.

Fil-a-ment, slender thread.

Spi-ral-ly, in the manner of a screw. Mag-ni-fy-ing, enlarging; increasing the apparent size of.

Con-struct-ed, formed ; made.

A-dapt-ed, suited; fitted.

Re-ceiv-ing, taking up.

Nour-ish-ment, food. 3

Ca-lyx, the outer covering, or leaf-like envelope of a flower. It is usually of a greenish hue.

Con-triv-ance, device.

Nat-'U-ral-ists, those who study natural history, especially that branch of it relating to animals.

Cat^er-pil-lars, worm or grub-like creatures.

Chrys-a-lis, form into which the caterpillar of a butterfly or moth passes, and from which the perfect insect, after a time, emerges.

Ob-servei take careful notice.

There are many varieties of butterflies—all beautiful. Some have nearly every colour mixed—red, blue, yellow, white, brown ; others sparkle like gold and gems.


2.    The butterfly has six legs; two fore ones for carrying things to its mouth, and cleaning its head and face ; and four for walking. It has also two feelers, and a pair of round, bright eyes.


3.    It is a law of nature that animals must eat to live. How do butterflies eat ? On what do they live ? These are questions which have, probably, come into your minds as you have seen the beautiful creatures flitting

A BUTTERFLY WITH ITS    ,    ®

TRUNK PARTLY UNROLLED. PaS>-

31

I. COROLLA.


II. CALYX.


4.    The next time you see a butterfly, if you can catch it, take it gently by the wings, and examine its head attentively. You will soon perceive a little filament, rolled up spirally like the spring of a watch. Well, this is really a slender tube forming the butterfly’s trunk. Unroll it with a tiny blade or stalk of grass ; and, at its base, if you have a magnifying glass, you will see a little mouth. Yes ; it is a very simply constructed mouth, but it is exactly adapted for receiving the nourishment which the trunk sends up to it.

5. And what is this nourishment ? If you watch butterflies, you will notice that they often settle on flowers ; but, as they do not go down into the cup of the flower, you would think they alight merely to rest. That, however, is not so. They settle on the flower for food ; and


there is no need for them to go to the bottom of the cup or calyx of the flower, because their trank saves them the trouble. The butterfly unrolls its trunk ; and, with it, sucks up the sweet juice from the bottom of the cup, and, in this way, conveys it to its mouth.

6. Thus, then, the butterfly possesses a caterpillar ani^chrysalis of gooseberry trunk which is simply a

possession of by Columbus on behalf of the Spanish sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella. About twenty years afterwards, his son established a colony of Spaniards upon it.

the nations in alliance against England, its capital, Havana1 (ha-van!-a)

was taken by a British fleet and army under Lord Albermarle, and the island brought under British rule. In the following year, however, by the Treaty of Paris, it was restored.

3.    Since that time, it has been ruled over by governors from Spain. To prevent the native-born population enjoying liberty of action in trade, religion, and government, and to impose heavy taxes appear to have been their chief aims. The Cubans, as a consequence, have not been content under Spanish rule, and have frequently rebelled in order to set themselves free from it. One rebellion lasted no less than ten years, namely, from 1868 to 1878; and, about three years ago, another broke out, which Spain has been unable to quell.

4.    A passage only 124 miles wide separates Cuba from Florida, the south-eastern extremity of the United States, the people of which country have many interests in the island. Their Government, therefore, has often interfered to put an end to disorder ; and it recently went so far as to declare war against Spain.

5.    Cuba is slightly more than half the size of Victoria, but its population is nearly half a million more, namely, 1,640,000, of which about half are negroes. A range of mountains, rich in minerals, and wooded to their summits, runs through the island from east to west, rising in the south-east to a height of 8,400 feet (about 1,000 feet higher than Mt. Kosciusko).

6.    The population of Havana, is 250,000. It has a fine harbour, and is a well-built town, with a university. About 1,000 miles of railway connect it with various parts of the island. The towns next in importance are Matanzas and Santiago de Cuba.

The chief productions of Cuba are sugar, tobacco, iron, copper, and woods such as mahogany, cedar, and ebony, used in making furniture.

The sugar and tobacco plantations used to be worked by negro slaves ; but, in 1886, the Spanish Parliament passed alaw doing away with slavery.

7.    Of the Spanish colonies, the Philippine (f -Xp-Xn) Islands, south-east of China, come next in importance to Cuba. In 1521, they were discovered, and named after Philip II. of Spain, by Magellan,who was killed by the natives a few days after his discovery. The islands number 1,200, of which about 400 are of a size sufficient to be of use ; and extend almost from Formosa on the north to Borneo and the Moluccas on the south. The two largest are Luzon (nearly half the size of Victoria) and Mindanao.

8.    The capital of the Philippines, Manilla,3 has 150,000 inhabitants, a large number of whom are Chinese. Near this town, on the 30th of April, a naval battle was fought between the Americans and the Spaniards, in which the former were completely victorious.

The chief productions of the islands are sugar, coffee, hemp, tobacco, and indigo.

1.    Ba-vafna. This word is spelt in three ways:—Havana, Havanna, and Havannah.

2.    Ma-gelUan (ma-jel-an), a Portuguese navigator, made the first voyage round the world (1519-21). He was, at the time, in the Spanish service, and took possession on behalf of Spain of the places he discovered.

3.    Manilla, (ma-nil£a), is the ordinary form ; Manila (ma-ne-la) the Spanish.

shall he swallowed up in the waves of the unknown sea! 0 ! foolish men that we were, why did we consent to accompany this mad Columbus ? ”

4.    In vain did their commander beg them to remember that their voyage had hitherto been without storm or alarming incident, and that, therefore, they had really nothing to complain of. These childish men were obstinate in their fears.

5.    A few days after sailing from the Canaries, the ships came within the influence of a favourable wind, and so beautifully did it waft them along that, for a time, it cheered even the discontented sailors. When they had proceeded some distance, they met with large patches of sea-weed, and also with land plants, drifting from the west. Columbus supposed, from these appearances, that they would soon fall in with land. One of the sailors discovered a live crab on a patch of sea-weed. This was considered by Columbus to be another proof that land was near, for crabs are generally picked up at low tide on the sea-shore.

6.    The sailors were now as eager to discover the expected land as they had been unwilling to sail in search of it. They very often mistook the distant clouds for the desired shore, and shouted, “ Land ! land ! ” When these shouts were heard by Columbus, much as he wished the guess to prove true, he still doubted. A common, though not certain sign of land, is the gradually decreasing depth of the water. He, therefore, ordered the lead to be thrown overboard, to take what is called “ soundings.” The line with which soundings are taken, is a long rope with a piece of lead fastened to the end of it. When seamen wish to know the depth of the water, they throw the lead into the sea, and allow the line to run out till the lead reaches the bottom.

7.    Disappointment awaited Columbus, for, on sounding, he could find no bottom, and he feared he was not so near land as the sailors expected. They again became troublesome, and tormented their brave leader with their fretful and ignorant fears.

8.    There was, however, some cause for uneasiness, for, had they met with storms, their ships, being very old, might have been sunk. Besides, it was possible that their stock of provisions might be exhausted before they reached land, and then they must perish with hunger.

9.    In the midst of this despondency, a breeze from the west sprang up; and the change of weather was followed by a sight which gladdened their eyes—several little birds visited the ships. They came regularly in the morning, and flew away in the evening. Their chirping and singing were sweet music to the sailors’ ears. It was the first sound of land they had heard since leaving the Canaries. “ My friends,” said Columbus, “ now you may have hopes of seeing the wished-for land. These birds must have a nest or home somewhere near. They are so fresh and lively that their journey to us cannot have been long and fatiguing.”

10.    This general content, however, did not last long. The wind ceased entirely, and the ships remained motionless; the sea was so thickly covered with weeds that it looked like a marsh flooded with water. The sailors were exceedingly frightened at seeing that the ships did not move. They forgot that such accidents sometimes happened on the seas which they had been accustomed to sail upon ; and fancied that the ships were stuck fast in the weeds, and that they had arrived at the end of the ocean. They even threatened to throw Columbus into the sea, unless he consented to give up his voyage, and take the first opportunity of returning to Spain.

11.    “What!” he exclaimed, “give up the voyage now that we have almost found the land we seek ! Surely no man among you can be so cowardly! Sail with me but a few days longer.” In order, however, to gratify his men, he altered the course of the ships to the south-west.

(To be continued.)

ODE.1

Hal-lowed, made holy.

Knell, sound of a bell at a death or funeral. Dirge, funeral song or hymn. 4 5

Pil-grim, one who travels to a distance to visit a sacred place.

Re-pair^ go.

Her-mit, one who retires from society and lives alone.

THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT SPANISH COLONIES-CUBA AND THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

U-ni-ver-si-ty,


1. Cuba, the largest and richest the most important colony of Spain, was, in 1492, discovered and taken


Pos-ses-sion Of, ownership over.

Sov-er-eigns, those having supreme power in a nation, as kings, queens.

Al-li-ance, union; league.

Gov^ern-ment, rule ; exercise of authority. Re-bell-ion, revolt; the taking of arms against the authority of lawful government. In^ter-fered; took part in the concerns of; interposed.

place where the highest branches of learning are taught, and degrees given.

PrO-dUC-tions, products; things grown or mined.

Par-lia-ment, body that makes laws for the nation.

In-hab-it-ants, those who dwell in a place.

of the West India Islands, and

THE PREMIERS OF THE COLONIES THAT SENT DELEGATES TO THE FEDERAL CONVENTION.

Hasten the hour when we shall be One nation of the Southern Sea !

Honour those souls who stoutly fought,

And shaped our vagueness with their thought ;

Who bore the burden of the day,

And through the darkness led the way !

-—From an Ode on the Commonwealth by George Essex Evans.

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE GEORGE HOUSTON REID, P.C.


1. The Right Honourable George Houston Reid, P.C., Premier and Treasurer of New South Wales, M.P. New South Wales, was horn at Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, on the 25th February, 1845. He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales in 1880. He has been trained as a barrister-at-law.

2. The Right Honourable Sir George Turner, P.C.,    K.C.M.G.,

mm


LL.D., Premier and Treasurer of Victoria since 1894, M.P. Victoria, councillor and ex-mayor of St. Kilda, was born in Melbourne, on the 8th August, 1851. He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly as a member for St. Kilda in 1889. He is a barrister and solicitor by profession ; and, when a boy, he attended the old Model School, Spring-street, Melbourne.

THE RIGHT HON. SIR GEORGE TURNER, P.C., K.C.M.G., LL.D.

3. The Right Honourable Charles Cameron Kingston, P.C.,    Q.C.,

THE RIGHT HON. C. C. KINGSTON,

P.C., Q.C., LL.D., D.C.L.


-, ■ ÜÜ


THE RIGHT HON. SIR J. FORREST, P.C., K.C.M.G. LL.D., D.C.L.


fSH


LL.D., D.C.L., Premier and Attorney-General of South Australia since 1893, M.H.A. South Australia, was born in Adelaide on the 22nd October, 1850. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of South Australia in 1881. He is a barrister by profession.

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR E. N. C.

BRADDON, P.C., K.C.M.G.

4. The Right Honourable Sir Edward Nicholas Coventry Braddon, P.C., K.C.M.G., Premier and Leader of the House of Assembly, Tasmania, since 1894, was born in England on the 11th June, 1829. He is the author of “ Life in India,” and “Thirty Years of Shikar.”


5. The Right Honourable Sir John Forrest, P.C.,    K.C.M.G.,

LL.D., D.C.L., was born near Bun-bury, Western Australia, on the 22nd August, 1847. He entered the Survey Department in 1865, and has made extensive surveys and commanded several exploring expeditions. When responsible government was granted to Western Australia in 1890, he was returned unopposed to the first Legislative Assembly, and became Premier and Treasurer, which positions he still holds.

James as a shop-boy no doubt, did his duty by his master; but he soon found that the weighing out of tea and sugar and the measuring of calico and flannel was not a life that would satisfy him.

6.    From the old sailors whom he fell in with at Sfaithes, he would hear of the wonders of a sea-faring life, of distant lands and strange people, of battles against the French and the Spaniards. The boy’s spirit was stirred within him, and he longed to go forth to seek adventures on the boundless deep. He heard, too, of Sir Cloudesley Shovel—how, beginning as a cabin-boy, he rose to be an admiral; and, perhaps, a voice whispered in his ear, “ If Cloudesley Shovel could do so, why not James Cook ? ”

7.    But he knew it would be a difficult task to persuade his father and his master to allow him to go to sea. So he made up his mind to run away. It was, of course, wrong to break the contract between himself and his master, to say nothing of the act of disobedience towards his father ; but we can imagine the excuse rising to his lips, “ It will be no loss to Mr. Sanderson; he can get a dozen shop-boys as good as I am at a day’s notice.”

Accordingly, one summer morning at daybreak, he rose from his bed under the counter, tied up his belongings—one shirt and a jackknife—in his only handkerchief, and stole out of the house.

8.    By six o’clock, the sturdy, eager lad had traversed the nine or ten miles that lie between Staithes and Whitby, and was fortunate enough to find at the quay a ship about to start for London. He offered his services, was accepted, and taken on board as ship's boy. During the voyage, he showed himself so active and willing that, on the return of the ship to Whitby, he was received as an apprentice by the owners, two brothers, named John and Henry Walker. His father’s consent had, of course, to be obtained, and we may presume that Mr. Sanderson made no objection.

9.    In the service of the two brothers, he continued, with some slight interruptions, for thirteen years. “ During this period, he was noted for his good conduct, his genius for a sailor’s life, and his eagerness to acquire skill in his profession. In storm and calm, by night and day, through the sharp blasts of winter, and the balmy breezes of summer, he was always found at his post. Thus were nursed in the youthful sailor those grand qualities of steady attention, firmness and strong-resolve, which marked this great voyager in his after life, and by which he became a great discoverer.”

10.    In 1755, he was mate of the Friendship, a vessel of 400 tons. And, now, another great change took place in Cook’s life. In that year, preparations were being made by the English Government in view of the expected war with France. There was a pressing demand for sailors to man the fleet that was being got ready. Cook resolved to seize the opportunity of entering the navy. He, accordingly, offered his services, and was entered as an able seaman on board His Majesty’s Ship the Eagle.

11. In the Navy, as in the merchant service, Cook’s activity, skill in seamanship, and good conduct soon brought him promotion. At the end of four years, he had risen by successive steps to the rank of master.2 It was while he held this position on board the Mercury that he acquired great credit by his survey of the river St. Lawrence during the famous siege of Quebec. It was a work of great difficulty and danger, but was carried out by him in the most complete manner.

CAPTAIN JAMES COOK (1728-79).

(In 1770, Cook discovered the eastern coast of Australia, and, naming it New South Wales, took possession of it on behalf of George III.)


In 1762, Cook married, and, in 1764, was appointed marine surveyor of Newfoundland and Labrador. The work lasted till the year 1767. In the autumn of that year, he returned home.    _A. C. C.

1.    To those desirous of further information, “ Captain Cook,” by Sir Walter Besant, in Macmillan’s English Men of Action series will prove interesting. To that work the compiler of this article is indebted for particulars not to be obtained elsewhere.

2.    Master, the officer whose chief duty it was to navigate the ship.

contrivance for sucking with, or, if you like to call it so, a pump. When the butterfly leaves a flower, it coils its trunk up again, and flies off in search of other flower cups. Naturalists tell us that the trunk of the butterfly is merely the prolonging of its lips. How wonderfully they have been shaped to the butterfly’s needs!

7.    Butterflies, like all insects, lay eggs. These are hatched by the heat of the sun. But what seems strange is, that, instead of butterflies, the young ones come forth as worms or caterpillars.

8.    After a caterpillar has lived some weeks, it undergoes a great change. It rolls itself up in a leaf, or spins a web, or hides in some hole in a tree. Here it becomes a hard, brown grub, called a chrysalis ; and, in this state, it remains till the time for it to appear. Just before this, the horny case gets thin, cracks, and out bursts a new creature. Instead of a crawling worm, appears a lovely butterfly, which soon flies off into the air and sunshine, and wings its way among the flowers.

How many wonderful things exist in nature for us to find out and admire, provided we go about with our eyes open, ready to observe !

A FALSEHOOD OR LIE.

In-ten-tion, aim; purpose.

De-ceivei cause to believe what is false. Cow-ard-ly, proceeding from fear of danger.


Vice, sin; fault.

Be-lieved' thought to have spoken the truth. Ab-hor' hate ; avoid.

1.    A falsehood or lie is a statement which we know to be untrue. It is more. A falsehood can be acted as well as spoken : it need be merely the intention to deceive. Lying is a mean, cowardly vice, and leads to all kinds of dishonesty. Those who tell lies are seldom believed, even when they speak the truth. In some verses written on lying, we read :—

“A liar we can never trust,

Though he should speak the thing that’s true ;

For he who tells one lie at first,

And lies to hide it, makes it two.”

2.    God hates all lying lips ; and no one can be happy who does what He hates. Let us abhor falsehood ; it is mean and cowardly, leads to dishonesty, and is hateful to God who gives us life, happiness, and every blessing.

Park's First Lessons in English Composition.

CHIPS.

We have careful thoughts for the stranger, And smiles for the sometime guest;

But oft for our own,

The bitter tone,

Though we love our own the best.

CAPTAIN COOK.1 Part I.

Posisi-bil-i-ty, what may or may not happen.

An-tic-i-pate, be before.

Col^o-ni-za-tion, settlement.

Live-li-hood, means of living.

Sub-se-quent-ly, at a later time.

Con-struct-ive, having ability to form.

No-tice-a-ble, to be plainly seen.

In-her-it-ance, that which is derived from an ancestor.

At-tend-ance, being present.

Ap-pren-tice, one bound to serve under a master for a certain time with the view of learning a trade.


De-part-ment, subdivision of a business. Dis-o-be-di-ence to-wards, disregard of the orders of.

Quay (ke), a staging or structure beside which ships are loaded and unloaded.

Ac-cept-ed, taken.

Pre-sume; think.

In-ter-rup-tions, breaks.

Gen-ius ( jen-yus), special liking and fitness. Op-por-tu-ni-ty, suitable time.


1.    An account of the life and labours of Captain Cook should he of interest to every Australian. To him, more than to any other man, is due the fact that this island continent of ours has been settled by people of British blood. But for him it was within the bounds of possibility that France would anticipate Great Britain in the discovery and colonization of the eastern portion of Australia.

2.    James Cook was born in the village of Marton in the east of Yorkshire, England. The date of his birth is the 27th of October, 1728. His father was a day labourer ; and, as his wages were small, it was necessary that the boy should, as soon as possible, do something towards earning his livelihood. James was, accordingly, set to work at the early age of seven on the farm of a Mr. Walker. Probably, his chief occupation was that of scaring away the birds from the crops. Young as he was, he even then appears to have shown signs of being above the common run of boys, for we are told that he attracted the notice of Mrs. Walker, and was by her taught his letters.

3.    In 1736, the family removed to the village of Great Ay ton ; and the father became working-manager of a small farm on the estate of a Mr. Skottowe. It is worthy of note that he subsequently became a stone-mason, and built for himself a house which is still standing. To make a good stone-mason, accuracy of eye and hand and some constructive ability are necessary. These qualities were noticeable in the surveys and charts of his distinguished son, and may be regarded as an inheritance from the father.

4.    At Great Ay ton, as at Marton, James appears to have attracted the notice of his superiors. Mr. Skottowe took a fancy to him, and paid the fees for him at the village school. In those days, there were no inspectors’ examinations ; and of his progress in his studies we have no record. We can, however, readily believe that he was a diligent scholar, and that he was as punctual in attendance as the calls on his time from his father’s farm would permit.

5.    A great change in his life took place when he was thirteen years old. His father then bound him apprentice to Mr. Sanderson, a shopkeeper of Staithes, a fishing village about ten miles from Whitby. Mr. Sanderson kept what we should call a general store ; on one side of the door was the grocery department, on the other the drapery.

TOPICS OF THE MONTH.

1.    A few weeks ago, there was sold in London, for the large sum of £650, the dinted bugle from which rang out on the 25th of October, 1854, the blast that sent Lord Cardigan and his Six Hundred on their famous ride against a whole Russian Army at Balaklava.

The bugle is to be preserved as a precious relic by the 17th Lancers, who rode in the first line in that famous but ill-fated charge. The single blast that once breathed through those metal curves, sending so many gallant men to their death, has clothed the instrument itself with a value exceeding its own weight in gold twenty times over. It gave the signal for a display of daring and of devotion that will stir English blood as long as English speech endures, or English character keeps its bent.    —Adapted from The Argus.

******

2.    On many occasions, the people of Victoria have given freely to assist those in misfortune, and their ready response to the call of charity has often been spoken of in terms of high praise. In spite of the hard times on account of which all are suffering to some extent, the large sum of £11,321 Os. 6^d. was the total contribution to the Bush Fires’ Relief Fund, acknowledged on the 17th of May by the Mayor of Melbourne. From Western Australia, came the handsome donation of £136 12s.

******

Victoria ... ...

... 812,765

ozs.

Queensland ...

... 796,885

Western Australia ...

... 675,082

New South Wales ...

... 292,217

New Zealand ...

... 251,644

Tasmania ...

... 60,735

South Australia ...

... 10,322

V

Total ...

... 2,899,650

V

******


3.    The gold-mining industry is one upon which the prosperity of Australasia largely depends. It is, therefore, gratifying to see that the gold yield for 1897 was greatly in excess of that for 1896. The following are the amounts produced in the several colonies during last year :—

4.    The Yukon River is navigable for about 2,300 miles from its mouth, but the navigation is interrupted at many points by bars and rapids. The rate of discharge of this river into the sea is 300,000 cubic feet^ of water per second, which is greater than that of the Mississippi River.

* * * * * *

5.    An inch of rain means one hundred tons of water on every acre.— Boy's Own Paper.

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule XIX.—The prefixes diS and mis are never dlSS and miSS.

That is to say, whenever you find diss or miss, you know that the second s is not part of the prefix but the first letter of the word to which dis or mis is prefixed.

Short Form.—Dis is dis ; and mis is mis.

dis arm dis-band dis-cern dis-dain


dis-franchise dis-satisfied dis-sect dis-sent


dis-similar

dis-solve

dis-syllable

mis-applied


mis-behave

mis-shapen

mis-spell

mis-state


Adapted from Meiklejohn’s Spelling Book.

THE SONG OF AUSTRALIA.

Words by Mrs. C. J. Carleton.    Music by Carl Linger.

Moderato.    .

E


tr


There is a land where sum-mer skies Are gleam-ing with a thou-sand dyes,

cresc. -    -    - f    dolce


fztzt


=t


ft


zb-%-


Blend-ing in witeh-ing har - rno - nies, In har - mo - nies ; And gras - sy knoll and

cresc. -    -    -


Ai*


for


_y    { O

-    est height Are flush-ing in the ro

-    mf


±Z*L


sy light, And all a - bove is

f


\T    .

a - zure bright, Aus - tra - li - a, Aus - tra - li - a, Aus - tra


li


r>


There is a land where honey flows, Where laughing corn luxuriant grows, Land of the myrtle and the rose,

Land of the rose ;

On hill and plain the clust’ring vine Is gushing out with purple wine,

And cups are quaffed to thee and thine, Australia, Australia, Australia!

There is a land where treasures shine Deep in the dark unfathom’d mine,

For worshippers at Mammon’s shrine, At Mammon’s shrine ;

Where gold lies hid, and rubies gleam, And fabled wealth no more doth seem The idle fancy of a dream,

Australia, Australia, Australia!


There is a land where homesteads peep From sunny plain and woodland steep, And love and joy bright vigils keep, Bright vigils keep;

Where the glad voice of childish glee Is mingling with the melody Of nature’s hidden minstrelsy,

Australia, Australia, Australia 1

There is a land where floating free, From mountain top to girdling sea,

A proud flag waves exultingly, Exultingly;

And freedom’s sons the banner bear. No shackled slave can breathe the air, Fairest of Britain’s daughters fair, Australia, Australia, Australia l


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

TIE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IL, No. 13.] MELBOURNE.    [July, 1898.

WOODMAN, SPARE THAT TREE.

—George P. Morris (1802-64), an American writer noted for his songs.


Shel-tered, covered from harm. PrO-tect; guard.

Fa-mil-iar, well known.

1.    Woodman, spare that tree !

Touch not a single bough !

In youth it sheltered me,

And I’ll protect it now.

’Twas my forefather’s hand That placed it near his cot: There, woodman, let it stand— Thy axe shall harm it not !

2.    That old familiar tree,

Whose glory and renown 1 Are spread o’er land and sea,

And wouldst thou hew it down ? Woodman, forbear thy stroke !

Cut not its earth-bound ties ;6 7 8 Oh, spare that aged oak,

Now towering to the skies !


For-bear( keep back. Tow-er-ing, rising like a tower. Heart-strings, affections.


3.    When but an idle boy,

I sought its grateful shade ;

In all their gushing joy,

Here, too, my sisters played.

.My mother kissed me here ;

My father pressed my hand ; — Forgive this foolish tear,

But let that old oak stand !

4.    My heart-strings round thee cling

Close as thy bark, old friend ! Here shall the wild-bird sing,

And still thy branches bend.

Old tree, the storm still brave !

And, woodman, leave the spot;—■ While I’ve a hand to save,

Thy axe shall harm it not.


1.    Its glo-ry and re-nown/ The tree was an oak; the wood of the oak was once used for building men-of-war.

2.    Its earth-bound ties, the roots which bind it to the earth.

How the Poem Came to be Written.

Rec^ol-lec-tions, memories ; things called to mind.

Greet, look upon kindly ; salute kindly. Ulrtered, spoken.

Chok-ing, broken with emotion.

Dol-lar, coin of the United States, worth about 4s. 2d.

Pos-it-ive, very sure.

In-ci-dents, events; occurrences. Im-pres-sion, effect.

Father, mother, sisters—all are gone; nothing hut the old tree remains.” After a slight pause, he added:    “ Don’t think me

foolish. I never ride in this direction but I turn down this lane to look at that old tree. I have a thousand recollections connected with it, and I always greet it as a dear friend.”

Missal

9

“ What is the tree worth to yon for firewood ?”

“ Why, about ten dollars.”

“ Suppose I should give you that sum, would you let it stand ?’v “Yes.”

“ You are sure of that ?”

“ Positive.”

“ Then give me a bond to that effect, and the money is yours.”

5. We went into the cottage close at hand—the cottage in which my companion was born, hut which was then occupied by the woodcutter. I drew up the bond. It was signed, and the money paid over. The incidents made a strong impression on my mind, and furnished me with the materials for the song.

CAPTAIN COOK—PART II.

Ex-pe-di-tion, body of persons entrusted with the carrying out of some important undertaking at a distance.

Trans-it, passage of a smaller heavenly body across the disc of a larger.

Sci-en-tif-'ic, concerned in gathering knowledge of natural history and other sciences.

ColMer, vessel employed in the coal trade.

De-signed; planned.

Suc-cess-ful- y, in a way that brought about the desired result.

Ac-com-plished, performed; done.

Lieu-ten-ant (lef-ten' ant), officer in the navy next in rank below commander.

Prob-a-bil-i-ty, likelihood.

Prom-i-nent, standing out.

Anch-or-age, place where a ship can anchor.

Ex-er-tions, efforts.

In gen-ious, skilful; well adapted.

Oak-um, old ropes untwisted and pulled into loose hemp.

Suc-tion, act of sucking up, as fluids, by exhausting the air.

Ef-fect-ing, doing ; carrying out.

Suc-ceed-ed, contrived.

Warped, towed or moved by means of ropes.

Man grove, tree growing along the seashore in tropical regions.

Fort-U-nate-ly, happily; luckily.

Pl'ep-a-ra-tions, arrangements.

Cook did everything thoroughly: the feverish hurry of these days was then unknown. On the 31st of March, 1770, he left New Zealand, the name Cape Farewell marking the last land seen, and steered to the west.

5. On the morning of the 19th of April, land was discovered four or five leagues distant, the southernmost part of which Cook called Point Hicks in honour of the first lieutenant. This point—the 'portion of Victoria first seen by Europeans—you will not find on the map under that name. It is in all probability the point south of Ram Head, now called Cape Everard. It seems somewhat unfair to the memory of Hicks, who appears to have been a good officer, that he should have been deprived of the honour meant for him by his captain.

BIRTHPLACE OF COOK, IN MARTON, YORKSHIRE.

fi. Then Ram Head, so called from its likeness to Ram Head at The entrance to Plymouth Sound, Gabo Island, and Cape Howe were sighted. Cook continued his course along the coast in a northerly vdirection, giving names to the more prominent capes and inlets.

7.    On the 28th April, the Endeavour anchored in the large bay, which, in after days, became so well known as Botany Bay.7 Here the expedition stayed for nine days. It is said that the first to land was a midshipman, tsaac Smith, Cook’s wife’s cousin. When the captain went ashore, he took the boy with him. “Now then, Isaac,’' he said, “ you go first ” ; and the lad jumped ashore.

8.    Cook thus describes his first meeting with the inhabitants :— “ As we approached the shore, the natives all made off, except two men, who, at first, seemed resolved to oppose our landing. We endeavoured to gain their consent to land by throwing them some nails, beads, &c.; but this had not the desired effect, for, as we put into the shore, one of them threw a large stone at us, and, as soon as we landed, they threw two darts at us ; hut, on the tiring of two or three muskets loaded with small shot, they took to the woods, and we saw them no more.

“We found here a few poor huts, made of the hark of trees, in one of which were hidden four or five children, with whom we left some strings of heads, &c.”

9. On the 6th of May, the Endeavour left Botany Bay, and^on the same date Cook writes : —“ At noon we were abreast of a bay or harbour, in which there appeared to he a good anchorage, and which I called Port Jackson.” But Cook did not stay to examine it, and so the beauties of Sydney Harbour remained hidden to the outer world for another eighteen years. 10 11

HULL OF THE “ENDEAVOUR.”

12.    Cook’s next care was to find a suitable place tor effecting repairs. This, after some trouble, he succeeded in doing. On the 22nd, they warped the ship up the river8 to a bank pitched upon, and at 8 p.m., when it was high water, hove her ashore, her bow among the mangroves and her stern in three and a half fathoms water.”

13.    At low water, the ship’s bottom was examined, and it was discovered that four planks had been cut through by the rocks. One of the holes was large enough to have sunk her, even with eight pumps constantly at work; but, fortunately, this hole was, in a great measure, stopped up by a large piece of coral, which had stuck fast in it.

14.    Stores were landed, tents erected on shore, and preparations made for repairing the damage done. The country round was explored, and the explorers saw more of the natives than hitherto they had done. Here, too, kangaroos9 were seen for the first time; one was shot and “ proved fine eating.”

■    —A.C.C.

1.    New-'found-laud' ([nu'-fond-land'), large island, east of the Dominion of Canada, belonging to Great Britain.

2.    Trans-it Of Ve-nus.—This planet, like the Earth, moves round the sun, but its orbit and that of the Earth being in different planes, it is only on very rare occasions that Venus comes between the Earth and sun, or as we say passes across the sun’s disc, these transits are very important, since they afford the best and most exact means we possess of ascertaining the sun’s distance.

3.    Plym-outh, town and naval station, south-west of England.

4.    Ma-dei-ra (yna-de-'ra), islands of the north-west coast of Africa, belonging to Portugal.

5.    Ri-0 Jan-ekro (re-o jan-ecro), capital of Brazil.

6.    Ta-hi-ti (ta-he'-te), in the South Pacific Ocean, the principal of the Society Islands.

7.    Bot-a-ny Bay.—It is noteworthy that the name first given to it by Cook was Stingray Bay,’ from the large number of these fish found there. Second thoughts, we may presume, induced him to substitute for this the more pleasant sounding “Botany Bay.” This name was suggested by the abundance of,new plants found here by the botanists of the expedition.

8.    The River.—This Cook named the Endeavour River. On it now stands Cooktown.

9.    Kangaroo.—It is in the journals of Cook and Banks that the word occurs for the first time in any written language. It is noteworthy that it is not now found in the language of any of the native

tribes.

THE SOLDIER’S DREAM.

Fag-ot, bundle of sticks.

Ar-rayi arrangement in regularllines. Des-o-late, lonely.

Trav-ersed, wandered over.

Fain, desirous ; strongly inclined.


Truce, short period of peace between two armies. Sen-ti-nel, ad)., watching.

Re-pos-ing, resting.

Pal-let, poor or rude bed.

Scar-ing, frightening.

1.    Our bugles sang truce, for the night-cloud had lowered,! And the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky;

And thousands had sunk on the ground overpowered,— The weary to sleep, and the wounded to die.

2.    When reposing that night on my pallet of straw,

By the wolf-scaring fagot that guarded the slain,2 At the dead of the night, a sweet vision I saw;

And twice ere the morning, I dreamt it again.

3.    Methought from the battle-field’s dreadful array,

Far, far I had roamed on a desolate track;

’Twas autumn, and sunshine arose on the way

To the home of my fathers, that welcomed me back.

4.    I flew to the pleasant fields, traversed so oft

In life’s morning march, when my bosom was young ;

I heard my own mountain-goats bleating aloft,

And knew the sweet strain that the corn-reapers sung.

5.    Then pledged we the wine-cup, 3 and fondly I swore From my home and my weeping friends never to part;

My little ones kissed me a thousand times o’er;

And my wife sobbed aloud in her fulness of heart :—-

6.    “ Stay, stay with us ! rest, thou art weary and worn ; ”

And fain was their war-broken soldier to stay;

But sorrow returned with the dawning of morn,

And the voice in my dreaming ear melted away.

—Thomas Campbell (1777-1844.)

1.    The night cloud had low-ered, darkness had come. Note that “lowered” and “powered” are intended to rhyme.

2.    Wolf-scar-ing fag-ot that guarded the slain, fire of wood to keep the wolves away from the dead bodies.

3.    Pledged we the Wine-cup, we caused our glasses to clink, at the same time expressing good will and kindness.

GETTING ON IN THE WORLD.

Dis-or-der-ly, untidy.

In-dus-tri-ous, diligent in business or study. For-bear-ing, patient; long-suifering. Quar-rel-some, apt or given to quarrels or fighting.

Dil-i-gent-ly, steadily; with industry. Per-se-ver-ing, not giving up what has been undertaken. 12 13

Dif-fi-CUl-ties, obstacles.

ReBa-tives, persons allied by blood, as cousins. Ac-quaintranc-es, persons well known to one. Per-se-ver-ance, continued pursuit of what has been undertaken.

Dis-ap-point-ments, failures of hope. Di-gesti prepare in the stomach for conversion into nourishment.

A TRIP TO THE SOUTH SEA ISLANDS—PART I.

Pe-CUl-iar, singular; strange. Ev-i-dent-ly, plainly.

Per-pet-U-al, never ceasing.

Sac-ri-fi-ces, offerings to a deity. Dif-fi-cul-ties, troubles.

Ap-prov-al, sanction.

Pos-ses^sion, ownership.

Ced-ed, given up, as rights or property. Ces-sion, act of giving up rights or property. Pre-Vi-OUS-ly, in time beforehand. Al-ba-tross, one of the largest of sea-birds. Ad-mir-a-ble, excellent.

Scen-er-y, general aspect in a landscape. Quaint, singular; curious.

Com-prisei include.


Trop^ic-al, being within the tropics, that is, the circles which pass round the earth at a distance of 23J degrees on each side of the equator.

Op-por-tU-ni-ty, chance ; fitting occasion.

Es-pe-cial-ly, in particular.

Ad-dress-es, speeches.

Blood-cur-dling, horrifying.

Can^ni-bals, human beings that eat human flesh.

Mar-vel-lous, wonderful.

Mis-sion-a-ries, those sent to spread a knowledge of religion    ----

Ar-chi-pel-a-go, group of islands ; sea studded with islands.

1.    Every one, whether old or young, loves to read accounts of wonderful countries and people. The South Sea Islands, with their stately cocoa-nut palms, their tropical fruits and flowers, their coral reefs, and their dark-skinned and thinly-clad savages, whose mode of life and general habits are strangely singular and utterly different from our own, afford a splendid opportunity for travellers to write thrilling stories of never-ending interest.

2.    I have always had a keen desire to take a cruise through these islands, and especially to visit Fiji, for, in my boyhood’s Sunday school days in the sixties, the mission work there formed one of the chief themes for the afternoon addresses of both teachers and preachers. The blood-curdling tales about the cannibals and their victims, and about the marvellous escapes of the missionaries had a great charm for me. When, therefore, the offer of a trip to Fiji was made, I eagerly accepted it.

3.    The Fijian Archipelago, consisting of more than 200 islands, nearly half of which are inhabited, is situated between 15 degrees and 20 degrees south latitude, and between 177 degrees west and 178 degrees east longitude. Their situation has the following peculiar effect. Some of the islands beyond Fiji count their time by west longitude, and thus are a day behind the time as reckoned in places hy east longitude. The passengers of a ship sailing from Fiji to Samoa on a Saturday would spend one Sunday on the ocean, and, arriving at Apia, the capital of Samoa, on the morrow, would find it Sunday again. I merely mention this to show what a paradise such a place would be for lazy boys—two Sundays in every week.

4.    The largest island of the group is Viti Levu (vee'-tee lay'-voo), which means Big Fiji. This is about 90 miles long by 50 miles broad. It is about half the size of Jamaica.1 The next is Vanua Levu (van'-oo-a lay'-voo), that is, Big Land, which is about 100 miles long by 25 broad. This is north of Viti Levu.

Kadavu (kan-da'-voo) and Taviuni (tav-e-oon-e) are also important islands. The former is the first sighted by the mail steamers on the passage from the colonies. The proper name of the group is Viti. It

INLAND VILLAGE OF FIJI.

was named Fiji, evidently owing to the sounds of the consonants being mistaken.

5.    The first European who mentions Fiji is Tasman, who also discovered Tasmania and blew Zealand. More than a hundred years later, Captain Cook touched at one of the islands.

6.    The history of the intercourse between the whites and the natives of Fiji, until we come to about the beginning of this century, is very imperfect. About that time, however, 27 convicts escaped from Hew South Wales, and, having arrived at Fiji, made their new home amongst the savages. These men assisted the chiefs in carrying on their perpetual wars, and were regarded with great awe by the cannibals, as much for their cold-blooded cruelty as for the marked results of their fire-arms.

7.    Owing to their help, the tribes of Ban (mbau) and Rewa (ray-wa) became the most powerful people in Fiji, and, in the course of time, the chief of Bau became the Tui Viti (King in Fiji). Tanoa was the ruling prince daring the convict period, and, from all accounts, he was a veritable monster. Men were eaten daily ; infants were murdered ; and human beings were constantly being offered up as sacrifices.

8.    Cakobau (thak-om-bau) succeeded Tanoa as King. During the first portion of his reign, he was a cannibal; but, through the efforts of the Wesleyan missionaries, who had been on the islands since 1835, he afterwards renounced cannibalism, and became a Christian.

9.    Traders from the Australasian colonies had gradually been opening up a market, and settling down in the islands, when, about 1859, difficulties arose between the King and his subjects ; and the whites, with his approval, made efforts to induce Great Britain to take possession. For a time, these efforts failed, but, owing partly to the increase of the white population, and partly to the interests involved, the islands were ceded to Queen Victoria in 1874, and the Fijis became a Crown colony,2 under the British flag. Since the cession, the trade and commerce with the colonies have steadily increased.

10.    Fiji is about 2,200 miles from Melbourne, about 1,750 from Sydney, and 1,140 from Auckland.

There is now, unfortunately, no direct communication with Victoria, so one has to travel by way of Sydney. It is probable that, before long, a direct line of boats running from Melbourne to Fiji, at any rate during the fruit season, will be again established.

11.    I sailed in the s.s. Aramac to Sydney, and caught the Union s.s. Hauroto, bound to Suva, on Wednesday, the 6th of April. I must confess that I was somewhat afraid at first of the vast ocean, as, previously, my ventures upon it had been limited to trips to Sydney or Adelaide. Occasions also arose on the voyage, when, although I was assured that I was just as safe as in my own house, I would have felt much more secure on shore.

12.    The voyage across, which took about eight days, was, on the whole, very enjoyable—fairly smooth, but somewhat wearisome. The

SUVA HARBOUR AND SURROUNDING MOUNTAINS.


1898.]    THE SCHOOL PAPEBr-CLASS IV.


only things to be seen, besides blue sky and water, were flying-fish, and, at times, an albatross or so. The meals and service on the boat were admirable ; and the captain and all the officers endeavoured to make the journey as comfortable as possible.

13. On the 13th of April, at midday, we sighted Mount Washington, on the island of Kadavu, and, about six o’clock in the evening, we arrived at Suva.

14.    Suva, the capital of Fiji, lies at the south-east corner of Yiti Levu, and is beautifully situated on a hill sloping down to a large and splendid harbour, protected by its coral reef from the mountain rollers of the Pacific.

15.    On the slope of the hill is to be seen tropical vegetation of all kinds, lofty palm-trees, and the brilliantly flowering hibiscus, while here and there one catches glimpses of the handsome dwellings of the white inhabitants. At the base are built the business places and Government offices.

16.    Beyond the harbour, the scenery is bold, rugged, and extremely quaint, hill after hill rising tier upon tier in fanciful shapes, until an elevation of 4,000 feet is reached.

17.    Levuka, the other town of Fiji, and its former capital, has been styled the “ Babel4 of the Pacific.” The same term applies equally well, if not more so, to Suva, with its many tongues and many coloured men.

18.    The white population at Suva, numbering about 800, includes

types of almost every European nation ; while the remaining inhabitants, some thousands in number, comprise natives of almost every island in the Pacific—Fijians, Samoans, Tongans, Solomon, Line, and Sandwich Islanders, and natives of the New Hebrides and New Caledonia, &c. There is also a considerable number of coolies from India.    ■

10. The impressions which forced themselves upon me when I found myself on shore among the dusky, chattering crowd, will be described in a future article.

—F.C.E.

1.    Ja-mai-ca (ja-ma'-ka), island belonging to Great Britain, south of Cuba.

2.    Crown Col-o-ny, one where there is not representative government, but the Crown has the entire control of legislation and of the officials.

3.    Hi-'biS14CUS, certain plants which have large, yellow and red flowers.

4.    Ba-bel, name of the city in the land of Shinar, where, as recorded in the Bible, the confusion of languages took place.

SUNSET.

2. Sunset in the golden west;

Steeped in dew each flow’ret weeps; ’Tis the sacred hour of rest;

Labour ends, and sorrow sleeps ; Calm and blessed are the hours,

When the busy day is done ;

Sleep and sweet repose be ours, Tranquil as yon setting sun.

—J. E. Carpenter.

WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE.

L To the sorrow of the British race throughout the world, the Right Honourable W. E. Gladstone, one of the most notable men of the nineteenth century, died on the 19th of May last, and, after lying in state for some days, was buried in that last resting-place of famous Englishmen, Westminster Abbey. Good health, and a life beyond the allotted span were granted him ; while he held a seat in Parliament

WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE.

From a photograph taken during his last term of office as Premier (1891-4). (By the courtesy of the

Proprietors of The Australasian.)

for a greater number of years than any other British statesman. He entered the House of Commons in his 22nd year, and was 84 years old when he delivered his last address to that body. His earnestness, his sincerity, and his warm sympathy for the oppressed and suffering won for him the admiration of the humblest and the highest alike. He has left a memory, of which our race will be for ever proud.

2. He was born in Liverpool on the 20th of December, 1809. His father—a wealthy corn merchant—who was of Scottish origin, sent him at first to the great public school of Eton, and afterwards to Oxford, where he showed marked ability and diligence in his studies, and gained high honours. His favourite game at school was football, but he also played cricket well enough to be in the second eleven. In middle life, when he had a day free, his delight was to go into the woods near his Castle, and exercise his muscles by cutting down trees.

3.    Trained for the career of a statesman, he found no difficulty in obtaining a seat in the House of Commons. It was towards the end of 1832, just before the passing of the Reform Bill that he became a member. During his career, he held office in several ministries, and was four times Premier, being at the head of the affairs of the Empire for about 13 years in all. He was ever eager to see knowledge and freedom spread, and, when in power, carried out many important reforms. His most fruitful term of office was from 1868 to 1874, when, together with many other important measures, two Education Acts—one for England and Wales, and the other for Scotland,—and an Act introducing Vote by Ballot were passed.

4.    In 1839, he married Catherine, daughter of Sir S. R. Glynne, of Hawarden (hor'-den) Castle in Wales. They had four sons and as many daughters. “Gladstone,” it has been said, “had that best of blessings—a good wife. Wherever he has journeyed, she has gone ; in whatever work he has been engaged, ehe has been at his side mastering details, and keeping pace with him.”

5.    In addition to being an eminent statesman, he spoke several languages with ease, was a profound scholar, a writer of many books, and, during the last fifty years of his life, the most powerful orator in Great Britain. He accomplished an enormous amount of work, being endowed with great energy, and possessing from boyhood those valuable habits—order and regularity. He had the power also to put aside one subject, and at once fix his mind entirely upon another. He was a close and earnest student of the Bible; and his life was so upright and blameless Drat his bitterest foes in Parliament never found occasion to utter a word of reproach against him as a private man.

6.    The f Bowing, from the speech he delivered when introducing the Irish Land Bill of 1881, is a good example of his ability to express a noble thought in fitting words :—“ Justice, Sir, is to be our gui ie. It has been said that love is stronger than death, and so justice is stronger than popular excitement, than the passion of the moment, than even the grudges and resentments and sad tradi ions of the past. Walking in that path, we cannot err. Guided by that light—that Divine light—we are safe. Every step we take upon our road is a step that brings us nearer to the goal; and every obstacle, even although it seems for the m-'inent insurmountable, can only for a little while retard, but never can defeat, the final triumph.”

7.    The lines on Pitt, written in the introduction to “ Marmion ” by Sir Walter Scott, are strikingly true in the case of Gladstone :—

“ Now is the stately column broke ;

The beacon light is quenched in smoke ;

The trumpet’s silver sound is still;

The warder silent on the hill!

THE FOURTH OF JULY.


1.    On the 4th of this month, those who live in

our larger towns will see here and there, floating in the breeze, the flag of the United States, the “ Stars and Stripes”! In the United States, this day is kept as the great national holiday. Even in the smallest village, flags are hoisted, processions march, bands of music play, and stirring speeches and addresses are delivered. It may, indeed, be said THE nat10nal that on any spot of the earth’s surface, where two    ensign of the

citizens of the United States are to be found, the UNITED states.

“ Glorious Fourth,” as it is called, will be duly celebrated.

2.    The day that is thus proudly commemorated is the 4th of July, 1776. On that day, the delegates of the American colonies determined to throw off the rule of Great Britain, and published their famous Declaration of Independence. “ We,” ran its solemn words, “ the representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, solemnly publish and declare that these United Colonies are. and of right ought to be, Free and Independent States.”

3.    Much has recently been spoken and written in favour of an alliance between this strong son and the motherland. One of many signs that the people of the United States are not averse to it is that Mrs. Green—the widow of the author of many well-known books on English history—has been invited by some of their school authorities to write a History of England for use in the public schools. In view of the steps now being taken, we may hope that, in the future, they will be taught to take a pride in the achievements of the Anglo-Saxon race of which they are a branch.

4.    Many years ago, Tennyson wrote the following lines :—

“Gigantic daughter of the West,

We drink to thee across the flood,

We know thee most, we love thee best,

For art thou not of British blood ?

Should war’s mad blast again be blown,

Permit not thou the tyrant powers To fight thy mother here alone,

But let thy broadsides roar with ours.”

ANT FUNERALS.

At-tract-ed, drawn to; caused to approach. Act-u-al-ly, really.

Prac-tice (noun), custom ; usage. As-sist-ance, help; aid. 15

Pro-ces-ston, number of individuals marching in order.

Hon-our-a-ble, worthy to be esteemed; not base.

Sep-a-rate-ly, apart; singly.

In Australia there is an ant that actually buries its dead.

This practice was first noticed by a lady who was sitting out of doors near the sea-shore, while her little boy was playing close by.

2.    Suddenly, the child began to scream with pain and terror ; and his mother thought that he must have been bitten by a snake. But, when she came to his assistance, she found that he had sat down upon an ants’ nest, and that a number of ants were biting him. She picked them off, and killed them, throwing their bodies on the ground.

3.    Half an hour later, when she returned to the spot, after taking her little boy indoors, and bathing the bitten parts, she found that a long procession of ants was marching from the nest to the place where the dead bodies were lying.

4.    When they reached it, each of the dead bodies was picked up by two ants, which moved off with them, closely followed by two more. The procession made its way to the sandy shore. There a halt was called, and a number of other ants that had been marching in the rear, began to dig graves, one for each body. In these graves, the dead ants were placed, and carefully covered over.

5.    Six ants, however, were idle, and would not work, so the others

set upon them, and killed them by cutting off their heads. These, not having died an honourable death, were not buried separately ; but one large grave was dug, and the six were tumbled in together. The procession then marched back to the nest.    i

This seems too wonderful to be true, does it not? Yet the same scene has been witnessed over and over again by other observers.

—Rev. Theodore Wood in Bubbles (Adapted).

SIMPLE RULES FOR SPELLING.

Rule X.—Many nouns ending in er and or drop the e and the 0 in their derivatives.

Examples :—

anger

brother

carpenter

dower

hunter

master


angry

brethren

carpentry

dowry

huntress

mistress


neuter

palter

remember

tiger

waiter

winter


neutral

paltry

remembrance

tigress

waitress

wintry


Adapted from Meiklejohn’s Sjje.lling Book.

NOTICE.

Teachers are informed that, in future, the Post Office authorities will pass franked envelopes bearing the substitution of “ Government Printer” for “Secretary, Education Department.”

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.


FOR CLASS IV.

[August, 1898.


Vol. II., No. 14.] MELBOURNE.

SUNRISE.

1. Sunrise on the hills !

A flood of golden light;

A thousand gushing rills Reflect the glorious sight ;

The song of many a bird

Now echoes through the grove ; And everywhere is heard The sound of joy and love ;

The busy voice of day The peopled city fills ;

Up ! up ! for far away ’Tis sunrise on the hills !


2. Sunrise on the hills !

Night’s veil is torn aside ;

The welcome daylight fills Creation far and wide ;

No more the sailor steers His vessel by the star ;

No hidden rock he fears,

The land is still afar ;

While, whistling at his plough,

The earth the farmer tills ;

The world’s awaking now—

’Tis sunrise on the hills.

J. E. Carpenter.


TWO SIDES TO A TALE.

Par-ticTl-lar, special. Ex-pres-sion, look; Sug-gest-ed, hinted. In-quis-it-ive, prying.


Petrtish-ly, in a fretful manner.

Un-bear-a-ble, not to be endured In-dig-nant, feeling vexed.

Re-flect^ive, thoughtful. 16

“ Haven’t I told yon ? ” said the black cat, pettishly ; “ it’s her temper—what I have had to suffer from it! Everything she breaks —everything that is stolen—she lays to me—such injustice—it is unbearable! ”

5.    Growler was quite indignant ; but, being of a reflective turn, after the first gust of wrath had passed, he asked, “ But was there no particular cause this morning ? ”

“ She chose to be very angry because I—I offended her,” said the cat.

“ May I ask how ? ” gently inquired Growler.

“ Oh, nothing worth telling—a mere mistake of mine.”

6.    Growler looked at her with such a questioning expression that she was compelled to say, “ I took the wrong thing for my breakfast.”

“ Oh ! ” said Growler, much enlightened.

“Why, the fact was,” said the black cat, “I was springing at a mouse, and I knocked down a dish, and not knowing exactly what it was, I smelt it, and just tasted it, and it was rather nice, and-.”

“ You finished it,” suggested Growler.

7.    “Well, I should, I believe, if the cook hadn’t come in. As it was, I left the head.”

“ The head of what ? ” said Growler.

“ How inquisitive you are ! ” said the black cat.

“ Hay, but I should like to know,” said Growler.

“ Well, then, of some grand fish that was meant for dinner.”

“Then,” said Growler, “ say what you please ; but, now I’ve heard both sides of the story, I only wonder she didn't hang you.”

—Leisure Hour.

A TRIP TO THE SOUTH SEA ISLANDS.—PART II.

Jab^ber-ing, talking rapidly.

NOV-el, strange; uncommon.

Dis-con-cert-ing, disturbing to the mind. Es-cort-ed, accompanied.

Be-wil-dered, confused.

In-fec-tious, capable of being easily spread, said of a disease.

Scourge, cause of great suffering.

Prev-a-lent, general.

Con-tract-'ed, taken.

Reg-U-3 actions, rules.

O17ri-ent-al, pertaining to the east. Fast-ness-es, strongholds.

De-scend-ants, offspring.

Ex-tinc-tion, ceasing to be.

Mi-gra-tion, removing from one country to another.

In-ter-fer^ence, intermeddling.

Ad^vent, coming.

Bar-bar-ous, cruel; inhuman. Can^ni-bal-ism, the practice by human beings of eating human flesh.

U-ni-vers-al, extending to the whole.

Rife, wide-spread; general.

Ob-serv-anc-es, forms of service. En-ter-prise, undertaking.

Gen-er-a-tions, mass of beings living at one period.

Pi-O-neersi those who go before to prepare the

way.

Suc-cess-ful-ly, in a manner that gives good results.

Chris-ti-an-i-ty, the religion of Christians.

“ sulu” round the loins. They clambered on to the deck from all points, and commenced to rush about here, there, and everywhere, jabbering loudly all the time.


2. The scene was novel, exciting, and at the outset rather disconcerting; but, when I found that those of my shipmates who had been on the islands before were in no way alarmed, I became at ease and waited patiently for my friends. I was met by Messrs.V aughan and Scott,two members of the School

Board, and, under their kind guidance, was escorted through the narrow, crooked, strongly-smelling, and dimly-lighted streets to an hotel. There were no trams or cabs or even horses, but, on the pathways and in the roadways, crowds of black men and women passed to

and fro falkino-    CHIEF WOMAN in fiji.

anu iro, mixing    (Photo, by Walters, Fiji.

in their native language.

3.    I felt quite bewildered at first, but soon the pangs of hunger overcame my feeling of astonishment, and led me to the dining room, which, but for the dark waiters and the tropical fruits, looked much the same as that of an ordinary hotel in any capital of the Colonies.

4.    I forgot to mention that, before we were permitted to land, the Government medical officer came on board to grant pratique. The inspection is of a thorough character, and it should be so, because infectious complaints, though their effect may be mild in temperate climates, are a terrible scourge in Fiji. In order that this fact may be properly understood, our readers may remember that cases of measles have been very prevalent for some time in Victoria, but the outbreak has not been regarded as a serious matter. In most instances, the result of catching the disease has, with careful nursing and light diet, been merely confinement to bed for a few days, followed by a pleasant holiday for some weeks.

5.    In Fiji, this complaint was introduced in 1875 by the King and his sons, who had contracted the disease when on a visit to New South Wales. It rapidly spread with dreadful effect amongst the natives. Despite the efforts of the whites on behalf of the poor suffering savages, out of a population of 120,000, the number of deaths was between 30,000 and 40,000. No wonder that the regulations of the Board of Health are carried out as strictly as possible.

6.    Before relating my personal observations on the character and habits of the Fijian of to-day, I think it would be interesting to give some account of the probable origin of the people.

7.    The early Fijian is generally supposed to belong to a branch of that oriental negro race, the original sons of Ham, who, at the dawn oí man’s history, tradition says, journeyed to, and dwelt in Africa, India, and the East Indies.

Except in some mountain fastnesses in Hindostán, where a few tribes still exist, this race was driven by degrees from their home by the all-conquering, and more civilized Aryan people, and at length they found a new abode in that great southern continent, of which only groups of islands now remain in the midst of the vast waters of the Indian and Eastern Pacific Oceans.

8.    Though ages have passed away, mighty kingdoms have vanished from the earth, and most nations have become more or less civilized, yet these ancient people as far as the present century had lived in their own savage primitive state, altogether ignorant of the great events which have caused such changes in the rest of the globe.

9.    Then the white men, the descendants of the Aryan race, in their thirst for trade and adventure came upon the scene, and once more the poor black man had to enter upon an unequal contest for his existence. In almost every other instance, the meeting of the white man with the black has ended with the one result, namely, after much bloodshed and misery, in the total extinction or migration of the weaker race.

10.    The Government of Fiji has endeavoured from the first, and is still endeavouring, by wise regulations to make an exception in the case of the Fijian race. As far as possible the natives are governed by their own laws, and there is no interference with their domestic and social conditions, except with a view to improvement; but, notwithstanding all that has been done in this way, there is a gradual but sure decrease in the population.

11.    According to all the stories extant, the habits and customs of the Fijian people were barbarous in the - extreme before the advent of the Wesleyan missionaries. Cannibalism may not have been universal throughout the islands, but there can be no question that the practice was sufficiently rife to excite the horror of the civilized world.

12.    In the short space of 50 years, a notable change has taken place, and now, chiefly owing to the marvellous and heroic work of the

Wesleyans, it is stated that the whole of the native population is Christian, and carries out all the observances of religion perhaps better than Europeans do.

FIJI NATIVE WEARING NECKLACE OF WHALES’ TEETH.

i(Photo. by Walters, Fiji.)


There is no such other record in missionary enterprise, and future generations will admire and honour the noble work of these pioneers of the Gospel. The Wesleyan Mission counts about 100,000 adherents. It has churches and schools in almost every village, and under its control 40,000 Fijian boys and girls are being taught arithmetic as well as reading and writing in their own tongue. I must confess that it was a matter of surprise to me that the English language was not taught, but I have no doubt there are good and sufficient grounds for not including this subject in the programme.

13. Before closing this article, I should like to mention that the Marist Brothers have also laboured well and successfully in the great cause of Christianity and number some thousands amongst their followers.    F.C.E.

1.    SuUu, waist-cloth.

2.    Gov-ern-ment med-i-cal of£fi-cer, doctor appointed by the Government to see that its health regulations are obeyed.

3.    Pratique (pr&t'eeh), permission to hold intercourse and trade with the inhabitants of a place.

4.    Ham, one of the sons of Noah. He was the ancestor of the Canaanites, Egyptians, and also, it is supposed, of the Negro and Hottentot races.

5.    Ar^y-an. pertaining to the old race speaking the primeval An an tongue, or any of the numerous forms of speech which have sprung from it. The ancestors of the most modern Europeans lived together as one people, speaking the primeval Aryan tongue, in Central Asia. Their separation took place at a very remote period. The Aryan race that invaded India, probably about 1700 b.c., still remains the dominant Hindoo race there.

6.    Wes-ley-an, belonging to the denomination, founded in 1738, by John Wesley and his brother Charles.

7.    Mar-ist Broth1'ers, a Roman Catholic brotherhood, founded in 1836 by some priests at Lyons for the education of the poor and mission work. Marist, from Marie (tl e Virgin Mary).

THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER.1

Ram-parts, walls of a fort.

GaBlant-ly, bravely; nobly.

Bombs, hollow cast-iron balls filled with gunpowder or some other explosive. Tow-er-ing, very high.

Re-flectred, mirrored ; thrown back.


Vaunt-ing-ly, in a boasting manner. Hav-OC, destruction; waste.

Pol-lu-tion, taint; defilement; impurity. Hire-ling, one who is hired for wages. Des^o-la^tion, ruin; ravage.


1. Oh! say can you see by the dawn’s early light,

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming; Whose broad stripes and bright stars 2 through the perilous fight, O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming ! And the rocket’s red glare, the bombs bursting in air,

Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;

Oh ! say does that star-spangled banner yet wave O’er the land of the free, and the home of the brave !

2.    On that shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,

Where the foe’s haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o’er the towering steep,

As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses?

Now it catches the gleam of the morning’s first beam;

In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream;

’Tis the star-spangled banner, 0 long may it wave O’er the land of the free, and the home of the brave.

3.    And where is that band who so vauntingly swore

That the havoc of war and the battle’s confusion,

A home and a country should leave us no more ?

Their blood has washed out their foul footstep’s pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave;

And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave O’er the land of the free, and the home of the brave.

4. Oh ! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand

Between their loved homes and the war’s desolation,

Blest with victory and peace, may the Heaven-rescued land Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,

And this is our motto — “ In God is our trust ”—

And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O’er the land of the free, and the home of the brave.

—Francis Scott Key.

1.    The most popular of the patriotic songs of the United States of America. It was written in 1814, during Great Britain’s second war with that country (1812-14). Its author had visited the British fleet for the purpose of obtaining an exchange of some prisoners of war, and was directed to remain till after the action. During the day, his eye had rested on the fort, over which the flag of his country was flying. At night, he still stood straining his eyes through the gloom to catch by the light of the blazing rockets, a glimpse of his country’s flag. The early dawn found him still a watcher; and there, amidst the sounds of bursting shells and the roar of cannon, he composed “The Star-spangled Banner.”

2.    Broad, stripes and bright stars. On the 14th of June, 1777, nearly a year after the “ Declaration of Independence,” Congress resolved that the flag of the thirteen United States, be thirteen stripes, alternate red, and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white, in a blue field. In 1818, Congress further resolved that another star be added on the admission of every new state.

CHIPS.

Two little brothers sleep in the one bed. One complains to his mother about the other taking up too much room.

“ But,” says the mother, “ he doesn’t take more than half the bed.”

—-The Western Mail.


“That’s true,” says the aggrieved one; “but he takes his half in the middle of the bed, and wants me to lie on the two sides.”

THE HISTORY OF COLUMBUS AND HIS DISCOVERY OF AMERICA—(continued).

Anx-i^e-ty, care.

Con^fl-dent, sure of success.

Ho-ri/zon, where the earth and sky seem to meet.

Lux-U/ri-ant, abundant.

Im-pa-tient, very eager.

Ba-ha^mas, islands belonging to Great Britain, south-east of the United States of America.


Cu^ri-OS-i-ty, strong desire to see something new.

Weath-ered, came safely through. Re-mark-a-ble, wonderful; unusual. Pat-terns, designs.

Pro-ceed-ed, went.

O-ver-whelmedi wrecked; crushed beneath. O-bliged; forced; compelled.


1.    Signs of land now became more frequent. Not only were fresh, green herbs seen, bnt leaves of trees floated past the ships. A branch with red berries, and a stick, carved in a strange manner, were also picked up.

2.    So near was land believed to be that, as the ships were going at a great rate through the water, Columbus, in order to guard against accidents, determined that he himself would keep watch all night. Anxiety and restlessness were general in all the ships : no one went to sleep ; every one was looking out for land.

3.    Though Columbus had, to his men, always appeared cheerful and confident, he felt within himself occasional doubts and uneasiness. As he sat on deck, gazing earnestly at the horizon, he thought he saw, through the darkness, a light glimmering faintly at a great distance. He called up one of the crew and asked him if he saw anything in the direction which he pointed out to him. “ Yes,” said the man, u I see a light.” Columbus clasped his hands together and exclaimed, “ It is so ! it must be so ! ”

4.    He now felt certain that he had found land, and that it was inhabited. They sailed on : at two o’clock, one of the ships, which was in advance of the others, fired a gun ; joyful sound ! it was the signal of land. “ Land! land ! ” was shouted from ship to ship, with one glad voice. The rest of the night was spent by the sailors in talking over the expected sight which the morning was to bring. u Shall we find people in this new country?” asked the men one to another. “ Shall we find houses and cities like those of Spain ? Shall we find men like ourselves, or strange monsters, who will be as fierce and cruel as they are frightful ?”

5.    In this way the time passed till the dawn appeared, and then they beheld an island that seemed to their eyes, so long used to the sight of nothing but sky and sea, the most beautiful they had ever beheld. The trees were so luxuriant as to appear a never-ending grove, the sea along the shore was clear and sparkling.

6.    Columbus ordered the boats to be got ready, and entered one of them with some of his crew ; impatient to place his foot on the land which he had discovered, he was the first to spring on shore. As soon as his companions had landed, he planted the flag of the King of Spain on the coast; meaning to signify, that this new land henceforth belonged to that king.

7.    Columbus gave the name of San Salvador to the island which he had discovered. On looking in the map, it will be found among the islands called the Bahamas. The simple and ignorant people who inhabited this island, on seeing the Spaniards approach the shore, were so alarmed that they fled to the thickest parts of the woods. But, after a time, as their curiosity got the better of their fear, they began gradually to come forth from their hiding places.

8.    They wore no clothing ; but had their bodies painted in various colours and fanciful patterns. The natural colour of their skins was a reddish-brown. Their hair was straight and black, but they had not, like the Spanish sailors, beards growing on their chins. Their only arms were wooden lances, pointed with fish bones.

a


THE LANDING OF COLUMBUS.

9.    "Wlien Columbus offered them a few coloured glass beads, and some bright brass bells, they soon forgot their fears, and flocked down to the shore in great numbers. As the hour of sunset approached, the three boats again put off from the shore, and joined the ships that remained at anchor.

10.    Columbus having refreshed his men, and supplied the ships with water, again set sail. He proceeded in a southerly direction, because he understood from the signs of the natives that he would find a larger island in that direction. On the 28th of October he arrived at the large island of Cuba. Still he had not discovered the continent of America. The islands he had visited he called the West Indies, because he supposed them to be near India, though they are many thousand miles distant. They still keep the name given to them by Columbus.

11.    His voyage had hitherto been without storms ; his return to Europe, however, was not so fortunate. A dreadful tempest arose when he was near the Azores. He expected every instant that his frail and worn-out vessels would be overwhelmed by the fury of the winds and waves. All the ships, however, weathered the storm, and returned to Spain in safety.

12.    The news of the arrival of Columbus, and of the discovery which he had made, filled the people with joy and wonder. Their absence had been so long that they had been given up for lost. You can imagine how great was the rejoicing of their friends. The bells were rung, all the shops closed, and the people flocked in crowds to the harbour to see Columbus land.

13.    The sight was, indeed, remarkable. First walked Columbus, followed by some of his crew carrying beautiful parrots, cotton, and various other plants and animals, which they had brought from the new world. Then came the most curious sight of all—six natives of Cuba, who were painted after the manner of their country. The streets were so thronged that the sailors could hardly get along, while the shouts of joy and welcome were so loud as to be quite deafening. Columbus, occupied with his own thoughts, walked along in silence. In the midst of all this rejoicing he could not but remember the time when he had first arrived at this very town, with his little son on his back, and had been obliged to beg his bread.

14.    For a long time, nothing but Columbus and the “Hew World,” as the Spaniards called it, was talked of. He was received with kindness by the King and Queen, rewarded with numerous presents, and shortly afterwards was engaged to make another voyage, that he might pursue his discoveries further.

GUTTA-PERCHA.

Prop^er-ties, special marks or qualities belonging' to a thing.

Lan-guage, speech; tongue.

Spon^gy, soft and full of small holes. RuUn-OUS, causing loss.

Se-lect£ed, chosen.

Ex-pos'ure, being exposed or laid bare.

Crude, in its natural state; not prepared for use. Im-port-ed, brought into a country. 18

Dis-col-oured, spoiled as to its colour. Im-pu-ri-ties, substances that spoil it. For-eign, not belongingto it.

Sep-a-rat-ed, divided ; cause to go apart, Knead-ed, worked up with the knuckles. Eu-ro-pe-ans, natives, or inhabitants of Europe. Dis-solves' melts; disappears when placed in a liquid.

Va-ri-e-ty, number or collection of different sorts

properties. India-rubber, for example, is highly elastic ; gutta-percha is non-elastic, or elastic only in a very small degree.

2.    Gutta-percha is prepared from the milky juice of a tree which grows in the forests of the Malay Peninsula,18 Borneo,2 and the islands near them. The word gutta, in the Malay language, means gum, or the thick juice of a plant. The word per'-cha is the name of the tree from which the gum is obtained. The tree reaches the height of 70 feet, and its trunk is from three to four feet in diameter. Its wood being of a loose, spongy nature is valueless as timber.

3.    Formerly, the mode of obtaining the gutta-percha was a ruinous one. The finest trees were selected and cut down, and the bark stripped off. Between the wood and the bark a milky juice was found (sometimes amounting to thirty pounds in weight), which was scraped into little troughs made of the broad leaves of a kind of banana tree. Now, the method of tapping the living trees is followed, just as was described in the lesson on india-rubber.


4.    The sap will begin to flow as soon as the rainy season3 is over, and this is the time operations commence. On exposure to air, the sap dries and hardens rapidly into a solid lump. The crude guttapercha imported into Europe is discoloured with dirt, and contains pieces of bark. These impurities have to be got rid of before it can be of use. This is done by first heating the gutta-percha in boiling water till it is quite soft, and then tearing it to shreds by machinery.

Foreign matters are thus separated, and washed away, leaving the shreds of soft gutta pure. These are then kneaded up into a solid lump, which is passed between heated steel rollers that press it out into sheets of various thicknesses for use.

5.    Gutta-percha was first brought under the notice of Europeans as a useful article by a Dr. Montgomery in 1843. Observing, when in Malacca,4 that the handle of a native axe was made of a substance he had not seen before, the doctor asked the owner a number of questions respecting it. He was not long in discovering its value ; and a trade in it rapidly sprang up.

6.    When raised to a great heat, it burns with a flame. It dissolves in several kinds of oil, and readily mixes with paints. It becomes soft when dipped into hot water, so that it may be pressed or moulded into any shape ; it hardens as it cools. It will join two substances together almost like glue ; and, when quite dry, it is not sticky. It resists wet and damp ; and, being little injured by time, it can be softened and worked over again. All these are very useful qualities.

7. Soles of shoes, water-pipes, speaking-tubes, picture-frames, trays, ink-stands, golf-balls, beltings for machinery, and an endless variety of other articles are made of it.

1.    Ma-lay' Pen-in-SU-la, south of Further India ; the most southerly part of the mainland of Asia.

2.    Bor-ne-o, the second largest island in the World (New Guinea is the largest), on the equator, east of Sumatra.

3.    The rain^y sea-son. There are only two seasons within the tropics—a dry, and a wet or rainy. The temperature of the air does not vary much throughout the year.

4.    Ma-lac^ca, British settlement on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula.

TOPICS OF THE MONTH.

The Victorian Cadet Corps.

1.    The Cadet Corps comprising companies of lads from colleges, private schools, but principally from State schools throughout the colony, has now been in existence about 14 years.

2.    Sir F. T. Sargood, who was Minister of Defence in 1884, may be called the founder of the system in Victoria, as he took the first practical steps to introduce it. Since its introduction, he has on all occasions, both publicly and privately, fostered its gradual growth up to the present time, when the Corps has reached a position second to none in the other colonies, and one of which the people may be justly proud.

3.    The primary object of the system is to train our youthful male population to arms so as to lay the foundation of the largest possible defence force at the smallest possible cost. Another object is to make the schoolboy understand military discipline, prompt obedience to orders, tidiness, and respect foe authority. In addition, it affords a great measure of physical training and healthy exercise when most needed.

4.    It was thought also that a training in practical drill and use of arms for two or three years to boys when at school would result in an immense benefit to the national system of self-defence, as the knowledge thus acquired would never be forgotten, and as the soldier boy would, if called upon, be quickly fit to serve as a soldier man, as a defender of the homes and liberties of his native land.

5.    The introduction of the system was, as a rule, well received, and several schools at once formed companies, and the lads obtained uniforms. The next step was to arm the boys. At first old carbines with wooden barrels were used, but these were soon discarded in favour of the Francotte—a light, small-bore rifle, the selection of which has proved a great success.

THE ¿VICTORIAN CADET FORCE.—A GROUP OF OFFICERS.


1898.1    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.


6.    In 1885, Major, afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel Snee, was appointed commanding officer, assisted by Lieutenant (now LieutenantColonel) Hoad as staff officer ; and the first parade of the corps in and around Melbourne, when 600 appeared in uniform, was held in that year at Elsternwick. In that suburb also, the first encampment afterwards took place. In November, 1886, another parade of all corps throughout the colony was held at Albert Park, with the excellent number of 2,000 of all ranks. Several encampments have since been held at Langwarrin. Towards the end of 1889, it was directed that the whole junior force should wear the present uniform of khaki with soft felt hat, and should have for their motto—“ Pro Deo et Patria ” (“ For God and Country”).

7.    Good progress continued to be made until 1891, when the strength of the Cadet Corps rose to over 4,000; but, in a year or so, the evil times of retrenchment commenced to blight its ranks, and the system had a great struggle for existence. Most of the officers, notwithstanding the odds which faced them, stuck manfully to their colours, and, with the united efforts of the many friends of the movement including the press, they were enabled to pass through the troublous times, and now the Victorian Cadet Corps may be regarded as a national success, and worthy of the highest esteem of every thoughtful man in the community.

8.    The value of the force may be seen when it is estimated that about 1,000 recruits join yearly, and that there must be at least 25,000 boys who have left either colleges or State schools after a thorough training in military drill and rifle shooting. The strength of the Corps on the 30th June of this year was 2,772. The State school strength was 95 officers and 1,749 cadets.

9.    Lieutenant-Colonel Henry, who in 1886 succeeded to the position of staff officer, became commanding officer in 1893, on the retirement of Colonel Snee, and still acts in that position, assisted by Captain Somerset as staff officer.

10.    In New South Wales, the junior cadets work under the Department of Public Instruction, but in Victoria the whole force is military, and is under the control of the Defence Department. The success of the system, however, has been mainly owing to the active aid and sympathy shown by the Education Department itself, and by its leading officers.

11.    One note of warning may finish this article, and that is that the regulation height and age should be more strictly observed so as to prevent any loophole for finding fault with the system. Most of the facts in this article are gathered from an interesting paper which has been published by the present commanding officer. 19 in Albert Park of the 7th and 8th Battalions under Major W. M. Gamble and Captain McShane, Major F. C. Eddy acting as brigadier. Eight hundred were present, and the inspection was made by the commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Henry, accompanied by Major Brodribb.

2.    In the evening, the meeting of officers from various parts of the colony was celebrated by a dinner at the Masonic Hall. Sir Frederick Sargood, the originator of the cadet movement, was present, and received a hearty welcome.

3.    In responding to the toast of his health, Sir Frederick congratulated the officers on having met their difficulties like men, and expressed the hope that the force would continue to increase in strength and efficiency.

4.    The Inspector-General of Schools (Mr. Stewart), who represented the Education Department, also spoke during the evening, and expressed his warm sympathy with those who devoted so much of their energy, and not a little of their leisure to preserving an efficient cadet force. The movement had his hearty support, for he held that the training the boys received was of great value to them physically, mentally, and morally. The Secretary of Education was unfortunately absent through illness.

Among the Thibetans.

1.    Lassa, the sacred city of the Buddhists, and the residence of the Grand Lama, who is the head of the Buddhist religion, is the capital of a mountainous country called Thibet (tib-et'), which lies to the north of India, and is little known to Europeans.

2.    An Englishman, Mr. Henry Savage Landor, in order to get materials for writing a book, was recently travelling through Thibet to its capital, when he met with a terrible experience.

3.    His company at first consisted of thirty, but twenty-eight deserted him. Shortly afterwards, he was taken prisoner by Thibetans, who tortured him in a frightful manner with red-hot irons, and were about to put him to death. The executioner, in fact, was raising the axe to behead him, when the Grand Lama stopped the execution.

4.    Mr. Landor’s suiferings were, however, by no means ended. After this narrow escape, he was thrown into prison, where he was daily, for eight days, subjected to the torture of the rack. At length, he was released, and succeeded with much difficulty and hardship in getting out of the country.

A Collision off the Banks of Newfoundland.

1. Southwards of the island of Newfoundland, there is an area of shallow water, called the Banks of Newfoundland, six hundred miles in length and two hundred in breadth. Over this, and in its neighbourhood, dense fogs frequently form. They are caused through a broad current of warm water, which flows along the east coast of North America from the tropical regions, meeting a cold current

from the polar regions, and causing rapid evaporation. The air over the water is often cold, so that the vapour is cooled down as soon as it rises, and then becomes visible as a fog.

-|2. The Banks of Newfoundland swarm with cod-fish. Many of the inhabitants of the island earn their living by catching these fish, and drying them or extracting the oil they contain.

3. News has just been received that, in a dense fog off the Banks of Newfoundland, two large ships ran into each other. One was a French passenger vessel, and the other a sailing ship owned by a Glasgow firm. A large hole was made in the side of the French vessel, and she sank a few minutes after the collision. The Scotch ship, though injured, kept afloat; and her crew put forth every effort to save the unfortunate people struggling in the water. Out of 726 persons on board, they picked up 201. Of the rest it is feared that more than 500 were drowned.

AN INCIDENT IN INDIAN FRONTIER WARFARE.

Lig-a-ture, bandage. Re-lax-ing, loosening.


Front-ier, border.

Sur-geon, doctor.

Lieu-ten-ant (lef-ten'ant), officer in army or


navy.

Ar-ter-y, vessel conveying blood from the heart.


Par^a-lysed, rendered useless ; deadened. Ex-er^tion, effort.

Al-lay-ing, relieving.


1.    This gallant act was recently performed by Surgeon Hugo in the war against the hill tribes on the north-western frontier of India.

Lieutenant Ford, having had an artery severed by a bullet, was bleeding to death. The firing was too hot to allow of lights being used. There was no cover of any sort. Nevertheless, the surgeon, at the peril of his life, struck a match and examined the wound. The match went out amid a splutter of the enemy’s bullets, which kicked up the dust all around ; but, by its uncertain light, he saw the nature of the injury.

2.    The officer had already fainted from loss of blood. The doctor seized the artery; and, as no other ligature was forthcoming, he remained under fire for three hours, holding a man’s life between his finger and thumb.

3.    At the end of three hours, the surgeon, without relaxing his hold, carried the officer away. His arm was for many hours paralysed with cramp from the effects of the exertion of compressing the artery.

From The Age (Adapted)


4.    The spectacle of a doctor in action among soldiers in equal danger and with equal courage, saving life where all others are taking it, and allaying pain where all others are causing it, is one which must always seem glorious. It is impossible to imagine any situation from which a human being might better leave this world.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA,

TIE SCHOOL PIPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. II., No. 15.] MELBOURNE.    [Sept., 1898.

THE HEART OF THE TREE.

(AN ARROR

A-nighi near.

Croon, low, soft, murmuring sound.

Har-mo-ny, music.

1. What does he plant who plants a tree ? He plants the friend of sun and sky ; He plants the flag of breezes free ;

The shaft of beauty towering high;

He plants a home to heaven anigh,

For song and mother-croon of bird In hushed and happy twilight heard— The treble of Heaven’s harmony—

These things he plants who plants a tree.


-DAY SONG.)

Her-it-age, that which is handed down as a gift. Loy^al-ty, faithfulness to duty.

CiV-iC, relating to the citizens or people as a body.

2. What does he plant who plants a tree ? He plants cool shade and tender rain, And seed and bud of days to be,

And years that fade and flush again ; He plants the glory of the plain ;

He plants the forest’s heritage ;

The harvest of a coming age ;

The joy that unborn eyes shall see—-These things he plants who plants a tree.

—H. C. Runner.

SPRAYING.

At-tractdng, drawing to ; enticing. In^ter-est-ed, having the attention taken. CaVer-piRlar, worm or grub-like creature. Un^dis-turbed! not interfered with or moved. Ap-plied; put on.

Cavd-ty, hollow.

Crevdce, narrow opening; crack.


Re-ducedl made less.

Co-coonsi cases in which the caterpillars or grubs of certain insects envelop themselves. Con-sid-er-a-bly, in a degree not trifling or unimportant.

In-spect ed, examined carefully.

1.    Charley had lived nearly all his short life in Melbourne, so it was a great treat to him and his sister Kate when their uncle invited them to spend a long holiday at his orchard.

2.    When they reached the end of their journey, the children were delighted. It was spring-time. The weather was perfect. The flower gardens were gay with colours; and the long rows of fruit trees in the well-kept orchard were gaily decked with dainty blossoms. Wild flowers, too, grew thickly in the fields and along the waysides. Never before had the children seen so much beauty at one time. Little Kate clapped her hands with joy at the charming sights. The bees, and butterflies, and other insects were having a busy and happy time; and the children were never weary of admiring the many wonderful things they saw.

3.    One bright morning, they went with their uncle to that part of the orchard where the apple-trees were growing. The lovely petals of some of the earlier kinds were beginning to fall. They had done their duty in attracting the bees and other insects, and, as they dropped off, they left behind them the result of their life work in the shape of a tiny, green apple.

Price Id.

4. “ Now,” said their uncle, “ we must begin at once to spray these trees, or else the insects will get the best part of our crop.”

Next day the spraying began. Charley and his sister were very much interested in watching the men as they took round the spray pump, and, by means of it, covered the trees with a very fine mist. They had no idea why this was done, so they asked their cousin Tom.

5. “ The spraying,” said Tom, “is done to the appletrees to kill the grub or caterpillar of the coc linmoth. If we we::e to neglect to do this, or if we did not do it thoroughly, and at the proper time, our crop of apples would probably be spoiled. If we do it too soon, while the blossoms are on the trees, we might injure the bees, and the fruit would not set. If we wait till the grub has got right into the apple, we should be too late, as the spray liquid could not then reach it. The moth lays an egg in the crown of the apple just after it is formed. In four or five days, a tiny grub is hatched, and, if left undisturbed, will gradually eat its way to the core of the fruit,


CODLIN MOTH.

(From Guides to Growers, No. 27, issued by the Department of Agriculture,

Victoria.)

la.    Branch of apple-tree and fruit, showing damage done to pips, and mode of escape of caterpillar.

lb.    Upper portion of fruit when newly formed, showing where egg of moth is deposited.

2a. Perfect insect at rest. Slightly enlarged.

2b. Perfect insect on wing. Slightly enlarged.    .

3. Caterpillar lowering itself from apple by means of silken thread spun by the insect for the purpose.

and so spoil it. But we spray the trees, as you see, with a poisonous substance, so that the first food the newly-hatched grub eats is poison. In this way, we destroy the pest and save the crop.”

“ But won’t that poison the apples, too?” asked Kate.

6. “ Oh no ! there is no fear on that score,” replied Tom. “You see, the poison is applied in so small a quantity, and then winds and rain are removing it all the time the fruit is growing. Only a very small portion is caught in the tiny cavity at the crown of the apple. We must spray while the apple is in this stage with its crown uppermost. Soon it will hang over, and then the liquid would not lodge. But, even supposing that all the spray liquid were to remain on the apple, it would still do no harm. A person would have to eat several cases of fruit at one time to get enough poison to do him any injury, and I think that even Charley would hardly he able to manage that.”

7.    A day or two afterwards, the children were greatly interested in watching their uncle’s men tie hands round the trunks of the trees. These, they were told, were for the purpose of catching the grubs that collected in any crevice in the trunk, or other suitable hiding-place. The children often went round with Tom, as he inspected the bands, and destroyed the grubs and cocoons that had collected under them. The tame magpie was generally their companion on these rounds, and helped as much as anyone. They often saw wild birds, too, busy searching the bands and any cranny about the trees.

8.    Charley began at first to count the grubs destroyed, but soon the number became so great that he had to give it up in despair. He could see it was true, as Tom explained, that, by killing them in this stage, they reduced the next brood very considerably. He also noticed that more grubs gathered under bandages of woollen material than under cotton bands or strips of bagging. Tom told Charley and his sister that, when the apples were larger, they were very careful to pick off the trees, or from the ground, all fruit that showed signs of having a grub inside, and such fruit was quickly and carefully destroyed.

9.    The children’s holiday ended, as they thought, much too soon, and they had to return to their city home.

When the fruit was ripe, to their great delight, they received a case of the finest and rosiest apples, which their uncle sent them to show how the crop had been saved by the three operations of spraying, bandaging the trees, and destroying the infected fruit.

Gr. H. Adcock, F.L.S., Department of Agriculture.

ALBANY, WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

1. Albany, one of the chief seaports of Western Australia, is situated on Princess Royal Harbour, a cove of King George’s Sound.


smu-a-ted, placed.

Cove, small bay.

Gran-ite, kind of hard rock.

Char-ac-ter, nature; quality.

Ap-pear-ance, look ; aspect.

Pro-tec-tion, shelter; guard.

Pen-in-SU-la, portion of land nearly surrounded by water.

Re-sorti place to which one goes often. Isth-mus, neck of land joining two larger portions.


Pro-ject; jut out.

Hulks, old, dismantled ships.

Ter-mi-nus, end of a piece of railway. Sen^ti-nels, soldiers set to watch or guard. Re-cedes' goes back.

Balm£y, mild ; refreshing.

O-zone, kind of gas; oxygen in a condensed form.

Cli-mate, the condition of a place in relation to temperature and moisture.


Here the first settlement in Western Australia was made on Christmas Day, 1825.


2.    The Sound is almost hemmed in by high lands of granite formation. As these hills rise to the height of several hundred feet, and are of a steep and rocky character, they present a fine, bold appearance, and, what is of more importance, act as a screen to the ships from the winds that often sweep over the ocean without.

3.    At the very mouth of the Sound, rising to the height of five or six hundred feet, and acting as a protection against the huge rollers from the Southern Ocean, lie Breaksea Islands. The passage-way, which is only a quarter

bird’s-eye view of king George’s    of a mile wide, winds between

sound and neighbourhood.    high cliffs; and, since 1892, the

black muzzles of cannon are to be seen peeping out here and there among them.

4.    Inside the Sound there is a rocky peninsula, which is joined to the mairdandby a very narrow neck of land, and which forms a couple of pretty, little coves on each side of the isthmus.

5.    Nearly opposite this peninsula, the water sweeps away through a narrow passage between steep rocks, and then opens out into what is known as Oyster Harbour. The shore of this bay is one of nature’s beauty-spots, and, on a holiday, is the resort of hundreds of pleasure-seekers.

6.    The cove on the other side of the isthmus is Princess Royal

Harbour. It is so deep that the largest steamers can, with ease and safety, draw up alongside either of the two long piers that project into its waters.    '

7.    Albany, which has a population of about 3,000, is a coaling station for mail steamers, and, to supply them, 5,000 tons of coal are always on hand, stored in hulks in the harbour. It is also the terminus of the Great Southern Railway, which connects it with Beverley,1 Perth, Southern Cross,2 Coolgardie,3 and other places.

8.    The town is prettily situated. It lies between two hills that stand like sentinels guarding it, one—Mt. Clarence—on the eastern, and the other—Mt. Melville—on the western side. Houses were first built near the water’s edge ; but, as the land recedes, it rises sharply, and they now extend some distance up the flanks of the hills. At night, when all the lights are burning, the eye takes in from a boat on the water, a scene of beauty not likely to be soon forgotten.

ALBANY.

9. The climate is delightful, as extremes of heat and cold are unknown, and the balmy air comes richly laden with ozone from the vast expanse of the Southern Ocean. Albany, therefore, ranks high among the health resorts of Western Australia.

—J. T. Sadler, B.A., Albany.

1.    Bev-er-ley, township on the Avon River, about 110 miles to the eastward of Perth. Here the

Eastern railway joins the Great Southern line.

2.    South-era Cross, the chief town of the Yilgarn Goldfield. It is east of Beverley on the railway

connecting that town and Coolgardie.

3.    Cool-gar-'die is the principal town of the Eastern goldfields of Western Australia, and is situated about

118 miles east of Southern Cross.

CAPTAIN COOK.—PART III.

Ex-trav'a-gant, excessive; beyond reasonable bounds.

Hos;pi-tal-i-ty, entertainment of strangers and guests without reward.

Cut-ter, small boat used by ships of w7ar. In-duc'ing, prevailing on.

De-tain-ing, holding in custody. Rev-er-ent-ly, with respectful regard. Com-mit-ted, consigned; placed.

Ig-no-ble, paltry.

Gen-ius (gen'-yus), superior power of mind.


Prev-a-lent, extensively existing. Ex-cite-ment, agitation; stir.

Dis-cus-sion, debate; talk.

©om-mancFer, an officer ranking next above a lieutenant.

Mys^ter-y, something unknown and exciting curiosity.

Survey, careful examination.

Gon-sent-ed, agreed.

Trav-ersed, crossed ; gone over.

Offered, said that he was willing.

1.    We left Captain Cook and his crew on the north-east coast of Queensland at the mouth of the Endeavour River,1 engaged in the work of repairing their ship. This took some time, and it was not till the 4th of August that they were able to continue their voyage.

2.    On the 21st, they rounded Cape York, and found themselves in what we call Torres Strait.2 Cook and some of the men landed on a small island.3 “ Here,” to use the Captain’s own words, “ I hoisted English colours, and in the name of His Majesty King George the Third, took possession of the whole eastern coast, by the name of New South Wales, upon which we fired three volleys of small arms, which were answered by the like number from the ship.”

3.    Hence they steered for Batavia,4 where they further repaired their ship, and took in stores. While they were lying in this harbour, fever—which, owing to the absence of proper drainage, is always prevalent—attacked the men and carried off seven. Its effects, however, did not stop here, for, after leaving Batavia, twenty-three men died. To us, such a loss of life by sickness appears dreadful, but unhappily was far from uncommon in those days.

4.    To restore the health of the survivors, Cook stayed a month at Cape Town,5 where the sick were put ashore, in a house hired for the purpose. Finally, on the 12th of July, 1771, after an absence of nearly three years, the Endeavour reached England. The arrival of the voyagers was hailed with rejoicing ; and the accounts of their discoveries naturally caused much excitement and discussion.

5.    Cook was promoted to the rank of commander. To us this does not appear by any means a fitting reward to the man who may be said

CAPTAIN COOK PROCLAIMING NEW SOUTH WALES A BRITISH POSSESSION, I770-

(The original picture by S. A. Gilfillan, owned by the Royal Society of Victoria, is now on view in the National Gallery, Melbourne.)


1898.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS TV.


Or


to have given Australia to the British nation. But the Government was evidently not yet aware of the value of the gift.

6.    Cook spent only a year at home. Another task was awaiting him. For years there had been a strong belief in the existence of a great southern continent. His recent discoveries brought the question again to the front, and a fierce discussion raged. Something must be done to solve the mystery, and who so fit to do so as Commander Cook?

7.    The Government, accordingly, fitted out two vessels, the Resolution and Adventure. The ships left Plymouth,6 in July, 1772, and made the usual stay at Cape Town. Thence Cook steered south, and for many weeks skirted the great ice wall of the Antarctic regions. When the approach of winter made further progress impossible, the vessels’ course was turned north.

8.    After making a further survey of New Zealand, Cook gave orders that the vessels should be headed for Tahiti.7 A stay of a fortnight in this delightful island made some amends to the crew for the hardships they had endured in their southern trip.

9.    But spring found the voyagers again busy in the exploration of the Antarctic Ocean; and, for a second time, they reached the great wall > f ice. Then, when winter drove them back, came another holiday in pleasant Tahiti. Leaving this in May, 1774, they visited several islands, discovering among .others New Caledonia.8 In November, Cook sailed on his third and last attempt to find the southern continent. On this, as on the two previous occasions, he consented to return northwards, only when he could get no further south. He had traversed the Southern Ocean in all directions, and had found no southern continent anywhere.

10.    In July, 1775, the ships returned to England. Cook was appointed a captain in Greenwich Hospital, and received other honours. It might be thought that after having been thirty-four years at sea, and having done so much, he might well rest and enjoy his well-earned repose. But though the question of the southern continent was settled, there was another more important still to be solved. This was the question whether a North-Western passage existed. It was hoped that a short way of reaching China from Europe by the sea north of America might be found.

11.    The Government determined to send out an expedition for this object. Cook offered to take the command, and, on board his old ship the Resolution, accompanied by the Discovery, he set sail in July, 1776. Tasmania and New Zealand were visited, and numerous islands in the Pacific, among them some of the Sandwich group.8 In March, the coast of North America was sighted and explored for three thousand five hundred miles.

12.    In the summer of 1777, the ships passed through Behring’s Straits, and reached the region of Polar ice. Cook, seeing no hope of further advance for that season, steered south, reached the Sandwich

Islands once more, and discovered Hawaii (ka-wi'-e)—the chief of the group. Here the natives, doubtless taking Cook for one of their gods whose return they had long been expecting, treated him and his crews-with extravagant honours and unbounded hospitality.

13.    After a stay of sixteen days, the voyagers took their departure,, but they had not been at sea more than a few days, when a heavy galo cracked the foremast of the Resolution, and they had to put back for repairs.

14.    In the meantime, the feelings of the natives had undergone a change. Quarrels between them and the sailors took place. The cutter of the Discovery was stolen. To enforce the return of this,. Cook went ashore with the object of inducing the king to come on board and of detaining him till the cutter was restored.

15.    Cook with the king and a large company of excited natives had approached the shore, when a disturbance arose, the end being that he and four of his men were killed. A day or two afterwards, such of the remains of their lamented captain as were restored by the natives were reverently committed to the deep by his sorrowing crew.

16.    Thus fell, in an ignoble quarrel, a man whose genius and capacity had raised him high above his fellows, who had widely extended the bounds of human knowledge, and had opened up to tho enterprise of his countrymen a new world. “ He was,” in the words of Mr. Sutherland, “ one of the straightest and most forcible characters of his time, and no other of that century accomplished a greater work. No one before him had ever sailed over so much of the surface of this earth, and, of his 300,000 miles of voyaging, fully half had been in oceans utterly uncharted. He made known Australia and New Zealand, New Caledonia, the Sandwich Islands, and three thousand miles of the coast of North America.”

17.    He not only made known these lands, but he was in advance of his age in the observations and the minute examination which he made into the religion, manners, customs, arts, and language of the natives wherever he went. It was he who directed these enquiries, and he was himself the principal observer.

18.    There is a monument erected to Cook’s memory at Ay ton,10

in Sydney, and in Hawaii, on a spot overlooking the scene of his death. At Marton,11 where the great sailor was born, there is a school named after him.    ACC

1.    En-deav-our River. Cooktown has been built on the estuary of this river.

2.    Tor-res Strait, by Cook called Endeavour Strait.

3.    A small isl-and, called Possession Island.

4.    Ba-ta^vi-a, the capital of the large island of Java, which belongs to the Dutch.

5.    Cape Town, capital of Cape Colony, a British possession in the south of South Africa.

6.    Plymouth town and naval station south-west of England.    .

7.    Ta-hi-ti ([ta-he-te) in the South Pacific Ocean; the largest of the Society Islands, east of Fiji Islands.

8.    New Cal-e-do-ni-a, island east of Queensland. It is a French penal station, that is. a place to-which persons convicted of crime are sent from France. There are 10,000 convicts now on the island.

9.    Sand-wich Is-lands, in the North Pacific Ocean, west of the United States of America. The-name given to the group in 1778 by Captain Cook, in honour of the First Lord of the Admiralty at the time-(Lord Sandwich), has been changed to Hawaii.

10.    Ay-ton, a village in the east of Yorkshire, England.

11.    Mar:ton, a village in the east of Yorkshire, England.

COURAGE.

Helm-et, head-piece ; a defensive covering for the head.

Ad-mir-al, a naval officer of high rank. Re-specti esteem; honour.

Con-flict, struggle ; fight.


SylUa-ble, in writing' and printing, a part of a word divided from the rest, and capable of being pronounced by one impulse of the voice. Wield-ed, handled with vigour.

Nerv^OUS-ly, in an excited manner.

1.    Let ns look closely at the word. If I take away the syllable age, what will remain? The syllable cour. With the addition of the letter e, we have the French word coeur (kur) which means heart. Yon remember the famons English king who wielded the heavy battle-axe against the Saracens1 in the Holy Land.2 His very name made the people fear; and, when a Saracen’s horse started nervously, his rider would say : u What! dost thon think thon seest King Richard3 behind that bush ? ” This brave Richard was known as Coeur-cle-lion or Lion-heart, for he had the heart or courage of a lion.

2.    African mothers have a strange idea concerning the wonderful power of the lion’s heart; and, when the father has slain a lion in the chase, he brings the heart of the fierce beast to the mother, and she cooks it, and gives some of it to her boys to eat. She thinks that, as they eat it, the courage of the king of beasts enters into their hearts.

3.    What shall we say courage is? Let us say that it is strength of heart. The man or woman who shows courage is courageous. And how do courageous people act ? They fight when duty bids them fight; they face danger; they save the lives of others. All this is true ; but I wonder whether any one kind.of courage is as good as any other. Let us look at the various kinds of courage. Let us put them in classes, as boys and girls are placed in classes in school.

4.    Let me picture a scene to you. On the one side we have a group of soldiers in red coats; you admire their smart helmets, their white straps, their polished boots, their rifles, their upright position. They stand for the army. On the other side, we notice a man in dark-blue uniform, adorned with gold braid. Six medals are fastened on his left breast. He is an admiral. He stands for the navy. What is the business of these soldiers and this sailor ? To light; to defend their country; perhaps to attack other countries.

5.    What kind of courage do these men exhibit ? The courage to fight and to endure. These are Englishmen, Scotchmen, Irishmen, and Welshmen. But do not other nations also show courage? How often people forget that! And how wrong it is to forget. We ought to respect the courage of other nations. All boys have learned the military salute. If I wished you to salute all the brave men of the world, I should say : “ Salute the Americans ; salute the French ; salute the Germans ; salute the Italians ; salute the Russians ; salute the Arabs ; salute the Japanese,” and many more.

6.    Yes ; and the brave men of olden times—the Greeks,4 the Romans.6 You will learn, if you do not already know, the names of some of their heroes ? Leonidas, the King of Sparta,6 who held the mountain-pass with but three hundred men against the Persian host ;

or the Roman general, Fabricius, who showed no sign of fear when a curtain was drawn aside suddenly, and, for the first time in his life, he beheld an elephant with its trunk upraised ready to descend upon him.

7.    And have yon not learned the story of brave Horatius, how he and his two companions, in order to gain time for it to be cut down, kept the bridge over which the Tuscan enemy must pass to reach their beloved city, Rome ?

The three stood calm and silent,

And looked upon the foes,

And a great shout of laughter From all the vanguard rose.”

But after the laughter, came the stern conflict. The mighty Tuscan7 captains fell; the supports of the bridge were chopped through ; two of the defenders ran back in time to avoid the crash ; and Horatius was left alone. He plunged into the yellow Tiber, and swam to the River-gate.

And now with shouts and clapping,

And noise of weeping loud,

He enters through the River-gate,

Borne by the joyous crowd.”

8.    I hope, and believe ihat the days will come when war will cease. It was, however, the duty of Horatius to fight for his city. He fought bravely, and we honour this noble Roman.

li—From a lesson issued by the Moral Instruction League, London.

(To be continued.)

1.    Sar-a-cens, Arabs. They were followers of Mohammed and hitter enemies to Christianity.

2.    Ho'-ly Land, Palestine, a country bordering on the east of the Mediterranean Sea, and now forming part of Turkey in Asia.

3.    King Rich-ard. He was King of England from 1189 to 1199, but passed only a few months in the country. The principal business of his life was fighting in the Crusades against the Turks.

4.    Greeks, inhabitants of Greece.

5.    Ro-mans, inhabitants of Rome. They became masters of the world as then known.

6.    Spar-ta. A town of ancient Greece, the capital of a country forming parr, of the present Morea.

7.    Tus-can. Belonging to the Tusci or Etrusci. The country of Etruria is the present Tuscany, a province of Italy.

BRITISH BRAVERY IN A HURRICANE.

Ex-pe-ri-enced, undergone ; met with. Mem-O-ra-ble, likely to be remembered; remarkable.


Ob^sta-cle, obstruction ; hindrance. Suc-cess-ful-Iy, in a way that had the desired effect.

American, three were German, one was British, namely, H.M.S. Calliope (cal-li'-o-pe). In addition to the war ships, all the boats and small craft that had taken refuge in the port were wrecked.

3.    About midnight on the 15th of March, the storm hurst forth in its full fury. By the morning, one of the German ships had dashed herself against the reefs and sunk in deep water, only four of the-crew escaping. Shortly afterwards, the Adler, another German boat, was lifted bodily on a wave, and flung keel up on the coral reef.

4.    When the panic-stricken Samoans occasionally got a view of the vessels through the blinding gale and rain, they noticed that all were gradually approaching the reefs, chough they had their anchors down, and their engines were kept going full steam ahead.

5.    The British captain, finding that the stern of his ship was nearing the reef every minute, and that she was also in danger of collision with two other ships, took the fate of his men and ship into his own hands. He fired up every boiler, ordered all hands below, and then determined to run the gauntlet3 of steaming out of the bay right in the teeth of the hurricane.

THE REMAINS OF THE “ADLER” ON THE REEF.

(This block has been kindly loaned by the Editor of The Traveller.)


6. Clearing two of the German ships with great difficulty, Captain Kane steamed for the opening of the harbour. In the entrance, lay the American flag ship Trenton, presenting a dangerous obstacle to the safe exit of the English man-of-war. But the captain successfully

avoided a collision, and, as the Calliope passed between the Trenton and the reef, the wildest cheering at the heroic and gallant deed arose from the crew on the deck of the American boat, although she herself was a helpless hulk doomed to certain destruction. This genuine outburst from the hapless American crew proved the truth of the adage, “ Blood is thicker than water.”

7.    As the Calliope steamed through the narrow channel, she caught the full force of the wind and sea, hut she weathered the storm, and passed out of the harbour into the open ocean. The awful experiences of the next few days will never fade from the minds of any of the officers and crew.

8.    When the hurricane had moderated somewhat, the Calliope again steamed to Apia. On reaching the harbour, it was found that there was not a single craft afloat, but, on the reef in the middle of the bay, high above the water line, lay the German war ship Adler.

9.    Everything of value has, long ago, been stripped from the old war ship, hut there her gaunt skeleton lies, and will lie as long as the rivets hold ; and the harbour lights of Apia now shine through her dismantled ribs. Look at the illustration, and picture to yourself the mighty force which must have been necessary to lift the ship upon the reef.

10.    The Samoans behaved on the occasion with a noble courage, and did their best to save life. But, though they succeeded in saving some, many lives were nevertheless lost, and the great “ blow ” of 1889, and the daring feat of Captain Kane, are events in Polynesian history which are not likely ever to be forgotten.

Compiled.

1.    PoPy-ne-'si a, that part of the Pacific Ocean which includes numerous groups of islands, of which the

most important are those of the Hawaii (Sandwich), Marquesas, Society, Samoa or Navigator, and Friendly groups, the natives of which speak different dialects of the same language.

2.    Sa-mo-a (sah-mo'-ah), a group of islands lying to the north-east of the Fiji group.

3.    Run the gaunt'let, run the risk.

SWIMMING DRILL ON LAND.

As a considerable number of swimming clubs has lately been established in connexion with various schools throughout the colony, the following set of exercises for swimming on land may be substituted for the Physical Exercises given in The Regulations, • Appendix II.

These exercises are taken from the Annual Report of The British Life Saving Society.

LEG MOVEMENT.

After “Numbering ” and standing at “ Attention ” 'proceed with:—

Position.    On the command Position,” place hands on hips.

Ready—    On “One,” raise the left knee (directing it sideways), the heel of the left

One.    foot touching inside of right knee, with toes pointing downwards.

Gen-U-ine, true; real.

Ad-age, proverb; saying.

Nec-es-sa-ry, such as must be ; needful.


PaiBiC-strick 'en, struck with sudden fear. Oc-ca-sion-al-ly, at times.

Col-lis-ion, clashing; striking together.


.


■ ■


• ■ ,


:: Il ■

!/ , Jfoí t'



..............


KI


is »


COMBINED ARM AND LEG MOVEMENT.

(Section of Swimming Club. Albert Park State School. Messrs. P. Miller, head teacher, and S. Barclay, assistant and instructor in swimming.)



1898.]    THE SOFTOOL PAPEP—CLASS IV.


COMBINED ARM AND LEG MOVEMENT.

(Section of Swimming Club, Albert Park State School. Messrs. P. Miller, head teacher, and S. Barclay, assistant and instructor in swimming.)

Two.    On “ Two,” straighten and lower the left leg by a backward and rounded

movement, until the point of the big toe touches the ground one pace to the left.

Three.    On “Three,” draw in the left foot along the ground and close the leg

smartly.

Halt.    Drop hands to the side and stand at attention.

Note. — Perform these movements three or four times, and then repeat the drill with the right leg. When proficient, perform the movements with the right and left leg alternately, particularly emphasising movements “ Two ” and “ Three,” and continue without counting by judging the time.

ARM MOVEMENT.

Position. On the command “ Position,” raise the arms by bending them upwards from the elbows and shoot the hands forward with arms extended and directed slightly upwards, thumbs touching, the palms turned downward, and the head inclined slightly backward.

Ready_ On “One,” sweep the arms round in a quarter circle right and left, until

(}ne.    they are in line with each other, with the backs of the hands turned

slightly towards the front.

Two.    On “ Two,” close the elbows to the sides of the body and bring the hands

to the sides of the chest slightly to the front; fingers closed pointing to the front, and palms downward, the thumbs about six inches apart.

'Three.    On “ Three,” shoot the hands forward to the full extent of the arms and

slightly upward, thumbs touching, the palms turned downward, and the head inclined backward.

Halt.    Drop hands to the side and stand at attention.

(The directions for theCombined Arm and Leg Movementwill appear in our

next issue.)

THE

Re-quired;' needed.

ConPmon, belonging to all.

Be-stowed' on, gave.

1.    Turn, turn thy hasty foot aside,

Nor crush that helpless worm ! What thou wouldst kill with careless pride

Required a God to form.

WORM.1

Bliss, happiness.

Re-ceivef take.

Light-ly, carelessly.

3.    The sun, the moon, the stars, He made

For all His creatures free ;

And spread o’er earth the grassy blade,20

For worms as well as thee.

4.    Let them enjoy their little day,

Their humble bliss receive ;

0 ! do not lightly take away The life thou canst not give !21

—T. Gisborne.

1.    “ There is something- of the sublime in the severe and pathetic simplicity of this little poem.”— F. T. Palgrave in The Golden Treasury of best Songs and Lyrical Poems in the English Language.

2.    Thy be-ing flowed, your life came.    3. Grass-y blade, blades of grass.

4. Not only should we spare the worm because it is right to be kind to all creatures that are not harmful to us, but also because the worm does valuable service for man by breaking up the soil, and thus making it more fertile.

CHIPS.

No one else can do the work you have to do; others may do some other work, but not yours.

There are three great forms of duty ; the first—the nearest, and that which must, in a manner, precede the other two —to take care of ourselves; the second—the plain one—to do no wrong ; the third—the highest—to do all the good we can.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

sa t** ‘‘ia

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IL, No. 16.] MELBOURNE.    [Oct., 1898.

THE TRULY BRAVE.

SelPcon-troli restraint over one’s self. Conscience,inward power or faculty by which we distinguish right from wrong ; sense of duty.

1.    Who is the truly brave ? p1 The boy with self-control,

Who curbs his temper and his tongue, And, though he may be big and strong, Would scorn to do the slightest wrong To any living soul.

2.    Who is the truly brave ?

The boy who can forgive,

And look as though he had not heard The mocking jest, the angry word ; Who, though his spirit may be stirred, Yet tries in peace to live.

3.    Who is the truly brave?

The boy whose daily walk

Is always honest, pure, and bright,


Comrades, mates ; companions.

Taunt, insulting or mocking words; bitter reproach.

Who cannot lie, who will not fight,

But stands up boldly for the right,

And shuns unholy talk.

4.    Who is the truly brave ?

The boy who fears to sin,

Who knows no other sort of fear,

But strives to keep his conscience clear, Nor heeds his comrade’s taunt and jeer If he hath peace within.

5.    Who is the truly brave ?

The boy who dares to pray,

And, humbly kneeling, seeks the face Of God, and asks supplies of grace To help him run the Christian race,

And walk in wisdom’s way.

—Our Boys and Girls.


THE CHARGE OF THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS UP THE

DARGAI HEIGHTS.

Con-troll restraint ; check.

A-meerl or E-mir, chief ruler ; king ; Turkish title given especially to those claiming to be descendants of Mahomet.

Re-sist-ance, opposition.

Frontier ( frünt-eer), border.

RegU-meiGtal, belonging to a regiment. De-scrip-tion, account.

Ser-geant (sarment), officer in the army, next in rank above corporal.

Un-lim-bered, took the cannons off the limbers, or carriages used in conveying them from place to place.

1. The ragged Hindu Kush north-west of India, and form a Afghanistan. They are the home being quite beyond the control of many years offered a fitful but advance iu that direction.


In-fant-ry, foot-soldiers.

Gorge, defile, or narrow gully between mountains.

As-sailed! attacked.

Per-pen-dic-u-lar, exactly upright.

Bay-O-net, dagger for fixing on the end of a rifle.

Con-grat-U-la-tions, words that express pleasure at the success of another.

Pa-ra-ded, assembled and arrayed in military order.    *

Stal-wart, brave ; strong. .

and Snliman Mountains lie to the barrier between that country and of warlike and hardy tribes, which, the Ameer of Afghanistan, have for determined resistance to British

Price Id.

2.    The efforts to subdue the Afghan tribesmen have cost much money and many lives. In these frontier wars, thousands of gallant deeds have been performed, many unknown except to the actors in them and to their friends, while the accounts of others have echoed and re-echoed round the world.

3.    Who has not heard of the determined charge of the Gordon Highlanders up the Dargai (dar^gi) heights lined with fierce Afridi warriors; and of the dauntless courage of Piper Findlater, who, after being shot through both feet, and unable to stand, sat up under a heavy fire, playing the regimental march to encourage the charge ?

4. The following description of the action is from a letter written by a sergeant of the regiment to his parents, and printed in the Glasgow Weekly Herald:—

“ On reaching the valley, we saw the tribesmen in thousands holding grand positions. Our three mountain batteries unlimbered at between 2,000 and 3,000 yards from the main position : and the infantry advanced in single file along the ridge to attack, the 1st and 2nd Goorkhas1 leading, Dorset regiment second, Derbies third, 3rd Sikhs22 fourth, the Gordon Highlanders last but not least, as we proved later on that day.

5.    “ The three leading regiments worked their way on, and got within 200 yards of the Gibraltar.23 In a gorge, under cover, our mountain batteries opened fire, and for hours assailed the position without doing much damage, I am sure, for they were firing on bare, perpendicular cliffs. We halted about 900 or 1,000 yards from the position, and fired long-range volleys.

6.    “I think it was about two o'clock when we got the order to push on behind the 3rd Sikhs, who had advanced. In an hour, we were in the gorge with the whole company, when the, order came for the Gordon Highlanders to charge the position. Previous to advancing, we saw two companies of the Goorkhas charge across the fire-swept zoDe, and get under cover close up, and knew what was in front of us ■—200 yards of a death-trap.

7.    “Colonel Mathias shouted—‘Men of the Gordon Highlanders ! the General has ordered that position to be taken at any cost. The Gordon Highlanders will take it. Will you follow me?’ Of course, we cheered. The pipers came to the front and struck up ‘ Cock o' the North.’ With a Highland cheer, we leapt from under cover into the death-trap. It was a rough ten minutes, scrambling along a hillside with men falling all round ; but no one, except the killed and wounded, stopped. Four out of our five pipers were struck down, but Findlater sat up where he fell, playing away. That urged us on more than anything could have done. Upward we went, rush after rush, until the top was reached, when we opened fire on the retreating enemy, the position taken at the point of the bayonet by our regiment in the eyes of everyone.

8.    “We received congratulations on all sides when we came down, and cheers from every corps. It brought tears to my eyes, when, coming across the death-trap on the way back, I saw the dead stretched out, all killed in the same place.

1.    Goor-khas, regiment recruited from a people living in the north of India. They display great bravery in war. The British had some difficulty in bringing them under subjection, the Goorkha war lasted two years (1814-16).


u To-day, the Commander-in-Chief, Sir William Lockhart, paraded us, and thanked the regiment for the splendid example we had shown to the whole force, and said he would call on us again.

“ This is active service indeed ; but I am well and very fit, always eager, as a son of such a good old father ought to be.”

9. Her Majesty the Queen, to show her admiration for Piper Findlater’s conduct, went lately to the hospital in England where he was under treatment, and, with her own hands, pinned the Victoria Cross to his breast.

During her visit, she also honoured in the. same way Private Vickery, of the Dorsets. This brave man fought and defeated four stalwart Afridis single-handed—shooting one, bayoneting another, clubbing the brains out of the third, and putting the fourth to flight. Afterwards, although badly wounded himself, he assisted a wounded comrade into camp, and, on a later occasion, dashed into a hot corner, and brought out a poor fellow who had been one of the pipers at dargai.    shot through both legs. 22 23

THE JARRAH.

Blaze, mark made on the trunk of a tree by chipping off a piece with an axe.

Dis-tin-guished, seen to be what they are.

Disc, flat, circular surface.

Lo-cal, pertaining to a particular place.

Cus-tom-ers, purchasers; buyers.

In-dus-tries, occupations in which many people are engaged.

Es-ti-ma-ted, calculated ; reckoned up.

Mar-ket-a-ble, saleable; fit to be offered for sale.


FIND A WAY

Im-pe-ri-al, powerful.

Croak-er, grumbler.

As-pir-a-tion, wish.

Am-Pi-tiOn, earnest desire.

1.    It was a noble Roman

In Rome’s imperial day,

Who heard a coward croaker Before a castle say :

“ They’re safe in such a fortress ;

There is no way to shake it ! ”

“ On! on ! ” exclaimed the hero,

I’ll find a way, or make it !”

2.    Is Fame your aspiration ?

Her path is steep and high ;

In vain you seek her temple,

Content to gaze and sigh ;

The shining throne is waiting,

But he alone can take it,

Who says, with Roman firmness,

“I’ll find a way, or make it ! ”

Royal road, easy way.

Helicon, the name of a mountain in Greece, Muses that were supposed to preside over music, po here applied to a fountain rising in it.


OR MAKE IT.

Peer, a noble.

Peas-ant, country-man.

Slake, quench.

Boon, gift.

3.    Is Learning your ambition ?

There is no royal road ;

Alike the peer and peasant Must climb to her abode ;

Who feels the thirst for knowledge In Helicon may slake it,

If he has still the Roman will To find a way, or make it ! ”

4.    Are Riches worth the getting ?

They must be bravely sought;

With wishing and with fretting,

The boon cannot be bought :

To all the prize is open,

But only he can take it,

Who says, with Roman courage,

“ I’ll find a way, or make it ! ”

—J. G. Saxe.

which by the Greeks of old was made sacred to the etry, and other arts. The name of the mountain is


Eu^ca-lypt, one of the Eucalyptus genus of trees, which include about 150 species, most of which are indigenous to, or natives of,

Australia.

Ma-hog^any, large tree found in tropical America; the hard, reddish wood of the tree.

In-vaBu-a-ble, so valuable that its worth cannot be estimated; of the utmost value.

Te-re-do, ship-worm. It bores into wood under water.

Site, situation ; place where any thing is fixed.

1.    Hardwood forests cover large areas in the south-west of Western Australia. The tree most common in these forests is a Eucalypt, called the jarrah. In some districts it is known to the settlers as “ mahogany gum.” It frequently reaches a height of from 90 ft. to 120 ft., with a trunk 3 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter, the first branch springing out at a distance of 50 ft. or 60 ft. above the ground. After forty or fifty years of growth in a favourable situation, a jarrah-tree will measure about two feet in diameter, and is then fit for milling purposes.

2.    Jarrah timber is considered to be the finest hardwood in the world. The trees growing on the ranges yield timber superior in quality to that of trees growing on the low-lying lands ; it is also lighter in colour. For use in water jarrah is invaluable. There are now in the Perth Museum pieces cut from piles that were under water for forty years, and yet the wood is as fresh and sound as though just cut. The white ant in vain seeks to pierce its dense fibre, and the teredo, that formidable enemy to wood exposed to sea water, cannot puncture it beyond the surface.

(By permission of the proprietors of The Leader.)

FELLING A FOREST GIANT.

3. The purposes to which this timber can be applied in other directions are numerous. It makes excellent sleepers for railway-lines, and a large export trade from Western Australia is springing up in them alone. Recently, an order was received from South Africa for 2,000,000 sleepers, and a company is busily engaged in carrying it out. For street-paving blocks jarrah is in great demand. Already more than

A JINKER AND TEAM,


THE SCHOOL PAPER-CLASS IV.    [Oct.


500,000 square yards of London streets have been paved with this wood. As it takes a beautiful polish, it can be used for furniture, staircases, and the like.

4.    The timber mills are generally in the heart of the forest country, and several have communication with the Government railways by private lines. A valley is chosen as the site of a mill, so as to ensure plenty of water for the engines, .and to make the work of getting in the logs as light as possible. Some saw-mill companies have on lease from the Government as much as a quarter of a million acres of land.

5.    To obtain the logs, a foreman, followed by a gang of axemen, journeys into the bush, and by a blaze on the trunk, marks the trees to be felled. Two axemen usually attack a tree, and they swing their axes on opposite sides until at length the lordly jarrah comes crashing to the ground. Sometimes, when the lower portion of the trunk of a tree has been charred by bush fires, a staging for the axemen to work on is erected on a level with the sound portion. When the tree lies prone upon the earth, the crown and branches are lopped off, and nothing but a log remains.

6.    It is now the haulers’ turn to do their duty. Long teams of

horses or bullocks, sometimes 27 in a team, draw a jinker to the spot where the log lies. A jinker is a conveyance well suited to the purpose for which it is used. It consists of two wheels connected by an axle, from which a pair of immense iron hooks hang. The log, when raised a few inches from the ground by means of screw-jacks, is securely grasped by the hooks and secured by chains, and is then hauled to the mill, or first to the landing-stage of a railway-line.    ,

7.    There are no roads, and a way must be made through the bush. The labour is always heavy, but, in wet weather, difficulties are multiplied. Then the services of “ swampers ” have to be called in. These are men who lay down tracks over soft ground so that the teams may not be bogged.

8.    When the log has been brought to the mill and placed near the sawing benches, the “ spotter ” prepares it for the saw. With a broad-bladed axe he takes a slice off one side, thus forming a flat surface to rest on the rollers that carry the log to the saw. If this were not done, the log would roll about, and the saw could not do its work.

9.    There are two kinds of saws at a mill, circular and vertical. Both are driven by steam-engines. Circular saws are often very large, some of them being six feet in diameter. When they are turning at great speed, the teeth cannot be distinguished, and a saw looks like a huge, black disc surrounded by a narrow ribbon of light.

10.    If the log is of moderate size, the saw will tear through it nearly as fast as a man walks. The log is moved along the bench in which the saw works by the “ handleman,” and, after it passes the saw, it is taken in hand by the “ tailor-out.” It is then in two pieces, and, if these are too large, they are again run over the bench and cut. Yery big logs are sent, as a rule, to the vertical saw bench. Two, or

CANNINO JARRAH TIMBER COMPANY’8 MILL.


THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IY.    [Oct .


sometimes three, of these saws are set in one frame, and work together. In a very short space of time, they pass through the largest log from end to end. The pieces are then taken to benches where smaller saws are at work. These cut them into the lengths and sizes required.

11.    In addition to their mills in the forests, several companies have mills in Perth also; and there, most of the timber for local use is “ finished.” The greater part of the timber that is exported is loaded at Rockingham1 and Albany,2 though a large quantity finds its way to sea through Fremantle3 and Bunbury.4

The gold-fields are good customers to the mills, and many trucks of timber are sent eastwards for timbering shafts and tunnels.

12.    Careful attention is now being paid to the timber trade; and there is not the slightest doubt that it will take an important position among the industries of Western Australia. It has been estimated that the marketable timber growing in the forests of the colony amounts to about 40,000,000 loads, worth, in round numbers, £124,000,000.

—Frank Wilson, M.L.A., Manager, Canning Jarrah Timber Company.

1.    RockUllg-ham, about 17 miles south of Fremantle, is the shipping port for the Jarrahdale Timber Company.

2.    Al-ba-ny, seaport on King George’s Sound, south-west of Western Australia.

3- Fre-man-tle, chief port of Western Australia, distant about 12 miles from Perth.

4. Bun£bur-y, seaport on the western coast of Western Australia, about 107 miles south of Perth.

WEEDS.

Ag^ri-cult-ure, tillage of the soil.

In-trud-ers, those entering where they have no right.

Def-i-ni*tion, full explanation of the meaning of a word ; exact description of a thing. In-teild-ed, meant; set aside for.


Nox-iOUS, harmful; hurtful.

Pol ^SOll-OUS, harmful when eaten or taken into-the system.

Ox-y-gen, a gas that serves to support life. Lu-cernei clover-like plant cultivated for fodder. Cul^ti -va-ted, raised or produced by tillage.


’Tis spring, and weeds are shallow rooted;

Suffer them now, and they’ll o’errun the ground. ”

—Shakspeke. 1

1.    In dealing with this subject, it will be well at the outset to state what we mean by a weed. In his little book, The Alphabet of Agriculture, Professor Tanner speaks of weeds as “ intruders,” as “ plants growing where they are not wanted.”

2.    Fault may easily be found, we think, with this and most other definitions of weeds given by writers on agriculture. For our purpose, we shall define weeds as plants that are of little use to man, that are found growing among crops, and are robbers of plant food from cultivated plants.

3.    Oats, for instance, are weeds, if they are found growing with some other crop of grain. Wheat, growing in a bed of carrots and turnips, would be called a weed.

4.    When a boy is told to weed a wheat plot, he pulls up everything growing in the plot except the wheat. If he is told to weed a bed of carrots, and finds young turnips amongst the carrots, he pulls up all the turnips, for the bed was intended for carrots only.

5.    Hence, though we do not usually call oats, wheat, and turnips “ weeds,” yet we do so if they are found growing amongst other crops.

Weeds may he called “noxious,” when they are poisonous to animals that eat them, or very harmful to growing crops, or hard to get rid of.

6.    Shakspere says:—“ Most subject is the fattest soil to weeds,” and he is right. A rich soil will produce a splendid crop of weeds ; and to prevent their growth is one of the most important duties of a farmer.

7.    Why are weeds harmful to plants about them ? Though many of our readers may be able to answer this question for themselves, it may he well to state a few of the reasons :—

(a) They usually grow faster than farm crops, flower earlier, and, of course, shortly afterwards, shed their seeds, and thus multiply more rapidly.

(¿) They are robbers of plant food from growing crops.

(c)    They prevent air from freely reaching the soil, thus lessening the supply of oxygen to the roots of the plant.

(d)    Some weeds grow upon other plants, and suck the life out of

them; as, for instance, dodder, which twines round lucerne plants and kills them.    *

(e)    Weeds form a harbour for insects which attack cultivated plants. In keeping down weeds, therefore, we also help to keep down insect pests.

8.    Children should learn the names of the noxious weeds growing in their district and be able to tell them readily. It is good and valuable work to prevent the spread of useless and harmful plants.

1. Shaks^pere, the greatest dramatist of the world, that is, the greatest writer of plays to he acted. He was born in 1564 at Stratford-on-Avon in England, and spent most of his life in London, but returned to Stratford, where he died in 1616.

THE PICKET OF THE POTOMAC.

Picket, one of a number of soldiers on guard. Private, soldier not an officer. Peace^ful-ly, in quietness.

Trem/u-lous, trembling; quivering. Senary, soldier on guard.


Trun^dle-bed, low bed moved on little wheels. Se-rene-ly, calmly.

Well-ing, rising up, as water rises in a well. Lag-ging, slow; falling behind.


[These lines were found in the pocket of a soldier who was shot in the war between the Northern and Southern States, which broke out in 1861.]

1. “ All quiet along the Potomac1,” they say,

“ Except now and then a stray picket Is shot, as he walks on his beat to and fro,

By a rifleman hid in a thicket.

’Tis nothing ; a private or two, now and then, Will not count in the tale of the battle;

Not an officer lost,—only one of the men, Breathing out all alone the death-rattle.”

2.    All quiet along the Potomac to-night,

Where the soldiers lie peacefully dreaming ;

Their tents in the ray of the clear, autumn moon And the light of the watch-fires gleaming.

A tremulous sigh from the gentle night-wind Through the forest-leaves slowly is creeping ;

While the stars up above, with their glittering eyes,

Keep watch while the army is sleeping.

3.    There’s only the sound of the low sentry’s tread,

£■ As he tramps from the rock to the fountain,

And thinks of the two in the lone trundle-bed,

Par away in the hut on the mountain.

His musket falls slack, his face dark and grim Grows gentle with memories tender,

As he mutters a prayer for the children asleep,

For their mother,—may heaven defend her !

4.    The moon seems to shine as serenely as then,

That night when the love, yet unspoken,

Leapt up to his lips, and when low-murmured vows Were pledged, nevermore to be broken.

Then, drawing his sleeve roughly over his eyes,

He dashes the tears that are welling,

And gathers his gun closer up to its place,

As if to keep down the heart-swelling.

5.    He passes the fountain, the broken pine-tree,

His footstep is lagging and weary ;

Yet onward he glides through the broad belt of light,

Towards the shade of the forest so dreary.

Hark ! was it the night-wind that rustled the leaves?

Is’t the moonlight so suddenly flashing?

It looked like a rifle—ah ! “ Mary, good night ! ”

His life-blood is ebbing and dashing.

6., All quiet along the Potomac to-night,

No sound but the rush of the river;

But the dew falls unseen on the face of the dead,—

The picket’s off duty for ever.

1. PO-tO-mac, river in the United States rising in the Alleghany (A I'e-goAni) Mountains, and flowing into Chesapeake Bay. Washington stands on it.

C OU RAGE— (continued).

Nor-we-gi-an, of Norway; born in Norway. Ice-floes, masses of floating ice that do not stand so high out of the water as bergs Ice:bergs, mountains of ice floating in the sea. Pro-ceed-ed, went forward.

Mon£U-ment, pillar, stone, or the like, erected to keep in memory a person, or event. 24 25

Rep:re-senGed shown; figured ; brought before the mind.

Ex-pe-dit-ion, number of person? sent to a distance to accomplish some important work.

He-rO-iC, daring; illustrious.

the Erebus and Terror, he sailed in May, 1845. During the next winter, the vessels were gripped fast by the ice ; and the long night came on and lasted for months.

THE ‘ EREBUS” AND TERROR” AMONG THE ICE.

3. The next summer loosened the ice, and the ships proceeded. Again the winter came ; and, in July, 1847, Franklin died. At the

base of the monument in Waterloo-place, London, the scene of his funeral is represented in bronze—the fur-clad sailors stand round ; the Union Jack lies across the coffin ; and the hills of ice rise behind. After their leader’s death, his men, a hundred and six in number, left the vessels and journeyed southwards, weary and starving, but always brave, until, one by one, they dropped and died on the great plains of snow.

4.    Lady Franklin sent one expedition after another in search of her husband: she, too, was brave, and she would not rest until the facts of his death were known. On Franklin’s empty tomb in Westminster Abbey,1 this verse by the late poet-laureate,2 Lord Tennyson, is carved:—

“ Not here ! the white North has thy bones ; and thou,

Heroic sailor-soul,

Art passing on thine happier voyage now Towards no earthly pole.”

5.    It would be easy to tell of many other brave explorers—of Columbus,3 of Yasco da Gama,4 of Magellan,5 of Drake,6 of Cook,7 of Livingstone.8 If we had their portraits hung round the room, we might salute them also, as we saluted the Americans, the French, and the rest.

There is something in Franklin’s courage that makes one think more highly of it than of the courage of Horatius. Can you tell what that is ? Franklin had no human foes ; his only enemy was the cruel winter ; he shed no blood ; his courage was innocent.

(To be continued.)

—Adapted from a lesson issued by tlie Moral Instruction League, London.

1.    Westfmin-ster Ab-bey, celebrated and very old church in London. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned there ; and it is also the burial place of many of them, as well as of a great number of distinguished men.

2.    Po£et-laurre-ate, a poet whose duty formerly was to compose an ode on the sovereign’s birthday, and on other suitable occasions. He is appointed by the British Government.

3.    Co-lum^bUS, Genoese navigator who discovered America in 1492.

4.    Vas-CO da Ga-rtia, a Portuguese navigator. He was the first to make the passage from Europe to India by sea. He passed the Cape of Good Hope in the year 1497.

5.    Ma-gelUan (ma-jel-an), Portuguese navigator who set out from Spain in 1519 to reach the Moluccas (East Indies) by sailing westward. In 1520 he passed through the strait named after him, and, in the next year, was killed on the Philippine Islands. His vessel reached Europe in safety by the Cape of Good Hope route.

6.    Drake, the greatest of the Elizabethan seamen. He was the first Englishman to sail round the world. After a three years’ voyage, he reached England in 1580.

7.    Cook, one of England’s greatest navigators. He discovered and explored the eastern coast of Australia in 1770.

8.    Liv-ing-stone, missionary and traveller. He made extensive explorations in South, in Eastern, and in Central Africa. He died in 1873 at Ilala, in Central Africa.

OCTOBER.

Up, up ; let us greet The season so sweet:

For winter is gone ;

The flowers are all springing, The little birds singing,

Their sweet notes are ringing, And bright is the sun !

DECEIVING THE ENEMY.

De-ceiv^ing, deluding ; misleading.

Da-ko-ta, one of the northern states of the United States of America.

Knoll (nôl), little, round hill.

Cu^ri-OS-i-ty, disposition to inquire.

Rey^nard, name given to the fox.


In-trud-er, one who enters where he has no right. De-fi-ance, willingness to contend; challenge. Prai-rie, tract of grass land.

Con-clud-ed, inferred; made up my mind. In-gen-U-i-ty, power of ready invention ; readiness.


1.    In the spring of 1888, a pair of red foxes took up their home on a Dakota farm. They dug several holes on a knoll in a wheat-field, and soon after, four cubs or young foxes arrived.

“ Every day, while sowing and harrowing wheat in the field,” says the farmer, u I saw the two old foxes lying on the little mound in front of their home. The cubs rolled about in the sun, played with the bushy tails of their parents, and enjoyed themselves as much as a group of kittens.

“ One morning, a neighbour came to work in a field adjoining, bringing with him a dog : and the dog, with all the curiosity of his kind, soon began to explore both farms.

2.    “ He was still a long distance from the fox-hole when I heard a sharp, warning bark, and saw the cubs disappear. As I looked, the mother-fox lay on the mound, her ears erect, her nose on the ground, all attention. The father of the family, with his tail swinging in the wind, trotted toward the dog.

“ Can he intend to attack him, I wondered. I had never heard of such a thing, &nd the dog, though not a large one, was larger than the fox. But reynard knew his business better than I. He approached the intruder until the dog saw him, when both stopped for an instant, and then the dog gave chase. The fox, with a bark of defiance, turned and ran in a direction away from hig home.

3.    “ At first, the dog seemed to gain rapidly upon the fox, but I

watched them for nearly a mile before they disappeared in the long prairie-grass, and concluded that the fox was able to keep out of the other’s way.    *

“ In about an hour, the dog returned from a fruitless chase, and, for a time, he followed his master. Then he began prowling around again.

“ All this time, the mother-fox had remained on the mound, a picture of quiet watchfulness ; but, now, as the dog again ventured near, she rose and trotted toward him, and the dog was soon chasing her over the prairie. Hardly had they disappeared, when the male trotted back from some hiding-place, and took the position lately occupied by his mate. The dog returned after a time without success as before.

4.     During the day, he was, again and again, tempted to a chase, first by the male, and then by the female ; and, while the one kept him busy, the other watched over the young, which did not show themselves after the first sight of the dog.”

It is hard to decide which to admire most: the bravery of the pair in tempting the dog to a race that would have proved fatal had he caught them, their ingenuity in taking turns so that each might be fresh when chased, their skill in leading him away from their young, or their cleverness in throwing him off their track when far enough away.

Our Dumb Animals.

TOPICS OF THE MONTH.

The Competition for the Kolapore Cup.

1.    The Victorian rifle team that was sent to England some months ago by the Government, to compete in the matches held at Bisley, has been defeated, but not disgraced, in the shooting for the Kolapore Cup.

2.    It failed to retain possession of the trophy which was won by the team sent last year, but secured the second place, being only three points behind the winners—a team from the island of Guernsey. The winning score was seven points below the Victorian total of 1897.

A Walking Tour Round the World.

1.    There landed at Fremantle, Western Australia, three or four months ago, a Frenchman, named Gilbert, who set out from Paris in February, 1895, with the object of travelling round the world. He had wagered £10,000 that he would be in Paris again on the 1st of January, 1900, having, in the meantime, covered on foot 41,500 miles along a track marked out for him on the map. The terms of his contract compel him to walk on an average 23 miles every day, Sundays and holidays included ; to avoid travelling by boat or in any vehicle whatever, except over certain stretches; and to earn on the way all the money he needs. The last he is doing by writing for newspapers and by giving lectures.

2.    The general direction of his line of march after starting from Paris was south-east through the southern parts of Europe and Asia to the Malay Archipelago. From Java he took boat to Fremantle, and then turned eastward to face a monotonous and toilsome journey round the Great Australian Bight. He passed through Adelaide, made a short stay in Melbourne, and is now, probably, somewhere in Queensland.

It is gratifying to us to know that he speaks of Australians as the most generous people he has met.

A New Method of Obtaining Gutta-percha.

1. Recently the discovery was made that gutta-percha can be extracted from the leaves of the gutta-percha tree. Instead of injuring the tree and shortening its life by making gashes in its trunk, the more economical method of gathering its leaves and treating them is likely to be largely followed in the future. The gutta-percha obtained by the

new method is perfectly clean, while that obtained by the old has to pass through an expensive cleaning process. It is very strong, can be made into thin sheets, takes exactly the most delicate impressions in moulding, resists the action of water and acids, and, when worn out or broken, is worth a quarter of its cost price. The French are using it for covering submarine cables.    »

Bank of England £5 Notes.

1. In the printing room of the Bank of England, a man sits at a little table ; and, every three seconds, a machine hands to him two complete £5 notes. If he sits there six hours, he receives over seventy thousand pounds ; and, in 300 days, over twenty millions in paper money. What a strange duty for a man to have to perform—to sit at a table to receive from a machine twenty million pounds a year !

The “ Killer ” Whale.

1. A few weeks ago, several “ killers ” drove a whale into Twofold Bay, and killed it. The “ killer ” is itself a species of whale, and sometimes grows to the length of 30 feet. It attacks the ordinary whale in order to feed on its tongue.

SWIMMING DRILL ON LAND—{continued).

COMBINED ARM AND LEG MOVEMENT.

ReadyOne.


Position. On the command “Position,” raise the arms by bending them upwards from the elbows and bring the hands to the sides of the chest, and shoot them forward to the full extent of the arms, slightly upward, thumbs touching, and the palms turned downward, the head inclined slightly backward, and legs closed.

Two.


On “One,” sweep the arms round in a quarter circle right and left, until they are in line with each other, backs of the hands turned slightly towards the front; at the same time raise the left knee (directing it sideways) the heel of the left foot touching inside of right knee, with the toes pointing downwards.

On “Two,” close the elbows to the sides of the body and bring the hands to the sides of the chest, slightly to the front, fingers closed pointing to the front and palms downward, the thumbs about six inches apart, at the same time straighten and lower the left leg by a backward and rounded movement until the point of the big toe touches the ground, one pace to the left.

Three.


Halt.


On “ Three,” shoot the hands forward in accordance with command “ Position,” at the same time draw in the left foot along the ground and close the leg smartly.

Drop hands to the side and stand at attention.

Note.—Perform these movements three or four times, and then repeat the drill with the right leg.

When proficient, perform the movement with the right and left leg alternately, particularly emphasising movements numbers “Two” and “Three,” and continue without counting by judging the time.

By Authority: Hobt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IL, No. 17.] MELBOURNE. [November, 1898.

THE PUNCTUATION POINTS.

Im-por-tant, of valuable bearing; significant.

Mys-ter-y, something concealed that excites curiosity or wonder.

Seu-tence, complete thought expressed in words.

A-trailOng, being drawn along ; trailing.

1. Six little marks from school are we, Very important, all agree,

Filled to the brim with mystery,

Six little marks from school.

'2. One little mark is round and small, But where it stands the voice must fall; At the close of a sentence, all

Place this little mark (.) from school.

3.    Another mark with gown a-trailing Holds up the voice, and, never failing, Tells you not long to pause when hailing

This little mark (,) from school.

4.    If out of breath you chance to meet Two little dots, both round and neat, Pause, and these tiny guardsmen

greet—

These little marks (:) from school.


Im-pliesi means; signifies.

Ex-cla-ma-tion, expression of surprise, joy, and the like.

Ob*ser-va£tion, nbtice; attention. El-e-va^tion, at a higher tone.

5.    When short pauses are your pleasure, One trails his sword, takes half the

measure,

Then speeds you on to seek new treasure—

This little mark (;) from school.

6.    One little mark, ear-shaped, implies,

‘ ‘ Keep your voice up; await replies. ” To gather information tries

This little mark (?) from school.

7.    One little mark, with an exclamation, Presents itself to your observation, And leaves the voice at an elevation—

This little mark (!) from school.

8.    Six little marks ! Be sure to heed us ; Carefully study, write, and read us, For you can never cease to need us—

Six little marks from school.

—St. Nicholas.

A BUTTER FACTORY.

Prem-i-ses, buildings with their surroundings. Rid-dance, clearance ; deliverance. In-vent-or, one who finds out something new. Cur-rent, common ; usual.


Boon, benefit; gift.

Live-li-hood, support of life ; means of living. En-duredi suffered without yielding; bore. Suc-ceedi accomplish what is attempted.

1. “Do yon know, Fattier, what I think to he the greatest change that has taken place in connexion with the old home and its surroundings since I left here eleven years ago?”

“ No, Walter, I really don’t.”

“Well, it is the change in dealing with milk. This morning, I took a walk round the premises. You have turned, I see, the dairy into a kitchen, and the barrel churn now stands in a corner of a shed with most of its hoops off. How well I remember that old churn ! How my arms used to ache turning it—especially when the butter wouldn’t •come! ”

Price Id.

2.    “ Grand exercise! ” said his father. u It helped to make yon the strong fellow yon are.”

“ True ; that’s one way perhaps of looking at it; but, in those days, I couldn’t see it in that light. How vexed the teacher used to be, too, when I had to stay home on churning days !

“ By the way, Mother, what did you do with all the milk-dishes ?

3.    “ Oh ! we use some of them in the kitchen, and the rest, I think, are piled up in a corner of the barn,” replied his mother.


“A good riddance,” chimed in his sister, Annie. “ We have grand times now—no churning, no butter-making, no washing of milk-dishes.”

“ But you have to keep the cans very clean, Annie dear,” said her mother ; “ there must be no neglect of them.”

“ Yes, Mother, but that isn’t much,” said Annie ; “ and it’s all we have to do besides milking the cows.”

4. “ Now that you see merely the results, Walter, you can, I daresay, hardly credit,” said his father, “ that most of the farmers thought they would be ruined when the system of creameries and butter factories was introduced.”

“ I can quite believe it,” said his son ; “ it is by no means an easy task to shift people out of an old groove.”

5.    “ The system, too, was nearly wrecked at first by farmers who watered their milk. To prevent this dishonesty, however, a test—the Babcock test, as it is called from the name of its inventor—was brought into use. By means of it, the amount of butter fat in the milk delivered by each farmer is ascertained, and he is paid accordingly.”

“ I don’t understand,” said Walter, “ will yon kindly explain more fully ? ”

6.    “ I think that I can give you in a few words an idea of what is done,” answered his father. “ There is a fixed quality of milk called the ‘ standard,’ and that contaius 3-6 per cent, of butter fat. For this quality, we get the current rate of say 3d. a gallon, and more for every fraction worth considering above that, or less for every fraction below. If a farmer, for instance, had 20 gallons of milk that would give a 4 test, and made it 40 gallons by adding water, it would then, give a 2 test.”

“ You see, Walter,” laughed Annie, “ adding water to the milk will bring in no more money, and the dishonest dairy-farmer will have to cart the water lor nothing.”

7.    li Before I say that I really understand the matter, I must see the method of testing carried out; but I can, at any rate, say this, that the new system of butter-making has been a great boon not only

1898.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.

A DAIRY FARM.

to the farmer but to the consumer. Many a time, when on the mining camps away beyond Coolgardie,26 have I turned round in my hand a one pound tin of butter, and, gazing at the familiar name “ Euroa,” thought of you all, and wished to be home again. You can easily imagine how much we enjoyed a bit of good butter.”

8.    “ Yes ; to export good butter in any quantity under the old system was impossible,” replied his father. “ But now, with a weekly output of hundreds of tons of uniform quality, we Victorians are able to hold our own in the great English markets. By the way, though, from what I can read we might learn a good deal from the Danes and Swedes ; and I often say to the young people, ‘ Study the subject; try to make improvements in the methods you are at present following.’ ”

9.    “Well, Father,” said Walter, as a movement began to be made for bed, “ I should like to go with you to-morrow morning to the factory, and, if the manager is agreeable, have a careful look through it. Against your wishes, I went mining, but, though I worked hard and endured much, I failed to make a fortune or even a good livelihood at that occupation ; now, I am determined, under jour guidance, to succeed as a farmer.”

(To be continued.')

—Samuel Simpson, Shears Creek State School.

1,    Cool-gar^die, principal town of the Eastern gold-fields of Western Australia.

2.    Eu-ro^a, town on the North-eastern Railway, south of Moira County.

IN THE CRIMEAN WAR.

Teems, is full of.

Stark, hard ; frozen. Com-plaint' murmuring. En-dured; borne.


Comrades, mates; companions.

Stuntced, not full-grown.

Larch, tree belonging to the group of firs. Features, face; the parts which make up the face.

[1. During the winter of 1854-5, when Sebastopol was being besieged by the British and their allies, a great many deaths took place among the besiegers. More men perished fromdistases brought on by insufficient food, clothing, and shelter, than from the bullets of the Russians. Occurrences such as that described in the following pathetic little poem were not uncommon.

2.    A sentinel who, weak and in pain, has kept his post in the bitter cold for several hours, when relieved, is found not to possess strength enough to walk. From a high sense of duty, he refuses to allow the relief guard to be weakened by a man being left behind with him. He begs t he guard to proceed on its round, and is content to wait till those who are to be relieved pick him up on their way back to camp, and carry him in. The officer in command, also placing duty before inclination, notes the place where he is lying, and, with his men, marches on. Before he does so, however, regardless of his own need, he takes off his overcoat, and has the exhausted soldier wrapped in it.

3.    By-and-by, those who are searching come upon a little mound of snow, and under it they find the dead body of their comrade.

“ One more gone for England's sake,

Where so many go.”]

As they pass below.”

So the soldier spoke, and, staggering, Fell amid the snow ;

And ever on the dreary heights, Down came the snow.

6. Simply done his soldier’s part Through long months of woe ; All endured with soldier-heart, Battle, famine, snow !

Noble, nameless, English heart, Snow-cold in the snow.


2.     Men ! it must be as he asks ;

Duty must be done,

Far too few for all our tasks,

We can spare,—not one !

Wrap him in this ; I need it less ;

Fear not, they shall know ;

Mark the place, yon stunted larch ;

Forward ! ” On they go,

And silent, on their silent march, Down sank the snow !

3.    Over his features as he lies,

Calms the wrench of pain :

Close, faint eyes ! pass, cruel skies !

Freezing mountain plain !

With far, soft sound the stillness teems, Church-bells, voices low,

Passing into English dreams

There amid the snow ; [heights, And darkening, thickening on the Down fell the snow.

4.    Looking, looking for the mark,

Down the others came.

Struggling through the snowdrifts stark,

Calling out his name.

“ Here! No, there ! the drifts are deep, Have we passed him ? No ! ”

Look ! a little growing heap,

Snow above the snow.

5.    Strong hands raised him, voices

strong

Spoke within his ears ;

Ah ! his dreams had softer tongue, Neither now he hears.

One more gone for England’s sake, Where so many go,

Lying down without complaint,

Dying in the snow !

Starving, striving for her sake,

Dying in the snow !

—Lushington.

THE NIAGARA FALLS.

Sub-lim-est, grandest.

Con-trast-ed, were set over against. Mass-ive, very large, i-ci-cles, hanging, pointed masses of ice. En-crust-ed, covered with a crust or coat. Re-cess-es, hollows.

Grandeur, vastness of size.


Cat£a-ract, waterfall.

De-scenti act of coming down.

Cal-dron (kawl-drun), large kettle. Here an immense, rocky basin filled with foaming water.

Pre-vi-ous, before; prior.

Im-pres-sion, belief.

1.    The Niagara River, as it leaves Lake Erie, is three quarters of a mile in width. Before reaching the falls, it is one mile broad and twenty-five feet deep, and flows with great swiftness. An island, on the verge of the cataract, divides it into two sheets of water. One of these, called from its shape the Horse-shoe Fall, is six hundred yards wide and one hundred and fifty-eight feet in height. The other, called the American Fall, is two hundred yards wide and one hundred and sixty-four feet high.

2.    The river, after its descent into a huge, foaming caldron over 400 feet in depth, flows on in smooth, eddying circles for a mile or so. Then it rushes through a mighty gorge only 300 feet wide, at the rate of thirty miles an hour, piling its roaring and foaming waves thirty feet higher in the centre than at the margin. At its outlet, it sweeps into a vast, circular basin surrounded by high, steep cliffs, where a huge whirlpool is formed in which the river circles previous to its final rush into Lake Ontario.

3. To state the bare fact that, according to Sir Charles Lyell, the water passing over the Niagara Falls travels at the rate of

NIAGARA

THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.    [Nov.,

1,500,000,000 cubic feet per minute, may convey to the minds of our readers a dim idea of the immense force of this great cataract.

4.    We were fortunate in visiting Niagara at the full moon; and her soft beams added greatly to its charm. This was my third visit to this scene of wonder ; and each visit deepens the impression that, so far as I have seen nature, Niagara is the sublimest sight on earth.

5.    In the winter of 1872,1 saw the falls in the grasp of the severest frost ever known to living Canadians. The caldron beneath the falls was frozen over ; and it was possible to walk up to the very face of the cataract, whose dark-green waters contrasted with the pure-white snow and massive icicles which hung about the edges.

6.    The spray that always rises like a lovely veil from the base of the falls had frozen as it rose, and encrusted everything on the banks —trees, shrubs, railings, with a delicate frost-work that glistened like pure silver in the bright, winter sunshine of Canada. This spray, falling on the frozen surface had formed enormous cones of ice, one of which, 120 feet high, I mounted, gaining a view of the inner recesses of the falls that was deeply interesting.

7.    But I do not venture to express any opinion on the rival charms of Niagara in winter, spring, or autumn, in each of which seasons I have seen and wondered at its strange beauty and terrible grandeur.

W. S. Caine in A Trip round the World (Adapted).

THE OLD SPANIARD AND HIS PUMPKINS.

Ca-diz, town, south-west of Spain. Pro-nounced' uttered.

Res-O-lu-tion, determination ; fixed purpose. Po-lice-man, constable.

Ar-resti take in charge. 27 28 29

In-spect:or, overseer.

Nat-u-ral-ly, as a matter of course. Ad-mit-ting, granting.

Ex-cite-ment, aroused feeling; agitation. As-ton-ish-ment, wonder.

trouble, persuaded a policeman to go with him from stall to stall in the market-place.

At last, he stopped before a gay vegetable booth in which was a heap of splendid pumpkins, and exclaimed, pointing to them, u These are my pumpkins. Arrest that man ! ”

4.    The vegetable seller, however, said that they were not Uncle Juan’s pumpkins. The old man kept on saying that he was sure they were. A crowd collected; and soon the inspector of the market appeared, and the case was stated to him. Naturally, he inquired how, admitting that theft had occurred, Uncle Juan could tell that the pumpkins which he claimed were his.

5.    “ How ? ” he cried. “ Because I know them as you would your own children, if you have any. Did not I raise them? This one  Squatty,’ this one ‘ Rosy-cheek,’ this one ‘ Streaky,’ and this one ‘ Isabel,’ because it looks like my youngest daughter.”

He was weeping with excitement; but the inspector still doubted. He declared that evidence of this kind would not satisfy a court of law, and that the owner must be able to identify them by undoubted proofs.

6.    Then Uncle Juan, clever old man, untied a handkerchief he carried, and taking from it forty pieces of green stem, each still fresh and juicy, he began to try them on, until every pumpkin was fitted with its own ; and no other than its own would fit into that pale, whitish, irregular socket in the hollow of each pumpkin where it had joined the vine.

7.    Laughter and cries of astonishment and approval greeted the triumph of the old gardener’s strange proof. His claim was allowed. The man who had sold the pumpkins to the dealer (who was innocent) was found, punished, and forced to restore the money he had received, which was then handed over to the proper owner.

COURAGE—(continued?)

Ex-plor-ing, ranging over for the purpose of discovery.

Man-u-fact-ure, making.

Molt-en, melted.

Pro-ces-sion, regular, orderly progress. 30 31

Po-lice27man, civil (not military) officer’ whose duty it is to preserve order and enforce the laws.

Cou-ra^geous (ku-ra-jus), brave ; heroic. Cau^tious-ly, in a watchful or careful manner.

3.    A dazzling light blazes out ; a million sparks fly ; the red stream of molten iron rushes along the channel, and then to the right and left into smaller channels. Along the sides, stand the brave “puddlers,” their eyes eager, their feet apart, their hands grasping the long shovels or ladles which they dip into the red stream. Carelessness, or an accident, might mean swift death.

4.    But at their homes, around the dining tables, sit their little children, waiting for the mothers to feed them ; and the fathers must work for the bread of the family. These men are the Sons of Labour, and their courage is the courage of labour.

5.    But these puddlers are not all. There is a vast army : you and I might stand, and fancy we saw all the Sons of Labour march past in procession—the miner with his pick, who has toiled many hours far

CASTING PIG-IRON.

(Reproduced from The Royal Science Reader, No. 1: Messrs. Nelson and Son.)


from the light of day; the fisherman, who has been tossed upon the rough water all night ; the fireman, who has been on the watch for the sound of the alarm bell and the glare in the sky; the policeman, who has hour after hour kept guard over our property ; the loudvoiced hawker, who has trudged sturdily up and down the street, or has stood patiently at the corner in rain and shine, while the people passed, and passed, and passed.

6. We should grow tired, were we to try to count all the courageous workmen who would pass us. But we must not overlook one worker who works more than they all, with as little rest, with as much care,

and more quietly. Can you guess the name? The painter? No. The watchmaker ? No. The printer ? No. Ah ! to be sure ; you have hit upon it at last—it is the mother.

7. Look at your clothes—your mother made them ; your food—she prepared it ; your limbs—they are straight and sound because, when you were babies, she folded you cautiously in her arms, she led you tenderly as you tried to walk, she watched over and guarded you from danger. She had courage. When you were tiresome, when you were stupid, when you were sick, she bore it all, and would not give up her task, for, you see, hope was in her heart. She expected that some day you would thank her. That a mother should keep on toiling thus year after year shows that she possesses real courage. I must add a new word to the name I used just now. We must admire the courage of the Sons and Daughters of Labour.

( To be continued.)

—Adapted from a lesson issued by the Moral Instruction League, London.

THE DISCOVERY OP AUSTRALIA.

Doc'U-ments, papers relied upon for proof.

Nav-i-ga-tor, one who directs the course of a ship.

Rep-re-sent-ed, shown.

Sep-a-ra-ted, divided.

Yacht (ydt), light sea-going vessel used for pleasure trips, racing, and the like. 32 33 34 35

De-scrip-tion, account.

In-scrip-tion, anything written or engraved in such a way as to endure.

Ac-ci-dent^al, happening by chance.

Im-por-tance, consequence; moment.

is made to extend over the whole of Australia to the south, south-east, and south-west. In some parts, the outline of the coast so closely represents that of portions of Australia that it is certain the maps were drawn from information supplied by persons who had visited the places.

5.    Between the years 1550 and 1600, what was formerly called on the maps Great Java, is marked “ The Unknown Southern Continent,” and is shown to extend all round the South Pole and across the South Pacific Ocean to Terra del Fuego.2 The names on nearly all these maps are in Portuguese, and there is, consequently, a general agreement among writers on Australian history that Portuguese exploring ships were the first to touch Australian shores.

6.    In March, 1606, a Dutch yacht called the “ Duyfhen ” (dow fen'), u Little Dove,” was sent from Batavia, the head-quarters of the recently formed Dutch East India Company, to explore the west ooast of New Guinea. She went south along the west coast of what is now called Cape York Peninsula as far as a slight projection of land which the captain named Cape Keer Weer, “Turn Again,” and then, some of the crew having been killed by the natives, returned. As the “ Duyfhen ” crossed what is now called Torres Strait, the captain noticed at a distance to the east of him several points of land, and these he believed to be joined together, and to form a portion of New Guinea ; whereas they were islands, the principal of which is now called Thursday Island.

7.    Just as this Dutchman crossed Torres Strait without knowing that it separated New Guinea from the land of which he was the first European to give any account, so did a Spaniard, named Torres, shortly afterwards sail through the same strait and see Australia without knowing that it was part of “ The Great Southern Continent.” He was commander of one of three vessels that sailed westward from Peru under De Queiros (da ka-e-ros) to discover if possible, this land, of the existence of which there were rumours. They fell in, it is believed, with the New Hebrides,3 and there, in August, 1606, Torres lost sight of the other vessels, and, being unable to find them again, continued westward. From the description he gives, he appears to have passed through the strait since named after him.

8.    The next visitor to Australia of whom we have any record is Dirk Hartog, a Dutchman. He was on his way, in 1616, from Holland to the East India Islands ; and, as he was sailing across the Indian Ocean, he was driven out of his course to the west coast of Australia. He nailed to a post, on an island named after himself in Shark Bay, a tin plate with an inscription upon it. This plate was found by his countryman, Vlaming, in 1697.

9.    During the next ten or twelve years, several Dutch fleets visited the western coast of Cape York Peninsula, and portions of the north, west, and south-west coasts of Australia. Most of these visits were accidental, the vessels, like that of Hartog, being driven out of

their course. Others, however, were made, like that of the “ Duyfhen,” to explore what was considered to be the west coast of New Guinea. In 1642, a Dutchman named Tasman made a voyage of great importance, an account of which will be given in a future lesson.

1.    Mo-luc-cas Isl-ands, called also Spice Islands, a Dutch possession in the East Indies, between Celebes and New Guinea.

2.    Ter-ra d61 Fu-e-go, group of islands at the south end of South America

3.    New Het^ri-des, group of islands east of Northern Queensland, or north east of New Caledonia.

MELBOURNE HOSPITAL FOR SICK CHILDREN.

Penny Day for the Children of Victoria.

1.    On account of the large decrease in the contributions for the support of the Melbourne Hospital for Sick Children, and the unavoidable increase in the demands upon the funds of that institution, its Committee has found it necessary to make to the public a special appeal for aid.

2.    From the foundation of the Hospital in 1870, to the 30th of June last, 14,857 in-patients have been received, and 145,511 distinct cases have been treated in the out-patient department, the visits of the out-patients numbering 619,191.

3.    On the 30th of June, the Maintenance Fund was in debt £1,654 17s. 9d. In the face of such a heavy liability, two wards had to be closed. This will necessitate the refusal of 100 cases during a year, if they remain so.

4.    The Inspector of Charities has repeatedly called attention to the want of ground space, the need of better accommodation for outpatients, and the inadequacy of the kitchen and the domestic departments. Acting, therefore, under the pressure of absolute necessity, the Committee purchased recently an adjoining block of land at a cost of £4,400, on which an out-patient department and other buildings are being erected. The Building Fund is now £3,207 19s. 7d. in debt, whilst there is a further liability of £12,182 under existing contracts.

5.    This hospital is one that appeals peculiarly to children, and they have always been generous contributors to its funds. It has been the practice of many teachers to make collections in their schools annually ; and the following is a statement of what has resulted from their praiseworthy efforts :—

State Schools.

Year ended    30th June,    1897, 390 schools    ... £614    0    0

„    „    1898, 398    „    ...    320    0    0

Private Schools.

Year ended 30th June, 1897, 225 schools „    „    1898, 196    „


55


55


£248

160


0 0

0 0


BOYS’ WARD IN THE CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL.

(By the courtesy of the proprietors of The Leader.)


1898.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.


6.    In most of the suburbs of Melbourne, the contributions of the various schools are put together, and, if they amount to £30, the money goes to endow a cot for a year, and the cot is known by the name of the suburb.

7.    It should be remembered that, though the hospital is situated in Melbourne, its benefits are wide-reaching. It receives children of the poor from all parts of the colony without regard to race or creed. Thousands who are to-day strong and healthy have reason to be thankful to the public for its generosity in providing an institution in which they received the care and skilled attention they required,, when, in their childhood, they were suffering from an accident or were seriously ill.

8.    The Minister of Public Instruction has given his hearty assent to a proposal that the State school children of the colony, each and all of them, should be invited to contribute a small sum towards the extinction of the debt on the Children’s Hospital.

The day fixed for collecting the contributions is Monday, the 7th of November. It may be known as the “ Penny Day for the Children of Victoria.”

9.    Teachers are requested to do their best to secure a successful result from this effort. They should endeavour to get in all the contributions on the day named, but may keep their lists open till the 12th of November, when the amounts should be forwarded to the Accountant, Education Department, Melbourne, who will acknowledge the receipt of the same in The Argus and The Age.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

Preservation of the Opossum and Kangaroo.

It should be noted that the close season for the opossum begins on the 1st of November, and lasts till the 30th of April. Any one killing this animal during that period is breaking the law, and is liable to be punished.

The gray and the red kangaroo are protected throughout the year.

The Gold Yield in Victoria.

For the nine months ended the 30th of September, the amount of gold obtained in Victoria was 599,844 oz., which is 24,776 oz. (valued at nearly £100,000) more than the yield in the same period last year.

A Mountaineering Accident.

1. In Switzerland, during the last few months, there have been many accidents and several deaths among visitors seeking relaxation and health there by climbing various peaks of the Alps.

It is the practice for the members of a party, when ascending a mountain, to rope themselves together, so that, if any one slips, he may be pulled up by the rope.

2.    There is a fine story of an Englishman whose guide, to whom he was roped, fell over the edge of a precipice. The Englishman, by a great effort, was just able to keep his feet, and, by clinging to the rocks, to prevent himself being drawn over. It was impossible, however, that he could for long uphold the guide ; and the latter very pluckily urged the Englishman to cut the rope and save himself. The Englishman refused and held on, the two men swaying together, and the rope fraying itself against the rocks.

3.    The courage of the man who, while there was a chance of saving his companion, would not think of self was rewarded. It happened that another party of climbers came to the place just before his strength was exhausted, and both men were rescued.

The British Empire.

Queen Victoria is sovereign over one continent, 100 peninsulas, 500 promontories, 1,000 lakes, 2,000 rivers, and 10,000 islands.

The Size of London.

The largest city of the world is London, lying in four counties, and having a population of 4,250,000, equalling the combined populations of Paris, Berlin, St. Petersburg, and Rome. To walk through all the streets, avenues, lanes, and alleys of the city, never traversing the same one twice, would require a 10-mile walk every day for nine years. The streets, placed in a row, would reach round the world, and leave a remnant that would stretch from London to San Francisco.

A YOUNG BOOKBINDER’S WORK.

The head teacher of the Terang State school recently forwarded to the Minister of Public Instruction two volumes of The School Paper, bound by a pupil in the Sixth class named Crawford Hendry. The handiwork displayed is very creditable ; and Mr. Peacock gave instructions that a letter should be written complimenting him on his work. Though the head teacher, in his letter, does not say so definitely, it would appear that the directions given in the article which was printed a couple of months ago in The School Paper—Class III., under the title “The Young Bookbinders,” were followed. If so, the result is a gratifying testimony to the completeness and definiteness of those directions; and we trust that Master Hendry’s success will encourage others to follow his example.

NOTICE.

Our attention has been kindly drawn to the absence of any direction as to the pronunciation of the word “ Afridis,” which occurs in the article in our October number, entitled “The Charge of the Gordon Highlanders up the Dargai Heights.” It is. probably pronounced A-free! -dees.

GOD BLESS THE PRINCE OF WALES.

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Chorus : Among our ancient mountains, &c.

This National Song is published in various forms by Robert Cocks and Co., 6 New Burlington-street W., London.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. II., No. 18.] MELBOURNE.    [December, 1898.

CHRISTMAS BELLS.

Carols, songs of joy, or of mirth.

BeRfry, room in a tower, in which a bell is hung. Chant, stately song.

1.    I heard the bells on Christmas Day Their old familiar carols play,

And wild and sweet The words repeat

Of peace on earth, good-will to men;

2.    And thought how, as the day had come, The belfries of all Christendom

Had rolled along The unbroken song Of peace on earth, good-will to men.

3.    Till, ringing, singing, on its way,

The world revolved from night to day,

A voice, a chime,

A chant sublime

Of peace on earth, good-will to men.


Sub-lime; grand.

For-lorn; wretched; miserable.

Pre-vaii; overcome; gain the victory.

4.    Then from each black, accursed mouth The cannon thundered in the South, 1

And with the sound The carols drowned Of peace on earth, good-will to men.

5.    It was as if an earthquake rent The hearth-stones of a continent,

And made forlorn The households born Of peace on earth, good-will to men.

6.    And in despair I bowed my head ;

“ There is no peace on earth,” I said; “ For hate is strong,

And mocks the song Of peace on earth, good-will to men.”


7. Then pealed the bells more loud and deep :

“ God is not dead; nor doth He sleep;

The Wrong shall fail,

The Right prevail,

With peace on earth, good-will to men.”

—Henry W. Longfellow (1807-82).

1 The cannon thundered In the South. When the poem was written, a war, which lasted from 1861 to 1865, was being waged between the northern states of the United States of America and the eleven southern states that had separated from the Union.

THE CHRISTMAS FAIRY.

Wand (wdnd), small stick; rod.

Prac^-cal, ready to do; very sensible. Dls‘a-gree^a-ble, out of temper; ill-humoured. O-be^di-ent-ly, with due submission. Dis-turbed; interrupted; troubled. Dis-SOlved; melted; went away.

As-sumed; took on.

Ex-pres^sion, look.

Sec-re-ta-ry, person employed to write letters, and the like. 36

Pre-side; occupy the place of director, or ruler.

Qual‘i-fied, fitted ; furnished with the necessary knowledge, or skill.

Dis£ap-peared, passed from view; became invisible.

Chem-is-try, that branch of science which treats of the composition of substances.

Dls-heart-ened, depressed, or cast down, in spirits.

Be-lieved; regarded as true, or real.

crowned with a gilt crown. She was a Christmas fairy; and Ella took no notice whatever of Bobbie when he said that the fairy was only a doll dressed up.

2. The two children were looking at the Christmas tree, which was ready, and would he lighted up with many little candles for the party at the big house that night. They were not to be at the party, for they were poor children ; but their cousin, who was a servant at the Hall, had got leave from her mistress to let them see the Christmas tree. The lady of the house, before they left for home, very kindly sent them some oranges, nuts, and half-a-crown as a Christmas gift.

THE CHRISTMAS TREE AT THE HALL.

3. “ I want to see the tree lighted up,” said Bobbie to his sister asthey walked down the carriage drive to the gate of the park.

“ I want the Christmas fairy that is on the tree,” Ella said.

“ Oh, you do, do you ? You might as well want to be the Christmas fairy.”

“Well, soldo.”

4.    Bobbie was two years younger than Ella, and a matter-of-fact, practical little fellow.

“ How silly ! ” he said. “ Why don’t you wish for something you might get ? ”

“ Oh, don’t be tiresome ! ” was the reply.

When they got home, Ella threw herself on the sofa, and sent a message to her legs, and arms, and face to look as disagreeable as they could, which they very obediently did.

5.    “ What shall we do with the money, Ella ? ”

“ I don’t care,” answered Ella, who was very cross indeed ; “ do what you like with it.”

Really? ” He was off like a shot.

“ I don’t see,” said Ella to herself, uwhi/1 shouldn’t be a Christmas fairy ? I’m tired of being poor, and wearing this old, black frock.”

6.    She spoke aloud. There was no one to be disturbed by her talking. Her father was at work in the shop ; and her mother—Ella’s eyes filled with tears, and her bad temper dissolved in them—her mother could not be disturbed now by any chatter. Ella began to sob. Last Christmas, her mother was alive, and everything so different. And her poor father—what a sad, sad Christmas for him if Ella did not bestir herself to brighten things a little. She rubbed her eyes ; her arms and legs assumed a more agreeable expression ; and she sat up. She rubbed her eyes again, and said “ Oh ! ” very softly, for there, on the table beside her, stood the beautiful Christmas fairy herself.

7.    “ So you want to be a Christmas fairy, Ella,” the lovely little lady said.

“ I did,” answered Ella softly.

“ You may, if you like ; I am really not at all well, and I need a rest. Shall I lend you my little body, and my pretty dress, and wings ? ”

“ Yes, please,” said Ella. She had meant to say “No, thank you,” and to begin sweeping the room as soon as the fairy had gone, but the words, somehow, came wrong.

8.    “ Shut your eyes,” said the Christmas fairy; and Ella shut them. When she opened them, she had a silver wand in her hand, and, looking down on her gauze skirts, she knew, without doubt, that she was, indeed, what she wished to be.

9.    “ Hem! ” said some one beside her. She turned, and saw a little brown man with a very big mouth. “ I am the Queen’s Private Secretary,” he said, bowing; “ and my orders are to explain to you the duties of the situation.”

“ Then, I’m not asleep,” said Ella.

“ I should hope not—in company,” said the little man, looking severe.

“ Ho—I beg your pardon. Please, tell me what I am to do.”

“Well, of course, you will have to preside at all the Christmas trees-”

10.    “But they’re all on the same night; I can’t he in a hundred places at one time.”

“Can’t you?” the little man said in a scornful tone. “Why I thought you were properly qualified for the situation.”

“ No,” said Ella, rather frightened. “ I said I only wanted to be a fairy.”

“ Ah, but you shouldn’t want to be what you can’t be.”

11.    “That’s all very well; but how are you to know you can’t till you try?”

“Humph!” He said it so loud that Ella jumped. “Well, come along. We must make the best of it, I suppose. No; don’t try to climb down the leg of the table, you stupid; what do you think wings were made for?”

“ He’s not very polite for a Queen’s Private Secretary,” thought Ella. She, however, drew a long breath, and stood on tiptoe, and, in another moment, was flying down the stairs.

12.    They went first to the big house that Ella and her brother had visited in the morning. A great many children were looking at the Christmas tree. Ella perched on it, and the doll there disappeared as she touched it.

“ Look at the lovely fairy,” said a little girl.

“ That’s not a fairy—it’s a doll,” said the bigger girls.

13.    “ There are no fairies,” said the biggest girl of all, who had been to a college, and learned Latin, chemistry, shorthand, and many other things; “ no one believes in them now.”

“Yes, there are,” said the little one stoutly; “because I see them when I am asleep.”

Everyone laughed at this.

“ I don’t see why I should stay,” Ella said to herself; “ a doll does just as well as a fairy for them ;” and she flew away.

14.    I have only time to tell you that they flew about till Ella’s wings quite ached. Her many duties were beyond her strength, and she felt quite disheartened.

“ Oh, let me go home,” she said at last; “ there’s the room to sweep, and the tea to get. At least I can do that-”

“ With those wings?” laughed the little brown man.

15.    “ No, I don’t want the wings any more; they’re horrid—at least, I don’t mean that; they’re lovely, but I don’t want them any more. Perhaps the real fairy’s rested now.”

16.    Ella flew back to the house. She had not at all enjoyed being a fairy, for very few people believed in her, and she had not learned to do the work that is expected of a person in that position. It was with a sickening sense of failure and of neglected duties that she flew in through the window.

17.    What was her surprise to find the room nicely swept, the fire made up, and the hearth clean ! The tea table was set out with the oranges and nuts that had been given to Bobbie and herself in the morning. There was a penny bun on the table, with a bit of holly stuck in it. The Private Secretary sat down on the bun, and smiled the most agreeable smile Ella had seen on his face.

18.    “It is a Christmas cake,” she said, “though not a very large

one.    #

Besides all this, there was a tree—a real Christmas tree, at least— yesn0. Well, at any rate, it had real drums and little bags of lollies, and tiny looking-glasses on it, and shiny gilt and silver globes.

Ella fluttered on to a branch ; and the tree grew bigger and more beautiful, till it seemed to fill the room.

19.    “Oh, I say! ” cried Bobbie very loud; and Ella sat up, rubbing her eyes again.

“ Ella, do you know I really thought I saw a fairy on the tree ; wasn’t it silly ? You’ve been asleep. I kept very quiet for a long time.”    ,

“ You’re a dear” cried Ella, hugging him. “ It’s lovely. How did you manage ?”    _

“ Oh, Mrs. Emms at the corner shop gave me the tree things ; and I bought the bun and the holly; and there’s a pretty necktie for you, and another for father-”    _    #

20.    The children were clinging to each other, crying with pleasure,

when their father came in tired, for he had worked hard, though it was Christmas Eve. He looked so tired, so bent, so sad. But his face brightened up when the two children moved towards him, and clung round him with loving little arms.    ...    .

21.    “Well, you are two little Christmas fairies,” said he ; and his

voice was not quite steady.    _    _ _

“ No ; I’m not,” cried Ella; “I went to sleep, and Bobbie did it all. But, oh, Bobbie, you’ve spent all the money on us !—what about your own present, Bobbie ? ”

Bobbie blushed, and said, “ There were two pennies left. I got candles—ten a penny. I did so want to see it lighted up.”

—Adapted from Black and White.

FOR THE GIVER.


Fragile (fr&ffil), frail; easily destroyed. Crys-tal, clear; transparent. 37

Grat-i-tude, thankfulness.

SoFi-tude, loneliness.

2. What for the Giver, happy bird?

“ A heart’s pure, grateful song;

I know it will not pass unheard Amid a loftier throng.

Have I not reared my little brood? Who sheltered me in solitude,

Deep in the tangled, wind-swept wood?

My gift this grateful song.”

3. What for the Giver, gentle flower?

‘ ‘ My last look His shall be.

Has He not kept me hour by hour, Watched o’er me tenderly?

In gratitude for rain and shine,

And all the grace and beauty mine, How could I fade and leave no sign?

My last look His shall be. ”


4. What for the Giver, little one?

Are there no gifts from thee? Behold ! the year is almost done.

Must God still waiting be?

What deeds of kindness, flower-like, sweet?    [greet?

What words like songs to ears they What heart-fruits to lay at his feet? Are there no gifts from thee?

—George Cooper.

A BUTTER FACTORY—{continued).

Re-Ceiv£ing, taking in.

Re-frig-er-a-ting, cooling ; almost freezing. Rip-en-ing, coming, by being kept, to the condition suitable for making good butter. Pro-cess-es, operations; things done. Com-part^ment, one of the spaces into which room or vessel is divided.

Sep^a-ra^ting, dividing.

Con-triv-ance, thing planned.

Ver-tiC-al, upright; plumb.

Spin-dle, slender rod on which anything turns. Pas-teur-^sing, destroying germ life by heating and then cooling the milk ;—so called from Pasteur, a great French chemist. Tem-per-a-ture, degree of heat.

Re-duced[ lowered; brought down.

1.    At about half-past seven o’clock the next morning, Walter and his father arrived at the butter factory. As several farmers were there before them, they had to wait their turn, for, in receiving the milk, “ First come, first served,” is a rule strictly observed.

2.    While they were waiting, Walter had time to look round the outside of the building, and to listen to his father’s account of the number of rooms it contained, and of the uses to which they were put. The building was two stories in height, and, on the first floor, were the engine, separator, churning, refrigerating, store, and testing rooms. On the second floor, stood vats, or tanks, to hold the cream when it is being cooled, or when it is ripening. There also were the tanks connected with the machinery for refrigerating purposes.

3.    In their turn, Walter and his father mounted the platform where the farmers deliver the milk, and quickly handed over what they had brought, the number of gallons being entered in their pass-book.

When the manager was told that Walter had just returned from the Western Australian gold-fields, that gentleman kindly offered to show him through the factory, and explain the various processes carried on, from the straining of the milk to the packing of the butter in boxes for export.    .    .

4.    “ You will notice,” began the manager, “ that the strainer is unlike the strainers used on farms. After the milk is strained, jt passes through a large tube. On the underside of the tube there is a hole through which a small quantity of milk drips into a vessel below. This is poured into a bottle bearing the name of the farmer to whom the milk belongs, and is kept to be tested.”

5.    “ Ah ! ” said Walter, as the talk he had had the night before about testing milk came into his mind, “is the milk tested every day?”

A BUTTER FACTORY.

“ No,” answered the manager; “ only at the end of every week. We take a sample, however, every day.

6. “ From the strainer, the milk runs into the receiving tank, and thence into a smaller vessel called the milk-heater. This is divided into two compartments—an outer and an inner. By forcing steam into the

DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION OF A SEPARATOR.

(From “The Science and Practice of Butter-making ill Australia,” by William Brown, P.L.S., &c.)


outer one, the milk contained in the inner is heated.”

“ Why is it necessary to heat the milk ?” asked Walter.

7.    “ Because, if the milk were cold, some of the butter fat would be lost in the next process — that of separating the cream from the rest of the milk. This takes place in the separator yonder, into which the heated milk runs.”

“ Do you really mean to say that that iron stand with a round head on it is a separator? I expected to see a large piece of machinery.”

changes wrought by the separator in butter-producing countries have been great; but, though it has worked wonders, it is a small contrivance. Inside the head there is a bowl, which turns on a vertical spindle at the rate of about 5,600 times a minute. This rapid, circular motion throws the heavier part of the milk outwards, while the lighter part, the cream, remains near the centre. From the higher of the two spouts of the bowl, cream is running, while the separated or skimmed milk is pouring from the other.

9.    “ The next process, namely, that of pasteurising the cream, is one which we introduced into our factory lately. Cream is full of germs, and certain germs cause butter to go bad. Now, if we are to have a good name as butter-makers, we must make butter that will keep. Pasteurisation kills the germs. To carry out the process, the cream is run into a vessel similar to the milk-heater you examined just now. Its temperature is raised to 158° Fahr., and then it is cooled. The cooling vats are upstairs, and we must now follow the cream that is being pumped up to them.

10.    “ After being cooled,” the manager continued, when the first floor was reached, “ the cream is run into these ripening vats, and allowed to stand a certain time. The taps of the vats are so placed


8.    “Well, I am not surprised,” said the manager, “ that you expected to see something striking, for the

that, when they are opened, the cream flows straight down into the churns on the ground floor.”

MILK-HEATER AND SEPARATOR, EUROA FACTORY.

■    (By the courtesy of the proprietors of The Leader )

Walter and the manager were about to go downstairs again, when the former, pointing to some tanks, asked what they were for.

11.    “Oh, I forgot to mention the use of those,” replied the manager ; “ they are for cooling purposes. When they are filled with water, and the water is frozen by means of the machinery we have, the temperature in this room can be reduced to about 60° Fahr. even during a hot day in summer.”

12.    The churns on the ground floor were the next objects of interest. There were three of them, each capable of churning 500 lbs. of butter at a time. In shape they were like oblong boxes. They revolved about 40 times a minute; and the butter “ came ” in about half-an-hour


BUTTER-WORKER, EUROA FACTORY.

(By the courtesy of ihe proprietors of The Leader.)


THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IY.    [Dec.,


Walter, who was not satisfied unless he examined everything carefully, was surprised to find that there were no heaters inside the churns. They were boxes merely.

13. The only labour that Walter had so far seen anyone engaged


in was the driving and tending of the machinery. But, at this stage, a man had to be employed to shovel the butter from the churn into a truck, and take it to the contrivance called a butter-worker.

14. The butter-worker is a coneshaped table with a factory BOX churn.    groove at the outer

(From a chapter by H. W. Potts in “ The Science and Practice of    edge. On this table,

Butter-making in Australia,” by William Brown, P.L.S., &c.)    Water that is in the butter is pressed out of it; and salt to the extent of lbs. to every 100 lbs. is mixed through it. Wooden rollers, fixed to an upright in the centre of the table, turn round and round over the butter as it is carried round by the revolving table.

The final process is the packing of the butter in boxes that hold half a hundredweight.

15.    Walter, who had noticed how clean everything was, made a remark to that effect to the manager.

“ Yes,” said the latter, “ the greater part of our work consists in keeping things clean. As far as making the butter is concerned, we really have next to nothing to do, our contrivances and machinery are so perfect. In any direction you turn, you will see taps for hot and cold water, and now that the floor is paved with flagstones, we find little difficulty in keeping even that clean.”

16.    Walter thanked the manager for his kindness, and made his way to the cart where his father was waiting for him. In the cart were the cans in which the milk had been brought to the factory. They were not empty, however, for they contained the separated milk, which was being taken home to be given to the pigs and calves.

—Samuel Simpson, Shean’s Creek State School. 38

CHRISTMAS

Gleaned, gathered stalk by stalk.

1.    In the far-off land of Norway,

Where the winter lingers late,

And long for the singing-birds and flowers

The little children wait,

2.    When at last the summer ripens,

And the harvest is gathered in,

And food for the bleak, drear days to come

The toiling people win,

3.    Through all the land, the children

In the golden fields remain Till their busy little hands have gleaned

A generous sheaf of grain ;

4.    All the stalks by the reapers for

gotten

They glean to the very least,

To save till the cold December,

For the birds’ Christmas feast.

6. And then, through the frost-locked country,

There happens a wonderful thing : The birds flock north, south, east, west,

For the children’s offering.


IN NORWAY.

Gen-er-ous, large.

6.    Of a sudden, the day before Christmas,

The twittering crowds arrive,

And the bitter, wintry air at once With their chirping is all alive.

7.    On the joyous Christmas morning,

In front of every door,

A tall pole, crowned with clustering grain,    .

Is set the birds before.

8.    And which are the happiest—truly

It would be hard to tell—

The birds who share in the Christmas cheer,

Or the children who love them well ?

9.    When this pretty story was told me,

By one who had helped to rear The rustling grain for the merry birds In Norway, many a year,

10.    I thought that our little children

Would like to know it, too,

It seems to me so beautiful,

So blessed a thing to do.

11.    To make God’s innocent creatures

see

In every child a friend,

And on our faithful kindness So fearlessly depend.

—Celia Thaxter, in Our Dumb Animals.


FROM O’UR NOTE-BOOK.

The Cadets’ Parade at Melbourne and Ballarat.

1.    On the 28th of October, when Major-General Sir Charles Holled-Smith inspected 1,173 metropolitan junior cadets at Albert-Park, Lient.-Colonel Henry was in command of the brigade, which was composed of the 2nd and 7th battalions, under Major F. C. Eddy, numbering 259 and 468 respectively, and the 8th under Major W. M. Gamble, numbering 446. The Commandant was accompanied by Lieut.-Colonel Hoad and Captain Stanley-Low.

2.    After the usual brigade drill, the battalions were each in turn put through the manual and firing exercises and battalion movements.

The Commandant expressed to the officers his satisfaction with the excellent muster, turn-out, and drill, especially mentioning the 8th battalion, which Major Gamble has commanded for the past twelve years.

3.    The Geelong Grammar School and Geelong College, each numbering about 70—two remarkably fine companies—formed, for the first time, part of the 2nd battalion. The Scotch College, lately re-formed, mustered nearly 100, and showed they were making excellent progress.

Q

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PLAYING FOR THE MARCH PAST AT ALBERT PARK.

(By the courtesy of the proprietors of The Australasian.)


4.    On Friday, the 10th of October, at the Western Oval, Ballarat, Major-General Sir Charles Holled-Smith, attended by several of his staff and by other officers, inspected the 5th battalion of cadets. There was a muster of 246 of all ranks. Under Captain Davies, a number of evolutions were creditably performed.

5.    Sir Charles congratulated the lads on their smart, soldierly appearance, but expressed astonishment at the smallness of the muster, seeing that the 5th battalion’s district was very large, embracing, besides Ballarat, several big centres, such as Stawell, Ararat, Horsham, and St. Arnaud. In Ballarat alone, he said, there should be at least 500 or 600 cadets.

The lads were entertained at luncheon by the Mayor of Ballarat City (Cr. Elliott).

6. The present strength of the Cadet Force in connection with State schools is as follows—Number of detachments, 64 ; number of officers on active duty, 68 ; number of officers unattached (most of whom will resume duty), 27 ; number of lads in uniform, 1,777.

Leaves.    .    ,

1.    The leaves of trees, shrubs, herbs, &c., are so arranged that they carry the moisture that falls on them to the place where the ends of the roots are. Thus, in the case of tap-root plants, the leaves slope inwards to the stem, down which the rain-drops run. On the contrary, in the case of pine-trees, the moisture is carried to the circumference of the circle formed by the foliage. No moisture drops round the stem of a pine. It would be wasted there, for the rootlets, which drink in moisture from the soil, are far out. The barrenness of the ground under a pine is due to the almost total cutting off of the moisture necessary to support herbage.

2.    In tap-root plants, channels run down the leaf-stalks and stem. The leaves of the primrose, for example, have sunken veins. On the raised portion of the leaf is a thin coating of wax, which renders it waterproof. The rain falling on these parts rolls in the form of globules into the courses prepared for it. The wax-coated parts repel the water, but the channels being entirely free from wax, are easily wetted, so that the rain collects in them, and speedily finds its way to the stalks.

3.    Wax or bloom is seen on the leaves of the pea, poppy, pink, and in fact, more or less, on all leaves. From the leaves of the cabbage, water rolls as from a duck’s back, without wetting the surface.

Florence Nightingale.

1.    Florence Nightingale, who won lasting fame on account of her self-sacrifice as a hospital nurse during the Crimean War (1854-5), showed, at an early age, great aptitude for nursing. As a girl, she was a frequent visitor to the cottages upon her father’s estate.

2.    Her first “ case ” was that of a shepherd’s dog, Roger, which had been injured by a stone thrown by a boy either naturally cruel, or else thoughtless. Its master thinking its leg was broken, was about to have the dog destroyed, when “ the Squire’s little maid,” as she was called by the people living upon the estate, pleaded for its life, and nursed it back to strength and usefulness.

General Gordon’s Bible.

1.    In one of the great picture galleries at Windsor Castle on the Thames, are, among other choice things, several precious caskets.

2.    One day the Queen entered this gallery with a small book in her hand, and asked the keeper of those treasures which was the most valuable of all the caskets. He showed her one made of pure rock-crystal adorned with gold and enamel. In this casket, the Queen

placed the book—General Gordon’s pocket Bible, noted and marked by bis own hand. There this precious relic of one of England’s heroes is to remain.

CERTIFICATES FOR REGULAR ATTENDANCE.

List of children who have been awarded “ Special Certificates for Regular Attendance” at school.

The Department issues a “Special Certificate for Regular Attendance” to pupils of State schools who have attended during three years without missing a day.


School.

Woodford

Mir boo North Main Lead Nullawarre North Mount Hooghly Richmond Wangaratta North


>» **

Gordon

Little River

Dunkeld

Graytown

Moore’s Flat

Stawell

Springmount

Caramut Mitre Lake

Caste’r’ton Springmount King-street, Melbourne

Doncaster East Goornong Campaspe Waubra

Dinyarrak Cove Merino


Name.

Akeroyd, Gordon    ..

Ashworth, William    ..

Ball, Mary ..    ..

Bonnett, Effie ..    ..

Bowman, Margaret    ..

Braithwaite, Wharton    ..

Buckler, Albert    ..

Buckler, Elizabeth    ..

Buckler, Sidney    ..

Buckler, William    ..

Clayton, Geo. Austin A... Clayton, Norman    ..

Davis, Gordon ..    ..

Duckmonton, Charlotte.. Ferguson, Oswald    ..

Gordon, Hugh ..    ..

Green, Isabella    ..

Hales, Ethel ..    ..

Hales, John ..    ..

Hassett, Ellen ..    ..

Hateley, Ernest    ..

Hebard, Henry ..    ..

Hill, Gertrude ..    ..

Jacobs, Stanley    ..

Johns .on, Thomas    ..

Johnston, Thomas    ..

Knight, Jerem ah    ..

Lamperd, Esther    ..

Lavery, Daniel ..    ..

Lavery, Mary J.    ..

Miles, Alice ..    ..

Miller, David ..    ..


Name. Mitchell, Sarah .. Morgan, Joseph

Morris, Martha .. Morse. William R. Murnane, Annie McKay, Alexr. Wm. McKay, James ..

Nevland, Christopher Nicoll, Winifred Pearson, Jeannie PearsoD, Oscar .. Pepper, Ida Maud A. Phillips, Lawrance Pretty, Beatrice Quirk, Abigail .. Redfern, Ethel .. Rundle, Priscilla B. Seymour, Florence Seymour, Francis G. E Slade, Elsie F. .. Slade, Garnet .. Slade, Gilbert .. Slade, Ruby .. Sloan, Percy ..

Stewart, Eliza .. Stimson, Leicester Wood, Eva .. Yates, Emily .. Yates, Leonard .. Young, Elizabeth E.


School.

. Springmount . King-treet,    Mel

bourne . Macedon . Kurdng . Springmount . Great Western . King-street,    West

Melbourne . Moore's Flat . Koonork . South Yam

. Tahara . Stawell . Gisborne . Koooork . Brunswick West . Koo-wee-rup South . Cas erton . Lome . Springmount


. King-street, Melbourne

. Keilambete East . Leeor South . Stawell . Mortlake

. Great Western


HARVEST HYMN.


DRESDEN.


J. A. E. SCHULTZB.


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rnf We plough the fields, and scatter The good seed on the land,

But it is fed and watered By God’s almighty hand ;

He sends the snow in winter,

The warmth to swell the grain,

The breezes, and the sunshine, p And soft refreshing rain.

/ All good gifts around us Are sent from Heaven above ; ff Then thank the Lord, oh, thank the Lord, For all His love.

mf He only is the Maker

Of all things, near and far:

He paints the wayside flower,

He lights the evening star; cres. The winds and waves obey Him; p By him the birds are fed ;


cres. Much more to us, His children,

He gives our daily bread. f All good gifts around us

Are sent from Heaven above; ff Then thank the Lord, oh, thank the Lord, For all His love.

/ We thank Thee, then, O Father,

For all things bright and good,

The seed-time and the harvest,

Our life, our health, our food. mf No gifts have we to offer For all Thy love imparts,

But that which Thou desirest, dim. Our humble, thankful hearts.

/ All good gifts around us Are sent from Heaven above ; ff Then thank the Lord, oh, thank the Lord For all His love. Amen.


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. II., No. 19.]

MELBOURNE.

[February, 1899.

THE FALL OF D’ASSAS.

[A young French soldier named D’Assas was one night doing sentry duty at some distance from the camp. The enemy surrounded and seized him, and he was threatened with instant death if he made a sound. He did not, however, allow the fear of death to turn him from his duty: he called aloud to his comrades that the loe was upon them, and his captors, true to their threat, slew him at once.]

Vig-il, watch.

Bodging, foretelling danger; causing fear.

1.    Alone through gloomy forest shades

A soldier went by night;

No moonbeam pierced the dusky glades,

No star shed guiding light.

2.    Yet on his vigil’s midnight round

The youth all cheerily passed; Unchecked by aught of boding sound That muttered in the blast.

3.    Where were his thoughts that lonely

hour?

In his far home, perchance;

His father’s hall, his mother’s bower, ’Midst the gay vines of France:

4.    Wandering from battles lost and won,

To hear and bless again The rolling of the wide Garonne,

Or murmur of the Seine.39

5.    Hush! hark! did stealing steps go by ?

Came not faint whispers near?


Sere, dry; withered.

Com-rades, mates; companions.

No! the wild wind hath many a sigh Amidst the foliage sere.

6.    Hark, yet again!—and from his hand, What grasp hath wrenched the

blade?

Oh ! single ’midst a hostile band, Young soldier, thou’rt betrayed.

7.    “ Silence!” in undertones they cry.

“ No whisper—not a breath !

The sound that warns thy comrades nigh

Shall sentence thee to death.”

8.    Still, at the bayonet’s point, he stood, And strong to meet the blow;

And shouted, ’midst his rushing blood,

‘ ‘ Arm, arm, Auvergne! 2 the foe! ”

9.    The stir, the tramp, the bugle-call— He heard their tumults grow !

And sent his dying voice through all— “Auvergne, Auvergne! the foe!”

—Felicia D. Hemans.

1,    The Garonne (ga'ronne') and the Seine (sane) are rivers of France. The former flows into the Bay of Biscay ; the Utter into the English Channel.

2.    Auvergne (o-varne', the “a” as in say).

WHY AN APPLE FALLS.

Dis-COV-er-y, the finding out what was before unknown.

Per-plexed,' puzzled,

At-tracts! draws to.

U^nl-verse, all created things viewed as a whole.

“Let me ask yon in return,” said Uncle George, “if you see any reason why an apple should fall when its stem is broken. Can you tell why anything falls to the ground ? ”

2. “I suppose,” said Willie, “ an apple, when its stem is broken, falls from a tree, because—because there is nothing to hold it up any longer. It is forced to fall. It cannot help doing so.”

“Just so, just so,” said Uncle George; “it is forced to fall. It cannot help falling. But what is it that forces the apple to fall ? Do you think that the apple has any power to move itself ? ”


3.    Willie thought for a while, and then replied that he did not suppose that the apple could move itself. “ But I should like to know,” said he, “ what makes it fall.”

• “That is the very question that Newton asked himself,” said Uncle George. “And, when he could answer that question, he could answer a great many more questions that had perplexed all who had lived before him.”

4.    “Ah ! ” said Willie, “in order that the apple should fall, there must be something pulling it down to the earth.”

“Just so, just so,” said Uncle George; “the earth pulls the apple to it.”

5.    “ But I never see the earth pulling an apple or anything else,” said Willie ; “and I do not understand how the earth can pull it.”

“Nobody knows how it can do it. All we know is the fact that there is a force or power in the earth which draws the apple. That power Newton called gravity. We say the earth attracts the apple to it. The earth attracts us also, and keeps us from falling off.”

6.    “ But do not other bodies have the power of attraction ? ” asked Willie.

“Certainly. The apple has the same kind of power ; but its power is very small, compared with the power of the great earth. One body thus acts upon any other body in proportion to the amount of matter it contains and its distance from the other. If I lift up a stone, it is heavy because the earth attracts or draws it downward ; and the more matter the stone contains, the heavier it is.”

7.    “ But what would happen,” asked Willie, “ if the earth should suddenly lose this power of attraction ? ”

“ If the earth should lose this power,” Uncle George replied, “ and the sun and moon should keep their power of attraction the same as now, everything on the earth would be drawn away to the sun or the moon ; and the earth itself would fall in pieces and be drawn there also.”

8. “ Then the force which causes an apple to fall,” said Willie, “ is an all-important one, though just now I thought there was nothing wonderful about it.”

“You may well say that gravity is all-important,” was Uncle George’s reply ; “ it is one of the great forces necessary, as far as we can see into God’s design, to the very existence of our earth,—yes, and of the universe itself.”

1. Sir 1-saac New^ton, an Englishman, born in 1642, died in 1727. He was noted for his learning, his discoveries of some of the laws of nature, and his piety.

THE DIVERTING HISTORY OF JOHN GILPIN.

Di-vert-ing, amusing.

Cit-i-zen, one living in a city.

Train-band; militia or volunteer. A train-band was a band of men drilled to act as soldiers. Eke. also.

Spouse, husband, or wife. Here means wife. Te-di-OUS, tiresome ; long.

Re-pair; go.

Chaise (shdz), two-wheeled carriage. Cal-en-der, cloth presser or finisher.

Quoth, said.


Fur-nished, provided.

Fru-gal, sparing ; thrifty ; saving.

A- gOg; wishing very much ; excited. Sad-dle-tree; frame of a saddle. Here means

the saddle.

Cus-tom-ers, buyers.

Ex£er-cise, drill.

E-quip-ped, furnished ; fitted out.

Nought or naught, nothing.

Rig, wild prank Dis-cern; see clearly.


1.    John Gilpin was a citizen of credit and renown ;

A train-band captain eke was he of famous London town.

2.    John Gilpin’s spouse said to her dear, “Though wedded we have been These twice ten tedious years, yet we no holiday have seen.

3.    “ To-morrow is our wedding day, and we will then repair Unto the ‘ Bell’ at Edmonton 1, all in a chaise and pair

4.    “ My sister, and my sister’s child, myself, and children three,

Will fill the chaise ; so you must ride on horseback after we.”2

5.    He soon replied, “ I do admire of womankind but one ;

And you are she, my dearest dear, therefore it shall be done.

6.    “ I am a linen-draper bold, as all the world dolh know,

And my good friend, the calender, will lend his horse to go.”

7.    Quoth Mrs. Gilpin, “ That’s well said ; and for that wine is dear,

We will be furnish’d with our own, which is both bright and clear.”

8.    John Gilpin kiss’d his loving wife ; o’erjoy’d was he to find,

That, though on pleasure she was bent, she had a frugal mind.

9.    The morning came ; the chaise was brought, but yet was not allow'd To drive up to the door, lest all should say that she was proud.

10.    So three doors off the chaise was stay’d, where they did ali get in ;

Six precious souls, and all agog to dash through thick and thin.

11.    Smack went the whip ; round went the wheels ; were never folks so glad ; The stones did rattle underneath as if Cheapside3 were mad.

12.    John Gilpin at his horse’s side seiz’d fast the flowing mane,

And up he got, in haste to ride, but soon came dowm again.

13.    For saddle-tree scarce reach’d had he, his journey to begin,

When, turning round his head, he saw three customers come in.

14.    So down he came ; for loss of time, although it griev’d him sore,

Yet loss of pence, full well he knew, would trouble him much more.

15.    ’Twas long before the customers were suited to their mind,

When Betty, screaming, came down stairs, The wine is left behind 1”

16.    “ Good lack !” quoth he, “yet bring it me, my leathern belt likewise,

In which I bear my trusty sword, when I do exercise. ”

17.    Now Mistress Gilpin (careful soul !) had two stone bottles found,

To hold the liquor that she lov’d, and keep it safe and sound.

18.    Each bottle had a curling ear, through which the belt he drew,

And hung a bottle on each side to make his balance true.

19.    Then over all, that he might be equipp’d from top to toe,

His long red cloak, well brush’d and neat, he manfully did throw.

20.    Now see him mounted once again upon his nimble steed,

Full slowly pacing o’er the stones with caution and good heed.

21.    But finding soon a smoother road beneath his well-shod feet,

The snorting beast began to trot, which gall’d him in his seat.

22.    So “ Fair and softly,” John he cried ; but John he cried in vain ;

The trot became a gallop soon, in spite of curb and rein.

23.    So stooping down, as needs he must, who cannot sit upright,

He grasp’d the mane with both his hands, and eke with all his might.

24.    His horse, who never in that sort had handled been before,

What thing upon his back had got did wonder more and more.

25.    Away went Gilpin, neck or nought ; away went hat and wig ;

He little dreamt, when he set out, of running such a rig.

26.    The wind did blow—the cloak did fly—like streamer long and gay,

Till, loop and button failing both, at last it flew away.

27.    Then might all people well discern the bottles he had slung ;

A bottle swinging at each side, as hath been said or sung.

Cowper (1731-1800).

(To be continued.)

1.    “Bell” at Edmonton, inn or hotel at the town of Edmonton, near London.

2.    After we is put for after us.”

2. Cheap-side? street of Loudon.

FROM ADELAIDE TO MELBOURNE BY RAIL.

As-cend-ing, going up.

Re-lieved? made more beautiful by contrast. PrOS-per-i-ty, state of having plenty. Al-lot-ment, portion of land.

VBa-duet, structure for carrying a railway across a valley or river ; bridge.

Plc^tur-esque' (pik-tur-esk0, forming, or fitted to form, a pleasing picture.

Re-BOrt? place to which they often go. 40

Ter^mi-nus, farthest point.

Sub-ur-ban, pertaining to the small towns or villages near a city.

In^dus-try, occupation or trade in which many are engaged.

Trans-ferred? moved from one place to another.

Mal-lee, species of dwarf eucalyptus or gum-tree.

Ter^ri-to-ry, tract of land.

Lease-hold, held by lease, that is, a permit to occupy for a stated time.    .

travels each way six days a week. This train is made np of first and second class carriages, and two sleeping cars, drawn by a couple of powerful engines, specially constructed for ascending the hills which are met with on the first stage of the journey.

2. These hills—a portion of the Mount Lofty Range—present a beautiful appearance in springtime. A few miles outside the city we

A VIADUCT, MOUNT LOFTY RANGE, S.A.

(By the courtesy of the proprietors of The Australasian.)

pass orchards, in which pink and white peach blossoms are mingled in masses with apple and wild cherry. There are miles of this beautiful colouring, relieved here and there by sunlit green grass, set in a background of chocolate-coloured soil. Each little homestead shows signs of prosperity, with its small allotment, neatly fenced, and well cultivated.

3. After crossing the viaducts near Mitcham,-we look back to a charming evening view of Adelaide on the plains, with the sea beyond.


Blackwood is our first stopping-place. The country in the neighbourhood is very picturesque, and is a favourite resort for the well - to - do people of Adelaide.

^    4. The second stopping-

| place is Mount Lofty, Ald-’J gate following. This is the p terminus of the suburban q trains. The line then winds g round the hills till it reaches 0 Balhaunah. Here the or-£ chards and wild flowers seem •| to be even brighter and 2 in greater profusion. The j» hedges consist of golden t gorse. The post-and-rail fence is a rarity, farmers fall vouring the English method £ of growing hedges to shelter I their crops. Hay-making has 0 commenced ; and,, on some of _ the slopes of the hills, acres £ of strawberries are to be seen. | The soil looks rich and fit to grow anything.

g 5. We pass through § Nairne, which has quite the ^ appearance of a village in £ the south of England; then on to Murray Bridge, where £ we stop half-an-hour for g dinner. Murray Bridge town-u ship contains about 500 ing habitants, most of whom earn c a living at the neighbouring stone quarries. Freestone from these quarries is largely used for banks, and other large buildings in Adelaide. Another industry at the Bridge is fishing for Murray cod. The fishermen erect tents on 11 le banks of the river, and, in the evening, set their lines.

These they attach to the end of a stake near their sleeping places, with a bell fixed to the line. The ringing of the bell tells when a fish has taken the bait. Most of the fish are sent to the Adelaide market.


6.    Passengers and cargo going by water to Renmark,1 Mildnra,and Bourke3 are transferred from the train at Murray Bridge to one of the river steamers seen waiting at the wharf. As we cross the bridge, we get a fine view of the river and its marshy banks. The rattle of the train startles flocks of wild-fowl and duck.

7.    The line now follows the river for miles, and the country begins to look poor. At Cooke’s ;

Plains, we enter the Ninety Mile Desert, with mallee scrub and clumps of sword grass. Its only inhabitants are the platelayers employed in keeping the line in repair. They get a supply of food and water every Friday, j Their thatch-roofed, squat houses alongside the line are built of big stones. The train passes through mile after mile of this dreary country without disturbing a bird or beast.

8.    As wre near Keith, the country improves, and sheep succeed fairly. It is good grazing land. Between YYolseley and Serviceton, wre pass over the strip of “ disputed territory” i between South Australia and Victoria. All the land is leasehold, and Victoria collects the rents.

9.    At midnight, after being in the train since 4.30 p.m., wre reach Serviceton, and have to put our watches on an hour, so : that we may have Melbourne f

standard time.4 Here we are met ..............

by the Customs officer,5 who collects the amounts due on articles and goods on which duty has to be paid.

10.    Between Serviceton and Ballarat, the traveller sleeps, or tries to sleep, being every now and again shaken up by the stoppages

of the train for water. Hear Burrnmbeet, we notice splendid crops; and everywhere the benefit of recent rains is to be seen. Oar

BALLARAT RAILWAY STATION.

(By permission of the proprietors of The Australasian.)

tickets are collected at North Melbourne; and five minutes later, we run into the Spencer-street platform, tired, and ready for a bath and a good meal.

—Adapted from an article by L.J.J. in The Australasian.

1.    Ren-mark, extensive irrigation settlement on the Murray River, not far from the borders of Victoria and New South Wales.

2.    Mil-dur-a, extensive irrigation settlement on the Murray River, in the north-west of Victoria.

3.    Bourke, town and river port on the Darling River, north-west of New South Wales.

4.    Stand-ard time. Through the adoption by the Australian colonies of the zone system on the lit of February, 1895, the time in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania is reckoned by the 150th meridian, in South Australia by the 135th, and in Western Australia by the 120th. Thus the clocks in the first four colonies show the same time ; while those in South Australia and Western Australia are one hour and two hours later respectively. London time is nine hours behind that of the 135th meridian.—Geographical Reader and Atlas of the Australasian Colonies, by C. A. Wittber.

5.    Cus-toms of-'fi-cer, one employed in the Department of Trade and Customs. Customs are taxes or “duties” levied on merchandise entering or leaving the country ; though they are usually put on imports. They are intended to produce public revenue. The goods on which import duty is due ara stored in “ bonded warehouses ”; and the merchant pays it when he takes possession of the goods.

COURAGE —continued.

E-recVed, raised.    i injured, hurt; wounded.

Dread^ful-ly, very much; terribly.    I Rescued, saved; freed from danger.

1. You have read of the courage of the soldier in fighting ; the courage of the traveller in exploring ; the courage of the workman in his daily labour. Now, think a moment of a soldier, sword or rifle in hand, charging up a hill held by the enemy. He may do that for the sake of his country ; he may think that, as he strikes his blow, he is saving the little cottage, the orchard, the village, the folks at home.

But he may fight for a reason not nearly so good, not nearly so noble. Can you think of such a reason ? It may be only to win fame—that people far and wide may repeat his name ; or honours—that he may be made an officer ; that a statue may be erected to him.

2.    Again, think of the traveller. He may pierce the depths of the forest, or journey among savages, or scale mountains, simply to find gold, or some other kind of riches, and not because he wishes to help the people he meets, or make one nation friendly with another.

3.    Lastly, think of the Sons and Daughters of Labour. They may, perhaps, seek after money in order to have it to spend in drinking at hotels, or in betting at horse-races, or in gaudy dress.

4.    Let us look now at courage of the noblest kind. The scene is an immense slate quarry in the north of Wales. Imagine a high wall of rock, with a rope hanging from the top. Half-way down the face of the rock is a man, who is standing in a noose of the rope. He holds on with one hand, and, with the other, grasps a pick, by means of which he loosens the slate. Suddenly, a piece ot rock, weighing about a hundredweight, falls from above. It strikes the hand holding the rope. The hand is dreadfully injured. The workman’s face turns white ; his strength is failing; he is slipping. And below !—It is two hundred feet to fall.

5.    But another workman, named Ellis Roberts, has seen his mate’s danger, and, at great risk to himself, has made his way down the face of the rock. He is just in time. He seizes the loose end of the rope, twists it round the fainting workman, and, taking a firm hold himself, supports him. Quarrymen hasten to the spot, and carefully draw the rope up. The man is saved.

6.    How will you describe the courage of Ellis Roberts ? Do you think that he rescued his mate for the sake of fame, or to gain riches ? Ho ; he did it for his neighbour’s sake. His was courage in helping a fellow-man.

{To be continued.)

—Adapted from a lesson issued by the Moral Instruction League, London.

THE BIRDCATCHER AND HIS CANARY.

F&lr, large gathering of buyers and sellers;

market on a large scale.

Ex-hib-it, show.

Con-sent-ed, agreed.

At-ti-tude, position.

Dis-tinct-ly, plainly.

Ap-plausei praise ; clapping the hands. Re-spect-ful-ly, with becoming regard. 41

Bay£0-net, dagger for fixing at the end of a rlfla. Ca-ress-ing, fondling; petting.

Feats, tricks; acts.

Pre-tend-ed, feigned; put on an appearance only. Ba^an-cing, supporting on a point or edge. Lurk-ing, lying in wait; hiding.

Pur-sued; ran after; chased.

Con-soled; comforted; cheered.

where we were seated, and asked leave to exhibit a wonderful canary which he had. We readily consented, especially as we knew that the man had won some fame by his success in educating birds.

2.    The name of the bird was Jewel. Placing him on his forefinger, his master said to him, “ Now, Jewel, I want you to behave well, and make no mistakes.”

Jewel placed himself in an attitude of attention, sloping his head towards his master, and distinctly nodding twice when he left off speaking.


3.    “ Well, then,” said Fritz, “ let me see if you will keep your word. Give the gentlemen a tune.”

The canary sang.

“ Faster,” said his master.

Jewel sang faster.

“ Slower,” said his master; and Jewel sang slower.

“ You do not keep time,” said his master.

Then Jewel began beating time with one of his feet. We were so delighted that we clapped our bands.

“ Can you not thank the gentlemen for their applause ? ” asked his master.

Jewel bowed his head most respectfully.    •

4.    His master now gave him a straw; and Jewel, using it as a gun, went through the bayonet exercise.

“ Now, let us have a dance,” said his master ; and the canary went through the dance with so much glee, skill, and spirit, that we all clapped our hands again.

5.    “ You have done my bidding well,” said the master, caressing the bird. “Now, take a nap, while I show the company some of my own feats.”

The bird pretended to go to sleep ; and Fritz performed several clever tricks in balancing knives and other articles.

6.    Our attention was fully taken up in watching him, when a huge black cat, that had been lurking in a corner of the room, jumped upon the table. It seized the poor canary in its mouth, and leaped out of the window before any one could stop it, although we all rushed to make

the attempt.

7.    In vain we pursued the cat. The canary had been killed by it almost in an instant. The poor man wept for his bird, and his grief was sad to behold.

8. “ Well may I grieve for you, my poor little thing !” said he ; “ well may I grieve. More than four years have you fed from my hand, and been my constant companion. To you 1 owe my means of


living, my health, my happiness. Without you, what will become of me ?”

9. We collected a sum of money, and gave it to him ; but he could not be consoled. He mourned for poor Jewel as if the bird had been a child.

IT COSTS SO LITTLE.

Warp, the threads which are stretched length-    I    Strength^ned, made stronger.

* wise in the loom, and crossed by the woof.    I A-vail-ing, benefit; use.

1.    It was only a sunny smile,

And little it cost in the giving;

But it scattered the night Like the morning light,

And made the day worth living.

Through life’s dull warp a woof it wove In shining colours of hope and love;

And the angels smiled as they watched above; Yet little it cost in the giving.

2.    It was only a kindly word,

A word that was lightly spoken;

Yet not in vain,

For it stilled the pain Of a heart that was nearly broken.

It strengthened a. faith beset by fears,

And groping blindly through mists of tears For light to brighten the coming years, Although it was lightly spoken.

3.    It was only a helping hand.

And it seemed of little availing;

But its clasp was warm,

And it saved from harm A brother whose strength was failing.

Its touch was tender as angel wings,

But rolled the stone from the hidden springs, And pointed the way to higher things,

Though it seemed of little availing.

4 A smile, a word, or a touch,

And each is easily given;

Yet either may win A soul from sin,

Or smooth the way to Heaven.

A smile may lighten the failing heart,

A word may soften pain’s keenest smart,

A touch may lead us from sin apart—

How easy either is given!

AN INGENIOUS METHOD OF CATCHING FISH.

In-gen42iOUS, skilfully planned.

De-scrip£tion, account.

En-ti-tied, named.

Cor:mo-rant, web-footed sea-bird something like the shag of Australia. It is very greedy.

Gul-let, passage by which food is taken Into the stomach.

D .¿scent, going down.

Seiz ;d, caught hold of.

Dis-gorged; thrown out of the gullet.

2.    Mr. Fraser gives the following description of it in his account of a ride through China, which appeared recently in The Herald, a# one of a series of interesting articles entitled “ Round the World on a Bicycle.”

3.    “ While being rowed across this lake, I saw the oddest method of catching fish that I ever witnessed. Two men were slowly paddling a large boat. Two others, one forward and one aft, were beating the water with sticks. Around swam a dozen or more large, black waterfowl of the cormorant kind, having a wire round the lower part of their necks.

4.    “ The birds were busily diving and coming to the surface with fish in their bills. Up in the air would a fish be thrown, and head-first would it drop down the bird’s gullet. But the ring stopped its complete descent. So, whenever a bird showed a swollen throat, a pole was pushed towards him. He would jump upon it, and be drawn on board. Then a man seized him, gave his neck a squeeze, and the fish was disgorged into a basket. All was done very cleverly and quickly.”

SOLON AND CRCESUS. 43 44

a flourishing condition; had children who were held in respect by every one; and, having had the pleasure of seeing those children’s children, died fighting for his country.”

3.    Such an answer, in which gold and silver were accounted as nothing, seemed to Croesus to show strange ignorance, if not stupidity. However, as he flattered himself that he would certainly be ranked in the second degree of happiness, he asked Solon whether, leaving out Tellus, he knew another happier man than he.


Solon    answered :—

“Yes, two brothers of Argos, perfect patterns of brotherly love, and of the respect due from children to their parents. During a public celebration, their mother, a priestess, had to go to the temple ; and, the oxen not being ready for her chariot, they put themselves in the harness, and drew it thither amidst the applause and blessings of the people.

Every mother present was loud in her praises to the priestess on the piety of' her sons. She, in her great joy and thankfulness, earnestly prayed that her children might be rewarded with the best thing that Heaven could give to man. Her prayers were heard: when the celebration was over, the two brothers fell asleep in the temple, and there died in a soft and peaceful slumber.”    BUST OF SOLONTHE law-maker.

“ What, then ! ” exclaimed Croesus, “ you do not reckon me in the number of the happy ? ”

4.    “ King of Lydia,” replied Solon, “ true wisdom, considering the chances and changes that the life of man is subject to, does not allow us to glory in any prosperity which we ourselves enjoy, nor to admire happiness in others, which perhaps may prove to be only of short duration. No man should be deemed happy but him whom Heaven blesses with success to the last. As for those who are always exposed to dangers, we account their happiness as uncertain as the prize to the leading runner before the race is over.”

It was not long before Croesus learnt the truth of what Solon had told him. Being defeated by Cyrus, King of Persia, and his capital being taken, he was himself made prisoner ; and, by order of his conqueror, laid bound upon a pile to be burnt. The wretched man then recollected the words of the Athenian sage, and cried aloud, “ 0 Solon, Solon, Solon ! ”

5. Cyrus, who, with the chief officers of his court, was present, was curious to know why Croesus uttered that name with so much earnestness. Being told the reason, and, reflecting on the uncertainty of all earthly things, he was touched with pity, ordered the captive to be taken from the pile, and treated him afterwards with kindness and respect.

Thus had Solon the glory of saving the life of one king, and giving a wholesome lesson to another.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

Victoria’s Educational Exhibit at the Greater Britain

Exhibition.

1.    For some time past, the Education Department of Victoria has been preparing an exhibit for the Greater Britain Exhibition, which is to be opened at Earl’s Court, London, in May next.

2.    One portion of the exhibit consists of work done by State school pupils in the various classes, such as drawings, maps, needlework specimens, copy-books, exercise-books, papers written during examination, specimens of handcraft, and of Kindergarten work. (Out of the many works sent in to the Department, only those possessing exceptional merit have been chosen, as the space at its disposal is limited.)

3.    An interesting collection of miniature weapons, canoes, and other articles formerly used by the aborigines, is included, as well as a selection of apparatus made by teachers for use in their own schools.

4.    Another portion of the exhibit comprises large tinted pictures of typical schools in town and country, and photographs of class rooms specially furnished and decorated, and of school gardens, &c.

5.    Not the least important feature of the exhibit will be the representation of a small school. Wax figures of the teacher and pupils having the Department's publications, such as the Australian Copybooks, 'Che School Papers, The Primer, &c., before them, have been utilised to give a life-like appearance to it.

6.    The Technical Schools Branch is sending samples of manual work, and a number of paintings and drawings illustrative of the work done in the schools under its supervision.

Kangaroos’ Tails.

1.    An exceptional demand for kangaroos is expected in consequence of the success attending the use of the tendon taken from the tail oi that animal. In several instances it has been emplojed to tie up the fractured bones of a man’s leg in order that he may use his knee while the bones are knitting together. Kangaroo tendon is as strong as silver wire. Being animal in its nature, it is absorbed, and the leg does not have to be again cut open, as is necessary when silver wire is used.

2.    An English newspaper states (says The Herald) that kangaroos’ tails to the number of 1,000 were offered recently for sale at a large meat market in London. About a year ago, it appears, a few were

KANGAROOS AT THE ZOO, ROYAL PARK, MELBOURNE.

received (probably v ith a quantity of frozen beef and mutton from Queensland), and were eagerly bought by the public, who quickly discovered that soup made from kangaroos’ tails was rich, highly nutritious, and possessed a fine “ herby ” flavour. Orders for them flowed in rapidly from all quarters of the United Kingdom, the demand being greater than the supply.

' 3. Unfortunately, it is too late for the people of Australia to think about establishing a regular export trade in kangaroos’ tails. There was a time when, in many parts of the continent, kangaroos were to be found in thousands, and had to be dealt with as a pest because they ate up the grass needed for sheep ; but now, in Victoria at least, these timid, inoffensive, and interesting animals have to be protected by law, or they would, in a few years’ time, become extinct.

The Yield of Gold in Victoria.

1.    The yield of gold in Victoria for last year was, with the exception of that for 1882, the highest on record during the past twenty-two years. It amounted to 837,258 oz., being 24,492 oz. more than was obtained in the previous year.

2.    It is clear that the colony’s gold-bearing areas are by no means exhausted. Since 1894, there has been a steady increase in the output each year. The total amount won from the earth in Victoria since the discovery of the precious metal in 1851 is set down at 62,684,706 oz., valued at about £250,500,000.

The Teaching of Swimming in State Schools.

1.    It is intended to hold, in Melbourne, towards the end of February or the beginning of March, a demonstration of swimming, when teams from various schools will compete, and there will be an exhibition of methods of rescuing a drowning person.

2.    It is to be hoped that State schools will furnish each year an increasing number of candidates for the awards offered by the Royal Humane Society, which include the “ Queen’s Medallion ” for proficiency in swimming exercises with reference to saving life, and certificates for proficiency in the theoretical knowledge of the art of saving life from drowning, etc., open to all public and private schools in the Australasian Colonies. Particulars concerning the examinations may be obtained from the secretary of the society, W. Hamilton, Esq., 41 Selborne Chambers, Bourke-street, Melbourne.

Owls in place of Cats.

Chicago (she-ka!-go) has a novel trade in owls, which prove themselves very successful mousers. Many business men have an owl in the cellar during the day, and bring it up to the store at night. The expense and care of keeping owls are more than repaid by their services in destroying rats, mice, and vermin generally.

NOTICE.

Since the list of those who have received the “ Certificate for Regular Attendance” was published, the Department has received intimation that Richard Archie Bence, of Bacchus Marsh, has been in attendance at school since the 26th of August, 1895, without missing a meeting. This attendance is the more meritorious, as the lad has lost a leg, And goes to school on crutches.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

Lyd/i-a, country, at one time comprising most of

Asia Minor.

Fos-ses-slon, ownership.

Cel-e-bra-ted, famous.

Sa-ges, wise men.

Suit-a-ble, befitting.

Ad-mi-ra-tion, wonder.

In-dif-fer-ence, unconcern.

Stat-ues, images.

Ac-COunt£ed, considered; deemed. Stu-pid-i-ty, extreme dullness of understanding. Ar-gOS, ancient town in Greece


Pat-terns, models; things to be copied or imitated.

Cel-e-bra-tion, festival.

Ear-nest-ly, with eagerness or strong desire. Con-sid-er-ing, taking into account. Pros-per-i-ty, success; well-being.

Deemed, supposed; thought.

Cap-i-tal, chief city in a country.

Con-quer-or, one who has defeated another. Re^col-lect-ed, remembered.

Un-cer-tain-ty, variableness; state of being subject to change.


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. II., No. 20.] MELBOURNE.    [March, 1899.

THE USEFUL PLOUGH.

Bow-ers here means cottages.    Fold-ing. shutting up in a fold or yard.

Court-ier (kort-yer), one who attends the court

of a prince.    Mer-ri-ment, gaiety.

1.    A country life is sweet!

In moderate cold and heat,

To walk in the air, how pleasant and fair,

In every field of wheat.

The fairest of flowers adorning the bowers,

And every meadow’s brow ;

So that I say, no courtier may Compare with them who clothe in gray,

And follow the useful plough.

2.    They rise with the morning lark,

And labour till almost dark :

Then folding their sheep, they hasten to sleep;

While every pleasant park

Next morning is ringing with birds that are singing,

On each green, tender bough.

With what content and merriment,

Their days are spent, whose minds are bent To follow the useful plough !

—Old Song.

SHAKEN BY A LION.

Stu-por, state of being without sense or feeling. Con-scious, aware; able to know.

Par^tial-ly, in part; not wholly. ChRbro-form, liquid used in surgical operations to destroy for a time the sense of pain. Men-tal. done by the mind.

Pro-cess, operation; work. 45

An-ni^hil-a-ted, took away entirely ; did away

with; destroyed.

Car-niv o-ra, flesh-eating animals. Pro-vi-sion, arrangement.

Be-nev-o-lent, kind; loving.

Re-lieve' free.

Im-me-di-ate-ly, at once.

broke through the opening circle, and escaped nnhurt. The men were afraid to attack him.

3.    When the circle was formed again, we saw two other lions in it, but we were afraid to fire lest we should strike the men ; and they also allowed the beasts to burst through. If they had acted according to the custom of their country, they would have speared the lions in their attempt to get out.

4.    We now bent our footsteps towards the village. In going round the end of the hill, however, I saw one of the lions sitting on a piece of rock as before, but this time he bad a little bush in front. Being about thirty yards off, I took a good aim at his body through the bush, and fired both barrels into it.

5.    The men then called out, “He is shot! he is shot!” Others cried, “ He has been shot by another man, too ; let us go to him! ” I

DR. LIVINGSTONE.


did not see any one else shoot at him, but I saw the lion’s tail erected in anger behind the bush, and, turning to the people, said, “ Stop a little till I load again.”

6.    When in the act of ramming down the bullets, I heard a shout. Starting, and looking half round, I saw the lion just in the act of springing upon me. I was upon a little height; he caught my shoulder as he sprang, and we both came to the ground together. Growling horribly close to my ear, he shook me as a terrier dog does a rat.

7.    The shock produced a stupor similar to that which seems to be felt by a mouse after the first shake of the cat. It caused a sort

of dreaminess, in which there was no sense of pain or feeling of terror, though I wa.s quite conscious of all that was happening. It was like what patients partially under the influence of chloroform describe, who see all the operation, but do not feel the knife.

8. This singular condition was not the result of any mental process. The shake annihilated fear, and I had no feeling of horror in looking round at the beast. It is a state which probably is produced in all

animals killed by the carnivora or flesh eaters; and, if so, it is a merciful provision by our benevolent Creator for lessening the pain of death.

9.    Turning round to relieve myself of the weight, for the lion had one paw on the back of my head, I saw his eyes directed to Mebalwe, who was trying to shoot him at a distance of ten or fifteen yards. His gun, a flint one,1 missed fire in both barrels ; the lion immediately left me, and attacked Mebalwe.

10.    Another man, whose life I had saved, after he had been tossed by a buffalo, attempted to spear the lion while he was biting Mebalwe. He left Mebalwe and caught this man by the shoulder, but, at that moment, the bullets he had received took effect, and he fell down dead.

11.    I found, on examination, that the lion, besides crushing the bone into splinters, had left eleven teeth wounds in my arm. Neither Mebalwe nor the other man whom the lion attacked was seriously hurt.

—Livingstone.

1. A flint One, having a flint fixed in the hammer, whioh, on striking the steel, ignites the priming, and thus sets on fire the powder in the barrel of the gun.

THE DIVERTING HISTORY OF JOHN GILPIN —continued.

Trice, instant.

Turn-pike, in charge of a turnpike, that is, a gate set across a road to stop travellers and carriages till toll is paid for keeping the road in repair.

Reek-ing, steaming.

Pit^e-ous, causing pity.

Baste, pour fat over meat whilst it is roasting,

GarrGbolS, pranks; leaps.

Bal-CO-ny, sort of small gallery outside a window. Formerly accented as in this rhyme, bal-co'-ny.

Whit, least bit.

In-clined; disposed; having some desire. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Ac-COSt ed, spoken to.

Time-ly, in proper time.

Guise, manner.

Fore-bode' foretell.

Come-ly, good-looking.

Boot-less, without profit or success.

A-main' in full force.

Post-boy, lad who rides one of two horses running side by side and drawing a carriage, thus taking the place of a driver.

Gir-dle, belt.

High-way-man, a robber on the highway or

main road.

Pur-suit^ chase.

8.    And there he threw the Wash about on both sides of the way,

Just like unto a trundling mop, or a wild goose at piay.

9.    At Edmonton his loving wife from the balcony spied

Her tender husband, wondering much to see how he did ride.

10.    “ Stop, stop, John Gilpin ! — here’s the house,” they all at once did cry }

“ The dinner waits, and we are tired.” Said Gilpin—“ So am I l”

11.    But yet his horse was not a whit inclined to tarry there ;

For why ? -his owner had a house full ten miles off, at Ware.3

12.    So like an arrow swift he flew, shot by an archer strong ;

So did he fly—which brings me to the middle of my song.

13.    Away went Gilpin out of breath, and sore against his will,

Till at his friend the calender’s his horse at last stood still.

14.    The calender, amazed to see his neighbour in such trim,

Laid down his pipe, flew to the gate, and thus accosted him :

15.    “ What news ? what news ? your tidings tell; tell me you must and shall— Say why bareheaded you are come, or why you’ve come at all? ”

16.    Now Gilpin had a pleasant wit, and loved a timely joke ;

And thus unto the calender in merry guise he. spoke :

17.    “I came because your horse would come ; and, if I well forebode,

My hat and wig will soon be here,—they are upon the road.”

18.    The calender, right glad to find his friend in merry pin,

Returned him not a single word, but to the house went in ;

19.    Whence straight he came with hat and wig ; a wig that flowed behind,

A hat not much the worse for wear,—each comely in its kind.

20.    He held them up, and in his turn thus showed his ready wit :

“ My head is twice as big as yours, they therefore needs must fit 1

21.    “ But let me scrape the dirt away that hangs upon your face;

And stop and eat, for well you may be in a hungry case.”

22.    Said John, “ It is my wedding-day, and all the world would stare,

If wife should dine at Edmonton, and I should dine at Ware.”

23.    So, turning to his horse, he said, “ I am in haste to dine ;

’Twas for your pleasure you came here, you shall gc back for mine.’*

24.    Ah, luckless speech, and bootless boast ! for which he paid full dear ;

For, while he spake, a braying ass did sing most loud and clear}

25.    Whereat his horse did snort, as he had heard a lion roar,

And galloped off with all his might, as he had done before.

26.    Away went Gilpin, and away went Gilpin’s hat and wig.

He lost them sooner than at first, for why ?—they were too big.

27.    Now Mistress Gilpin, when she saw her husband posting down Into the country far away, she pulled out half-a-crown ;

28.    And thus unto the youth she said, that drove them to the Bell,

“ This shall be yours, when you bring back my husband safe and well.”

29.    The youth did ride, and soon did meet John coming back amain;

Whom in a trice he tried to stop, by catching at his rein ;

30.    But not performing what he might and gladly would have done,

The frighted steed he frighted more, and made him faster run.

31.    Away went Gilpin, and away went post-boy at his heels,

The post-boy’s horse right glad to miss the lumbering of the wheels.

32.    Six gentlemen upon the road, thus seeing Gilpin fly,

With post-boy scampering in the rear, they raised the hue and cry

33.     Stop thief ! stop thief !—a highwayman ! ” not one of them was mute ;

And all and each that passed that way did join in the pursuit.

34.    And now the turnpike gates again flew open in short space ;

The toll-men thinking, as before, that Gilpin rode a race.

35.    And so he did, and won it too, for he got first to town ;

Nor stopped till, where he had got up, he did again get down.

36.    Now let us sing, long live the King ; and Gilpin, long live he ;

And when he next doth ride abroad, may I be there to see !

Cowpek (1731-1800).

1. Is^ling-tOH, suburb of London. 2. Wash, ford across a stream. 3. Ware, town, north of London.

THE EAGLE’S NEST.

Can-ton, district; division of a country. The usual name for the districts or counties of Switzerland.

Cham-ois (sham-waw), kind of antelope. It is like a g-oat in appearance and habits. Lim-pet, shell-fish found adhering to rocks. Con-fi dence, belief; trust.

Coop-er, one who makes casks.

In-clin-a-tion, leaning; desire. 53 54

As piref aim at something high or difficult to reach; desire eagerly.

Dan-ger-OUS, unsafe ; hazardous.

A-byss,' very deep place; pit.

Av-a lanche; mass of snow sliding down a mountain.

Cu-ri-ous-ly, singularly.

Om-ni bus, large vehicle used for conveying

passengers.

Sep-a-ra-ted, divided.

3. The mill was a neat and well-ordered place, which allowed itself to be sketched and written about; but the miller’s daughter did not

AN ALPINE HOUSE.

permit anyone to sketch or write about her. So at least Rudy would have said, for her image was pictured in his heart; but the miller’s daughter, the beautiful Babette (ba-bet'), was quite unaware o: such being the case. Rudy had never spoken a word to her on the subject. The miller was rich, and, on that account, Babette stood very high, and was rather difficult to aspire to. “But,” said Rudy to himself, “nothing is too high for a man to reach; he must climb with confidence in himself, and he will not fail.” He had learnt this lesson in his youthful home.

4. Rudy set out to go to Bex; and, when he arrived there, he found the miller and his daughter at home. They received him kindl}'.

Babette did not say much. She had become quite silent; but her eyes spoke, and that was quite enough for Rudy. The miller had generally a great deal to talk about, and seemed to expect that every one would listen to his jokes, and laugh at them ; for was not he the rich miller? But now he was more inclined to hear Rudy’s adventures while hunting and travelling, and to listen to his descriptions of the difficulties the chamois-hunter had to overcome on the mountain-tops, or of the dangerous snow-drifts that the wind and weather cause to cling to the edges of the rocks, or to lie in the form of a frail bridge over the abyss beneath.

5.    The eyes of the brave Rudy sparkled as he described the life of a hunter, or spoke of the cunning of the chamois and of their wonderful leaps, and of the dangers of the rolling avalanche. He noticed that, as he went on, the miller became more and more interested, especially when he spoke of the fierce vulture and of the royal eagle. Not far from Bex, in the canton of Valais, was an eagle’s nest, most curiously built under a high, overhanging rock. In this nest was a young eagle; but who would venture to take it? A young Englishman had offered Rudy a large sum of money, if he would bring him the young eagle alive.

“ There is a limit to everything,” was Rudy’s reply. “ The eagle could not be taken, it would be folly to attempt it.”

6.    Not many days after this visit, Rudy was riding in the omnibus that runs between the cantons of Vaud (vo) and Valais. These cantons are separated by the Rhone,2 over which is a bridge that unites them. Rudy, as usual, had plenty of courage, and indulged in pleasant thoughts of the favourable answer he should receive that evening.

7.    “ But she is so far above you,” said the miller; “ Babette has heaps of gold, as you know. You should not attempt to reach her.”

“ There is nothing so high that a man cannot reach, if he will,” answered Rudy; for he was a brave youth.

“ Yet you could not reach the young eagle,” said the miller laughing. “ Babette is higher than the eagle’s nest.”

“ I will have them both,” said Rudy.

“Very well; I will give her to you when you bring me the eaglet alive,” said the miller; and he laughed till the tears stood in his eyes.

—Hans Christian Andersen.

(To be continued.)

1.    William Tell, Swiss patriot. His daring example stirred up his countrymen to throw off the Austrian rule. On one occasion, it is said, he was ordered to shoot an arrow at an apple placed on his ton’s head, or suffer death. His arrow pierced the apple; but he boldlv said that he had had another arrow ready, and, if he had missed his son, he intended with it to shoot the tyrant who was so cruel as to order him to attempt such a feat. He died in 1350.

2.    Rhone, a river rising in Mount St. Gothard in Switzerland, and flowing westward as a rapid and muddy stream till is reaches the Lake of Geneva. Prom this it emerges as a clear and still rapid river, and continues its westerly course till it joins the Saon % when it turns sharply southward to the Gulf of Lyons.

COURAGE —continued.

sheltering the person from the rays of the sun, or from rain.


Con-clu-sion close; end.


De-scribed; set forth ; gave an account of.

Ex er-Cised, excited ; put forth ; practised. Um-brel la, screen carried in the hand for


Suc-ceed-ed, was successful; carried out what was attempted.


Bi-cy cle, light vehicle with two wheels propelled by the feet of the rider.


1.    I have one more step to take, and I think it is the highest of all. The courage which I described in these stories was exercised only for the sake of persons. Let us see if we can pass beyond persons.

2. Many years ago, there lived in London a good man named Jonas Han way. There is a picture of him, in which he is shown walking along a street on a rainy day, with people mocking him and laughing at him. Why do they laugh at Jonas Hanway ? Because he carries an umbrella. He was the first Londoner to do such a thing, and he wished to persuade other people to follow his example. It was thirty years before he succeeded, and umbrellas came into common use.

3.    Certainly Hanway was a brave man, even though no one struck or injured him. He was brave, and did not yield when mocked and laughed at. Some men flinch more at people’s laughter than at a threatened blow, or an uplifted weapon.

4.    Did Hanway show courage for the sake of one person ? No ; he did it for the sake of many ; he did it for the general good : he showed courage for the sake of what he believed to be right.

5.    In conclusion, I should like to say just one thing more. Why is one boy, Harry, afraid to plunge into the river ? Why is another boy, Walter, ready to do so ? Because Walter can swim, and Harry cannot. It is of no use for Harry to stand on the bank, and say to himself:—“ I must be brave ; I will be brave.” He can learn to have courage in this direction only by learning to swim. He must be able to do things before he can act with courage.

6.    Now, you see, when you learn your lessons at school, when you learn to row, or to play cricket, or to ride a bicycle, or to do any other useful exercise, you are becoming more and more able; and, in that way, you are likely to become braver. So the boy or girl who wishes to be brave must be willing to work.

Adapted from a lesson issued by the Moral Instruction League, London.

Sweet are the links that bind us to our kind, Meek, but unyielding, felt, but undefined ; Sweet is the love of brethren ; sweet the joy Of a young mother in her cradled boy ;

And sweet is childhood’s deep and earnest glow Of reverence for a father’s head of snow.

—From Australasia, a prize poem written in 1823 at Cambridge, England, by Winthrop Mactcworth Praed.

THE STORMY PETREL.1

Pet-rel, small ocean-bird.    j Mar-i-ner, seaman; sailor.

Quiv-er-ing, trembling; shaking.    Proph-et, one who foretells events to come.

Dis-dains, despises ; cares nothing for. I Fal-ters, hesitates ; doubts.


1. A thousand miles from land are we,

Tossing about on the roaring

sea;

From billow to bounding billow

cast

Like fleecy snow on the stormy blast:

The sails are scattered abroad like weeds;

The strong masts shake like quivering reeds;

The mighty cables and iron chains,

The hull, which all earthly strength ‘disdains,—

They strain, and they crack and hearts like stone Their natural, hard, proud strength disown.

2 Up and down ! up and down ! From the base of the wave to the billow’s crown,

And amidst the flashing and feathery foam,

The stormy petrel finds a home—

A home, if such a place may be For her who lives on the wide, wide sea,

On the craggy ice, in the frozen air,

And only seeketh her rocky lair To warm her young, and to teach them to spring At once o’er the wave on the THE STORMY PETREL.    stormy wing !


3. O’er the deep ! o’er the deep !    [fish sleep,

Where the whale and the shark and the sword-Outflying the blast and the driving rain,

The petrel telleth her tale—in vain ;

For the mariner curseth the warning bird,

Who bringeth him news of the storms unheard !

—Ah ! thus does the prophet of good or ill Meet hate from the creatures he serveth55 still !

Yet he ne’er falters :—so, petrel, spring Once more o’er the waves on thy stormy wing !

Bryan Waller Procter (1790-1874) He wrote under the name Barry Cornwall.

HEAD OF STORMY PETREL.

1.    They are in the truest sense ocean birds, for they rarely go near the shore, except when they are breeding. Their home is on the boundless waste of waters. In size, these birds are not larger than the swallows in our midst When flying round ships to pick up food, they frequently pat the waves with their little webbed feet. From this action, they derive their name petrel (little Peter), as if, like Saint Peter, they walked upon the water. Their appearance is supposed to be a sign of a coming storm.

2.    And hearts, &c. Men who, as a rule, are indifferent to danger, feel their helplessness and the need of a strength greater than their own, that is, their need of divine support, when a ship seems on the point of being wrecked.

THE BULL AND THE FLY.

Tor ment-ed teased.


I


Chal-lenge, invite; summon.


1.A fly one day buzzed about the nose of a surly old bull.


“ Begone,” said the bull ; “ I would crush you in a moment if you were worth notice.”

“ Is that all you think of me ? ” said the fly; “ then I will go to war with you.”

2. The bull lay down in the paddock, too proud to notice what such a little insect said, and wished to go to sleep. But the fly hummed round his head, and darted into his eyes, biting and stinging the old bull until he was almost mad. He bellowed, lashed his sides with his tail, and tossed the foam from his lips. The fly still tormented him, however, until he fell to the ground in pain.

3.    “ Ah,” said the fly, you will think a good deal more of me now, I dare say ! ” He was greatly puffed up with his victory over a beast so large as a bull. “ With what ease,” said he, “ have I beaten that huge creature ! I challenge the whole world to fight with me.”

4.    A spider in her hole heard this vain boast, and smiled at the fly’s foolish talk. She settled herself in her web so as to be ready for whatever might happen. The fly, still singing his song of victory, went flying about in a heedless manner, and, at length, struck against the spider’s web. Then he was caught in the meshes of the slightest and most flimsy net in the world. While he was struggling to get free, the spider leaped upon him, seized him, and put him to death in a moment.

PLAYING AT MARBLES.

Whit-tied, cut with a small knife. Pop-u lar, common ; well-liked.


Moor-ish, native of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean Sea, and now called Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.

1.    Boys play marbles to-day just as they did in Rome two thousand years ago. The Roman emperor, Augustus,1 enjoyed marbles, too, when he was a boy. The histories tell how he spent many hours in “ rolling nuts ” with little Moorish boys. At that time, smooth, round pebbles, nuts, and bits of wood whittled to the shape of a ball were the only marbles known. Later, the. potters of France and Switzerland made real clay marbles, some of which remain to this day.

2.    More than four hundred years ago, marbles was a popular game in England. It was called “ nine holes.”

Nine holes, arranged in three rows, were made in a square board, and numbered from one to nine. The board, thus prepared, was laid on the ground and surrounded with a low bank of earth. Then each player stood at a line «five or six feet from the board, and shot his marhle upon it. If the marble rolled into the “ seven ” hole, he counted seven, and so on ; if he missed all the holes, he got nothing. The player who had the most at the end of, say, ten or twenty shots won the game.

—Great Thoughts.

1. Augustus, the first, and one of the greatest of the Roman emperors. He was born b.c. 63, and died A.D. 14.

A GENEROUS HORSE.

In-tel-li-gent, knowing. Gen£er-OS-i-ty, liberality in giving. At-tacRedi harnessed.

Hitched, fastened to a hook or ring.


Munch-ing, chewing. Ev-i-dent-ly, clearly; plainly. Wist-ful-ly, with desire or longing. In-vi-ta^tion, request.


1.    The horse is generally considered to be one of the most intelligent animals ; and a pretty incident that was witnessed by a number of persons yesterday, says the St. Louis Republic, shows that generosity also enters into his character.

2.    Two fine-looking horses, attached to light buggies, were hitched at the kerb opposite the Merchants’ Exchange. They were several feet apart; but the hitching straps allowed them sufficient liberty of movement to get their heads together if they so desired. The owner of one of them had given his horse a feed of oats, which was placed on the edge of the pavement in a bag.

3.    This horse was quietly munching his oats, when his attention was attracted by the actions of the other horse, which, being evidently. very hungry, eyed the plentiful supply of oats wistfully, and neighed in a coaxing manner.

4.    The horse with the feed pricked up his ears, and replied with a neigh, which must have been, in horse language, an invitation to the other to help himself. He clearly took it as such, for he moved along in the direction of the bag as far as his hitching strap would permit. But the strap was not long enough, and his eager mouth fell about a yard short of the bag.

5.    The other horse noticed, and seemed to know, where the difficulty lay. His strap gave him some freedom, so he moved slowly along, pushing the bag with his nose, till his companion was able to reach it. Then, after a friendly nose-rub, the two horses finished the oats together.

—Adapted from a reprint in Our Dumb Animals.

SCHOOL AT SUVA. FIJI.

THE BOTTLING OF FRUITS.

PrOC-esS, operation.

Pre-ferredi set above; chosen. Tem-per-a-ture, degree of sensible heat. Resell, gum-like substance of vegetable origin.


Fun-gus, order of plants, including the mushroom, toadstool, and the microscopic plants that form mould, mildew, smut, and the like. Con-se-quent-ly, as a natural result.


1.    By the simple process of bottling, all fruits, especially the smaller kinds, may be preserved in a fresh condition, and be almost equal to fruit freshly plucked. Bottled fruits are often preferred to jams, as they possess the natural flavour of the fruit.

2.    The fruit to be bottled should be rather under-ripe than overripe, as it is desirable that it should remain in a whole state, so as to present a nice appearance when cooked. It should be handled as little as possible. Some persons gather it direct into the bottles.

3.    To bottle fruit, put as much into the bottles as possible, giving them a shake now and again, so as to get the fruit packed firmly together, taking care that it is not broken. After the bottles are quite full, pour clean water into them until it runs over the rim; this is necessary, as a partly-filled bottle looks bad.

4.    The corks1 should be of the best quality, free from holes, and fitting tightly. Some force will be needed to drive them down. Place small bits of tin on the top of the corks to keep the wire from cutting them, for, in the cooking, a certain amount of expansion takes place which is apt to raise the cork, if not tightly secured by wire.

5.    Place the bottles in cold water in an ordinary pan, upon the bottom of which a cloth has been placed to keep the bottles from toucning the metal. The water must be poured in till within an inch or so of tin- top of the bottles. The process of heating must be slow at first, otherwise the bottles may crack. A thermometer should be placed in the pan, so that the temperature of the water may be watched. Raise the temperature gradually until 165 deg. Fah. is attained. This should take one hour. Let the bottles cool gradually.

6.    Next, take a mixture of resin and a small quantity of oil boiled together, and dip the end of the cork into it while hot. This seals over any minute holes, making the bottle quite air-tight. If this is not done, fungus spores will enter and develop. The bottles should be placed on their sides in a cool place.

7.    For home use, water should not be added to the fruit, as the flavour is finer without it; but, for trade purposes, it is better to add water, as it gives the bottles a more taking appearance. When no water is added, the fruit shrinks during the heating process, and consequently the bottle does not remain full.

8.    When cooking for use, never add sugar until the fruit is served up. Sugar toughens the skins, especially of plums and cherries.

—Adapted from The Australasian.

X. Corks. Wide-mouthed bottles provided with covers that screw on, or that can be otherwise fastened so as to obviate the need of sealing, may be bought.

FROM OUR NOTE BOOK.

The Sargood Shield Competition.

1. At the annual rifle competition held at Williamstown in December, 1898, between teams from the Cadet Corps of the colony, the representatives from the Thorpdale State School, No. 2966, Gippsland, scored a win for the second time in the Junior Teams Match, and thus carried off the Sargood Shield and the five gold medals.

2. Their score reached 193, a point more than that of the year before, which was the record. This result is the more to be commended, as practice during 1898 was carried on under difficulties. The bush fires early in the year burnt the rifle targets at Thorpdale ; and the lads have had nothing to aim at since but an old circular saw, painted and fixed to the stump of a big tree.

3. The Thorpdale School is the smallest in Victoria that has a cadet corps. Lieutenant Hugard, the officer in charge, deserves to be congratulated on the success of the young soldiers he has trained.

The Coolgardie Exhibition.

1.    For months past, the residents of Coolgardie have been making extensive preparations for holding an Exhibition in that city. A stone structure, which is intended to be permanent, has been built, and many annexes are in the course of construction.

2.    The Governor of Western Australia has been invited to perform the opening ceremony, which will take place on the 21st of this month ; and it is expected that many distinguished visitors will be present.

3.    The Government Departments of Western Australia, local associations, and private firms are vigorously preparing exhibits to show the resources of the colony; and applications for a large amount of space have been received from the neighbouring colonies and from Europe. It is to be hoped that a large attendance will reward the enterprise of the promoters of the Exhibition.

The Gordon Highlanders.

When lately, after an absence of seventeen years, the Gordon Highlanders who acted in such a gallant manner at the storming of the Dargai Heights returned to Edinburgh, they received a warm Scottish welcome. The march to the railway station was to the strains of the regimental tune, “ Cock o’ the North ” ; and so excited and so numerous were the people in the streets that it became impossible to keep order, and the men had to make their way through the cheering crowd as best they could.

The Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey.

Coronation Chair


Her Majesty Queen Victoria is the only British sovereign who has twice sat in the Coronation Chair. She sat in it for the first time at her coronation on the 28th of June, 1838. The second occasion of her doing so was when Her Majesty attended the thanksgiving service at Westminster Abbey for her Jubilee on the 21st of June, 1887, when she sat iD the Chair during the service, and was surrounded by her children and grandchildren.

Why a Boy should Learn his Lessons.

The schoolboy who shirks his lessons may think he is doing a clever thing;

but his father and mother and teacher know better. The lessons may be irksome, and may need an amount of work that cause weariness and a strong desire to throw them aside ; but they are necessary —very necessary—to any real success in life. A noble man was never made by softness and sloth. Everything that is worth having has to be struggled for.

Valuable Beefsteak.

It is said that the first piece of beefsteak seen on the gold-fields of Alaska weighed about 10 lbs., and had been carried 250 miles on the back of a miner. It was put on exhibition at Circle City, and, afterwards, sold for £100, the money going to swell the local hospital fund.

Too Old.

1.    After giving a lesson upon Oliver Cromwell, the teacher asked the class several questions bearing on the subject. Among them was the following:—“If Oliver Cromwell were alive at the present day, what side would he take in politics ? ”

2.    One of the students gave this answer :—“If Oliver Cromwell were alive at the present day, he would be far too old to take any side in politics.”

The Population of Europe.

At the beginning of this century, the population of Europe was estimated at 175,000,000. It is now 370,000,000.

CHIPS.

THE SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND.

First William the Norman, then William his son,

Henry, Stephen, and Henry, then Richard and John; Next Henry the third, Edwards, one, two, and three,

And again, after Richard, three Henrys we see ;

Two Edwards, third Richard, if I rightly guess,

Two Henrys, sixth Edward, Queen Mary, Queen Bess ; Then Jamie the Scotchman, then Charles whom they slew, Yet received after Cromwell, another Charles too;

Next Jamie the second ascended the throne ;

Then good William and Mary together came on ;

Then Anne, Georges four, and fourth William all past, God sent us Victoria, may she long be the last.

Better than grandeur, better than gold, Than rank or titles a hundredfold,

Is a healthy body, a mind at ease,

And simple pleasures that always please.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbournt.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Yol. II., No. 21.] MELBOURNE.    [April, 1899.

GOD SAVE OUR AUSTRAL LAND.

Aus-tral, southern ; lying in the south.

Fed-’er al, pertaining to an agreement between States.

Hom^age, worship.

Yearn, desire eagerly.


Fra-tem-i-ty. brotherhood.

Cliar i-ty, love ; good-will.

Guard-i-an. protecting.

An-gel, heavenly being, superior to man in power and intelligence.


3. Be home of equal laws,

And freedom’s holy cause,

This Austral strand. Justice and liberty,

And godlike charity,

Our guardian angels be.

God save our land 1


1. God save our Austral land, Close knit the federal band That makes us one. For treasures manifold,

Rich store of gems and gold, “ Increase of held and fold,” Be homage done.


2. But richer gifts, O Lord. Than all thy works afford,

We fain would find : Give kindly spirits free ;

Give hearts that yearn to see A true fraternity

Of all mankind.


—Rev. WHjLiam Allen, Petersham, N.S.W.

THE EAGLE’S NEST —continued.

Be-to-kened, gave token, sign, or indication

of.

Un-daunt-ed, fearless.

Cas-cades! waterfalls.

Pen-e-tra-ted, pierced.

A-byss very deep place ; pit.

Pos ses-sion, hold; ownership.

Hov-er ing (huv-er-irig), remaining fluttering in the air.

Chasm (Icaz’m), deep opening; cleft; yawning

abyss.


Con-sult-ing, asking one another's opinion. Com-mu-ni-ca-tion, means of passing; connection.

Chim-ney, tube, or flue, for carrying off smoke. Gla-ci ers, fields or huge masses of snow and ice in the valleys of snow-clad mountains. Con-fi-dence, trust; reliance.

Skil-ful, dexterous; clever.

Ver-ti-gO, dizziness; giddiness.

Poi-son-ous deadly.


1. From the monntain-path came a joyous sound of some person whistling, which betokened good humour and undaunted courage. It was Rudy going to meet his friend Fritz. “ You must come and help me,” said he, “ I want to carry off the eaglet from the top of the rock. We will take young William with us.”

“ Had you not better first try to take down the moon ? That would be quite as easy a task,” said Fritz. “ lrou seem to he in good spirits.”

Price Id.

2.    “ Yes, indeed I am. I am thinking of my wedding. But to be serious, I will tell you all about it, and how I am situated.”

Then he explained to Fritz and William what he wished to do, and why.

“ You are a daring fellow,” said they; “but it is of no use ; you

will break your neck.”

“ Yo one falls unless he is afraid,” said Rudy.

3.    So, at midnight, they set out, carrying with them poles, ladders, and ropes. The road lay amidst brushwood and underwood, over rolling stones, always upwards higher and higher in the dark night. Waters roared beneath them, or fell in cascades from above. Clouds were driving through the air as the hunters reached the steep ledge of the rock. It was even darker here, for the sides of the rock almost met, and the light penetrated only through a small opening at the top. At a little distance from the edge could be heard the sound of

EAGLE’S CLAW.


the roaring, foaming waters in the yawning abyss beneath them.

4. The three seated themselves on a stone to await in stillness the dawn of day when the parent eagle would fly out, as it was necessary to shoot the old bird before they could think of gaining possession of the young one. Rudy sat motionless, as if he had been part of the stone on which he sat. He held his gun ready to fire in the direction of the highest point of the cliff, where the eagle’s nest lay concealed beneath the overhanging rock.

5.    The three hunters had a long time to wait. At last, they heard a rustling, whirring sound above them, and a large, hovering object darkened the air. At once, two shots were fired. For an instant, the bird fluttered its wide-spreading wings, and seemed as if it would fill up the whole of the chasm, and drag down the hunters in its fall. But it was not so; the eagle sank gradually into the abyss beneath, and the branches of trees and bushes were broken by its weight.

6.    Then the hunters roused themselves. Three of the longest ladders were brought and bound together. The topmost rung of these ladders would just reach the edge of the rock which hung over the abyss, but no farther. The point beneath which the eagle’s nest lay sheltered was much higher, and the sides of the rock were as smooth as a wall. After consulting together, they determined to bind together two more ladders, and to hoist them over the cavity, and so form a communication with the three beneath them by binding the upper ones to the lower. With great difficulty, the young men dragged the two ladders over the rock, and there they hung for some moments, swaying over the abyss; hut no sooner had they been fastened together, than Rudy placed his foot on the lowest rung.

EAGLE’S BEAK.


7.    It was a bitterly cold morning, and clouds of mist were rising from beneath. Rudy stood on the ladder as a fly rests on a piece of swinging straw which a bird may have dropped from the edge of the nest it was building on some tall factory chimney; but the fly could open its wings and fly away, if the straw were shaken; Rudy must cling, or fall and break his neck.

The wind whistled around him; and, beneath him, the waters of the abyss, swelled by the waters of the glaciers, those palaces of the Ice Maiden, foamed and roared in their rapid course.

8.    When Rudy began to ascend, the ladder trembled like the web of a spider, when it draws out the long delicate threads; but, as soon as he reached the fourth of the ladders, which had been bound together, he felt more confidence—he knew that they had been fastened securely by skilful hands. The fifth ladder, which appeared to reach the


nest, was supported by the sides of the rock, yet it swung to and fro, and flapped about like a slender reed, and as if it had been fastened by cords no stronger than fishing-lines.. It seemed a most dangerous undertaking to ascend it, but Rudy knew how to climb; he had learnt that from the cat, and THE golden eagle.    he had no fear. He

did not observe Vertigo, who stood in the air behind him, trying to lay hold of him with his outstretched arms.

9.    When at length he stood on the topmost step of the ladder, he found that he was still some distance below the nest, and not even able to see into it. Only by using his hands and climbing could he possibly reach it. He tried the strength of the stunted trees, and the thick underwood upon which the nest rested, and of which it was formed; and, finding they would support his weight, he grasped them firmly, and swung himself up from the ladders till his head and breast were above the nest. An overpowering stench came from it, for in it lay the remains of lambs, chamois, and birds. Vertigo, although he could not reach him, blew the poisonous vapour in his face to make him giddy and faint; and beneath, in the dark, yawning deep, on the rushing waters, sat the Ice Maiden, with her long, pale-green hair falling around her, and her death-like eyes fixed upon him. “ I have thee now,” she cried.

10. In a corner of the eagle’s nest sat the young eagle, a large and powerful bird, though still unable to fly. Rudy fixed his eyes upon it, held on by one hand with all his strength, and, with the other, threw a noose round the young eagle. The stout cord slipped to its legs; Rudy tightened it, and thus secured the bird alive. Then flinging the cord over his shoulder, so that the creature hung a good way down behind him, he prepared to descend, and his foot soon touched safely the highest rung of the ladder. Then Rudy, remembering his early lesson in climbing, “ Hold fast, and do not fear,” descended the ladders, and at last stood safely on the ground with the living eaglet, where he was received with loud shouts of joy.

—Hans Christian Andersen.

SONG OF THE HAYMAKERS.

Wain, waggon.    I Piteh-ers, those who pitch anything, as hay.

Sward, grassy surface of land.    Pile, nap when thick, as of carpeting and velvet.

1.    The noontide is hot, and our foreheads are brown ;

Our palms are all shining and hard ;

Right close to our work with the wain and the fork,

And but poor is our daily reward.

But there’s joy in the sunshine, and mirth in the lark That swims whistling away overhead ;

Our spirits are light though our skies may be dark,

And there’s peace with our meal of brown bread.

We dwell in the meadows, we toil on the sward,

Far away from the city’s dark gloom ;

The more jolly we are, though in rugs we may be,

Than the pale faces over the loom.

Then a song and a cheer for the bonny green stack,

Climbing up to the sun wide and high ;

For the pitchers and rakers and merry haymakers,

And the beautiful midsummer sky !    ' 56

Then a song and a cheer for the bonny green stack,

Climbing np to the sun wide and high ;

For the pitchers and rakers and merry haymakers,

And the beautiful midsummer sky !

3. “ Hold fast,” cries the waggoner, loudly and quick,

And then comes the hearty “ Gee-wo ! ”

While the cunning old team horses manage to pick A sweet mouthful to rminch as they go.

And tawny-faced children come round us to play,

And bravely they scatter the heap ;

Till the tiniest one, all outspent with the fun,

Is curled up with the sheep-dog asleep.

Old age sitteth down on the haycock’s fair crown,

At the close of our labouring day ;

And wishes his life, like the grass at his feet,

May be pure at its passing away.”

Then a song and a cheer for the bonny green stack,

Climbing up to the sun wide and high ;

For the pitchers and rakers and merry haymakers,

And the beautiful midsummer sky !

—Eliza Cook.

ABEL JANSEN TASMAN, THE DISCOVERER OP TASMANIA AND NEW ZEALAND.

Pos-ses-sion, place occupied, owned, or con' trolled.

Con-trol' rule; government.

Ex-plo-ra-tions, examinations. In-hab-it-ants, persons who dwell in a place. A-maze-ment, great wonder.

Daunt-ed, checked by fear of danger. Re-al-i-ty, fact.

Cautious, wary ; careful. 57 58 59

Char-act-er. nature; disposition.

A-venge' punish, or take revenge for. Oc-curredi took place.

Re-ceived; got.

Ex-pe-ri-enced, had trial of • made acquaintance with.

Nav-i-ga-tor, one who directs the course of a ship.

rugged nature of the coast, against which the mighty ocean rollers never cease dashing themselves, he did not try to land, but sailed southward, and then eastward past several rugged and lofty capes. He was mating his way north-east into a wide opening, when a gale arose and drove him out to sea. Naming the inlet that he could not enter Storm Bay, he kept on northward till he reached Marion Bay, and there anchored.

4.    The Dutch, in their explorations of parts of the coasts of New Guinea, the Gulf of Carpentaria, and Arnhem Land, had already been taught many lessons of caution in dealing with the savages of these new regions. The waddy and the spear had cut short the lives of not a few of their countrymen. Consequently, though no inhabitants were to be seen, Tasman was careful, when it became necessary to send boats ashore for water, to see that the crews were well armed. His men had no difficulty in finding plenty of good water with which to fill their barrels ; but they came back with the strange idea that the country was peopled by a race of giants. The evidence was slight: they had seen no one, but, in the bark of some of the lofty trees that stood on every side, they noticed with amazement that notches, evidently for use in climbing, had been cut at intervals of fully five feet. They reported also that they had heard voices and the sound of a trumpet in the distance.

5.    Tasman had been instructed to take possession, in due form, of any lands he might discover. The preparations on this occasion did not occupy much time ; and, the next day, he and several of his men rowed towards the shore, having with them the flag of the Prince of Orange,3 and a post on which were carved the points of the compass and the arms of Holland. Their intention was to leave the post fixed in the earth and the flag flying from the top of it, as tokens to any who might come after them that the Dutch had been there, and had taken the country as their property.

6.    The sea was rough, and the waves were dashing so fiercely on the shore that, had they attempted to land, their boat would have been dashed to pieces. The ship’s carpenter, Peter Jacobsen, was, however, not to be daunted. Neither the swirling waves, nor the thought that a band of gigantic savages might be lying in wait to make an attack, could deter him. Tying the flag and post to his body, he swam on shore, and planted the latter on a rocky hillock near four fine trees forming a semicircle. No doubt, when their flag blew out in the breeze, those in the boat raised a cheer, and felt proud of the success that had so far attended their voyage ; but, though the land was thus taken possession of on behalf of their nation, their countrymen never attempted to establish a settlement upon it.

7.    When Tasman returned to his ship, he ordered the anchor to be raised, and the sails spread, and stood away to the north. Next day he passed an island, which he named Maria after the wife of Antony Van Diemen. Coming, two or three days later, to a part of the coast of Freycinet Peninsula that bears to the west, and the wind not being


ABEL JANSEN TASMAN.

(From a painting in the possession of Mr. L. G. Cockhead, Hobart.)


favourable to progress in that direction, be turned his vessel’s head eastward, and soon lost sight of land.

8.    Steady sailing for ten days brought him within view of the mountain peaks of what he called Staten Land4—a name that was changed to New Zealand, after that province in the south-west of Holland which is named Zealand, or Sea-land. For five days, this land was coasted to the northward, when it bore to the east, and formed, as it seemed, a wide bay. In reality, the strait between the North and the South Island, which Cook afterwards explored, stretched before the eyes of the daring Dutchmen. Tasman chose a suitable spot near the shore, and cast anchor.

9.    It was not long before the natives, having noticed the ships, gathered in force. Tasman, in the account he wrote of his voyage, describes them as of a colour between brown and yellow, their hair twisted in a knot on the top of their heads, and their bodies girt about with a mat made of a substance like flax. Their weapons were the spear and the club. At first, they were cautious; but, when several hours had passed, they grew bolder, and came out to the ships in their canoes, which they managed with great skill, and then rowed round and round, chanting strange songs.

10.    Tasman on the Zeehan, wishing to send a message to the captain of the Heemskirk, ordered a boat to be lowered, and, by a strange oversight, let the seven men forming its crew row off without any weapons. The Maoris (mow'rees) soon showed the warlike character for which they have ever since been noted. They attacked the crew furiously, and killed three of the men ; but the rest jumped into the sea, and managed to get on board one of the ships. The Dutchmen did not

- avenge the death of their companions, for a storm came on, and, to avoid being driven on shore, they had to put to sea. Murderers’, or Massacre Bay, was the fitting name Tasman gave the place where this misfortune occurred.

11.    Keeping northward, but not anchoring for fear of the natives, the explorers saw the cone-shaped peak, Mount Egmont, and noted the rich vegetation nourished by the volcanic soil at its base. Several days passed before they lost sight of land. The last point visible was named Maria Van Diemen.

12.    Their course brought them among the South Sea Islands, several of which had been discovered. They were the first, however, to visit the Fiji and Friendly Islands. They received better treatment from the islanders than they had experienced from the Maoris, and were able to stock their ships with cocoa-nuts, bread fruit, bananas, and poultry. By steering north-west, New Britain was met with, but it was thought to be a part of New Guinea. Tasman kept steadily onward, and skirted the northern shore of the latter island till he brought his ships into waters already known to the Dutch, and finally, after a voyage of ten months, anchored them at Batavia.

13.    In the following year, 1644, he was again sent out to determine whether New Guinea was connected with what the Dutch now proudly


ZEEHAN FROM THE NORTH, SHOWING THE WEST COAST RANGE.

(Photograph by J. W. Beattie, Hobart. Block kindly lent by Messrs. Peacock Bros., Melbourne.)


1899.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.    155


called New Holland, and to examine the northern shores of the latter. No account of this voyage has been found, but, from maps drawn a few years afterwards, it is almost certain that he sailed along the southwest coast of New Guinea, passed Torres Strait without noticing it, as the captain of the Duyfhe/n (dow'-fori) had done, went round the Gulf of Carpentaria, and along the coast till he came to De Witt’s Land near Exmouth Gulf (which was already marked on his chart), and then struck northwards to Java.

14.    He seemed never to tire of naming places after Governor Yan Diemen and his wife. We have a Maria Island in the Gulf of Carpentaria, and Yan Diemen’s Gulf north of the Northern Territory.

15.    No account of any event in Tasman’s life after he sailed on his second voyage has been discovered. It is thought that he did not receive the reward he deserved for his valuable services, for, if he had done so, there would surely be some record of it. Yet it is hard to suppose that his countrymen were ungrateful to one, of whom Admiral Burney, a man well able to judge, wrote as follows:—“It must be allowed that Abel Jansen Tasman was both a great and fortunate discoverer, and that his success is due only in part to good fortune. The track in which he sailed, and the careful reckoning kept by him, which so nearly fix the true situation of each of his discoveries, show him to have been a hold and able navigator.”

1.    Jansen is pronounced Yansen.

2.    Bass and Flinders, who were the first to sail through the strait between Australia and Tasmania, gave these names in 1798.

3.    The Prince Of Orange, the head of the Dutch republic—Holland or the Netherlands.

4.    Staten Land means “The Land of the States-General,’’as the Government of Holland was styled. ' To the south-east of Terra del Fuego is a small island called Staten Island. In Tasman’s time, it was called Staten Land; and, when he discovered what is now named New Zealand, he said, “ It is possible that this land joins to Staten Land.” Staten Island was not known then to be an island, but was supposed to stretch westwards and southwards round the South Pole.

THE BATTLE OF HOHENLINDEN.1

Scen^e-ry, natural aspect, as woods, hills, etc.

Ar-rayedi drawn up ; set in order.

Rev-el-ry, bustle and din of battle,

Riv-en, torn asunder.

Dun, of a dull brown colour.

1.    On Linden, when the sun was low,All bloodless lay th’ untrodden snow, And dark as winter wa$ the flow

Of Iser, rolling rapidly.

2.    But Linden saw another sight,

When the drum beat at dead of night, Commanding fires of death 60 to light

The darkness of her scenery.

Sulph’rous for sul-phur-ous, containing «ul-

phur, one of the substances in gunpowder. Can-O-py, kind of covering.

CMv-al-ry, cavalry ; soldiers. (Usually, valour.) Sep-Ul-chre place of burial; tomb.

4.    Then shook the hills61 with thunder

riven,

Then rushed the steed to battle driven, And, louder than the bolts of heaven, Far flashed the red artillery.

5.    But redder yet that light shall glow On Linden’s hills of stained snow ; And bloodier yet the torrent-flow

Of Iser, rolling rapidly.

6.    ’Tis morn, but scarce yon level sun Can pierce the war-cloud’s rolling dun, Where furious Frank,62 and fiery Hun*

Shout ’mid their sulph’rous canopy.

8. Few, few, shall part where many meet ! The snow shall be their winding- sheet,* And every turf beneath their feet

7. The combat deepens. On, ye brave Who rush to glory, or the grave ! Wave, Munich V all thy banners wave, And charge with all thy chivalry !


Shall be a soldier’s sepulchre.

— Thomas Campbell (1777-1844).

1.    Ho-hen-lin-den, or Linden Heights, a village about 20 miles from Munich, the capital of Bavaria. It lies between the Iser and the Inn, tributaries of the River Danube. Here, on the 3rd of Deoember, 1800, the Austrians and Bavarians were defeated by the French.

2.    Sun was low, just before sunset    3. Fires of death, discharge of guns and cannons.

4.    Shook the hills, the surrounding country seemed to shake with the firing of the artillery.

5.    Frank, the ancient name for the French, who, in the third century, overthrew the Roman dominion in Gaul, and settled there.

6.    Huns, or, as they are now called, Magyars, are the inhabitants of Hungary, and belong to the Mongol race. They form the chief portion of the Austrian Empire.

7.    Munich, the capital of Bavaria, a state of the German Empire, which is in the south of Germany It is a very fine city, built on the River Iser. Its palace contains one of the finest collections of paintings in Europe.

8.    Wind-ing sheet, sheet in which a corpse is wound or wrapped.

A CURIOUS FESTIVAL.

Oc-cur-rence, event.

Fes^ti-val, time of feasting or celebration.

Ver-mi cel-li, flour of wheat made into a paste, and forced through small pipes till it takes a slender, wormlike form. (When the paste is made into larger tubes, it is called macaroni.)

Cal-cu-la-tions, reckonings.


Myr-i-ads, immense numbers. (Strictly speaking a myriad is ten thousand.) Ex-cite-ment, agitation; state of being roused into action.

Writh-ing. twisting.

Anx-ious-ly, with painful uncertainty.

Ap pear-ance, act of coming into sight. Mys-te-ri-OUS, exciting curiosity and wonder.

1.    Miss Gordon-Cumming, in her book, “At Home in Fiji,” mentions a curious occurrence, which is well worth the study of those who take an interest in natural history.

2.    She says “ Yesterday, an important festival was held, known as the ‘ Balolo Festival,’ or, in other words, ‘The Feast of Worms.’ The balolo is a small sea-worm, long and thin as ordinary vermicelli, and is much esteemed by the natives when cooked. Some are fully a yard long, others about an inch. It has a jointed body and many legs, and lives in the deep sea.

3.    “ Only on two days of the whole year do these creatures come to the surface of the water. The first day is in October, which is hence called ‘ Little Balolo,’ when only a few appear. The natives know exactly when they are due, making their calculations by the position of certain stars. After this, no more are seen till the high tide of the full moon that occurs between the 20th and 25th of November, which hence takes the name of ‘ Great Balolo,’ when they rise to the surface in countless numbers, always before daybreak.

4.    “ In the Samoan Islands1 the day occurs a fortnight earlier. At certain points near the reefs,2 the whole sea to the depth of several inches is simply alive with these red, brown, and green creatures, which form one writhing mass, and are pursued by shoals of fish, which come to share the feast with the human beings. The latter are in a state of the wildest excitement, for it is the merriest day of the year, and is looked forward to from one November to the next.

(Photo, by Waters, Fiji.)    LEVUKA. (The white line near the horizon indicates the reef.)


THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV. [Apeil,


5.    “ About midnight, they go out in their canoes, and anxiously await the appearance of the first few worms which herald the approach of myriads. For several hours there is the merriest sport and laughter, everyone bailing up the worms and trying who can most quickly fill his canoe, either by fair sport or by stealing from his neighbours. All is noise, scrambling, and excitement, the lads and lasses each carrying wicker baskets, with which they capture the worms without lifting too much water on board.

6.    “ As the day dawns, these mysterious creatures sink once more to their native depths, and, by the moment of sunrise, not one remains on the surface ; nor will another be seen for a twelvemonth, when, true to its festival, the balolo will return. Never has it been known to fail within the memory of the oldest inhabitant, white or brown. Nor is there any record of anyone having seen one rise to the surface on any save the two appointed days, which are known as the ‘ Little Balolo ’ and the ‘ Great Balolo.’

7. “ Well do the natives know how useless it would be to look for one after sunrise, so all the canoes return to land, wrap their balolo in bread-fruit leaves, cook them in ovens dug on the beach, and have a great feast.”

1.    Sa-mo-an Islands, group near the Fiji Islands. They were called Navigator Islands by Captain Cook on account oí the skill of the natives in managing their canoes.

2.    The balolo is not found on all the reefs. From its appearing at these yearly intervals, the Fijians have the following proverb, “ If you do not eat it now, it will be a long time before you get another chance,” or “ Eat it now or never.”

PROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

How to Cool a Hot Room.

The simplest and cheapest way to cool a hot room is to wet a large cloth—the larger the better—and hang it up in the place to be cooled. If the room is well ventilated, the temperature will fall as much as twelve degrees in an hour. Such a change in temperature would be very grateful to sick persons who are compelled to lie in bed during hot weather, and are apt to feel overpowered with the heat.

—Adapted from The Sydney Mail.

The Value of Knowing how to Swim.

1.    Members of the Middle Park State School Swimming Club were well to the front in the Demonstration of Swimming held recently at the South Melbourne Baths.

2.    Still more creditable is the fact that members of the club have saved from drowning no less than five persons. The last rescue was effected in January by William Hutchison. He bravely jumped into the sea from the pier at Albert Park, and, after swimming about 50 yards, reached a drowning woman, and succeeded in bringing her safely to shore. A certificate has been awarded to him by the Royal Humane Society.

Treatment of Snake-bite.

Recently a man working on a farm was bitten on the back of the hand by a tiger snake. He immediately sucked the wound ; and his brother cut out the bitten part, and tied a ligature round the wrist. The sufferer was then taken to a neighbouring town ; and, although he did not receive medical attention till three hours after being bitten, he recovered, owing, it is considered, to his promptness in sucking the wound.

A Race Between Bees and Pigeons.

1.    A trial of speed between homing pigeons and bees was lately carried out in Westphalia (Prussia), in which the insects proved fleeter than their feathered competitors.

2.    The course was 3^ miles long, and a dovecot near a hive was the winning-post. The bees were rolled in flour in order that they might be the more easily identified. Though their flight was somewhat retarded through this, they distanced the birds. The first bee came in 25 seconds before the first pigeon; and three other bees arrived before the second pigeon.

Drinking prom Water Taps.

The attention of the Department has been drawn by the Central Board of Health to the practice indulged in by some State school pupils of drinking directly from the water taps instead of using the cups provided for the purpose.

This habit, in addition to being a dirty one, and totally devoid of good taste, is very objectionable from a health point of view, as it materially increases the liability to infection with such diseases as diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping cough, and measles. Every precaution should be taken to check the pernicious practice and, if possible, to eradicate it altogether.

NOTICES.

Education Department, Melbourne, 15th March, 1899.

Examinations op Teachers and Pupil Teachers.

The notice of all teachers is particularly drawn to the following necessary corrections in Circular 99/2 re “Examinations of Teachers and Pupil Teachers.”

Note (e) should read thus: “ Pupil Teachers and Candidates for Certificates, &c.,” in lieu of “Pupil Teachers and Candidates for Certificate of Competency, &c.”

In Note (A), line 4, the words “and Theory and Practice of Teaching ” should be excised.

“ N.B.—(a)” should read thus: “Candidates for Certificates, &c.,” in lieu of “Candidates for Certificate of Competency, &c.”

It is desired that these corrections should be made in the circular referred to.

Back Numbers op “TnE School Paper.”

With reference to the announcement in the February number of The Sehool PaperGlass III., as to the purchase by the Department of certain numbers of The School Paper, those who have been good enough to communicate with the Department in the matter are informed that sufficient copies for the present have been obtained.

JAMES BADGE,

Secretary.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Yol. IL, No. 22.] MELBOURNE.    [May, 1899.

SCOTCH FISHERMAN’S SONG.

Bon^ny pretty.

ChO rus-note, song sung in chorus.

Speed, be lucky.

1. O swiftly glides the bonny boat Just parted from the shore,

And to the fishers’ chorus-note Soft moves the dripping oar.

Their toils are borne with lightsome cheer1;

And ever may they speed,

Who feeble age and helpmates dear And tender bairnies feed.

1.    Light-some cheer, merry heart.

2.    And blest, and may our cottages, in which we and children, be blest.


Bairfnies (Scotch word), children.

Treasures, precious things. Here, wife and children.

2. We cast our lines in Largo Bay;

Our nets are floating wide ;

Our bonny boat, with yielding sway, Rocks lightly on the tide.

And happy prove our daily lots Upon the summer sea,

And blest on land our kindly cots, Where all our treasures be !2

—Joanna Baillie.

enjoy shelter and rest in the company of our wives


THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH.

Won-der ful, surprising; strange.

E-q.ua tor, the imaginary circle on the Earth’s surface, midway between the Poles. 63 64 65

Poles, the ends of the Earth’s axis.

Ax-is, the imaginary straight line about which the Earth revolves.

“Yes, Tom, there is—something very wonderful. After we had seen your ball take that shape, my father explained to me the reason for it; and that led to his telling me about the shape of the earth.”

“ Why, Fred, whatever has the spinning of a ball in the air to do with the shape oi the earth ?”

“ A great deal, Tom. Come and sit down here, and let us talk about it. My father says that, if we can understand why a soft ball flattens at one part and swells out at another while it is spinning round, then we can understand why the Earth bulges out at the Equator, and is flattened a little at the Poles.1

“Indeed! Can we?”

4.    “ Yes, we can. Suppose you were to spin a top, and, while it was spinning, pour a little water on it, you would find that the water

Whirling-table and Apparatus for illustrating

THE BULGING OF THE EARTH AT THE EQUATOR AND ITS FLATTENING AT THE POLES.


would fly off from the top, not from the upper part, where you poured it, but from the middle part—I mean where it bulges out the most. Well, suppose now, instead of a hard, wooden top you had a soft one, made of something you could squeeze about in your fingers, and set that spinning, then the middle part would try to fly off as the water did; but, of course, none of it could fly off, it

would only try to do so, and that would make it bulge out.”

5.    “ Ah ! I see what you mean. The india-rubber ball bulges out at the middle part, because it is that part which is trying to fly off. But why that part more than any other part ? ”

As the Flexible Hoops appear

WHEN ROTATING RAPIDLY.


“ Because that is the part that travels the quickest; it has farthest to go round.”

“ I don’t quite see that, Fred. But then, our Earth does not spin like a top.”

6.    “Yes, it does. It turns round on its axis in the same way as the ball spins in the air.”

“Ah ! so it does. We learnt to-day at school that the Earth revolves on its axis in twenty-four hours. We repeated the words ten times, but I did not think they meant like a ball spinning in the air.”

“ Didn’t you ? What did you think they meant ? ”

“ I didn’t know what they meant though we had to learn them* But, Fred, our Earth is not soft like an india-rubber ball.”

“Hot now, Tom ; but it was once.”

“ Who told you that, Fred ? ”

7. “Myfather. He says that our Earth was once so hot that it was in a half-melted state, and, at that time, it became flattened at the Poles because of its turning round and round upon its axis.”

“It must have been a warm spot then, Ered. But do you think that is true ? ”

“ Well, I can’t see how it could have got its present shape in any other way. But 1 must go now, Tom. Good-bye.”

—The Scholar (.Adapted).

1. The E'qua tO'ri-al mean di am£e-ter of the Earth is calculated to be 7,926 miles ; its Polar diameter 7,899 miles. The difference is 27 miles, therefore the curvature of the Earth's surface must be slightly ltss in the neighbourhood of the Poles than at other parts.

COLUMBUS.

Adm’rT for Admiral, naval officer of the highest rank.

Mu-ti nous disposed to rise against authority; ready or inclined to rebel.


Ghast-ly, deathlike. Blanched, pale with fear. Peered, looked intently.

1. Behind him lay the grey Azores,1 Behind the Gates of Hercules ;66 Before him but the ghost of shores;

Before him only shoreless seas.

The good mate said : “Now must we pray, For lo ! the very stars are gone.

Brave Adm’r’l speak : what shall I say ?”

“ Why, say : ‘ Sail on ! sail on ! and on 1 ’


3. They sailed and sailed, as winds might blow,

Until at last the blanched mate said :

“ Why, now not even God would know Should I and all my men fall dead :

These very winds forget their way,3 For God from these dread seas is gone.

Now speak, brave Adm’r’l; speak and say-”

He said : ‘ ‘ Sail on ! sail on ! and on ! ”

%. They sailed. They sailed. Then spake the mate :

“This mad sea shows his teeth to-night.

He curls his lip, he lies in wait,

With lifted teeth as if to bite !

Brave Adm’r‘1, say but one good word :

What shall we do when hope is gone ? ”

The words leapt like a leaping sword :

“ Sail on i sail on ! sail on ! and on.”

6. Then, pale and worn, he kept his deck,

And peered through darkness. Ah, that night Of all dark nights ! And then a speck—

A light! A light ! A light! A light !

It grew, a starlit flag unfurled !

It grew to be Time’s burst of dawn.

He gained a world ;4 he gave that world Its grandest lesson : “ On ! sail on ! ”

—Joaquin (wa,h-ken') Miller, an American poet.

1 A-ZOresf Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Portugal, and belonging to that country.

2.    Oates of Her^cu-les, the Strait of Gibraltar.

3.    Winds for got' their way. The course of Columbus’s ships, being in the region of the northeast trade winds, blew day after day in the same direction, which was a new and startling experience for the sailors.

A World, the New World, America, discovered by Columbus in 1492,

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

THE SHIPWRECK.

Im-me^di-ate-ly, at once; instantly. Mir^a-cle, event contrary to the established course of thing* or the known laws of nature. Com-mit^ted, intrusted; consigned, lm-pos-si-ble, not possible • incapable of being don*. 67 68

Pi-lot, guide through difficulties or dangers. Re-lieved' eased.

Facial, deadly ; causing death. De-liv^er-ance, escape from peril; rescue.

wave came rolling a-stern of ns, and took us with such fury that at once it overset the boat.

3.    Nothing can describe the confusion of thought that I felt when I sank into the water; for, though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave, having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on toward the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I had taken in.

—From the edition of Rnbinnon Cruxoe published by Messrs. Nelson and Sons.


4. I had so much presence of mind2 as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on toward the land as fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as a high hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no means or strength to contend with.

5.    My business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could ; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot myself toward the shore, if possible: my greatest concern now being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great way toward the shore when it came on, might not carry me again with it when it went back toward the sea.

6.    The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I felt mvself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore, a very great way ; but 1 held my breath, and assisted myself to get still farther forward by swimming with all my might.

I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, to my immediate relief, I felt my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water ; and, though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet. it relieved me greatly, and gave me breath and new courage.

7.    I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long as before ; and then, finding the water had spent itself, and had begun to return, I struck out, and, before the return of the wave, felt ground with my feet. I stood still a few minutes to recover breath, and till the water went from me, and then ran with what strength I had farther toward the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again ; and, twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forward, the shore being very flat.

8.    The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me ; for the sea, having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a rock, and that with such force that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless as to my deliverance ; for the blow beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body. I recovered a little, however, before the return of the wave, and, seeing I should again be covered with water, I resolved to cling fast to the rock, and hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.

9.    Now, as the waves were not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held on till the wave abated, and then made another run, which brought me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away ; and the next run I took, I got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

—Daniel De Foe.

1.    League, a measure of length. The marine league is equal to three marine or geographical miles of 6,0ad feet each. A land league is equal to three ordinary miles of 5,280 feet each.

2.    Pres-ence Of mind, clear and active state of mind in the face of danger.

THE BURIAL OP SIR JOHN MOORE.1

Hol-lowed, dug.

Up-braid; reproach; speak lightly of. Reck, care.

Sul-len ly, in gloomy anger.

Go-ry, covered with blood.


Corse, dead body ; corpse.

Ram-parts mound or wall of earth that surrounds a fortified place.

Dis-charged: fired.

Shroud, winding-sheet; covering of the dead. Mar-tiai, military.

1.    Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,69

As his corse to the ramparts we hurried; Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot O’er the grave where our hero we buried.

3.    No useless coffin inclosed his breast,

Nor in sheet nor in shroud we wound him;

But he lay like a warrior taking his rest,

With his martial cloak around him.

4.    Few and short were the prayers we said,

And we spoke not a word of sorrow;

But we steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead,

And we bitterly thought of the morrow.

6. We thought, as we hollowed his narrow bed,

And smoothed down his lonely pillow,

That the foe and the stranger 3 would tread o’er his head,

And we far away on the billow.

6.    Lightly they’ll talk of the spirit that’s gone,

And o’er his cold ashes upbraid him ;—

But little he’ll reck, if they let him sleep on In the grave where a Briton has laid him.

7.    But half of our heavy task was done,

When the clock struck the hour for retiring;

And we heard the distant and random gun4 That the foe was sullenly firing.

8.    Slowly and sadly we laid him down,

From the field of his fame fresh and gory;

We carved not a line, we raised not a stone,—

But we left him alone with his glory.

—Rev. Charles Wolfe (1791-1823).

1.    Sir John Moore (1761-1809), one of the bravest of the British generals who withstood the designs of Na1 o'eon. In 1MJ lie was in command of the > mall British army opposed to the French in Spain. Expert nr lo lie joi pil by the Spaniards, he advanced towards Madrid, but, being met by a large force of the enemy , had to reirent. This he did with very little loss. While the British were waiting for sh'ps at Corunna, a seaport in the nortn-west of Spain, the French came up, and were defeated in the battle that followed. Sir John Moore was struck by a cannon hall, and lived only long enough to know that his troops were victorious, lie was hut ten on the ramparts of the town. Marshal Soult (soult) the commander of the French, raised a monument lo his memory.

2.    Fu ner-al note, music at a soldier’s funeral.

3.    The foe and the stran-ger the French and the Spaniards.

4.    Ran dom gun, gun fired now and then, or, perhaps, not aimed at a particular object.

OBSERVATION.

Ad-ducedC brought forward. Con-Vict', pronounce guilty. Sor cer-er, magician ; wizard. Ad dressed( spoken to.

Sus -pi cion, distrust; doubt. Scope, room.

Route (root), road; path.


Derfvlse (der-vls), Mohammedan monk.

Par tic U lar ly distinctly; carefully.

Prob a-bii-i ty, likelihood.

Bur-den, load.

Jew e s precious stones ; gems.

Cu-dl {kn-dl, the “ i ” as in ill), judge in a Turkish town or village.

1. A dervise1 was journeying alone in a desert, when two merchants suddenly met him.

“ You have lost a camel,” said he to the merchants.

“ Indeed we have,” they replied.

“ Was he not blind in his right eye, and lame in his left leg?” said the dervise.

“ He was,” replied the merchants.

“And was he not loaded with honey on one side, and with wheat on the other ? ”

“ Most certainly he was,” they replied; “ and, as yon have seen him so lately, and marked him so particularly, you can in all probability conduct us to him.”

2. “ My friends,” said the dervise, “ I have never seen your camel, nor ever heard of him, but from you I ”

“A pretty story, truly,” said the merchants; “ but where are the jewels which formed a part of his burden ? ”

“ I have seen neither your camel nor your jewels,” repeated the dervise. 70 71

ground for your suspicions ; but I have lived long and alone, and I can find ample scope for observation even in a desert.

5. I knew that I had crossed the track of a camel that had strayed from its owner, because I saw no mark of any human footstep on the same route. I knew that the animal had one blind eye, because it had cropped the herbage only on one side of its path; and that it was lame in one leg from the faint impression which that particular foot had produced ipon the sand. I concluded that the animal had lost one tooth, because, wherever it had grazed, a small tuft of herbage had been left uninjured in the centre of its bite. As to that which formed the burden of the beast, the busy ants informed me that it was corn on the one side; and the clustering flies, that it was honey on the other.”

—Colton.

1. Der-vioe is now generally written dervish. The meaning of the word has been extended. It is now applied to the followers of the Mahdi, who were lately defeated by Lord Kitchener.

TASMANIA.

Res-i-denta, persons dwelling in a place for some time.

Con-trol,' power of check ; government.

In-bab-it-antS, dwellers; residents.

Sep-a-ra-ted, divided from each other ; disconnected.

Ab-O-rig-i nes, original, or earliest known, inhabitants of a country.

Feud long-continued strife.

Ex-tincti dead ; without one being left.

Trans-por-ta-tion, the sending of a criminal out of his country to a convict settlement.

Ex-O-dus, a going out.


Scen^e-ry, aspect of a country.

Land-scape, portion of land that the eye can take in at a single view.

Prin-ci-pal, chief ; main.

Nav-i-ga ble, deep enough and wide enough to afford a passage to vessels.

Con-Vict, noun, person proved guilty of a crime; criminal; felon.

Pos-ses-sion, ownership

Vis-i tor, one who goes to see a person or a place.    -

8car-ci-ty, short supply.

the south are the Derwent and the Huon, the former 120 miles long, the latter 100 miles. In the north, the South Esk is 110 miles long; while the Tamar, which is broad and navigable like the Derwent, connects Launceston with Bass Strait. The Pieman in the north-west has in recent years come into notice on account of the rich tin and silver mines in its neighbourhood.

5.    It was stated in the April number of The School Paper— Class IV. that Tasmania was discovered, and taken possession of, in 1642, by the Dutch navigator, Abel Jansen Tasman, who named it Van Diemen’s Land, in honour of Antony Van Diemen, Governor of Batavia. The land remained, however, as its discoverer left it till the closing years of the eighteenth century, when Cook coasted along a portion of its eastern sea-board, Bass and Flinders sailed round it, thus proving it to be an island, and a French navigator3 carefully ^examined parts of its south-eastern shores.

6.    In 1803, a British colony was founded in Van Diemen’s Land. This step was taken for two reasons. Governor King, who was in oharge of a convict settlement that had been established at Sydney by the British Government in 1788, wished to place some of his more unruly prisoners where they would have less scope for doing harm, and also to take possession of the island, as the French, he thought, were about to do so, and he wished to be before them.

7.    He, therefore, sent Captain Bowen with a few soldiers and a party of convicts to form a settlement at the head of Storm Bay. The spot chosen was on the eastern bank of a fine river, which received the name Derwent. The settlement itself was called Rest Down, words soon contracted to Risdon.

8.    Three or four months had passed, when, on the 15th of February, 1804, Collins4 reached Risdon with two ships containing about 400 people. He had sailed from England to form a settlement on the shores of Port Phillip Bay, but had, with the permission of Governor King, given up the attempt after remaining for about four months near the site of what is now the town of Sorrento.

9.    He at once entered upon his duties as Lieutenant-Governor,5 and, not liking the situation of Risdon, chose another a few miles nearer the mouth of the Derwent, and just where that river becomes sea. He named the place after Lord Hobart, who was at the time Secretary of State for the Colonies.6

10.    The houses first built were of “ wattle7 and dab,” that is to say, of slender branches intertwined between posts, and plastered over with mud; but, such is the energy of the British in forming homes, that a visitor to the town two years later states that it had quite a settled and comfortable appearance.

11.    The dwellers in what was then a very out-of-the-way corner of the globe had many hardships to endure and perils to encounter. At one time, there would be extreme scarcity of food; at another, escaped

convicts who had become bushrangers would not only steal all they could lay hands on, but would also murder those who resisted them.

HOBART AND MT. WELLINGTON.

(Photograph by Mr. J. W. Beattie, Hobart, from a painting. Block kindly lent by Messrs. Peacock Bros., Melbourne.)


12. In 1806, a second settlement—Launceston—was founded in the north ; but so difficult was the country to travel over that it was not

till 1812 that the residents there were brought under the control of the Lieutenant-Governor at Hobart Town.

13.    The convict settlement on Norfolk Island8 was, in 1807, abandoned by the British Government; and the inhabitants of the island were conveyed to Van Diemen’s Land. They formed a new home on the Derwent, to which they gave the name New Norfolk.

14.    Yan Diemen’s Land was separated from New South Wales in 1825, and its first Governor was Colonel Arthur. The most remarkable event in his time was the “ Black War.”

An unfortunate conflict with the aborigines took place at Risdon in 1804, soon after the departure of most of the colonists for Hobart Town. About 500 natives, who were, it is believed, engaged in driving a mob of kangaroos into an enclosure so as more easily to kill them, came in view of the encampment. Their cries and actions were so startling that the officer in charge of the soldiers ordered them to fire, and the result was that about 50 of the natives were shot, and a feud that lasted for many years was begun. The ‘‘Black War ” was an attempt made to drive all the aborigines into Tasman Peninsula. It failed utterly, though 3,500 persons joined in it, and the money spent amounted to £30,000. The army took only two prisoners—an old woman, and an old man who was too ill to walk.

15.    Out of probably 5,000 aborigines who, when the colony was founded, occupied the island, living chiefly on opossums and kangaroos, only 203 could be found in 1855. In 1869, there were but a man and three women left. With the death of Queen Truganina in 1876, the race, which differed in many respects from that on the mainland, became extinct.

16.    It was in 1837 that the famous explorer, Sir John Franklin, whose sad fate it was to perish in those frozen regions lying to the north of North America, was sent out as Governor in the room of Colonel (kur'-nel) Arthur. His period of office was not so happy as it deserved to be.

17.    The British Government in 1840 ceased to transport prisoners to New South Wales; and it was hoped by the bulk of the settlers in Yan Diemen’s Land that the same course would be followed in regard to their colony. They were disappointed, however, for it was not till 1853, after many efforts, that transportation to the island was declared at an end.

18.    Another strong desire of the people was for government by a parliament elected by themselves, and this was gratified in 1855.^ Also, from the 1st of January of the following year, the name Yan Diemen’s Land was, at their request, changed to Tasmania; from which day modern Tasmania may be said to date.

19. In the “Fifties,”8 the colony suffered much from the exodus of its male population to the gold-fields of Victoria ; hut, during recent

years, in addition to the great increase in the area under tillage, and to the expansion in the timber industry, rich deposits of gold, silver, tin,

copper, iron, and coal have been opened np, with the result that the population lias increased rapidly. At the end of 1898, it was about 177, UUO.

1.    Aus-tral-a-sian group, the continent, Tasmania, and New Zealand.

2.    Mouu-tains, Cradle Mountain, 5,069 feet, is the highest; peak.

3.    French nav-i ga-tor. This was Admiral Bruni (broo-np) D'Entrecasteaux (dnng-tr-kas-to'), who sailed from France early in 1792 to search for ttie La Perouse’s (par-oozes') ill-fated expedition, which had not been he..rd of since its visit to Botany Bay in 1788.

4.    Collins. The chief street of Melbourne is named after him.

5.    Lieu ten-ant (lef-ten-ant) Gov-ern or, officer of a state, next in rank to the Governor.

6.    Sec-re-ta-ry Of state, person who conducts the correspondence of a state with foreign states.

7.    Wat-tie. “ To wattle means to twist or interweave one with another. Because the branches of several kinds of Acacias were 11-ed in the construction of “wattle and dab” houses, these trees obtained in Australia the name of “wattles.”

8.    Nor folk Is-land, in South Pacific Ocean, about 1,000 miles east of New South Wales.

9.    The “ Fif-ties,” the few years succeeding the discovery of gold in Victoria in 1851.

INTEGRITY.

In-teg-ri-ty, honesty; uprightness.

Vir-tues, active qualities or powers. Char-ac-ter, that which a person really is ;

personal qualities Suc-cess-ful prosperous.

Prac tise, do as a habit

Ab-Stamping, keeping one’s self from doing ; refraining.


Prin-ci pie, governing law of conduct. Per-mis-sion, leave ; consent.

Ad-dress-ing, speaking to.

In ter-rupt-ed, broke in.

Sig-ni-fy, mean; denote.

Temp-ta-tion, inducement; something that entices to evil.

Er-rand, message.


1.    Integrity is the first of the virtues, the basis of all that is valuable in character. For, suppose one were inquiring the character of a servant, and should be told that she was active, cleanly, good-tempered, and possessed of half-a-dozen other good qualities, would one reckon her character worth anything if the words were added, “ but she is not honest ? ”

2.    Well, then, let young people who wish to be successful and happy through life practise the strictest integrity in all their dealings. By integrity, 1 do not mean merely abstaining from such acts as, if found out, would lead to imprisonment, but a nice feeling of principle that would shrink from the smallest and most secret fraud or act of unjust gain.

3.    Show me a youth who, if an account is made out a shilling, or a penny even, in his favour, points it out as soon as he knows that a mistake has been made, or who, when tempted by companions to do so, steadily refuses to make use of the smallest part of bis

. master’s or his father’s property without permission, and I will show you one who possesses the first thing that is needed to success and happiness.

4.    Joseph had been sent to Mr. Russell, the grocer’s, to get change for a pound note. It was just at dusk. He wrapped the change in a

piece of paper, and, as soon as he reached home, counted it by the-light of the lamp to see that it was right; when, lo ! he found among it a sovereign that had been given to him in mistake for a shilling. Away he ran back to the shop with the money in his hand, and,, addressing the shopman who had changed the note for him, said, “ Sir* I have come to teli you that you did not give me my change right.”

5.    The shopman rather hastily replied, “ But I am certain I did give it you right, and you must have dropped part in going home.”

“ No, sir,” replied Joe ; “it was safely wrapped up in paper; and* when I came to count it over at home in the light, l found-”

“Ah!” interrupted the hasty shopman, “it signifies nothing your telling us what you found ; we have not time to attend to that kind of thing. If the money had not been meddled with, you would have found it right enough.”

6.    The master of the shop happening to overhear something of the dispute, came up, and asked Joseph what he had missed.

“I haven’t missed anything, sir,” replied the boy; “ but I have brought back a sovereign that was handed to me in mistake ; will you, please, take it and give me a shilling instead?”

7.    “ Certainly, I will,” returned the master ; “ and I am very much obliged to you for your honesty. As the money was given to you in mistake, and you were not known to the shopman, very likely it would never have been traced. The thought of this must have been a, strong temptation to you to keep it for your own use ; how was it you did not yield to the temptation ? ”

8.    “I have been taught, sir,” said Joseph, “that my duty to my neighbours is to do to them as I should wish them to do to me if I were in their place. I know that if I had given but a penny in mistake, I should wish to have it returned—much more such a sum as this. So 1 made haste back with it, before there was time to be tempted to keep it.”

9.    “ You have acted nobly and wisely,” said Mr. Russell ; “may you ever continue to walk m the path of integrity. What reward do you desire me to give you ? ”

“That you should think me an honest boy, sir.”

10.    1 do, my good lad, and will give you a proof of it. I have just now been to inquire the character of an errand boy whom I thought of employing. He is a stronger-looking boy than you, and his late master tells me that he is quick and clever, but somewhat sly. Now, I will not employ anyone in whom I cannot place entire trust. From your action this evening, I believe that you are trustworthy. If your parents are willing, you may come here to work to-morrow morning.”

11.    As Joe was on the look out for employment, and as the wages he would get were as much as he could expect, you may be sure that he did not refuse the offer. He is still in Mr. Russell’s shop, where he is likely to rise to a good position, for his master finds him diligent and trustworthy.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

A Brave Girl.

In West Melbourne recently, a girl named Theresa (te-ree'-sa) Small noticed smoke issuing from a wooden building. She looked through a window, and saw that, not only was the place on fire, but a little boy was running from room to room in an excited state. The house by this time was well alight, but the brave girl fought her way through the flames, and, snatching up the child, got out of the house in safety. Before any one else came to her assistance, she had also saved a girl who was in the house, and who was too young and frightened to make her way out by herself.

Swimming Matches at Williamstown.

During the last week in March, the Swimming Club of the Williamstown State School, No. 1183, held its first demonstration. The afternoon was fine, the water calm, and there was a crowded attendance. Such arrangements had been made by the head teacher (Mr. Bradley) and the staff of the school that everything passed off without a hitch. There were 13 events, for which 99 entries were received. Master V. Cornwell earned the distinction of winning the Champion Race. His Worship the Mayor of Williamstown presented the prizes, which consisted of books, fishing-rods, model yachts, and the like, donated by the townspeople.

The Dead-Letter Office at the General Post Office.

1.    A surprising quantity of valuable matter finds its way every year into the dead-letter department of the General Post Office, Melbourne. When it has accumulated to such an extent that it becomes inconvenient, it is sold by auction, the Department receiving the proceeds. Before an article is sold, every effort is made to find the rightful owner; but, as it happens, it is only at times that an owner can be found.

2.    Articles are often tied up with great carelessness; and parcels burst in the mail-bags during transport. Very often, an article of jewellery is found lying loose in the mail-bags, with nothing to indicate its ownership. Wrappers are put on books and papers in such a way that they are certain to come off with the slightest friction; and valuable parcels are posted now and then without addresses. When an article sent through the post does not reach its destination, the fault, it is asserted by the Post Office officials, lies more frequently with the sender than with the Department.

Plants suffer from Fever!

According to the statements of a British botanist, plants suffer from fever just as animals do under somewhat similar conditions. When they are injured, the rate of breathing increases, and the temperature rises, that is, they become feverish.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.'



1

   At the Canary Islands, he was detained some time, repairing his old and leaky vessels. On the 6th of September, he again set sail; and now began the real dangers and difficulties of Columbus. It required all his patience and courage to bear up against the many troubles he met with. His sailors had, from the beginning, opposed him as much as they dared, from their dislike to the voyage. But, when they had lost sight of Ferro, the most western of the Canary Islands, and saw themselves in the midst of the vast, untried ocean, their fears became so great that they actually cried like children.

2

   “We shall never, never again return to our homes!” they exclaimed; “ we shall never again see our friends and children! we

3

See, here is a picture of a butterfly! Look at it. You have all noticed butterflies sporting in the summer’s sun, and marked the bright hue of their wings, and admired how they glisten in the light.

4

   How sleep the brave who sink to rest By all their country’s wishes blest!

When Spring, with dewy fingers cold,

Returns to deck their hallowed mould,

She there shall dress a sweeter sod Than Fancy’s feet have ever trod.

5

   By fairy hands their knell is rung;

By forms unseen their dirge is sung.

There Honour comes, a pilgrim gray,

To bless the turf that wraps their clay;

And Freedom shall awhile repair,

To dwell a weeping hermit there !

—William Collins (1721-59).

1. These beautiful lines, on the fate of those who, fighting for their country, lose their lives on the field of battle, were written in 1746 during the second Jacobite rebellion on behalf of Charles Edward Stuart.

6

   Its author, Mr. Morris, in a letter to a friend, headed New York, 1st February, 1837, gave in substance the following account of how he came to write the poem, “ Woodman, spare that tree”:—

7

   As I was out of town a few days ago, riding in company with a friend, an old gentleman, he asked me to turn down a lane somewhat out of our way.

“ Your object ?” inquired I.

8

   “ Merely to look at an old tree planted by my grandfather long before I was born, under which my sisters and I used to play when children. There, too, I often listened to the good advice of my parents.

Price Id.

9

The old gentleman had scarcely uttered these words, when he cried out, “There it is !” Near the tree, stood a man with his coat off and an axe in his hand.

“ You’re not going to cut that tree down, surely ?”

“ Yes, I am,” said the woodcutter.

“ What for ?” asked the old gentleman, in a choking voice.

“ What for ? Well, I will tell you. I want the tree for firewood.”

10

   Northwards the ship ploughed her way. All went well till, on the night of the 6th of June, in spite of Cook’s care in taking soundings, she struck on a reef, and remained fast. All hands were at once on deck. You can imagine their dismay. Till daylight, they were employed in throwing overboard the heavier articles. During the day, they continued at this work, and at 10 o’clock at night, when it was high tide, the Endeavour was got off the reef. But they were now exposed to another danger, for the water flowed in through the leak so fast that all their exertions at the pumps could hardly keep the ship afloat.

11

   The following ingenious device, however, saved them. They took an old sail, and, having mixed a large quantity of oakum and wool, stitched it down in handfuls on the sail. Thus prepared, the sail was hauled under the ship by ropes, till it came under the leak, when the suction carried in the oakum and wool from the surface of the sail. They were now able to keep the water under with one pump.

12

   There are different ways of getting on in the world. It does not always mean making a deal of money, or being a great man for people to look np to with wonder. To leave off a bad habit for a good one, is getting on ; to be clean and tidy, instead of dirty and disorderly, is getting on ; to be careful and saving, instead of thoughtless and wasteful is getting on ; to be active and industrious, instead of idle and lazy, is getting on ; to be kind and forbearing, instead of illnatured and quarrelsome, is getting on ; to work as diligently in the master’s absence as in his presence, is getting on. In short, when we see any one attentive to his duties, persevering through difficulties to gain such knowledge as will be of use to himself and to others, offering a good example to his relatives and acquaintances, we may be sure that he is getting on in the world.

13

   Those who wish to get on in the world must have a stock of patience, perseverance, and hope, a willingness to learn, and a mind not easily cast down by difficulties and disappointments. “ It is not what we earn, but what we save, that makes us rich. It is not what we eat, but what we digest, that makes us strong. It is not what we read, but what we remember, that makes us learned.”

—The Secrets of Success.

14

Sunset in the flowery dale,

Sunset on the silvery bay, Evening spreads her ebon veil, Darker shadows round us play ; Slowly, o’er the distant scene. Falls the glorious setting sun ; Who can tell what he hath seen, Since the busy day begun ?

15

The habits of ants have attracted more attention than those of any other insect except, perhaps, the bee.

16

   “What’s the matter ? ” said Growler to the black cat, as she sat sulking on the step of the kitchen door.

“ Matter enough,” said the cat, turning her head the other way. “ Our cook is very fond of talking of hanging me. I wish heartily some one would hang her.”

2.    “ Why, what is the matter ? ” repeated Growler.

“ Hasn’t she beaten me, and called me a thief, and threatened to be the death of me P ”

“ Hear, dear ! ” said Growler, “ pray what has brought it all about ? ”

3.    “ Oh, the merest trifle—really nothing ; it is her temper. All the servants complain of it. I wonder they haven’t hanged her long ago.”

“ Well, you see,” said Growler, “cooks are awkward things to hang; you and I might be managed much more easily.”

4.    “ Not a drop of milk have I had this day ! ” said the black cat ; “ and such a pain in my side ! ”

“ But what,” said Growler, “ what is the cause of your troubles ? ” Price Id.

17

Darkness had almost set in when the steamer was moored alongside the pier. At once she was boarded by scores of stalwart natives whose eyes glistened in the gloaming, and who were clad only with a

18

Many people do not know the difference between india-rubber and gutta-percha. They are distinct substances, and have different

19

During the 7th and 8th of July, the annual class of instruction for officers of the Cadet Corps of the colony was held at the St. Kilda-road barracks. On the afternoon of the 8th, there was also a parade

20

From Whom thy being flow’d,72

21

A portion of His boundless love On that poor worm bestow’d.

22

   Sikhs (seeks), regiment recruited from a r eople living towards the north-west of India. Like the Goorkhas, they are fond of war. The struggle between them and the British, known as the Sikh Wars, lasted from 1845 to 1849.

23

Gi-bral-tar, strong- fortress belonging to Gieat Britain, in the south of Spain on the Strait of Gibraltar. It is deemed impossible to capture it by diiect attack, and, therefore, the writer speaks of the Dargai heights as a “Gibraltar.”

24

   Now we will pass to another kind of courage.

A year or "two ago, you heard of the Norwegian traveller, Nansen, and of his attempt to reach the North Pole. What kind of courage did he show ? The courage to search, to go into unknown lands, to explore.

25

   You have, perhaps, also heard of Sir John Franklin. He sought for a passage—the North-West Passage—through the ice-floes and icebergs round the north of North America to Asia. Once he tried ; twice ; and, the third time, he never returned. With two ships,

26

“ Leave me, comrades, here I drop ; No, sir, take them on !

All are wanted, none should stop, Duty must be done !

Those whose guard you take will find me

27

   Uncle Juan was an old gardener in a village near Cadiz, whose pride was in his pumpkins.

By looking at them so often, he had come to know each pumpkin from the others. He even had a name for each one of the forty which were now crying, u Pick me ! ” and he spent his day in looking at them tenderly, and saying, “ We shall soon have to part.”

28

   At length, one evening, he made up his mind to part with them, and, gazing upon the loved pumpkins, which had cost him such care and toil, he pronounced this terrible sentence:

“ To-morrow, I shall cut all forty, and carry them to the market in Cadiz. Happy those who eat them ! ”

But, alas ! the next morning, they were, every one, gone—stolen. The poor man was in despair ; then resolution took the place of grief. He would recover them. It would be difficult, but it should be done.

29

   He easily made himself certain that they were not in the little village ; then he took the early boat for Cadiz, where he, after some

30

   Once, when I told a boy of Sir John Franklin, I saw his eye sparkle, and a red spot came in his cheek. I knew what he thought. He said to himself: How I should like to go out exploring like Franklin ! ”

31

   But come ; let us examine a third class of courage. Look at the picture. You cannot, I suppose, make out its meaning, unless, perhaps, you have had an object lesson on the manufacture of iron. You see before you the mouth of a great blast-furnace—perhaps in Durham (England), or in Pennsylvania (United States of America), or at Essen (Prussia).

32

   There was a time, and that hut a few hundred years ago, when the people of Europe knew nothing of the continent now called Australia. It probably first became known to them during the first half of the sixteenth century, that is, between the year 1500 and the year 1550; but, in spite of much searching among documents and maps in many countries, it is impossible to say who was the European navigator to whom we should give the honour of being the discoverer.

33

   In 1486, Bartholomew Dias {dee'-as), a Portuguese, first among Europeans sailed round the Cape of Good Hope ; and, in 1492, Columbus discovered the West Indies. Their example was quickly followed, sailors became more venturesome, and many strange lands were visited by Europeans.

34

   The Portuguese claim that Magellan (:ma-jel'-an) sighted Australia in his famous voyage across the Pacific Ocean to the Moluccas1 Islands in 1520 ; but it is generally agreed that it was New Guinea and not Australia that he discovered.

35

   Although we are unable to say who visited Australia between 1500 and 1550, it is certain that Europeans did so, for, on some maps which were made during that period, there is represented a large extent of country south of Java, and separated from Java by a narrow strait. This country is called “ Great Java,” and “The Land of Java;” audit

36

She had a white, gauzy frock and silver wings ; in her hand, she held a long, white wand with a silver star on the top ; and she was Price Id.

37

What for the Giver, giant tree?

“Fair gifts of gold and red—^

These have I guarded patiently— Behold my fruit outspread.

From fragile buds it slowly grew,

Fed from His hands with crystal dew;

To thank Him at His feet I strew My gifts of gold and red.”

38

   At Christmas time, from clime to clime,

Each star to star doth sweetly chime,

Till all the heavens are ringed with rhyme.

2.    Then, loosed above, a note thereof Floats downward like a wandering dove,

And all the world is ringed with love.

—Jno. B. Tabb.

39

“I have read somewhere,” said Willie, “that Sir Isaac Newton39 was led to make some of his great discoveries by seeing an apple fall from a tree. But I do not see anything wonderful in the fall of au apple. Why shouldn’t an apple fall when its stem is broken ? ”

Price Id.

40

The distance by rail between Adelaide and Melbourne is 480 miles. The journey takes about 16£ hours by the express, which

41

Some years ago, I was attending a fair in a town in Germany. There was a party of us, and we took Edgings at a large hotel. It happened one wet evening that a man known as Fritz came to the room

42

Among us, fish are caught by the hook or net ; but the Chinese have hit on an ingenious method of doing without either.

43

   The name of Croesus (cre'-sus), the fifth and last king of Lydia, who began to reign in the year 557 b.c., has passed into the proverb— u as rich as Croesus ”—to describe the possession of immense riches.

When Solon, the law-maker of Athens, and one of the most celebrated of the ancient sages of Greece, came to Sardis, where Croesus held his court, he was received in a manner suitable to the fame of so great a man. The king, attended by his nobles, appeared in all his pomp and splendour, dressed in his richest robes. Solon, however, did not show either surprise or admiration. This coldness and indifference displeased the King, who next ordered that all his treasures, his grand houses, his costly furniture, his diamonds, statues, and paintings should be shown to the sage.

44

   When Solon had seen all, he was brought back to the King, who asked whether he had ever beheld a happier man than he.

“ Yes,” replied Solon: “one, Tellus, a plain but worthy citizen of Athens, who lived all his days above poverty. He saw his country in

45

   We found the lions on a small hill about a quarter of a mile in length and covered with trees. A circle of men was formed round it, and they gradually closed up, ascending pretty near to one another. While I was down below on the plain with a' native schoolmaster named Mebalwe, a most excellent man, I saw one of the lions sitting on a piece of rock within the now closed circle of men.

2.    Mebalwe fired at him before I could, and the ball struck the rock on which the animal was sitting. He bit at the spot struck, as a dog does at a stick or stone thrown at him; then, leaping away, he

Price Id.

46

   The dogs did bark, the children screamed, up flew the windows all; And every soul cried out, “ Well done ! ” as loud as he could bawl.

47

   Away went Gilpin- who but he ? His fame soon spread around :

“ He carries weight !—he rides a race ! ’Tis for a thousand pound !"

48

   And still, as fast as he drew near, ’twas wonderful to view,

How in a trice the turnpike men their gates wide open threw.

49

   And now, as he went bowing down his reeking head full low,

The bottles twain behind his back were shattered at a blow !

50

   Down ran the wine into the road, most piteous to be seen ;

Which made his horse’s flanks to smoke as they had basted been.

51

   But still he seemed to carry weight with leathern girdle braced ;

For all might see the bottle necks still dangling at his waist.

52

   Thus all through merry Islington 1 these gambols he did play,

Until he came unto the Wash * of Edmonton so gay ;

53

   Who was the best marksman in the canton of Valais (val-lay') ? The chamois knew well. “ Save yourselves from Rudy,” they might well say. And who is the handsomest marksman? “Oh, it is Rudy,” said the maidens. He was so brave and cheerful. His cheeks were brown, his teeth white, and his eyes dark and sparkling. He was now a handsome young man of twenty years. The coldest water could not deter him from swimming; he could twist and turn like a fish. None could climb like him ; and he clung as firmly to the edge of the rocks as a limpet. He had great muscular power, as could be seen when he leaped from rock to rock. He had learnt his lesson from the cat, and more lately from the chamois. Rudy was considered the best guide over the mountains ; every one had great confidence in him. He might have made a great deal of money as guide. His uncle had also taught him the trade of a cooper ; but he had no inclination for either, his delight was in chamois-hunting, which also brought him plenty of money.

54

   Down in the valley near Bex, among the great walnut-trees, by the side of a little, rushing mountain-stream, lived a rich miller. His dwelling-house was a large building three stories high, with little turrets. The roof was covered with slabs, bound together with tin plates that glittered in the sunshine and in the moonlight. The largest of the turrets had a weathercock, representing an apple pierced by a glittering arrow, in memory of William Tell.1

55

   Meet hate, &C. Meets with hatred from those whom he seeks to benefit.

56

   Come forth, gentle ladies ; come forth, dainty sires ;

And lend us your presence awhile :

Your garments will gather no stain from the burrs,

And a freckle won’t tarnish your smile.

Our carpet’s more soft for your delicate feet,

Than the pile of your velveted floor ;

And the air of our corn-field is surely as sweet As the perfume of Araby’s shore.

Come forth, noble masters, come forth to the field,

Where freshness and health may be found,

Where the grasses are spread for the butterfly’s bed,

And the clover bloom falleth around.

57

   The Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602, and speedily became wealthy and powerful. Its servants showed both zeal and courage in the work of establishing trading posts where they thought it would pay them to do so, and of exploring that unknown portion of the world that lay to the south-east of Asia.

58

   It was on the 14th of August, 1642, that two ships sailed from Batavia—the head-quarters of the Company—on a voyage of discovery to the South Seas. Of the many such voyages the Dutch made during the seventeenth century, this possesses the greatest interest to Australians. The names of the ships, which were under the command of Abel Jansen1 Tasman, have been preserved in the mountains Heemskirk and Zeehan,56 situated near the west coast of Tasmania, and now noted for the rich silver mines in their neighbourhood.

59

   Tasman first visited the Mauritius—at the present day a British possession, but at that time under Dutch control—and, having made a wide sweep to the south-east, came, on the 24th of November, in eight of a mountainous, forest-clad country. It was not marked on any map, so he called it Van Diemen’s Land, in honour of the governor of the Dutch East Indian possessions. On account of the

60

   By torch and trumpet fast arrayed,

61

Each horseman drew his battle-blade, And furious every charger neighed

62

To join the dreadful revelry.

63

   “I saw you yesterday, Tom, in the paddock, playing at rounders.”

“ Did yon, Fred ? Was Uncle with you ? ”

“ Yes.”

“ Why didn’t you stop and join us ? ”

“ Because we were going for a walk. What sort of ball were you playing with ? ”

“ A soft, india-rubber one. We could not find our proper ball, so we had Jane’s. What makes you ask ? ”

64

   “ Because I thought it was a soft hall. Once when it was spinning in the air, it went quite out of shape.”

“ Why, Fred, that’s exactly what we all noticed ; instead of being round, it became flattened at the top and bottom, something like a plum-pudding. But the curious thing was, that, when we picked it up again, it was quite round; it was flat only while it was spinning.”

65

   “ Ah ! We had a long talk about that during our walk.”

“ Did you ? Is there anything wonderful about it ? ”

Price Id.

66

“My men grow mutinous day by day ;

My men grow ghastly wan and weak.” The stout mate thought of home ; a spray Of salt wave washed his swarthy cheek. “What shall I say, brave Adm’r’l, say,

If we sight naught but seas at dawn ? ” “ Why, you shall say at break of day :

‘ Sail on ! sail on ! sail on ! and on ! ’ ”

67

   Early in the morning, one of our men cried out, “Land, land !” which he had no sooner said than our ship struck upon a sand-bank ; and, in a moment, the sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should all perish immediately. We knew not where we were, nor upon what land we were driven ; and we could not so much as hope that the ship would hold out many minutes, except the wind by a miracle should change about.

68

   While we were looking at one another, expecting death every moment, the mate laid hold of a boat, and, with the help of the rest, hung her over the ship’s side, and, getting into her, eleven of us, committed ourselves to God’s mercy and the wild sea. When we had rowed, or rather had been driven about a league1 and a half, a raging

69

   We buried him darkly at dead of night,

The sods with our bayonets turning,

By the struggling moonbeams’ misty light, And the lantern dimly burning.

70

   On this, they seized his person, and forthwith hurried him before the cadi; but, on the strictest search, nothing could be found upon him, nor could any evidence whatever be adduced, to convict him either of falsehood or of theft.

71

   They were about to proceed against him as a sorcerer, when the dervise with great calmness thus addressed the court:—“ I have been much amused with your surprise, and own that there has been some

72

   The common Lord of all that move,