EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 23.] MELBOURNE.    [June, 1899.

FEDERATED AUSTRALIA.

By the Marquis of Borne, i

1, The Mar^quis Of Lome is a son-in-law of Queen Victoria, having married Princess Louise. He was for a time Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada, the provinces of which, with the exception of Newfoundland, are federated under an Act passed in 1867.


Di-a-dem, ornamental head band ; crown.

1. A shout upon the Northern breeze Rings all the world across :

Australia ! rule the Southern seas Beneath the Starry Cross ! ”

2.    The older nations call aloud :

“ Our equal, take your stand ! Australia free, Australia proud,

A great, a golden land ! ”

3.    Her diadem, her towns embayed,

Her generous coasts along ; Australia ! take thy place, arrayed Among the great and strong !

Ar-rayed' set in order.

4. Her mother’s breed, where’er they go, Bring seed of freedom’s tree ; Australia, rise ! ’tis time to show The lion-blood in thee !

5.    A giant work each state has wrought;

The fruit is union now.

Australia,guard thy prize, long sought, And keep a nation’s vow !

6.    Oh, proud and glad in empire’s van

Your trusty blades shall glance ; Australia ! for the rights of man,

The cause of God—advance !

OUR ARBOUR DAY.

Trans-form-ing, changing the nature of.

Com-ment, remark ; observation.

Ve-hi Cles, conveyances, as carriages, buggies, carts.

Ad-dressed! made a speech to ; spoken to. Sum-mons, call to come to a place. Prof-it-a-ble, useful; beneficial.

Re-ViS-it-ing, going to again.    .

Prat-tling, talking much and idly.


Py-ram-i-dal, in the form of a pyramid. A

pyr-a-mid is a solid body standing on a triangular, square, or polygonal base, and terminating in a point at the top. Am-bi-ent, surrounding ; encompassing on all sides.

Gen-ial (jen^yal, or jenci-al), kindly.

Skil-ful, skilled ; clever.

1.    What a difference that little word u our ” makes to ns all ! It has a kind of magic in it, a wonderful power of transforming things. A little plot of garden ground with flowers blooming there, perhaps a vine or two, or a few fruit trees, a house close by—commonplace as possible in other folks’ eyes, but to those who can say, “ This is our house, our garden,” how different they look ! Put “ our ” before almost any object, and its value becomes greater, its charms and virtues are multiplied.

2.    We read in the newspapers accounts of Arbour Day at other schools, perhaps with no comment, perhaps with a brief “ That was nice,” or a briefer “ H’m”; but, when the gentlemen forming our Board of Advice fixed the 11th of August as our Arbour Day, what a change there was ! How anxiously we looked forward for a tine day ! It was arranged that the children from the Booleroo school should come up to our school and help us to plant the trees. Parents on all sides began to make ready for the occasion, and the cooking of cakes and tarts and other good things went on merrily.

3. The day arrived ! Sparkling sunshine, blue sky, crisp air, “ Queen’s weather ”! How early the children were at school, with faces just as bright as the morning !

A hurried march into school, “ All present,” a little chat about trees and tree-planting, and then a waggon loaded with the Booleroo children was seen coming down the road.

PLANTATION OF PINES AT MAJORCA, COUNTY TALBOT, VICTORIA.

4.    So out the children trooped again, and stood in ranks waiting the arrival of our visitors, whose glad hurrahs were borne to us on the morning breeze. There was silence till the waggon drove up ; and then we raised our voices, and gave the newcomers hearty cheers by way of greeting.

5.    All were then taken into the school, when a few songs were sung, after which the children were dismissed to have games, pleasantly broken into by an occasional scramble for lollies.

Vehicles were rolling up every few minutes, the members of the Board of Advice arrived, and the place began to look lively.

6.    The ladies meanwhile had been getting dinner ready; and any one glancing at the school shed, which is large, and has a boarded floor, would have seen two long tables laden with good things.

At about 1 o’clock, the children were assembled and again marched into the schoolroom ; their elders took places round the tables in the shed ; and soon all were busy emptying plates, and cups, and mugs.

7.    After dinner, the children were drawn up in ranks in the yard, and the Chairman of the Board of Advice addressed them. Then they were marched into the plantation, each took his or her place at the side of a peg, and soon all the trees were planted. There were sixty children in all, and the teachers went round, and named each tree after the child who had planted it. The teachers and several ladies also planted trees. The work over, more speeches were made, songs sung, and cheers given, and the children were again dismissed for play.

8.    By-and-by, there was a summons to tea, and then a general departure, all agreeing that a very pleasant and profitable day had been spent.

9.    I can fancy myself, in the distant future, revisiting this spot on a bright, spring day. Perhaps, standing watching the flickering leaves throwing dancing shadows on the ground, I shall he told by some little, prattling school-girl that that tree is the “Emil”; or, noting the drooping curves of a graceful pepper-tree, shall be informed it is the “ Doris or, listening to the chirping birds above my head on a stately gum, shall be told it is the “Auburn”; or, resting under the shady branches of another, shall hear it addressed as the “Beaumont”; or, loitering near a dark-green, pyramidal cypress close to the gate, shall start in surprise to find that it is called the “ Teacher,” and remember that on such another spring day, long years ago, I planted that very tree.

10.    But I am looking far ahead. It may he that, before two seasons have gone by, the hot, scorching wind will have dried the sap that now wells through the veins of the infant trees ; or, the frost’s cruel breath have nipped their delicate buds, and checked their growth for ever.

to the school. —gy M. C. in The Children's Hour, S.A. {Adapted).


11.    Let us hope not, however, but rather, that, warmed by the kindly sunshine, nourished by the ambient air, the gentle rain, the sparkling dew, and the genial earth, and tended carefully by skilful hands, our trees will grow up tall, straight, and beautiful—ornaments

WONDERS AND MURMURS,

Mur-mur (verb), complain in low tones. Re-flec-tion, deep thought.


Ruth-less-ly, without pity ; cruelly. Shriv-elled, drawn into wrinkles. Loathsome, causing disgust. Plac-id, unruffled ; quiet.

MarU-ner, seaman or sailor. 1

De-crees; purposes of God.

Chequered (check-erd), crossed; varied, Er-ring, wandering from the right way.

2.    Strange that the sun should call into birth All the fairest flowers and fruits of the earth,

Then bid them perish, and see them die,

While they cheer the soul and gladden the eye.

At morn, its child is the pride of spr ing,

At night, a shrivelled and loathsome thing.

To-day there is hope and life in its breath, To-morrow it shrinks to a useless death.

Str ange doth it seem that the sun should joy To give life, alone1 that it may destroy.

3.    Strange that the ocean should come and go,

With its daily and nightly ebb and flow—

Should bear on its placid bosom at morn

The bark that, ere night, will be tempest-torn;

Or cherish it all the way it must roam,

To leave it a wreck within sight of home;

To smile, as the mariner’s toils are o’er,

Then wash the dead to the cottage door;

And gently ripp’e along the strand To watch the widow behold him land.

4.    But stranger than all, that man should die

When his plans are form’d, and his hopes are high ; He walks forth a lord of the earth to-day,

And the morrow beholds him part of its clay;

He is born in sorrow, and cradled in pain,

And from youth to age—it is labour in vain ;

And all that seventy years can show Is that wealth is trouble, and wisdom woe ;

That he travels a path of care and strife Who drinks of the poison’d cup of life !

5.    Alas ! if we murmur at things like these,

That reflection tells us are wise decrees ;

That the wind is not ever a gentle breath—

That the sun is often the bearer of death—

That the ocean wave is not always still—

And that life is chequered with good and ill :

If we know ’tis well that such change should be, What do we learn from the things we see ?

That an erring and sinning child of dust

—Hall.


Should not wonder nor murmur—but hope and trust.

1. Alone is here put for “ only.”


THE OSTRICH.

Sin£ew-y, vigorous; powerful. A-quat-ic, living- in water. Dif:fer-ent, distinct; separate. A-dapt-ed, suited.

Ex-tremesf highest degree. A-dult.' full -grown. Es-pe-cial-ly, chiefly. Spec-i-mens, examples. 2

Mus-tered, gathered.

De-nud'ed, stripped.

Vi-cious, spiteful.

Pe CU li-ar-i-ty, property; mark. Ve-hi-cle, conveyance. As-sail*ant, one who attacks. Mus-cu-lar, consisting of muscles. Giz-zard, bird's muscular stomach. Do-mes-ti-ca-ted, tamed.

wings are too weak to enable it to rise from the ground. It is a fine sight to see a large flock of ostriches sailing along with heads erect and wings raised.

2.    The feet of aquatic birds are formed for swimming, and those of climbing birds for grasping. Running birds, on the other hand, are provided with strong lower limbs, by means of which they are able to travel at a rapid rate. Should an enemy appear in their native wilds, they fleetly bound away, and are soon out of sight. Thus you see that the limbs of different kinds of birds are adapted to their several modes of life.

A MALE OSTRICH.


3.    The hot and sandy plains of Africa and Arabia are the native haunts of the ostrich. Its home, like that of the camel, is the desert. Here it may be found roaming about in small flocks, seldom more than six or seven being seen together. It is able to endure the extremes of hunger and thirst for a long time. The Arabs even say that it never drinks ; this is, however, a mistake.

4.    Humming birds are the smallest of birds ; some of them are no bigger than bees. The ostrich, on the other hand, is the largest, a full-grown male being much taller than a man. It stands with its

THE LEG

OSTRICH.


Diagrammatic Sketch of part of the Shaft of a Feather, showing two Barbs provided with Barbules and little Hooks, highly magnified. (See note at end of article.)


head about seven feet above the ground. The female is somewhat smaller than the male. The neck and head are about three feet long, and are bare of feathers. From the form of its neck and body it has been called the camel bird.

Two fine specimens of this bird are to be seen at the Melbourne Zoological Gardens.

5. The plumage of the ostrich is deep

of an black in the adult male, and ashy gray in the female, except that some of the feathers in the wings and tail are white. These beautiful white plumes, especially those which grow under the wing, are very much prized for ornament: they are so soft to the touch and so graceful in form. Upon examining them, you will find that the barbs, which in a feather make up the web, are without hooks. Owing to this, each barb1 is quite free from its neighbours, thus flying apart loosely and giving to the plume its peculiar softness and elegance. The feathers covering the body are of little value.

A HEN’S EGG, AND TWO EGGS OF AN OSTRICH.

6. Formerly the ostrich had to be hunted and shot in order that the feathers might be procured. Now they are mostly obtained from tame birds bred for the purpose. At regular intervals, the big birds are mustered, and quickly denuded of their valuable feathers. These are not plucked, but are cut off a short distance from their roots. The reason why this is done is that the white feathers when at their prime are not ready to pull, and, if left till ready, would become ragged at the ends. The difficulty is overcome by cutting them at their best, and pulling the stumps out two months afterwards. The wing plumes grow to maturity in about eight months. It is said that, in a wild state, the ostrich has no moulting season, but sheds a feather now and again.

AN EMU’S EGG, AND TWO EGGS OF AN OSTRICH.

.    7. The chief weapon of defence possessed by the ostrich is the

powerful leg with its hoof-like foot. With this the bird can kick with a force strong enough to break a man’s leg. At times, the male is very vicious, and then he is ready to attack any one, friend or stranger, who goes near him. Usually, however, the ostrich is timid and peaceful, trusting to its speed for safety unless hard pressed.

8.    A striking peculiarity of this bird is that it has only two toes on each foot, both pointing forwards. The inner toe is much the longer, and upon it there is a strong claw. The outer one has none. The soles of the feet are furnished with cushions or pads, enabling the bird to run without sinking into the yielding sand. The emu differs from the ostrich in having three toes.

GROUP OF OSTRICHES AT PORT AUGUSTA, S.A. (Photo, by Mr. Spink, Adelaide, kindly lent by the proprietors of The. Australasian.)


9.    In birds of flight, the breast-bone is extended into a ridge like the keel of a ship. To it the muscles that move the wings are attached. In the ostrich and all other runningbirds which are incapable of flight, this keel is absent, and the breast is rounded like a barrel.

10.    It is stated that the ostrich can travel up to twenty miles an hour.

Its legs going at full speed ean no more be seen than the spokes in a vehicle drawn at a gallop. “ The eye cannot follow its steps.” So rapid is its rate of progress that the hunter mounted on his swiftest steed is unable to run it down in a fair ehase. What time she lifteth up herself on high, she scorneth the horse and his rider. By means of fresh relays of horses along the line the bird is likely to take, the chase is continued two or three days, till the hunted creature is at last worn out.

Overcome with hunger and fatigue, and finding all means of escape cut off, it will then turn upon its assailant in a fruitless effort to defend its life.

11.    The nest is merely a hollow scooped out in the sandy soil, and in it from nine to twenty eggs are laid, according to the age and condition of the female. The eggs, as may be seen in the pictures, are very large; they weigh sometimes as much as three pounds each. When fresh, they are said to be as good for eating as fowls’ eggs. The shell is thick and whitish in colour, somewhat like ivory in appearance ; the outside is marked all over with small pits.

12.    In Australia and Cape Colony, the eggs are hatched in the same way as those of other birds. Both male and female take their

. turn in procuring food and in watching while the other is sitting. The male does the bulk of the sitting, and, at night, he always takes charge of the eggs, remaining on the nest from about four in the afternoon till eight the next morning. He is the more attentive while the chickens are coming out, scarcely leaving the nest till they are all out. It takes about six weeks for the eggs to hatch.

13.    In a wild state, the ostrich feeds on grass, roots, and the other scanty herbage of the desert; it also eats snails and insects. Besides having a crop wherein to store its food, the ostrich, like many other birds, has a muscular pouch called a gizzard, in which the food is rubbed and ground up into small particles. To help in this, it takes into its gizzard small stones and gravel. These are the bird’s teeth, and they do their work while it is gathering food or resting. In captivity, when it is not able to get small stones and gravel, the ostrich has been known to gulp down nails, pieces of glass, and other hard substances.

14.    In 1865, ostrich farming on an extensive scale was begun in Cape Colony. Now, these birds, in their domesticated state, number hundreds of thousands ; and, in 1897, feathers to the value of £600,000 were exported. The Cape farmer “ buys and sells ostriches as he does sheep, fences his flocks in, studies their habits, and cuts their feathers, as matters of business.” Were it not for caring in this way for the ostriches, and thus preserving them, there is little doubt but that they would soon have become extinct.

15.    In the Australasian colonies there are at least half-a-dozen farms where the ostrich is reared. One farm is in Victoria, about nine miles from Kerang, and on it over one hundred full-grown birds are kept. In South Australia, near Port Augusta, there is a much larger one. Here the industry is worked at a profit. In 1897, South Australia exported feathers to the value of over £700.

16.    Does it not seem strange to shut up birds in paddocks, and

keep them like sheep ? It is, however, much better to do this than to chase them over the desert and kill them to get their feathers, as was formerly done. In a future number of The ¡School Paper, a lesson giving fuller details of this novel industry may be expected. _g_

1. Barb. The stem of a large feather from the wing or tail of a bird will, on inspection, be found to be hollow at the lower end or quill, and filled witl^ pith at the upper end or shaft. The lower portion of the quill is fixed firmly in the skin. On each side of the shaft are barbs, which in turn bear barbules or little barbs. These latter form fringes along the sides of the barbs, and are themselves provided with little hooks. These hooks hold together the adjacent barbs, and so give the feather that resistance to the air on which the bird’s power of flight depends. The row of barbs attached to each side of the shaft and held together by the hooks on the barbules forms the web. The lower barbs of a feather and the downy feathers are not furnished with these small hooks. The tail and wing plumes of the ostrich are also without them. (While this lesson is being read, it is suggested that the parts of a feather be shown to the children.)

—S. S.

THE COLOURS

Daunt-less (dant-less, the “ a” as in arm, or as in all, the balance of authority being in favour of the former)

Guard-i-an, adj., protecting.


OF THE FLAG.

Bea-con, adj., signal. A beacon is a signal Are or a prominent mark to give warning.

Main, the ocean ; the great or high sea.

Con trolled/ ruled ; governed.


1.    What is the blue on our flag, boys?

The waves of the boundless sea,

Where our vessels ride in their tameless pride,

And the feet of the winds are free ;

From the sun and smiles of the coral isles To the ice of the south and the north,

With dauntless tread, through tempests dread,

The guardian ships go forth.

2.    What is the white on our flag, boys ?

The honour of our land,

Which burns in our sight like a beacon light,

And stands while the hills do stand.

Yea, dearer than fame is our land’s great name,

And we fight wherever we be,

For the mothers and wives that pray for lives Of the brave hearts over the sea.

3.    What is the red on our flags, boys ?

The blood of our heroes slain On the burning sands of the wild waste lands,

And the froth of the purple main ;

And it cries to God, from the crimson sod And the crest of the waves outrolled,

That he send us men to fight again,

As our fathers fought of old.

4.    We’ll stand by the dear old flag, boys,

Whatever be said or done,

Though the shots come fast as we face the blast,

And the foe be ten to one;—

Though our only reward be the thrust of a sword And a bullet in heart or brain,

What matters one gone, if the flag floats on And Britain be lord of the main ?

—Frederick George Scott.

1. Johannesburg, in the Transvaal, a Boer republic in South Africa, lives and thrives on the mining industry. In the immediate


A GOLD MINE IN

Boer (boor), Dutch colonist in South Africa.

Re-pub lie, a state in which the people elect certain of their number to make laws and carry on the business of the country. The chief ruler, usually called the president, is also elected.

Im-me-di-ate, close; not separated by anything.

Shoot, Chute, or Shuts, inclined plane down which stone, coal, and the like are caused to slide.

SOUTH AFRICA.

Com-pressed: reduced in volume by pressure ;

squeezed or pressed together.

Ter-rif-ic causing fear; in this case, exceedingly great.

Ore, native metal, with the rock in which it

occurs.

Vat large wooden tub or tank.

So-lu tion liquid in which a substance (solid, liquid, or gas) has been dissolved.

“on TOP"—THE NEW CHUM AND VICTORIA MINES, BENDIGO.


THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IY.


neighbourhood of this busy town, the country is pierced and tunnelled in every direction, as is an aged tree with the burrowings of insects ; and an army of workers toil day and night, almost without pause, in the dark and narrow workings.

2.    The Robinson is the show mine, and to it I went one morning, being alone through missing the party that had been formed to visit it. As I stood on the lofty staging above the main shaft, there suddenly, swiftly, and silently arose from the latter an iron cage containing a truck loaded with a bluish rock, which, I discovered on examining it afterwards, was threaded with tiny streaks of gold. The truck, a huge bucket on wheels, was laid hold of by a couple of blacks, wheeled away, and its contents tipped into a shoot, which fed the crushers.

3.    I and another late arrival, accompanied by a miner, stepped into the cage, and sank into the yawning hole with a speed that called up the fearful feeling one has when on a rolling ship. Suddenly, there was a streak of light in the pitchy darkness. We had, in that instant,

“ BELOW’’—QUARTZ LODE (8ADDLE REEF) IN LOWER SILURIAN ROCK-NEW CHUM LINE OF REEF, BENDIGO.

flashed by the second level; and, almost the moment after, the cage had descended to a depth of 300 feet, being brought up at the third level opposite a lofty gallery, dripping wet, which held a group of silent people. These were the friends I had missed—each one of them holding a candle, and each one of them staring at me as though I had been a visitor from another world.

4. When I also had been provided with a candle, we were led through passage after passage to a tunnel, where a couple of rockdrills, worked by compressed air from an engine on the surface, were battering- at the wall with terrific noise, delivering blow on blow with lightning speed, and striking out showers of sparks. Along the side of the drive, the reef could be traced—a dull-blue band 3 feet 4 inches in width—at one particular spot so charged with gold that a ton yielded 25 oz. in place of the average return of 25 dwts.

5. The ore, after it is broken into small pieces by the crushers mentioned above, is reduced to powder by stamps, and carried by a flow of water over vanners, a sort of cradle which has a backward, forward, and sidelong motion. About 71 per cent, of the gold is obtained in this manner. The powdered ore is then carried into a settling tank, whence, in the form of whitish sand, it is carted to the cyanide works. There, in huge vats, it is soaked in a solution of cyanide of potassium1.

When the cyanide has exercised its remarkable power of taking the gold from the sand, the solution is drawn off, and run over charcoal or zinc, on which the gold is deposited, and from which it can with certainty, though not without some difficulty, be obtained. Still, in spite of every plan to catch it, a small quantity of the precious metal escapes capture, and is thrown away with the sand from the vats.

1. Cy-an-ide Of po-tas-si-um, a poisonous substance consisting of a gas, cyanogen (carbon and nitrogen), and a metal, potassium.

ROBINSON CRUSOE —continued.

Visit to the Wreck.

De-spair-ing, having no hope.

De-liv-er-ance, rescue.

Par-tic-u-lar-ly, especially.

Hogs-head, large cask.

Rum-ma-ging, searching thoroughly by looking into every corner, and turning over things.


Per-ceived,' saw.

Ef-fects,' goods; movables.

Bar-ri-cade, hastily built wall or obstruction. Jack-screw or screw-jack, portable machine for lifting a heavy body through a short distance. Crow, crowbar; bar of iron for use as a lever. Suo-sist/ live.    .

1.    It was broad day the next morning before I awaked ; when I not only perceived the tempest had ceased, but saw the ship driven almost as far as the rock which the waves had dashed me against, and which was about a mile from the place where I was. When I came down from the tree, I perceived the ship’s boat two miles distant on my right hand, lying on shore as the waves had cast her.

2.    About noon, when the sea was calm, resolving to get to the ship, I stripped and leaped into the water ; it was my good fortune to espy a small piece of rope hanging so low, that, by the help of it, though with great difficulty, I got into the ship. The provisions I found in good order, with which I crammed my pockets, and, losing no time, ate while I was doing other things. And now I wanted for nothing except a boat to carry away what was needful for me.

3.    Necessity quickens invention. We had several spare yards, a spare topmast or two, and two or three large spars of wood. With these I fell to work, and made a raft, on which I brought my effects on shore ; and, fearing that some cruel beasts might devour me in the night time, I made a kind of hut or barricade with some chests and boards.

4.    I slept very comfortably; and the next morning got on board as before, and prepared a second raft far nicer than the first, upon which I brought away the carpenter’s stores, two or three bags full of nails, a great jackscrew, a dozen or two of hatchets, and a grindstone ; two or three iron crows, two barrels of musket bullets, another fowling-piece, a small quantity of powder, and a large bag full of small shot.

5.    Besides these, 1 took all the men’s clothes I could find, a spare foretop-sail, a hammock, and some bedding ; and thus completing my second cargo, I made all the haste to shore I could, fearing some wild beast might destroy what I had there already. But I only found a

“ I BROUGHT AWAY THE CARPENTER’^ STORES, ETC.'-    ,

(—From the edition of Robinson Crusoe published by ElgeCL Messrs. Nelson and Sons.)


little wild cat sitting on one of the chests, to which, seeming not to fear me or the gun that I presented at her, I threw a piece of biscuit. This she instantly ate and departed.

6. When I had got these effects on shore, I went to work, in order to make me a little tent with the sail and some poles which I had cut for that purpose ; and having finished it, what things might be dam-by the weather I

brought in, piling all the empty chests and casks in a circle, the better to fortify it against any sudden attempt of man or beast.

7. After this, I blocked up the doors with some boards, charged my gun and pistol, and, laying my bed on the ground, slept comfortably till next morning.

8. Now, though I had enough to subsist upon a long time, yet, despairing of a sudden deliverance, I coveted as much as I could ; and, so long as the ship remained in that condition, I daily brought away one necessary or other ; particularly the rigging, sails, and cordage, some twine, a barrel of wet powder, some sugar, a barrel of meal, three casks of rum, and, what indeed was most welcome to me, a whole hogshead of bread.

9.    Thirteen days I had now been in the island, and eleven times on board, bringing away all that was possible. As I was going the twelfth time, the wind began to rise ; however, I ventured at low water, and rummaging the cabin, in a locker I found several razors, scissors, and some dozens of knives and forks ; and in another thirty-six pounds of pieces of money, silver and gold.

10.    But I soon perceived the wind begin to rise, a fresh gale blowing from the shore, and the sky overcast with clouds and darkness ; so, thinking a raft to be in vain, I let myself into the water, with what things I had about me, and it was with much difficulty I got ashore, when soon after it blew a fearful storm.

11.    That night I slept very contentedly in my little tent, surrounded with all my effects ; but, when I looked out in the morning, no more ship was to be seen. My next thoughts were how I should secure myself from savages and wild beasts, if any such were in the island. At one time, I thought of digging a cave ; at another, I was for erecting a tent ; and, at length I resolved to do both.

—Daniel DeFoe.

(To be continued.')

A LITTLE HERO.

Cin-der, hot coal without flame.

Tri-O, three in company or acting together. Anx-ious, painfully eager.

Pit-i-ful, causing sorrow or compassion for. Re-cep-tion, a receiving of guests at a stated time.


Dis-ap-peared,' went out of sight.

Ef fort, struggle; determined attempt. Dis-tressed/ troubled ; perplexed ; worried. Per-suad ed, prevailed on ; induced. Com-menced/ bearan.

Smoul-der-ing, burning and smoking without flame.

1.    In the summer of 1898, 1 was staying with my sister in the Western District.1 There I met Allan, the little hero of my sketch, with his long, brown curls and very sunburnt face. He was a wonderful child with horses, and rode like a bushman. He would help his father to drive cattle, and was so manly that he could be trusted to take them from one paddock to another by himself. He rode a brown pony named Magic.

2.    It was a very dry season, and bush fires were so bad at times that we feared even for the homestead. Horses were always kept ready saddled that we might escape if the fire came too near.

One evening, we were sitting on the verandah watching the flames coming closer and closer, when Allan appeared in his nightgown, and said, “ Mother, I don’t think old Jim can see the fire ; he’s so very blind now ; I must go and tell him.”

3.    We had forgotten the old blind man who lived by himself in a hut at the corner of the run. There were only women in the house.

All the men were away beating out the fire, so who could go to warn old Jim ? While we were wondering, Allan had gone back to his room, and was hastily dressing himself. He was soon ready to start, but his mother was very unwilling to let him go; he was such a little fellow. There was no one else, however, so she led out his pony, and lifted him into the saddle, saying, “ Go, dearest; and God grant that you may come back to your mother ! ”

4.    We watched him, as he rode across the paddocks, until he disappeared in a cloud of smoke. His mother stood till early morning gazing at the place where she had last seen her darling boy. Just as the day was breaking, we caught sight of a group on the plain that made her the proudest woman in Australia. A shaggy brown pony was being led by a tiny figure, and, on the pony, was the bent form of old Jim.

5.    The rest of the story I heard from Allan when he was well enough to tell it. He had not ridden far into the smoke, when the flames came up and scorched his face ; but Magic bravely galloped on until they were out of the fire, and Jim’s hut was in sight. Then the pony put her foot into a hole, and stumbled. Allan fell over her head, and was so much shaken that he could not get up for a few minutes. But he remembered that, if he did not hurry, Jim would be caught in the fire, so, with an effort, he got on his pony again.

6.    He found the old man so distressed in mind as to be quite unable to help himself in any way. Allan persuaded him to mount the pony; and then led her into the bed of a river close at hand, which, though dry, he knew was safe from the fire, as it was all sand. They stayed there until it was beginning to get light, when Allan saw that the fire had nearly burnt itself out. Then they commenced their journey home. Every step was painful to the boy, but he thought little of himself, he was so busy with the plunging of Magic when she put her foot on a smouldering cinder.

7.    Just as he came in sight of home, we saw him stop, as if he could go no further. We ran out, and, at the same time, his father came running across the plain. He had seen the strange trio, and was anxious to know what the sight meant. He took charge of Jim and the pony ; and we carried the hero home. He was a pitiful sight. His curls were gone, there was a mark across his face that he will never lose, and his arms were burnt severely. The doctor was sent for at once, and some weeks passed before Allan was quite himself again.

The first day he left his room, he held a reception of all the men on Wanga,3 4 and said in his pretty way, “It wasn’t I who did it, boys ; it was Magic.” The men cheered till we thought they would never stop.

—R. M. in The Australasian (Adapted).

16


the scm


-CLASS IV. [June, 1899.


FRO: ,    'E-BOOK.

The Cook    Melbourne.

1. A short time ago, t    i . ‘■''partment of Victoria established. at the Queensbon    mte scnool a cookery centre, which

was placed under the direction of Mrs. Story. Here, on school days, girls, in groups of twelve, from the upper classes in several of the metropolitan schools are being instructed in plain cookery ; and, on Saturdays, teachers are being trained, who, if competent, will give instruction in the subject at centres to be opened in other places.

2.    The cookery classes have had many visitors to see how the work is carried on, among them being the Minister of Public Instruction, who expressed himself highly pleased with the convenient arrangement of the gas stoves, utensils, &c., and with the cleanliness and orderliness observable on all sides. He said that he looked forward to the classes being of great benefit to the community and a success in every way.

3.    The Secretary and the Inspector-General of the Department, with other gentlemen, dined for several days in succession at the centre. All expressed themselves well satisfied with the manner in which the viands of a three-course dinner had been prepared, cooked, and placed upon the table by the pupils under Mrs. Story’s guidance.

A New Game.

The following description of a new game, suitable for playing in the school-yard during the winter months, is taken from Schoolmates, a monthly paper published in Dunedin, New Zealand.

A pole about 12 feet high is firmly fixed in the ground. To the top of the pole a strong cord is secured; and, at the loose end of the cord, a ball is fastened. The ball may be enclosed in either a piece of cloth or a net.

2. Two girls, having light rackets in their hands, try by hitting the ball to coil the cord round the pole, each in a different direction. The one who first succeeds in getting the cord coiled round the pole wins the game. In default of rackets, the hand may be used.

The game gives a good amount of exercise, and the players soon give place to others.

Children’s Ward in the Bendigo Hospital.

The special annual appeal in connection with “ children’s charity work ” in Bendigo and the surrounding district will be made during the first week in June. The money obtained is to be devoted solely to the support of the children’s ward in the Bendigo Hospital, which the readers of “ The School Paper ” will remember was established last year. The movement has the hearty approval of the Honourable the Minister of Public Instruction, who desires that teachers will use their best efforts to make it a success.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 24.] MELBOUBNE.    [July, 1899.

DISCONTENT AND THANKFULNESS.

i. Some murmur, when their sky is clear, And wholly bright to view,

If one small speck of dark appear In their great heaven of blue.

And some with thankful love are filled, If but one streak of light,

One ray of God s good mercy, gild The darkness of their night.


2. In palaces are hearts that ask,

In discontent and pride,

Why life is such a dreary task,

And all good things denied.

And hearts in poorest huts admire How love has in their aid (Love that not ever seems to tire) Such wise provision made.

—Trench.


SLAP-BANG.

Lem-on-ade, beverage consisting of lemon juice mixed with water and sweetened.

Tor-por, state of inactivity.

Tu-niC, kind of coat.

De-lir-i-um, wandering of the mind ; madness.

Per-ver-si-ty, stubbornness ; obstinacy ; waywardness.

Pyr-a-mid, structure standing on a triangular, square, or many-cornered base, and ending in point at the top.

Au-di-ence, assembly of hearers.

Span-gles, small bits of shining metal, used to ornament a dress.

Re-Citef repeat a piece committed to memory. 5

Un-par^don-a-ble, that cannot he pardoned or excused.

Ex-pec-ta^tion, state of looking forward to an event as about to happen.

Good-na-tured-ly, as being ready to please and be pleased.

In-COn-SOl-a-ble, not able or willing to be comforted.

In-fin-ite, boundless.

Gai e-ty, merriment; liveliness.

Draught (draft), quantity drunk at one time ; potion ; dose of medicine.

Phy-si-cian, doctor of medicine; person skilled in the art of healing.

his thin lips never smiling, his eyes staring at one knew not what. He would take nothing—neither medicine, lemonade, nor beef-tea.

3.    “ Is there anything you would like ?” they asked him.

“ Ho,” he answered, “ nothing.”

“ This must be altered,” the doctor said. “ This torpor is alarming. You are his parents, and you know him best. Try to discover what will interest and amuse him.” And the doctor went away.

4.    To amuse him ! True, they knew him well, their little Francis. They knew how it delighted him, when he was. well, to go into the fields, and to come home, loaded with white hawthorn blossoms, riding on his father’s shoulders. Jacques had already bought him gilded soldiers, and figures to be shown upon a screen. He placed them on the sick child’s bed, made them dance before his eyes, and, scarcely able to keep back his tears, strove to make him langh.

5.    “ Look, there is the broken bridge. Tra-la-la ! And there is a general. You saw one once, don’t you remember ? If you drink your medicine like a good boy, I will buy you a real one, with a cloth tunic and gold lace. Would you like to have a general ?”

“ Ho,” said the sick child, his voice dry with fever.

“ Would you like a pistol and bullets, or a bow and arrows ?”

“ Ho,” replied the little voice.

6.    And so it was with everything—even with balloons and jumping-jacks. Still, while the parents looked at each other in despair, the little voice replied, “Ho ! no ! no !”

“ But what is there you would like, then, darling ? ” said his mother. •“ Come, whisper to me—to mamma.” And she laid her cheek beside him on the pillow.

The sick boy raised himself in bed, and, throwing out his eager hands towards some unseen object, cried out, “I want Slap-bang !

7.    “Slap-bang!”

The poor mother looked at her husband with a frightened glance. What was the little fellow saying ? Was the terrible delirium coming back again. “ Slap-bang ! ” She knew not what that meant! - She was frightened at the strangeness of the words, which now the sick boy, with the perversity of illness—as if, having screwed his courage up to put his dream in words, he was resolved to speak of nothing else —repeated without ceasing:—

“ Slap-bang ! I want Slap-bang !”

8.    “ What does he mean ?” she said, grasping her husband’s hand. “ Oh, he is lost! ”

But Jacques’ rough face wore a smile of wonder and relief, like that of one condemned to death who sees a chance of liberty.

9.    Slap-bang ! He remembered well the Saturday afternoon when he had taken Francis to the circus. He could hear still the child’s delighted laughter, when the clown—the beautiful clown, all be-starred with golden spangles, and with a huge many-coloured butterfly glitter-ingon the back of his black costume—skipped across the track, tripped ap the riding-master by the heels, took a walk upon his hands, or threw up to the gas-light the soft felt caps, which he cleverly caught upon his skull, where, one by one, they formed a pyramid; while, at every trick and every jest, his large droll face expanding with a smile, he uttered the same catch-word, sometimes to a roll of music from the hand, “ Slap-bang ! ” And every time he uttered it, the audience roared, and the little fellow shouted with delight.

10.    Slap-bang ! It was this Slap-bang, the circus clown, he who kept half the city laughing, whom little Francis wished to see, and whom, alas ! he could not see as he lay pale and feeble in his little bed.

11.    That night, Jacques brought the child a jointed clown, ablaze with spangles, which he had bought at a high price. Four days’ wages would not pay for it; but he would willingly have given the price of a year’s labour, could he have brought a smile to the thin lips of the sick boy.

12.    The child looked for a moment at the toy which sparkled on the

bed quilt. Then he said sadly, “ That is not Slap-bang. I want to see Slap-bang ! ”    .

If only Jacques -could have wrapped him in the bed clothes, borne him to the circus, shown him the clown dancing under the blazing gaslights, and said, “ Look there !”

13.    But Jacques did better still. He went to the circus, obtained the clown’s address, and then, with legs tottering with nervousness, climbed slowly up the stairs which led to the great man’s rooms. It was a bold task to undertake ! Yet actors, after all, go sometimes to recite or sing at rich men’s houses. Who knew but that the clown, at any price he liked, would consent to go to say good-day to little Francis ?

14.    But was this Slap-bang, this charming person who received him

in his study like a doctor, in the midst of books and pictures, and all the luxury of art! Jacques looked at him, and could not recognise the clown. He turned and twisted his felt hat between his fingers. The other waited. At last, the poor fellow began to stammer out excuses: “ It was unpardonable—a thing unheard of—that he had come to ask; but the fact was, it was about his little boy—such a pretty little boy, sir ! and so clever! Always first in his class—except in arithmetic, which he did not understand. A dreamy little chap—-too dreamy—as you may see”—Jacques stopped and stammered ; then, screwing up his courage, he continued with a rush—“as you may see by the fact that he wants to see you, that he thinks of nothing else, that you are before him always, like a star which he has set his mind on-”

15.    Jacques stopped. Great beads stood on his forehead, and his

face was very pale. He dared not look at the clown, whose eyes were fixed upon him. What had he dared to ask the great Slap-bang ? What if the latter took him for a madman, and showed him to the door.    .

“ Where do you live ?” demanded Slap-bang.

“ Oh I close by,” and he gave the address.

“ Come !” said the other ; “ the little fellow wants to see Slap-bang —well, he shall see him.”

16.    When the door opened before the clown, Jacques cried out joyfully, “ Cheer up, Francis ! Here is Slap-bang.”

The child’s face beamed with expectation. He raised himself upon his mother’s arm, and turned his head towards the two men as they entered. Who was the gentleman in an overcoat beside his father, who smiled good-naturedly, but whom he did not know ?    “ Slap-bang,”

they told him. It was all in vain. His head fell slowly back upon the pillow, and his great, sad blue eyes seemed to look out again beyond the narrow chamber walls, in search, unceasing search, of the spangles and the butterfly of the Slap-bang of his dreams.

17.    “No,” he said, in a voice which sounded inconsolable; “no, this is not Slap-bang.”

The clown, standing by the little bed, looked gravely down upon the child with infinite kind-heartedness. He shook his head, and looking at the anxious father and the mother in her agony, said smiling, “ He is right. This is not Slap-bang.” And he left the room.

“ I shall not see him; I shall never see him again,” said the child softly.

18.    But, all at once—half an hour had not elapsed since the clown

had disappeared—the door was sharply opened, and behold, in his black, spangled tunic, the yellow tuft upon his head, the golden butterfly upon his breast and back, a large smile opening his month like a money-box, his face white with flour, Slap-bang, the true Slap-bang, the Slap-bang of the circus, burst into view. And in his little white cot, with the joy of life in his eyes, laughing, crying, happy, saved, the little fellow clapped his feeble hands, and, with the recovered gaiety of seven years old, cried out:    .

“ Bravo I Bravo, Slap-bang ! It is he this time ! This is Slap-bang ! Long live Slap-bang ! Bravo ! ”

19.    When the doctor called that day, he found, sitting beside the little patient’s pillow a white-faced clown, who kept him in a constant ripple of laughter, and who was observing, as he stirred a lump of sugar to the bottom of a glass of cooling drink, “ You know, Francis, if you do not drink your medicine, you will never see Slap-bang again.”

And the child drank up the draught.

“ Is it not good ? ”

“ Very good. Thank you, Slap-bang.”

20.    “ Doctor,” said the clown to the physician, “do not be jealous, but it seem s to me that my tomfooleries have done more good than your medicines.”

The poor parents were both crying ; but this time it was with joy.

21.    From that time till little Francis was on foot again, a carriage pulled up every day before the workman’s door; a man got out, wrapped in a greatcoat with the collar turned up to his ears, and underneath dressed as for the circus, with his face white with flour.

“ What do I owe you, sir ?” said Jacques to the good clown, on the day when Francis left the house for the first time. “ For I really owe you everything ! ”

22. The clown extended to the parents his two huge hands:

“ A shake of the hand,” he said. Then, kissing the little boy on both his rosy cheeks, he added, laughing, “ And leave to print on my visiting-cards, ‘Slap-bang, clown-doctor, physician to little Francis ! ”’ — The Strand Magazine (Translated from the French).

THE OLD SCHOOLHOUSE.

Crys-tal, clear.

Ru/ral, belonging to the country. Glade, open place in a wood. Rel-ish, like the taste of. Lo-ca-ted, placed.


Aisle {IT), passage in a church into which the pews open; lateral division of a building, separated by pillars from the middle part, called the nave. (Here used figuratively.)

Foreign, strange ; distant.

Clime, region of the earth.

1. I look to-day far down the aisles of memory’s happy past, I see the scenes I saw before my sky was overcast ;

I wander over hill and dale, forget the present time,

And live anew the olden days, though in a foreign clime.

2.    I see the schoolhouse in the vale, the crystal spring below,

The water leaping, rippling on, upon its downward flow ;

The leaves and vines are dipping in the spring so cool and clear, Around whose brink we sported then, with naught of care or fear.

3.    I see the grassy slope again, where in the autumn haze

We spent the hour of noon in play. Ah, those were golden days ! Oh, how we sported on that green ! what merry games we played Around the towering “hollow oak ” and in the walnut’s shade !

4.    The schoolhouse now is gone, I know, that old brown house so queer ;

Yet I can see the boys and girls, their merry voices hear.

I wander with the boys again, along the rural glade;

We buy and sell our pocket toys, again our jack-knives 1 trade.

5.    And there’s the cup behind the door, still hanging on a nail,

And on a stool below you’ll see the dinted water-pail.

With eager haste I drink again the water clear and cold,

And relish still the cooling draught as in the days of old.

6.    The long, low seat for little boys stood by the master’s chair,

And John and Sam and Bill and I were each located there.

Where are they now, those merry boys with whom I joined in play ? They’ve run their race, their battle’s o’er, and they have passed awTay.

7.    The old brown house, the playground trees, the fence along the lane,

All, all are gone, and in their place a field of waving grain.

Old memories cluster round the spot, the spot so dear to me,

When life was one long summer day, so joyous, bright, and free.

—H. Elliott McBride.

1. Jack-knives; large, strong clasp knives for the pocket; pocket-knives.

If only the heart were right, then every created thing would be to thee a mirror of life and a book of holy teaching.

THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, PERTH, WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

Zo-o-log-i-cal, pertaining to zoology, or the science of animals.

A^re-a, extent of surface.

Cul-ti-va-tion, tillage; growing.

Moat, deep trench or ditch round a castle. Ca-vy, animal like a guinea pig, native of South America.

Car-niv-O-ra, flesh-eating animals.

Sen-ior, older.

An-tic-i-pa-tion, foretaste; thinking of something that is to happen.

Dis pensed' with, done without.

Din£gOes, wild dogs found in Australia.

Ab o-rig-i-nes, original inhabitants of a country ; native races.

Ad-mit^tel, allowed to enter.

Drom-e-da -ry, Arabian camel having one hump on the back. (The name is properly applied to only the lighter breeds of this animal.)

Res-i-dents, persons dwelling in a place for some time.

In-scrip-tion, words written or engraved for public inspection.

Spec-i-men, one of a number of things ; sample.

Loz-enge, small cake of sugar, flavoured, — originally in the form of a lozenge, that is, a diamond-shaped figure.

1. Boarding the ferry-boat, we have a pleasant ten minutes’ trip across the broad Swan to South Perth. The water is swarming with black swans and water-fowl, which take but little notice as we pass.

GUINEA-PIG CASTLE.

(From a photograph kindly lent by the proprietors of The Australasian.)


Our boat is quite crowded, for it is Wednesday, a half-holiday for the shop people of Perth.

2. A short walk from the river brings us to the Zoological Gardens,1 which extend over an area of forty-two and a half acres, and are beautifully situated on a peninsula. The grounds are sloping, and the higher parts have not yet been cleared. On the lower parts, and near the entrance, great progress, however, has been made in the cultivation of flowers, the beds being masses of brilliant blossoms.

3.    The first building to attract the eye is a stone castle, with moat and drawbridge. Here reside the guinea-pigs ; and here is to be seen the first animal born in the gardens, a brown and white cavy, which looks about with big black eyes as he trots backwards and forwards on the drawbridge.

4.    Big beasts are the chief attraction. All the carnivora have been bred in captivity. The lion and the tiger, which are two years old,

WHITE SWANS AND BLACK NEAR A ROCKERY.

(From a photograph kindly lent by the proprietors of The Australasian.)

came from Adelaide; the lioness, a year their senior, was reared in Melbourne. These three have cages paved and lined with white tiles. At feeding time—half-past three o’clock,—the tiger and lioness become excited, pacing their cages, and licking their lips in anticipation of their daily meal. “The king of beasts” shows little concern. Though his tail is continually moving, he lies with eyes half-closed till the keeper appears; then he lazily rises, and rubs himself against the front bars of his cage.

5. The wild boars are young, as are the Malayan2 sun-bears. One bear has for companions two puppies and a monkey. An old lady, down from the country, is being shown round by her grandchildren. She takes a good look through her glasses, reads the name “ brown bear ” upon the cage, then, turning to us, says, “ Well, now, are those things bears ? Who would have thought it ?” and she walks off without waiting for a reply. The European brown hear lives in a cage, the usual pit and pole being dispensed with.

6.    One yellow and two white dingoes are as tame as any dog, romping round with squeals and howls of joy as the keeper enters to take them out for exercise. A white peacock flew over a fence, and settled in front of the dingo-house. Its occupants began to jump, leap after leap; they went all together in a row to the top of their cage, and down again, till they were quite exhausted in the vain attempt to get out and have a hunt.

7.    The monkey-houses attract a crowd, especially the part containing a father, mother, and a baby monkey a few days old. Several

A RIDE ON THE DONKEY.

(From a photograph kindly lent by the proprietors of The Australasian.)

aborigines, who camp near the gardens, had been admitted free. They spent nearly all the afternoon at the monkey-houses, laughing and jabbering.

8. Sir Gerard (jSr'-ard) Smith, the Governor of Western Australia, has presented the society with a fine dromedary, which was given him by the Afghan6 residents of the gold-fields on his visit to open the Coolgardie7 railway. The animal has been trained to carry children, the driver sitting astride the front of the saddle. The other beasts become very excited whenever the dromedary approaches. The lion roars and paces his cage even before “ the ship of the desert” appears in sight. There are also Shetland ponies6 7 8 for children to ride, and a donkey with baskets slung on each side of its pack-saddle to carry babies.

9.    In gold letters on a bine board in one enclosure is the inscription :—•

“ Red Deer,

Presented by Her Majesty Queen Victoria,

From Windsor Castle Herd.”

Very fine specimens they are.

10.    A lady had brought her children to bid good-bye to their old pet, a green parrot. “We had him five years,” she explains. “ He talks well; but we are leaving the colony, and cannot take him with us, so the society has accepted him.” The parrot seemed happy among companions of his own kind. At last, the children were dragged away, their good-byes being answered by the parrot’s gruff, “ Good-bye, Sis,” as he held a peppermint lozenge in his claw, and nipped it with his beak.

—Adapted from an article by E. Bickerton, in The Australasian.

1.    Zo-o-log-i-cal Gar-dens, grounds in which animals are kept in order that people may become acquainted with their appearance and habits.

2.    Ma-lay-an, native of Malay, a peninsula south of Further India, and also of the Malay Archipelago. The latter is the largest of island groups, and is situated south-east of Asia, in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

3.    Afghan, native of Afghanistan (af-gan-is-tan'), a country north-west of India.

4.    Cool-gar-'die, town and gold-field, 350 miles east of Perth.

5.    Shetland po-nies, small, hardy, rough-coated horses, natives of the Shetland Islands, north of Scotland.

A QUEER BOY.

En sure' or in-sure' make sure.

Pi'rates, persons who rob on the seas. Mun-dane, pertaining to the world; worldly. Vi-sion, sight.


Er-rand, message.

Wom-bat, burrowing animal found in Australia.

Sin-cere' honest; being in reality what he appears to be.


1.    He doesn’t like study, it “ weakens his eyes;”

But the right sort ” of book will ensure a surprise.

Let it be about Indians, pirates, or bears,

And he’s lost for the day to all mundane affairs ;

By sunlight or gaslight his vision is clear ;

Now, isn’t that queer ?

2.    At thought of an errand he’s “tired as a hound,”

Very weary of life, and of “tramping around But, if there’s a band or a circus in sight,

He’ll follow it gladly from morning till night.

The showman will capture him some day, l fear,

For he is so queer.

CABBAGES AND CAULIFLOWERS.

O-rig-i-nal-ly, at first.

De-rived' obtained by descent.

De-vel-oped, raised little by little to its present state.

CuUti-va-tors, tillers of the soil.

Ed£i-ble, fit to be eaten.

Ref-use, waste or worthless matter. Tend-en-cy, disposition ; proneness.


Va-ri-a-tion, partial change in the form, state, or qualities.

Lep^ro-sy, an incurable skin disease.

La-zar, adj., for persons suffering from certain worst forms of disease.

Di-et, course of food.

Ob-li-ga-tion, indebtedness.

De-sir-a-ble, wished for; pleasing.


WILD CABBAGE.


1. “We had another of those interesting lessons at school to-day mother,” said Bert as he handed up his plate at dinner-time for a second helping of vegetables. “ Mr. Kane, our teacher, showed us a curious-looking plant, and told us that it was originally a wild coast plant in Britain, and that all our kinds of cabbage and cauliflower have been derived from it. The plant was not a bit like our garden cabbage. It really looks and grows like a weed.”

2.    “ I have no doubt about it,” said his mother. “ I have read that our beautiful garden roses have come from the common wild rose; while, if we trace our modern apples back, we shall find they are improvements of the sour crab apple.”

“ Mr. Kane says we must always ask him to explain anything we do not quite understand,” continued Bert; “ so I asked him how it was that so many different vegetables could have come from one kind, and the reason our plants were so much larger and better than the one he showed us.”

CABBAGE.


3.    “ He said he was very glad I had asked ; and, as we had done so well at the examination last week, he gave us an object lesson on the cabbage, and told us a great deal about its life history. Then he read a long extract from an interesting book called Round the Year, by Professor Miall. Altogether our lesson explained very nicely how men had developed the cabbage, and how it in its way had done much to improve the health and advance the civilisation of its cultivators. I am afraid I can’t remember all our teacher said and read about it, but I will tell you what I can.”

4. “ At one time, the people of Britain were little if any better than savages. They found out by trying it that the wild cabbage of the seashore was edible. For a time, they were content to gather those plants they could find along the coast. By-and-by, some one cleverer than the others planted a few near his cave dwelling to save himself the trouble of going to fetch them. Here the soil was richer from the decaying fragments of food and other refuse.

The plants grew stronger. The seeds from these in their turn produced still more vigorous plants. Later on, when men began to understand more about cultivation, they used seed only from the finest plants. These seeds were grown in more fertile and better prepared soil, and were greatly improved each time. When any of these plants showed a tendency to vary, the variation, if an improvement, was encouraged and made the most of till the variety became permanent; and now we have very many excellent kinds.

CAULIFLOWER.


5.    “ Then the cabbage has done much to make people healthier. That dreadful disease, leprosy, was far from uncommon in Britain in the olden time. England alone had 95 lazar houses in those days. The people lived on very bad food. Fresh vegetables were unknown among the working classes. Tainted fish and meat were often their chief food.

The huts were very poor and dirty, and were shared with the animals. The clothing of the poorer people too was worn day and night often without change.

No wonder the people were unhealthy. To-day, leprosy is found among people whose habits and food are like those of the early Britons.

6. “ With the cultivation and improvement of the cabbage and other vegetables, a healthier diet was secured, and industrious and more cleanly habits were encouraged. So it appears we are under considerable obligations to the ordinary cabbage, for it has had a large share in bringing about this desirable result.”

“ Well done, Bert,” said his father, who had been listening unnoticed, “ I am glad you are gaining such useful and interesting general knowledge at school.”

—G. H. Adcock, F.L.S., Department of Agriculture, Victoria.

ROBINSON CRUSOE —continued.

Ckusoe as a House-builder. .

De-SCllp-tion, account of anything in words. Par-tic^U-lar-ly, especially, in a high degree. De-liv£er-ance, rescue.

De-scend^ed, went down; fell away. SenUi-di-am-e-ter, radius ; distance from the centre of a circle to the circumference. In-fin-ite, very great; boundless. 9

Tar-pau-lin, large piece of canvas, covered with tar or some other substance to keep out water.

Ham-mock, swinging bed, usually made of net* ting or canvas.

Pro-vi-sions, stock of food.

Ter-race, raised shelf or platform of earth. Per-fec-tion, highest degree of excellence.

do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should make a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth. And, in short, I resolved upon both, the manner and. description of which it may not be improper to give an account of.

2. I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my purpose, because it was upon low ground near the sea, and, I believed, could not be healthy; and, more particularly, because there was no fresh water

I BEGAN TO WORK MY WAY INTO THE ROCK.”

(From the edition of Robinson Crusoe published by Messrs. Nelson and Sons.)


near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot.

3.    I considered several things in choosing the situation which I found would be proper for me: First, health, and fresh water. Secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun. Thirdly, security from savage creatures, whether men or beasts. Fourthly, a view to the sea, that, if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all hope yet.

this, I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was as steep as the side of a house, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the side of this rock, there was a hollow place worn a little way in like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.

5. On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door, and at


4.    In search of a place proper for

the end of it descended irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side.

6.    Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.

7.    In this half-circle, 1 pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest

CRUSOE’S LADDER.

(From the edition of Robinson Crusoe published by Messrs. Nelson & Sons.)


end being out of the ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from one another.

8. Then, I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows one upon another within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside leaning against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post. This fence was so strong that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. It cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

9.    The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me. And so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, therewas no need of all this caution from the enemies that I feared danger from.

10.    Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all my provisions, powder and shot, and stores. And I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, namely, one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost

with a large tarpaulin which I had saved among the sails. And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock; which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

11.    Into this tent, I brought all my provisions and everything that would spoil by the wet; and, having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

12.    When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and, bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them np within my fence in the nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought to perfection.    —Daniel De Foe.

FROM OUR NOTE-ROOK.

The Greater Britain Exhibition.

1.    The Greater Britain Exhibition at Earls-court was opened on the 8th of May by His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, in the presence of a vast concourse of people.

The arrangement of the Victorian Court was complete; and the excellent display of minerals, timber, fruit, wines, and wool, excited much interest.

2.    The Duke of Cambridge, who, after occupying the position of Commander-in-Chief of the British military forces for a long time, retired from it two or three years ago, was much pleased with the exhibit of the Education Department. That portion of it which had reference to the Cadet Force came in for a special share of his attention. It consists, as the readers of The School Paper may remember, of large photographs of battalions of cadets and of their officers, and of a full-sized wax figure of a cadet in uniform with his rifle by his side.

A Courageous Deed.

A week or two ago, the following in substance appeared in The Herald (Melbourne) :—“ On Saturday last, I was a witness to as plucky an action as ever it has been my fortune to see, and one which, I think, ought to be brought under the notice of the Humane Society.

2.    “ Careering through Toorak from Malvern at full gallop was a splendid horse attached to a milk cart, with no driver. Fully forty people, myself among the number, preferred to get out of the way to risking life and limb in endeavouring to stop it, so rapid was the pace. Suddenly, however, a young man, near the corner of Toorak-road and Chapel-street, made a dash, and grasped a shaft. He was thrown down, but recovered himself, and, after being dragged along for about twenty yards, succeeded in pulling up the runaway within a few feet of the dummy of a tram, which was crowded with people. Many of them might have been killed or injured but for the resoluteness and skill of this young man.

3.    “ On inquiry, I found that his name was Nettle Chambers, and that, about four months ago, he had performed an almost similar deed by stopping, on the St. Kilda-road, a pony that had shaken its winkers off. On that occasion, there was a lady in the pony-cart, who, of course, under the circumstances, had no control over the animal.

“Now, actions like these, I hold, should be taken notice of, not only because they in themselves show a praiseworthy courage, but because they are worthy examples for others to follow.”

The Fastest Flowing River in the World.

The fastest flowing large river in the world is, probably, the Sutlej, a tributary of the Indus, in the Punjab north-west of India. It descends 12,000 feet in 180 miles.

Stars.

The most wonderful photograph yet taken of the sky at night is that which has recently been prepared by the astronomers in charge of the observatories at London, Paris, and Berlin. It shows at least 08,000,000 stars.

NOTICE.

Examination for the Certificate of Competency.—History.

As there appears to be some doubt concerning the interpretation of the words in Circular No. 99 2,—“ for the period prescribed,” it should be noted that the period is

from 1760 to the ■present time.

,    WINTER SCHOOL SONG.

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EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 25.] MELBOURNE.    [August, 1899.

I DIDN’T THINK.

Elf, little sprite, somewhat like a fairy. Dis-may, fear; alarm.

Mien {mean), look; aspect; manner.

1. If all the troubles in the world

Were traced back to their start, We’d find not one in ten begunFrom want of willing heart.

But there’s a sly, woe-working elf Who lurks about youth’s brink, And sure dismay he brings away— The elf “I didn’t think.”

Contrite, sorrowful ; humble. (Here the accent falls on the second syllable:—con-trite'.) Com-rade, companion ; associate ; mate.

2. He seems so sorry when he’s caught, His mien is all contrite ;

He so regrets the woe he wrought, And wants to make things right. But wishes do not heal a wound,

Or weld a broken link,

The heart aches on, the link is gone—■ All through “I didn’t think.”

3. When brain is comrade to the heart,

And heart from soul draws grace,

“I didn’t think ” will quick depart For lack of resting place.

If from that great unselfish stream—

The Golden Rule2—we drink,

We’ll keep God’s law's, and have no cause To say, “ I didn’t think.”

—Eli.a Wheeler Wilcox in Great Thoughts.

1.    Begun, here put for began,” so as to rhyme with one.”

2.    The Golden Rule.—“ Do unto others as you would

That they to you should do.”

THE BARBER

Of-fered, said he was willing to give. A-maze-ment, great astonishment.

Im-pos^si-ble, unable to be done.

Ca-di, judge in Turkish village.

Scribe, writer of letters for the public, common in China, Persia, and other Eastern countries. Pe-ti-tion, forma] request to a person of superior rank, or to a body such as Parliament


OF BAGDAD.

Ca-liph {kd-lif, the “a ” as in fate), title of the successors of Mohammed, now used by the Sultans of Turkey.

De-Ci-sion, judgment; settlement.

Eq/ui-ty, natural justice or right. Im-me-di-ate-ly, at once.

In sist-ing, taking a stand and refusing to give way.

1.    There lived in Bagdad, a city in the south-east of Turkey-in-Asia, a celebrated barber of the name of Ali {ah'-lee). He was famous for his skill and for his steady hand. There was not a man of fashion who did not employ him ; and such a run of business had he, that, at length, he became very proud.

2.    Firewood was always scarce and dear in Bagdad; and it happened one day that a poor wood-cutter stopped at Ali’s shop, to sell

Price Id.

him a load of wood, which he had just brought from a distance on his donkey. Ali immediately offered him a certain sum for all the wood that was on the donkey. The wood-cutter agreed, unloaded the animal, and asked for the money.

3.    “You have not given me all the wood yet,” said the barber, “ I must have your wooden pack-saddle into the bargain.”

“ How ! ” said the other in amazement; “ who ever heard of such a bargain ? It is impossible.”

After many words, however, the overbearing barber seized the pack-saddle.

4.    The wood-cutter at once went to the cadi, and stated his griefs. The cadi was one of the barber’s customers, and refused to hear the case. Then he went to a higher judge. He also made light of the complaint.

The poor wood-cutter was not disheartened, but at once got a scribe to write a petition to the caliph. The caliph always made a point of reading petitions himself; and it was not long before the wood-cutter was called before him.

5.    When he had approached the caliph, he kneeled, and kissed the ground ; and then, folding his arms, his hands covered with the sleeves of his cloak, and his feet dose together, he awaited the decision of his case.

6.    “ Friend,” said the caliph, “the barber has words on his side, you

have equity on yours. The law must be defined by words, and agreements must be made by words. The law must have its course, or it is nothing; and agreements must be kept, or there would be no faith between man and man. Therefore the barber must keep all his wood, but-”

Then, calling the wood-cutter close to him, the caliph whispered something in his ear, and sent him away quite satisfied.

7.    A few days later, the wood-cutter came to the barber, as if nothing had happened between them, requesting that he and a companion of his from the country might be shaved ; and the price for shaving both was settled.

8.    When the wood-cutter had been properly shaved, Ali asked where his companion was. “ He is standing just outside,” said the wood-cutter, “ he shall come in at once.”

9.    Accordingly he went out, and led in his donkey by the halter. “This is my companion,” said he ; “ shave him.”

“ Shave him! ” exclaimed the barber in a rage. “ Is it not enough that I should degrade myself by touching you, but you must insult me by asking me to shave your donkey ? Away with you !”

10.    The wood-cutter immediately went to the caliph, and related his case. “ Bring Ali and his razors to me this instant,” exclaimed the caliph to one of his officers ; and, in the course of ten minutes, the barber stood before him.

11.    “ Why do you refuse to shave this man’s companion?” said the caliph to the barber ; “ was not that your agreement? ” Ali, kissing the ground, answered, “ It is true, 0 caliph, that such was our agreement ; but who ever made a companion of a donkey before ? ”

12.    “ True enough,” said the caliph ; “ but who ever thought of insisting upon a pack-saddle being included in a load of wood ? Ho, no, it is the wood-cutter’s turn now. Shave this donkey instantly! ”

13.    So the barber was forced to prepare a great quantity of soap with which to lather the beast from head to foot, and to shave him in the presence of the caliph and of the whole court, whilst he was jeered and mocked by the bystanders.

14.    The poor wood-cutter was then dismissed with a present of money; and all Bagdad resounded with the story, and praised the justice of the caliph.

RAIN.

Va^pour, gaseous form into which many liquids and solids are changed by heat.

Cease-less-ly, without stopping.

At-mos-phere, the air.

Tem-per-a-ture, degree of heat.

Gla-cier, immense body of ice, formed in the region of perpetual snow, and moving slowly down a mountain slope or valley.


Sep-a-rate, go apart; become disunited. Dis-si-pa^ted, scattered; dispersed. Ex-cess-ive, overmuch.

Bane, cause of ruin.

Pro-duc^tive, fertile.

Nu-tri-tious, nourishing; producing growth. El-e-ments, simplest parts of which a substance

consists.



1.    If we were to place a pan of water over the flame of a lamp, vapour would rise from the vater, and, when cooled, would become visible as a mist ; and, when the water boiled, this vapour would rise in greater quantity. Soon, the room, if closely shut, would be full of it ; and we should presently find that all the water in the pan had been changed into vapour.

2.    The vapour

will now have settled on the walls of the room, on the handle of the door, and on the windows, and will have been further cooled by them, and changed back into water. It will    circulation of water.

have undergone a process exactly opposite to that caused by the heat. On cold objects in the room, and on the window-panes, the change of vapour into water will have been most nearly complete. .

3.    At first, the window-panes will be lightly clouded over by the vapour, then small drops will form, run together, and, presently, flow


MOUNT COOK, SOUTH ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND,

(photograph by Mr. 0. Rudd, Melbourne.)


THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IY. [August,


down them in little streams of water. If it were possible for us to collect all the water that had once been in the state of vapour, we should find that we had exactly the same quantity as we had at first in the pan.

4.    The change of the water into vapour, and of the vapour back again into water, gives us a true picture of what is ceaselessly going on in the atmosphere all around us. The water in the pan over the flame corresponds to the waters of the ocean heated by the fierce rays of the sun ; the vapour from the pan, when it has parted with some of its heat, represents the clouds ; the water trickling down the window-panes is like the rills flowing down the sides of the mountains.


5.    We must remember that the higher we ascend into the air, the lower becomes the temperature. The tops of very high mountains even in hot countries are covered with snow that never melts. There are no such mountains in Australia ; but, in New Zealand, the head of Mt. Cook, 13,200 feet high, is above the snowline, or lowest limit of perpetual snow.

6.    At the foot of a

mountain, the heat may be great. But, as we ascend its slopes, the heat becomes less and less, until we reach a point where no living thing is found, and where the vast glacier creeps slowly downwards from its birthplace.    glacier,

7.    The hot rays of With the lines of rubbish (moraines), and the river which flows

the sun draw up the    from its end.

waters of the sea in the form of vapour. This vapour rises in the air, and soon arrives at a level where the air is cold. The vapour is chilled by the cold air, and becomes heaped together in those large and beautiful masses of various forms which we know as clouds. The clouds, driven hither and thither by the wind, either part with their heat, and fall to the ground as rain, or receive heat to such an extent that the wTatery particles separate from one another, and the cloud is dissipated.

8.    Clouds that are carried to the summits and the sides of high mountains are deposited there as snow; and this in part becomes ice and forms glaciers in the gullies. Rains and snow give rise to springs, and feed the streams and rivers which carry back to the ocean the waters that have been sucked up from it by the sun. As soon as they reach the ocean, they are again reduced to vapour, and begin once more the same circular journey, which will never end so long as the earth and the sun remain.

9.    There are portions of the earth’s surface on which rain never falls ; there are others on which it rains almost every day. Some regions are scantily supplied with moisture from this source, while excessive rainfall is the bane of large tracts in other parts of the world. Even in the same country, great differences exist in the amount of rain that falls in various parts. In New South Wales, for example, rains are more frequent and heavier on the eastern side of the Dividing Range than on the western. The annual rainfall in Sydney averages 50 inches; while, in the basin of the lower Darling, it is only eight inches. In Victoria, the rainfall is greater on the southern side of the Dividing Range than on the northern. The average yearly rainfall in Melbourne is 26 inches, while, in many parts of the low-lying plains in the north-west of the colony, it is little more than 10 inches.1

10.    The effect of rain upon the soil is to increase its productive power ; but, to bring about this result, the downfall must be moderate. Very heavy and long-continued rain destroys plants instead of nourishing them ; while, on the other hand, a similar effect is produced by scarcity of rain. In this case, the soil does not contain sufficient moisture to dissolve its nutritious elements, and the roots of the plants are unable to suck up the substances necessary for their growth.

1. During 1887, at Wood’s Point, on the Dividing Range, Victoria, 96 inches of rain fell.

1. Halos. See “Rules for Spelling,” The School Paper—Class IV., May, 1898.-2. Glass, weatherglass ; barometer.-3. On the rack aching; paining. (In times gone by, the rack, an engine of tor

ture, was in use in dealing with witnesses and prisoners It consisted of a large frame, upon which the body was gradually stretched until, sometimes, the joints were pulled apart.)


SIGNS

Ha-los,' luminous circles round the sun or moon.

(A halo is supposed to be caused by the refraction (slight change in direction) of light through crystals of ice in the atmosphere.) Bod-ing, prophesying ; telling what will come to pass.

Pim-per-nel, plant with a small flower, which rapid y closes on the approach of bad weather.

The hollow winds begin to blow,

The clouds look black, the glass2 is low, The soot falls down, the spaniels sleep, And spiders from their cobwebs peep. Last night the sun went pale to bed,

The moon in halos hid her head.

The boding shepherd heaves a sigh,

Tor, see, a rainbow spans the sky.

The walls are damp, the ditches smell, Closed is the pink-eyed pimpernel.

Hark ! how the chairs and tables crack ; Old Betty’s joints are on the rack ;Loud quack the ducks, the peacocks cry; The distant hills are seeming nigh ;

How restless are the snorting swine ;

The busy flies disturb the kine ;

Low o’er the grass the swallow wings ; The cricket, too, how sharp he sings ;


OF RAIN.

In-cau-tious, unwary; heedless ; careless. Il-lumed; lighted (or lit) up.

Squal-id, very dirty.

Rus-set, reddish or yellowish brown.

Jaunt (jant, the “a” as in arm), short excursion for pleasure

Puss on the hearth, with velvet paws, Sits, wiping o’er her whiskered jaws. Through the clear stream the fishes rise, And nimbly catch th’ incautious flies. The glow-worms, numerous and bright, Illumed the dewy dell last night.

At dusk, the squalid toad was seen, Hopping and crawling o’er the green. The whirling wind the dust obeys,

And in the rapid eddy plays.

The frog has changed his yellow vest, And in a russet coat is drest.

My dog, so altered in his taste,

Quits mutton bones, on grass to feast. ’Twill surely rain ; I see with sorrow Our jaunt must be put off to-morrow.

—Dr. Jexner.


RORKE’S DRIFT,

Am-mu-ni-tion, articles used in charging firearms, as powder, balls, shells, foe.


Pon-toons' wooden, flat-bottomed boats, used in building bridges quickly for the passage of soldi ers.


Lieu-tentant (lef-tendant), officer who takes the place of a superior in his absence ; commissioned officer in the army next below a captain.


Chap-lain, clergyman who is attached to ths army, navy, &c., for the purpose of holding religious services.


Ear'ri-cade, kind of wall to hinder the attack of an enemy.


Re-treat-ed, retired from the place ; withdrew.


Car-tridge, complete charge for a firearm, contained in a case of metal or other substance.


Ceasing, stopping.


Be-siegedi beset or surrounded by armed forces.


De-fen-ders. those warding off an attack.


As-se-gai (&s-se-gay), spear used by tribes of South Africa either for throwing or stabbing.


De-fenc-es, things employed to ward off danger or attack.


Re-in-force-ment, additional force or assistance, especially of troops.


1. Zululand is a state in the east of South Africa to the north of Natal, from which it is separated by a small river. During the Zulu war, in which the British were engaged during the latter part of 1878 and the earlier part of 1879, the battle of Rorke’s Drift was fought.

'    2. Rorke’s Drift was a small, undefended provision station between

Isandula1 and Natal,2 at the foot of a rather barren-looking range of hills, and not far from the banks of a river on which pontoons were moored. It was really a deserted farmhouse, which was made use of by the British as a storehouse and hospital, and consisted simply of two wooden buildings roofed with thatch. There was no wall of any kind round it, and it was quite open and exposed to attack ; but attack was the last thing thought of in this solitary spot.

3.    A young officer (Lieutenant Chard) was left in charge of the pontoons on the river, and another young officer (Lieutenant Brom-head) had charge of the stores.

There were altogether only 139 officers and men in the camp, and these included the doctor, the chaplain, and the two men who gave out the stores, none of whom are supposed to fight, though on this occasion they all distinguished themselves.

4.    Between 3 and 4 o’clock in the afternoon, Lieutenant Chard noticed on the opposite bank of the river two soldiers, who were galloping at full speed from the direction of Zululand. They shouted to the men on the pontoons, and were taken across as quickly as possible. They brought sad and dreadful news to Lieutenant Chard of a battle which had been fought that day, and in which the British had lost 1,000 men.

5.    The Zulus, they said, were at that moment marching down on Rorke’s Drift in large numbers, and no help could be expected from the next station for nearly twenty-four hours. By that time, the little company might be all lying dead, for what could 139 men do against thousands of bloodthirsty Zulus, who were half mad with the delight of their previous victory ? They could do their duty, that was all.

6.    So they determined to protect the pontoons a s long as possible, to stand by the sick and wounded who were in the hospital, and to try to save the stores. No time was to be lost ; the Zulus might at any moment ajjpear, and the first thing to be done was to build up some kind of a wall, from behind which they could return the attack of the enemy. The only things at hand were biscuit boxes and wooden cases. With these, they made a wall “ two boxes high,” and, inside this again, they built up another of meal bags. Lieutenant Bromhead made loopholes in the walls of the houses large enough to fire through, and he and Lieutenant Chard placed their few men at their posts, and supplied them with ammunition.

7.    At twenty minutes past 4 o’clock, another officer came galloping up to say that the enemy was now close upon them, and, a few minutes afterwards, sounds of firing were heard, and from 300 to 400 Zulus appeared round the hills to the south. Then the battle began in real earnest. How cool and steady our brave soldiers were ! Lieutenant Chard says, “ The men behaved splendidly, and no man wasted a single shot.”

8.    The Zulus marched, or rather ran, close up to the wall of boxes, thinking, no doubt, to make very short work of the frail barricade, but they had not counted on meeting such a smart fire from the men inside. In spite of it, however, they continued to advance in large numbers, and made a rush at the breastwork, from which they were at last driven back after a fierce and desperate struggle. They then retreated into the'bush on the hillside, and, from that position, poured down volley after volley into the camp, where the chaplain was kept busy handing cartridges to the men, who returned the enemy’s fire without ceasing.

9.    About 6 o’clock in the evening, the besieged were forced to retire behind their inside barricade, so fierce was the fire from the Zulus, who had all this time been doing their best to force their way into the hospital. Once they nearly succeeded in doing so, but were repulsed by a gallant party who had been ordered to defend the sick and wounded. So close did they come that the enemy actually touched the muzzles of the rifles of the defenders. Then a terrible hand-to-hand struggle began, the Zulus using their long assegais, and the British their bayonets. The roof of the hospital was fired, and some of the men had to leave their posts to carry out the sick and place them in the shelter of the barricade. ,A11 the sick men who were able to stand did their share of the work. To the great grief of all, several of the wounded men perished in the flames before they could be removed.

10.    Night fell, and, by the light of the burning hospital, the British saw that they had about 3,000 Zulus against them. All through that terrible night, they fought on without pause or rest, hoping against hope that help would arrive from Lord Chelmsford, the Lieutenant-General,3 before it was too late. During the night, an attempt was made to fire the stores, but once more the surging mass of savages was driven back. About 4 a.m. the firing ceased; and, when day dawned, the British saw to their great delight that their enemies were retreating.

11.    When it was light enough for them to see plainly, they examined and strengthened their defences, and collected the arms of the dead Zulus, for they were afraid the main body would return and renew the attack.

12.    The smouldering thatch was being removed from the roof of the store at about 7 o’clock in the morning, when some one on the lookout reported that a large body of Zulus was in sight, marching towards the camp. Then followed an anxious hour for the poor, tired, worn-out men. The enemy was slowly advancing, and they expected another attack, when they noticed that the Zulus began to fall back. The reason was soon evident. A reinforcement of British was marching towards Rorke’s Drift, and, seeing it, the enemy had retired.

13.    So ended the battle of Rorke’s Drift—the most glorious battle in the Zulu War.

The Zulu loss amounted to about 350, and the British lost only seventeen men.

—Adapted from an article by S. N. T. in The Children's Hour, S.A.

1.    I-san-du-la, village, south-west of Zulu Land.

2.    Na-tal. British colony bordering on the south-east coast of Africa, capital Pietermaritzburg.

3.    Lieu-ten-ant-Gen-er-al, army officer in rank next below a general.

THE SONG OP THE PLOUGH.

Fur^row, plough up. The furrow is the long narrow groove or channel made by the plough Pre-par-ing, making ready.

Fal-low, that has lain untilled or unsowed for some time after ploughing.

Re-ceive! be able to take in. Mirth, joy; pleasure.

WarU-ly, cautiously; carefully. Un spar-ing-ly, very bard. Gardner, store up.


2.    Now, hands to the plough, boys, manfully,

As toiling o’er valley and hill—

Let us guide the plough with a strong sure grasp, Let us work with a hearty will ;

Let us cover the good seed carefully,

In the lap of the warm, brown earth :

Then to us shall the time of the harvest prove A season of gladness and mirth.

3.    Now, hands to the plough, boys, warily,

Let the furrow he straight and fair ;

The time of our sowing full often we find A season of labour and care :

And e’en as we labour unsparingly The seed in its season to sow,

So joy shall be ours when we garner the grain In the glory of summer’s glow.

— Chisholm.

ROBINSON CRUSOE —continued.

Strange Discovery of Corn.

Eumima-ging, searching thoroughly by turning things over.

Im-pos'si-ble, not able to he done.

Re-li-glous pious; godly.

En-ter-tained! taken into consideration. 10

ProvG-dence. foresight which God manifests for his creatures.

Pro-duc-tiOILS, things made or brought into being.

Oc-curred! suggested itself; came.

A-bate' diminish ; grow less.

knew nut liow it came there, it startled me strangely; and I began to suggest that God had caused this grain to grow without any help of

( —From the edition of Robinson Crusoe, published by Messrs. T. Nelson and Sons.)


seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for my support on that wild, miserable place.

4. This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a thing should happen upon my account. And this was the stranger to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice. This I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

5.    I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over that part of the island where 1 had been before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, looking for more of it; but I could not find any.

6.    At last, it occurred to my thoughts that I had shaken a bag of fowls’ food out in that place, and then

the wonder began to cease; and, I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was common. I ought, however, to have been as thankful in any case ; for it was really the work of Providence, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled (when the rats had destroyed all the rest), as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular place, where, being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had been burned up and destroyed.

7. I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure; and, laying up every grain, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to have a quantity sufficient to supply me with bread.

—Daniel De Foe.

AN ARBOUR DAY STORY.

Sum-moned, called together.

Eec^og-nise, own; acknowledge.

Bri-gadef body of troops, consisting of two or more regiments.


Bat-tal-ion, two or more companies of a regiment.

De-grad^ing, lowering ; debasing ; disgracing. Hus-band-ry, business of agriculture ; farming.


1.    Some years ago, Prince Nicholas, of Montenegro (a state northwest of Turkey, lying between that country and Austria), summoned his soldiers before him, and spoke to them in the following terms:—

2.    “You are heroes, all of you, hut you will not work. Our country would be as rich as it is glorious,11 if you would give as much attention to the works of peace as you do to the labours of war. I waited for you to recognise for yourselves that men must work, but I have waited long in vain; I now direct that every Montenegrin soldier, who lives where vines can be grown, shall plant this year 200 vines. Commanders of brigades shall plant twenty; commanders of battalions, ten; officers of lower rank, five; and soldiers above the rank of a private one olive tree apiece. Also, whoever shall plant of his own free will 2,000 vines this year shall be free from taxes for ten years.”

3.    The “heroes” made wry faces over the matter; but their ruler’s command had to be obeyed, and they went to work at what they held to be the degrading occupation of husbandry.

1. Our coun-try would be as rich as it is glo-ri-ous. Montenegro (which means Black Mountain) formerly belonged to Turkey, at least in name ; but, by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), it was declared independent. The people, though proud and lazy, are a brave and warlike race. They are Christians, not Mohammedans like the Turks.

THE SLUGGARD.

Sluggard, lazy person.

1. Go to the ant, thou Sluggard ; Consider her ways, and be wise : Which having no chief, Overseer,

Or ruler,

Provideth her meat in the summer, And gathereth her food in the harvest.


Pov-er-ty, need; want.

2. How long wilt thou sleep, O Sluggard 1 When wilt thou arise out of thy sleep ? “ Yet a little sleep,

A little slumber,

A little folding of the hands to sleep ”—

So shall thy poverty come as a robber, And thy want as an armed man.

Proverbs.


HOW TOIL CONQUERED FORCE.

Pres-i-dent, chief officer of a society, company, and of the government in certain republics. An^ec-dote, short tale of an interesting nature. Mead-OW, field on widen grass is grown for hay.

Com-par-i-SOU, examination of two or more things with a view of discovering in what they resemble or differ from one another. Con-quered (kong-kerd), overcame; vanquished.

going to my father, I told him I did not like study, and asked for some other employment.

2.    “My father said : ‘Well, John, if Latin grammar does not suit you, try ditching—perhaps that will. My meadow yonder needs a ditch, and you may put by Latin and try that.’

3.    “ This seemed a delightful change ; and to the meadow I went. But soon I found ditching harder than Latin, and the first forenoon was the longest I ever remember spending. That day I ate the bread of labour, and glad was I when night came on. That night I made some comparison between Latin grammar and ditching, but said not a word about it. I dug next forenoon, and wanted to return to Latin at dinner ; but my pride was still too strong, and I could not do it. At night, toil conquered pride; and,, though to do so was one of the severest trials I ever had in my life, I told my father that, if he chose, I would go back to Latin grammar.

4.    “ He was glad of it; and, if I have since gained any fame, it has been owing to my two days’ labour in that ditch.”

ALASKAN SLEIGH DOGS.

Sleigh {slay), sledge ; vehicle moved on runners. Ther-morrUe -ter, instrument for measuring temperature.

Ze-ro, naught; point from which the graduation of the scale of a thermometer commences.

Thiev-ing, stealing,

Pro -vi-sions, stock of food.

As-sumei take on.

In-no-cence, blamelessness, guiltlessness.

leave boots about, for the dogs would eat them, soles and all. They have been known to make a good meal of a coat.

5. As for thieving, well, when the dogs are about, one has to keep a close watch upon the provisions, or not a trace of them will be left. “ Often and often,” writes a traveller through Alaska, “ I have been cooking a piece of bacon, and have discovered, after turning round for a second or two, that a sleigh dog has taken it out of the pan. Then that dog’s face would assume a look of innocence, as though a theft was the very last thing it could be guilty of.”

1, A-lasGcan, belonging to Alaska. The territory of Alaska, N.W. of the Dominion of Canada, formerly belonged to Russia, but was purchased by the United States in 1867. Recently, gold has been discovered near its eastern boundary.

NOTICE.

The Supplementary Roll of State Schools, of State School Teachers, and of Reclassification of State Schools, issued on the 24th of June in accordance with section 80 of the Public Service Act 1890, was prepared and signed by only two members of the Committee of Classifiers, as the third member was absent from Victoria at the time on special duty.

FROM OUR NOTE BOOK.

An Accommodating Gust of Wind.

1.    A gentleman in a village in Italy was about making a journey to France, and intended to take the steamer from Naples to Marseilles. Many friends called to say good-bye ; and, as had happened before, each gave him a paper on which was jotted down a list of things which the writer wished the traveller to purchase for him. Only one of them enclosed in the paper the necessary money. This one friend’s commission the gentleman carefully executed, and, on his return, delivered the articles to him without delay.

2.    When the others called for their goods, he said:—“ Soon after I sailed, I took out all your papers to look them over and classify them. I laid them on the deck before me. Suddenly, there came a gust of wind, and they were all blown away. I could not remember what they contained, and so I could not do your errands.”

3.    “ But,” some one remarked, “ you bought what Mr. So-and-so asked you to get.”

“ Oh, yes,” said the gentleman ; “ he wrapped the cash up in his paper, and that kept it from blowing away I ”

A Relic of the Past.

1. The last wooden bridge over the Yarra near Melbourne is now being pulled down, and its timbers removed. It connected Kew and Collingwood, and was known as the Studley-park Bridge. Built by a company, it was opened in 1857 by Sir Henry Barkly, who was at the time the Governor of Victoria.

2.    In those days, and for many years afterwards—in fact, till within about 20 years ago,—people crossing a bridge in Victoria had to pay a certain amount. The money was called toll. As the Studley-park Bridge belonged to a company, whose object was, of course, to get back with interest the money the shareholders had expended for building and keeping it in repair, toll continued to be collected on it after other bridges had been thrown open to traffic.

3.    It naturally followed that, as there was another bridge connecting Kew and Collingwood, people avoided that at Studley Park. The receipts having become very small, the company would spend no

THE CONDEMNED BRIDGE. (Photograph by Mr. II. Summons.)

money upon the bridge, and it became unsafe to cross. At length, the Government obtained power to sell the structure with the object of having it removed.

Fully (?) Illustrated.

On page 170 of the May number, 1898, of The School Paper— Class I V., a beautiful poem entitled The Old Oaken Bucket was printed. The following may serve to interest and amuse those who remember the poem, or will refresh their memories by re-reading it:—

1. One Friday afternoon, the teacher of a class of girls in a large school in San Francisco, United States, read to her pupils “The Old Oaken Bucket.” After explaining the poem briefly, she dictated the first verse to them, and asked them to try to illustrate it by drawings, as an artist illustrates a story.

2. Only a few minutes had passed, when one of the younger girls brought out her book, and the teacher found that the illustrations consisted of several little dots between two lines, a circle, half-a-dozen large dots, and three buckets.

“ I do not understand this, Bessie,” said the teacher. “ What is that circle ? ”

“ Oh, that’s the ‘ well ’ 1 ” was the reply.

“ And why have you drawn three buckets ? ”

“ Oh, one is the ‘ oaken bucket,’ the other is the ‘ iron-bound bucket,’ and the third is the ‘ bucket that hung in the well.’ ”

“ But what are the dots ? ” continued the teacher, trying hard not to smile.

Why, those are the ‘ spots which my infancy knew.’”

The Largest City in America.

Chicago, in regard to size, is rapidly catching up to New York, the largest city in America. It may, in fact, even surpass London, and become the largest city in the world. It owes its progress to railways, being the natural centre for all the trans-continental lines. About 30,000 miles of railway pour the farm produce of the West into the city of the prairie, over 9,000 trains discharging 18,000 tons of cattle, corn, and the like, every day.

The Nobility of Labour.

It is grander to build a cathedral than to make a pair of boots ; but it is far better to make a pair of boots than to spend your life in dreaming about building a cathedral. It is nobler to do great things than to do little ones ; but it is better to do little things than to be always thinking about great ones and to end in doing nothing at all.

—W. E. Fowler.

Save the Wattle.

]. Lightly the breath of the spring wind blows,

Though laden with faint perfume,

’Tis the fragrance rare that the bushman knows,

The scent of the wattle bloom.

—A. L. Gordon.

2.    The season for the blossoming of the wattle is again at hand. The appeal for the preservation of these trees, which form one of the natural beauties of our country, though made rather late last year, is believed to have been the means of saving many that would otherwise have been destroyed by ruthless hands.

3.    There can be no objection to the gathering of small bunches of the beautiful blossom, it is the breaking down of large branches, and the stripping and thus killing the trees, that every thoughtful person desires to prevent.

By Authority: Robt. S. Braix, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA,

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., Vo. 26.] MELBOURNE. [Septembee, 1899.

A SPRING SONG.

.    —Marion Miller, Box Hill State School.

1. Sheaves, corn cut and tied in small bundles. Here possibly used to describe closely-growing corn swaying in bunches under the influence of a strong wind.


Clial-ice, cup or bowl.

Az-ure, sky-blue.

1.    Now the wildflower lifts her chalice

To the shining azure sky ;

Spring’s fleet foot is in her palace, And the roses’ reign is nigh.

2.    Life is in the wind that rushes ,

Through the green corn’s swaying sheaves; 1

Hope is in the light that flushes The poppy’s crimson leaves.

3.    Like children’s voices calling

With the joy that youth instils,

Is the sound of waters falling From the distant, purple hills.


In-StilS,' imparts; inspires.

Fra^grant, sweet-smelling.

4.    Every cottage has its bower,

And the peach bloom, as I pass,

In a fragrant, fleecy shower,

Strews its pink stars on the grass.

5.    Birds are in the branches singing,

And the sunlight’s on the dew ;

And the heart’s love words are ringing

Spirit music sweet and true.

6.    Not a note of woe or sadness

Breathes upon the balmy air :

The Creator’s gift of gladness Sheds its glory everywhere.


“GAIN SWEETENS LABOUR.”

Un-gTa-cious, showing no kindness or good will; unpleasing.

Re-spect-ful, marked by regard or consideration.

Sus-pi-cion, doubt; distrust.

A'-ge-bra, science of calculating by symbols, thus forming a kind of universal arithmetic. 12

Un-con-scibus-ly, without knowing it. Re-prov-ing-ly, by way of rebuke. Sym-pa-this-ing, feeling for.

Re-cit^er, person who repeats something written down or committed to memory.

Mar-tial, warlike.

4.    Cut Polly, nothing daunted, took a careful look at the grimy page, and, after a little while, began to read. She read the whole passage so well that Master Tom stopped munching to regard her with respectful astonishment. When she stopped, he said in a tone of suspicion: “You can’t do that again. Turn over a dozen pages and try.” Polly obeyed, and did even better than before.

5.    “ I say, Polly, how came you to know so much ? ” asked Tom, greatly impressed.

“I studied with James, and kept up with him, for Father let us work together in all our lessons. It was so nice, and we learned so fast ! ”

“ Tell me about James. He’s your brother, isn’t he ? ”

6.    “Yes; but Ire’s dead, you know. I’ll tell you about him some other time ; you ought to study now, and perhaps I can help you,” said Polly, with a little quiver of the lips.

7.    “ Shouldn’t wonder if you could.” And Tom spread the book between them with a grave and business-like air, for he felt that his cousin Polly had got the better of him, and that he must do his best for the honour of his sex.

8.    He went at the lesson with a will, and soon conquered his difficulties, for Polly was able to help him here and there; and they went on quite well till they came to some rules to be learned. Polly had forgotten them, so they both began to commit them to memory.

. Tom, with his hands in his pockets, rocked to and fro, muttering rapidly; while Polly twisted a little curl on her forehead and stared at the wall, gabbling with all her might.

9.    “ Done ! ” cried Tom, presently.

“ Done ! ” echoed Polly ; and then they heard each other say the rules.

“ That’s good fun,” said Tom joyfully, tossing the book away, and feeling that the pleasant excitement of companionship would lend a charm even to Latin.

10.    “ How, Polly, we’ll take a turn at algebra. I like that as much as I hate Latin.”

Polly accepted the invitation, and soon owned that Tom could beat her there. He helped his cousin, and explained away her difficulties, unconsciously imitating his teacher, till Polly found it hard to keep from laughing.

“You may have another trial at it any time you like,” generously remarked Tom, as he threw the Algebra after the Latin Reader.

“I ll come every evening, then. You shall try to make me like algebra, and I’ll try to make you like Latin : will you ? ”

11.    “Oh, I’d like it well enough if there was any one to explain it to me. Our teacher puts us through double-quick, and doesn’t give-a fellow time to ask questions when we read.”

“ Ask your father ; he knows.”

“ Don’t believe he does j shouldn’t dare to bother him if he did.”

12.    “Why not?”

“ He’d call me ‘ stupid,’ or tell me not to worry him.”

“ I don’t think he would. He’s very kind to me, and I ask him many questions.”

“ He likes you better than he does me.”

13.    “How, Tom, it’s wrong of you to say so. Of course he loves you ever so much more than he does me,” cried Polly reprovingly.

“ Why doesn’t he show it, then ? ” muttered Tom, with a halfwistful, half-defiant glance towards the library door, which stood ajar.

14.    “ You act so, how can he?” asked Polly, after a pause in which she put Tom’s question to herself, and could find no better reply than the one she gave him.

“ Why doesn’t he give me a bicycle ? He said if I did well at school for a month, I should have one; and I’ve been working hard for six weeks, and he doesn’t make a move to get it. The girls get money for their things because they tease. I’ll not do that; but you don’t catch me studying myself to death, and no pay for it.”

15.    “It is too bad ; but you ought to do it because it’s right, and never mind being paid,” began Polly, trying to be moral, but secretly sympathising heartily with Tom.

“ Don’t you preach, Polly. If my father took any notice of me, and cared how I got on, I wouldn’t mind the presents so much ; but he doesn’t care a pin, and never even asked if I did well last speech-day, when I recited ‘ The Battle of Lake Regillus ’3 just because he said he liked it.”

16.    “0 Tom ! Did you say that ? It’s splendid. Jim and I used to say ‘ Horatius ’ together. Do recite your piece to me.”

“ It’s very long,” began Tom ; but his face brightened, for Polly’s interest soothed his injured feelings, and he was glad to prove his powders as a reciter. He began without much spirit; but soon the martial ring of the lines fired him, and, before he knew it, he was on his feet thundering away in grand style.

17.    Tom did recite well, for he quite forgot himself, and delivered the stirring ballad with an energy that made Polly flush and tingle with delight, and quite astonished a second listener, who had heard a part of the conversation that had just taken place, and was watching the little scene from the doorway of the library.

18.    As Tom paused breathless, and Polly clapped her hands with all her might, the sound was loudly echoed from behind them. Both whirled round, and there was Tom’s father ! Polly ran to Mr. Shaw, saying eagerly : “ Wasn’t it splendid? Didn’t he do it well ? Mayn’t he have his bicycle now ? ”

19.    “Capital, Tom; you’ll be an orator yet. Learn another piece like that for your next speech-night, and I’ll go and hear you say it. Are you ready for your bicycle?”

Pclly was right; and Tom owned to himself that his father was kind, did like him, and hadn’t entirely forgotten his promise. The boy turned red with pleasure, and plucked at the buttons on his jacket while listening to this unexpected praise ; but, when he spoke, he looked straight in his father’s face, while his own shone with pleasure, as he answered all in one breath: “ Thank you, Father. I’ll do it. I’m quite ready for a bicycle.”

20. “Very good; then look out for your new horse to-morrow, Tom.”

Tom got his bicycle the next day, and named it Black Auster, in memory of the horse in “ The Battle of Lake Regillus.”

—L. M. 'Alcott {Adapted).

1.    Car-tha-gin-i-ans, inhabitants of Carthage, an ancient city of northern Africa. Tunis is about 12 miles distant from the ruins of Carthage. The Romans after long years of warfare with the Carthaginians utterly defeated them, and destroyed their city in the year 147 b.c.

2.    Reg-U-lus, Roman hero who, during the war with Carthage, gave up his life for the sake of his

native country, Rome.    *

3.    “ The Bat'-tie of Lake Re-gil-lus ” and “ Ho-ra-ti-US ” are two of the famous Lays (poems) of Ancient Rome” written by Lord Macaulay.

THE WRECK OF THE “HESPERUS.”

SchOOll-er, small ship with two masts. Skip-per, master of a small vtssel.

Flax, blue flower of the flax-plant.

Ope, open ; bloom.

A-main,' with all its force.

Gaible, strong rope used to retain a vessel at anchor, or to tow a vessel. It is about 100 fathoms (600 feet) long.


Weath er, resist; endure ; live through.

Spar, small beam.

Whoop ing (hoop mg), roaring.

I-'Ci-Cles, masses of ice formed by the freezing of dripping water.

Reef ridge of rocks in the sea near the surface. A-ghast,' overcome with fear.

Lashed, tied by a rope, or lash ; bound.



]. It was the schooner “ Hesperus That sailed the wintry sea,

And the skipper had taken his little daughter

To bear him company.


2. Blue were her eyes as the fairy flax, Her cheeks like the dawn of day, And her bosom white as the hawthorn buds

That ope in the month of May.


3.    Down came the storm, and smote

amain

The vessel in its strength ;

She shuddered and paused, like a frighted steed,

Then leaped her cable’s length.

4.     Come hither ! come hither ! my

little daughter,

And do not tremble so ;

For I can weather the roughest gale That ever wind did blow.”

5.    He wrapped her warm2 in his sea

man’s coat

Against the stinging blast ;

He cut a rope from a broken spar, And bound her to the mast.

6.    “0 Father ! I hear the church bells

ring ;

0 say, what may it be ? ”—

’Tis a fog-bell on a rock-bound coast ! ”

And he steered for the open sea.

7.     O Father ! I hear the sound of guns;

O say, what may it be ? ”—

“ Some ship in distress, that cannot live

In such an angry sea ! ”

8.    “ 0 Father ! I see a gleaming light ;

O say, what may it be ? ”

But the father answered never a word,—

A frozen corpse was he !


9. And fast, through the midnight dark

and drear,

Through the whistling sleet and

snow,

Like a sheeted ghost, the vessel swept

Towards the reef of Norman’s Woe.3

10.    The breakers were right beneath

her bows;

She drifted, a dreary wreck,

And a whooping billow swept the crew

Like icicles from her deck.

11.    She struck where the white and

fleecy waves

Looked soft as carded4 wool ;

But the cruel rocks, they gored her side

Like the horns of an angry bull.

12.    At day-break on the bleak sea-

beach

A fisherman stood aghast,

To see the form of a maiden fair Lashed close to a drifting mast.

13.    The salt sea was frozen on her

breast,

The salt tears in her eyes ;

And he saw her hair, like the brown sea-weed,

On the billows fall and rise.

—Henry W. Longfellow (1807-82).


1.    Hes^per-US. Hesperus is the nan e of the planet, Venus, when it is the evening star.

2.    Warm, adjectival form for the ad\ erbial, warmly.

3.    Nor-man’S Woe, rocks lying to the northward of the Channel Islands (or Norman Isles), north-west of France.

4.    Card-ed, combed with a card. A card, in this connection, is an instrument consisting of bent wire teeth set closely in rows in a thick piece of leather. It is used for disentangling and arranging the fibres of wool, cotton, &c.

CURRANTS AND RAISINS.

Mal-lee, dwarf Eucalypt with a number of thin stems springing from a thickened stock.

De-spis-ed, looked down upon with disfavour ; undervalued.

Fer-tile (fer-til or fer-tile), fruitful ; rich ; productive.

Ir-ri-ga-tion, adj., for carrying water so that it may flow over the land and nourish plant life.

Trel-lis, frame or latticewoi k. 13

Vis-i-tors, persons who come to see another. Dis-trib-u-ted, divided among several. Am-ber, yellowish resin found in the ground and on the seashore in many places, particularly along the Prussian coast of the Baltic Sea. Caus-tic, burning ; corrosive ; searing.

E-vap O-rate, pass off in the state of vapour. Lye, strong caustic solution.

Feb-ru-a-ry, second month of the year.

~9~

“ 0, I am delighted with the place, Uncle, but quite astonished to see such fine trees and vines, and thousands of acres of them, too ! Is it reall)r true that this place was nothing but wild land covered with inallee a few years ago ? ”

2.    “Yes; quite true. I came to Mildura in 1890, and there were very few acres planted then. You have now seen for yourself that the mallee land, once despised as worthless, needs hut water to make it wonderfully fertile.”

3.    “We drove down to the Murray, Uncle, and saw the pumps raising the water into the main irrigation channels.”

4.    “That was right. Those pumps might he termed the heart of the settlement, supplying the very life-blood required to nourish the trees and plants on which our existence depends. If they were to stop for too long a time, about nine thousand fertile acres would become a barren waste as it was before. But I remember you told me, when I

, was in Melbourne, that you wished to see the various operations connected with the preparation of currants and raisins. Well, as this is the end of January, you are just in time for the picking of the last of the currants. Let us walk over to the people yonder.”

PICKI MG ZANTE CURRANTS.

5. “ Oh, what lovely vines, Uncle, and what a distance they have run along the wire trellis ! One of them would be sufficient to shade a la rge verandah. What kind of grapes do they produce ? ”

“ They produce Zante currants,1 Frank, and they grow very rapidly.” “What pretty, little, round, black things the grapes are 1 ”

DIPPING THE GRAPES.


“ Hold a bunch up to the light.”

“Ah! I see I was wrong in calling them black : their colour is dark-purple. How very sweet they are! So far I have not met with a single seed. Why are the pickers putting the bunches on those boards, Uncle?”

6. “Those are the drying trays. Come this way. Here you see trays filled with grapes picked three days ago. They have dried up a great deal, and it is very easy to let them dry too much; but these are quite right, so the men are putting them into a sweat-box.” “That’s a strange name for a box, Uncle.”

7.    “Yes, Prank; most of our visitors smile when they first hear it. Look closely at this bunch. Some of its berries are rather too dry, and some not dry enough; but, when the sweat-box is filled with about one and a half hundredweight of them, the moisture becomes distributed evenly throughout the mass. As the sweat - boxes are filled, they are taken in drays to the factory, where the fruit is put through a machine called a stemmer and grader. It breaks the stems off, and winnows them away with all the dust and leaves, and lets the currants drop through a wire sieve. Then the latter are packed in boxes made to hold fifty-six pounds.”

DRYING THE DIPPED GRAPES.


8.    “ So that is the story of the currants that are used for plum-puddings and cakes. I thought once that they grew upon currant bushes! Those vines yonder are not like these, Uncle. What a lovely sight! The grapes look like long drops of clouded amber. What kind of vines are they ?”

9.    “ They are sultanas.2 Everyone admires their long, graceful bunches of fruit.”

“ Are sultana grapes dried in the same way as currants, Uncle ? ”

No ; their berries are larger, and contain a good deal of moisture, which, though their skins are thin, would not evaporate so quickly as it is necessary it should do. Here we are among the pickers. See, children and men are picking the bunches and placing them in tin buckets, which are emptied into large boxes, and carted to where you see the fire and the rising steam.”

10.    “ Surely they are not boiling the grapes, Uncle ! ”

“ Well, hardly that; but we shall soon be there, and you will quickly learn what is being done. That shallow tank on the fire is the dipping tank, and the water it contains has a certain amount of caustic sodadissolved in it to form lye. That wooden frame with the wire-gauge bottom and two handles is the dipping-tray. Now, tell me what you see.”    .

11.    “A man fills the dipping-tray with grapes from one of the large boxes just lifted oif the dray. Another man, wearing a thick apron, takes the tray, and sinks it in the boiling lye for one—two— three seconds. He holds it above the boiler—dipping tank, I mean— to let the lye drain through the wire-gauze bottom, and the rising steam causes him to turn his head aside. He passes the tray to a man who hurries away, and tips the steaming bunches upon another tray. Then a boy spreads them out with a short stick, because, I suppose, he is afraid of burning his fingers, and, when the tray is evenly covered, runs off to put it in line with a great many others.”

12.    “ Good : you made only one mistake. You said ‘boiling ’ lye. It is not boiling, though very near it. If it should begin to boil, the dipper—see, he is doing it now—throws a little cold water into the tank.”

13.    “ But, why are the grapes dipped at all, Uncle ?”

“To hasten the drying. The process makes little cracks in the skin of each one. These allow the moisture in the grape to evaporate more easily.”

“ Could sultanas be dried without dipping them ? ”

“ 0, certainly! but it would take about three weeks, and the raisins would look dark and dull instead of bright and of the colour of amber.”

14.    “ How long will these dipped ones take, Uncle ?”

“ In about two days, they will be turned over upon another tray ; and) in two days more, they will be ready to go into the sweat-boxes. Then, as in the case of the currants, they will be run through the stemmer and grader, and packed in boxes containing fifty-six pounds.”

15.    “I have not yet seen the vines that produce the large pudding raisins, Uncle.”

“ Their grapes will not be ripe until about the middle of February. For the couple of weeks you will be waiting for them to ripen, you will have the opportunity of gaining the best kind of knowledge of the work carried on at Mildura by doing some of it yourself.’’

{To be continued.)

—J. D. Jennings, Irymple State School, near Mildura.

1.    Zan-te (zan-'ta) cur-rants, small grapes (seedless with few exceptions) that are grown extensively on Zante and Cephalonia, two of the Ionian Islands, west of Greece.

2.    Sul-ta-nas (sul-tah-'nahs), small, seedless grapes, originally grown near Smyrna, the capital of Turkey-in-Asia.

3.    Caus-tic SO-da, substance composed of soda, oxygen, and hydrogen. It possesses the property of eating away a substance.

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Crusoe Begins to Explore the Island.

A-bun-dance, great quantity. A-gree-a ble, pleasant. Ap-proach-ing, coming near. Be-lieved( thought.

Bus-i-ness, work.

Cas-sa-va, a plant.

Con-clud-ed, formed the opinion. De-voured/ eaten.

De-cid-ed on, made up one’s mind to. De-liv-er-ance, rescue.

De-sire/ longing.

En-tire-ly, wholly.

Ex-cel-lent, very good. Flour-ish-ing, thriving. Posfsi-bil-i-ty, chance. PrO-dUC-tions, fruits of the earth. Rai-sins, dried grapes. Res-i-dence, dwelling-place. Re-solved/ made up one’s mind. Sur-prised? astonished. Sur-round-ed, enclosed.

Tour, journey.

5.    I found an excellent use for these grapes ; and that was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept. These I thought would be, as indeed they proved, wholesome and agreeable to eat when no grapes could be had.

All the country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, that it looked like a planted garden. I found now I had business enough to gather and carry the grapes home. I resolved to lay up a store of grapes, limes, and lemons, to provide for the wet season,4 which I knew was approaching.

6.    The next day, with this view I went back, having made two small bags to bring home my harvest ; but I was surprised on coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when gathered, to find them all spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. From this I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this, but what they were I knew not.

7.    However, as I found it was no use laying up the fruit in heaps,

and no use carrying them away in a sack—for in one way they would be spoiled, and in the other they would be crushed with their own weight,—1 took a different course. 1 gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the outer branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun ; and, as for the limes and lemons, I took as many back as I could well carry.    —Daniel De Foe.

1.    Make a sur'vey Of, examine closely.

2.    Dif-fer-ent fruits, fruits of many kinds.

3.    In per-fec-tion, at their best.

4.    To pro-Vide7 for the wet sea-son, to make ready for the time when it would be rainingcontinuously for some weeks, as it does in tropical countries.

LET IT PASS.

Of-fencei resentment.

Cor-rOdes', eats away by degrees.

Re-prieve', suspension of the carrying out of a sentence, especially of a sentence of death.

1.    Be not swift to take offence ;

Let it pass !

Anger is a foe to sense;

Let it pass !

Brood not darkly o’er a wrong That will disappear ere long;

Bather sing this cheery song,—

Let it pass ! Let it pass !

2.    Strife corrodes the purest mind ;

Let it pass !

As the unregarded wind,

Let it pass !

Any vulgar souls that live May condemn without reprieve ;

’Tis the noble who forgive :

Let it pass ! Let it pass !

3.    Echo not an angry word ;

Let it pass !

Think how often you have erred ;

Let it pass !


Con-demn', sentence to punishment or loss.

Erred, made a mistake.

Re-sent7, take ill; show anger by thought, word, or deed.

Since our joys must pass away Like the dew-drops on the spray, Wherefore should our sorrows stay ? Let it pass ! Let it pass 1

4.    If for good you’ve taken ill,

Let it pass !

Oh be kind and gentle still!

Let it pass !

Time at last makes all things straight; Let us not resent, but wait,

And our triumph shall be great;

Let it pass ! Let it pass 1

5.    Bid your anger to depart;

Let it pass !

Lay these homely words to heart, “Let it pass ! ”

Follow not the giddy throng ;

Better to be wronged than wrong ; Therefore sing the cheery song,—

Let it pass ! Let it pass !


A BOTANY LESSON.

Crip-ple, lame person.

Bot-a-ny, the science that treats of plants. Pet-i-Ole, leaf-stalk; footstalk of a leaf, connecting the blade with the stem.

Stip-ules, leaf-like growths at the base of the petioles.


CO-roPla, coloured part of a flower, often made up of two or more parts called petals.

Ca-lyx (kd-Wcs), outer covering of a flower. It is usually green. The leaf of a calyx is called a sepal.

Vase (vaz, the “a” as in arm), vessel with a wide, short neck, usually used as an ornament.

Re-peat-ed, went over again ; recited.


1. Two little girls are sitting by a window, bending over some flowers. The one with the pale face and sad eyes is little Alma. She sits all day by the window, for she is a cripple and not in good health.

A, Lamina or Blade; B, Petiole or Leaf-stalk; C, Stipule.


The one with the rosy cheeks and merry eyes is Edith, her sister. Their kind parents and friends provide Alma with many pleasures; but still she is often lonely and sad. Edith tries to be with her as much as she can.

2. Edith goes to school; and she tells her sister every day what she does there, and what she learns. To-day she has had a botany lesson, and now she is telling Alma all she can remember about the parts of a flower.

3.    “ Alma, the stem of a leaf has another name. It is called the petiole.”

“ But see, Edith, here are two baby leaves at the end of the—pet-i-ole—is that right ? ”

“Yes, dear, I am glad you pointed them ont te me. These small leaves are called stipules. And oh, Alma, I learned something so pretty about the flower to-day! The beautiful, coloured part of a flower is called the corolla. Corolla means crown ; that is to say, the flower is the crown of the plant. Is not that beautiful ?”


4.    “ Now, look under the corolla, and see if you can find something else for me to name for you.”

“ Here, Edith, are some little things outside of the corolla ; they are green, but they do not look like leaves.”

“You are right, dear Alma ; they are not leaves. Watch while I pull the corolla out. Now when I hold up this little green part, what does it look like ? ”

5.    “ I think it looks like a cup, Edith.”

“ That is just what it is. It is the cup

to hold the flower—the flower-cup. Its name is calyx. Calyx is a word that means cup.”

“ Look here for a moment, Edith ; in this flower there are some small, yellow things that shake about.1 What are they called?”

6.    Edith could not remember. She promised, however, to ask her teacher the next day, and tell Alma.

A, one of the four Petals; B, numtrous Stamens; C, Pistil—its upper part is called the Stigma. (The Calyx has fallen off.)


Now Alma’s botany lesson was over. Edith put the flowers she had brought into a vase with some fresh water, and took away those that had been there before.

7.    When she had left the room, Alma leaned back her head upon her pillow, and shut her eyes. Then softly she repeated to herself: “ Petiole is the stem of a leaf; stipules are small leaves at the end of the petiole ; corolla, that means crown ;

-calyx, that means cup ; a flower has a cup and a crown.”

1. Small, yellow things that shake about, stamena.

KING LOG OR KING STORK-WHICH ?

Con-tempt' disdain. Dis-sat-is-fied, discontented. Be-seech-ing, begging earnestly.


Pe-ti-tioned, made a formal request to. Survey, view.

Re-spectrful, marked by due regard or consideration.

1.    Once upon a time, the frogs in a certain swamp, having grown quite weary of following their own devices, assembled one day, and, after many speeches had been made, petitioned Jupiter to let them have a king to keep those who needed it in better order and make them lead honester lives.

2.    Jupiter smiled at their request, and forthwith threw down a log

among them. It fell with a great splash, and the frogs rushed away, and for a long time dared not come within ten leaps’ {    .


length of the spot where it lay.

3.    At length, one frog bolder than the rest ventured to pop his head above the water, and take a survey of the king at a respectful distance.

Presently, when it was seen that the log did not move, several swam up to it and round it. Growing by degrees bolder and bolder, they began leaping upon it, and treating it with the greatest contempt.

4.    Dissatisfied with so tame a ruler, they forthwith petitioned Jupiter a second time for another and more active king. Upon which he sent them a stork, who no sooner arrived than he began laying hold of all that came in his way, and devouring them one by one as fast as he could.

5.    A third time they petitioned Jupiter, beseeching him to take pity on them once more; but Jupiter replied that they were only suffering the punishment due to their folly, and that another time they might probably have the good sense to leave well alone.

—From TEsop’s Fables.

HOW GENERAL SHAFTER LEARNED A LESSON IN

SELF-RELIANCE.

Ap-par-ent-ly, seemingly; in appearance. Su-premei greatest possible; highest. Con-tempt; disdain; scorn.

Vex-a-tion, annoyance; chagrin.


Judg-ment, understanding; power of coming to a decision.

Crit-i-cised, found fault; expressed views as to merit or demerit.

De-ter-mi-na-tion, purpose; decision; judgment.


1.    Once, when I was a boy at school—I wasn’t more than ten or eleven years old at the time,—our teacher called a class out on the floor for mental arithmetic. His plan was to begin by putting a question to the pupil at the head of the class, and, if he couldn’t answer it, to ask the next, and so on. I stood somewhere near the middle of the class ; and just below me was a boy who was both older than I and a better scholar. “ How much are thirteen and nine and eight ? ” the teacher asked.

2.    While one after another of the boys and girls above me tried and failed to get it right, I worked out the question, and had the answer ready. My turn had almost come, when I heard the big boy just below me whispering, apparently to himself, but loud enough for me to hear, “twenty-nine, twenty-nine, twenty-nine.”

3.    Finally, the pupil above me failed to answer correctly, and then I was asked.

Putting my head proudly on one side, and casting a look of triumph upon those who had missed, I raised my voice so that everyone in the room might hear, and said, “ Twenty-nine.”

“ Next, how many are thirteen and nine and eight ?”

“Aw,” said the big boy below me, with a look of supreme contempt at the rest of us, “ Thirty.”

4.    That is what I myself had made it; and, when the teacher said “ Correct,” I was almost beside myself with vexation. I made up my mind then and there to depend on my own judgment in the future; ancl, ever since, when I have had anything to do, and have made up my mind as to the best way to do it, I have gone ahead, remembering, when people criticised and tried to shake my determination, how that big boy made a fool of me in the mental arithmetic class.

1. Gen-er-al Shaft-er was the commander of the land forces in Cuba during the recent war

between the United States and Spain.

FROM OUR NOTE BOOK.

Snow in Melbourne.

1.    For a short time early in the afternoon of the 7th of August, Melbourne was covered with a mantle of snow. About 1 o’clock, after heavy rain in the morning, a few feathery white specks began to fall at wide intervals. Then the slow-moving white flakes fluttered down more frequently ; and, as the spaces between them lessened gradually, Melbourne rejoiced in seeing something in the way of snow.

2.    Boys on their way to school rushed to the drifts in the corners, and engaged gleefully in the pleasure of snow-balling. For the first time probably in their lives, they were able to enjoy for a brief period the pastime dear to their English brothers.

SCENE AT CURRAJONG-ROAD, HAWTHORN, NEAR MELBOURNE.

(From a photograph kindly lent by Master Sydney Bock.)

3.    The snow that fell was real snow as distinguished from hail or sleet, but not wholly the snow that people living in elevated regions, or in countries more remote from the Equator than Melbourne, are acquainted with. Had there been no wind, it would have been perfectand, though the flakes that fell to the leeward of any obstruction (for example, the fence in the picture) would pass the most severe test, those that were carried before the wind made a rattling sound in falling, which is not heard from a true snowflake.

4.    It was not only in the city that the snow was seen, but over nearly the whole of the southern part of the colony. Since the days of Batman, it is said that snow has fallen but twice before in Melbourne, namely, in 1850 and in 1882.

Good Advice.

1.    The following extract is from the interesting speech made by the Honourable W. L. Allardyce, Assistant Colonial Secretary, Fiji, at the speech-night of the Suva Public School, held just before the midwinter holidays :—

2.    “Pleasurable as prizes are—tokens of hard work,—it must not be forgotten that there are only a limited number of prizes available, and that frequently the head scholar only in each class is given one. We should remember that there may be many scholars who are just about equal, therefore my advice to those who do not carry off prizes to-day is, be not discouraged, but stick steadily to your work. Those of you who are leaving school for good, and are about to follow in this colony or in Federated Australia tbe callings or professions which you may have selected, or which may have been selected for you, I would ask to bear in mind three things :—(1) What you find to do, do it with your might; (2) if a thing is worth doing at all, it is worth doing well; and (3) to quote the words of one of oui great poets—

* There is a tide in the affairs of men Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune ;

Omitted, all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries.’

I have no hesitation in saying that the foregoing, if carefully adhered to, are the key-stone to, and must produce, success. Let me remind you that school is after all but the preparation for the battle of life, and those who steadily apply themselves to their studies, and take advantage of the opportunities placed within their reach, are more likely to succeed hereafter than those who have been idle and have wasted their time.”

The Silk Hat.

1.    An old newspaper, dated the 16th of January, 1797, gives an amusing account, from which the following is taken, of the wearing of the first silk hat in London.

John Hetherington, haberdasher, was brought before the Lord Mayor yesterday, on a charge of breach of the peace and inciting to riot, and was required to give bonds to the amount of £500.

2.    It was in evidence that Mr. Hetherington appeared on the public highway wearing upon his head what he called a silk hat, a tall structure having a shiny appearance, and calculated to frighten timid people. As a matter of fact, the officers of the Crown stated that several women fainted at the unusual sight, while children screamed, dogs yelped, and a boy, who was returning from a grocer’s shop, was thrown down by the crowd that had collected, and had his right arm broken. For these reasons the defendant was seized, and taken before the Lord Mayor.

3.    The defendant claimed that he had not broken any law of the kingdom, but was merely exercising his right to appear in a headdress of his own design—a right not denied to any Englishman.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 27.] MELBOURNE.    [October, 1899.

SPRING IS COMING.

An^i-ma-tion, liveliness; state of being in life. Flour-ish ing, thriving; growing luxuriantly. Quiv-er, shake.

1. Spring is coming ! spring is coming ! Birds are chirping, insects humming, Flowers are peeping from their sleeping,

Streams escaped from winter’s keeping,14

In delighted freedom rushing,

Dance along in music gushing ;

Scenes of late in deadness sadden’d Smile in animation gladden’d :

All is beauty, all is mirth,

All is glory upon earth.

Shout we, then, with Nature’s voice— Welcome spring ! rejoice ! rejoice !


Verd-ure-bor-dered, having its banks clothed with flourishing vegetation, such as grass, shrubs, &c.

2. Spring is coming ! Come, my brother, Let us rove with one another,

To our well-remember’d wild-wood, Flourishing in nature’s childhood, Where a thousand flowers are springing,

And a thousand birds are singing ; Where the golden sunbeams quiver On the verdure-border’d river ;

Let our youth of feeling out To the youth of Nature shout,

While the waves repeat our voice— Welcome spring ! rejoice ! rejoice !

—James Nack.


1. Streams es-caped' from win-ter’s keep-ing, the ice, to which in part the streams were changed by the cold during winter, having melted. The scene described is in a much colder country than Victoria.

THE LITTLE MINUTE-MAN.

Tac-tlCS, method of proceeding; plan. Un-ex-pect-ed-ly, without warning.

Li-bra-ry, room containing a collection of books ; collection of books.

Reg-i ment, body of about 900 soldiers commanded by a colonel.

Pen-du-lum, part of a clock, consisting of a weight hung so as to swing freely, and to regulate the movements of the wheels.

Rec-og-nised, made out to be.

Re^al-ised, had it impressed upon his mind.

Suc-ceed-ed, was successful; accomplished what was attempted.

by Towser, the dog. Should these tactics fail to discourage the British, he intended to retire behind a stone fort he had built on the lawn between the two large elms, and to fire stones at the invaders, until they fell back in confusion, while his mother would look on and encourage him from the front porch.

4.    When the redcoats unexpectedly appeared in the distance one afternoon in May, what Brinton really did was to run helter-skelter down the road, up the broad path to the house, through the front hall into the library, close the door, and then peep out of the window to watch them go by.

5.    When he first caught sight of the soldiers, Brinton was sure there was at least a regiment of them : but, when they were opposite the front gate, all that he could see were a corporal and three privates. Instead of keeping on their way, however, they turned up the path towards the house, and then it seemed to Brinton that they were the most gigantic human beings he had ever seen.

6.    His mother was away for the day, and had taken Towser with her. This, together with the fact that the enemy was now between him and his fort, entirely spoilt Brinton’s plan of action, and he decided to seek at once some more secluded spot, and there to plan something to meet the changed conditions. But, when he started to run out of the room, he found that, in his hurry, he had left the front door open, so that anyone in the hall would be in full sight of the soldiers, who were now very near. Unfortunately, there was no other door by which Brinton could leave the room. What was worse, there was no cupboard in which he could hide. The soldiers were now so close at hand that he could hear their voices ; and a glance through the window showed him that two of them were going round to the back of the house, as if to cut off any possible escape in that direction.

7.    His mother would not be back until six o’clock. His eyes sought the face of the tall, grandfather’s clock in the corner. It was just three o’clock, and he could hear the soldiers’ steps in the front porch.

“ The clock ! ” Surely there was room within its huge case for a small boy.

8.    In less time than it takes to write it, Brinton was inside, and had turned the button with which the door was fastened. As he pressed himself close against the door, so that there should be room for the pendulum to swing behind him, he heard the corporal enter the room. He knew it must be the corporal, because he ordered the other man to go upstairs and look round there, while he searched the room on the other side of the hall.

Brinton could hear the footsteps of the men as they walked about the house, and their voices as they talked to one another. Then all was quiet for a long time. He was just on the point of peeping out, when all four men entered the room.

9.    “ Well,” said a voice that he recognised as the corporal’s, “it’s clear there’s no one at home. My own impression is that the bird has flown. He has probably started back for Washington’s camp, and the wife and child with him. I don’t believe in paying attention to what those fellows say. How did they know the Major was coming home to-day ? ”

Nobody answered him. Perhaps he didn’t expect anyone to do so.

10.    “ The Major ! ” Brinton’s own father ! He was coming home. This then was the surprise that his mother had said she would bring him, when she went off with Towser in the morning to go to Colonel Shepherd’s. And now these redcoats were going to sit there and wait until he came, and then—Brinton did not know what would happen, whether his dear father would be shot on the spot, or merely put in prison for the rest of his life.

11.    Oh, if he could only get out and run to meet his father, and warn him ! But the men seemed to give no signs of leaving the room.

“ Perhaps he hasn’t come at all yet,” suggested one of the privates.

12.    “Perhaps he hasn't,” answered the corporal; “hut why, then, wouldn’t his folks be here waiting for him ? However, I’ll give him every chance. It’s now five-and-twenty minutes after three. I’ll give him until six, and, if he hasn’t arrived then, we’ll start for the shore without him.”

13.    “ Six o’clock I ” said the hoy in the clock to himself. The very time his mother had told him she would he home again, with something very nice for him.” And now she and his hrave father would walk right into the arms of these dreadful soldiers, and he could not stop them.

14.    “Whang !” what a noise. It startled Brinton so much that he nearly knocked the clock over ; and then he realised that it was only the clock striking half-past three. Half-past three !

He had been in there only half an hour, and already he was so tired that he could hardly stand up. How could he ever endure what he was suffering until four, and until five, six o’clock ?

15.    “ If only something, some accident even, would happen to detain Papa and Mamma ! ” he thought. But how much more likely, it occurred to him, that his father, having but a short leave of absence, would make great haste and arrive before six.

“ Tick-tock, tick-tock ! ” went the clock.

“ How slow, how very slow ! ” thought Brinton; and he wished there was some way of hurrying up the time, so that the soldiers would soon go away.

16.    Still the soldiers stayed in the room, all but one, who had gone into the kitchen to watch from there.

“ Tick-tock,” went the clock, and “ whang-whang-whang-whang.” Only four o’clock. Brinton began to fear he could not hold on much longer.

17.    “ Tick-tock,” went the clock. Each swing of the pendulum marked one second, Brinton’s mother had told him. If he could only make it swing quicker, so that the seconds would fly faster.

18.    “ Why not try to ? ” Brinton was on the point of breaking down. He was desperate. He felt that he must do something. He took hold of the pendulum and gave it a little push. It yielded readily to his pressure. None of the soldiers seemed to notice it. He gave it another push. The result was the same. Brinton began to pick up courage, and he pushed the pendulum to and fro, to and fro, to and fro.

19.    He tried to keep it swinging at a perfectly even rate, and evidently he succeeded, for the soldiers seemed to notice nothing different. Yet Brinton was sure that he was causing the old clock to tick off its seconds much faster than usual. Half-past four came almost before he knew it; but, by five o’clock, Brinton began to realise that he was very, very tired.

20.    He had already stood quite still in that cramped, dark place for two hours ; and he had pushed the pendulum, first with one hand, then the other, in that narrow space, until both felt sore. Yet, now that he had once begun, he did not dare to leave off, and still it did not seem possible that he could keep on.

21.    The soldiers had remained very quiet for a long time. Brinton thought that two of them must be napping. At five o’clock, the soldier who was awake aroused the corporal and the other private, whom the corporal sent to relieve the man on guard in the kitchen.

22.    “I must have slept very sound,” replied the corporal. “I would never have believed that I’d been asleep an hour if I hadn’t the clock before me.”

“No sign of anyone yet,” reported the man in the kitchen, whom Brinton judged to be an Irishman. “ Are you going to wait until six ?

“Yes,” answered the corporal ; “but no longer.”

23.    Then they began to talk of the British fleet that was cruising in Long Island Sound,2 and about the ship on which they were quartered until they could join the main body of the army, and how a neighbour of Brinton’s father and mother had been down at the store when a ship’s boat had put in for water, and how he had told the officer in charge that Major Hall, Brinton’s father, was expected home for a few hours that day, and what a fine opportunity it would be to make an important capture. The clock struck half-past five.

“ H’m ! ” grunted the corporal, “ it doesn’t seem so late ; but, you know, you can’t tell anything in this silly country.”

24.    Brinton now began to be very much afraid that his father would come before the soldiers left. He wanted to move the pendulum faster and faster ; but, after what the corporal had said, he did not dare to. Then, when the man lapsed into silence, it suddenly came over Brinton how dreadfully weary he was, how all his bones ached, and how much, how very much, he wanted to cry. But he felt that his father’s only chance of safety lay in his keeping the pendulum swinging to and fro, to and fro.

25.    At last, however, came the welcome sound of the corporal’s voice bidding the men get ready to start.

“ Whang-whang-whang-whang-whang-whang.”

“ Fall in ! ” ordered, the corporal. “ March ! ”

As the sound of their footsteps died away, Brinton, all of a tremble, opened the door of the clock, and stumbled out. He knelt at the window, and watched the retreating forms of the soldiers. As they disappeared down the road, he heard a noise behind him, and jumped up with a start.

26. There stood his father. The next moment, Brinton was sobbing in his arms. His mother came into the room.

“ Dear me,” she said, “ whatever can be the matter with the clock ? It’s half an hour fast.”

*******

Did she ever find out why ? This question I will leave you to

decide amongst yourselves, readers.

1.    Gen^er-al Wash-ing-ton, first president of the United States of America. The incident related in the tale is supposed to have occurred during the American War of Independence (1775-83), when the colonists were fighting against British troops sent from England.

2.    Long IsUand Sound, between Long Island and the mainland, north-east of the United States of America.

THE SANDS OF DEE.

1.    “Oh, Mary, go and call the cattle home,

And call the cattle home,

And call the cattle home,

Across the sands of Dee.” 1 The western wind was wild and dark with foam, And all alone went she.

2.    The western tide crept up along the sand,

And o'er and o’er the sand,

And round and round the sand,

As far as eye could see.

The rolling mist came down and hid the land : And never home came she.

3.    ‘‘ Oh, is it weed, or fish, or floating hair—

A tress of golden hair,

A drowned maiden’s hair,

Above the nets at sea ? ”

Was never salmon yet that shone so fair Among the stakes15 of Dee.

4. They rowed her in across the rolling foam,

The cruel, crawling foam,

The cruel, hungry foam,

To her grave beside the sea.

But still the boatmen hear her call16 the cattle home,

Across the sands of Dee.

—Charles Kingsley.

1. Dee, river rising in Bala Lake, in the north of Wales, and flowing northward into the Irish Sea, which it enters by a broad estuary. The tide comes up suddenly across the level sands that form the shore in some places.

2.    Stakes, posts to which fishing nets are fastened. The dead body of the poor girl had become entangled among these stakes.

CURRANTS AND RAISINS —continued.

Trel-lised, supported by a frame or latticework.

Sac-cha-rine, having the qualities of sugar; sugary.

Mus-ca-tel, pertaining to muscat grapes. (The name muscat is given to several varieties of grapes that have a somewhat musky flavour.)


Lye, solution of caustic potash or soda. Des-serti belonging to the last course at dinner. Skil-ful, clever; expert.

Es-ti-mate, rough calculation.


1. “Now, Frank, are yon ready for some further training in grapedrying ? ”

“ Yes, Uncle, thank you, my two weeks’ work amongst the Zantes and sultanas has made me all the more eager to learn about the pudding raisins—‘ gordos ’ I think the dipper called them.”

A GORDO BLANCO VINE.


“Try some of them, Frank.”

“I like them very much, Uncle : they have a tine, rich flavour.”

“ Yes ; the pickers never grow tired of them. Gordos are a kind of muscatel grape. Their rich, musky flavour makes them the best raisins for a plum-pudding, but their seeds are a great trouble to the cooks.”

5.    “Are gordos picked, dipped, and dried, in the same way as sultanas ? ”

“Yes, except as regards the lye. That is made about twice as strong, because the skins of the gordos are thicker. Gordos also require about two days longer to dry before they are ready for the sweat-boxes. When dry, they are called lexias. That man on the drying-ground yonder is putting some into sweat-boxes. Let us go to him.”

6.    “ He is sorting them into two kinds, Uncle,—one is of a bright amber colour, the other of a brown hue.”

“ Yes ; he is sorting them into what we call golden lexias and brown lexias.”

“ Will they be put through the stemmer and grader next, Uncle ? ”

7.    “ Yes; the lexias, as you see, vary much in size, and the sieves, in the grading part of the machine, separate them into three sizes—large, medium, and small. Nearly all the small ones are seedless, so we call them muscat sultanas. There is still another kind of raisin that we make—the best of all.”

8.    “ I know—the dessert raisin. I was just about to ask you what kind of vine produces dessert raisins.”

“ The gordo.”

“ But the dessert raisins I have seen in Melbourne were of quite a different colour to lexias, Uncle.”

9.    “ So are ours. The difference is owing to the treatment they undergo. In the next block of land, there are some girls picking bunches for London layers, or simply layers—the best of dessert raisins. Let us go and watch them at work.”

“ I see, Uncle, that they cut a bunch off very carefully, and place it gently upon a drying-tray close by.”

10.    “Notice also that a bunch is taken by the stalk, and that the berries are not handled,”

“ What harm could the handling of them do ? ”

“ Examine a gordo grape closely. You see it is covered with a delicate, waxy covering of a bluish tint, called bloom. How easily the finger rubs it off! Now, if the bloom is injured, the quality of the raisin is lowered. When they are ready for sale, the bluish tint should still be on them.”

11.    “ Hoes not the lye take the bloom off, Uncle ?”

“ It would, no doubt ; but we don’t dip layers. Like Robinson Crusoe we simply pick the bunches of grapes and let them dry in the sun. It certainly takes a long time to dry them ; but there is no help for that.

12.    “ As the bunches dry, they are put into sweat-boxes, and sent to the packing-house, where skilful packers, women, as a rule, snip off the


THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.    [Oct.,


imperfect raisins with a small pair of scissors, and then fill up the gaps with suitable pieces from other bunches.

13. “Afterthe bunches are trimmed and made up in this way, they are packed in shallow boxes lined with fancy papers.”

“ I should like to see the packers at work, Uncle, but my holiday will be over before they begin.”

14. “ Never mind, Frank, I shall send you a sample box, so that you may see for yourself the result at any rate of the raisin-packer’s art. I must now take you for a drive through the settlement to give you an idea of the area under cultivation; and, on the way, I shall be glad to answer any questions you may ask.”

“How much weight do the grapes lose in drying, Uncle ?”

DRYING DIPPED GORDOS.


15.    “A drying-tray holds about twenty pounds of gordos, and they dry down to five or six pounds of raisins. Let us stop just a minute to look at this very good block. See, there is a tray at each vine filled with gordos drying for London layers ; and the owner and his children are going over the vines a second time for lexias.”

16.    “ What a number of children are picking !”

“ Yes, the three schools on the settlement must be almost empty during February and March. I want to show you a fine lot of lexias that are drying near the bank of the river. There they are—about six thousand trays full of them.”

17.    “Has any estimate been made, Uncle, of the quantity of currants and raisins that will be dried in Mildura, this year ?”

“ Yes ; we shall have about eight tons of dessert raisins, twenty-five of currants, fifty of sultanas, and fully eight hundred and fifty of lexias, if not more—a little short of one thousand tons in all. When the Murray is high enough for the steamers to run again, they will have plenty to carry away.”

18.    “Well, Uncle, I have had a splendid holiday. In what way can I show you how much I have enjoyed myself?”

“ You need have no difficulty, Frank ; I shall be amply repaid if you come up to see us in July, when the oranges will be ripe, or, in November, when we shall be busy drying apricots.”

—J. D. Jennings, Irymple State School, near Mildura.

BETTER THAN GOLD.

Shrine, sacred place.

Hav-en, harbour; port; shelter Hal-lowed, made sacred.

De-creei law ; purpose; order.

Af-flic-tion, sorrow; misfortune. Van-i-ties, vain pursuits ; idle shows. Pros-trate, lying flat; cast down


Grand-eur, greatness; grand or splendid appearance.

Sym-pa-thies, fellow-feeling.

Balm, something that heals or soothes.

Realms, regions.

Ore, compound of a metal with some other substance. Here means gold.

1. Better than grandeur, better than gold, Than rank or titles a hundredfold,

Is a healthful body, a mind at ease,

And simple pleasures that always please.

A heart that can feel for a neighbour’s woe, And share in his joy with a friendly glow, With sympathies large enough to infold All men as brothers, is better than gold.

2. Better than gold is the sweet repose

Of the sons of toil when their labours close; Better than gold is the poor man’s sleep,

And the balm that drops on his slumbers deep. Better than gold is a thinking mind,

That in realms of thought and books can find A treasure surpassing Australian ore,

And live with the great and the good of yore.

3.    Better than gold is a peaceful home,

Where all the fireside charities come—

The shrine of love, the haven of life,

Hallowed by mother, or sister, or wife.

However humble that home may be,

Or tried with sorrows by Heaven’s decree,

The blessings that never were bought or sold,

And centre there, are better than gold.

4.    Hotter than gold in affliction’s hour

Is the balm of love, with its soothing power;

Better than gold on a dying-bed

Is the hand that pillows the sinking head.

When the pride and glory of life decay,

And earth and its vanities fade away,

The prostrate sufferer needs not to be told That trust in Heaven is better than gold.

—Alexander Smart.

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

DAILY LIFE ON THE ISLAND.

Cas-U-al-ly, by chance. Dis-cour-ag-ing, disheartening. Drought, absence of rain. Ex-act-ly, just. Ex-ceed-ing-ly, very. Ex-pe-ri-ence, knowledge. Ex-per-i-ments, trials. Im-ag-ined, thought.

Per-fect-ly, quite. Pleas-ant-ly, nicely; well. Quan-ti-ty, amount. Re-main-ing, that was left. Res-i-dence, dwelling-place. Vi-O-lent-ly, hard. Yield-ed, gave.

a door or way out, which reached beyond my fence or wall ; and I came in and out this way.

5. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, in my sea-side residence, I was in a perfect enclosure ; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed to anything that might come in upon me. Nevertheless I could hot perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat. 17

I sowed my grain. But, as I was sowing, it casually occurred to me3 that I should not sow it all at first, because I did not know what was the proper time for it; so I sowed about two-thirds of the seeds, leaving about a handful of each.

8.    It was a great comfort to me that I did so, for not one grain of what I sowed came at that time to anything : the dry months following, the seed had no moisture to assist its growth, and it did not sprout till the wet season had come again. Then, however, it grew as if it had been hut newly sown.

9.    Meanwhile, finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined was on account of the drought, I sought for a moister place to make another trial in ; and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in the following February. This, having the rainy months of March and April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly, and yielded a fair crop ; but, having only part of the seed left, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity after all: my whole crop did not amount to above half a peckof each kind.

10.    By this experiment, however, I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when it was the proper season to sow, and that I might expect two seed-times and two harvests every year.

—Daniel De Foe.

1.    During this confinement ... by the rain, while I was kept in by the rain.

2.    To pro-Vide' for them ac-cord-ing-ly, to make ready for them in a way that was suitable.

3.    Oc-cur^red to me, came into my mind.    4. Half a peck, the eighth part of a bushel.

THE SKYLARK.

Mel-O-dy, sweet or agreeable succession of sounds; sweet song.

Prac-tised, experienced; skilled.

Spiral, curve that advances like a coiled wire spring, or widens like the spring- of a clock. 18

Baize, kind of woollen cloth.

Scythe, instrument for mowing grass.

Dome, shape like half a globe, or like the sky. Op-por-tu-ni-ty, At or convenient time; chance.

4.    The nest of the lark is concealed in some hollow of the ground large enough to hold it. Here it is not readily discovered on account of the quiet colour of the dry grass, leaves, and hair, of which it is made. It is usually, also, covered with leaves and tufts of grass, so as to be almost hidden from sight.

5.    The bird does not seek the society of man, but it does not seem to be much alarmed when he comes near. One sitting on her nest was passed over by the mower’s scythe, which cut away the grass that hid her nest from view, but did not injure her. She did not fly; and a person who returned in an hour to see if she was safe, found that she had built a dome over herself with dry grass, leaving an opening to pass in and out.

6.    A gentleman riding on horseback once had a lark drop suddenly on the saddle before him, with wings outstretched, as if wounded to death. But, when he tried to lay his hands on it, it moved over the horse, and finally fell to the ground between the

A SKYLARK.

horse’s feet. As the rider looked up, he saw a hawk ready to pounce upon the lark as soon as it should leave its place of refuge. Afterwards, it again mounted the saddle, and, at the first opportunity, flew into the hedge beside the road, and was safe.

7. A pair of larks had hatched a brood of young in a field of grass. The grass had to be cut before the young ones could fly, and, as the mowers approached the nest, the old birds were very much alarmed ; finally, the mother laid herself flat on the ground, with wings outspread, and the father, by pulling and pushing, drew one of the young on her back. She flew awav with that, and soon returned for another. This time the father took his turn, and thus they carried away all the young before the mowers reached the place.

—Selim H. Peabody.

1. Jer-e-my Tay-lor (1613-67), English bishop and author.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

Arbour Day.

Arbour day is a public acknowledgment of our dependence upon the soil for our daily bread. In recognition of this fact, the Emperor of China annually ploughs a furrow with his own hand. Our observance is even a better one than that, because it calls on the boys and girls in our schools to join in the duty which we owe to all mankind to preserve the fertility of the soil, and to prevent it, as far as possible, from becoming worn out, and bare. We do this by planting of every sort, and by preserving vegetation. We give solemnity to the observance by joining in it, young and old together, on an appointed day.

Destruction of Birds for Ornamenting Hats.

“ Really appalling !” These words are used by the British consul in Venezuela, in describing the destruction of birds for the purpose of supplying feathered ornaments for ladies’ hats. He estimates that the number of birds killed in 1898 for this purpose was 1,538,738. About 750 birds have to be killed to produce 2 lbs. of the smaller feathers. “It is to be feared,” he says, “that this waste will within an appreciable time exhaust the supply.”

“ How long,” says a writer in Woman's World, “ will ladies allow this wholesale murder to go on ? ”

NOTICE.

Teachers’ Examinations.

Answers to the queries placed before the Department from time to time by teachers with regard to future examinations are to be found in the amended Regulation V. lately issued.

Pupil-teachers who are already in the service or may be appointed before the 1st of January, 1900, are eligible to enter for the examination under either the Old or the New Programme. The same provision applies to monitors.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

1.    The English, not the American, practice in spelling words is followed in The School Paper. Thus, in such words as organise, systematise, the s in the affix is used in preference to z, Chambers’s Etymological Dictionary being taken as a guide in respect to this point.

2.    Of the two forms in use, namely, develop and clevelope, the former is much to be preferred.

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CHIPS.

A plain is a level tract of land the elevation of which above the sea is less than 1,000 feet.

A plateau or table-land is a level tract of land the elevation of which above the sea is 1,000 feet or over.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 28.] MELBOURNE. [Novembeb, 1899.

IN THE HOUR OF TRIUMPH.

Vic-tors, conquerors; those who defeat an enemy in battle.

Op-press-ors, those who impose unjust burdens on others.

1.    He stood in the front of the victors

As they marched through the crowded street,

Hearing the shouts of triumph Which ever the victors greet.

2.    They came from the din of battle,

Covered with wounds and fame, Where many a gallant hero Had won an honoured name.

3.    Though all had their meed of

glory,

His was the foremost name That the eager crowd was shouting, As onwards the victors came.


Mar^tial, suited for war; military ; warlike. Tar^aish, soil; sully; stain.

Tri£amph, joy for success ; victory.

4.    And what were his thoughts, I wonder,

As he entered his native town,

And knew that his hand had helped To crush the oppressors down?

5.    Hid he think of his future glory?

Did he think of the fame he had won?

No! he thought of his mother’s

pleasure

In the deeds of her only son.

6.    And there, in the moment of triumph,

While loud shouts rent the air, While his feet kept step to the martial tune,

He bent his head in prayer,—


7. And prayed that, whatever the future For him might hold in store,

He never should grieve her loving heart,

Nor tarnish the name she bore.

—Sesca Lewin Somerville.

THE ENGINE-DRIVER’S STORY.

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hoary tree;



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ti :    li I si . mi : f'i . Si

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O the sunny summer time ! O the leafy summer time !

Merry is the bird’s life when the year is in its prime.

Some are strong and some are weak, some love day and some love night;

But whate’er a bird is, whate’er loves it has delight

In the joyous song it sings, in the liquid air it cleaves,

In the sunshine, in the shower, in the nest it weaves.


Do we wake or do we sleep, go our fancies in a crowd,    .

After many a dull care, birds are singing, singing loud.

Sing then linnet, sing then wren, merle and mavis sing your fill;

And thou rapt’rous skylark, sing and soar up from the hill,

Sing, oh nightingale 1 and pour out for us sweet fancies new,

Singing thus for us birds, we will sing for you.


Valve, lid to an aperture, so arranged as to open in one direction only.

En-COur-a-ging, urging ; favouring; furnishing ground to hope. 19

Mi-rac-u-lous, performed by the direct agency

of God.

Stat-ue, image.

Ac-tu-al-ly, in fact; really.

3.    I got quite to know those people, and hard-working folks they were. Before they had been there six months, that bit of wilderness began to look like a little garden of Eden ; and, before long, two more families came and built their log-honses in the neighbourhood. I kept up my acquaintanceship with those first folks, though we never spoke, for I always went by them at twelve miles an hour. The little ones used to stand at the door and cheer; and, whenever I caught sight of the husband and wife, I would wave my hat to them, so that, as time' went on, they generally used to come out also, when they heard the train.

4.    We became such friends at last, that I used to buy lollies and biscuits, and throw them into the yard as I went by, for the children to scramble after ; and that is what caused the event of which I am about to give an account.

5.    One afternoon, as we drew near the clearing where my friends-(as I called them) were living, I began to feel in my pockets for a, couple of bags of something that I had bought, when my fireman said, “ Hollo ! what’s that on the line ? ”

“ A cow, I suppose,” said I.

“ No ; I don’t think so,” he said; “ why—why—it’s three children ! ”

6.    “ Sound-” I did not stop to finish the sentence, but opened

the little valve myself, making the still air quiver with the shrill scream it sent far and wide.

“ That’s moved them,” said my fireman, laughing to see the little distant figures scamper away.

7.    “ I thought it would,” I said; and then, with my hand on the valve, I made the thing shriek again and again, for there was one of the children still just in the middle of the track.

8.    In a moment, a queer sort of feeling came over me, one that for a time took all the nerve from my limbs, so that I could not move ; while, as if from the same feeling, my fireman stood staring with all his might straight at the poor child.

9.    We were too near for it to have done any good even if we had reversed the engine f and, with a groan that seemed to force itself out of my breast, I told myself it was in consequence of encouraging the children with presents that this was going to happen. There, seeing* no danger, was a bright-eyed, long-haired little thing, dancing about and waving its hands as we came swiftly on.

10.    It takes me some time to tell it, but what happened took only a few moments: and there it all is now, like a picture that, having once been seen, can never be forgotten. It was a sunshiny afternoon, with all looking bright: the log-house in the midst of its patch of flowers ; the children by the side of the line ; and their mother running out wild and frantic, but only to drop down in the path, half-way between the door and where the child was dancing and waving its little hands as we glided on.

11.    I felt as one sometimes does in a nightmare dream, when the-will is there to do something, only a dreadful fear holds the dreamer back, and he can see danger coming,nearer and nearer, and yet can do*

AN EXPRESS TRAIN. VICTORIA.

nothing to avoid it. Neither the fireman nor I spoke, but both of as stood there, one on each side, leaning forward, as helpless as the poor little child in front, till, with almost a yell, I fought clear of the power that held me, and, with the feeling that it was all in vain, crept along the side of the engine, and lay down with my arms extended in front of the cow-catcher.

12.    Only moments ! but moments that seemed like hours, as, with its hurrying, jumping motion, the engine dashed on, as I told myself, to crush out the life of that poor little innocent. I wanted to shut my eyes to keep out the horrible sight, but I dared not; and, though now I seemed to be doing what might save the child’s life, 1 could not think that possible. There the child was, just in front, and yet we appeared to come no nearer.

13.    Twenty yards—ten yards! Were we never going to pass over the spot ? or would some miraculous power stop the engine ? I tried to shout, but only a strange hoarse noise came from my throat ; I wanted to wave my hands, but they remained stretched out helplessly toward the child.

14.    Five yards—four-—three! There was the child laughing in its innocent glee, for it was expecting some little present from me, its murdefer, as I was calling myself, who lay motionless as a statue.

15.    "Two yards—one ! At last all was over ! There was a shock,— so I thought,—as we dashed down upon the little thing, who seemed to stretch out its hands to mine, and to actually jump into my arms. Then, with it tightly grasped, we were still going on and on, I with my eyes shut, but feeling that I had the child tightly held to my breast, and yet not able to look to see if it was hurt.

16.    Then I don’t know how it was, but I believe I must have got up, and crawled hack to my place by the fireman ; but I can’t remember doing so. I only recollect finding myself sitting down in front of the furnace, with the child in my arms, and feeling as stunned and helpless as a child myself.

17.    We dared not stop to take the little thing back to its parents, but we sent it from the next station; and you’ll believe me when I tell you that we were better friends afterwards than ever, so that, whenever I went by their place, we used to make signals enough, I to the folks at the house, and they to me. But I shall never forget that little one getting out upon the track.

—Chambers’s Journal {Adapted).

1. Re-versed' the en/gine, changed the motion of the crank to cause it to go in the opposite direction.

CHIPS.

The common ingredients of health and long life are—

—Sir Philip Sidney.


Great temperance, open air, Easy labour, little care.

A LOVING PAIR OF SWALLOWS.

i j    ; .    :    '

Im-pa-tient, uneasy or restless. Pu-pils, learners; scholars. Ex-Cit-ed, roused into action. Re-peat-ed, did again.


Twlt-ter-ings, soft, tremulous sounds made by certain birds.

Fab-ric, structure.

Proc-ess, course; operation.

1.    Two barn swallows came into our wood-shed in the spring time. Their busy twitterings led me at once to suspect that they were looking out a spot for building. But, as a carpenter’s bench was under the window, and frequent hammering, sawing, and planing were going on, I had little hope that they would choose a place under our roof.

2.    To my surprise, however, they soon began to build over the open door-way. I was delighted, and spent much time in watching them. It was a beautiful show of family love: the mother bird was so busy and so important, and her mate was so attentive. He scarcely ever left the side of the nest. There he was all day long, twittering in tones that were plainly the outpourings of love.

3.    Sometimes he would bring in a straw, or a hair, to be inwoven in the precious little fabric. One day, hearing an unusual twittering, I looked and saw him circling round with a large downy feather in his bill. Bending over the unfinished nest, he offered it to his mate with the most graceful and loving air you can fancy. Then, when she put up her beak to take it, he poured forth such a gush of gladsome song! It seemed as if pride and affection had swelled his heart, till it was almost too big for his little bosom.

4.    During the process of hatching, he offered to take his share of household duty. Three or four times a day, he would, with coaxing twitterings, persuade his mate to fly abroad for food. The moment she left the eggs, he would take the post of the mother ; and gave a loud alarm whenever cat or dog came about. When the young ones came forth, he shared in the mother’s toils, and brought at least half the food for his hungry family.

5.    But, when they became old enough to fly, you would have laughed had you watched their tricks. Such chirping and twittering! Such diving down from the nest, and flying up again ! Such wheeling round in circles, talking to the young ones all the while ! Such clinging to the sides of the shed with their sharp claws, to show the timid little ones that there was no fear of falling !

6.    For three days, all this was carried on busily. It was clearly an infant flying school. But all their talking and twittering were of no use. The little downy things looked down, and then looked up, and, alarmed at the wide space, sank down into the nest again.

7.    At length, the parents grew impatient and brought their neighbours. As I was picking up chips one day, I found my head encircled with a swarm of swallows. They flew up to the nest, and chattered away to the young ones. They clung to the walls, looking back to tell how the thing was done; they dived, and wheeled, and balanced, and floated, in a manner perfectly beautiful to behold.

8.    The pupils were much excited. They jumped upon the edge of the nest, and twittered, and shook their feathers, and waved their wings; and then hopped back again chirping, “ It is pretty sport, but we cannot do it.”

9.    Three times the neighbours came in, and repeated their graceful lessons. The third time, two of the young birds gave a sudden plunge downwards, and then fluttered, and hopped, till they alighted on a small log. And oh, such praises were warbled by the whole troop ! The air was filled with their joy ! Some were flying round,—swift as a ray of light. Others were perched on the hoe handle and the teeth of the rake. Many clung to the wall; and two kept swinging in the most graceful style on a hanging hoop.

10.    For some time, the little ones came home to their nest at night. I was ever on the watch to welcome them, and see that none were missing. Their tameness was wonderful. If I hung my gown on a nail, I found a little swallow perched in the sleeve. If I took a nap in the afternoon, my waking eyes were greeted by a swallow on the bedpost. In the summer evening, they flew about the sitting-room in search of flies, and sometimes alighted on chairs and tables.

11.    I almost thought they knew how much I loved them. But, at

last, they flew away to warmer skies, with a whole troop of relations and neighbours.    —Mrs. Childs.

THE SWALLOW AND ITS NEST.

Gran^a-ry, storehouse for grain.    | Es-sayed' tried; attempted.

1.    A swallow, in the spring,

Came to our granary, and, ’neath the eaves,

Essayed to make a nest, and there did bring Wet earth, and straw, and leaves.

2.    Day after day she toiled

With patient heart; but, ere her work was crowned, Some sad mishap the tiny fabric spoiled,

And dashed it to the ground.

3.    She found the ruin wrought;

But, not cast down, forth from the place she flew, And with her mate fresh earth and grasses brought, And built her nest anew.

4.    But scarcely had she placed

1 The last soft feather on its ample floor,

When wicked hands or chance again laid waste,

And wrought the ruin o’er.

5.    But still her heart she kept,

And toiled again ; and last night, hearing calls,

I looked—and lo ! three little swallows slept Within the earth-made walls.

6.    What truth is here, 0 man !

Hath hope been smitten in its early dawn ?

Have clouds o’ercast thy purpose, trust, or plan ?

Have faith, and struggle on !

A VOLCANIC ERUPTION: MOUNT VESUVIUS.

E-rup-tion, the bursting out from the earth of gases, stones, and melted rook.

Par-a-dise, place of delight.

Cra-ter, cup-shaped opening in the top of a volcano.

Poi-SOn-OUS, having deadly or harmful effects.

Ad-mir-al, naval officer of the highest rank.

I-tal-ian (%-tal-yan, the “i” as in ill), of or pertaining to Italy. 20 21 22

Cut-ter, boat belonging to a ship of war. Pum-ice (pUrn-is or pu-mis), volcanic stone full of pores, so light that it will float on water. Mar-tyr, person who sacrifices his life or his position in support of a cause.

Del-Uge, flood ; anything which overwhelms. Treach-'er-OUS, that cannot be trusted.

La-va, melted rock.

4. To be sure, there was also an ugly field below by the sea-shore, where smoke and brimstone came out of the ground; and a lake called Avernus,2 over which poisonous gases hung. But what of that ?

It had never harmed any one, and how could it harm them ?

5. So they all lived on happily and merrily enough till the year a.d. 79. At that time there was stationed in the Bay of Naples a Roman admiral 23 24 25 26 27

9.    When he was near the opposite shore, some sailors met him, and begged him to turn back. Cinders and pumice-stones were falling down, as it seemed, from the sky, and flames breaking out from the mountain-top ; but Pliny would go on : he said that if people were in danger it was his duty to help them ; and that he must see this strange cloud, and note down the different shapes into which it changed.

10.    But the hot ashes fell faster and faster ; the sea ebbed out suddenly and almost left them on dry land, and Pliny turned away to a place called Stabiae,3 to the house of a friend, who was just going to escape in a boat. Pliny told him not to be afraid, ordered his bath like a true Roman gentleman, and went in to dinner with a cheerful face.


11.    Flames came down from the mountain nearer and nearer as the night drew on; but Pliny persuaded his friend that they were fires in some villages from which the peasants had fled, and then went to bed and slept soundly.

12.    However, in the middle of the night, they found the courtyard being fast filled with cinders ; and, if they had not waked up the admiral in time, he would never have been able to get out of the house. The earthquake-shocks grew stronger and stro nger, till the house was ready to fall ; and Pliny and his friend and the sailors and slaves all fled into the open fields, tying pillows over their heads to prevent themselves from being beaten down by the great showers of stones and cinders which were falling.

13.    Day had come by this time, but not the dawn ; for the great cloud shut out the light of the sun, and it was still pitch-dark. They went down to their boats upon the shore, but the sea raged so fiercely that there was no getting on board of them. Then Pliny grew tired, and made his men spread a sail that he might lie upon it'for a little to rest. But suddenly there came down upon them a rush of flames and a strong smell of sulphur, and all ran for their lives.

14.    Some of the slaves tried to help the admiral upon his feet; but he sank down again, overpowered with the brimstone-fumes, and so was left behind.

15.    When they came back again, there he lay dead, but with his clothes in order, and his face as quiet as if he were only sleeping. And this was the end of a brave and learned man, a martyr to duty and to the love of science.

16.    But what was going on in the meantime ? Under clouds of ashes, cinders, mud, lava, three of those happy cities were buried at once—Herculaneum,4 Pompeii,5 Stabiee. They were buried just as the people had fled from them, leaving the furniture and earthenware and, in many cases, even jewels and gold behind; and here and there among them was a human being who hai not had time to escape from the dreadful deluge of dust.


17.    And what had happened to Vesuvius, the treacherous mountain? Half or more than half of the side of the old crater had been blown away, and what was left stands in a semicircle around the new cone, and the new crater which is burning at this very day.

18.    True, after that eruption in which Pliny was killed and three great cities were buried, Vesuvius fell asleep again, and did not wake for one hundred and thirty-four years, and then slept again for two hundred and sixty-nine years; but it has grown

remains of a street in pompeii.    more and more

restless as the ages have passed on, and now hardly a year goes by without its sending out smoke and stones from its crater and streams of lava from its sides.6    —Charles Kingsley.

1.    Mount Ve-SU-vi-US. close to the Bay of Naples, south-west of Italy.

2.    A-ver-nus, l"ke, a few miles west of Naples. Its name means “ without a bird,” because the poisonous gases prevented birds from living near its banks.

3.    Sta-bi-se (stah'-bee-ay), ancient town, south-west of Pompeii.

4.    Her-cu-la^ne-um, ancient town, east of Naples, on the bay and at the foot of the slope of Vesuvius.

5.    Pom-pe-ii (pom-pay28-yee), ancient town, eight miles south-east of Herculaneum, and five miles from the crater of Vesuvius.

During late years, many of the houses of these cities that were buried in 79 a.d. have been uncovered : and, from the things dug out, much has been learned concerning the daily life of the people who lived in Italy in the first century of the Christian era.

6.    Recently, several volcanoes in different parts of the world have been in an active state, particularly Etna in Sicily, Mauna Loa in Hawaii (formerly Sandwich Islands), and a peak of the volcanio group of which Tongariro is the principal in North Island, New Zealand.

Streams of lava or molten rock that have flowed out of Vesuvius during the last three years have deposited more than 100,000,000 cubic yards of material on the sides of the mountain. A cone of lava over 300 feet high has been formed, out of which, a few months ago, fresh streams began to flow.

SIR HUMPHREY GILBERT.

[Sir Humphrey Gilbert was a half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1583, when in command of a fleet of three small ships, he landed in Newfoundland, and took possession of it in Queen Elizabeth’s name— thus founding the first of England’s colonies. He then sailed southward to explore the coast of North America; but one of his vessels was wrecked, and the other two were driven back to Newfoundland. On his way to England, his own vessel, The Squirrel, was wedged into an iceberg and carried southward. It sank when the ice melted in the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.]

AMONG THE ICEBERGS

Mys-te-ri-ous-ly, strangely.

Grap-pled, struggled; wrestled.

Em-brace.' clasp.

Van-ish, disappear.

2. His lordly ships of ice Glistened in the sun;

On each side, like pennons wide, Flashing crystal streamlets run.®


Cor-sair, pirate.

Glistened, shone.

Pen-nons, flags pointed at the ends. Signal, sign to inform or warn. 28

3.    His sails of white sea-mist3

Dripped with silver rain ;

But, where he passed, there were cast Leaden shadows o’er the main.

4.    Eastward from Campobello,4

Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed;

Three days, or more, seaward he bore, . Then, alas! the land wind5 failed.

5.    Alas ! the land wind failed ;

And ice-cold grew the night;

And never more, on sea or shore, Should Sir Humphrey see the light.

6.    He sat upon the deck,

The Book6 was in his hand;

“ Do not fear ! Heaven is as near,”

He said, “ by water as by land ! ”


7.    In the first watch28 of the night,

Without a signal’s sound,

Out of the sea, mysteriously,

The fleet of Death rose all around.*

8.    The moon and the evening star

Were hanging in the shrouds;9 Every mast, as it passed,

Seemed to rake10 the passing clouds.

9.    They11 grappled with their prize

At midnight, black and cold !

As of a rock was the shock;

Heavily the ground-swell12 rolled.

10.    Southward, through day and dark,

They13 drift in close embrace, With mist and rain, to the Spanish Main;14

Yet there seems no change of place.


11. Southward, for ever southward,

They drift through dark and day;

And like a dream, in the Gulf Stream 15 Sinking, vanish all away.16

—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-82).

1.    Fleet Of ice, icebergs.

2.    Crys-tal stream-lets run. The ice melting and running down the sides of the bergs would look like pennons when the sun shone on them. According to present usage “ run’’ should be “ ran.”

3.    Sea-mist, the fog that often follows an iceberg is compared to the sails of a ship.

4.    Camp-0-bel-lo, island in the Bay of Fundy, near the coast of New Brunswick, north-east of the United States of America. It was in 1583, on his second voyage to America, that this incident took place.

5.    Land wind, wind blowing from the land, which would carry him homeward across the Atlantic Ooean.

6.    The Book, the Bible.

7.    Watch. The periods of time (four hours each) into which night is divided at sea. The first watch is from 8 to 12 o’clock.

8.    Rose all a-round, the icebergs were not seen until they were close upon the ship. They surrounded and crushed it.

9.    Hang-ing in the shrouds, seemed to be among the rigging.

10.    Rake, cut through.

11.    They, the icebergs.    

12.    Ground-swell, heavy swell of the sea, due to a spent or distant storm or the nearness of land.

13.    They, the icebergs and the ship.

14.    Span-ish Main, the sea opposite the north coast of South America, from the Isthmus of Darien to the mouth of the Orinoco River. Main, the great sea, as distinguished from a bay or gulf.

15 Gulf Stream, a great ocean current of warm water that flows round the south of Florida out of the Gulf of Mexico.

16. Vanish all a-way. The warm water of the Gulf Stream melted the ice, and the vessel sank.

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

A JOURNEY ACROSS THE ISLAND.

Men-tioned, said.

Bow-er, shelter made with boughs of trees. Re solved! made up one’s mind. Quan-ti-ty, amount.

For-geGting, not thinking of.

Vale, valley.

De-scried! saw.

Con-clud-ed, formed the opinion. Ob-ser-va-tions, things seen and noted. Pos-ses-sions, lands or things owned. In-hab-it-ed, peopled.

Sub-mit-ted, yielded to.


Dis-po-si-tions, plans.

Af-flict-ing, troubling.

Con sid-ered, thought.

Can-ni-bals, human beings that eat human flesh. Lei-sure-ly, without hurry.

A-bun-dance, great quantity.

Dis-cov-er-ies, things found out. In-nu-mer-a-ble, that cannot be counted. In-clin-a-tion, desire.

Hab-i-ta-tion, place of abode.

Trav-elled, journeyed.

De-Cid-ed, made up my mind.


1.    I mentioned above that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower. I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea*-shore on that side ; so, taking my gun, hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,—not forgetting two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch, for my food,— I began my journey.

I CAME TO THE SEA-SHORE.”

(From the edition of Robinson Crusoe published by Messrs. T. Nelson & Sons.)


2.    When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day,

I fairly descried land — whether an island or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very high.

3.    I could not guess what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I knew it must be part of America ; for I concluded, from all my observations, I must be near the Spanish possessions. Perhaps this part was all inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed,

I would have been in a worse condition than I was now.

4.    I therefore submitted to the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered everything for the best ; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being over there.

5.    Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that if this land were the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass one way or another. But, if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country and the Brazils, where are found the worst of savages; for they are cannibals, or man-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all the human beings that fall into their hands.

6.    With these thoughts, I walked very leisurely forwards. I found the side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine— the open fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods.

7.    I saw abundance of parrots, and fain would I have caught one, if possible, for the purpose of taming, and teaching it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and, having recovered it, I brought it home.

8.    I did not travel in this journey above two miles outright, or thereabouts, in a day ; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I would arrive weary enough at the place where I chose to sit down all night. Then I would either repose in a tree, or surround myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, so as that no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

9.    As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I became sure that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island; for here, indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other side, I had found but three in a year and a half. Here was also a large number of fowls of many kinds, some of which I had not seen before.

10.    I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine ; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for, as I was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be, as it were, on a journey and from home.

11.    However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then, setting up a great pole upon the shore as a mark, I decided to go home again; and that the next journey I took should be on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling, and so round till I came to the post again.

—Daniel De Foe.

HOW GRANDFATHER BOILED THE EGGS.

Re-pairecU restored to a good state ; mended.

Cu-ri-OUS ly, in a manner showing wonder and eager desire to learn.

Per-fect-ly, thoroughly; faultlessly.


Va-pour, any substance in the gaseous state, the condition of which is ordinarily that of a liquid or solid ; the gas into which a solid or a liquid is changed by heat. 29

“ I shall not need a lire.”

“ That sounds like a joke,” broke in his granddaughter, Edith.

“No joke at all. Come out and see. Bring as many eggs as you need for lunch,” he added, “ and a can with a tight cover.”

2.    When out in the back-yard, the old gentleman first shovelled some fresh lime29 into an old bucket. He then took the can, placed the eggs in it, and nearly filled it with water. Next, putting the lid on carefully, he set the can in a hollow place that he had made in the lime in the bucket.

3.    Edith watched him curiously. “ Will lime burn ? ” she asked. “ Shall I bring the matches ? ”

“ You forget,” said her grandfather ; “ I am not to use any fire. We’ll make a beginning with cold water instead.”

“ Now I know you are joking.” .

“Wait a moment, and you’ll see whether I am or not.”

He poured in the water, and put a board over the bucket.

4.    “ Oh! ” cried Edith, when, in a very short time, the lime began to bubble and send off vapour, as if a hot fire were burning under the bucket. And “ Oh ! ” she cried a great deal louder, when a white, creamy mass came pouring over its top and down its sides.

5.    The bubbling did not last long ; in six minutes, it had almost stopped. So Grandfather took an iron hook and gently lifted out the can, which was coated all over with lime. This he rinsed oif, and then, lifting the lid, took out the eggs, which, when they were broken at lunch, were found to be cooked perfectly.

—Adapted from Great Thoughts.

1. Lime. When quick-lime is treated with water, it becomes hot and crumbles to a fine powder. The operation is called slaking. The substance (slaked lime) which is formed in this operation ia somewhat soluble in water, the solution being known as lime-water.

FROM OUR NOTE BOOK.

A Temperance Anecdote.

1.    A farmer in the south of England once employed a young man to labour upon his farm, without knowing anything of his habits. The farmer soon found, however, that his new hand was given to drinking at the village inn, and that this habit interfered with his usefulness.

2.    “ John,” said the farmer to the man, “ you suit me in many respects, and I should be sorry to part with you, so, in addition to your wages, I’ll let you have one of my best sheep at the end of the season, if you give up drinking.”

3.    “ It’s a bargain,” replied the man.

A grown-up son of the farmer, overhearing this agreement, looked up, and asked, “ Father, will you give me a sheep, too, if I do not drink this season ? ”

“Yes,” answered the farmer; “you may have a sheep on that condition.”

Then a younger son spoke up and said, “ Father, will you give m& a sheep, too, if I do not drink ? ”

“ Tes, my son, yon shall have a sheep also.”

4.    There was a moment’s pause, when the youngest of the farmer’s sons, a little fellow of seven or eight, looked up into his father’s face, and said, “ Father, hadn’t you better take a sheep too ? ”

“ Really, I don’t know,” said the farmer somewhat taken aback, and then suddenly concluded, “ I declare I’ll try the plan and see how it turns out.”

5.    The old gentleman was heard afterwards to declare that he made the best investment of sheep that season he ever made in his life.

A Precious Handful.

1. Unknown to the rest of the family, a little boy was playing with a vase. He was the proud possessor of a penny, which he happened to drop into the vase. With some difficulty, he got his hand through its narrow neck, hut, having secured his penny, was quite unable to draw his hand out.

,    2. He soon ran crying to his mother with the vase dangling from

his arm; and, for nearly half an hour, every effort was made to withdraw the fist of the luckless young offender, but in vain. The vase was a valuable one, and the father, who had been called to assist, was loth to break it; but the existing state of things could not continue for ever, and he was on the point of goirg for a hammer. As a last suggestion, he said—“ Open your hand, my child, and draw it forth.”

3. “I can’t open it, Father,” declared the tearful young captive.

“ Can’t,” demanded the father. “ Why ? ”

“ I’ve got my penny in my hand,” whimpered the boy.

“ You young rascal,” thundered the father, “ drop it at once.”

The penny rattled to the bottom of the vase, and out came the hand.

Unkind Treatment.

1.    The Queen of Italy (says an English paper) was recently walking in a suburb of Rome, when she noticed a pleasant-faced little girl, and spoke to her. After a short conversation, the Queen asked the child what she could do in the way of needlework.

2.    “ I can knit stockings, signora (see-nyo'-ra),” replied the girl.

“ Do you know who I am ?” continued the Queen.

“Yes, signora; you are the Queen.”

“ Well, then, make me a pair of stockings and send them to the palace.”    .    .

3.    A few weeks afterwards, the stockings arrived, and Queen Margherita, in return for the gift, sent the child a beautiful pair of rose-coloured stockings, the one filled with sweets, the other with money.

4.    Next day, the Queen received a letter from her little friend couched in the following words :—“ Signora,—Your gift has caused me no end of tears. My father took the money, my elder brother snatched the sweets from me, and, as to the stockings, why, my -mother put them on herself.”

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 29.] MELBOURNE. [December, 1899.

MERRY CHRISTMAS.

Cher-ubs, in this poem, beautiful children

Sym-bols, signs; representations.

Chub-by, plump, short, and thick. '

In-no-cent, harmless; permitted.

An-gels, in this poem, darlings.

3.    Rosy feet upon the threshold,

Eager faces peeping through,

With the first red ray of sunshine, Chanting cherubs come in view : Mistletoe2 and gleaming holly, Symbols of a blessed day,

In their chubby hands they carry, Streaming all along the way.

4.    Well we know them, never weary

Of this innocent surprise,— Waiting, watching, listening always, With full hearts and tender eyes, While our little household angels, White and golden in the sun,

Greet us with the sweet old welcome • “ Merry Christmas, every one ! ”

—Louisa M. Alcott.


Fitful, occurring- now and ag-ain.

Phan-toms, airy spirits.

Elves (plural of elf), fairies ; sprites.

Thresh-Old, doorsill; entrance ; door. Chant-ing, singing.

1. In the hush of early morning,

When the red burns through the gray,

And the sleeping world lies waiting For the glory of the day,

Then we hear a fitful rustling Just without upon the stair,

See two small white phantoms coming, Catch the gleam of sunny hair.

■2. Are they Christmas fairies stealing Rows of little socks to fill ?

Are they angels floating hither With their message of good-will ? What sweet spells are these elves weaving,

As like larks they chirp and sing ? Are these palms of peace l from heaven That these lovely spirits bring?


1.    Palms of peace. In ancient times, a branch or leaf of a palm was borne or worn as a symbol of victory or rejoicing.

2.    Mis-tle-toe, evergreen plant that roots itself in another plant, from which it draws nourishment. Mistletoe found on an oak was an object of reverence to those ancient inhabitants of Britain whose priests were called Druids.

TWO VIEWS OF CHRISTMAS.

Gait, manner of walking. In-ti-ma-tion, announcement; hint. Mo-rosei sullen ; ill-humoured. De-rivedC obtained; drawn ; received. Prof-i-ted, gained advantage.


Vender-action, reverence; respect mingled with awe.

Cliar-i-ta-ble, generous ; giving freely. CaFen-dar, almanac; register of the year with its divisions. 30


cost.


2.    Once upon a time—of ail the good days in the year, on Christmas Eve—old Scrooge sat busy in his counting-house. It was cold, bleak, biting weather, foggy withal ; and he could hear the people outside go wheezing up and down, beating their hands upon their breasts and stamping their feet upon the pavement-stones to warm them. The city30 clocks had only just gone three, but it was quite dark already—it had not been light all day,—and candles were flaring in the windows of the neighbouring offices, like ruddy smears upon the brown air. The fog came pouring in at every chink and keyhole, and was so dense without, that, although the court2 was of the narrowest, the houses opposite were mere phantoms.

3.    The door of Scrooge’s counting-house was open that he might keep his eye upon his clerk, who, in a dismal little cell beyond, a sort of tank, was copying letters. Scrooge had a very small fire, but the clerk’s fire was so very much smaller that it looked like one coal. But he couldn’t replenish it, for Scrooge kept the coal box in his own room; and, so surely as the clerk came in with the shovel, the master predicted that it would be necessary for them to part. Wherefore the clerk put on his white comforter, and tried to warm himself at the candle; in which effort, not being a man of a strong imagination, he failed.

4.    “A Merry Christmas, Uncle ! God save you ! ” cried a cheerful voice. It was the voice of Scrooge’s nephew, who came upon him so quickly that this was the first intimation he had of his approach.

“ Bah ! ” said Scrooge. “ Humbug ! ”

He had so heated himself with rapid walking in the fog and frost, this nephew of Scrooge’s, that he was all in a glow ; his face was ruddy and handsome, his eyes sparkled, and his breath smoked again.

5.    “ Christmas a humbug, Uncle ! ” said Scrooge’s nephew. “You don’t mean that, I am sure.”

“ I do,” said Scrooge. “ Merry Christmas ! What right have you to be merry ? What reason have you to be merry ? You’re poor enough.”

6.    “Come, then,” returned the nephew gaily, “what right have you to be dismal ? WThat reason have you to be morose ? You’re rich enough.”

Scrooge, having no better answer ready on the spur of the moment, said “Bah ! ” again; and followed it up with “Humbug.”

“ Don’t be cross, Uncle,” said the nephew.

7.    “What else can I be,” returned the uncle, “when I live in such a world of fools as this ? Merry Christmas! Out upon Merry Christmas! What’s Christmas-time to you but a time for paying bills without money ; a time for finding yourself a year older, and not an hour richer. If I could work my will,” said Scrooge, “ every idiot who goes about with ‘ Merry Christmas ’ on his lips should be boiled with his own pudding, and buried with a stake of holly through his heart. He should ! ”

8.    “ Uncle I ” pleaded the nephew.

“Nephew ! ” returned the Uncle sternly, “keep Christmas in your own way, and let me keep it in mine.”

“ Keep it! ” repeated Scrooge’s nephew. “ But you don’t keep it.” “ Let me leave it alone, then,” said Scrooge. “ Much good may it do you ! Much good it has ever done you ! ”

9. “There are many things from which I might have derived good by which I have not profited, I dare say,” returned the nephew ; “ Christmas among the rest. But I am sure I have always thought of Christmas-time when it has come round—apart from the veneration due to its sacred name and origin, if anything belonging to it can be apart from that—as a good time ; a kind, forgiving, charitable, pleasant time ; the only time I know of in the long calendar of the year when men and women seem by one consent to open their shut-up hearts freely, and to think of people below them as if they really were fellow-passengers to the grave, and not another race of creatures bound on other journeys. And therefore, Uncle, though it has never put a scrap of gold or silver in my pocket, I believe that it has done me good, and will do me good ; and I say God bless it ! ”

—From a Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens.

1.    The City, London.

2.    Court, space opening from a street and nearly surrounded by houses.

SNAKES.

Cy-lin-dric-al, having the form of a cylinder— a circular or roller-like body. In a true cylinder the ends are equal parallel circles.

Ver-te-brse (verttc-bree), bones forming the backbone. (Plural of ver-te-bra.)

Pro-gres-sion, motion onward.

Palmate, roof of the mouth.

In-de-pen-dent-ly, freely ; in a manner outside all control.

Sep-a-ra-ting, parting.

Re-cum-bent, lying; leaning.

Im-me-di-ate-ly, at once.

Oc-curred; took place; happened.

Co-bra, snake found in India. (Short for cobra de capello, hooded snake.)

Trop-i-cal, being within the tropics—two circles on the earth’s surface, parallel to the equator, and at a distance from it of 23£°.

Spinous Process.

SKELETON OF A RATTLESNAKE.


feature of the snake is the number of vertebras making up its long, tapering backbone, numbering 400 in some kinds. The skeleton is arranged to give a great amount of freedom, each vertebra being hollow in front and convex behind, the rounded projection of one fitting into the corresponding hollow in the next, making a ball-and-socket joint.


2. No less remarkable than the number of vertebras is the number of ribs; in fact, from the head to a long way down towards the tail, each joint of the backbone has attached to it a pair of ribs. The chief use of these ribs is in progres-two vertebra.    sion. Most snakes have on

i, baii; c, cup or socket.    the under part of the body

Diagram showing how a snake curves its body in moving.


horny plates or shields, which are much wider than they are long, and which correspond to the ends of the ribs. By holding on with the free backward-pointing edges of these shields to the rough portions of the surface with which it is in contact, and then drawing close together the ribs on one side of the body and afterwards those of the other side, the snake produces a wriggling movement ; then, by straightening out the front part of the body, and, when a firm hold has been obtained, drawing after it the hinder portion, progress is made.

3. If it were not for the little projections on the surface of the ground, which snakes can lay hold of with their shields, they could not move themselves forwards or backwards. For instance, they cannot move themselves over a perfectly smooth surface of glass. It matters not whether a snake is climbing, dragging itself along the ground, or swimming, its motion is% always by curves from side to side. When a snake is represented in an up-and-down position, we know, therefore, that the artist’s knowledge is

at fault.

4. The bones ot a snake’s head, with the exception of those which cover the brain, are very loosely connected. One side of both the

upper and the lower jaw, and one side of the palate, can be moved outwards

Diagram showing how artists sometimes misrepresent a snake’s    „„ fA wa .j

mode of progression.    Cl XUI Wdltlo, qUILC

independently of

the motion of the other side. In consequence of this power of separating their jaw-bones and palates, snakes are able -to open their mouths very widely, so that they can swallow bodies n'early as large as themselves.


5.    The tongue of a snake is like a fork with two prongs. It is used as a feeler to examine objects. It is quite a mistake to think that snakes sting with their tongues. No snake has a sting.


6.    Snakes may be divided into two classes, namely, poisonous and non-poisonous —those which have poison fangs and those which have none.

7.    The poison fangs are always in the upper jaw, one on each side, but they are not fixed in the bone. They are curved downwards like the blade of a scythe.

There is a little opening on the convex part Head and neck of poisonous snake, of a fang near the point. From this showing tongue, fangs, &c.

opening to the point, which is as sharp as a needle, the fang is quite solid, but hollow from it to the root. In the head, above and towards

BONES OF A SNAKE’S HEAD.

/, fangs.


the back of the upper jaws, there are two little bags of poison, and from these bags, channels lead to the poison fangs. When the snake opens its mouth to bite, certain muscles press upon these bags, and force a portion of their contents through the channels into the hollow portion of the fangs, and thence into the wound made by them.


8. It is this fatal weapon that causes the snake to be so much dreaded, although, in fact, of the snakes of the world, not one in ten has been armed with poison fangs. Still, as all snakes are more or less of the same form, especially when viewed at a distance, each one is held in horror —the guiltless suffering equally with the guilty.

9. Armed with a poison fang, the snake at one stroke avenges itself on the unfortunate animal that has trodden upon it, or has put it in bodily fear by disturbing its repose.

When not in readiness to inflict a wound, these two poison fangs assume a recumbent position, so as not to interfere with the action section op the head of a poisonous snake.

Of the Ordinary teeth, which are f, fang; a, poison gland or bag; d, duct leading from

firmly fixed, very small, and most    poison bag t0 fang: mmuscle-admirably formed to seize their prey. The prey is laid hold of by these crooked little teeth in the first instance, after which it is slowly swallowed, without undergoing any change after entering the month.

10. At the root of the two poison fangs are smaller ones, which are too weak to inflict a wound. They appear to he a provision in

a, poison gland or bag; b, its duct; c. d, the tubular fang ; e, the reserve fangs.


case accident or disease should render the mature fangs useless. Take away the mature fangs, and, immediately, the snake is rendered harmless.

11. People used to believe that snakes could be charmed. The snake-charmer is a common sight in India. The belief that the charmers can handle poisonous snakes without suffering hurt received a shock by a sad circumstance that occurred in Madras.

12. One of the most noted snake-charmers about the district chanced one morning to get hold of a cobra of considerable size, which he caused to be conveyed to his home. He was occupied abroad all day, and the poison fangs were not extracted from the serpent’s mouth. In the evening, he returned to his home, much excited with liquor, and began to exhibit tricks with his snakes to various persons who were around him. The newly-caught cobra darted at his chin and bit it, making two marks like pin-points. The poor juggler was sobered in an instant. I am a dead man,” he exclaimed ; “ nothing can save me.”

13.    In two hours he died. I saw his body a short time afterwards : his friends and brother jugglers had gathered round it. “ No, no,” said they ; “ he forgot only one little word, one small portion of the charm.” In fact, they declared that he was not dead at all, but only in a sort of swoon, from which he would recover in seven days. Of course, the poor man never came to life again.

14.    Non-poisonous snakes generally have two rows of teeth in the upper jaw and one in the lower, these teeth being slender, sharp, short, and not set in sockets. They are not intended for tearing, but are simply hooks by which the food is drawn into the snake’s month. The bones of the jaws being loosely joined together, the teeth are advanced, first on one side, securing a hold on the prey, and then on the other, in which manner the swallowing is accomplished.

15.    Snakes vary much in size and colour. The colours of some of them are very beautiful, especially of those inhabiting tropical regions ; but no means have yet been found of preserving these colours after the death of the snake.

16.    Some snakes shed their skins at least once a year, and others do so every month during summer. A new skin grows underneath the old one, and, as soon as it is prepared, the snake forces itself through some narrow place, so that its old skin is rubbed off, and turned outside in. The skin oi the snake covers its eyes, and, during a few days, while the new skin is growing under the old one, the snake is almost blind.

(To be continued.)

1. Reptiles.—The better-known animals included in the class Reptilia are turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and snakes. They are vertebrate, breathe by means of lung's, have a heart with three cavities, and blood of the same temperature as the place in which the animal lives, and are covered with scales or bony plates. Their young are produced from eggs.

THE COLOUR-BEARER.

Swath, line of grass, &c., cut by the scythe. PhaUanX, body of troops formed in close array. Ar-rest^ive. tending to check or hinder. Trance, state in which the soul appears to be absent from the body, or to be rapt in visions. Dis-solvedi destroyed; undid.

1.    The shock of battle swept the lines,

And wounded men and slain Lay thick, as lie in summer fields The ridgy swathes of grain.

2.    The deadly phalanx belched its fire,

The raking cannon pealed,

The lightning-flash of bayonets Went glittering round the field.

3.    On rushed the steady Twenty-Fourth

Against the bristling guns,

As if their gleams could daunt no more

Than that October sun’s.

4.    It mattered not though heads went

down,

Though gallant steps were stayed, Though rifles dropped from bleeding hands,

And ghastly gaps were made.

5.    “Close up!” was still the stern

command;

And, with unwavering tread, They held right on, though well they knew

They tracked their way with dead.

6.    As fast they pressed with labouring

breath,

Clinched teeth, and knitted frown, The sharp arrestive cry rang out— “The colour-bearer’s down !”

7.    Quick to the front sprang, at the

word,

The youngest of the band,

And caught the flag still tightly held Within the fallen hand.


Pa-tri-Ot (pay-tri-ot), one who loves his country, and earnestly supports its authority and interests. (In the poem, with adjectival force.) Stanched, checked ; stopped the flow of. Sul-phur-OUS. containing sulphur.

In-dom^i-ta-ble, not to be conquered or subdued.

8.    With cheer he reared it high tMjain,

Yet claimed one instant’s pause To lift the dying head, and see What comrade’s face it was.

9.    “Forward!” the captain shouted

loud,

Still ‘ ‘ Forward ! ” and the men Snatched madly up the shrill command,

And shrieked it out again.

10.    But like a statue stood the boy

Without a foot’s advance,

Until the captain shook his arm,

And roused him from his trance.

11.    His home had flashed upon his sight,

The peaceful sunny spot !

He did not hear the crashing shells, Nor heed the hissing shot.

12.    He saw his mother wring her hands,

He caught his sister’s shriek,

And sudden anguish racked his brow, And blanched his ruddy cheek.

13.    The touch dissolved the spell; he

knew,

He felt the fearful stir ;

He raised his head, and softly said,

“ He was my brother, Sir ! ”

14.    Then grasping firm the crimson flag,

He flung it free and high,

While patriot-passion stanched his grief,

And drank its channels dry0

15.    Between his close-set teeth he spake,

And hard he drew his breath—

“ God help me, Sir, I’ll bear this flag To victory—or to death ! ”


CHRISTMAS NEAR THE NORTH POLE.

A LEAF FROM DR. NANSEN’S DIARY.

Co-ro-na. peculiar luminous appearance which surrounds the sun when it is totally eclipsed by the moon. (Latin word meaning crown or garland.)

Bril-lian-cy, great brightness; glitter.

Dig-ni-fleet, stalely.

Fiord Uyord, one syllable), narrow inlet of the sea penetrating between high banks or rocks, as on the coasts of Norway.


16.    The bellowing batteries thundered on,

The sulphurous smoke rose higher, And, from the columns in the front, Poured forth the galling fire.

17.    But where the bullets thickest fell,

Where hottest raged the fight, The steady colours tossed aloft Their blood -red trail of light.

18.    Firm and indomitable still

The Twenty-Fourth moved on ;

A dauntless remnant only left—

The stanch three-score were gone !

19.    And now once more the shout arose

Which not the guns could drown, “Ho, boys ! Up with the flag again ! The colour-bearer’s down. ”


20.    They strove to free his grasp, but fast

He clung with desperate will;

“ The arm that’s broken is my left, See ! I can hold it still ! ”

21.    And “Forward ! Twenty-Fourth !”

rang out

Above the deafening roar,

Till, all at once, the colours lowered, Sank, and were seen no more.

22.    And, when the stubborn fight was

done,

And from the fast-held field The order’d remnant slow retired, Too resolute to yield,

23.    They found a boy whose face still

wore

A look resolved and grand,

Who held a riddled flag close clutched Within his shatter’d hand.

—Preston.


Ex-cep-tion-al-ly, in an uncommon degree.

Ze-nith {zee-nith or ztn-itK), point in the heavens directly overhead.

Arc, portion of a curved line.

Ho-ri -zon, the circle bounding the view where the earth and sky seem to meet.

In-vert-ed, reversed ; changed to the opposite.

1.    “Tuesday, December 24th.—And this is Christmas Eve, cold and windy out of doors, and cold and draughty indoors. How desolate it is ! Never before have we had such a Christmas Eve.

2.    “ At home,1 the bells are now ringing Christmas in. I can hear their sound as it swings through the air from the church tower. How beautiful it is !

“Now the candles are being lighted on the Christmas trees ; the children are let in, and dance round in joyous delight. I must have a Christmas party for children when I get home. This is the time of rejoicing, and there is feasting in every cottage at home. .    .

3.    “Wednesday, December 25th.—We have got lovely Christmas weather, hardly any wind, and such bright, beautiful moonlight. It gives one quite a solemn feeling. It is the peace of thousands of years. In the afternoon, the northern lights2 were exceptionally beautiful. When I came out at six o’clock, there was a bright pale-yellow bow in the southern sky. It remained for a long time, almost unchanged, and then began to grow much brighter at the upper margin of the bow behind the mountain crests in the east. It smouldered for some time, and then, all at once, light darted out westwards all along the bow ; streamers shot up all along it towards the zenith, and, in an instant, the whole of the southern sky, from the arc of the horizon to

the zenith, was aflame. It flickered and blazed, it whirled round like a whirlwind, rays darted backwards and forwards, now red and reddish-violet, now yellow, green, and dazzling white; now the rays were red at the bottom, and yellow and green farther up, and then again this order was inverted. Higher and higher it rose; now it came on the north side of the zenith too; for a moment there was a splendid corona, and then it all became one whirling mass of fire up there. It was like a whirlpool of fire in red, yellow, and green, and the eye was dazzled with looking at it. It then drew across the northern sky, where it remained a long time, but not in such brilliancy. The arc from which it had sprung in the south was still visible, but soon disappeared. .    .

AN AURORA.

4. “ And this is Christmas Day. There are family dinners going on at home. I can see the dignified old father standing, smiling and happy, in the doorway to welcome children and grandchildren. Out of doors, the snow is falling softly and silently in big flakes; the young folk come rushing in fresh and rosy, stamp the snow oif their feet in the passage, shake their things and hang them up, and they enter the drawing-room, where the fire is crackling comfortably and cosily in the stove, and they can see the snowflakes falling outside, and covering the Christmas corn-sheaf.3 A delicious smell of roasting comes from the kitchen, and, in the dining-room, the long table is laid for a good old-fashioned dinner. How nice and comfortable everything is ! One might fall ill with longing to be home. But wait, wait, when summer comes. Oh, the road to the stars is both long and difficult.

5.    “Tuesday, December 31st.—And this year, too, is vanishing. It has been strange, but, after all, it has perhaps not been so bad.

“ They are ringing out the old year now at home. Our church bell is the icy wind howling over glacier and snow-field, howling fiercely as

it whirls the drifting snow on high, in cloud after cloud, and sweeps it down upon us from the crest of the mountain up yonder. Far up the fiord, you can see the clouds of snow chasing one another over the ice in front of the gusts of wind, and the snow-dust glittering in the moonlight, and the full moon sails silent and still out of one year into another. She shines alike on the good and the evil, nor does she notice the wants and yearnings of the new year. Solitary, forsaken, hundreds of miles from all that one holds dear; but the thoughts flit restlessly to and fro on their silent paths. Once more, a leaf is turned in the book of eternity, a new blank page is opened, and no one knows what will be written on it.”

1.    At home, in Norway. An account of Dr. Nansen’s famous explorations in the Arctic regions was given in the September and October ’97 numbers of The School Paper—Class IV. He returned to Christiania three years and three months after his departure from it.

2.    North-era. lights, the popular name of the aurora borealis (a-ro'-ra bo'-re-a’-lis), i.e., northern daybreak. A similar phenomenon in the Antarctic regions is known as the aurora australis, i.e., southern daybreak. It is sometimes to be seen in Victoria as a faint pink hue spread over the sky to the south.

3.    Christ-mas corn-sheaf. In Scandinavia, on Christmas Day, a sheaf of corn, saved at harvest time, is placed outside on a pole, so that the birds may enjoy a feast. See The School Paper—Class 111 December, ’98.

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Crusoe as a Farmer.

£x-press; tell.

Sat-is-fac-tion, pleasure.

Ham-mock-bed' swinging bed made of thin rope.

A-bOdei dwelling-place.

In com-par-i-son, After having made trial of both.

Do-mes-tic, one used to being about a house.

Ac-quaint-ed with, having some knowledge of.

Scythe, instrument for mowing grass, Ac., by hand.

Cutrlass-es, heavy swords. 31

En-cour-age-ment, source of hope. Per-plexed; puzzled.

Ac-comp-lish-ing, carrying out.

Busi-ness ^biz-ness), work.

Mul-ti-tude, very great number.

Di-et, food.

Dis-cour-age-ment, loss of hope. Un-ex-pectred-ly, without being looked for. Con-quered, overcame.

Per-form-ance, work.

Sieves, vessels with small holes, used for separating coarse from fine substances.

I conld, out of one of the broad swords, or cutlasses, which I had taken from among the other things from the ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no great difficulty in cutting it down.

I QUICKLY TAUGHT HIM TO KNOW HIS OWN NAME.”

(From the edition of Robinson Crusoe, published by Messrs. T. Nelson and Sons.)


4.    In short, I reaped it my own way ; I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried them away in a large basket which I had made, and rubbed them out with my hands. At the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half peck of seed I had about two bushels of rice, and about two bushels and a half of barley ; that is to say, as nearly as I could guess, for I had no measure at that time.

5.    However, this was a great encouragement to me ; for I foresaw that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread ; and yet, here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or indeed, how to clean it and part it ; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it ; and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it.

6.    These things being added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and of securing a constant supply, I resolved not to use any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season. I resolved, in the meantime, to devote all my leisure and working hours to making preparations for accomplishing this important business of providing myself with corn and bread.

7.    It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. I believe few people have thought much upon the strange multitude of little things necessary in providing for the producing, curing, dressing, making, and baking of this one article of diet. I, who was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily discouragement ; and I

was made more sensible of it every hour, even after I bad got the hrsl handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed took me by surprise.

8.    First, I had no plough to turn up the earth ; no spade or shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making a wooden spade, as I observed before, but this did my work but in a wooden manner ; and though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out soon, but made my work the harder and the more slovenly. However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of the performance.

9.    When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it to scratch it in, as it may be called, rather than to rake or harrow it.

10.    When it was growing, and grown, I have observed already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, and carry it home ; then thrash, and save it. Then 1 wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it. But all these things I managed to do without, as shall be presently shown.

-Daniel De Foe.

HOLIDAYS.

Va-Ca£tion, holidays.    I In-sist; take a stand and refuse to give way.

Frol-ic, mirth.    I Sum-mons, call.

1.    Vacation ! I fancy, if you were a child,

And rules and examples had driven you wild,

You’d just be as joyful as I am to-day

At the thought of vacation, and freedom, and play.

2.    Not a lesson to look at for ever so long,

Not a dull, puzzling sum, with the answer all wrong ;

No dreadful dictation to write on your slate,

No teacher to frown if a second you’re late.

3.    But fun in the morning, and frolic at night,

And the hours between full of mirth and delight,

Such races and chases, such laughter and glee,

You’d know if you only were little, like me.

4.    There's only one trouble. You look very kind :

Perhaps you’ll tell Mother (you’re sure you won’t mind ?)—

If she wouldn’t insist so on bedtime at eight,

She’d make it more jolly for Freddie and Kate.

5.    Vacation ! We’re off with the birds and the bees.

We’ll picnic in woods, and have swings on the trees ;

We’ll fish in the creek ; and we’ll ride on the hay ;

And week after week we’ll do nothing but play.

6.    Perhaps you are right, though it didn’t strike me ;—■

But we may by-and-by, having had so much glee,

Be pleased to return to the teacher’s kind rule,

And willingly answer the summons to school.

—The Children's Hour, S.A.

AN ANECDOTE OF COMMODORE DEWEY.

Af- fect/ing, touching ; moving the emotions. In-ei-dent, circumstance; event.

Oc-curred; happened ; took place. Lieu-ten-ants (lef-ten'-ants), officers in the navy, in rank next below a commander ; in the army, in rank next below a captain.


Hur-ried-ly, in haste.

Suc-ceed-ed, carried out what had been begun. Com-mo-dore, officer commanding a squadron, or a division of a fleet.

Re-leased' set free.


1.    A sailor on the cruiser Boston, who was present at the battle of Manila Bay,1 tells the following story:—

2.    “ The most affecting incident that occurred during the battle of Manila Bay, and which all the sailors will remember through their lives, was the action of a powder-boy. These boys act as aids to captains and lieutenants in carrying messages and doing errands. When the order was given to strip for action, one of the boys tore his coat off hurriedly, and it fell from his hands and went over the rail, down into the water. A few moments before, he had been gazing on his mother’s photograph, and, just before he took his coat oif, he had kissed the picture and put it in his inside pocket. When the coat fell overboard, he turned to the captain, and asked permission to get it. Naturally, the request was refused. The boy then went to the other side of the ship, climbed down a ladder, swam around to the place where the coat had dropped, and succeeded in recovering it.

3.    “ When he came back, he was ordered in chains for disobedience. After the battle, he was tried by a court-martial2 for disobedience, and found guilty. Commodore Dewey became interested in the case, for be could not understand why the boy, for the sake of a coat, had risked his life by disobeying orders. The lad had never told what his motives were. But, when the commodore talked to him in a kindly way, and asked him why he had done such strange things for an old coat, he broke into tears, and told the commodore that his mother's picture was in the coat.

4.    u Commodore Dewey’s eyes filled with tears as he listened to the story. Then he picked the boy up in his arms and embraced him. He ordered the little fellow to be instantly released and pardoned. ‘ Boys who love their mothers enough to risk their lives for their pictures shall not be kept in irons on this fleet,’ he said.”

1.    Battle of Ma-nU-a or Ma-nilUa Bay, scene of a great victory gained by the Americans ovei the Spaniards, 1st May, 1898.

2.    Court-mar-tial, court consisting of military or naval officers, for the trial of offenders against military or naval law.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

Free-arm Drawing.

The accompanying illustration shows part of a class receiving a drawing lesson in the Perth Central School, Western Australia. This

system of drawing has been recently introduced. One of its objects is to cultivate dexterity with the chalk or brush, where free movement

PORTION OF A CLASS IN THE CENTRAL 8CHOOL, PERTH,

(Photographed by Mr. Hatfield, one of the staff.)


of the arm from the shoulder, not merely from the elbow, is required.

A New Game.

A favourite game with American children is called Bubbles and Bundles. Little prizes are prepared, each of which is placed in a box, or made up into a bundle. These are hung by ribbons to a strong cord stretched between two posts. A bowl of strong soapsuds, and pipes with which to blow bubbles are provided. (A tablespoonful of glycerine added to the suds will prevent the bubbles from breaking easily.) Two of the players take turns in blowing; and, when the bubbles are thrown off the pipes into the air, the rest get under them and try to blow them against the packages that they wish to obtain. A limit is set to the number that any one player may win during a game.

A House’s Geief.

1.    During the great war with France and England that came to an end with the defeat of Napoleon in the battle of Waterloo in 1815, there were two horses that had drawn the same gun for several years, and had been side by side in many battles. At length, one of them was killed by a shot from the enemy.

2.    The other horse seemed overwhelmed with grief; for, on having his food brought to him as usual, he refused to eat. He merely sniffed at it, kept turning his head round as if to look for his companion, and neighed many times as if calling him to come for his share. There were other horses near him, but he would make friends with none of them. Every care was bestowed on him, but in vain'. He soon afterwards died, having never once tasted food since he lost his companion.

An American Lady’s View of Australia.

1.    “Australia,” says a lady writing in Harper's Magazine, “can never become so populous or so wealthy as the United States of America. Over most of the continent there is a deficient and uncertain rainfall. There are scarcely any navigable rivers, and few snow-clad mountains, to supply water to irrigate the thirsty land.

2.    “ There are, however, vast tracts of good country ; and the climate is so mild that, all over the great island of Australia and the smaller islands of Tasmania and New Zealand, sheep and cattle and horses need no housing in winter. This naturally points to Australasia as the region for producing beef and mutton, wool and hides, horns and tallow, and butter and cheese.

3.    “ The southern portions are rich in wheat-fields ; the tropical produce the best of sugar ; and, almost everywhere, the conditions are favourable to fruit-growing. The vine and the olive, the orange and the lemon, in fact, all the fruits of Southern Europe, or of Southern California, are abundant and of excellent quality.”

A STRANGE DERIVATION.

The interrogation point (?) is said to be formed from the first and last letters of the Latin word quaestio, an “asking,” placed one over the other thus : § ; the exclamation point (!), from the Greek word Io, signifying “joy,” placed in the same way; £

BRITANNIA, THE PRIDE OF THE OCEAN.

view, Thy banners make ty - ranny tremble,    When borne by the Red, White, and


banners make ty - ranny tremble, When borne by the Red, White, and Blue.


Popular Song.

O Bri - tan-nia, the pride of the ocean,

The home of the brave and the

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When war spread its wide desolation And threaten’d the land to deform,

The ark, then, of Freedom’s foundation, Britannia, rode safe thro’ the storm, With her garlands of vict’ry around her, When so nobly she bore her brave crew, With her flag floating proudly before her, The boast of the Red, White, and Blue. The boast, &c., &c.

CHRISTMAS BELLS.

—Caroline A. Dugan, in Our Dumb Animals.


J. 0 happy bells ! through coming years We hear, in your glad sending,

The message still of peace, good-will, All jarring discords blending.


2. 0 bells of God ! ring on, our souls To grander action nerving,

Till all our days are Christmas days Of living and of serving.


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 30.] MELBOURNE. [February, 1900.

NEVER SAY FAIL!

Suc-cumb yield; submit.

En-vi-ous, grudging.

1. Keep pushing : ’tis wiser Than sitting aside,

And dreaming and sighing, And waiting the tide.

In life’s earnest battle,

They only prevail Who daily march onward And never say fail!

H. With an eye ever open,

A tongue that’s not dumb, And a heart that will never To sorrow succumb,

You’ll battle and conquer Though thousands assail: How strong and how mighty, Who never say fail !


Ob-sta-cles, hindrances.

A-non-y-mous, of unknown or unavowed authorship.

3.    Ahead then keep pushing,

Keep straight on your way, Unheeding the envious,

And asses that bray :

All obstacles vanish,

All enemies quail,

In the might of their wisdom Who never say fail 1

4.    In life’s rosy morning,

In manhood’s firm pride,

Let this be your motto Your footsteps to guide ;

“In storm and in sunshine,

Whatever assail,

We’ll onward and conquer,

And never say fail.”

•—Anonymous.

DISMOUNTING “ LONG TOM.”

[An army is besieging a fortified place. Trenches have been thrown up, under cover of which the soldiers have approached within a few hundred yards of its walls. But the besieged have one big gun called Long Tom, that can throw a shell into any part of their enemy’s lines. This gun is doing great damage. How it was dismounted is told in the lesson. (The Boers besieging Ladysmith in Natal had a large cannon that was named Long Tom.)]

Bat^ter-y, number of cannon mounted together.

Colo nel (kur-nel), chief officer of a regiment.

Trencll-es, ditches ; excavations made to afford protection to soldiers.

Point-blank, straight.

Vol-un-teers/ those who offer their services.

Ser-geant (sar-jent), officer next in rank above a corporal.

Bastion, wall of earth or masonry erected for defence or attack.

El-e-va-tion, height. 32

Lin-stOCk or lint-stock, pointed, forked staff, shod with iron at the foot, to hold a lighted match for firing cannon.

Ad-just-ed, put right.

Prac-tis-ing, doing certain acts frequently for

some purpose.

Haugh-ti-ly, in a proud manner.

Bra-va-do, boastful act.

Cu-ri-OS-i-ty, desire to gratify the mind with new information or objects of interest. Pro-trud-ing, standing out ; thrust forward.

which a man ought to be able to hit any mark at three hundred yards.”

2.    The commander hesitated : “ I cannot have the men exposed.”

u I engage not to lose a man except—except him who fires the gun. He must take his chance.”

“ Well, Colonel, it must be done by volunteers. The men must not be ordered out on such service as that.” The colonel bowed and retired.

********

3.    u Volunteers to go out into the trenches ! ” cried a sergeant, in a loud voice, standing erect as a poker and swelling with importance.

LONG TOM.”

(The block was kindly lent by the proprietor of Melbourne Punch.)

There were fifty offers in less than as many seconds. “ Only twelve allowed to go,” said the sergeant; u and I am one.”

4. A gun was taken down, placed on a carriage, and posted near Death’s Alley,32 but out of the line of fire. The colonel himself assisted

in the loading of this gun, and, to the surprise of the men, had the ball weighed first, and then weighed out the powder himself.

5.    He then waited quietly a long time, till Long Tom from the bastion pitched a shot into Death’s Alley ; but, no sooner had the shot struck, and sent the sand flying past the two lanes of curious faces, than the colonel jumped upon the gun and waved his cocked hat. At this signal, his battery opened fire on the bastion, and the battery on his right opened on the wall that fronted them ; and the colonel gave the word to run the gun out of the trenches.

6.    They ran it out into the cloud of smoke their own guns were belching forth, unseen by the enemy; but they had no sooner twisted it into the line of Long Tom than the smoke was gone, and there they were, a fair mark. “ Back into the trenches all but one ! ” roared the colonel; and in they ran like rabbits. “ Quick ! the elevation ! ” The colonel and the sergeant raised the muzzle to the mark. “ Hoo ! hoo ! hoo ! ping ! ping 1 ping ! ” came the bullets about their ears. “ Away with you ! ” cried the colonel, taking the linstock from him.

7.    Then the colonel, fifteen yards from the trenches, in full blazing uniform, showed two armies what one fearless soldier can do. He kneeled down, and adjusted his gun just as he would have done in a practising-ground. He had a pot-shot to take ; and a pot-shot he would take. He took no notice of the three hundred muskets that were levelled at him. He looked along his gun, adjusted it, and readjusted to a hair’s-breadth. The enemy’s bullets pattered over it; and still he adjusted and re-adjusted. His men inside were groaning, and tearing their hair at his danger.

8.    At last, it was levelled to his mind; and then his movements were as quick as they had hitherto been slow. In a moment he stood erect, with his linstock at the touch-hole. A huge tongue of flame, a volume of smoke, a roar, and the iron thunderbolt33 was on its way, and the colonel walked haughtily but rapidly back to the trenches ; for in all this there was no bravado. He was there to make a shot, not to throw a chance of life away watching the effect.

9.    Ten thousand eyes did that for him. Both armies risked their lives craning out to see what a colonel in full uniform was doing under fire from a whole line of forts, and what would be his fate; but, when he fired the gun, their curiosity left the man and followed the iron thunderbolt.

10.    For two seconds all was uncertain: the ball was travelling. Tom gave a rear like a wild horse; his protruding muzzle went up sky-high, then was seen no more ; and a ring of old iron and a clatter of fragments was heard on the top of the bastion. Long Tom was dismounted.

—From The Double Marriage, by Charles Reade (1814-84).

1 Death’s Al-ley, opening in the trenches, so called because the guns of the besieged did great damage there.

THE LITTLE DRUMMER.

Bay-O-net, kind of sword fitted on the muzzle of a gun.

Lint, linen made into a soft substance for dressing

wounds.

Fur-suit;1 act of following; chase.


Knap-sack, case of canvas or leather, carried by a soldier,

Pick-ets, troops serving to guard any army from surprise.

Com-rades, mates; companions.

Cais-son (case-son), four-wheeled carriage for conveying ammunition (powder, shot, etc.).

Corps, singular and plural (pronounced thus:— singular core, plural cores), body of soldiers.

Sur-geon, one whose occupation it is to cure injuries and disorders such as wounds and dislocations ; doctor.

4.    Along the wooded hollows,

The line of battle ran ;

Our centre poured a volley,

And the fight at once began;

For the rebels answered, shouting, And a shower of bullets flew;

But still the little drummer beat His rat-tat-too.

5.    He stood among his comrades,

As they quickly formed the line, And, when they raised their muskets, He watched the barrels shine. When the volley broke, he started, For war to him was new ;

But still the little drummer beat His rat-tat-too.

6 It was a sight to see them,

That early autumn day—

Our soldiers in their blue coats,*

And the rebel ranks in gray,

The smoke that rolled between them, The balls that whistled through, And the little drummer as he beat His rat-tat-too.

7.    His comrades dropped around him—

By fives and tens they fell—

Some pierced by rifle bullets,

Some torn by shot and shell.

They played against our cannon,

And a caisson’s splinters flew,

But still the little drummer beat His rat-tat-too.

8.    The right, the left, the centre—

The fight was everywhere:

They pushed us here—we wavered:

We drove and broke them there. The gray-backs fixed their bayonets, And charged the coats of blue,

But still the little drummer beat His rat-tat-too.

9.    “ Where is our little drummer ? ”

His nearest comrades say,

When the dreadful fight is over,

And the smoke is cleared away.

As the rebel corps was scattering,

He urged them to pursue,

So furiously he beat and beat The rat-tat-too.

10.    He stood no more among them;

A bullet, as it sped,

Had glanced and struck his ankle, And stretched him with the dead. He crawled behind a cannon,

And pale and paler grew,

But still the little drummer beat His rat-tat-too.

LI. They bore him to the surgeon—

A busy man was he:

“ A drummer-boy ? what ails him ? His comrades answered, ‘ ‘ See !

As they took him from the stretcher, A heavy breath he drew,

And his little fingers strove to beat The rat-tat-too.

12.    The ball had spent its fury;

“ A scratch,” the surgeon said As he wound the snowy bandage Which the lint was staining red;

I must leave you now, old fellow. ” Oh, take me back with you,

For I know the men are missing me And the rat-tat-too.”

13.    Upon his comrade’s shoulder

They lifted him so grand,

With his dusty drum before him, And his drumsticks in his hand,. To the fiery front of battle,

That nearer, nearer drew,

And evermore he beat and beat His rat-tat-too.

14.    The wounded, as he passed them,

Looked up and gave a cheer,

And one in dying blessed him, Between a smile and tear.

And the gray-backs, they are flying Before the coats of blue,

For whom the little drummer beats His rat-tat-too.

15.    When the west was red with sunset,

The last pursuit was o’er;

Brave Lyon rode the foremost,

And looked the name he bore; And, before him, on his saddle,

As a weary child would do,

Sat the little drummer fast asleep, With his rat-tat-too.

—Richard Henry Stoddard.

1.    Out in the West, referring probably to the battles in Tennessee and Alabama, west of Alleghany Mountains.

2.    Lyon, one of the Federalist or Northern party’s generals.

3.    Our, Federalist or Northern.

4.    Reb-el. The Southern States (eleven in number) of the United States of America seceded from the Union in 1861, and, as the Confederate States, formed a government. To bring them back into the Union, the Northern States went to war with them. In 1865 the war ended in the overthrow of the Confederates.

5.    Our soldiers . . . gray. The uniform of the Federalists or Northerners was blue, that of the Confederates or Southerners gray.

SNAKES —continued.

Spe^cies, group of individuals agreeing in common attributes, and having a common name.

In^di-Vid-U-al, single person, animal, or thing.

For-mi-da-ble, exciting fear; to be feared or dreaded.

Re-pul-Sive, forbidding.

Va-ri-e-ty, group of individuals of a species, which differ to some extent from the rest.

Rig-id, stiff; unyielding. 34

Mov-a-ble, not fixed ; capable of being made to change its place.

Per-for-a-ted, pierced with a hole.

Per-spi-ra-tion, liquid that is exuded through the skin; sweat.

Lig-a-ture, band ; bandage.

Punc-ture, small hole made by a point; slight wound.

Am-mo-ni-a, wafer charged with the gas called ammonia. It has a pungent taste and smell.

surrounding them. Twenty-three species of Australian snakes are poisonous ; but the bite of the individuals of only a few of them is sufficient to cause the death of a healthy man, or of large animals such as horses and cows. The black-snake, the brown-snake, the tiger-snake, the copper-headed snake, and the death-adder are the most to be feared.

2. The black-snake is so called because a great part of its body is purplish-black. Its under parts, however, are red of a rich crimson

THE BLACK-SNAKE.

(From The Zoology of Victoria, by McCoy.)


tint. For a poisonous snake,34 it grows to a large size, some fully six feet in length having been measured. The black-snake is commonly met with in swampy places ; and its food for the most part consists of frogs and water-rats, though, like most other snakes, it eats lizards, mice, and other small animals. One that was cut open was found to contain the remains of sixteen young water-rats. It is fond of being in the water, and can swim and dive well. Though naturally timid and anxious to get out of sight when discovered, it will become very


fierce if attacked. Then it flattens its neck, raises its head and the fore part of its body from the ground, and strikes with lightning rapidity. Caution should be used in trying to kill it.

3.- The brown-snake is one of the head of brown-snake. largest and most widely distributed of our poisonous snakes. As its name indicates, its colour is brown, though it shades off to yellow on the under parts. It differs from most other Australian snakes in that it lays eggs from which its young are produced. The mother, however, takes no care of her eggs, but leaves them to be hatched by the heat of the sun.

4.    The tiger-snake is the most dangerous of all our reptiles. It reaches a length of about four feet. Its colour is grayish-black with brown or yellow crossbands. This marking, together with its ferocity, has obtained for it its name. It should never be attacked from behind, as it possesses the power in common with the brown-snake of springing backward at its enemy. The young are brought forth in January, and number from twenty to thirty.

5.    The copper-headed or large-scaled snake grows to a length ol five or six feet, and is a deadly species, though less formidable, perhaps, than the tiger-snake. Its colour on the back varies from dark copperbrown to light reddish-brown, or, in some cases, nearly black ; while,

THE TIGER-SNAKE.

•on the under parts, it may be any tint from yellow to gray. The colour of the head is like that of an old copper coin, and there is a Y-shaped black patch on the neck. The blackish varieties are frequently mistaken for the black-snake, while the light-coloured are not unlike the tiger-snake. It is stated by the late Professor McCoy in his book, The Zoology of Victoria, that most of the dangerous cases of snake-bite near Melbourne are due to the copper-head.

6. The death-adder is a repulsive-looking creature. It frequents sandy places, and often buries itself up to the neck in the loose soil. To catch sight of its hideous head moving about just above the ground must give one a shock. Its body is thick, but the greatest length it attains is somewhat less than three feet. Its colour is generally gray, but some varieties are brick-red. The short tail is much flattened near the tip, and the last nine or ten sets of scales surrounding it become very hard and rigid in old age. The last scale of all is usually curved, and resembles a poison fang. It does not use its tail as a weapon, and cannot sting with it, though some people have the mistaken idea that it can. The death-adder is the only Australian snake that has movable

and perforated fangs. In the other species, they are fixed, and have merely a groove or open channel down which the poison from the gland or bag flows. When angry, the death-adder flattens its body, and snaps first to one side and then to the other with great quickness.

7.    It is safe to say that no Australian snake will attack a human being except in self-defence. Many cases of snake-bite during recent years have been due to the recklessness with which people have thrust their hands into rabbit burrows in which snakes have taken up their quarters.

8.    A man who has been bitten by a large, poisonous snake soon gets so weak that he will stagger and fall. He grows cold, but yet is bathed in perspiration. He also feels sick, and the action of his heart becomes feeble. What is the best thing to do in such a case ?

THE DEATH-ADDER.

9.    First, tie a ligature (a string or strip of clothing) tightly round the limb between the bitten part and the heart. Then, pass a stick through the knotted part2 of the ligature, screw it round as far as possible, and secure the ends of the stick so that it cannot slip. This will stop the flow of the blood in the limb, and prevent the poison spreading through the body. The ligature will cause swelling and great pain, but that must be endured.

10.    Next, cut round the bite (indicated by two punctures, thus .. ) to a depth of a quarter of an inch if possible, and suck the wound strongly to remove the poison that the snake has injected. There is no danger in sucking the wound, provided that the person who does it has no sores in the mouth or on the lips. It has been proved that the poison of the snake is harmless when taken into the stomach.

11.    To combat the faintness which comes upon the patient as the result of the action of the poison on the nerves, small quantities of spirits, or strong tea, or coffee—a few teaspoonfuls at short intervals —should be given ; but large quantities of spirits are harmful. Every half-hour, twelve or fifteen drops of ammonia in a little water may also be given as long as the patient shows any sign of drowsiness. (The dose for a young child is two drops, and the amount increases with the age of the patient.)

12.    The parts about the wound should be well washed with a solution of bleaching powder (chloride of lime), or of ammonia. (A doctor will probably inject into the blood some of one or both of these liquids in the hope of destroying the power of the poison, which, from cases on record, they appear to have the power of doing under certain circumstances.)

13.    After the ligature has been on for half-an-hour (and the cutting, sucking, etc., have been carried out), it may be removed for five minutes, and then re-applied for another half-hour, after which it may be removed altogether.

14.    Care should be taken to keep the patient cheerful and fully awake. It would be well to bear in mind that, if the bite was made through any material, part of the poison may have been caught by it,, and that a snake does not always have a full supply of poison in its gland. After biting an animal, it requires time for the liquid to accumulate again.

15.    When we take into consideration the number of poisonous snakes that abound in Australia, it is a matter for wonder that there are so few fatal cases of snake-bite. It has been stated on good authority that they do not amount to twenty in a year.

1. For a poi-SOll-OUS snake. The largest snakes are non-poisonons—constrictors that kill their prey by pressure. Our diamond and carpet snakes are of that kind,; and some have been found that have measured over ten feet. 2. Knotted part. Consult the Board of Health’s recently issued wall-aheet.

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

HOW CRUSOE MADE POTTERY.

Triv-i-al, trifling; of small importance. Ad-mi-ra-bly, excellently.

In-gre-di-ents, things which enter into or go to make up a compound.

Req-ui-site, necessary; needful.


Pip-kins, small earthenware boilers. A-gree-a-bly, pleasantly.

Kiln (Ml), large oven for baking or drying things. Vi-o*lence, fierceness.

Glazed, covered with a smooth, glassy coating. Mod-el-ling, shaping,

1.    I had long studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted much, but knew not where to come at them.

2.    However, remembering the heat of the climate, I felt sure that, if I could find the right sort of clay, I should be able to shape some rough pots out of it, and dry them in the sun. These would be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and would hold any thing that was dry, such as corn and meal.

3.    It would make you pity me, or rather laugh at me, to know how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste : what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made ; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how some cracked by the great heat of the sun ; and how others crumbled into dust the moment I touched them.

4.    In short, after having laboured hard for two months to find the right kind of clay, to dig it, to bring it home, and to shape it, I had only two great, ugly, earthen things, not worthy to be called jars.

5.    When the sun had baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them up very gently, and set them down again in two large wicker-baskets which I had made on purpose for them, that they might not break. Between the jars and baskets there was a little room to spare, and this I stuffed full of barley straw.

“ These two jars,” I thought, “ will hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal when the corn is bruised.”

6.    Though I had been so unfortunate with the large jars, yet I made several smaller things with better success,—such as little flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins; and these the heat of the sun baked as hard as I could wish.

7.    Still, none of these answered my purpose, which was to get an earthen vessel that would hold liquids, and bear the heat of a fire.

“the FIRE I PLIED WITH FRESH FUEL.”

(From the edition of Robinson Crusoe published by Messrs. T. Nelson and Sons.)

How, it happened one day that I made a hotter fire than usual for cooking my meat; and, when I went to put it out after I had done with it, I found in the ashes a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels, burnt as hard as a stone and as red as a tile.

8.    I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself that certainly these vessels might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. And this set me to studying how I could arrange my fire so as to accomplish this.

9.    I had no notion of a kiln such as potters use, nor of glazing the pots with lead, although I had some lead; but I placed three large pipkins and two or three jars in a pile, one upon another, and heaped my firewood all round them, with a great heap of embers underneath.

10.    The fire I plied with fresh fuel round the outside and on the top, till I saw the jars inside were red-hot through and through, and I observed that they did not crack at all. When I saw that they were clear red, I let them stand in that heat for live or six hours.

11.    At last, I found that one of the jars, though it did not crack, had begun to melt or run. The sand which was mixed with the clay had melted by the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone on.

12.    So I slacked my fire gradually, till the earthenware began to lose its red colour ; and, watching all night lest the fire should die out too fast, I had in the morning three very good pipkins, and two jars, as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the melted sand.

13.    After this experiment, I need not say that I lacked no sort of earthenware for my use. But, as to shapes, these vessels were, as you may suppose, not very handsome ; for I had no way of modelling them, except as children make mud pies, or as a woman that had never learned to raise dough would make crust.

14.    No joy at a thing of so trivial a nature was ever equal to mine, when I found I had made an earthen vessel that would bear the fire. I had hardly patience to wait till the pipkins were cold, before I set one on the fire again, with water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably well, and, with a piece of kid, I made some very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal and several other ingredients requisite to make it as good as I would have it.

—Daniel De Foe (1661-1731).

MY CAT SHIPMATE.

Fore^cas^tle (fore35 36 37 38lcas',l. Sailors say foke-s’l), forward part of a vessel, under the deck, where the sailors live.

Ap-pear-ance, coming into sight.

Spasm, sudden emotion; thrill.

Re-spond-ed, answered; replied.

Aft, astern ; near the stern of a vessel. Op-por-tu-ni-ty, suitable occasion; chance. Un-wont-ed (un-wunt-ed), rare; unusual. Pin-na-cles, pointed tops.

were a hard-hearted lot, whose treatment of me was simply barbarous; and even the other hoy who was on hoard, being much bigger and stronger than I was, used to treat me as badly as any of them.

5.    When night came, however, and the faithful cat nestled to> my side during my watch below, I would actually forget my misery for a short time in the pleasant belief that something was fond of me.

6.    It was to my bunk she always fled for refuge from the ill-natured little terrier that lived aft, and that never missed an opportunity of flying at her when he saw her on deck.

7.    Several times on the passage, she found a flying fish that had dropped on the deck at night, and, by some instinct 1 do not pretend to explain, brought it to my feet. Then she would munch the sweet morsel contentedly, looking up at me between mouthfuls, as if to tell me how much she was enjoying her unwonted meal; or would actually

A PERSIAN CAT.

(From a photograph kindly lent by the proprietors of The Australasian.)

leave it for a minute or two to rub herself against me, and arch her back under my fondling hand.

8. Two days before we left Kingston, Jamaica, on the homeward passage, she had kittens, five tiny things, that lived in my bunk in their mother’s old nest.

The voyage ended abruptly on the first day out of harbour, by the vessel running upon an out-lying spur of coral only a few miles from port. After a day and a night of great exertion and exposure, the ship slid off the sharp pinnacles of the reef into deep water, giving us scant time to escape on board one of the small craft that clustered alongside saving the cargo. -

9. All my care was for an old slouch hat, in which lay the five kittens snug and warm, while the anxious mother clung to me so closely that I had no difficulty in taking her along too. When we were safe ashore, although it cost me a bitter pang, I handed the rescued family over to the hotel-keeper’s daughter, who promised me that my old shipmate should from that time live in luxury.

—From The Spectator, by Frank Bullen, author of The Cachalot, a book of whaling adventures.

LORD ULLIN’S DAUGHTER.

Chief-tain, head of a clan.

Fer-ry, place where boats cross water regularly for the conveyance of passengers and goods. Heath-er (hith-’er), small evergreen plant.

1.    A Chieftain to the Highlands 1 bound

Cries “ Boatman, do not tarry !

And I’ll give thee a silver pound To row us o’er the ferry! ”

2.    “Now who be ye, would cross Loch

Gyle,2

This dark and stormy water ? ”

“ O, I’m the Chief of Ulva’s isle,

And this Lord Ullin’s daughter.

3.    ‘ And fast before her father’s men

Three days wre’ve fled together ; For, should he find us in the glen,

My blood would stain the heather.

4.     His horsemen hard upon us ride ;

Should they our steps discover, Then who will cheer my bonny bride When they have slain her lover ? ”

5.    Out spoke the hardy Highland wight—

I’ll go, my chief, I’m ready :

It is not for your silver bright,

But for your winsome lady :

6.     And, by my word ! the bonny bird

In danger shall not tarry ;

So though the waves are raging white

I’ll row you o’er the ferry.”

7.    By this the storm grew loud apace,

The water-wraith was shrieking ; And in the scowl of heaven each face Grew dark as they were speaking. 39

Wight, man.

Win some, lovely; pretty.

Wraith, ghost or spirit (an imaginary being). Pre-vail-ing, becoming too furious to withstand.

8.    But still, as wilder blew the wind,

And as the night grew drearer, Adown the glen rode armbd men, Their trampling sounded nearer.

9.    “0 haste thee, haste !”the lady cries,

“ Though tempests round us gather, I’ll meet the raging of the skies,

But not an angry father.” •

10.    The boat has left a stormy land,

A stormy sea before her,—

When, oh ! too strong for human hand, The tempest gathered o’er her.

11.    And still they rowed amidst the roar

Of waters fast prevailing :

Lord Ullin reached that fatal shore,— His wrath was changed to wailing.

12.    For sore dismayed, through storm and

shade

His child he did discover :

One lovely hand she stretched for aid, And one was round her lover.

13.    “ Come back ! come back ! ” he cried

in grief,

“ Across this stormy water ;

And I’ll forgive your Highland Chief, My daughter !—O my daughter ! ”

14.    ’Twas vain ; the loud waves lashed

the shore,

Return or aid preventing ;

The waters wild went o’er his child, And he was left lamenting.

—Thomas Campbell (1777-1844).

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

Demonstration of Swimming.

1.    The committee of the combined Melbourne and suburban State Schools’ swimming clubs are making arrangements for a demonstration at an early date, similar to the very successful one held last year.

2.    The great advantage of being able to swim, and the health and pleasure to be derived from the exercise, need scarcely be pointed out. Boys and girls should permit no slight obstacle to stand in the way of their learning the art.

3.    Particulars concerning the demonstration may be obtained from the honorary secretary of the committee, Mr. C. F. Planner, State School, No. 2815, Middle Park.

Appointment of a Victorian Teacher to the Suva School, Fiji.

Recently, the School Board of Suva, the capital of the Fiji Islands, made a request to the Victorian Government for the temporary transfer of a teacher to act as an assistant in the school there. The request was complied with, and the Education Department offered the position to Miss M. H. Van Nooten, head teacher of the Locksley School, No. 2648. She accepted it, and left Sydney on the 9th of January, in the steamer Hauroto, to take up her duties in Suva, carrying with her the best wishes of the officers of the Department.

A Brave Woman.

The postmistress at Ladygrey, in Cape Colony, deserves to rank as a heroine. When the Boers (boors) entered the town, and tried to take possession of the post-office, she ordered them off, dared them to interfere with the property of the colony, hauled down their flag and hoisted the British, tore down their proclamation of annexation, and put up Sir Alfred Milner’s against treason, and—and there she is ! The post-office remains in her possession. The heroine of Ladygrey is an Englishwoman.

A Moving Story. 40

“ I took the cigars and the message to the Boer; and he turned, and looked at Tommy in amazement, and then, quite overcome, burst into tears. Tommy did the same, and I am afraid that I was on the point of joining in the chorus, but time would not permit it.”

Rifle Shooting : Schools’ Cadet Matches, Victoeia.

1.    In 1884, when the first series of rifle matches for cadets was held, three teams, consisting of five boys each, put in an appearance. At the matches that took place on the 8tli of December, 1899, there-were about 850 cadets present, under the command of LieutenantColonel Henry, officer commanding the Cadet Force, assisted by Captain Somerset.

2.    No. 1 Echuca team established a record by scoring 207 out of a possible 250 — a very difficult feat to accomplish with a Francotte rifle. This team and another from the Echuca State School (Mr.

First Tbam.    Second Team.

CADETS OF ECHUCA STATE SCHOOL: MR. G. H. JAMES, HEAD TEACHER.

James, head teacher) carried off almost all the prizes for junior teams —the Sargood Shield, the McCulloch Cup, the Championship Gold Medal, and the many other medals that are shown in the illustration.

3. At the luncheon given to the cadets and their officers by Sir Frederick and Lady Sargood, Major-General Downes, Commandant of the Victorian Military Forces, urged the cadets to be careful about their dress, and to so conduct themselves as to bring credit on their uniforms. He congratulated them on their soldierly bearing, excellent appearance, and good nerve under trying circumstances.

Little Ratal.

She’s Britannia’s piccaninny ;

If she isn’t very big,

She’s a daughter of the Empire,

So she doesn’t care a tig,

Tho’ she’s landed in the front of it,

And bound to bear the brunt of it—

The grim and grisiy brunt of it,

Ratal !

—From a Durban newspaper.

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EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

TIE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 31.] MELBOURNE.    [March, 1900.

IN MEMORIAM: THE BLACK WATCH.

[“ The privates of the Black Watch who perished in the attack on Magersfontein were buried feet to feet, dressed in their kilts, with their sporrans covering their faces.”—Major Reay, in The Herald (Melbourne)].

Kilt, kind of short petticoat, reaching from the waist to the knees, worn in the Highlands of Scotland, and by some regiments of soldiers.

Spor-ran, large pouch made of skin with the hair or fur on, worn in front of the kilt.

I.

Feet to feet they lie,

Awaiting that dread day

When Earth shall shrivel as a scroll,

' And all things pass away !

II.

Feet to feet, they lie !

The bed is wide and deep

Where Wauchope and his Highlanders1

With placid faces sleep !

V.


Plac-id, peaceful; quiet.

Stal-wart, strong.

Lau-rel, evergreen shrub, the leaves of which were used by the ancient Greeks to form crowns for the victors in certain games.

III.

Clad as they fell, they lie—

His kilted lads, and he—

More honoured in that gloomy grave, Than flushed with victory.

IV.

The stalwart forms are still,

That once were Scotland’s pride,— But never yet in vain, her sons Have nobly fought and died !

Then twine the laurel wreath,

0 willing hand of Fame !

For, as of old,2 our Black Watch died,—

All honour to their name !

—Marion Miller, State School, Box Hill.

1.    Wauchope and his Highlanders.—On the 11th of December, 1899, an unsuccessful night attack was made on the Boer position at Magersfontein (-tane), beyond the Modder River, in the north of Cape Colony. The Highland Brigade, composed of five regiments, had reached a point within two hundred yards of a Boer entrenchment, the existence of which was unknown to them, when they were met by a heavy rifle fire, and were forced to retreat. Under the shelter of a fold in the ground, the Highlanders reformed, renewed the conflict, and forced their way to within 800 yards of the enemy, but had again to retire. Their losses were terrible. A battalion of the Black Watch suffered most severely: when°it was reformed after the conflict, only 160 answered to their names. The dead, wounded, and missing numbered 815. Many officers had fallen, among them being their leader, Major-General Wauchope.

The Black Watch regiment was raised in 1729. The dark colours of the tartan which the soldiers wear obtained for it, soon after its formation, the name “Black Watch.”

2.    Of' Old.—The present Black Watch carries on the tradilions of the two celebrated regiments, the 42nd and the 73rd, which were combined under one colour in 1881. Volumes might be written to record their exploits, for the Black Watch has taken part in nearly all the important operations of the British Army for the past 150 years.

At Prestonpans (1745), the old 42nd had all its officers killed or captured. One of its most splendid exploits was at Aboukir Bay. Oi the morn-ng of the 8th of March, 1801, the Highlanders landed with others from boats under a Are so terrible that ihe water was lashed into foam with the bullets^ Twelve days later, the battle of Alexandria was fought. On that occasion, they routed a column of Napoleon’s “ Invincible Legion,” inspired to the charge by Sir Ralph Abercrombv’s appeal: “My brave Highlanders, remember your forefathers.” Ahercromby was killed in the battle. For this, the Black Watch bears on its colours the sphinx and the word “ Egypt.” At Quatre Bras and Waterloo (1815), the old 73id lost 23 officers, and at the end of the latter fight, only one officer remained, Lieutenant Robert Stewart, who found himself in command of the remnant of the regiment.

Price Id.

A NATAL WOMAN’S

Kopjes [copies), hills, or, strictly, hillocks, often rugged and strewn with boulders. (Kopje is h, diminutive of hop, a hill or mountain, je being a diminutive affix.)

Loot, plunder.

Raid, make a foray or inroad for the purpose of plundering.

Com-man-deer,' seize for the use of the state; call out for military service.

Dis-ci-pline, submissiveness or obedience to order and control.

WAR EXPERIENCES.

Dis-cre-tion, prudence ; wariness.

Val-our, courage; bravery.

Of-fered, said he was willing.

Mar:tial, belonging to war.

E-nor-mous-ly, vastly,

Mac-in-tosh, waterproof outer garment.

Veldt or veld (velt or, more correctly, felt. In the Dutch dialect used by the Boers, v is pronounced like the English /), open plain.

In-tact^ uninjured ; left complete or entire.

1. I had scarcely finished dressing on Sunday morning, the 19th of November, when my husband called out, “Look sharp I the Boers are in the yard and want to see you.” I hurried out to meet half-a-dozen mounted men, armed to the teeth, sitting on their horses in front of

A BOER COMMANDO.


the house. Having bid them the time of day, I asked them to come in and drink coffee, which they did.

2.    I asked their names. “ I am Field-cornet Joubert (zhoo-bare),” replied a big, fine-looking man, “ and these are so-and-so.”

“ What do you want here ? ”

“We are going to Maritzburg,1 and you must not fly or get frightened when my men pass your house, which they will do directly, to form a camp, and take up a position on your kopjes.”

3.    I replied—“ Neither I nor my children are afraid of any Boers, as you can see. We knew you were coming two days ago, and we had plenty of time to get away, had we intended doing so.”

4.    “That’s good!” he replied; “we do not interfere with people who remain quietly on their farms, but loot and raid everything we can see on deserted ones. Anything I commandeer from yon, the Generalwill give you an order for, and, when the war is over, onr Government will pay you for it.7

He rose to go, looked at and admired my flowers, pulled a carnation, which he placed in his button-hole ; and each of his men did the same.

5.    Shortly afterwards, the Boers began to pass, riding in all directions through the homestead. No discipline whatever was kept; they were just like a pack of hounds when the fox is lost. They lined our kopjes overlooking Willow Grange, Weston, and Estcourt. They could hear the cannon at Ladysmith,3 and were not more than a mile from the house. No stranger would have believed that those stony hills were swarming with men and horses. I don’t think that there were more than 400 or 500, however, evidently the advance guard. We were kept lively the whole time, as almost every man came with his horse into the yard for water, which was to be obtained from a spring 50 yards from the front door, and had to be got out in buckets. They asked for anything, and, I might almost say, everything except meat. We kept on giving what they wanted as long as we could, thinking discretion the better part of valour. They always offered to pay, but our answer was, “We are under martial law.’'4

6.    On Saturday, we rose to find that the Boer camp had been enormously increased. I never saw such a sight—a living mass of thousands of horses, cattle, and human beings. A few hours afterwards, they all moved towards Weenen.

7.    The Dutch troopers carry all they have with them on horseback. They have one blanket, one mackintosh, and live principally on grilled fresh meat or “ biltong,” that is, strips of dried meat. Each man cooks for himself. They sleep out in the open veldt, and have no tents, except for their heads. One Boer said he had never had his clothes off for a month.

8.    Our neighbour, Mr. T. Robinson, had deserted his home. The Boers have turned the house into a hospital, and hoisted the Red Cross flag on his chimney. They have also broken and destroyed everything about his place, killed off his sheep, &c., eaten bottles of pickles, fruit, and preserves, and broken the bottles.

9.    I think it is a great pity that people abandoned their farms. It has been a severe strain on all of us, but we have kept our homes intact, and the true Boer has expressed admiration for those who remained.We have lost stock, &c., but it does not mean a fresh beginning, as it must do to those unfortunates wdio fled.

—Abridged from an article in The Times (Natal), by Mrs. H. E. Kirby.

1.    Mar-itz-burg, short for Pietermaritzburg, the capital of Natal, is situated in moderately hilly country, 50 miles from the coast. We now know that they were not able to carry out their plan.

2.    General. The speaker, whose position would correspond almost to that of colonel in the British army, was a cousin of General Joubert, the commander-in-chief of the Boer forces in Natal.

3.    Ladysmith, 3,280 feet above the sea, on the Klip River, is the third town in size in the colony of Natal, It is an important local centre ; and it also stands at the junction of the trade routes to the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. It is about 230 miles by rail from Durban, the principal port of Natal.

4.    Mar-tial law, the law administei-ed by the military forces of a government when it has superseded the civil authority in time of war, or when the civil authorities are unable to enforce the laws.

5.    Those who re-mained/ As the war has progressed, the Boers have, from all accounts, ceased to be even as considerate as the lady describes to those who remained on their farms.

THE LAST

REDOUBT.

Bier, handbarrow or portable frame on which a corpse is placed.

In-fi-del, unbeliever, that is, from the point of view of the Turk, one not a Mussulman or follower of Mahomet.


Re-aoubti small fort, forming1 part of a larger fortress.

Weird, wild; fierce.

Bay-O-net, short sword fitted on the muzzle of a rifle.

Chid, rebuked; scolded.

Jack al, wild animal of Asia and Africa, related to the dog and the wolf.


Par-a-pet, wall, rampart, or elevation of earth, for covering soldiers from an enemy’s fire; breastwork.

1.    Kacelyevo’s slope still felt The cannon’s bolt and the rifle’s pelt,

For a last redoxxbt up the hill remained,

By the Russ yet held, by the Turk not gained.

2.    Mehemet Alii stroked his beard,

His lips were clinched, his looks were weird ;

Round him were ranks of his ragged folk,

Their faces blackened with blood and smoke.

3.    “Clear me the Muscovite2 out! ” he cried,

Then the name of Allah3 echoed wide,

And the rifles were clutched, and the bayonets lowered, As on to the last redoubt they poured.

4.    One fell, and a second quickly stopped

The gap that he left when he reeled and dropped,

The second,—a third straight filled his place ;

The third and fourth kept up the race.

5.    Over their corpses the living sprang,

And the ridge with their musket rattle rang,

Till the faces that lined the last redoubt Could see their faces and hear their shout.

6.    In the redoubt a fair form towered,

That cheered up the brave and chid the coward ; Brandishing blade with a gallant air,

His head erect, and his temples bare.

7.    “ Fly, they are on us !” his men implored ;

But he waved them on with his waving sword ;

■    “ It cannot be held ; ’tis no shame to go ! ”

But he stood with his face set hard to the foe.

8.    Then clung they about him, and tugged, and knelt;

He drew a pistol from out his belt,

And fired it blank at the first that set Foot on the edge of the parapet.

9.    Over that first one toppled, but on Clambered the rest till their bayonets shone,

As hurriedly fled his men dismayed,

Not a bayonet’s length from the length of his blade.

10.    “Yield !” but aloft his steel he flashed,

And down on their steel it ringing clashed ;

Then back he reeled with a bladeless hilt,

His honour full, but his life-blood spilt. 41

12.    They lifted him up from the dabbled ground,A His limbs were shapely, and soft, and round,

Nc down on his lip, on his cheek no shade,—

“ Bismillah,”5 they cried, “ ’tis an infidel maid ! ”

13.    “ Dig her a grave where she stood and fell,

’Gainst the jackal’s scratch, and the vulture’s smell;

Did the Muscovite men like their maidens fight,

In their lines we had scarcely supped to-night.”

14.    So a deeper trench ’mong the trenches there Was dug for the form as brave as fair,

And none, till the Judgment trump and shout,

Shall drive her out of the Last Redoubt.

—Alfred Austin, Poet-laureate.

1.    Me-hem-et A-li (may-heh-met ah-lee) (1769-1849), rose from a humble position to be a distinguished general, and, for many years, pasha or viceroy of Egypt. He waged war in Turkey-in-Europe, Turkey-in-Asia, and in Egypt. (No mention is made of Kacelyevo (Ka-cel-ye-oo) in the principal gazetteers and atlases. It was probably a low, rocky hill.)

2.    Mus-CO-vite, Russian.

3.    Al-lah name of the Supreme Being, in use among the Arabs and Mohammedans generally

4.    Dab-bled ground, ground covered with blood.

5.    Bis-mil-lah, Mohammedan exclamation.

AROUND THE LIGHTHOUSES ON THE VICTORIAN

COAST.

Com-piled' put together.

Prom-on-tO-ry, headland; high cape.

I-de-al, faultless ; fit for a model.

As-cend ing, going upward ; mounting. Col-za, kind of cabbage, cultivated for its seeds, which yield a valuable oil.

Gran-ite, rock consisting of quartz, feldspar, and mica.

Rep-re-sent-ed, set forth.

Dav-its, curved arms of timber or iron, projecting over a ship’s side, having tackle to raise or lower a boat.

4. It was midnight when we reached Wilson’s Promontory,3 our first calling-place, 103 miles from the Heads. We ran past the promontory to Waterloo Bay, and anchored in that ideal harbour till morning. On onr return to the lighthouse at an early hour, a start was at once made at landing the stores, two whale-boats being employed, one going and the other coming at the same time between the ship and the shore. 42 43

CAPE SCHANCK. (From The Leader.)

and the quarters, which are surrounded by a stone wall six feet high, looking as if it were built to prevent the children from being blown off into the ocean. Sometimes, the spray from the waves that dash against the side of the island below the lighthouse makes a breach clear over the quarters, in such volume as to drench any one passing across the courtyard. No vegetation but “pig-face”4 grows on this rock; and animal life is represented by a few rabbits that have been landed there, and by mutton birds.

CLIFFY ISLAND. (From The Leader.')


*s

■ß, +5


7.    Cliffy Island is the worst of all places to land stores, the weather having to be waited on often for days, and sometimes for weeks. We were fortunate, however, and, by three o’clock on Wednesday, the boats were swung up to the davits, the anchor was raised, “cling, cling,” went the signals down to the engine room, the screw revolved, and we were on our way to Gabo Island. This is 170 miles from Cliffy, and 297 from the Heads. We reached it by breakfast time the next morning. As we approached, the Gabo tower presented a beautiful sight. It is built of the red granite for which the island is famed, and rises to a height of 150 feet.

8.    Unlike the Promontory light, that at Gabo Island has but one big

burner, which consumes between two and three gallons of oil every night.

A stroll across the island, which is three miles long by one wide, reveals a pretty spot, aptly named Happy Valley. Here, the keeper has erected a few rustic seats, and a table for picnicking. Tea-tree and honeysuckle entwine together, and, in the valley, ferns and bulrushes grow in abundance. By-and-by, one comes across the pride of Gabo Island—the garden. The soil, which is as black as coal, will grow almost anything, and, consequently, fresh vegetables and fruit are always at hand.

9.    Penguins, which swarm all over the island, are a source of much annoyance. The keeper’s dogs make havoc with the young ones, killing hundreds of them every week.

Marram grass has been successfully grown to keep back the drifting sand; while goats are reared for their flesh and milk.

10.    On account of the weather freshening, the steamer was obliged to run for shelter to Twofold Bay, New South Wales. Cape Howe, where the boundary-line between Victoria and the mother colony begins, was clearly seen, being a stretch of white sand running some distance inland.

LIGHTHOUSE AND QUARTERS,

GABO I3LANO. (From 'The Australasian.)


Monday, we bade Everard good-bye, and, with the exception of one stoppage at the Port Albert pilot station, had a clear run round Wilson’s Promontory, past Queenscliff, and up to Williamstown,

YACHTS OFF CAPE EVERARD. (From The Australasian.)


where we landed on Tuesday night, bringing to a conclusion, on the ninth day out, a very pleasant trip to the eastward-lying lighthouses of Victoria.

1.    Wives and chil-dren, married men only are appointed to the position of keepers or assistants.

2.    The Rip, the strait leading from Bass Strait into Port Phillip Bay. It lies between the Heads — Point Lonsdale on the west, and Point Nepean on the east.

3.    Wilson’s Promontory. A picture of this appeared in The School PaperClass III., September, 1896.

4.    Pig-face, a low-growing plant with fleshy leaves.

LEARNING TO SWIM.

Shud-dèred, trembled. Per-ceived; noticed. Sep-a-ra-ted, placed apart.


Prac-tice, use ; actual performance. Rec-ol-lec-tion, memory; remembrance. Suc-cess-ful, having the desired eSect.

[1. The following is a description of the way in which Digby Heathcote, a boy nine or ten years of age, is taught to swim by an old servant of the family, whom he calls Toby.

One fine day, they are out in a boat together, when Digby gets his first lesson.]

2.    “ Pull oft your clothes, Master,” said Toby, as they were still some little way from the shore.

Digby did as he was bid. “ Now jump overboard,” added Toby. Digby stood up, but, as he looked into the water and could see no bottom, he shuddered at the thought of plunging in. Toby passed a band round his waist with a rope to it, but Digby had hardly perceived this ;—he felt himself pushed, and over he went into the water.

3.    “ Oh, I’m drowning, I’m drowning! ” he cried out, when he came to the surface.

“ Oh no, you’re not, Master, you’re all right,” said the old man. 6 Strike out for the shore, and try if you can’t swim there.”

Digby did strike out, but wildly, and not in a way that would have kept him afloat.

“ Catch hold of this oar. Now strike away with your feet, right astern; not out of the water though, keep them lower down.

4.    “ That’s the way to go ahead. Steady, though ; strike both of them together. Slow, though, slower. There’s plenty of time ; you can learn the use of your hands another day. Draw your legs well under you. Now, as I give the word, strike out, draw up. That will do famously. If you keep steadily at it, you’ll learn to swim in a very few days.”

5.    Digby felt rather tired when he and the boat at length reached the shore. He had, however, learned an important part in the art of swimming. When he came out of the water, and had dressed, Toby showed him how to use his hands in making the breast stroke.

6.    “ Now, Master Heathcote, look here. Do as I do.” Toby put

his hands together, with the


fingers straight out and close to one another, and the palms slightly hollowed. Then he brought them up to his breast, and darting them forward, separated his hands, and pressed them backwards till he brought his elbows down to his hips, close to his body, and again turned his wrists till his hands once more got back to the position with which he had started.

7. He made Digby do this again and again, till he was quite eager to jump into the water and put his knowledge into practice.

“ No, no, Master,” said Toby, u you’ve had bathing enough to-day.”

8.    The next day was very fine, and several of the boys of the village came down to bathe.

“ Now, Digby,” cried Marshall, one of the eldest of the lads, when they got near the shore, after they had been for a row, “ overboard we

go.” .    .    .    .    .    .    1

“ All right,” cried Digby, putting his hands into the correct position as far as he could remember it; and, with great courage, he jumped into the water.

9.    Somehow or other, he could not tell why, down he went some way under the surface, and, when he came up, he had forgotten all about the way to strike out which Toby had taught him. Instead of that, he flung about his arms, and kicked his legs out in the wildest manner, and would have gone down again had not Marshall swum up alongside him, and, putting his hand under his chin, told him to keep perfectly quiet till he had collected his senses.

10.    He had courage enough to do this, and was surprised to find himself floating on the surface of the water with so little support.

“ Bravo, Master Marshall,” cried Toby. “ Now strike out, Master Heathcote, as I showed you.”

11.    The recollection of how to strike out came back to Digby, and, to his great delight, he found himself making some progress towards the shore, his friend still holding him up by the chin.

“ Let me go, I am sure I can swim alone,” he cried.

12.    Marshall did so, but, after a few strokes, down he went, and again he forgot what he had done so well on dry land. His feet, however, touched the bottom; and, hopping on one leg, he went on, striking out with his hands, and fancying that he was swimming, till he reached the shore.

13.    His companions, of course, laughed at him; but he did not mind that, and, running in again, he made one or two more successful attempts. When once again he had gone out till the water reached his chin, he found the boat close to him.

14.    “ Don’t swim any more, Master Heathcote, but give me your hand,” said Toby, taking it. “ There, now throw yourself on your back, stick your legs out, put your head back as far as it will go; now

FLOATING.


don’t move, let your arms hang down. There, I’ll hold you steady ; a feather would do it. Now you can feel how the water keeps you up.

15. “There, you might stay in that position for an hour, or a dozen hours for that matter, if it wasn’t for the cold, in smooth water. You’ll learn to swim in a very few days now, I see, without your clothes, and then you must learn with your clothes on. If I couldn’t have done that, I should not have been here, I should have been drowned long ago.”

—From Digby Heathcote, by W. H. G. Kingston (Adapted).

THE CURATE AND THE MULBERRY TREE.

Cu-rate, clergyman. Tract-a-tole, easily managed. Bril-liant-ly, very brightly. Ar -resided, stopped.


Do'cile (dos-il or do^slle), tractable. Trav-el-ler, wayfarer; one who takes a Journey.

Rev-'er-ie, kind of dream during- wakefulness * irregular train of thoughts. 44

2.    As near to the gates of the city he rode,

While the sun of September 44 all brilliantly glowed,

The good priest discovered, with eyes of desire,

A mulberry-tree in a hedge of wild-briar ;

On boughs long and lofty, in many a green shoot,

Hung large, black, and glossy, the beautiful fruit.

3.    The curate was hungry, and thirsty to boot ;2

He shrunk from the thorns, though he longed for the fruit;

With a word he arrested his courser’s keen speed,

And he stood up erect on the back of his steed ;

On the saddle he stood, while the creature stood still,

And he gathered the fruit till he took his good fill.

4.     Sure never,” he thought, was a creature so rare,

So docile, so true, as my excellent mare.

Lo, here, how I stand ” (and he gazed all around),

As safe and as steady as if on the ground ;

Yet how it had been, if some traveller this way Had, dreaming no mischief, but chanced to cry Hey ? ”

5.    He stood with his head in the mulberry-tree,

And he spoke out aloud in his fond reverie ;

At the sound of the word, the good mare made a push,

And down went the priest in the wild-briar bush.

He remembered too late, on his thorny green bed,

Much that well may be thought, cannot wisely be said.

—T. L. Peacock.

1.    Sep-tem-ber, one of the autumn months in the North Temperate Zone.

2.    To boot, besides; in addition.

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

A Footprint on the Sand.

Ex-tra-Or-di-na-ry, not usual; out of the common order.

Im-pres-sion, stamp; mark.

Sup-po-si-tion, surmise; opinion or belief without sufficient evidence.

In-nu-mer-a-ble, countless; numberless.

Sus-pect-ing, supposing; fancying.

Im-ag-i-na-tion, fancy ; the power to call up mental images. 45

Pur-suedi chased.

Ham-mock, swinging bed, usually made of netting or canvas.

Re-cur-ring, coming back ; happening again. Oc-curred' happened ; took place.

De-lu-sion, deception; false belief.

A gue, fever attended by alternate hot and cold fits.

Par-tiC-U-lar-ly, especially.

2. How it came thither I knew not, nor could I in the least imagine ; but, after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of myself, I came to my sea-side house, hardly feeling the ground I went on, and terrified to the last degree. I looked behind me at every two or three steps, suspecting every bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a distance, to be a man. Eor is it possible

I WAS STARTLED BY THE PRINT OF A MAN’S NAKED FOOT.’

(From the edition of Robinson Crusoe published by Messrs. T. Nelson & Sons.)


to describe in how many various shapes my affrighted imagination represented things to me; how many wild ideas found their way every moment into my fancy; and what strange notions came into my thoughts by the way.

3. When I came to my castle—for so I think I called it ever after this,— I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went over by the ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which I had called a door, I cannot remember ; no ! nor could I remember the next morning, for never

frightened hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

4. I slept none that night; I tossed about in my hammock, even more confused and terrified than I had been at noon. I tried to chase away my fears; but the question, “How can the footprint have come there, ” was always recurring. At last, I came to the conclusion that it must be some of the savages of the mainland opposite, who, having wandered out to sea in their canoes, had been driven by the

currents or by contrary winds to the island. If so, it was clear they had been on shore, and had, probably, gone away again to sea, being as loath, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I wonld have been to have had them.    '

5.    In the midst of these fears, the thought one day occurred to me, that all this might be a mere fancy of my own, and that this foot might be the print of my own foot, made as I walked on the beach. This cheered me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself my fear was all a delusion ; tha t the footprint was no other than my own. Again, I considered that 1 could by no means tell, for certain, where I had trod, and where I had not. If it turned out that this was simply the print of my own foot, I had played the part of those fools who try to make stories of ghosts, and then are frightened at them more than anybody.

6.    Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights. My provisions ran short; for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and water; then, too, I knew that my goats wanted to be milked; and this was usually my evening diversion. Encouraging myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and that I might be truly said to have been startled at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went to my country-house to milk my flock. But to see with what fear I went forward ; how often I looked behind me; how I was ready, every now and then, to lay down my basket, and run for my life, it would have made any one fancy I was haunted with an evil conscience.

7.    However, I went down thus two or three days; and, seeing nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was really nothing in it but my own imagination ; but I could not persuade myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own to observe if there was any likeness or fitness, that I might be assured it was my own foot. Now, when I came to the spot—-first, it appeared clear to me, that, when I had been down at the beach, I could not possibly have been anywhere thereabouts; secondly, when I came to measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot was not so large by a great deal. Both these facts filled my head with new imaginations, and I shook with cold fear, like one in an ague. 1 went home again, tilled with the belief that some man or men had been on shore there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was aware. What course to take for my security I knew not.

■Daniel De Foe (1661-1731).


8.    Time, however, began to wear off my uneasiness ; and I soon found myself living in the same composed manner as before. Of course, I kept my eyes more about me; and, particularly, I was more cautious about firing my gun, lest the report should be heard by any of the savages.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

The Terraces of Natal.

Ten miles from Durban, on the coast of Natal, an elevation of 800 feet is attained, thence to Pietermaritzburg, the capital of the colony, 70 miles further northward, a range of hills 3,000 feet high has to be climbed, but the capital itself is 1,000 feet lower. At Ladysmith, the third town of the colony in population, the elevation is 3,285 feet; Dundee, 4,100 feet; Laing’s Nek, where the railway passes through a tunnel 2,213 feet in length, 5,399 feet; and at Charlestown, 5,385 feet.

Kruger1 and Joubert.2

1.    A Cape paper relates an amusing story of an incident that took place at one of the informal gatherings of the leading members of the Volksraad (J'oiks'-rard) (Transvaal Parliament) at President Kruger’s house, in the days when Joubert and his Honour were not on the best of terms.

2.    The President desired to consult some papers relating to the subject under discussion, and, as they were placed on a shelf some distance from the floor, made several vain attempts to reach them.

Joubert, who is tall, came to his assistance, saying, “ Let me bring" them; I am higher than you.”

“ You are longer, Piet; not higher,” corrected Kruger with a frown.

1.    Kruger, pronounced kree-er, but commonly kroo-ger (the “g” as in Gertrude), the president of the South African Republic (the Transvaal).

2.    Joubert, pronounced zhoo-bare, the commander-in-chief of the Boer forces.

The Depth of the Atlantic Ocean.

Owing mainly to the laying of many cables for telegraphic purposes from Europe to America, the depth of the Atlantic Ocean in many places has been ascertained. In some spots, it is between five and six miles deep. Taking into account, however, all the soundings that have been made, the average depth is about three miles.

THE HANDY MAN.

We’ve seen him dragging his guns along in the Agricultural Hall,

Trotting about in the soundless tan as if he were playing at ball;

But none of us saw him in far Natal, tugging away at his load,

Through the ruts in the road that the rain had cut, and where there was never a road» Nobody heard or saw it, and there wasn’t a band to play,

But he landed them safe up at Ladysmith from the cruiser down in the bay ;

And just when the guns were needed, and looking quite spick and span,

With a nod to the gent, of the Absent-mind,1 up doubles the Handy Man.

Handy afloat, handy ashore, handier still in a hole,

Ready to swarm up a mountain side, or walk on a greasy pole;

Son of the sea-girt England, ward of the world-wide breed,

Jack is the man for the midnight watch, and the hour of the Empire’s need.

—Harold Begbie in The Globe (London).

1. Gent, of the Absent-mind, the “Absent-minded Beggar” of Kipling’s poem; the soldier;: Tommy Atkins.

t    ROUND.

Key C.    Jer. Saville, or Purcell.

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EVENING PRAYER.

God that madest earth and heaven, Darkness and light !

Who the day for toil hast given,

For rest, the night !

May thine angel guards defend us,

Slumber sweet Thy mercy send us,

Holy dreams and hopes attend us,

This livelong night.

—Bishop Heber.

By Authority: B.obt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS ÏV.

Vol. III., No. 32.] MELBOURNE.    [April, 1900.

THE CAVALIER’S46 SONG.

Dross, waste matter.

Clan-gour, sharp, harsh, ringing- sound.

Don, put on.

Helms, helmets ; defensive coverings for the head.

A-maini in great haste.

Cou-ri-ers, attendants who go on ahead to make arrangements.

1.    A steed ! a steed of matchless speed !

A sword of metal keen !

All else to noble hearts is dross,

All else on earth is mean.

2.    The neighing of the war-horse proud,

The rolling of the drum,

The clangour of the trumpet loud,

Be sounds from Heaven that come.

3.    Then mount ! then mount, brave gal

lants, all,

And don your helms amain :

Death’s couriers, Fame and Honour, call

Us to the field again.


Shrew-ish. peevish.

Whit, smallest part imaginable.

Pip-ing, playing on a pipe, fife! flute, or the like.

Swain, young man dwelling in the country; country lover.

Cra-ven, cowardly; faint-hearted.

Wight, human being.

4.    No shrewish tears shall fill our eye

When the sword-hilt’s in our

hand,—

Heart whole we’ll part, and no whit sigh

For the fairest of the land.

5.    Let piping swain, and craven

wight,

Thus weep and puling cry,

Our business is like men to fight,

And hero-like to die.

—William Motherwell (1797 1835).


1. Cav-a-lier, military man serving on horseback; one of the court party in the time of King Charles I. contrasted with a Roundhead (one of the parliamentary party).

AT HOME WITH THE BOERS.

Sub-stan ;tial, moderately wealthy. Hu-mour, playful fancy; wit; pleasantry. Vrouw (/row), wife.

Stalwart, strong.

Re-lBa-ble, trustworthy.

In-tOX:i-casting, making drunk.

In-de-pend-ence, quality of not relying on

others, or of being free from the control of others.

Bev-er-age, liquid for drinking.

Di-gest-ive, aiding in the change of food into a

soluble state after it has been taken into the mouth.

Im-me-di-ate-ly, without delay; at once.

2.    Like all the Boers whom I met, my host was (outside certain questions upon which he held strong views) of simple and unsuspecting character, and without any sense of humour.

3.    His vrouw was a stout, good-tempered, homely, and plain-featured woman, but a thoroughly good soul; and she did her best to entertain me in her solid Hutch fashion. Her daughters, of whom there were three, closely resembled their mother both in face and in general appearance, except that they were not so stout. They took little exercise. On the rare occasions when they did go out, it was always on horseback. They were good and fearless riders.

4.    Two stalwart and broad-shouldered young men, who assisted their father in the farm work, completed my host’s family.

BOERS AT HOME.

(From the Transvaal War Atlas: Messrs. T. Nelson and Sons.)

The Kaffir1 “boys” employed about the farm were good-natured, merry fellows, who took life easily. These “ boys ” are fairly reliable, so long as they are well looked after, and are prevented from indulging in intoxicating drink.

5.    The Kaffir maid-servants are willing workers, and commonly

remain for life with the Boer families to which they become attached. They possess no ideas of independence, and meekly submit to a box on the ear or a blow with a stick.    -

6.    The Boers are accustomed to work hard from sunrise to sunset. They have little wish for pleasure of any sort, and are content to live a humdrum existence as tillers of the soil for a lifetime, without desiring change or holiday. A visit to Cape Town or the coast is regarded by

them in much the same light as we look upon a trip to Europe, and is but seldom ventured upon.

7. They are a stay-at-home people, though they will sometimes travel long distances on horseback in search of big game. Upon these occasions, they make up a party of from twelve to fifteen, and, on an appointed day, sally forth at dawn, taking with them half-a-dozen native servants and a stock of provisions. Whilst they are away on

KAFFIRS BOUND FOR THE GOLDFIELDS AT JOHANNESBURG.

these shooting expeditions, which last from ten to twelve days, the farms are left to the care of the most trustworthy of the native hands ; and woe betide them if, upon the return of their masters, anything is found wrong.

8. The chief, and, indeed, the sole amusement we had to occupy our time in the evenings consisted of round games of cards. During these games, the men smoked until one could hardly recognise the

spots on one’s cards; and immense quantities of a drink, which the Dutch prepare and call “ coffee,” were consumed by all the players. This beverage is very sweet and thick; and, to make the matter worse for the digestive powers of a visitor (who, of course, feels that he must not refuse to partake), there is commonly served with it a quantity of home-made pastry and sweet-stuff.

9.    Ho newspapers of any kind were taken, and I never knew one of the family to read anything whatever, except the Bible on Sundays. The Boers look upon reading as being a waste of time. They have for book-learning all the contempt of the so-called “ practical ” man.

10.    Life in my host’s circle went on from day to day with great regularity. Every morning, at six o’clock, the whole family arose, and partook of the ever-present coffee. Half an hour later, upon the blowing of a horn, the Kaffir servants joined the family in the long, old-fashioned parlour, and prayers were read ; immediately after which, breakfast was served. This was a solid meal, as well it might be, seeing that the midday dinner was often not dished until two o’clock.

11.    The Boers are great eaters, and, on occasions, heavy drinkers: but meals are fewer, and the intervals between them much longer than with us. They sit a very long time at table, and take the business of eating in the same serious and earnest fashion as they do everything else.

12.    These curious people are a whole century behind the times in their ideas upon most questions. They know little or nothing of what is going on in Europe and in the rest of the world. Their reckless defiance of Great Britain is really owing to their ignorance of the latter country’s wealth and immense resources for carrying on war. They actually despise the British to-day, and regard themselves as the “ chosen people”2 of these latter times.

13.    “If it should come to war,” I remarked to my Boer host on one occasion, “ we shall drive you out of the country.”

“ No, no,” he growled in his harsh Dutch; “ we shall drive you out of South Africa and into the sea ! ”

And this is the honest belief of many of them, if not of Kruger himself.

—Abridged from an article by C. J. R. in The Argus (Melbourne).

1.    Kaf-'firs, or Ka-flrs, or Caf-'fres, a very dark-coloured race, which, with the Hottentots and Bushmen (a dwarf race), is found in South Africa. The Kaffirs inhabit the country north of Cape Colony, the name being now specifically applied to the tribes lying between Cape Colony and Natal; but the Zulus of Natal are true Kaffirs. Under British rule, they are increasing rapidly, showing great capacity for a settled, civilised life. Their principal occupation is the growing of maize (locally called mealies) and the rearing of cattle.

2.    Chos-en peo-ple, specially directed and watched over by the Supreme Being, as, it is recorded in the Bible, the descendants of Abraham were.

A SERMON FOR THE YOUNG.

In a sketch of the life and character of the late President Lincoln, the following is given as a short sermon, which he was in the habit of preaching to his children:—

Don’t drink ; don’t gamble ; don’t smoke ; don’t chew ;

don’t swear ; don’t lie ; don’t cheat.

Love truth, virtue, and your fellow-men as well as God.

KILLED AT THE FORD.

Blithe, cheerful; merry.

DiS-COn-tent, dissatisfaction ; disquiet.

1.    He is dead, the beautiful youth,

The heart of honour, the tongue of truth,

He, the life and light of us all,

Whose voice was blithe as a bugle-call, Whom all eyes followed with one consent,

The cheer of whose laugh, and whose pleasant word,

Hushed all murmurs of discontent.

2.    Only last night, as we rode along, Down the dark of the mountain gap, To visit the picket guard1 at the

ford,

Little dreaming of any mishap,

He was humming the words of some old song,

“ Two red roses he had on his cap, And another he bore at the point of his sword.”


Sur£geon, one whose occupation it is to cure local injuries or disorders, such as wounds, fractures, and tumours.

3.    Sudden and swift, a whistling ball Came out of a wood, and the voice

was still;

Something I heard in the darkness fall, And, for a moment, my blood grew chill:

I spake in a whisper, as he who speaks In a room where some one is lying

dead;

But he made no answer to what I said.

4.    We lifted him up to his saddle again, And, through the mire and the mist

and the rain,

Carried him back to the silent camp, And laid him as if asleep on his bed ; And I saw by the light of the surgeon’s lamp

Two white roses2 upon his cheeks, And one, just over his heart, blood» red ¡3


5. And I saw in a vision how far and fleet That fatal bullet went speeding forth,

Till it reached a town in the distant North,

Till it reached a house in a sunny street,

Till it reached a heart that ceased to beat Without a murmur, without a cry :

And a bell was tolled in that far-off town,

For one who had passed from cross to crown ;4 And the neighbours wondered that she should die.

—H. W. Longfellow (1807-82).

1.    Pick-et guard, guard of horse and foot, always in readiness in case of alarm.

2.    TWO White roses, the pallor of death in his cheeks.

3.    One, blOOd-red, the wound made by the bullet.

4.    One Who has passed from cross to crown, the mother, who had passed from earth with its sorrows to heaven with its glories. The cross is the symbol of suffering; the crown that of honour and dignity.

THE MISSING PAGES.

Found-ry, buildings and works for casting

metals.

Mi-gnon-ette' (mln-yun-ët), plant having greenish flowers, and giving forth a sweet smell.

Ag-i-ta-tion, emotion ; excitement ; disturbance of mind.


In-teBli-gence, readiness and power to understand.

Seam-stress, woman whose occupation is sewing ; needlewoman.

Mag-a-zines, pamphlets published at stated times, containing papers on various subjects.

Nurs-er-y, plantation of young trees.

Clerk (Mark), one employed to keep records or accounts.

1. “ That’s an honest lad,” he said to the owner of the store in which he stood. “ He might have cheated me just now, but he did not.”

“ Who? John McTavish ? As honest as steel. He’s been under my eye now for four years, and I know him to be as truthful a lad as was ever born of Scotch blood.”

2.    “ Um, um ! ” said the old gentleman. But he put on his spectacles, and, from a distance, eyed John from head to foot. The next day, he stopped at the same shop, and walked up to the owner.

“ How is he for intelligence ? ” he began, as if the conversation had stopped the moment before. “ Stupid, probably ? ”

3.    “ I don’t think he’s very sharp in trade,” was the reply ; “ but he’s a very handy boy. He has made a good many knick-knacks for the neighbours—that book-shelf, for instance.”

“ Why, that is the very thiug I want in a boy ! Well, there’s my train coming in. Good-day, sir.”

4.    “ He’ll be back again. Odd old fellow,” said the storekeeper, laughing.

The next day he was back, and he came at the same hour.

“ I like that boy’s looks. I’ve been watching him. But, of course, he has a dozen relatives—drunken father, rag-tag brothers—who would follow him ? ”

5.    “ Ho. He has only a mother ; and she is a God-fearing Scotchwoman—a good seamstress, John tells me, but she cannot get work. Times are dull here just now. Pity the country folks will pour into the cities. Mrs. McTavish has nothing but what the boy earns at his stand yonder.”

6.    The old gentleman made no reply. But, the next day, he went up to the boy’s stand. John was looking pale and anxious. Some of his regular customers had refused to take their magazines, times being so hard. They would be a dead loss on his hands.

“ Paper ? Magazine, sir ? ” he asked.

7.    “ Ho. A word with you, my lad. My name is Bohnn. I am the owner of the Bordale Hurseries, about thirty miles from here. I want a young man to act as clerk and salesman on the grounds, at a salary of £6 5s. a month, and a woman who will be strict and orderly to oversee the girls who pick the flower seeds, at £4 a month. I offer the positions to you and your mother, and I give you until tomorrow to think it over.”

8.    “ But you—you don’t know me, sir ! ” gasped John.

“ I know you very well. I generally know what I am about. To-morrow be ready to give your answer. I will take you for four weeks on trial. If I am satisfied, the engagement will be renewed for a year.”

9.    All the rest of the day, John felt like one in a dream. Everybody had heard of the Bordale Hurseries, and of good old Isaac Bohnn, their owner. But what had he done that this earthly paradise should be opened to him ?

“You’ll come, eh?” said Mr. Bohnn the next day. “Thought you would. When can you begin work ? ”

“ At once, sir.”

10.    “ Good. By the way, there’s a vacant house on the grounds which your mother can have, rent free—a mere box, but big enough.

There's my card. Suppose you come out, McTavish, and look about you. You can return to-night.”

11.    John locked up the stand, sent a message to his mother, and went with Mr. Bohnn. He had not yet told his mother about this change in their affairs.

He was unusually silent when he came home that evening, but very tender with his mother; and she noticed that he remained a long time on his knees at prayer that night.

12.    They had only a little bread and milk for breakfast next morning, and John scarcely tasted it.

“ You look as if you could not bear this much longer, Mother,” he said, coming up to her, and putting his hand on her shoulder. “ You need good, wholesome food, and the fresh air, and the hills, and the trees, instead of this ”—looking out at the piled stacks of chimneys belching forth the black smoke of an iron foundry.

13.    “ Don’t talk of them, John, lad ! ”

“ Well, I won’t; ” and he put on his hat as if about to go out.

“ What is wrong ? Why have you left the stand ? ” asked his mother, in alarm.

“We are going to have an outing, Mother. Don’t say a word;

I can afford it.”

14.    She had never seen the boy so full of excitement. He hurried her to the station, and they soon were gliding among the beautiful, -rolling hills, and across lovely meadows that were sweet with the odour of new-mown hay. Before noon, they came to stretches of rising ground, covered with nurseries of delicate green, and with vineyards, and field after field of roses, mignonette, and all kinds of sweetsmelling flowers.

15.    “ Why, John, this is fairyland ! What is this place? ”

“ The Bordale Nurseries. We will get out here, Mother. I want to show you a house that ”-

He trembled with agitation. His face was pale as he led her down to the side of the broad, glancing river, near which was nestled, in the woods, a cosy cottage, covered with a beautiful creeper. There was a garden, a well, and a paddock for a cow. Inside, the rooms were clean, and ready for furnishing. The river rippled drowsily against its pebbly shore. The birds darted through the blue, sunny air. The scent of roses came in upon the breeze.

16.    “ Mother,” said John, “this, I hope, will be your home now ; ” and with that he began to laugh and caper about her like a boy, but the tears rolled down his thin cheeks.

17.    John McTavish is now foreman of the Bordale Nurseries, and a man of high standing in the country. Not long ago, he said to Mr. Bohnn, “ I owe this all to the friend who said a good word for me that day in Pittsburg.”

18.    “No, John,” said the old man ; “you owe it to the book with the missing pages that you might have sold me and wouldn’t. The chance came to you, as it comes to every boy, to be honest. Honesty

and industry, John, are what did it ; and I am inclined to think that they never fail to command success in the end.”

—From a reprint in The Children's Hour, S.A.

1. Pitts-burg, large town on the Ohio (o-high^o) River, in the United States of America. It is the centre of a region yielding coal, iron, and petroleum (mineral oil from which kerosene, benzine, and other oils are distilled), in great abundance.

MELBOURNE HOSPITAL FOR SICK CHILDREN.

In-curredi contracted ; entered into.

Med-ic-al, having to do with the art of healing diseases.

Con-ta-gious, liable to be caught by direct contact. (Contagious diseases are spread by very minute forms of life called germs.)

Sur-gi-cal, pertaining to that branch of medical science which has for its object the cure of wounds, fractures, and the like.

Ep-i-dern^ic, common to, or affecting at the same time, a large number in a community.

Com-mu-ni-ty, people in general; the public.

Stim-U-la-ting, exciting or stirring up to exertion.


Coa-ges-tion, overfulness of the blood-vessels. In-ter-est-ing, engaging the attention Cas-tor, small wheel.

Kin-der-gar-teu. ctdj., belonging to the kinder* garten, a school for young children, conducted according to the methods of a German teachsr named Froebel.

Bal-co-ay, platform projecting from the wall of a building.

Di-et-ed, fed according to certain rules. Main-tained( supported; kept up on leveral occasions.

E-quipi fit out; supply with whatever is

necessary.    ■


1.    Some time ago, I visited ou several occasions the Melbourne Hospital for Sick Children. As extensive additions to the old building have been recently built, and efforts are being put forth to pay the debt incurred, it may interest the readers of The School Paper if I give them a short account of what I saw there.

2.    The hospital consists of three or four buildings, and some of them are very large.

The medical wards, that is, those rooms in which children suffering from typhoid fever and other contagions diseases are treated, are all downstairs in the main building. The large hall in the middle of the block, with its cupboards full of things brought to the little patients, the nurses’ rooms, and the big kitchens, are also on the ground floor.

3.    Upstairs, there are numerous wards, in which the surgical cases, such as broken bones, spinal diseases, and wounds, are treated.

Then there is the out-patients’ department—a portion of the recent additions, where mothers bring children who are well enough to live at home, though they need medicine and a doctor’s advice.

Lastly, there is the building where all the children who have scarlet-fever, measles, or other epidemic diseases, are placed.

4.    At my first visit, I was taken straight upstairs to the surgical wards, and, after a peep into several large, airy rooms, I stopped at the door of one that took my fancy. Such a bright, cheerful ward it was, containing four little beds. From the one opposite me smiled the roguish face of a small boy of about five years of age. Rpund and rosy it looked, as if its owner had never known a moment’s sickness in his life.

5. “ What is the matter with that little fellow ? ” I asked the nurse who had come forward to greet me.

“ He has a poisoned leg,” was her reply. “And so has the boy in the bed beside him,” she continued. “They are having a race to see who will be well first. Aren’t yon, Jimmie ? ”

But Jimmie shook his head. “ I don’t want to get better,” he answered ; “ I like being here.”

6. And this was from a child that had to lie all day with his leg wrapped in bandages! What would he not have suffered at home,

with no trained nurse to dress his leg every day, but only a mother or sister, loving and tender certainly, but perhaps ignorant of how to treat him, and far too busy to give him the required attention !

7. I was just thinking how happy the occupants of this ward seemed, when I heard a low moan from the bed in the corner of the room farthest from me. Looking towards the spot, my eyes met a sad sight—a thin, white-faced little boy, who, though two and a half years old, looked no bigger than a baby of twelve months.

*    8. “It is little Willie,” remarked the nurse sadly; “ he wants a

drink; ” and she hurried off to get it.

By this time, the poor little fellow was gasping and coughing—a short, feeble cough that made my heart ache.

9. In a minute or so, the nurse returned with a stimulating drink in a mug; and this the child took eagerly. “Poor little thing,” she

A CORNER IN A WARD. .

said, “ he eats almost nothing. He is suffering from the after effects of a severe attack of congestion of the lungs; that is why he finds it so hard to breathe.”

10. Before I left the room, I had an interesting conversation with Jimmie. He seemed to know all that was going on, and told me about the various dressings and bandages on his leg, about the boy who could walk, but wouldn’t try, about the castor that had come off the leg of

his bed. and about many other matters of deep interest to him. I quite won his heart by showing him how to fold pieces of coloured paper, as infants do in their kindergarten work in school.

11.    According to promise, I was again at the hospital a few days afterwards. This time, I first went into one of the girls’ wards—a large room containing thirteen or fourteen cots, round two sides of which runs a wide balcony. After talking for some time to the girls, little and big, I went to see how the friends that I had made on my previous visit were getting on.

12.    On entering the room, I looked towards Willie’s bed, and, for a moment, I thought that my worst fears had come to pass. He was not there ! A glance round, however, reassured me. There he lay in another bed—but such a changed child ! He was still white and fraillooking ; but, instead of a pair of mournful eyes full of pain, there met my gaze such sweet, shy, smiling eyes. The little face, too, had lost its drawn look, and even seemed plumper.

13.    A 44 Hullo, miss, did you bring the coloured papers ? ” drew my attention from Willie to Jimmie. The latter’s face was as healthy and roguish as before. He was soon chattering on, and learning new ways of folding the papers. Suddenly, he surprised me by sinking his voice, and saying, “ Pretty little boy! ” nodding at the same time towards Willie. 44 Yes,” he continued ; 44 he is such a dear little fellow, everybody loves him.”

The unselfish way that Jimmie said this, not thinking that he, too, was every one’s pet, pleased me much.

14.    Just at this moment, a gong sounded, and my little companion sat up, his eyes glistening. 44 Tea,” he said.

I looked at my watch. It was half-past four, full time that I went home.

44 Please, don’t go yet,” Jimmie begged; 44 you can stay while we have tea.”

A nurse, who came bustling in with feeders to tie on the children, gave me permission, so I stayed.

15.    Each child had both bread and butter and bread and jam to eat, and milk to drink. Some also were allowed to have weak tea. I was glad to see Willie eating and drinking with the rest.

44 We have dinner in the middle of the day,” remarked Jimmie between two mouthfuls.

44 And what is given to you ? ” I inquired.

44 0, soup, meat, potatoes, and pudding,” was the answer.

16.    Jimmie was evidently in such health that he could enjoy a good dinner. Of course, it is only the children upstairs who can have ordinary food. Those in the medical wards are dieted in special ways.

17.    Among the many things connected with the hospital that pleased me, I should like to single out two for special mention, namely, the kindness of the nurses to their little patients, and the fact that so many cots are maintained by State-school children.

18.    At my last visit, Jipimie was looking forward to a happy week at Brighton. Those who are almost well are taken to a place there, so as to enjoy the sea air for a few days before being sent to their homes.

19.    To show the value of the hospital to the community, and the way in which parents avail themselves of the advantages it offers, I may state that, last year, no less than 921 in-patients and 10,543 outpatients were treated.

20.    Many of the readers of The School Paper already help to provide the funds necessary to keep the hospital open, by getting collecting cards filled, and forwarding the money to the Hospital Committee through their teachers; but more workers in the good cause are needed.

21.    To reduce the debt already referred to, a great bazaar is to be held during September next in the Melbourne Exhibition Building. In connexion with it, there is to be a State-school stall. To equip it, gifts of any kind—children’s clothes, fancy articles, toys, and money— will be gladly received; no gift can be too small, and none too great. All should begin at once to prepare something to send.

—“ Act.”

1. Ty-phoid fe-ver, enteric fever ; a disease that attacks the stomach and bowels. It lasts three or four weeks. The poison of typhoid fever, as a rule, enters the body with drinking water or milk.

A DAY’S HOP-PICKING.

Hess-ian (hesh-an), kind of coarse cloth. At-tached; appointed ; assigned by authority. Bush-el a dry measure, containing four pecks. Ex-ceed-ed was more than.

Phe-nom-e-non very remarkable person, thing, or occurrence. (In this instance, person.) Com-petei strive for the same thing for which another is striving. 47

Di-ver-sion, that which draws the mind away from what it is intent on; entertainment; pastime.

Col-lectror, one who collects. (In this instance, money for the support of a hospital)

Grudg-ing-ly, unwillingly; reluctantly.

HOP-PICKERS-A SCcNE NEAR BAIRNSDALE, GIPPSLAND.


900.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.    157


and fresh, and easily picked. We, also, are fresh, so picking- goes on apace, with plenty of talk and laughter. To a set of ten bins a “ polo ” is attached—that is, a man who draws the poles from the ground, and brings them to the bin. As the poles are long and heavy, his work is very tiring ; and our “ polo ” used to get as wet as if he had been dipped in the creek. Sometimes, he is not quick enough to keep the people supplied, and then one hears a chorus of cries of “ polo ” all over the field.

5. The bin next to us was occupied by an old man and his daughter. The old man told all who lingered near that this was the first time he had picked hops, but that he had often grown them, and given 6d. a bushel for picking. (We get 2-^d.)

6.    About eleven o’clock, the owner of the field calls out “ Clean up,” which means take all leaves out of the bin. He then comes along with a bushel measure1 and bags, and measures the hops in each bin, entering the quantities in a book. There is great competition, as no one likes to be considered lazy. Even we, who only go for amusement, cannot bear to be behind, and pick for dear life rather than have a poor “ tally.”

7.    One person does very well if he picks 12 bushels a day; but a young man in our field always exceeded 20. He is considered a phenomenon, as he picks with both hands. No one ever tries to compete with him.

8.    After the measuring, it was time for lunch. We knew of a pretty little glade close to the creek, and so went there. After resting about an hour, a move was made back to the field. The hops by this time are limp and tough, so no one does so well as in the morning ; and we are not so lively and talkative. We have become limp like the hops—the effect of the sun in both cases.

9.    Just as every one is wishing for a diversion, we hear a murmur, “ the hospital collector.” He comes to each bin, and tells each person what a healthy occupation picking is, and he hopes that we are doing-well, and will give something to the good cause. All give a little ; some grudgingly, as every penny of the money is truly earned, and often badly wanted elsewhere.

About five o’clock, we are “ measured up ” again, and, at six, we leave off, dirty and tired, but satisfied if we have made a good “tally.”

—Sis, in The Australasian (Adapted).

1. Bush-el meas-ure. Among the hog-growers of Victoria, there appears to be no standard weight for a bushel of hops. The bushel measure is only used in the hop-field as the most convenient way of measuring. A grower near Bairnsdale in Gippsland uses one which is 3 ft. 6 ins. in circumference and 1 ft. 4 ins. deep. The measurer dips two hands into the bin, takes up ali the hops he can hold, and places them in the measure. He continues doing this till it is filled level. A bushel of hops, when green, will, on an average, weigh 6 lbs., and, when dried, 1 lb. 3 oz.

THE ETERNAL CITY.

Though Rome is called the “Eternal City,” the name by right belongs to Damascus in Syria, which is the oldest city in the world. As long as man has made written records, the city of Damascus has been known.

HOP-PICKING.

Trudg-ing, walking heavily.    I Tanned, imbrowned (made brown) by exposure

I to the sun.

1.    Under my window, at six o’clock,

When all were asleep as sound as a rock,

Nothing awake but the stable cock,

Who crowed without stopping ;

I heard a troop of the hoppers pass—

Child, old woman, and boy, and lass—

Trudging over the long, wet grass,

All going a-hopping.

2.    I know the hop garden, fresh and green,

Where, month after month, the hops we’ve seen Climbing the tall poles, and between,

In beautiful wreaths down dropping.

I know the gate, where, if you’ll stand,

You’ll see the hop-pickers in a band,

Loud and merry, ragged and tann’d,

Spread over the fields a-hopping.

3.    Who’ll turn out of their early beds,

Put on old frocks, old hats on their heads,

And, before the sun his hot beams sheds The eastern hill o’er-topping,

Who’ll come and spend the morning gay,

In gipsy1 fashion—half work, half play—

Who’ll go a-hopping ?

—Mrs. Craik, Author of “John Halifax, Gentleman. '

1. Gip'sy or Gyp-sy. The Gipsies are a roving race, whose tribes, coming originally from India, entered Europe in the 14th or 15th century, and are now scattered over Turkey, Russia, Hungary, Spain, England, etc., living by fortune-telling, horse-jockeying, tinkering, etc.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

The Queen’s New' Year’s Present to the Troops in South Africa.

This is a picture of the lid of one of the little boxes in which the Queen’s chocolate was sent as a New Year’s present to Tommy Atkins.

From The Australasian.]

By the Queen’s express desire, only her soldiers will have the tins, and, therefore, orders were issued for the destruction of the dies when the required number had been manufactured. The design is striking and effective ; and the little boxes, and, in most instances, no doubt, their contents also, will be treasured by the grateful soldiers for many a year.

Brave Deeds by Westralians.

1.    Major Reay, the war correspondent of The Herald (Melbourne), writing, on the 8th of February, from Rensburg, in the north-east of Cape Colony, gives the following description of a brave deed, which was performed during the first action in which the Western Australian contingent took part:—

2.    “ As the men were galloping back, Captain Moor, who commands the Vfestralians, saw the horse of an English Lancer fall dead, a bullet having struck the animal in the body. Moor, although under a heavy fire, rode up to the Lancer, and, dismounting, said, ‘ Here, take my horse, and get in.’

3.    “ The generous offer was promptly accepted, and the Captain made an attempt to procure another horse that happened to be in the vicinity. The animal evaded him, and bolted; and, as the Boers were at this period in full pursuit, Moor, who is very light and active, ran towards a kopje, where, a little earlier in the action, a party of Lancers had formed a post. But the Lancers had withdrawn, and Moor was running into the arms of a number of Boers who were coming round the far end of the kopje, when Lieutenant Darling, also of Western Australia, saw his peril, and galloped to his chief’s assistance. He was just in time. Moor clambered up behind his subaltern, and both officers, although under a hail of bullets, made their way to cover without receiving any injury.

“ Their gallantry is the theme of general admiration.”

The Victorian Bushmen’s Contingent.

Au Revoir.48

1. “ God be with you ! God be with you

Till the day we meet again.” Blessed words of hope and comfort Robbing parting of its pain,

When the clasped hands drop asunder, And dear faces pass from view,

And the echo of loved voices Fades away ’neath yonder blue. There’s an all-pervading Presence That is guiding day by day,

With the self-same, constant kindness, Those who go and those who stay.

And we lose the sense of distance, And the sting forsakes the pain,

A.s we whisper, “ God be with you Till the day we meet again.”

2. May you dwell beneath the shadow Of his wings where’er you go :

That our thoughts and prayers are with you,

You will ever surely know.

For the love is tried and proven That will keep your memory green Though the broad seas roll between us, And the long years intervene.

When the soft breeze nestles round you

At the closing of the day,

You’ll be thinking, oh ! how often,

Of the homeland far away ;

And you’ll hear the dear home voices In the wind’s familiar strain, Saying softly, “ God be with you Till the day we meet again. ”

—Clarrie Davies.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. III., No. 33.] MELBOURNE.    [May, 1900.

THE NAME OF ENGLAND.

Yore, long ago; time long past.

YeoOnan (yo-mari), freeholder; gentlemanfarmer ; name given in courtesy to common soldiers.

1.    The trumpet of the battle

Hath a high and thrilling tone; And the first deep gun of an ocean-fight

Dread music all its own.

2.    But a mightier power, my England I

Is in that name of thine,

To strike the fire from every heart Along the bannered line.

3.    Proudly it woke the spirits

Of yore, the brave and true,

When the bow was bent on Crecy’s' field,

And the yeoman’s arrow flew.

Bas-tion (bas-chun), projecting part of the outer wall of a fort or town.

ViC-tO-ri-OUS, conquering; triumphant.

4.    And proudly hath it floated

Through the battles of the sea, When the red-cross flag o’er smoke-wreaths played Like the lightning in its glee.

5.    On rock, on wave, on bastion,

Its echoes have been known ;

By a thousand streams the hearts lie

low

That have answered to its tone.

6.    A thousand ancient mountains

Its pealing note hath stirred.

Sound on, and on, for evermore,

0 thou victorious word !

—Felicia Dorothea Hemans (1793-1835).

1. Crecy, place in the north of France, where the English under Edward III. defeated the French in 1346. The victory was chiefly due to the superiority of the English archers over the heavily-armed French soldiers. Certainly, it is recorded that Edward III. used three cannon in this battle; but these could have had little to do with the routing of 50,000 men, for, as cannon were then made, they were probably no bigger than a modern duck-gun, and not nearly so destructive.

OSTRICH FARMING IN SOUTH AFRICA.

Al-ter-nate, by turns first one and then the other.

Ap-par-ent-ly, plainly; evidently.

Pos-si-bil-i-ty, power of happening.

In-ju-ri-ous, harmful; hurtful.

Del-i-ca-Cies, things pleasant to the senses, especially to the sense of taste.

Re-gale/ gratify; refresh.

In-CU-ba-tor, apparatus by which eggs are hatched by artificial heat.

Im-me-di-ate-ly, at once.

Ar^ti-fi-cial, produced by human skill and labour, in opposition to natural. 49

Anx-i-e-ty, care; solicitude.

Ab-sorb-ing, occupying wholly ; engrossing. Ju-ve-nile, young; youthful.

StU-pid-i-ty, extreme dulness of understanding.

Lei-sure (lee-zhur), time free from employment.

Ret-ri-bu-tion, punishment for wrongdoing; repayment.

Oe~cur-ring, taking place ; happening. Writh-ing, twisting.

Veldt (felt), in South Africa, open plain covered with grass at certain seasons.

leaves off laying as soon as she has from fifteen to twenty, the latter being the greatest number that can be covered by the bird when sitting.

2.    Every morning and evening, the nest, or rather the shallow hollow in the sandy ground which forms the simplest of all “ homes without hands,” is left uncovered for a quarter of an hour to allow the eggs to


cool. The sight of the nest thus apparently deserted has probably given rise to the mistaken idea that the ostrich leaves her eggs to hatch in the sun. Stupid though she is, she has more sense than to believe in the possibility of the sun hatching her eggs; she is indeed quite aware of the fact that, if allowed to blaze down on them with untempered heat, even during the short time she is off the nest, it would be injurious to them, and, therefore, on a hot morning, she does not leave them without first placing on the top of each a good pinch of sand.

3.    Now comes the white-necked crow’s chance, for which, ever since at earliest dawn he drew out his artful head from under his wing, he has been waiting. An ostrich egg is to him the daintiest of all delicacies ; but, Nature not having bestowed on him a bill strong enough to break its hard shell, he is able, only by means of an ingenious device, to regale on the interior. He carefully watches till the parent’s back is turned, and she is a good distance from the nest, then, flying up into the air, he drops a stone from a great height with a most accurate aim, and breaks an egg. He makes a good use of his quarter of an hour, and he, no less than the ostrich, has had an ample meal by the time the latter returns to the nest. Perhaps to-morrow she will not wander so far !

4.    An incubator, considerably increasing, as it does, the number of chicks that can be hatched, is, of course, of great value on a farm. A friend of mine was one day closely examining a doubtful egg in an incubator, when it exploded with a loud report. He was an old gentleman with a beautiful white beard, and his condition afterwards is best left to the imagination ; suffice it to say that a prolonged bath was immediately necessary, and that a whole suit of clothes had to be destroyed.

5.    When, either by natural or artificial means, the little ostriches are brought into the world, the farmer’s next anxiety is to keep them there. Many die, when about a month or five weeks old, from a disease that comes and goes in the strangest manner. The disappointment of losing the chicks is much increased by the fact that they always begin well. For the first three weeks, nothing can be more encouraging than the appearance of the stout, sturdy toddlers. They eat greedily, and are full of life and spirits, waltzing, in absurd imitation of their elders, to show their joy on being first let out in the morning, the effort usually ending in a comical sprawl on the back.

6. For the first two or three months, the chicks are herded near the house by native boys, whose duty it is to keep them supplied with prickly-pear leaves and other green food, cut up small. This work ought to take up the greater part of the young herds’ time; but it is always necessary to keep a very strict watch over them. We often found a flock of infant birds hungry, and their useless nurse either asleep or plunged in some absorbing business of his own, with a knife and a piece of wood. Sometimes, too, the boys, getting impatient with the chicks, are rough and cruel; one young rascal was several times caught making footballs of his innocent charges, kicking them several feet into the air. On a farm where I was once staying, a juvenile black fiend was found to have broken the legs of some twenty chicks under


___ his care ; and, when he was asked the reason for

his act, said, “ They run about, and give me too much trouble ! ”

7. As regards the stupidity of ostriches, although, indeed, they are falsely accused on one point, that of hiding their small heads in the sand, and imagining, therefore, that their large bodies are quite invisible to the foe, they do many other things cuite as foolish. They may not, for instance, recognise the man who

has fed them every day for years, if he comes to the camp in a coat or hat to which the bird is unaccustomed. A man I knew was attacked and knocked down by one of his own ostriches, an old bird, which had been constantly fed by him,

A SOUTH AFRICAN SCENE. (From The Children’s Hour, S.A.) pu£ which, Oil Seeing

him for the first time in a black hat, took him for a stranger.

If a person is surprised by a bird in the open country, the best plan is to lie down. The bird cannot then do much harm, but will content himself by sitting upon his victim until driven off.

8. When, as sometimes happens, a chick is reared in the house, it becomes very tame, and often very troublesome. A friend of mine, on returning to his farm after a severe thunderstorm, found that an ostrich’s nest had been washed away. Some of the eggs were picked up, and placed in an incubator. One chick came out. This bird, Jackie, grew to be the tamest of pets ; and, like many another spoilt only child, was often a great nuisance. All the little niggers about the place had a lively dread of him, and he stole their food in the boldest manner. As they sat on the ground at meals, with plates of

boiled pumpkin and rice in their laps, he would come up, and, stretching his snake-like neck over their heads, or under their arms, would help himself to the contents of one plate after another. Sometimes, he would rush at the unhappy youngsters in so threatening a manner as to frighten them into dropping their plates altogether; then, while his victims ran away, he would feast on the spoil at his leisure.

9. But, one day, retribution came. Being free of the kitchen— simply because nobody could keep him out,—he noticed that the pumpkin and rice always came out of a certain pot; and, the idea occurring to him that he could do no better than go straight to the fountain-head for his favourite dish, he walked up to the fire where this pot was bubbling. The cook, who, being the mother of several of the ill-used children, did not love Jackie, made no attempt to save him from his fate. Plunging his bill into the pot, he greedily scooped up, and, with the lightning-like rapidity of ostriches, tossed down liis throat, a large mouthful of boiling rice. Poor fellow ! the next moment he was dancing round the kitchen, writhing in agony, shaking his head nearly off, and twisting his neck as if determined on tying it in a knot. Finally, he dashed wildly from the house. The cook, avenged at last for all the dinners he had devoured, called after him as he stumbled out of the door, “ Serve you right, Jackie!” Away he flew across the treeless veldt; and the last that was seen of him for some hours was a little cloud of white dust vanishing in the distance. He returned a sadder and a wiser bird, and it was long before he again ventured inside the kitchen.

—Home Life on an Ostrich Farm (Adapted).

1. See article in The School Paper—Class IV., June, 1899.

THE CHILDREN’S HOUR.

Low-er, grow dark. (It rhymes with hour.) Oc-CU-pa-tions, work; business.

Dq-scend-ing, coming down.

Raid, attack ; rush ; invasion.

Tur-ret, strictly, small tower on the top of a castle. 50 51 52

Ban-dit-ti (plural of bandit), banded robbers ;

highwaymen; bushrangers.

Scaled, climbed.

Dun-geon, dark room in a prison ; that part of an ancient castle in which prisoners were kept.

4.    A whisper, and then a silence ;

Yet I know by their merry eyes They are plotting and planning

together

To take me by surprise.

5.    A sudden rush from the stairway,

A sudden raid from the hall !

By three doors left unguarded They enter my castle wall !

6 They climb up into my turret

O’er the arms and back of my chair ; If I try to escape, they surround me : They seem to be everywhere.

9.    I have you fast in my fortress,

7.    They almost devour me with kisses,

Their arms about me entwine,

Till I think of the Bishop of Bingen 2 In his Mouse Tower on the Rhine !

8.    Do you think, O blue-eyed banditti,

Because you have scaled the wall, Such an old mustache3 as I am Is not a match for you all ?


And will not let you depart,

But put you down into the dungeon In the round-tower of my heart.

10.    And there will I keep you for ever, Y es, for ever and a day,

Till the walls shall crumble to ruin, And moulder in dust away !

—Henry W. Longfellow (1807-82).

1.    Al-le-gra. The name means mirth, cheerfulness.

2.    Bish-op Of Bing-en, a bishop who lived in Germany in the 10th century. There is a legend

about him to the effect that, at a time of famine, he stored away great quantities of grain in a tower on an island in the River Rhine, in order to get a high price for it. To escape the anger of the people, he took refuge in the tower, and is said to have been devoured by mice attracted thither in swarms by the stores of grain.    .

3.    Old mus-tache (mus-tash0, veteran ; experienced old fellow.

THE FLAG.

Ch.al-len.ge, act of a sentry in demanding the countersign from any one who appears at or near his post.

Re-lieved? freed.

Kaf-flrs, dark-coloured race in South Africa.

Coo-lies (plural of Coo-ly or Coo-lie), labourer transported from the East Indies, China, or Japan, for service in some other country ; East Indian porter.

Ar-du-ous, difficult; trying.

Ad-dress-es, speaks to.

E-mo-tion, deep feeling.

Fer-vour, earnestness ; intensity of feeling.

Bun-ting, thin woollen stuff, used chiefly for flags.

Sym-bol, visible sign of an idea.

Con-ferred? bestowed.

Pa-tron, regarded as the peculiar protector.

Rev-er-ence, honour; veneration.

Ap-pro-pri-ate, suitable; fitting.

JealrOUS-ly, in a zealous or watchful manner.


De-cid-ed, unmistakable; clear.

Fed-er-a-tion, a federal government, founded on an agreement between states, which, as a result, individually retain only a subordinate or limited right to exercise supreme power.

Con-sid-er-a-tion, continuous and careful thought; deliberation.

Main-tain? preserve.

In-teg-ri-ty, wholeness; unbroken state.

Anx-ious-ly, with painful uncertainty.

De-liv-er-ance, rescue.

Ra-tiOUS (ray-shuns or rash-uns), daily allowance of provisions dealt out.

As-saults? rushes or charges hy an attacking force; onsets.

Rife, prevalent; abounding.

Kha-ki, coarse, strong calico of the colour of dull sea-sand. (The word is Hindustani and means dust.)

Sen-try, soldier placed on guard ; sentinel.

1.    Boys and girls, do you know that you are living while history is really being made ? That was a great piece of Australian history made last year, when five colonies voted such a decided “ yes ” for federation. But the events now taking place in South Africa are making the history, not of one portion only, but of the whole British Empire. Why are we at war with the Boers ? There are many reasons, some of which you could hardly understand. But a simple answer would be that, after much serious consideration, the war has been undertaken in order to maintain the integrity of the British Empire and the honour of its flag.

2.    Ladysmith,1 the 28th of February, 1900. The one hundred and eighteenth day of the siege is drawing to a close. Week after week, garrison and citizens have been anxiously waiting for relief. Sometimes, they had heard the thunder of General Buller’s2 guns, and hopes had risen high that deliverance was at hand. But disappointment had followed disappointment. Rations had been reduced to

famine allowance. Time after time, assaults had been repulsed. Sickness was rife in the city ; but whisper of surrender there was none.

3.    In front of a small thicket, a gaunt-looking, khaki-clad sentry paces steadily up and down his beat. Suddenly, on his alert ears, there falls a sound. His bayonet copies down to the “ charge,” as he peers into the gloom, and utters the challenge—“ Halt, who comes there ? ”

“ The column of relief,” is the welcome, unexpected reply.

Is it,—is it true? Yes, it is,—Ladysmith is relieved at last. For five miles, Lord Hundonald’s cavalry 3 have travelled at a hand-gallop


that the city may receive the glad news that night.

Broken cheers from the men, tears and sobs from the women and children, wild dances of delight from the Kaffirs and Coolies, answer the shouts of the column as Sir George White,riding up, shakes the leader by the hand, and realizes that his arduous task is done.

4. In the gathering darkness, Sir George briefly addresses the garrison and people. In a voice broken with emotion, he says :—-“ People of Ladysmith, I thank you one and all for the heroic and patient manner in which you have assisted me during the siege of Ladysmith. From the bottom of my heart I thank you. It hurt me terribly when I

GENERAL SIR GEORGE WHITE, V.C.    waS compelled to Cllt

down the rations; but, thank God, we have kept the flag flying.”

Then, led by the gray-haired general, soldiers and citizens joined with great fervour in singing “ God Save the Queen.” What a never-to-be-forgotten scene ! Just think of it! And—overhead, “ on the topmost roof the banner of England blew.”

4.    What is the banner of England? Perhaps it is, as Vincent

Pyke wrote,    “Only a bit of bunting,

Only a tattered rag

yet it is a symbol of freedom, of union, and round it cluster many glorious, and some sad, memories.

5.    Wherever the flag floats there is freedom. When the flag waves in the air, it proclaims that the precious rights conferred by Magna Charta5 are the property of every man who, by birth or adoption, can claim a right to its protection.

“ For the lion-spirits that tread the deck Have carried the palm of the brave ;

And the flag may sink with a shot-torn wreck,

But never float o’er a slave ! ”

6.    Its design is a symbol of union. That straight red cross in the middle is the cross of St. George, the patron saint of England. Behind that cross is the white cross of St. Andrew, dear to the hearts of Scotsmen. And the slanting red cross is the cross of St. Patrick, whose memory Irishmen hold in reverence.

The united crosses on the national flag are the symbol of the united country—united not only in the British Isles, hut all round the world, wherever the Queen’s dominion extends.



9.    There never can be a more appropriate time to think of what the flag really means to us. The dignity of manhood, the virtue of womanhood, the innocence of childhood, are secure under its protection. Remember that “its honour is stainless” ; and never forget that you, too, have a share in guarding most jealously the honour of your country’s flag.

10.    As the poet-laureate10 recently wrote,—

“ Wherever our sails have quivered, wherever our keels have ploughed,

We have carried the Flag of Freedom, unfurled it from mast and shroud.

It hath weathered the storm of battle, it guardeth the paths of peace,

And will watch over Right both day and night, till the day and the night shall cease. And, while there’s a chain to shatter, and, while there’s a wrong to right,

Its watchword shall be God’s gift to man, ‘ Through Liberty, on to Light ’! ”

—A. Hanson, State School, Vere-st., Collingwood.

1.    La-dy-smith', third town in importance in Natal. It is 189 miles from Durban, and, before the war, had a population of 4,500. It derived its name from that of the wife of a famous Governor of Cape Colony, Sir Harry Smith. Sir George White, with 9,000 men, was besieged here by the Boers from the 2nd of November, 1899, to the 28th of February, 1900.

2.    Gen-er-al Bull er, commander-in-chief in South Africa till Lord Roberts took command, had been trying since the beginning of December to relieve Ladysmith.

3.    Lord Dun-don-ald’s cav-al-ry. After nearly a fortnight’s almost continuous fighting, General Buller’s force had captured the key of the Boers’ position, and Lord Dundonald was sent in advance to Ladysmith, with the cavalry and some colonial mounted troops.

4.    Sir George White, V.C., was born in 1835. At the outbreak of the war, he was Commander of the Natal Field Force. He rose from the ranks to be Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army.

5.    Mag£na Char-ta (mag-na kar-ta), the great charter of the liberties of England, signed and sealed by King John in a conference between him and his barons at Runnymede, in 1215. One article in it provides that no freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or proceeded against, except by the lawful judgment of his peers (equals in rank), or by the law of the land.

6.    Mah-di’s troops. General Gordon was besieged in Khartoum by the Mahdists from February, 1884, till his death on the 26th of February, 1885. At the head of his dispirited Egyptian troops, he made a gallant defence, but his repeated demands for aid were regularly refused by the Gladstone Government till it was too late.

7.    Blood-thirst-y Se-poys. During the Indian Mutiny, Lucknow, where Sir Henry Laurence,

with a single British battalion was posted, was besieged by about forty thousand rebels. Laurence was shot early in the siege; but his companions defended themselves for three months, when they were relieved.    1

8.    Wa-ter-looi village in Belgium, scene of the great battle, fought on Sunday, the 18th of June, 1815, between the Allies, who were victorious, under Wellington, and the French under Napoleon.

9.    Tra-fal-gar. cape near which the British fleet, under Nelson, defeated the French and Spanish fleets on the 21st of October, 1805. Nelson was killed in the battle.

10.    Po-et-lau-re-ate, in Great Britain, an officer who receives a small salary, and was formerly required to compose an ode annually for the sovereign’s birthday, for a great national victory, and the like—a requirement discontinued since the reign of George III. Mr. Alfred Austin at present holds the office.

THE FLAG OF THE FREE. 53 54

What matter ! we’d hoist the blue jacket on high,

Or the soldier’s red sash from the spear-head should fly:

Though it were but a riband, the foeman should see The proud signal, and own it—the Flag of the Free !

3. Have we ever looked out from a far foreign shore,

To mark the gay pennon each passing ship bore;

And watched every speck that arose on the foam,

In hope of glad tidings from country and home ?

Has our straining eye caught the loved colours at last,

And seen the dear bark bounding on to us fast ?

Then, then have our hearts learnt how precious can be The fair streamer of England—the Flag of the Free !

—Eliza Cook (1817-89).

KIMBERLEY:

Or-i-gin, rise; commencement.

Site, situation; position.

Gal-van-ized, coated with zinc. Ir-reg-u-Iar-i-ty, state of being uneven;

crookedness.

Prac-ti-cal, useful.

Bearding, part of a support on which a pivot rests and turns.

Piv-Ot, end of an axle which rests and turns in a support.


DIAMOND-TOWN.

Vi-Cin-i-ty. neighbourhood.

Jew-el-ler, one who deals in precious stones and similar ornaments.

Hot^ten-tot, one of a degraded and savage race of South Africa, with yellowish-brown complexion, high cheek bones, and woolly hair growing in tufts.

Sep-a-raTion, division; parting.

In-spec-tion, act of looking at carefully.

Il-lic^it, unlawful.


1. In Griqua Land West, a province of Cape Colony, and in the angle between the Orange and Yaal Rivers, about 650 miles north-east of Cape Town, is the town of Kimberley, which owes its origin entirely

POPPET-HEADS OF A MINE IN SOUTH AFRICA.


to the diamond mines in its vicinity. Although, before 1870, its site was a bare and arid plain, its population just prior to the present Boer-British War was nearly 40,000, of whom about 13,000 were whites.

2.    Nothing in the appearance of the town suggests either its fame or its wealth. It is, with the exception of some tine public buildings and hotels, a straggling, haphazard collection of small, low houses, constructed almost entirely of galvanized iron or of wood. Its irregularity is due, no doubt, to its gradual growth from a mining camp, where the first buildings are placed along the tracks made by the drays.

3.    In the neighbourhood of “this shabby, sunburnt town,” however, are the richest diamond mines in the world. Precious stones to the value of nearly £4,000,000 are taken from them every year.

KAFFIR MINERS IN A TUNNEL.

4. The only practical uses to which diamonds can be put are to form the heads of drills for boring through hard rock, to cut glass, and to serve as the hearings for pivots in watches. It is the vanity of men and women, and the rareness of these gems, that give them their value, though the wonderful sparkle of the diamond has attracted attention in all ages of the world’s history.

5.    The discovery of diamonds in the Kimberley region was quite an accident. A trader named O’Reilly, while staying at the farm of a Boer in the vicinity of the Yaal River, saw a child playing with some pebbles gathered from the river-bed. One of them appeared to him as being of a valuable nature. He sent it to a jeweller, and had it tested; and it was found to be a diamond worth £500. Two years afterwards (in 1869), a farmer bought for £400, from a Hottentot servant, a diamond which he sold for £11,200. It is now in the possession of the Countess of Dudley, and is known as The Star of Africa. When ■cut and polished, it was valued at £25,000.

6.    By the spring of 1870, over ten thousand men were scattered along the banks of the Yaal, seeking for diamonds. The conditions of living were hard, and many perished of starvation. At first, it was thought that the gems could only be obtained from the river. Later, the “ dry ” diggings were discovered, and Kimberley sprang up.

7.    On the “fields,” shafts are sunk into the diamond-bearing or “ blue ” ground, and the material is lifted in trucks to the surface, where it is spread out on hard, level ground to dry? In about three months’ time, it has crumbled to powder, and is then ready for washing. This process, carried on by means of running water and costly machinery, results in the separation of the gravel from the clay.

8.    Men, provided with a kind of trowel, carefully search this gravel, and pick out the diamonds, which are afterwards cleaned, and placed in glistening heaps on white paper for the inspection of buyers. The De Beers Company, which limits the output to the quantity that the jewellers of the world require, and thus keeps up the price of the precious stones, employs some thousands of men, in the proportion of five natives to one European.

9.    The natives are engaged for a period of three months, during which time they are confined to an enclosure surrounded by a high wall. They are supplied with fuel free, and clothes and provisions are sold to them by the company.

10.    Formerly, it was not very difficult for the natives to steal the diamonds, and part with them to dishonest buyers. At one time, it was thought that fully half the diamonds found were not given up to their rightful owners. Strict laws to prevent illicit diamond buying are now in force. No one is allowed to carry a “rough ” stone about with him without the permission of the police. In Kimberley, there is a constant look-out kept for people breaking the I.D.B. Act.

STORY OF A DRUM.

A-plomb' assurance of manner; self-possession. I Ev-o-lu-tion, orderly movement of a body of

troops.

1. A regiment in motion and the rattle of a drum,

With a “rat, tat, tat! ” and a “ rat tat turn ! ”

Fear is on the face of some,

Others stepping with aplomb,

And steady is the patter and the clatter of the drum.

2.    Sweeping lines in evolution, fast the wheeling columns come,

And a thousand men are stepping to the tapping of the drum ;

There are countenances glum,

There are senses dull and dumb,

But a boy is stepping proudly—there is playing on the drum.

3.    The rage and roar of battle, and the rattle of a drum,

The shrapnel shot are flying with a “zip ” and a “zum,”

Cruel shells exploding come,

And the bullets hiss and hum,

But a drum still echoes loudly—will the thing be never mum ?

4.    Darkness on the field of battle, where the body-seekers come.

The storm of death is ended and displayed the struggle’s sum.

A pallid face, a drum.

There is blood, and both are dumb—

A story of a drummer and a story of a drum !

—Chicago Mail.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

A Bugler’s Presence of Mind.

1.    In the letter from the war correspondent of The Argus, Mr. Donald Macdonald, written at Ladysmith on the 1st of November, the day before the Boers began to besiege the town, the following passage occurs :—

“ Another of the Gordons, who, it is said, will be recommended for the coveted Victoria Cross, is Bugler May. There was a time in the hot fight at Elands Laagte when the Manchesters wavered, not for want of courage, but because some one had, by mistake, or through excitement, sounded the ‘ retire,’ and Tommy Atkins, though he will go anywhere when well led, is not good at retiring.

2.    “ Bugler May saw them falter, so he blew their regimental call, then the ‘forward,’ and finally the ‘charge.’ ‘You are a brave and thoughtful lad,’ said the adjutant, who rode up, and took his name. ”

What are Sappers ?

During the time that the Boer general, Cronje (cron-'jag), was surrounded by Lord Roberts’s army, we were informed by cablegram that the sappers were working night and day. Many people were curious to know the nature of the work at which they were engaged. Mr. Rudyard Kipling, some years ago, made a sapper speak as follows, when comparing the work of his own corps with that of the other branches of the service :—

“ We lay down their sidings and help them entrain,

And we sweep up their mess throughout the campaign.

They send us in front, with a fuse and a mine,

To blow up the gates that are rushed by the Line ;

They send us behind, with a pick and a spade,

To dig for the guns of the bullock-brigade......

Now, the Line’s but a man with a gun in his hand;

And Cavalry’s only what horses can stand;

Artillery moves by the leave of the ground ;

But we are the men that do something all round :

For we are Her Majesty’s Royal Engineers With the rank and pay of a Sapper ! ”

The Spirit of the Wounded.

On all sides, there is evidence (referring to the Battle of Colenso) that our soldiers behaved splendidly on the field, and I can say that when brought back wounded, they were plucky, patient, and uncomplaining. Their unselfishness was many times very marked. An orderly was bringing some water to a wounded man lying on the ground near me. He was shot through the abdomen (ab-dd-'men), and he could hardly speak owing to the dryness of his mouth, but he said,  Take it to my mate first; he is worse hit than I am.” This generous man died next morning; but his mate got through, and is doing well.

Extract from a Letter from Natal.

Evolution of the Bayonet.

1.    The bayonet, which inspires such terror in the ranks of the Boers, was not employed in the British army until the reign of Charles II., when it was described in a royal warrant as “ a bayonet or great knife.” For some time, it was not brought into use until after all the ammunition had been expended, and then it was screwed into the barrel of the musket, completely closing up the muzzle.

2.    At the Battle of Ramillies, however, some 30 years later, the men of the 25th regiment of foot, now the Royal Borderers, noticed that an opposing regiment charged immediately they had delivered their fire, and without halting to screw on their bayonets.

3.    After the engagement, the French firelocks which had been captured were examined, and the improvement pointed out to the English armourers, who were instructed to fit the muskets of the English army in the same way.

St. Helena.

1.    For the second time since its discovery in 1502, the island of St. Helena is to serve as an English military prison. Napoleon was sent there for safe keeping in 1815, and Cronje and several thousands of Boers are to share the same fate. It is 1,160 miles west from the coast of Africa.

2.    About 10^ miles long by 8|- in breadth at the widest part, almost treeless, and presenting to the ocean on all points except one a wall of high cliffs, it offers singular facilities for safe custody, and scarcely a chance for rescue or escape.

3.    In the palmy days of the East Indian trade by way of the Cape of Good Hope, its capital, Jamestown, was an important port of call ; but, since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, its prosperity has declined.

The Most Precious Bit of Metal in the World.

1. The Victoria Cross was instituted by Her Majesty at the close of the Crimean war, 29th January, 1856. Sixty-two Victoria crosses were w^n in the Crimean war; six in the Boer war of 1881. About 430 crosses have been awarded.

2.    The V.C. is a Maltese cross made from cannon captured from the enemy. It is worn on the left breast, suspended by a blue ribbon in the navy, by a red ribbon in the army. In the centre is the Royal Crest; below a scroll bearing the words “for valour.” The reverse-side is bare. The actual weight of the metal is 434 grains, just 3|- grains less than an ounce. Its intrinsic value is l^d.

3.    When a large number of men are engaged in a daring enterprise, the cross is awarded by votes of their comrades to one officer, one noncommissioned officer, and two privates, seamen, or marines. The first V.C. was won by Midshipman Lucas, of H.M.S. Hecla, on the 21st of June, 1854. During the bombardment of a Russian fort, a live shell fell on board the Hecla. Lucas picked it up, and threw it overboard. It burst just before touching the water.

4.    The cross is only awarded to officers and men who have performed some signal act of valour or devotion to their country in the presence of the enemy. It carries with it a special pension of £10 a year, and, should the holder do some deed which, if he had not already won the cross, would have gained it, another bar is attached to the ribbon by which the cross is suspended. This bar carries an additional £5 a year pension. (For a picture of the cross, see The School Paper, Classes V. and VI., February, 1900.)

The Philippines.

The Philippine Islands—about 1,200 in number—have an incalculable value for the European nations who are interested in the division of China. They are within a few days’ sail of Hong Ivong. Manila Harbour could be made impregnable. The islands grow unlimited foodstuffs, while the coal, iron, and gold mines have never been effectively worked. In the hands of a great power, the Philippines could be made a strong base in time of any troubles in the Far East ; and, for that reason, France, Germany, and Russia are determined to do what is possible to prevent them from passing into the hands of the United States. It is not that they fear the United States ; but, throughout Europe, the United States and Great Britain are now considered (somewhat prematurely) to be the same nation as well as the same race. Any chance, however remote, that the Philippines might fall to Great Britain will drive the three powers we have named into an instant combination to defeat that chance.

The Saturday Review (London).

An Empire’s Lifetime.

Since first the dominion of men was asserted over the ocean, three thrones, of mark beyond all others, have been set upon its sands, the thrones of Tyre, Venice, and England. Of the first of these great powers, only the memory remains ; of the second, the ruins ; the third, which inherits their greatness, if it forget their example, may be led, through prouder eminence, to less pitied destruction.—John Ruskin, an English art-critic and philosopher who died recently.

SONS OF BRITANNIA.

A SONG OF THE EMPIRE. .Words and Melody by John H. Nicholson.

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1.    Sons    of    Britan    -    nia,    hear    ye    the    call! Sounding o’er land and    sea:

2.    Sons    of    Britan    -    nia,    see    ye    the    dawn ! Dungeons of doom un -    bar !

3.    Sons    of    Britan    -    nia,    hear    ye    the    call! Guardians of peace are    ye;

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Help ye the help - less, strike for the right; sing ye the songs of the free. Peace ye do fight for, peace ye shall bring ; yours is the bright morning star. Drive back the law - less, bring- back the law, bring ye a song for the free.

good men and true, good men and true, good men and true,


free.

star.

free.


Brave men and steadfast, Brave men and steadfast, Brave men and steadfast,


sing ye the songs of the yours is the bright morning bring ye a song for the


CHORUS.


On

ward togeth - er,

sons of old Bri - tan - nia,


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Sons of Britanniacontinued.

All ye who speak the stir - ring Eng - lish tongue ; Faith - ful and fear - less,

rail.

brothers now and always, Yours is a kingdom old and ev - er young.

Note.—This song is sung in the State schools of Queensland, and has become popular in that colony. The right to publish it in Hie School Paper has been purchased by the Education Department of Victoria. The words and melody with pianoforte accompaniment may be obtained at the music warehouses, price 2d.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

Hal-yards, ropes for twisting the sails of a ship. Bat-tle-ment, one of the solid, upright parts of a parapet in ancient fortifications.

Rib and, ribbon.

Pen-non, small flag.


Her^ald, proclaimer; forerunner.

Ty-rant, monarch, or other ruler or master, who uses power to oppress his subjects. Fet-ters, chains used to secure prisoners. Das-tard, coward.


1

Strange that the wind should be left so free To play with a flower, or tear a tree ;

To range or ramble where’er it will,

And, as it lists, to be fierce or still;

Above and around to breathe of life,

Or to mingle the earth and sky in strife; Gently to whisper, with morning light,

Yet to growl like a fetter’d fiend ere night; Or to love, and cherish, and bless to-day, What to-morrow it ruthlessly rends away !

2

Most birds easily mount up into the air, and they thus escape from their enemies. Such, however, is not the case with the ostrich ; it never flies at all. This large bird is forced to trust to its sinewy legs and cloven feet to bear it swiftly out of the reach of danger. Its

3

   West-ern Dis-trict, the western part of Victoria south of the Dividing Range.

4

   Wan-ga, the name of the station (sheep or cattle run).

5

   A little boy lay pale and listless in his small white cot, gazing, with eyes enlarged by fever, straight before him, with the strange look of illness which seems to see already more than is visible to living eyes. His mother sat at the bottom of the bed, watching him, and biting her fingers to keep back a cry ; while his father, a strong workman, brushed away his burning tears.

2.    The day was breaking: a calm, clear, lovely day of June. The light began to steal into the poor room where little Francis, the son of Jacques (zhak, the “a” as in arm) and Madeline (mad'-e-lin) Legrand (leh-grong'), lay very near death’s door. He was seven years old ; three weeks ago, a fair-haired, rosy little boy, as happy as a bird. But, one night, when he came home from school, his head was giddy and his hands were burning. Ever since he had lain there in his cot. To-night he did not wander in his mind; but, for two days, his strange listlessness had alarmed the doctor. He lay there sad and quiet, as if, at seven years old, he was already tired of life; rolling his head upon the bolster,

Price Id.

6

   If there’s work in the garden, his head “aches to split,”

And his back is so lame that he can’t dig a bit” ;

But just mention football, he’s cured very soon,

7

And he’ll dig for a wombat the whole afternoon.

8

Do you think that he’s shamming ? he seems quite sincere ;

But—isn’t he queer ?

—St. Nicholas (somewhat localised).

9

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were on the island; and I had many thoughts of* the method how to

10

   In the middle of all mylabours, it happened that, while rummaging my things, I found a little bag, which had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What corn had been in the bag had been devoured by rats, and I saw nothing in it but husks and dust; and, wanting the bag for some other use (1 think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my wall under the rock.

2.    It was a little before the great rains that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there. About a month after, or thereabout, I saw a few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be a plant I had not before seen ; but I was surprised, when, after a longer time, I observed about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our English barley.

3.    It is impossible to express the confusion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all. I had, indeed, very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events for the world. But, after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I know was not suited for it, and especially as I

11

John Adams, the second President of the United States, used to relate the following anecdote :—

“ When I was a boy, I used to study Latin grammar; but it was dull, and I hated it. My father was anxious to send me to college, and, therefore, I studied the grammar till I could stand it no longer; and,

12

   “AVhat’s the matter ? Is your lesson too hard for you ?” Polly asked one evening, as a groan made her look across the table to where Tom sat scowling over a pile of dog-eared books, with his hands in his hair, as if his head were in danger of flying asunder with the great effort he was making to learn his work.

2.    “ Hard ! I should just think it was. What do I care about the old Carthaginians ^except Regains ? ”2 Tom dealt his Latin Reader a thump that expressed his feelings better than words.

3.    “ I like Latin, and perhaps I can help you a little bit,” said Polly, as Tom wiped his hot face, and refreshed himself with a peanut.

“You? Pooh! Girls’Latin doesn’t amount to much,” was the ungracious reply.

Price Id.

13

“ Well, Frank, I hope you enjoyed your drive round our settlement.”

14

   Throughout the winter, Brinton had been saying what he would do if the redcoats (the name by which the British soldiers were known to him.) came, and grieving because his age, which was eight, prevented him from going with his father to fight under General Washington.14

2.    Every night, when his mother tucked him in his bed and kissed him good-night, he told her not to be afraid, for he had promised his father to protect her, and intended to do it.

3.    His plan of action, in case of the sudden appearance of the enemy, varied somewhat from day to day; but, in general outline, it -consisted of a bold show of force at the front gate, and a flank attack

Price Id.

15

   “Yes, that is right ; their full name, however, is gordo bianco, but they are known as gordos. Jump into the buggy with me, and weTl soon be among the pickers. Here they are.”

“ The vines are creeping over the ground, Uncle; why are they not trellised like the Zantes and sultanas P ”

16

   The boat-men hear the call. They, of course, do not actually hear the call; but, in wild weather, under circumstances that turn their minds to the sad event, they fancy they hear the call.

17

DUG UP A PIECE OF GROUND AS WELL AS I COULD."

6.    The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly ;2 but I had to buy all my experience, and that dearly ; and what I am going to relate was one of the most discouraging experiments I made.

7.    I had saved a few ears of barley and rice ; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground, as well as I could, with my wooden spade, and, dividing it into two parts,

18

   The skylark is a bird much praised by all English writers. Jeremy Taylor17 said : “ It did rise and sing as if it had learned music and motion from an angel.” It sings while on the wing. At first, as it springs from the ground, its notes are low and feeble, but its music swells as it rises, and, long after the bird is lost to the eye, it continues to charm the ear with its melody. Even then a practised ear will know the motion of the bird by its song.

2.    It climbs up to the sky by a flight, winding like a spiral stair, constantly growing wider. It gives a swelling song as it ascends, and a sinking one as it descends ; and, if it takes but one whirl in the air, that whirl is either upward or downward, and the pitch of its song is varied accordingly.

3.    The natural impulse to throw itself up when it sings is so great, even when confined, that it sometimes leaps against the top of the cage, and would thus injure itself if men had not learned to prevent it by lining the roof with green baize.

19

   It was a line that passed through miles of unsettled country. For several years, I had driven an engine on it. I drove there when it extended only twenty miles ; and I ran along that line, as it stretched out farther and farther into the great region westward.

2.    One of the settlers in that new country built himself a log-house close to the railway, where he had made a clearing. Perhaps he thought it would be company for his wife and little ones to see the trains go by with people in them.

Price Id.

20

   More than eighteen hundred years ago, Mount Vesuvius1 had, for ages and ages, been lying in quietness like any other hill. Beautiful cities were built at its foot. These cities were filled with people who were as handsome and as comfortable, and, I fear, as wicked as any people ever were on earth.

21

   Fair gardens, vineyards, olive-yards, covered the mountainslopes. It was held to be one of the paradises of the world. As for the mountain’s being a burning mountain, who ever thought of that ?

22

   To be sure, the top of it was a great round crater, a mile or more across, and a few hundred yards deep. But that was. all overgrown with bushes and wild vines, and was full of boars and wild deer. What sign of fire was there in that ?

23

called Pliny,

24

who was a very studious and learned man, and the author of a famous old book on natural history.

25

   He was staying on shore with his sister; and, one day, as he sat in his study, she called him out to see a strange cloud which had been hanging for some time over the top of Mount Vesuvius. It was in shape just like an Italian stone-pine tree, with a long, straight stem and a flat, parasol-shaped top. Sometimes the cloud was blackish, sometimes spotted.

26

   The good admiral, who was always curious about natural science, ordered his cutter, and went off across the bay to see what it could be.

27

   Earthquake-shocks had been very common for the last few days ; but I do not suppose that Pliny had any notion that the earthquakes and

the cloud had any-    Vesuvius in eruption.

thing to do with    (From Sime’8 Geography of Europe; Messrs. Macmillan and Co.)

each other. However, he soon found out that they had, and to his

28

Southward, with fleet of icel Sailed the corsair Death;

Wild and fast blew the blast,

And the east wind was his breath.

29

“It is half-past eleven,” said Grandfather, “and the bricklayers will not have the chimney repaired before three o’clock.”

“ Then, I suppose we must be content with a cold lunch to-day,” said his daughter, Mrs. Morris.

“ Well,” he replied after a moment’s thought, “perhaps I can boil some eggs. I will try it.”

“ But isn’t it too windy to light a fire out-of-doors?”

30

Oh ! But he was a tight-fisted hand at the grindstone, Scrooge ! A squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous old man 1 Hard and sharp as flint from which no steel had ever struck out generous fire ; secret and self-contained, and solitary as an oyster. The cold within him froze his old features, nipped his pointed nose, shrivelled his cheek, stiffened his gait, made his eyes red, his thin lips blue, and spoke out shrewdly in his grating voice.

Price Id.

31

   I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-beck This little wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own house seemed to me comfort itself in comparison. In short, I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay on the island.

2.    I remained here a week to rest and refresh myself after my long journey; during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be quite a domestic, and to be well acquainted with me. I quickly taught him to know his own name, and, at last, to speak it out pretty loud. Indeed, Poll was the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own.

3.    About the latter end of December, which was the second harvest time of the year, my corn was ripe. I was sadly at a loss for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and all I could do was to make one, as well as

32

The colonel explained at full length why he could not bring a gun in the battery to silence “ Long Tom,” and quietly asked to be permitted to run a gun out of the trenches and take a shot at the offender : “ It is a point-blank distance, and I have a new gun, with

Price Id.

33

Thun-der-bolt' here means cannon-ball. The name arose because it was at one time thought that a destructive flash of lightning was accompanied by the fall of a solid body.

34

Of the different species of snakes that are known (about 1,000 in number), 108 are found in Australia and Tasmania and the waters

35

   When I as a boy joined the Brinhburn in London bound for the West Indies, I happened to be the first on board to take up my quarters in the forecastle. I crept into my lonely bunk that night feeling very small and forgotten, and huddled myself into my ragged blanket, trying to get warm and go to sleep.

36

   It was quite ¿lark, and the sudden appearance of two glaring green eyes over the edge of my bunk sent a spasm of fear through me for a moment, until I felt soft feet walking over me, and heard the crooning sound made by a contented cat over her kittens. I put up my hands, and felt the warm fur, quite a thrill of pleasure trickling over me as pussy pleasantly responded with a loud, satisfied purr.

37

   We were quite glad of each other’s company, I know; for, as I cuddled her closely to me, the regular movements caused by her purring comforted me so, that, in a short time, I was fast asleep.

38

   Thenceforward, puss and I were the firmest of friends. In fact, she was the only friend I had on board that hateful ship. The crew

39

   High-lands, the northern and western parts of Scotland, among and beyond the Grampian Mountains.

2.    Loch Gyle, for Loch Goil, an arm of the sea west of Scotland. It is a branch of Loch Long.

3.    URva’s Isle, small island, one of the Inner Hebrides, west of Scotland. It is near the Isle of Staffa.

40

   The following description of a touching incident is taken from a letter written on the 26th of October, 189D, by one of the nursing sisters at the Military Hospital, Ladysmith, Natal :—

2.    “We have several wounded Boer patients, and it is really amusing to see our large-hearted Tommy Atkinses making friends with them. A touching little scene happened yesterday. One of the Gordons had his arm amputated. A Boer in the next bed had had his arm taken off in exactly the same place. I took charge of the latter as he was brought down from the operating room, and, on his-becoming conscious, the two poor fellows eyed each other very much, till our good-natured Tommy could bear it no longer.

3.    “‘Sister,’ he called, ‘give him two cigars out of my box, and, tell him I sent them. Here is a match ; light one for him, please.’

41

   Mehemet Ali came, and saw

The riddled breast and the tender jaw.

“ Make him a bier of your arms,” he said,

“And daintily bury this dainty dead.”

42

   The lighthouse tower is similar to that at Cape Schanck. The light is reached by ascending stone steps. At the top are 32 lamps, which are cleaned, polished, and filled every morning. They burn colza oil, and show a white light. The dwelling-houses are of granite, and are as good now as when erected 40 years ago. In a garden enclosed by four walls of granite are growing many kinds of vegetables and flowers—a pleasant contrast to the stony, scrubby surface outside. Excepting wild cats and dogs, very little animal life is seen on the promontory.

43

   By 11 o’clock on Tuesday, the last boatload had been landed, and the steamer’s bows were turned towards Cliffy Island, which lies about 17 miles off in a north-easterly direction, and is the most lonely of all the Victorian lighthouse stations. The island is a big, bald rock, standing 144 feet high, the shape of an egg lying on its side. There is just sufficient room on its rounded surface for the lighthouse

44

Did you hear of the curate who mounted his mare, And merrily trotted along to the fair?

Of creature more tractable none ever heard ;

In the height of her speed she would stop at a word j And again with a word, when the curate said Hey, She’d put forth her mettle and gallop away.

45

I cannot say that, after this, for five years anything' extraordinary took place.

It happened one day, about noon, that I was startled hy the print of a man’s naked foot, which was very plainly to be seen, on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen a ghost. I listened, I looked round me, hut I could hear nothing, nor see anything. I went up to a rising ground, to look farther; I went up the shore, and down the shore, hut it was all one: I could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there were any more, and to observe if it might not he my fancy; but there was no room for that supposition, for there was exactly the print of a foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot.

46

My intercourse with the Boers of the Transvaal began in the year 1896. Being a keen sportsman, I gladly accepted the invitation of one of the more substantial farmers amongst the Boers of the district I was visiting, to join his circle, and so avail myself of the excellent shooting that was to be had in the neighbourhood.

Price Id.

47

   Hop-picking had come, and we thought it would be great fun to have a bin. In former years, we had merely picked with friends and neighbours, and found the work very pleasant. So one of our party bespoke a bin, a hessian bag tacked to a strong frame, in which to drop the hops.

2.    We were up at daylight, and put on our oldest clothes, as the hops stain, and, the more the clothing is washed, the brighter the stains become. We filled our provision basket, took a bright, new billy, and made a start at half-past six o’clock. In front, a hoppicker was walking very quickly. This caused us to quicken our pace so as not to be last. We looked behind, and lo ! some one was running after us. We were all chasing one another to the field.

3.    The field, before it is touched, is really pretty. It is set with poles, about 12ft. or 14ft. long, set upright in twos or threes, about 6ft. or 7ft. apart. Up these poles the bines climb.

4.    A pole, with the bine clinging to it, is handed to us, and placed across the frame of the bin. In the early morning, the hops are crisp

48

Au revoir (French), farewell until we meet again. The contingent left on the 10th March, 1900.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

49

The ostrich lays every alternate day, and, if, for each egg laid, one is taken from the nest, she will continue laying until she has produced from twenty to thirty. If no eggs are taken away, she

Price Id.

50

   Between the dark and the daylight,

When the night is beginning to lower,

Comes a pause in the day’s occupations, That is known as the Children’s Hour.

51

   I hear in the chamber above me

The patter of little feet,

The sound of a door that is opened, And voices soft and sweet.

52

   From my study, I see in the lamp

light,

Descending the broad hall stair, Grave Alice, and laughing Allegra,And Edith with golden hair.

53

   ’Tis the streamer of England—it floats o’er the brave,— ’Tis the fairest unfurled o’er the land or the wave ;

But, though brightest in story and matchless in fight, ’Tis the herald of Mercy as well as of Might.

In the cause of the wronged may it ever be first When tyrants are humbled, and fetters are burst.

Be “ Justice ” the war-shout, and dastard is he Who would scruple to die ’neath the Flag of the Free !

54

   It may trail o’er the halyards, a bullet-torn rag,

Or flutter in shreds from the battlement-crag;

Let the shot whistle through it as fast as it may,

Till it sweep the last glorious fragment away.