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iWJOßl I WO

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 34.] MELBOURNE.    [June, 1900.

THE SOLDIER’S TEAR.

Deem, consider; think.

1.    Upon the hill, he turned

To take a last, fond look At the valley, and the village church, And the cottage by the brook.

He listen’d to the sounds So familiar to his ear,

And the soldier leant upon his sword, And wiped away a tear.

2.    Beside that cottage porch,

A girl was on her knees,

She held aloft her snow-white scarf, Which fluttered in the breeze ;

Daunt-less, fearless; bold.

She breathed a prayer for him—

A prayer he could not hear ;—

But he paused to bless her as she knelt, And wiped away a tear.

3. He turned, and left the spot.

Ah, do not deem him weak,

For dauntless was the soldier’s heart Though tears were on his cheek. Go, watch the foremost ranks In danger’s dark career,

Be sure the hand most daring there Has wiped away a tear.

BRAVE BUGLER DUNN.

Bat-tal-ion, body of 1,010 soldiers of all ranks. (It forms an infantry unit.)

Reg^i-ment, body of soldiers, consisting’ of (as a rule) two battalions. (Usually, one battalion is at home (in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), and the other abroad.)

Fu-sil-iers, title borne by some British regiments. 1 2 3

Sug-gest;ed, hinted ; intimated. Ac-com-pa-nied, went along with. Per-mis-sion, leave; formal consent. Prompt-ly, without delay; in a quick manner. Route (root), course ; road.

struck him on the right arm and in the chest ; hut that was not sufficient to make Bugler Dunn give in. His right arm was useless, hut his left arm was sound. On being struck, he had dropped his bugle; but he picked it ap with his left hand, and went on until he fell fainting through loss of blood.

4.    After the battle, the wounded bugler was sent to Pietermaritzburg,2 and thence to England. On arriving in England, he was taken to Netley Hospital,3 where he remained for nearly three weeks. While there, he had many visitors, among them Princess Christian.4 She asked him what the Queen could do for him; and the boy’s answer came promptly, “I hope Her Majesty will send me back to the front.” This time, his wish will not be granted ; but the Queen took a great interest in him, and he was honoured by a royal command to present himself before Her Majesty, at Osborne House in the Isle of Wight.

5.    When Bugler Dunn was discharged from the Hospital, he went to Portsmouth,5 where one of the battalions of his regiment is quartered. As soon as he got out of the train, four men of the Dublin Fusiliers picked him up, and carried him shoulder high through the streets. Crowds of people turned out to honour him, and he was greeted with loud cheers along the entire route to the barracks.

1.    Bat-tie Of Co-len-so. On the 15th of December, 1899, at Colenso in Natal, General Sir Red vers Buller was repulsed by the Boers under General Botha, in an attempt to cross the Tugela River.

2.    Pie-ter-mar-itz-burg (pee-ter-mar-its-burg), capital of Natal. Durban is the chief port of Natal. Frere and Chieveley are stations on the railway from Durban to Coienso.

3.    Net-ley Hos-pi-tal, large hospital near Southampton for sick and wounded soldiers.

4.    Prin-cess Chris-tian, Helena, the fifth child of Queen Victoria. She was born at Buckingham Palace, on the 25th of May, 1846, and married Prince Christian in 1866.

5.    Ports-mouth, south of England, the chief naval station of Great Britain.

FROM CAPE TOWN TO SALISBURY BY RAIL AND COACH.

Mo-not-o-nous, without change or variety; wearisome.

Oc-curred' happened.

At-tend-ant, one who accompanies as a friend, servant, or the like.

Ex-ca-va-tion, cavity formed by digging or cutting.

Re-Ced-ing, moving back ; withdrawing. Pro-ceed£ing, moving forward ; advancing. 4 5

Des-ti-na-tion, place set for the end of a

journey.

Ex-pe-ri-ence, personal acquaintance; actual enjoyment or suffering.

N0V-el, new ; unusual; strange.

Rin-der-pest (rln-der-pest), cattle plague; highly contagious distemper affecting cattle.

Drift, in South Africa, a ford in a river.

3. About thirty miles north of Mafeking, near Pitsani, where, on the 29th of December, 1895, Dr. Jameson crossed the border into the Transvaal on his disastrous raid, an amusing incident occurred,—at least

■' ' '


IN THE HEART OF THE NIEUWVELD RANGE, CAPE COLONY.

it amused those who witnessed it. A dignified-looking native, the son of an important Matabele chief, who was travelling in one of the open trucks that formed part of the train, wished to be set down at a certain spot on the veldt, but had neglected to tell the engine-driver beforehand of his desire. On our reaching the place, the native noble and his attendant commenced to signal with great energy in order to attract the driver’s attention. It was of no use, however, the driver didn’t, or wouldn’t, notice the signals ; and, two miles farther on, the perspiring and frowning pair made up their minds to jump from the train. The attendant succeeded fairly well; but his master foolishly sprang off with his back to the engine, with the result that he rolled over and over into a soft excavation by the side of the line. His face, as he arose, and saw the fast receding passengers laughing at him, was a study.

4. At Crocodile Pools, I determined to have no more to do with the train, though I might have travelled as far as Bulawayo3 in it, so booked a seat on the outgoing coach, with the prospect before me of proceeding nearly 500 miles in it before reaching Salisbury.4 I had had some experiences of a trip from Johannesburg5 to Pretoria6 before the railway was completed : judging from these, and as I was told

A MATABELE WARRIOR.

that' there were sixty stations on the road, and that we should go forward night and day, 1 had visions of rattling over an interesting country behind a spanking team of mules at the rate of eight miles an hour, and arriving at my destination in a few days’ time, a little tired, perhaps, but having keenly enjoyed the experience, it was Sunday afternoon when I joined the coach at Crocodile Pools. It was Wednesday evening in the following week when 1 left it at Bulawayo, 1,361 miles from Cape Town ; and still there remained 272 miles to traverse in a similar vehicle before reaching Salisbury.

5 At the outset of the journey, and towards the finish, the mules did well; but, in Khama’s Country,7 which we were days passing through, and where everything and everybody seemed depressed, the coach crawled along at a funeral pace.

6. The seat was a narrow one. 1 could barely sit upright, owing to the front part of the coach being stuffed, it seemed to me, with nails ; and, as my fellow-passengers included about half-a-dozen women and children, 1 gave up the idea of trying to sleep inside, and sought the top of the coach, which was already occupied by a large quantity of baggage.

7.    At first, but, alas ! not for long, I found the change an improvement. The situation generally is novel: lying on your back*' on top of a mail-coach gazing at the stars is interesting; the switch of the driver’s formidable whip is musical ; and his frequent cheery cries do not annoy you. But, later on, when you are sleepy and dare not close your eyes, remembering the last jolt, which nearly pitched you oif; when the driver’s whip, on your raising your head, has wound itself in snake-like embraces round your neck; when a thorny branch has swept the top of the coach, and carried away your cap and a part of your trousers; when your feet are cold, and there is no way of warming them; and when the odour of the rinderpest victims is strong in the still night air, you become sick of the coach top, and are glad to scramble off and get inside in spite of the discomforts there.

8.    On the whole, the mules employed were first-class, though once a team broke down from sheer fatigue, and twice our coach stuck fast

THE VELDT NEAR DOORNKOP.8

in a drift. The heat during the day was intense. At a place called Shashi River, we had to dig for water, as the supply we carried for the mules was exhausted.

My earnest hope is that I shall never have to go to Salisbury by coach again.

—Adapted from an article in South Africa in Peace and War.

1.    Maf-e-king, the largest European township and the chief centre of trade in British Bechuanaland, a part of Cape Colony. It is on the railway, north-east of British Bechuanaland, and near the Transvaal border, due west of Pretoria. Its defence against the Boers by Colonel Baden-Powell (bayOien) will be recorded as a noteworthy event in British history. 6 7 8

5. Jo-iian-nes-burg (yo-han-oee-hurg), the largest and most important town in the Transvaal. It was laid out in December, 1886, and, in 1896, it had a population of nearly 50,009, of which 36,000 were whites. It is distant from Cape Town 1,014 miles. Gold reefs run east and west of the town for more than 100 miles.

*    6. Pre-tor-i-a, the capital of the Transvaal since 1833. It is named after Pretorius, the first President

of the Republic. It is distant from Johannesburg-, by road 32 miles, by rail 46 miles ; from Delagoa Bay 349 miles. Before the war, its population was about 12,000,

7.    Kha-ma’s Coun-try forms part of the British Protectorate of Bechuanaland, extending to the neighbourhood of Lake N garni on the north-west, and on the north east to the Shashi River, while on the south it is bounded by Sebele’s Country. Khama, chief of a powerful tribe, died in 1899. He was a man of refinement and intelligence, a thorough Christian, and an able ruler.

8.    Doornkop, south-west of the Transvaal. Dr. Jameson and several hundred troops, who had invaded the Transvaal without authority from the British Government, surrendered here to the Boers under Cronje, on the 2nd of January, 1896.

N.B.—The map of South Africa issued to the schools some months ago, and also that of Southern Rhodesia and the article accompanying it in this month's number of The School Paper - Classes V. and VI. may be consulted with advantage.

TRUE CHARITY.


Wist knew.

Quoth, said.

Boot, use; profit.

Mar-velled, wondered greatly.


Weal, welfare; happiness.

Twain, two.

Wots, knows.

Ad-dressi betake; apply one’s energies.

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6


It was upon a Lammas 1 night Two brothers woke and said,

As each upon the other’s weal Bethought him on his bed ;

The elder spake unto his wife,

“Our brother dwells alone;

No little babes to cheer his life,

And helpmate hath he none.

“ Up will I get, and, of my heap,

A sheaf bestow or twain,

The while our Ahmed lies asleep, And wots not of the gain.”

So up he got, and did address Himself with loving heed,

Before the dawning of the day,

To do that gracious deed.

Now, to the younger, all unsought The same kind fancy came !

Nor wist they of each other’s thought. Though mov6d to the same.

“Abdullah he hath wife,” quoth he, “ And little babes also ;

What would be slender boot to me Would make his heart o’erflow.


7.    “ Up will I get, and, of my heap,

A sheaf bestow or twain ;

The while he sweetly lies asleep, -And wots not of the gain. ”

8.    So up he got, and did address

Himself with loving heed,

Before the dawning of the day,

To mate his brother’s deed !

9.    Thus played they oft their gracious

parts,

And marvelled oft to view Their sheaves still equal, for their hearts

In love were equal too.

10.    One morn they met, and, wondering,

stood

To see by clear daylight How each upon the other’s good Bethought him in the night.

] 1. So. when this tale to him was

brought,

The Caliph6 did decree,

Where twain had thought the same good thought,

There Allah’s7 house should be.

—C. Tennyson-Turner (1808-79).


1. Lam£mas, feast of first-fruits on the 1st of August.

2- Ca liph, title of the successors of Mohammed, now used by the Sultan of Turkey.

3. Al-lak, name of the Supreme Being, in use among the Arabs and Mohammedans generally.


PRESENCE

Re-VOlt', rebellion ; uprising against authority. Se-poy, native of India, employed as a soldier in the service of Great Britain.

Mag-is-trate, here, person to whom certain powers of government are entrusted.

1. The Indian Mutiny, which revolt of the Sepoys against their


OF MIND,

i Loy-al-ty, fidelity to a superior; duty; love; | allegiance.

Clam-OUr, outcry; uproar.

I Po-lite-ly, in a courteous manner.

consisted, for the most part, of a British officers, broke out in May, 1857. The rising was accompanied by a great many cases of cruelty and murder. One man—the magistrate in charge of a town near Allahabad, a large city at the junction of the rivers Ganges and Jumna—owed his escape to his presence of mind.

2. When the storm of rebellion burst, he was the only European left in the town, the others having already sought refuge elsewhere. The native ruler of the town, although at heart hating the British, yet kept to the last an appearance of loyalty.

,    3. The magistrate had been told that a rising was about to take

place, and went to the ruler to ask him to do all he could to quieten the people. As they sat talking, there reached them a murmur from without, swelling into a shout as the tumult came nearer. A dead silence fell on all in the room ; and, on looking up, the magistrate saw that the ruler was smiling.

4.    He knew, then, that his only hope lay in prompt action ; so, drawing his revolver, he seized the native by the collar, and placed the muzzle against his forehead.

“ Is a carriage likely to be soon ready for me to depart ? ” he asked quietly.

“ Yes, yes, one is now ready,” cried the frightened servants.

“ Then we will go at once.”

5.    They went, the magistrate keeping a firm grip of the ruler’s collar. When they appeared outside the palace, the immense mob hushed their clamour, in terror for the life of their chief, and in wonder at the daring of this single Englishman.

6.    “Now,” said the magistrate to the ruler, “tell them that, if I hear a hoot or an insult, or if any man’s hand is raised against me, that moment will be your last.”

7.    The Hindoo entered the carriage with him, and they drove off, no one daring to interfere. Twelve miles from the city, the magistrate had a horse waiting for him, in case of sudden need ; so, politely thanking him for the pleasure of his company, he here left the native, and rode off unharmed.

PROSPECTING.

Pros^peC-ting, seeking; searching. Va-ca^tion, holidays.

Pic-tur-esque? forming a pleasing picture. Suf-fi-Cient, enough ; ample. Stu-pen-dous, huge ; very large. 9 10

Ob-lique-ly, in a slanting direction. In-ter-rupt-ed, broke in.

Eu-re-ka, I have found it (Greek word). Par-tic-u-lar, special.

returned to his home at Hawthorn, near Melbourne, and was never tired of relating to his brother what he had seen. The picturesque scenery ! the great fern trees high enough for a man on horseback to ride under ! the swiftly rushing Mitta with its big fish!

3. “A reef! Has that anything to do with a sail? I have heard about ‘ reefing ’ a sail. I suppose, however, that it hasn’t, as you were

LITTLE SNOWY CREEK, IN THE NORTH-EAST OF VICTORIA.

a long way from the sea, but tell me all about the reef you mean,” said Joe, as he tucked the blankets and quilt up under his chin.

“Well, Uncle’s mine was worked out, so he abandoned it, and began to look for a new line of reef. He took with him his loam hag, pick, shovel, and a small iron crowbar, while I carried a tin-dish.”

DISH WASHING, OR “PANNING-OFF.”

4. “ What did you want a dish for ? ”

“ You’ll soon see. We climbed up a gully, scrambling through the ferns and hickory-trees, the branches of which clung round our ankles. I was looking at the beautiful scenery, but

Uncle was watching the ground on each side. At last, he stopped before an out-crop of stone, that is, rock standing partly out of the ground. He broke some pieces off, put them in his loam bag, and tied them up with a piece of string. He then put a little stick on the place where he had procured the stone. After this, he got several other loams from round about, each of which he deposited in his loam bag, and tied it up with a piece of twine.”

5.    “ What did he tie the loams up for, Fred ? They couldn’t run away!”

“ No ; but, without the tying, they would have become mingled together, and then he wouldn’t have known one from the other.”

“ All right ; proceed.”

6.    “ When he had a sufficient number of loams, we clambered down

to the creek—the Little Snowy Creek it is called. It was a lovely place—big tree-ferns, stupendous masses of rock, a gurgling stream of water rushing over a gravelly bottom-”

“ Never mind the poetry now, Fred. What became of the loams?”

7.    “ Don’t get impatient, Joe. All in good time. Uncle took out the first loam, and pounded it up in the dish. Then, pouring in some water, he began to rock it backwards and forwards, holding the dish obliquely to let the dirt and the powdered fragments of stone be carried away. He washed it until there was nothing left behind but some sand.

8.    “He did this with each of his loams, and, at last, there was only one remaining. Uncle was disappointed. ‘Not a single colour,’ he said as he passed his finger through the sand, and rubbed it against the dish.”

“ What did he mean ? ”

9.    “ He meant that there was not a colour of gold in the stuff he had tested. But, in the very last dish, there remained, after almost all the sand had been washed away, just a tiny streak made up of specks of gold.”

“I say, Fred,” interrupted Joe, “why was the gold not washed away too ? ”

“Well, you are aware that gold is very heavy—fully 19 times heavier than water, bulk for bulk. Being of greater weight than the rest of the contents of the dish, it sank to the bottom.

10.    “‘Eureka ! ’ cried Uncle when he saw the gold, ‘ I have found it at last.’

“We went back to the place where he had got that particular loam, and pegged out a claim.1 It was growing dark, so we went off home. Next day-”

“Hush,” said Joe ; “here’s Father.”

—N.F.S., Dimboola.

1. Pegged out a Claim, put in pegs—fairly large stakes—at the corners of the area for which he intended to apply for a lease or permit to conduct mining operations upon it.

THE VILLAGE SCHOOL.

Re-frain' words said again and again; verse | Crys-tal, clear, repeated in a song ; chorus.    ,

Kou-tine' (roo-teen'), regular order.    }    En-eoun-tered, met with.

Dor-mant, sleeping ; not in action.    !    Ap-pal/ dismay ; terrify.

1.    Here where the bloom-fringed, winding highways meet,

The old, white schoolhouse stands,

With greensward worn and pathed by restless feet,—

That throng which, as time’s waves roll and retreat,

Changes, but ne’er disbands.

2.    Through open windows comes the old refrain

Of school-time’s routine rule,

Heart tones awake that long have dormant lain,

And, for a moment, I’m a child again,

And only late for school.

3.    The leafy boughs, once far beyond my reach,

Move gently round my brow ;

The equal-distanced trees of old games preach,

Calling my playmates in their whispered speech,

Who are so scattered now.

4.    A rude throng flocking o’er the worn doorsill,

Then scorned, now held so dear,

We lightly drank from learning’s crystal rill,

And the first charm of understanding’s thrill Our hearts encountered here.

5.    0 little school, thou mother of us all !

To thee the heart returns,

As weary feet when evening shadows fall,

Leaving day’s cares that threaten and appal,

Haste when home’s hearth-fire burns.

—Anonymous.

A CURIOUS COMBAT.

Tor-ment-or, one who tortures or causes pain.    [ Re-sort-ed, had recourse; betook themselves.

Per-se-CU-tors, those who injure or harass.    I Strat-e-gy, deceptive device ; trick.

1.    A traveller in South Africa tells of a singular combat he witnessed. He was musing one morning, with his eyes on the ground, when he noticed a caterpillar crawling along at a rapid pace. Pursuing him was a host of small ants. Being quicker in their movements, the ants would catch up with the caterpillar, and one would mount his back, and bite him. Pausing, the caterpillar would turn his head, and bite and kill his tormentor. After slaughtering a dozen or more of his persecutors, the caterpillar showed signs of fatigue. The ants made a combined attack.

2.    Betaking himself to a stalk of grass, the caterpillar climbed up tail first, followed by the ants. As one approached, he seized it in his jaws, and threw it off the stalk. The ants, seeing that the caterpillar had too strong a position for them to overcome, resorted to strategy. They began sawing through the grass stalk. In a few moments, the stalk fell, and hundreds of ants pounced upon the caterpillar. He was killed at once, and the victors marched off in triumph, leaving the foe’s body on the field.

WHAT IS A GENTLEMAN?

Ti-tle, name of distinction, as duke, marquis. Be-hav-iour, conduct; mode of conducting one’s self.


De-scrip-tion, account; sketch of anything in words.

Jos-tles, pushes out of the way ; elbows.


1.    A king of England was once asked by a mother to make her . son into a gentleman.1

He replied, “ I can make your son into a lord, but no power on earth can make him into a gentleman.”

He meant it to be understood that the manners of the young man were so bad that they could not be changed. The young man might be rich, and he might have a title, but money and rank would not make him a gentleman.

2.    Every boy should know that he may, if he will, be a gentleman. He may never be able to spend much time in study, and, therefore, he will not be a learned man. He may never be able to earn much money, and, therefore, he will not be a rich man. But it will be entirely his own fault if he is not a gentleman.

3.    It is not a question of learning or of wealth, but of behaviour. Good manners and good behaviour mean the same thing. Therefore, when you are told to behave yourself, it is just as if you had been told to “ be a gentleman.”

Here is the description of a gentleman given by a Bishop of London :—

“ I am walking along the street. I see a young man coming towards me. He is walking along taking his own course. He is not considering anybody but himself. He jostles as he goes along, without any regard for the comfort of any one whom he may push against.”

5.    That is one picture. Now here is the other :—

“ I see another young man, who walks along the street, and who gets out of the way when anybody is coming. He steps off the footpath for those who are in any degree less able than he is to take care of themselves.”

6.    Then said the Bishop, “ There is no doubt which young man is the gentleman.” It was not, as you plainly see, a question of dress or of rank. The first young man, who jostled every one who came in his way, might have been either rich or poor, but he was no gentleman.

7.    You need only one rule to keep you right in your behaviour. If you obey it, you will be as much a gentleman as a king could be. It is this, “ In word and act treat others as you wish them to treat you.”

8.    You must have a gentle tongue as well as a gentle hand. The tongue can hurt another person’s feelings as keenly as the hand can hurt the body. Dr. Johnson said, “A man has no more right to say a rude thing to another than he has to knock him down.”

9.    Another writer says, “ Yon will remain a gentleman as long as you live a simple, manly life, speaking your own thoughts, paying your own way, and doing your own work, no matter what it may he.”

10.    And here are the words of another :—“ I don’t care whether he is learned or not, whether he is educated or not; I don’t care how ignorant he may be, or how low he may stand ; I don’t care if he be ever so poor—the man whc constantly shows that he is giving himself up for the sake of other people, that man is at heart a gentleman.”

—Adapted from Schoolmates, New Zealand.

1. Gen^tle-man. In Great Britain, the term gentleman ia sometimes applied to one who is of rank between a yeoman and a noble. In this sense, the “ mother ” used it. In the “ king’s ” reply, the word has the meaning “ one of gentle or refined manners.”

THE LOSS OF THE “BOYAL GEORGE.”

Ad-mir-al, commander-in-chief of a fleet; naval officer of the highest rank.

Lieu-ten-ant (lef-ten-ant), in the navy, a commissioned officer ranking with a captain in the army.

Dock, inclosure in connexion with a harbour or river,—used for the reception of vessels, and provided with gates for keeping in or shutting out the tide.


Hatch-way, opening in a deck or floor, affording passage from one deck or story to another. Shrouds, ropes that help to support a ship’s

mast.

Weigh, lift; raise.

Main, sea.


toward the port side. This causes the vessel to heel down towards the water on that side, and rise high out of the water on the other.

4.    Men from the dock-yard were sent to help the ship’s carpenters. They made the needed repairs to the pipes, and, just as they had done so, a lighter, or large open boat, laden with rum, came alongside.

5.    How, the port-holes on the lower side of the Royal George were nearly even with the water before this lighter came near ; hut, when the men began to take in the casks of rum, she heeled over more and more. The sea, too, had grown rougher since the morning, and water began to rush in through the port-holes.

6. The carpenter saw the danger, and ran and told the second lieutenant that the ship ought to be righted at once. But the lieutenant was a proud young man, who did not like to he reminded of his duty ; so he said to the carpenter, “ Mind your own business, and I will mind mine.”

7.    But soon the danger increased, and the carpenter went a second time, and told the lieutenant that unless the Royal George were instantly righted, all would be lost. Instead of taking advice, the foolish youth, thinking that the carpenter was meddling with what did not concern him, again told him to go about his business.

8.    At last, the lieutenant began to see that the carpenter had been right, and that the danger was very great. He ordered the drummer to beat to quarters,—that is to say, to summon every man to his post; but, b’efore the drummer had time to give one tap on the drum, the ship had heeled over still further.

9.    And now the men scrambled down through the hatchway to put the heavy guns back in their places. But ah ! it was too late ! too latet the water was rushing in. The ship was filling up rapidly. Before help or rescue could be had, down went the Royal George, carrying with her the admiral (who was writing in his cabin at the time), officers, men, and numerous visitors who were on board, to the number of nearly a thousand souls !

The following lines, describing the event, were written by the poet Cowper:—

10.    Toll for the brave,

The brave that are no more ! All sunk beneath the wave, Fast-by their native shore.

11.    Eight hundred of the brave,

Whose courage well was tried, Had made the vessel heel,

And laid her on her side.

12.    A land-breeze shook the shrouds,

And she was overset;

Down went the Royal George With all her crew complete.

13.    Toll for the brave !

Brave Kempenfelt is gone ;

His last sea-fight is fought,

His work of glory done.


14.    It was not in the battle;

No tempest gave the shock ;

She sprang no fatal leak ;

She ran upon no rock.

15.    His sword was in its sheath,

His fingers held the pen,

When Kempenfelt went down With twice four hundred men.

16.    Weigh the vessel up

Once dreaded by our foes !

And mingle with our cup The tear that England owes.

17.    Her timbers yet are sound,

And she may float again Full charged with England’s thunder, And plough the distant main.


18. But Kempenfelt is gone.

His victories are o’er ;

And he and his eight hundred Shall plough the wave no more.

1. Ma-ny years a-go/ " The accident happened on the 28th of June, 1782. The vessel, or the greater part of it, was raised many years afterwards.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

Swimming Classes at Fremantle, Western Australia.

1.    The second annual competition in connexion with the swimming club of the Fremantle Boys’ School was held towards the end of the season, and was a success. All the members of the school staff took a share in making the arrangements and seeing them carried out.

2.    The hoys, to the number of 300, led by their fife and drum band in uniform, and accompanied by the bands of the North Fremantle and the Claremont schools, marched to the baths.

3.    Many parents and others assembled at the baths, and watched with interest the contests—twelve in number,—•which were carried

THE BATHS, FREMANTLE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

(Photograph by Mr. E. Beatty.)

through without a hitch. The club has a membership of 138 boys. Each pays a shilling on entrance ; and, as there are no expenses incurred, the whole of the amount received is available for prizes.

The Irish Brigade.

The Queen ordered that, on St. Patrick’s Day, the Irish regiments should wear a shamrock to commemorate the great bravery of the Irish Brigade during the operations for the relief of Ladysmith.

Soldiers on the March.

The Highland Brigade, under General Hector Macdonald, made a splendid march of twenty miles during the operations that resulted in the surrounding of Cronje’s army. When it is remembered that a soldier has to carry 100 rounds of ammunition, besides his greatcoat, cholera-belt,1 one day’s rations, bottle of water, waterproof sheet, and blanket—the whole weighing about 60 lbs., some idea may be gained of the merit of the performance.

1. Ckol-er-a-belt; broad band of flannel for wearing round the loins.

The Bushmen’s Contingent : As Others See Us.

“ The newspapers in Cape Town are printing accounts of the Bushmen’s Contingent,” writes Mr. Paterson, one of the war correspondents of The Argus. “ They say that this contingent is composed of Australian bushmen, ‘ any one of whom can shoot the ear oif a kangaroo at full speed at 1,000 yards, and who habitually live for weeks together on the produce of their rifles.’ You know how much of this is true. Well, the same amount of truth exists in the account of the Boers we used to receive in Australia.”

The Queen’s Treasures.

1.    At Windsor Castle, there are two books that the Queen values very highly.

One is a Bible. It is a Bible that once belonged to Gordon—not that Bible which he took with him on his fatal mission to'the Sudan, but the one he used to read through his campaign in China. This he left with his sister when he went to the Sudan ; and, by her, it was presented to the Queen. It lies in a beautiful casket of finest enamel, with sides of crystal. Pencil marks in Gordon’s handwriting are to be seen on the margins.

2.    The other book is the Koran1 of the Mahdi whom Gordon opposed, and through whom he met his death. This was a present from Lord Kitchener when he went on his visit to Windsor Castle after avenging Gordon.

1. Ko-ran, the Scriptures of the Mohammedans, containing the professed revelations to Mohammed.

Britain against the World.

1.    With the good of our country before us,

Why play the mere partisan’s game ?

Lo ! the broad flag of England is o’er us,

And behold ! on both sides ’tis the same.

2.    Not for this, not for that, not for any,

Nor for these, nor for those, but for all;

To the last drop of blood—the last penny—

Together let’s stand or let’s fall!

3.    Tear down the vile signs of a faction,

Be the national banner unfurl’d,

And, if we must have any faction,

Be it Britain against all the world.”

—Thomas Hood (1798-1835).

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA,

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 35.] MELBOURNE.    [July, 1900.

THE QUEEN’S LETTER.

Sym^pa-thy, pity; compassion; fellow-feeling.    i    Sor^tie (sor-'tee), sudden issuing of a body of

Her^O-ism, bravery ; unselfishness.    | troops to attack.

This poem is founded on the following letter, written by the Queen herself, to Mr. Sydney Herbert, Minister of War during part of the period during which the Crimean W ar was being waged :—

“Windsor Castle, Dec. 6, 1854.

“Would you tell Mrs. Herbert that I-beg she would let me frequently see the accounts she receives from Miss Nightingale and Mrs. Bracebridge, as I hear no details of the wounded, though I receive many from officers, &c., about the battlefield, and, naturally, the former must interest me more than any one. Let Mrs. Herbert also know that I wish Miss Nightingale 1 and the ladies would tell these poor, noble, wounded, and sick men, that no one takes a warmer interest, or feels more for their sufferings, or admires in a higher degree their courage and heroism, than their Queen; day and night she thinks of her beloved troops. So does the Prince.11 Beg Mrs. Herbert to communicate these my words to Miss Nightingale and Mrs. Bracebridge, as I know

EIGHT HUNDRED

HAD MADE THE VESSEL HEEL.”


1.    There came a tale to England;

’Twas of a battle won,

And nobly had her warriors That day their duty done.

They fell like sheaves in autumn,

Yet, ’mid that fearful scene,

Their last shout was for England, Their last breath for their Queen.

3.    Then wrote the Queen of England

(And God’s blessing on her pen),— “ Oh, tell those noble wounded,

Those sick and suffering men, There’s not a heart in England Can feel a pang more keen;

That day and night her own lov’d troops Are thought of by their Queen.”

4.    There rose a shout through England;

Through them ’twas wafted o’er From those sick, wounded soldiers, And it rang from shore to shore. From Alma, Balaclava,

And from Inkerman,12 it came,

“ God bless the Queen of England ! Again we’d do the same.”

—W. H. Bellamy.

1.    Flor-ence Night-in-gale, a noble woman, who, in 1854, went out to the Crimea with a band of trained nurses to tend the sick and wounded soldiers.

2.    The Prince. In 1840, Her Majesty married her cousin, Prince Albert, who received the title of Prince Consort. He died in 1861.

3.    Al-ma, Bal-a-cla-va, Ink-er-man, places in the south of the Crimea Peninsula, where victories were won by the Allies (British, French, and Turks) against the Russians in 1864, during the Crimean War (1864-56). Alma is a river, Balaclava and Inkerman small seaports.

Price Id.

PRETORIA.

Ex£0-dus, any large migration from a place; a going out.

Trirbu-ta-ry, stream flowing into a larger stream; affluent.

O-rig-i-nal-ly, at first.

LuX-U-ri-ant, very abundant.


E-lec-tric-i-ty. power in nature, exhibiting itself by producing light and heat, and in many other ways.

Ma SOH-ry, anything constructed of the materials used by masons, such as stone, brick, and tiles.

Ar-ma-ment, equipment for resistance.

1. The “Great Trek,” or exodus of a large number of Boers northward from Cape Colony, took place in 1836. In 1840, a few families crossed the River Yaal,1 and settled on the land where Pretoria now stands. The town, laid out in 1855, was named after their leader Pretorius. It has been the capital of the South African

GENERAL VIEW OF PRETORIA AS IT WAS SOME YEARS AGO.

(From the Transvaal War Atlas: Messrs. T. Nelson and Sons.)


Republic, better known as the Transvaal, since 1863, in which year, the seat of government was removed from Potchefstroom, which lies farther to the south-west, and which was, in days gone by, a place of considerable trade.

2. Pretoria is built in a hollow, on the banks of a small tributary of the Limpopo (or Crocodile) River, which rises near the town. Hills are on all sides, and the roads follow their passes or “ poorts.” Through one of these poorts runs a railway, which branches off at a short distance outside the town to Delagoa Bay, distant 349 miles on the one side, and to Johannesburg, 46 miles away on the other. Another line, 180 miles long, runs northward to Pietersburg.

3. The town is regularly laid out, the streets being of equal width throughout, and, in many instances, bordered with large willows, whieh, planted originally as fencing posts, have thriven splendidly in the damp soil. Vegetation of all kinds is luxuriant, the moist, warm summer climate being specially favourable to the growth of flowers and fruit.

President Kruger’s Carriage and Escort.

CHURCH SQUARE, PRETORIA, PARLIAMENT HOUSE SIDE.

4.    The town is lighted throughout by electricity, has a good water supply, and upwards of £ 100,000 has been spent on roads and dr .inage. The main business thoroughfare, which, since the discovery of the Witwatersrand (commonly called the Rand) goldfields, has been al nost entirely rebuilt, contains several handsome stores. The Market Square, on which it abuts, is provided with large market buildings w.th a domed roof.

5.    Another fine building is the Parliament House. It is one of the handsomest piles in South Africa, erected at a cost of about £200,000. Nothing could better indicate the sudden inrush of wealth that has taken place of late years than this magnificent structure : it displaced in 1889 a little, thatched building.

CHURCH-STREET, PRETORIA, FROM PRESIDENT KRUGi R’S HOUSt

6.    A fine view over the town and surrounding country may be obtained from the summit of Signal Hill, which is four miles to the south, and rises to the height of 400 feet above the valley. One of Pretoria’s seven forts crowns this hill. Ho expense was spared in building these forts. Their outer walls are of solid masonry, many feet thick, flanked by earthworks on the outer faces ; and they were originally2 provided with an armament of heavy modern guns.

7.    Before the war, the population of Pretoria amounted to about 25,000, of whom 12,000 were whites.

1.    Riv-er Vaal. The Orange River is formed by the junction of the Vaal and the Nu Gariep, both of which rise on the slopes of one of the loftiest summits of the Drakensberg Mountains. The Vaal divides the Orange Free State (now the Orange River Colony) from the Transvaal. (For the places mentioned in this article, see the map of South Africa that was sent to the schools, and also the map in this month’s number of The School Paper—Classes V. and VI.)

2.    O-rig-i-nal-ly. Report goes that the cannon from these forts were taken away to be used in besieging Ladysmith, and in resisting General Buller’s advance.

A NIGHT’S EXPERIENCE IN MASHONALAND,

SOUTHERN

i

Al-lu-Vi-al, relating to deposits made by flowing water; washed away from one place and deposited in another.

Pros-pec-ted, examined for some metal or precious stone.

Hav-OC, destruction ; waste.

So-cia-ble, fond of company ; friendly.

Loi-ter-ing, lingering.

RHODESIA.

De-spair-ing, having no hope.

Rec-og-nised, perceived.

Can-vas, coarse cloth made of hemp, flax, or

cotton.

Scot-free,'' unhurt; free from payment of scot, that is, a tax or fine.

Re-li-a-ble, fit to be depended on or trusted.


load, if we left them in contact with the ground for even one night. To serve as a protection against the weather, we threw an old tent over all.

5.    Thoroughly tired out, Calverley and I were soon sound asleep. About the middle of the night, I was ¡awakened by something sniffing and fumbling at my feet. I peered into the darkness to try and make out what it was, thinking it might be one of our oxen that had strayed into the shed. It was very dark, but I could just make out that the intruder was something smaller than an ox; and, then, dreamily remembering that my friend had some donkeys, and knowing the sociable nature of the South African donkey, I concluded it was one of these, so kicked out, and growled a sh—sh to drive him away.

6.    The creature left me, and now commenced sniffing at my mate Calverley, who was lying close alongside me. He awoke also, grumbling at being disturbed, and kicked out at the disturber of our peace, which moved off a little, but stayed loitering about our feet.

7.    Out of patience, and despairing of getting to sleep again so long as our visitor hung about, I got up to drive it away. It went out slowly towards our sledge, and I followed. It stopped at the sledge, and began sniffing and rooting at our pack.

8.    Very angry by this time, I ran to the sledge, and, there being no other missile at hand, I pulled one of the large stones out from under it, the animal being on the other side of the sledge. Thinking to teach it a lesson, I threw the stone with all my force at the supposed donkey. Instantly, a tremendous roar burst forth ; and, horror-stricken, I recognised that the creature was a lion.

9.    It retreated a few yards, and then rushed straight at me. I was unarmed ; but, hardly knowing what I did, I snatched the tent from the sledge, and held it up to guard myself. I was just in time, and, as I threw the canvas over the lion’s head, managed to slip aside. The creature wriggled under that tent just as one may have seen a cat wriggle in a bag. I ran back to the sledge for my rifle, and met Calverley, who had been thoroughly aroused by the roar.

10.    To our disgust, we found that the few cartridges we had out had been spoiled by the rain. We made up our fire, threw stones, and shouted, and, at last, to our great relief, heard our visitor moving off. We slept no more that night.

11.    The tent was torn into strips by his offended majesty, who got off scot-free. He had, however, taught us a lesson, namely, to sleep with rifle and reliable cartridges at one’s side when camping out in the wilds of Mashonaland.

Dr. R. Frank Raud, in Boys (Adapted).

1.    Rainey sea-sou. Countries over which the sun is vertical, or nearly so, all the year round have only two seasons—a wet and a dry season.

2.    Ma-sho-na-land, British territory south of the Zambesi River and west of Portuguese East

Africa. It forms part of Rhodesia. (Seethe map in last month's number of The School Paper-Classes V. and VI.)    *

3.    White ants, termites. These little creatures are very destructive. They are met with m some parts of Victoria, where they eat away the timber of buildings till it is quite hollow. They abound in tropical countries, and construct nests of clay that rise many feet above the ground.

ENGLAND’S DEAD.

1.    Co-lum bi-a, name of many natural features and places in America. Here, probably, it is used for America, a continent of mighty rivers and of great lakes.

2.    Ron-ces-val-les (ron-the-val-yes), town in the Pyrenees. In 1813, towards the end of the Peninsular War, many engagements took place between the English and French armies in the Pyrenees. One of them was at Roncesvalles.

3.    Fro-zen deep’s re-pose' referring to the expeditions to reach the North Pole, and in search of a north-west passage to India, several of which ended in disaster.

4.    Fu-ner-al piles, structures of materials that will readily burn, upon which a dead body is placed to be reduced to ashes ; pyre.


Pjrr-a-mid, here, huge stone structure, standing' on a square base, and terminating in a platform of small area.

1.    Soil of the Ocean Isle !

Where sleep your mighty dead ? Show me what high and stately pile Is reared o’er Glory’s bed.

2.    Go, stranger ! track the deep,

Free, free the white sail spread ! Wave may not foam, nor wild wind sweep,

Where rest not England's dead.

3.    On Egypt’s burning plains,

By the pyramid o’erswayed,

With fearful power the noonday reigns,

And the palm-trees yield no shade;

4.    But let the angry sun

From heaven look fiercely red, Unfelt by those whose task is done !— There slumber England’s dead.

5.    The hurricane -hath might

Along the Indian shore,

And far bv Ganges’ banks at night Is heard the tiger’s roar ;

6.    But let the sound roll on !

It hath no tone of dread For those that from their toils are gone,—

There slumber England’s dead.

7.    Loud rush the torrent-floods

The western wilds among,

And free, in green G’olumbia’s1 woods, The hunter’s bow is strung ;


Reck. care.

Lour, be dark, gloomy, and threatening; lower.

8.    But let the floods rush on !

Let the arrow’s flight be sped !

Why should they reck whose task is done ?—

There slumber England’s dead.

9.    The mountain-storms rise high

In the snowy Pyrenees,

And toss the pine-boughs through the sky

Like rose-leaves on the breeze ;

10.    But let the storm rage on !

Let the fresh wreaths be shed !

For the Roncesvalles’2 field is won,— There slumber England’s dead.

11.    On the frozen deep’s repose,3

’Tis a dark and dreadful hour, When round the ship the ice-fields close,

And the northern night-clouds lour;

12.    But let the ice drift on !

Let the cold-blue desert spread ! Their course with mast and flag is done,—

There slumber England’s dead.

13.    The warlike of the isles—

The men of field and wave !

Are not the rocks their funeral piles,4 The seas and shores their grave ?

14.    Go, stranger ! track the deep,

Free, free the white sail spread ! Wave may not foam, nor wild wind sweep,

Where rest not England’s dead. Felicia Dorothea Hemans (1793-1835).


AMONG THE CAFFRES AND BUSHMEN.1-

1. One of the Zulu2 chiefs who had been killed in the battle had a headdress of ostrich feathers. This was considered a great curiosity


Cu-ri-OS-i-ty; that which awakens surprise, oris fitted to excite attention.

Prin-ci-pal, chief; most important.

Am^mu-ni-tion, articles us- d in charging firearms, as powder, balls, and percussion caps.

For^mi-da-ble, dreadful ; exciting fear.

As^sa-gaied (or as-se-gaied), wounded with an assagai (or assegai).


Knob-ker-ries, waddies; stout sticks with a knob at the end.

E-land, species of large South African antelope.

Ra-vines' (ra-veens'), gorges ; mountain clefts.

Kraal, in South Africa, collection of huts within a stockade; sometimes, a single hut.

Meal-ies, maize or Indian corn ;—the common name in South Africa.


by the Caffres;3 and their principal chiefs divided the feathers amongst them, and, on great occasions, wore them in their head-rings.

2.    I heard that, on the plains at the foot of the Quathlamba Mountains,4 ostriches were to be found, so I was anxious to make an expedition there, in order to try and shoot or trap some of these birds, and so procure a large supply of feathers.

3.    On talking the matter over with the chiefs, they told me that I must take a large party with me, as Bushmen5 were numerous there, and it would be dangerous for persons to visit that country unless well-armed and in numbers. I, therefore, chose the best twenty men with whom I was acquainted. We carried my five guns, and about twenty rounds of ammunition for each. Against men ignorant of the use of firearms, we were, though few in number, a formidable party as regards strength.

4.    Our daily journey must have been about thirty miles, as we walked from sunrise to sunset, and very quickly. We had no want of food, for antelopes were plentiful, and we used to spoor6 these to where they had lain down in the reeds, and then close in on them. When they jumped up to make off, we either assagaied them, or knocked them over with our knob-kerries.

5.    After eight days’ walking, we came to the plains where we expected to find ostriches, and I now made use of my field-glass7 to scan the country round. There was plenty of game in these plains, herds of elands, and other animals. Water was also plentiful, as many small streams flowed from the ravines of the Quathlamba. We considered this country very suitable for kraals, as there was plenty of grass for cattle, and the soil was well suited for growing mealies.

6.    We worked our way over these plains till we came to the rising ground at the foot of the mountains, which we ascended. We could then obtain a good view of the surrounding country.

7.    As we were sitting on some rocks, having a rest and looking in various directions, we heard a noise above us, and saw a large boulder rolling and bounding down towards us. We jumped behind the rocks to protect ourselves, and the mass passed on in its headlong career.

8.    On looking up, we saw two Bushmen standing on some crags about 150 yards from us : it was these men who had loosened the rock, in order, if possible, to crush some of us. They shrieked at us, and shook their fists as if defying us. They thought themselves safe, as they were far more active on the rocks than Caffres, and could easily keep out of assagai (as'-sa-gay) range ; but they little knew how we were armed, for they had probably never even heard the report of a gun.

(A description follows of the shooting of one of the Bushmen, and the flight of the

other.)

9. On looking round, we saw a well-worn path leading to what appeared to be a solid wall of rock. After a search, we found a hollow, which had been scooped out and formed into a cave ; and this was evidently the Bushman’s home. The number of things inside this cave surprised us. There were a lion’s shin, a necklace formed out of his teeth, and two more formed out of his claws ; three leopards’ skins ; several skins of elands, which were arranged so as to form a bed. In one corner were about a hundred ostrich feathers, whilst

ZULU CHIEF IN FULL WAR-DRESS.

(From Ratzel’s History of Mankind : Messrs. Macmillan and Co.)


nearly a dozen eggs of the same bird, all filled with water, were round the cave. There was also plenty of dried meat, evidently eland’s flesh, and a number of poisoned arrows. Here, then, we had come on a treasure, for leopards’ skins and 'necklaces of lions’ teeth and claws are much valued among South African tribes.

10. All the animals whose skins had been found in this cave must have been killed by the Bushmen with their poisoned arrows. This shows how daring and skilful these men are with their tiny weapons, for, to kill the lion, it must have been necessary to come within at least forty paces of him.

11. On our return to our kraals, we were received like heroes who had won a great battle. Our feathers were the envy of the whole tribe, and I gave several to the various chiefs. It was agreed that a chief might wear as many as he liked, the head man of a kraal might wear only one, and no lower man might wear any. We thus hit on a way of marking the difference in the rank of men, a matter of great importance even with people so uncivilized as were these Caffres.

—Adapted from The White Chief of the Caffres, by Major-General A. W. Drayson.

1.    Among the Kaffirs and Bushmen. The boy whose adventures are recorded in The White Chief of the Caffres is supposed to escape from a wreck that took place, a few years before white people settled there, near the site ot the present port (Durban) of Natal. Though Vasco Da Gama cast anchor off the spot in 1497, the first settlement was not made till 1824. when a small party of Englishmen came by sea, and established themselves on the coast where Durban now stands.

2.    Zu-lus, the most important tribe belonging to the Kaffir race. The Zulus inhabit a region on the south-east coast of Africa, but formerly occupied a much more extensive country. They are noted for their warlike disposition, courage, and military skill.

3.    Caf-fres (Kaf-firs, or Kaf-irs), race inhabiting the country north of Cape Colony, the name being now properly applied to the tribes lying between Cape Colony and Natal; but the Zulus of Natal are true Kaffirs.

4.    Quath-lam-ba Mountains. They lie north and south in the east of the Transvaal, and are a continuation of the Drakensberg, which are in the west of Natal

5.    Bush-men, race in South Africa, living principally in the deserts, and roaming from place to place. It is not known to what other people they are allied in race and language.

6.    Spoor, follow the tracks or trail of any wild animal.

7.    Field-glass, two small telescopes so combined that, when the glass is used, each telescope may be plaoed opposite an eye.

ON SEEING A GUM-TREE NEAR BLOEMFONTEIN.


La-gooni in Australia, small, shallow lake. Brum^bies, wild horses.

Fon-tein (fonAtane), spring; fountain.

Drift, ford.

Rand, ridge ; range of hills.

1.    Yes, a gum-tree there, by the old brick

wall,

Shiny, and green, and high,

Best of the sights we have seen at all Is this to a Cornstalk’s 1 eye.

2.    Back, by the creeks in the far-off

plains,

Over the ranges blue,

Out in the West,2 where it never rains, We whispered “good-bye” to you.

3.    We left you alone on the high, clay

banks,

As a fringe round the dry lagoon, Where your white trunks gleam by its empty bed

In the pale, soft, summer moon.

4.    It’s carry me back to the Castlereagh,3

Or pack me along to Bourke,4 On the wallaby-track13 to the west of Hay14

Where’er there are sheds or work.

My-all, here, acacia-tree.

Stoeps (stoops), verandahs.

Ka-roo,' one of the dry table-lands of South Africa, which often rise terrace-like to considerable elevations.

It’s all we’ve here of our own good land, And this is the way we feel.

6.    And, when we are back on the Murray

lands,

Or up in Monaro 8 hills,

They may seize on the fonteins, and drifts, and rands,

And the Boers will pay the bills.

7.    But we’ll be back where the gum-tops

wave,

Or the myall hangs and droops ; With a good verandah round the house, And none of your dirty stoeps.

8.    So hurry it up, for we’ve work to do

In a far better land than here.

We will change the veldt, and the parched karoo,

For the plain and ranges clear.

9 But we’ll never forget, in the days to come,

The friends that we’ve left behind : For the Dutchman who planted yon tall, white gum

Was somewhat more than kind.

—J. H. M. Abbott (one of the New South Wales contingent), in The Friend (Bloemfontein).

1.    Corn-stalk; “young man or girl born and bred in New South Wales, especially if tall and big.”_

Morris’s Austral English. Similarly Gum-sucker is slang for Victorian-born, but is not'now much used.

2.    The West, here, the western part of New South Wales, though, of late, the West to Victorians paeans Western Australia.

3.    Cas tle-reagh/ river, in the north of New South Wales, a tributary of the Darling.

4.    Bourke, town on the Darling River, terminus of the Western Railway.

5.    On the wallaby-track, tramping the country on foot, looking for work.

6.    Hay, town in New South Wales, on the Murrumbidgee River.

7.    Peel, river in the north of New South Wales, a tributary of the Namoi.

8.    Mo-na-ro (mo-nay-ro), pastoral district in the south-east corner of New South Wales.


BRAVE BUGLER DUNN.

Ex-pe-ri-en-ces, what one passes through; knowledge of any matters gained by actual trial.

De-scrip-tion, account.

A-dapt-ed, suited; fitted.

Mod-est-ly, in a manner rather retiring than

pushing one’s self forward.

In-scrip-tion, something written on, or engraved in, a solid substance for preservation. Ev-i-dent-ly, clearly; plainly.

1. In the account of Bugler Dunn’s experiences, which was given in last month’s number of The School Paper—Class IV., it was stated

BUGLER DUNN BLOWING HIS NEW BUGLE. (From Sketchy Cits.)


that the Queen had summoned the brave lad to present himself before her at Osborne House, one of her palaces, situated in the Isle of Wight. The following description of his visit is adapted from The Scholars' Own:—

2.    Bugler Dunn was conducted to the palace at Osborne by Lieutenant Knox to see Her Majesty. Dunn, as he landed at Cowes Pier, was the subject of much attention from crowds of people, who cheered him as he was driven away in a carriage to the palace. He was wearing a military coat over the khaki uniform he had on while in action.

3.    On arrival at the palace, several ladies got him to write his name in their birthday-books. On being conducted to the Queen’s apartment, he bore himself modestly, saluted, and bowed before the Queen, who greeted him with a smile, questioned him as to his experiences, and inquired after the state of his wounds. She was pleased to accept a portrait of the bugler, and presented him with a new copper bugle with silver mountings. It bore the following inscription :—“Presented to John Francis Dunn, 1st Battalion, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, by Queen Victoria, to replace the bugle lost by him on the field of battle, where he was wounded.”

4.    Dunn, who had little expected to receive such a gift, left the apartment highly pleased, and evidently more than ever willing to return to the front.

A COTTON PLANTATION.

Un-du-la-ting, rolling ; resembling waves. Sedg-y, like sedge, a plant with long, grasslike leaves, often growing in dense tufts in marshy places.

Pre-vail-ing, most general; common.


Lus-cious, very grateful to the taste ; delicious. Glob-ules, little globes.

Gin, comb-like machine for cleaning cotton. Skutched, combed out to straighten the fibres.

1.    The planters for the most part live in plain log houses, with a wide, open hall running through the middle of it, from a verandah in the front to a dining apartment and kitchen in the rear.

2.    The dwelling-houses are usually surrounded by a spacious courtyard, with stable, cotton shed, corn cribs, and uncovered pens for stock. Cabins for the negro servants and other helpers are also frequently put up near the homestead, so that, with a kitchen garden and a peach orchard at hand, the log house becomes, the centre of a considerable establishment.

3.    There is no idleness in one of these great cotton farms. As soon as a very early breakfast is over, the planter starts for a ride round the plantation. This may measure 2,500 acres, including bits of woodland, wide-spreading patches of Indian corn and cotton, together with undulating sweeps of long, sedgy grass, broken here and there on the slopes by raw cuts and gaping blood-red wounds inflicted by the weather. Corn and cotton, cotton and corn, however, throw everything else in the shade, the prevailing idea of rotation of cropsbeing to grow cotton on a patch one year and corn the next.

4.    The great charm of the cotton country is when the tall Indian cornstalk, still luscious, is nodding under the weight of its golden pods, and the cotton shrub, still a mass of green, is bursting into white globules, which play and flash in the sunlight like pearls amidst a dress of leaves.

5.    Under the free contract system of labour, the negroes generally receive one-half of the cotton picked as their payment for their labour in planting, tilling, and picking it.

6.    As the bolls ripen and burst at different times, three or more rounds of cotton picking are made on a field during the season.

It may be explained that the “ bolls ” are the seed-pods of the cotton-plant, which burst when the seed is ripe, when the silky cotton fibre, which forms a beautiful, tightly-packed, down bed for the seeds, projects like balls of snow.

7.    The cotton gathered by the various squads, or groups of pickers, is brought to the gin-house to be cleaned of seed and husk, and partly skutched, or combed, and pressed into bales.

8.    The wool, driven out from the gin like wreaths of smoke, is a sight to see.

The ginny mill is turned either by water power, or, more frequently, by mules.    cotton harvest, Georgia, u.s.a.

9 The cotton as it    (From Macmillan’s Geography Readers.)

leaves the plantation, is, however, not perfectly cleaned; and the bale occupies about three times the space into which it is squeezed by the great presses at the seaports, before being hooped with iron for shipment. •

10. The cotton seeds are crushed and squeezed into cakes for feeding cattle, the oil which is pressed out being now very largely used instead of olive oil for many purposes.

—From The Southern States, by Somers (Adapted).

1. Ro-ta-tion of crops, succession of crops of different kinds on the same land, to prevent the «oil becoming exhausted of certain of its component parts.

CORRECTION.

In the meaning of halyards ” on p. 168 of the May number of The School Paper —Class IV., the word “ twisting,” through a misprint, appears instead of “hoisting.” Halyards are ropes or tackle for hoisting or lowering yards, sails, and flags.

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS.

No. 1.—The Paper Rings.

Three long strips of paper are cut, and the first one has its ends gummed together. The second one has had half a turn put on it before having its ends gummed. The third has had a complete turn

put on it before it is gummed. If the strips of paper are long enough, these turns will be scarcely noticeable.

If, now, the three strips are cut lengthwise, as shown by the dotted lines, the three results also shown will be obtained.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK. .

The Imperial Bushmen.

1.    Lord Roberts has highly praised Sir Frederick Carrington’s force of Australian Bushmen and Rhodesian troops for their rapid march from Marandellas to the railway at Bulawayo, and thence by train to the neighbourhood of Mafeking, a distance of 762 miles, of which 272 were by route march and 490 by train.

2.    To Lord Roberts’s commendation, which was contained in a general order to the troops, a gratifying addition has been made. The Premier of Queensland received, on the 27th of May, the following cable message from Major-General Baden-Powell, dated Mafeking, by runner to Kimberley:—“ May 17th. Mafeking relieved to-day. Am most grateful for valuable assistance by Queenslanders under Kellie, who made record march through Rhodesia to help us.”

Cost of the War.

It is said that our present campaign against the Boers is costing £2,000,000 a week, and, probably, that is under the mark. But £2,000,000 a week is more than all the workers of London earn in wages ; it weighs nearly eighteen tons in sovereigns ; taking the working week at fifty hours, it means £40,000 an hour, or £666 minute. And, even if we take the whole twenty-four hours of the day and the seven days of the week, it means over £3 gone every time the clock ticks. Another way of putting it is that it means a shilling a week for every man, woman, and child in the United Kingdom. —From a London newspaper.

NOTICES.

DRAWING.

On page 9 of Circular 1900/5, under the heading “Classes I. and II.,” the following emendations should be made:—Delete the comma after “ 525 ”, and enclose ‘‘ or * ” in brackets; also delete the comma after “ j, ”, and enclose “ or T35 ” in brackets.

Add “ for Class VI.” to the words, “ The list selected from Poynter’s Drawing is the more suitable,” which occur on page 10.

WORK PROGRAMMES.

In Circular 1900/6, the word “ preferably ” should be struck out.

RED, WHITE, AND BLUE.

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When war spread its wide desolation,

And threaten’d our land to deform,

The ark then of freedom’s foundation— Britannia—rode safely thro’ the storm ! With her garlands of victory around her, When so nobly she bore her brave crew. With her flag floating proudly before her, The boast of the Red, White, and Blue. The boast, &c.


0 Britannia ! the pride of the ocean, The home of the brave and the free, The shrine of the sailor’s devotion’,

No land can compare unto thee ! May justice and honour ne’er sever From Britain, the faithful and true 1 And so shall wave proudly for ever The glorious Red, White, and Blue. The glorious, &c.


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 36.] MELBOURNE.    [August, 1900.

THERE’S A GOOD TIME COMING.

Glis-ten, shine; become bright.

Su-per-sede' take the place of. Ac-knowl-edged, agreed to be; admitted.

1. There’s a good time coming, boys,

A good time coming :

We may not live to see the day,

But earth shall glisten in the ray Of the good time coming.

Cannon-balls may aid the truth,

But thought’s a weapon stronger; We’ll win our battle by its aid—

Wait a little longer.

"2. There’s a good time coming, ooys,

A good time coming:

The pen shall supersede the sword, And right, not might, shall be the lord In the good time coming.

Worth, not birth, shall rule mankind, And be acknowledged stronger;

The proper impulse has been given; Wait a little longer.


Im-pulse, act of pushing on.

Monaster, something to be looked at with fear and horror.

In-iCL-ui-ty, evil; wickedness.

3.    There’s a good time coming, boys,

A good time coming:

War in all men’s eyes shall be A monster of iniquity In the good time coming:

Nations shall not quarrel then,

To prove which is the stronger,

Nor slaughter men for glory’s sake— Wait a little longer.

4.    There’s a good time coming, boys,

A good time coming:

Let us aid it all we can,

Every woman, every man,

The good time coming.

Smallest helps, if rightly given,

Make the impulse stronger;

’Twill be strong enough one day;

Wait a little longer.

— Charles Mackay (1814-89).

AUSTRALIAN FURS.

I-tems, separate particulars.

Lus-tre, brightness.

Va-ri-e-ty. kind; group of individuals of a species differing from the rest in one or more points typical of the species.

Fa-mil-iar, well known ; common.

Re-vealedi disclosed; shown.

Ot-fcer, aquatic animal found in Europe, Asia, and America. It feeds on fish.

Bril-liant, very bright.

A-vail-a-ble, at hand ; capable of being used or employed.

Tour-ist, person who makes journeys chiefly for

pleasure.

not easy to say why the wrong name was given. Possibly, it was thought that “ wombat ” sounded better than “ monkey bear.”

3.    Another item in the list that may cause surprise is “ 2,000 Australian buffalo hides.” The Indian buffalo has long since been an inhabitant of the Northern Territory, where the absence of tigers and the other big jungle-cats has given him a chance to increase in number.

4.    Opossum skins, as will be seen by the trade figures, stand easily first. The best of them are from the black Tasmanian opossum, which has a sooty-black coat of beautiful lustre.

5.    Next in value to the Tasmanian as a fur-bearer is the large mountain opossum of Gippsland ; and it, like its cousin across the

THE SOOTY OPOSSUM OF TASMANIA.

strait, has been trapped in such numbers that the Government, a few years ago, gave it some protection to save it from extinction.

6. Men make a regular business of trapping it, going up to the snow line in the far eastern ranges, and building a rough hut to live in through the winter months. The trapper must be keen in what the Americans call “ reading sign.” Having found a good opossum track by the claw marks on the soft hark of the gums, he first picks the likely trees, and then makes the way easy for the opossum, by placing at an angle a log against each trunk. The opossum soon finds the new track, and, as soon as nail marks appear on a log, a snare is set, and the next opossum that comes along is trapped as surely as a hare would be on a sheep path.

From four to six dozen skins of the mountain opossum make a rug worth from six to ten guineas.

7.    One of the best proofs that such rugs are valued on the Continent is, that tourists rarely purchase an opossum rug in Melbourne without further orders being received later from persons who, seeing it, are desirous of obtaining one like it.

The third variety is the common silver-gray opossum, spread over the timbered country of plain and range alike, but most plentiful in the timber lining a river bank. Its fur, however, gets very thin in summer, and loses that shining tip that the frosts bring into it.

8.    Most of the silver-gray opossums are shot on winter nights on the u mooning ” plan, familiar to every bush boy. On clear nights, with a full moon for choice, the shooter goes out with his dog,

THE PLATYPUS.

which usually understands the business quite as thoroughly as his master. The strong scent of the opossum makes it easy work for the dog, which, having treed his game, sits barking at the butt. The shooter, getting the tree between himself and the moon, takes each limb in turn, and, having located the opossum—which, against the bright background of a full moon, sits revealed as clearly as in broad daylight,—usually brings it down at the first shot.

The platypus is found in most of the fresh-water streams of Tasmania and Victoria—especially in the Gippsland District of the latter colony,—but it is now so scarce that a good rug is worth fully 25 guineas. The platypus skin closely resembles that of the otter, ancf is sometimes known in the trade variously as silver or golden otter.

When the coarser outer hair becomes shabby, it is plucked away, revealing beneath a dark second coat of lustrous, beautiful fur resembling the finest sealskin.

10.    The platypus lives in a burrow, the opening of which is in the river bank, below the water. The tunnel gradually rises until, near the end, it is above the water-level. The burrow is, therefore, rarely found; and the popular plan is to shoot the platypus in the twilight, when, as is its custom, it is quietly floating down with the current, or, during the day, when the stream is in flood and the water discoloured.

The platypus is now protected by law all the year round; and its skin has, therefore, become rare and expensive.

11.    One variety of water rat, known as the golden beaver-rat, gives a soft, reddish-golden fur.

The fur of the black native cat, so evenly marked over with snow-white spots, was once very popular in Victoria, but the animal is so rare now as to be no longer worth trapping; and the gray native cat is also gradually disappearing. Wherever poultry are kept, the native cat is a pest, and its preservation quite out of the question.

12.    Although the red kangaroo, once so common in Riverina,15 is valueless for its fur, the “ forester ” of the Victorian bush has a fine fur, while that of the “ old man” is set on a skin too thick for even a travelling rug. Most of the skins imported into Victoria from the other colonies are tanned for leather, and the fur is used in making felt hats. The different varieties of wallaby, beginning with the black, which is the most valuable, yield skins that are in general use for making heavy rugs.

13.    Some of the fur-bearing animals of Western Australia are very beautiful; and, at times, a miner may be seen with a rug of brilliant, light-blue fur, perfectly natural in its colour. It is only, however, where the services of several black hunters are available that sufficient of these rare skins to make a rug can be obtained.

Most of the furs from the northern parts of Australia are too light and unattractive to be of value in the trade.

1. Riv-er-i-na, tract of pastoral country in New South Wales, lying between the Murrumbidgee and Murray Rivers.

COULD, WOULD, AND WILL.

Price Id.


Ge-ni-US, person endowed with extraordinary powers of mind ; person very talented. Deigned, thought it worthy; agreed to. Ga-lorei plenty ; in abundance.

Prig, pert, conceited fellow.

Trance, state in which the person seems to be wrapt in visions.

Lau-rels, fame; honours.

I can’t help thinking, ’twixt you and me,

That there doesn’t seem very much good In possessing magnificent talents galore,

For the fellow who says, “ I could.”

2.    There’s another, not such a prig as the first,

Who lives in a kind of trance,—

Who would do any number of notable deeds,

If he’d only a better chance.

If Jones would leave, he’d be top of his class;

If Brown, he’d be in the fifteen ; 16 If—if—if—if—Ah ! it’s sad to think Of the glories that might have been ;

But somehow these if a do not work out As in common politeness they should,

So that little success ever comes the way Of the fellow who says, “ I would.”

3.    There’s another—a sturdy, quiet sort of a chap,

If a tough job’s in front of him, why,

As sure as your name’s whatever it is,

He’ll have his jolly good try.

He doesn’t stand waiting with folded hands,

For the clouds of his prospect to lift,

And Jones and Brown, if they stand in the way,

Must look to their laurels, or shift.

He isn’t afraid of a failure or two,

And they meet him at times ; but still,

Let me back in the struggle for final success,

The fellow who says, “ I will.”

—Rev. Robert Lowe Bellamy in the Boy’s Own Paper, quoted in Norton's Courtesy Reader (Messrs. Macmillan and Co.).

1. The fif-teen, a team in football, when played according to the Rugby rules.

WILLIAM DAMPIER,

A Famous English Seaman.

Plun^der-ing, taking goods by force, or without right; pillaging ; robbing. "

Buc^ca-neer-ing, robbing upon the seas. (The term buccaneer is especially applied to the adventurers who plundered the Spaniards in America in the 17th and 18th centuries.)

Cyg-net (sig'-net), young swan.

Lat-i-tude, distance north or south of the Equator, measured on a meridian.

Tract, region; quantity of land or water of indefinite area.

Mus-sels, kind of shellfish found on the seashore in many parts of the world. They attach themselves to rocks or wood.

Weir, fence of stakes, brushwood, or the like, set in a stream or inlet of the sea, for taking fish. Sometimes, wall to keep water back.

Ebb, go back, as the water of a tide when falling.

Pulse, pease, beans, and the like.

Boom-er-ang, curved, flat piece of hard wood (often dogwood), used as a weapon for throwing by the natives of Australia.

Stat-ue, image; likeness of a living being sculptured in some solid substance.

In-suf-fi-cient, not enough.

Suc-ceed-ed, was successful; accomplished what was attempted.

Rac-COOn,' North American animal, allied to the bears, but much smaller. Its body is gray varied with black and white.

Ar-chi-pel-a-go, sea studded with or containing a great number of islands, as the East Indies.

League, measure equal to three miles.

2.    Having made several voyages in merchantmen, Dampier shipped as an A.B.1 on board a man-of-war, and served during the Hutch War that came to an end in 1673. Soon afterwards, he made a voyage to the West Indies, and settled down for a time to manage a sugar plantation in Jamaica ; but, not liking the slave-driving business, lie crossed over to Central America, and Altered upon what was a very profitable occupation in those days, namely, cutting logwood and other valuable timbers for export to Europe. For several years, he lived a life of peril and adventure, being often engaged with other daring spirits in plundering the Spaniards.

3.    In March, 1686, Dampier, in a little vessel named the Cygnetcommanded by Captain Swan, quitted the American coast, and sailed

on a buccaneering expedition, westward across the Pacific Ocean. The Cygnet visited the Ladrones,the Philippines, Celebes, and Timor, and then, after a dispute had arisen among the officers and crew, and some of them, including the captain, had been put on shore, sailed away to the southward towards New Holland.3

4. Dampier, in a book he wrote entitled “ A New Voyage round the World,” states that “on the 4th of January, 1688, land was sighted in latitude 16*50° S. About three leagues to the eastward of this point, there is a pretty deep bay, with abundance of islands in it, and a very good place to anchor in, or to haul ashore. About a league to the eastward of that point, we anchored, January the 5th, 1688.” Upon the coastline of the district of West Kimberley, in the north of Western Australia, is the Buccaneer Archipelago. The bay in which the Cygnet anchored is still called Cygnet Bay. It is situated in the north-west corner of King’s Sound, of which “ that point, a league to the eastward of which we anchored,” is named Swan Point, while a rock called Dampier’s Monument preserves the name of the daring seaman.

5. The ship had to be repaired, and a couple of months were spent in the work. Dampier, who was a keen observer, gives a description of the country and its inhabitants. He asserts that “New Holland is a very large tract of land. It is not yet determined whether it is an island or a main continent; but I am certain that it joins neither to Asia, Africa, nor America. This part of it that we saw is all low, even land, with sandy banks against the sea, only the points are rocky, and so are some of the islands in the bay.”

_ 6. He describes the natives as u the most miserable wretches in the universe, having neither boats nor bark canoes ; no garments, except a piece of the bark of a tree tied like a girdle around the waist. They feed on a few fishes, cockles, mussels, and periwinkles. They are without religion or government; and, setting aside their human shape, they differ but little from brutes. They are tall and thin, with long limbs. Their eyelids are always half-closed to keep the flies out of their eyes. They have big noses, thick lips, and wide mouths ; and the two front

A PORTION OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA AND OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

teeth are wanting in all of them. None of them have beards. They have an unpleasant aspect, there, being no graceful feature in their faces. Their hair is black, short, and curled, like that of the negroes. The colour of their skin is coal-black. They live in companies, twenty or thirty men, women, and children together. They have no instrument to catch large fish. They get small fish by making weirs of stones across little coves or branches of the sea. The tide brings in the small fish, and, when it ebbs, they are detained by the weirs. The people must attend to the weirs, or they must fast, for the soil affords them no food at all. There is neither herb, root, pulse, nor any sort of grain, that we saw; nor any bird or beast that the natives can catch, having no instrument for it.”

7.    Had Dampier gone into the interior, he would have found fertile land, and seen birds and kangaroos, which the natives were able to kill by means of their spears and boomerangs.

An attempt was made by the seamen of the Cygnet to get the natives to carry some small barrels of water for them; 44 but all the signs we could make were to no purpose; for they stood like statues, staring at one another, and grinning like so many monkeys. These poor creatures seem not accustomed to carry loads, and I believe one of our ship’s boys of ten years old would carry as much as one of their men.”

8.    The natives of Australia, as we now know well, do not like work, and probably those that Dampier saw were weak from their supply of food being insufficient.

After several hairbreadth escapes, Dampier succeeded in reaching England by way of the Cape of Good Hope.

9.    Plis book, published in 1697, was a great success, and attracted notice in high quarters, with the result that Dampier was given

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command of a vessel, the Roebuck, for the purpose of further exploring New Holland.

10.    During August, 1699, the Roebuck lay for eight days in Sharks” Bay. While here, Dampier saw an animal, which we may suppose to have been a small kangaroo from the following description:—44 The land animals that we saw here were only a .sort of raccoons, different from those of the West Indies, chiefly as to their legs; for these have very short fore legs, but go jumping upon them as the others do, and, like them, are very good meat.”

11.    Dampier sailed northward along the coast, discovering the archipelago named after him. From here, he continued his course till he reached Roebuck Bay, a few leagues to the south of the scene of his

first visit, and where is now the town of Broome. A cable from Banjoewanji, at the eastern extremity of Java, comes in here, and the town has additional importance through being the harbour for a large pearling fleet.

12. Ham pier then struck away from the coast towards Timor. After he left Timor, he went to Hew Guinea, spent some weeks on shore there, discovered New Britain,4 and then returned to England.

He made other voyages, but no more to Australia, and died in London, in 1715. He ranks high among the early discoverers of Australia.

1.    A.B., able-bodied seaman,—a term that implies a certain amount of knowledge and experience of the work of a sailor.

2.    La-drones'. The Ladrone or Marianne Islands lie east of the Philippine Islands. They were purchased from Spain by Germany in 1899, with the exception of the largest island, Guam, which is retained by the United States, by whom it was seized at the time of the recent war between that country and Spain.

3.    New Hol-land, name given to the “ Great South Land ” by early Dutch navigators. Early in the present century, Flinders sailed round the continent, and gave it the name “ Australia.”

4.    New Brit-ain, island belonging to Germany, east of New Guinea.

THE BIRTH OF AN ICEBERG.

Lon-gi-tude (lon-ji-tude), distance of a place, east or west from the meridian of Greenwich.

Ex-tincti put out; quenched.

E-rup-tion, violent throwing out of flames, lava, &c., from a volcano or fissure in the earth's crust.

Belch-ing, casting forth.

Cam-e-ra, apparatus in which the image of an object is, by means of a lens, thrown upon a surface at the back of a darkened box. It is used in taking photographs.

U-til-i-sing, turning to profitable account or use.

Spec-i-mens, samples.


Gla-ci-er, immense field or stream of ice, moving slowly down a mountain slope or valley.

Cruis-ing, sailing about from place to place.

Con-SClOUS, aware; sensible.

Per-pen-dic-U-lar, in geometry, at right angles to a given line or surface; in ordinary usage, perfectly upright.

Re-CUr-ring, coming back or again ; happening again and again.

Prob-a-bil-i-ty, likelihood.

Re-al-ised, felt strongly ; grasped in the mind ; became certain.

Com-pen-sa-tion, recompense; reward; set-off.

Spec-tacle, remarkable or noteworthy sight.


about ten feet broad, and its outer edge about four feet above tbe sea level.

2.    I effected a landing at the foot of Mount Terror, an extinct volcano, about 11,000 feet high, and lying to the eastward of Mount Erebus, taking with me Lieutenant Colbeck, Captain Jensen, and two

. sailors. Mount Erebus, which is nearly 12,500 feet above sea level, was in active eruption, and the sight it presented was one of extreme grandeur, the immense glittering, snow-clad mountain belching forth volumes of smoke and dark-red flame.

3.    During the time we were ashore near the foot of Mount Terror, Captain Jensen and myself underwent a very interesting but rather

SIR JAMES ROSS’S SHIP THE “EREBUS” AMONG ICEBERGS.

disagreeable experience : we were witnesses of nothing less than the birth of an iceberg.

Impressed by the rare beauty of the scene presented by the active volcano Erebus, and desiring to procure a permanent record of the spectacle, Lieutenant Colbeck, at my request, took the boat, with the two sailors, back to the steamer to procure a camera.

4. Captain Jensen and I were utilising the time we had to wait in obtaining additions to our collections of specimens, and, whilst thus occupied, we were suddenly startled by a fearful noise overhead, as if the whole mountain side were falling. Looking up to see what had happened, a remarkable sight met our gaze. The glacier, at a point high above us, immediately to the west of the little beach on which we were standing, had cast off an enormous mass of ice, which it had hurled down to join the rest of the numerous family of icebergs cruising in the Antarctic seas. With a deafening roar, this huge body of ice plunged into the sea; and, immediately, there spouted into the air an immense white cloud of water and snow, which obscured everything on the seaward side from our sight.

5.    Before we had recovered from our state of almost speechless astonishment, and before even the atmosphere had cleared, we became conscious of a great danger. A moving mountain of water, created by the dropping of this million-ton slice from the glacier into the sea, was rushing upon us. There were no means of escape from it. The wave came rapidly forward in the shape of a perpendicular wall of water, which must have had a height of from fifteen to twenty feet.

6.    Captain Jensen and myself realised that our only possible chance of withstanding the drag of this enormous volume of water on the recoil was by clinging with all our might to some fixed object. We both rushed at once to the highest part of the shallow beach, and, facing the mountain wall of rock, held on to it with all our strength. The wave struck me first. Lumps of ice thumped against my back, and the icy water closed over my head with a loud, roaring noise. But I stuck to the rock until I felt as if the blood was rushing from beneath my nails. Then the wave swiftly rolled back. When it had passed, Jensen was still at my side.

7.    A succession of smaller waves followed, which washed about us up to our armpits ; but the recurring drag of the water, when it returned from the cliff, was trying us almost beyond our strength. Had it not been for the help of the projecting ice slope, which seemed to break the wave in its advance, just at the very place where it was destined to hit us, we should, in all probability, have been smashed against the rock, as, where the wave unchecked hit the rock wall some ten yards beyond us, it tore stones loose, and left a mark of moisture some twenty feet above our heads, while marks of spray were to be seen at a still greater height.

8.    Far out at sea, the boat was returning with Lieutenant Colbeck and the two sailors. They had plainly observed all that had happened to us, and, of course, realised the full extent of the danger to which we were exposed, having themselves with the greatest difficulty saved their boat from being swamped by the seaward rush of water. Those on board the Southern Cross, some three or four miles off the coast, also had witnessed the incident with great anxiety.

9.    As it was, both Captain Jensen and myself were a good deal bruised by the pelting we suffered from lumps of broken ice, and we were, of course, wet to the skin, and chilled by the icy bath. But we had our compensation for these discomforts. We had been close observers of a spectacle which it rarely falls to the lot of any one to witness, and we had, moreover, obtained a splendid collection of rocks and vegetation.

—Adapted, by permission, from one of a series of articles in The Age (Melbourne),, entitled “A Winter iD the Antarctic,” by C. E. Borciigrevink (bork-ger-vink).

1. Mount Er-e-hus and Mount Ter-ror. In a voyage to the Antarctic Ocean in 18S9, Sir James, Ross saw a lofty mountain chain stretching away towards the South Pole. It contained several volcanoes^, two of which he named Erebus and Terror after his ships.

WHAT IS THE FARM FIT FOR?

Fen. low land covered partly or wholly with water,    I Nig-gard, stingy, miserly person,

but producing coarse grass, reeds, &c.    I A-bidei stay.

1.    A word to restless people—to the fast and feverish age—

A perfect manhood is better than any wealth or wage.

Some are for gold, some glitter ; but tell me, tell me, when

Will we stand for the farm and the college that go for the making of men ?

2.    Yes, what is the old farm fit for ? The word is wisely said ;

There may be stumps in the pasture, and the house may be a shed.

But what if a Lincoln or Garfield1 be here in this boy of ten ?

And what should the farm be fit for, if not the raising of men?

3.    ’Tis a scanty soil for a seeding, but here we win our bread ;

And a stout heart may grow stronger, where the plough and harrow are sped» Then break up the bleak, high hill-side, and trench the swamp and fen,

For what should the farm be fit for, if not the raising of men ?

4.    The crop by the frost is blighted—a niggard the season seems—

Yet the ready hand finds duties, and the heart of the youth has dreams.

The bar1 and the Senate5 to-morrow ; to-morrow the sword or the pen;

For what should the farm be fit for, if not the raising of men?

5.    And what if our lot be humbler, if we on the farm abide ?

There is room for noble living, and the realm of thought is wide.

A mind enriched is a fortune, and you will know it when

You see the farm is fit for the rearing of noble men.

—President Harris in Young People’s Weekly.

1.    Lincoln (link-on) or Garfield, distinguished presidents of the United States of America. They were the sons of poor farmers.

2.    Bar, railing that encloses the place which lawyers occupy in law courts ; the legal profession.

3.    Sen-ate. In the United States, the Senate is the upper and more numerous branch of the legislature in most of the separate states. It sends two representatives every six years to the Congress held at Washington.

A DINNER IN CHINA.

Por-ce-lain, fine kind of earthenware.    Con-tin-U-al-ly, without stopping.

Es-pe-cial-ly, particularly ; chiefly.    ^hetime^s “ntT^

1.    Such a dinner ! We were all seated at small tables holding four persons each. First came little dishes of sweetmeats ; and then bowls of bird’s-nest soup, with a jelly-like substance floating in it, in company with some hits of chicken. We found that this soup was very nice,, although we all had to eat out of the same bowl, using porcelain spoons.

2.    Then came more sweetmeats, followed by dishes of sea-slugs and fat pork. We shook our heads when asked to take some of the latter,.

especially as one very polite Chinaman lifted up a grisly piece with his chop-sticks, and, after biting off a mouthful, passed the rest towards us.

3.    The chop-sticks—two small, thin sticks, often of wood, but in this case of ivory—we could not manage. The meat would slip from between them ; and, had it not been for the soups, of which there were several, and the rice, which we could shovel into our mouths, we should have had no dinner.

4.    The servants were almost continually passing tea, which had neither sugar nor milk in it, as well as little bowls of “ samshu,” a drink made from rice.

5.    During the dinner, the u sing-song ” girls played on the twostringed fiddles of the country, and sang several songs. The Chinese, no doubt, who had engaged these performers to entertain us, thought the music very fine, but it did not strike us as being so. In fact, it seemed to us nothing but noise, and, at last, became more than we could bear, so we slipped away, and sought peace in our beds.

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, ETC.

No. 2.—THE REEF OR FLAT KNOT.

It is often necessary to join two strings together. A secure and simple means of doing this is afforded by the reef knot, so named from its frequent use in reefing * sails. Every child should be able to make this useful knot readily and with ease.

How the knot is tied may be learnt from the sketch supplied. Care should be taken in cross ing the ends of the string that they lie alongside the main parts. Otherwise the knot will prove a granny and be of little service. The sketch shows how flat and securely the knot rests in position.

This knot is of the utmost value for tying bandages, and indeed wherever a neat and secure knot is required. It holds well, and, at the same time, possesses the decided advantage of being readily cast loose, no matter how tightly it has been drawn. The knot is not applicable for joining strings of different thicknesses, as it will then slip. This defect may be overcome, however, by fastening down the ends of the strings.

-S. S.

* Reducing the extent of a sail by rolling or folding a certain portion of it and making it fast to the yard or spar.

PROM OUR NOTE BOOK.

The Melbourne Hospital for Sick Children.

A strong effort is being put forth to raise the sum of £13,000, .needed to pay for the buildings recently erected at the Children’s Hospital, Melbourne. The following paragraphs are reprinted, with the approval of the Minister of Education, from a circular to the State school teachers of Victoria :—

“The Executive Committee of the State School Stall, at the Children’s Hospital Bazaar, to be held at the Exhibition, 1st to 15th September, appeals to every State School in Victoria to render such assistance as may be in its power.

“There are nearly 2,000 public schools and 240,000 scholars in the colony. If the teachers and pupils of every school will assist ever so little, the State School Stall should hold a premier position, both as regards financial results and attractiveness. Every teacher, every scholar, will easily find a way to assist in this great national undertaking. The following methods of assistance may be suggested :—

“Holding of school concerts, sports, bazaars, tableaux, gifts of needlework for sale at the Exhibition, or articles useful and ornamental, fancy-work. In the preparing of these, both beys and girls can take a part, and, it is hoped, without undue strain on the part of the teachers.

“Contributions should be sent to Miss C. Weekes, addressed to Children’s Hospital, Carlton, indorsed ‘For State School Stall.’

“ If the above methods are regarded as impracticable, a collection of Id. from each scholar is suggested. The proceeds of the collection will be credited to the stall.

“ School tickets will be issued at 6d., entitling children to admission, and will be sent tc all teachers for sale in the schools, the entire proceeds of which will be credited tc the State School Stall. A handsome certificate is being prepared to present to each school which assists in the movement.

“Contributions of produce, &c., will be thankfully received, and it is hoped the carriage of same may be cheaply arranged for. It is suggested that small fairs be held in country centres, where a difficulty of carriage arises, and that the proceeds of sales so effected be forwarded, in lieu of produce.”

The Other View.

1.    A Chinaman, living near Shanghai, during an interview with a newspaper reporter, said, concerning the “ barbarian” Europeans—

‘‘They certainly do not know how to amuse themselves. You never see them enjoy themselves by sitting quietly, as we delight to do, upon their ancestors’ graves. They jump around and kick balls as if they were paid to do it.

2.    “Again, you will find them making long tramps in the country; but that is probably a religious duty, for, when they tramp, they wave sticks into the air, and nobody knows why.

“ They have no sense of dignity, for they may be seen walking with women. They even sit down at the same table with women, and the latter are served first.”

Japanese Customs.

Japanese books begin at the end, the word “finis” coming where we put the title page. The footnotes are printed at the top of the page ; and the reader puts in his marker at the bottom. A Japanese mounts his horse on the right side; all parts of the harness are fastened on the same side; the mane hangs that way; and, when the animal is brought home, his head is put where his tail ought to be, and he is fed from a tub at the stable door. The Japanese do not say north-east or south-west, but east-north or west-south.

A Strange Monument.

After the Chino-Japanese war of 1895, the Japs, erected a monument in Corea to the memory of their horses killed during the campaign. This is probably the most expensive animal memorial raised in modern times, for it cost a sum equivalent to £6,000 of our money. This was contributed to by all the officers in the Japanese army and by a number of the men.

Extract from a Letter by Lord Roberts.

Bishop Cowie, the Primate of Hew Zealand, has received a letter from Lord Roberts, dated Bloemfontein, 10th of April, in which he says—• “ Our only boy’s death is a terrible blow to us. He was all we could wish a son to be; a dear, good fellow in every way. I know he is infinitely happier in Heaven than he ever could have been on earth; but I have been quite unable to help wishing, often and often during the past three months, that he could have been with me. We have been most mercifully guided and protected, and I pray that the same kind Providence will watch over us till the end of the war. You would be delighted with the soldiers. They are quite splendid, and their conduct has quite surprised the good people here. Hot a complaint has reached me, and, although our numbers amount to nearly 50,000, there is practically no crime.”

RIGHT SHALL CONQUER ALL.

Breach, gap or opening made by breaking or battering, as in a wall or fortification. 17

Ac-cents, words; speech.

Pre-cious, very valuable; highly esteemed.

|    2. “ Hurrah ! for dear old England ! ”

Come, Britons, one and all,

Strike on, strike hard, strike home, strike sure,

Till War himself shall fall;

Till time on pointing finger wears The precious pearl of Peace,

And Earth sends up her anthem-shout,.

That loving hearts increase :

Fight on, keep heart, look up, be firm,.

And never once forget That Heaven proclaims this God-stamped truth—

“ The Right- shall conquer yet! ”

(1819-94)—the postman-poet of England.

A llegretto. mj.


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BRIGHT ARE THE GLORIES.*

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What though a shadow may fleet o’er the mountains,

No trace is left on the gold cover'd plain.

What though the summer may silence the fountain,

Winter will flood it with music again.

Come then combining, &c.

* The sol-fa notation of the music of this song is printed in The School Papei—Class 111. tor the •current month.

By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPEE

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 37.] MELBOURNE. [September, 1900.

BELL-BIRDS.1

Gor-ges, gullies.

Bow-ers, shady places.

Wax, grow; become.

Hur-tle, make a terrible noise.


Loi-ters, lingers.

Wil-der-ness-es, wild, uncultivated places. Glis-ten, shine.

Run-nels, streams.

1.    By channels of coolness 2 the echoes are calling,

And down the dim gorges I hear the creek falling;

It lives in the mountain, where moss and the sedges Touch with their beauty the hanks and the ledges ;

Through breaks of the cedar and sycamore bowers Struggles the light that i« love to the flowers;

And, softer than slumber, and sweeter than singing,

The notes of the bell-birds are running and ringing.

2.    The silver-voiced bell-birds, the darlings of day-time,

They sing in September their songs of the May-time. 3 When shadows wax strong, 4 and the thunder-bolts hurtle,

They hide with their fear in the leaves of the myrtle ; 5 When rain and the sunbeams shine mingled together,

They start up like fairies that follow fair weather;

And straightway the hues of their feathers unfolden Are the green and the purple, the blue and the golden.

3.    October, the maiden of bright yellow tresses, 6 Loiters for love in these cool wildernesses ;

Loiters knee-deep in the grasses to listen,

Where dripping rocks gleam, and the leafy pools glisten.

Then is the time when the water-moons 7 splendid Break with their gold, and are scattered or blended Over the creeks, till the woodlands have warning Of songs of the bell-bird and wings of the morning.

4.    Welcome, as waters unkissed by the summers, 8 Are the voices of bell-birds to thirsty far-comers.

When fiery December sets foot in the forest,

And the need of the wayfarer presses the sorest,

Pent in the ridges for ever and ever,

The bell-birds direct him to spring and to river,

With ring and with ripple, like runnels whose torrents Are toned by the pebbles and leaves in the currents.

—Henry Kendall, an Australian poet (1842-1882).

1.    Bell-birds. The bell-bird, though it is becoming scarce, is still to be found in the forests of New Zealand, Gippsland, and New South Wales. One of its notes is somewhat like the distant tolling of a bell, and, on this account, the bird has received its popular name. The nest of the bell-bird is built in deep, wooded gullies, or in thick, low bushes near the edge of a forest. Its food consists of insects and the nectar of flowers. It licks these up with its curious tongue, which is furnished with a sort of little brush,

2.    Chan-nels of cool-ness, cool streams.

Price Id.

3.    Songs Of the May-time, songs of joy and gladness. May is one of the spring months in the North Temperate Zone.

“ May, thou month of rosy beauty,    I    Month of bees, and month of flowers,

Month when pleasure is a duty ;    |    Month of blossom-laden bowers;

O thou merry month complete,

May, thy very name is sweet.”

4.    When shad-OWS wax strong, when the sky becomes dark with storm-clouds.

5.    Ce-dar, syc-a-more, and myr-tle, trees that grow plentifully in the north-eastern part of New South Wales, where the scene of this poem is laid.

6.    Of bright yel-low tress-es, of wattle blossom.

7.    Wa-ter-moonsC reflections of the moon in creeks and lakes.

8.    Un-kissed' by the sum/mers, not reached, and, therefore, not warmed by the summer’s sun.

THE CHINESE EMPIRE.

For-eign-er, one not native to the country; stranger.

A1 -ien, foreigner.

Com-merce, extended trade.

A-re-a, extent of surface. .

De-pend-ent, subject to.

As-cer-tained' found out for a certainty; determined.

Cen-tral, near the middle.


Mer-CU-ry, heavy, glistening liquid, commbnly called quicksilver.

Par-tial-ly, in part ; not totally.

Pa-gO-das, tower-like buildings of the Buddhists of India, Further India, China, and Japan.

Jos-tling, crowding against ; elbowing.

Na-tion-al (nash-un-al), public ; common to a whole people or race.

De-scrip-tion, account.

Junk, flat-bottomed ship, used in China and Japan.

In-ter-rup-tion, stop ; hindrance.


Trop-ic-al, pertaining to the Tropics, that is, the region bounded on the north by the Tropic of Cancer, and on the south by the Tropic of Capricorn.

Im-ple-ments, tools; instruments.

1.    The dreadful deeds recently done by bands of armed men, known as the “ Boxers,” whose object is to prevent foreigners living in China, and the attempts Great Britain, the United States, Italy, Japan, Russia, France, Germany, and Austria a-re making to punish these murderers and force the Chinese Government to protect aliens, have directed the attention of millions of people to the Chinese and their country.

2.    China has long been known as a land of wonders. Removed from the Western World by many thousand miles of sea, and cut off from India and other neighbouring countries by vast mountain barriers, it has stood for thousands of years apart from other nations of the earth. During this century, however, a growing commerce has been established between it and Europe.

3. The Chinese are probably the most ancient people in the world: their history can be traced back three thousand years before the birth of Christ. The country itself is also the

A CHINESE RIVER, PAGODA, AND JUNKS.    most populous On the earth’s surface, and one of the most extensive. The area of China Proper is equal to about one-half that of Europe ; or, if we include the countries dependent on it, it is more than equal to Europe. Its population is not well ascertained, but it can hardly be less than four hundred millions.

4.    Roughly speaking, China extends along the whole of the eastern coast of Asia from the Gulf of Tonquin to the Corean Peninsula, and stretches thence westward to the farther borders of the vast region between the Himalayas on the one hand and the Altai and Thian-Shan Mountains on the other.

5.    The empire may be divided into six main parts — China Proper,

Manchuria, Corea, Thibet, Mongolia, Chinese or Eastern Turkestan.

It also includes the large island of Hainan. Formosa was ceded to Japan by China after the war between the two nations in 1895. Since that war, the power of China in Corea also is slight.

6.    China Proper is by

far the most important division, for, although its area is only one-third of the whole empire, its population is twelve times as great as that of all the rest taken together. Nowhere in the world is the soil more fertile than in China Proper. In the north,    contour map of china.

the chief crops are European grains and vegetables; in the central portion, the tea-plant and mulberry-tree thrive best upon the higher ground, and rice upon the river banks; in the south are cultivated tropical fruits and vegetables.

7.    Not alone to natural causes does China owe the great fertility of its _ soil: there are no more diligent farmers in the world than the Chinese. All farming work, however, is done, as it was two thousand years ago, by hand, with no better implements than the spade and the hoe. Horses are not employed, because they eat too much, and there are so many people in China that every inch of ground is made use of to grow food for them; consequently, as no grass fields exist, there are but few of the creatures which generally live upon grass, such as horses, cows, and sheep.

STREET IN CANTON.

(From The Children's Hour, S.A.)


pagodas, or idol temples, which are sometimes as much as nine stories high, tower above every other building, for it is not lawful in China to build houses as high as temples. The streets are narrow and dirty, and are usually filled with jostling crowds of good-humoured Chinese. The streets are not, however, blocked up by carts or carriages, for goods are slung at the end of


8.    The mineral wealth of China is great. Gold, silver, mercury, copper, lead, tin, and iron are found in various parts of the empire, but especially in the south. Most important of all, however, are the vast coal-beds, which have as yet been only partially explored. They occur in the Yang-tse-Kiang basin, and also in the northern districts.

9.    In China, there are at least a hundred towns containing a hundred thousand inhabitants each. These large towns are surrounded by walls of blue bricks, and they are much alike. The houses are low, generally only one story high, and never more than two; and the

PALANQUIN OR SEDAN CHAIR.


bamboo rods and carried by men on their shoulders, while rich people are borne along in sedan chairs.1

10. Two great national works excite the wonder of travellers in China. One is the Great WaP a description of which is given in the current month’s number of The School Paper—Class III.; the other is the Grand Canal, which connects the rivers Hoang-Hoand Yang-tse-Kiang, and is 700 miles in length. By means of this canal, it is possible to go in a junk from the port of Canton in the south, through the Great Plain to the royal city of Peking in the north, with only one interruption.

1. Se-daW chair, portable, closed-in chair carried on poles by two, or four, men so called from Sedan, a town in the north of France, near the Belgian frontier. It is called in China a palanquin (pal-ang-keen').

THE BRITISH SOLDIER IN CHINA.1

1.    The Brit-ish sol-dier in Chi-na. ‘ Some Sikhs and a private of the Buffs, named Moyse, having remained behind with the grog-carts, fell into the hands of the Chinese. On the next morning, they were brought before the authorities, and commanded to kowtow. The Indians obeyed, but the English soldier refused, declaring that he would not prostrate himself before any Chinese. He was immediately knocked on the head for this, and his body thrown on a rubbish-heap.”—The Times (London). This happened during the war between Great Britain and China in 1860.

2.    The Buffs, a Kentish regiment.

3.    £Ugin (the “ g ” hard as in begin). Lord Elgin was at the time British ambassador in China.

4.    In-ai-ans whine and kneel. The Sikhs (seeks) who had been captured with Moyse consented to perform the kowtow. (The Sikhs are a warlike tribe inhabiting the north-west of India. They readily enlist under the British flag. Several Sikh regiments have been recently sent from India to China. Kowtow, the mode of saluting the Emperor of China and other Chinese of rank, by prostrating one’s self before them on all fours, and touching the ground with the forehead a certain number of times.)

5.    Spar-ta’s king. The reference is to Leonidas, who, in 480 b.c., with three hundred other Spartans, died defending the pass of Thermopylae against the Persians who were invading their country,


Am-bas-sa-dor, minister of the highest rank sent to a foreign court to represent there his sovereign or country.

Be-wil-dered, greatly confused or perplexed. In-Stinct, natural inward impulse.

1.    Last night, among his fellow-roughs,

He jested, quaffed, and swore :

A drunken private of the Buffs,2 Who never looked before.

To-day, beneath the foeman’s frown,

He stands in Elgin’s 3 place, Ambassador from Britain’s crown,

And type of all her race.

2.    Poor, reckless, rude, low-born, un

taught,

Bewildered, and alone,

A heart with English instinct fraught He yet can call his own.

Ay ! tear his body limb from limb,

Bring cord, or axe, or flame :

He only knows that not through him Shall England come to shame.

3.    Far Kentish hop-fields round him

seemed,

Like dreams, to come and go ;

Bright leagues of cherry blossom gleamed,

One sheet of living snow :

—Sib. Francis


Fraught, filled.

Ed-dy-ingS, circular movements of water, air, smoke, &c.

Doomed, sentenced ; condemned.

Es-tatei rank ; social standing.

The smoke above his father’s door In gray, soft eddyings hung :

Must he, then, watch it rise no more,

• Doomed by himself, so young ?

4.    Yes, Honour calls ! with strength like

steel

He put the vision by :

Let dusky Indians whine and kneel ; 4 An English lad must die !

And thus, with eyes that would not shrink,

With knee to man unbent, Unfaltering on its dreadful brink,

To his red grave he went.

5.    Vain, mightiest fleets of iron framed,

Vain, those all-shattering guns, Unless proud England keep, untamed, The strong heart of her sons !

So, let his name through Europe ring— A man of mean estate,

Who died, as firm as Sparta’s king, 5 Because his soul was great.

H. Doyle, an English writer (1810-88).


A VANILLA PLANTATION IN FIJI.

Es ¿sence, solution in spirits of wine of a vegetable oil that readily evaporates on exposure to air.

Or-chid, plant of which there are many kinds, bearing curiously shaped and, often, showy flowers.

Fer-ti-li-zing, making capable of producing fruit.


E-vap-O-ra-ting, passing off in vapour; here, used for the purpose of drying rapidly.

Sub-ject-ed, exposed.

Mil-dew, growth of a small low form of plant on decaying substances.

o-mit-ted, left undone ; left out.

Im-ag-i-na-ry, not real; existing only in the imagination or fancy.


1. Let me take you, in imagination, for a walk through a vanilla plantation.

I wonder if you know what vanilla is, and for what it is used. Some of you, no doubt, have seen little bottles containing essence of vanilla, and have noticed your mothers using it to flavour cakes and puddings. It is also largely used to flavour chocolate.

It has a warm, sweetish taste, and, if you smell it, you will find that it emits a strong, agreeable odour. This essence is obtained from

the dried seed-pods of a kind of orchid, which grows only in hot countries.

2.    Now, let us go through the plantation. We notice that the vinelike plants are in rows in a gully, each beside a croton-oil tree.1 The roots are not in the ground, but lie along the surface, and are covered up with dry grass to keep the sun from scorching them.

3.    The vines, which grow to a height of twenty to thirty feet, cling to the croton-oil tree, not only for support, but also for part of their nourishment, most of which, however,

portion of stem of vanilla, they obtain from the air.

with spike of flowers.    4. Here and there, we see bunches

a, seed-pod or Bean.    0f frnit, or beans, as they are called

from their shape, hanging from the vines ; and yonder is a fleshy, dull-looking flower, which we will find has a sweet scent. Every morning, those in charge of the plantation go round the vines to fertilize the opening flowers with pollen,2 otherwise no fruit, or very little fruit, would form. Fertilizing each flower as it comes out is tedious work.

5.    As the beans ripen, they turn a yellowish colour at the lower end, whence the flowers have dropped. This colour is a guide to the planter as to the time to gather them.

6.    When the beans have been gathered, they are sorted according to length (the longest being about nine inches), placed between blankets, and put in an oven for twenty-four hours. After being sweated under blankets and bags for another twenty-four hours, they are taken into the evaporating room, laid on trays made of string stretched between wooden frames, and subjected for still another twenty-four hours to a temperature of 140° Fahr.

7.    From the evaporating room, the beans, still lying between blankets, are taken on trays into the open air, and exposed to the sun’s rays. Should a shower of rain wet them, they would he quite spoilt.

8.    When they are as dry as they can become in the open air, the beans are taken inside, and again subjected to heat. Afterwards, they are placed in tins, when a kind of mildew comes upon them. This mildew disappears on exposure to air. It is said that if this process were omitted, the result would be that the crop on reaching London, which it does in midwinter, would at once become covered with permanent mildew, and thus be worth nothing.

9.    After the mildewing process, the beans are straightened one by one, and tied in bundles according to length, and packed for export.

10.    The growth and curing of vanilla requires so much care that we are not surprised to learn that the price obtained for it is high, namely, eighteen or nineteen shillings a pound.

11.    Now, I hope that you have enjoyed your imaginary walk. How do you think you would like the life of a vanilla planter ?

—C. M. H. Van Nooten, Public School, Suva, Fiji.

1. Cro-ton-oil' tree, small tree growing in hot climates, particularly the East Indies. It vield3 a powerful oil, used medically.

_ 2. Pol-len, dustlike substance on the anthers of flowers. By coming in contact with the ovule (rudiment of a seed), it causes it to develop.

CAPTAIN COOK.1

Pos-si-bil-i-ty, what may or may not happen.

An-tic-i-pate, be before.

CoNo-ni-za-tion, settlement.

Live-li-hood, means of living.

Sub-se-quent-ly, at a later time.

Con-Struct-ive, having ability to form.

No^tice-a-ble, to be plainly seen.

In-ber-it-ance, that which is derived from an ancestor.

At-tend-ance, being present.

Ap-pren-tice, one bound to serve under a master for a certain time with the view of learning a trade. 18 19

De -part-ment, subdivision of a business.

Dis-o-be-di-ence to-wards, disregard of the

orders of.

Quay (kee), a staging or structure besides which ships are loaded and unloaded.

Ac-cept-ed, taken.

Pre-sumei think.

In-ter-rup-tions, breaks.

Gen-ius ( jeen-yus), special liking and fitness.

Op-por-tU-ni-ty, suitable time.

His father was a day labourer ; and, as his wages were small, it was necessary that the boy should, as soon as possible, do something towards earning his livelihood. James was, accordingly, set to work at the early age of seven on the farm of a Mr. Walker. Probably, his chief occupation was that of scaring away the birds from the crops. Young as he was, he even then appears to have shown signs of being above the common run of boys, for we are told that he attracted the notice of Mrs. Walker, and was by her taught his letters.

3.    In 1736, the family removed to the village of Great Ayton ; and the father became working-manager of a small farm on the estate of a Mr. Skottowe. It is worthy of note that he subsequently became a stone-mason, and built for himself a house which is still standing. To make a good stone-mason, accuracy of eye and hand and some constructive ability are necessary. These qualities were noticeable in the surveys and charts of his distinguished son, and may be regarded as an inheritance from the father.

4.    At Great Ayton, as at Marton, James appears to have attracted the notice of his superiors. Mr. Skottowe took a fancy to him, and

BIRTH-PLACE OF COOK, IN MARTON, YORKSHIRE.

paid the fees for him at the village school. In those days, there were no inspectors’ examinations ; and of his progress in his studies we have no record. We can, however, readily believe that he was a diligent scholar, and that he was as punctual in attendance as the calls on his time from his father’s farm would permit.

5. A great change in his life took place when he was thirteen years old. His father then bound him apprentice to Mr. Sanderson, a shopkeeper of Staithes, a fishing village about ten miles from Whitby. Mr. Sanderson kept what we should call a general store: on one side of the door was the grocery department, on the other the drapery.

James as a shop-boy did liis duty, no doubt, by his master ; but he soon found that the weighing out of tea and sugar and the measuring of calico and flannel was not a life that would satisfy him.

6. From the old sailors whom he fell in with at Staithes, he would hear of the wonders of a sea-faring life, of distant lands and strange people, of battles against the French and the Spaniards. The boy’s

CAPTAIN JAMES COOK (1728-79).

(In 1770, Cook discovered the eastern coast of Australia, and, naming it New Soutl> Wales, took possession of it on behalf of George III.)

spirit was stirred within him, and he longed to go forth to seek adventures on the boundless deep. He heard, too, of Sir Cloudesley Shovel—how, beginning as a cabin-boy, he rose to be an admiral; and,, perhaps, a voice whispered in his ear, “ If Cloudesley Shovel could do so, why not James Cook ? ”

7. But he knew it would be a difficult task to persuade his father and his master to allow him to go to sea. So he made up his mind to run away. It was, of course, wrong to break the contract between himself and his master, to say nothing of the act of disobedience towards his father ; but we can imagine the excuse rising to his lips, “ It will be no loss to Mr. Sanderson ; he can get a dozen shop-boys as good as I am at a day’s notice.”

Accordingly, one summer morning at daybreak, he rose from his bed under the counter, tied up his belongings—one shirt and a jackknife—in his only handkerchief, and stole, out of the house.

8.    By six o’clock, the sturdy, eager lad had traversed the nine or ten miles that lie between Staithes and Whitby, and was fortunate enough to find at the quay a ship about to start for London. He offered his services, was accepted, and taken on board as ship’s boy. During the voyage, he showed himself so active and willing that, on the return of the ship to Whitby, he was received as an apprentice by the owners, two brothers, named John and Henry Walker. His father’s consent had, of course, to be obtained, and we may presume that Mr. Sanderson made no objection.

9.    In the service of the two brothers he continued, with some slight interruptions, for thirteen years. “ During this period, he was noted for his good conduct, his genius for a sailor’s life, and his eagerness to acquire skill in his profession. In storm and calm, by night and day, through the sharp blasts of winter and the balmy breezes of summer, he was always found at his post. Thus were nursed in the youthful sailor those grand qualities of steady attention, firmness, and strong resolve, which marked this great voyager in his after life, and by which he became a great discoverer.”

10.    In 1755, he was mate of the Friendship, a vessel of 400 tons. And, now, another great change took place in Cook’s life. In that year, preparations were being made by the English Government in view of the expected war with France. There was a pressing demand for sailors to man the fleet that was being got ready. Cook resolved to seize the opportunity of entering the navy. He, accordingly, offered his services, and was entered as an able seaman on board His Majesty’s ship Eagle.

11.    In the Navy, as in the merchant service, Cook’s activity, skill in seamanship, and good conduct soon brought him promotion. At the end of four years, he had risen by successive steps to the rank of master.20 It was while he held this position on board the Mercury that he acquired great credit by his survey of the river St. Lawrence during the famous siege of Quebec. It was a work of great difficulty and danger, but was carried out by him in the most complete manner.

In 1762, Cook married, and, in 1764, was appointed marine surveyor of Newfoundland and Labrador. The work lasted till the year 1767. In the autumn of that year, he returned home.    —A. C. C.

{To be continued.)

1.    To those desirous of further information, “Captain Cook,” by Sir Walter Besant, in Macmillan’s English Men of Action series, will prove interesting. To that work the compiler of this article is indebted for particulars not to be obtained elsewhere.

AN ARBOR-DAY SONG.

1. What does he plant who plants a tree ?

He plants the friend of sun and sky ;

He plants the flag of breezes free ;

The shaft of beauty, towering high ;

He plants a home to heaven anigh For song and mother-croon of bird In hushed and happy twilight heard—■ The treble of heaven’s harmony—21 These things he plants who plants a tree.


Flag, here, leaves and branches.

Shaft, stem.

Moth-er-croon; song of the mother-bird to her

young ones.

Treb-le, highest of the four principal parts in music; soprano.


Har-mo-ny, result produced by the concord of two or more sounds that differ in pitch and quality.

Her-it-age, what belongs to it.

Loy-al-ty, faithfulness to lawful authority;

fidelity to a superior.

Civ-ic, relating to a city or citizen.


2.    What does he plant who plants a tree ?

He plants cool shade and tender rain,

And seed and bud of days to be,

And years that fade and flush again ;

He plants the glory of the plain ;

He plants the forest’s heritage ;

The harvest of a coming age ;

The joy that unborn eyes shall see—

These things he plants who plants a tree.

3.    What does he plant who plants a tree ?

He plants, in sap and leaf and wood,

In love of home and loyalty

And far-cast thought of civic good—

His blessing on the neighbourhood.

Who in the hollow of his hand Holds all the growth of all our land—

A nation’s growth from sea to sea Stirs in his heart who plants a tree.

—From The Century.

1. Tre-ble of heav^en’s har-mo-ny. The reference is to the music of the spheres.” It was an ancient belief that the planets in their motion through the heavens gave forth tuneful sounds. Shakspere in the Merchant of Venice has the lines—

“ There’s not an orb which thou behold’st But in his motion like an angel sings,

Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubim.”

See p. 156 of the July number of The School Paper—Classes V. and VI.

A GIFT FROM THE QUEEN SICK CHILDREN,

Fes-tive, joyous ; gay.

In-sti-tu-tion, establishment, especially of a public character.

Un-veil-ing, removing a veil from ; uncovering.

TO THE HOSPITAL FOR MELBOURNE.

Lus-ti-ly, in a vigorous manner.

Bri-tan-ni-a, Latin word for Great Britain. Sym-pa-thy, kindness of feeling towards one who suffers ; fellow-feeling; compassion.

Majesty Queen Victoria, which she had presented to the hospital through Lord Hopetoun, the first Governor-General of Australia. The guard of honour to His Excellency was formed of cadets from the Carlton State schools, under the command of Captain McShane. The lads did their work very well. After Sir John had unveiled the portrait, and a few short speeches had been made, the guests sat down to tea, which was provided by the committee, the tables being prettily decorated, and tiny flags reigning supreme on tables, mantelpieces, and almost everywhere.

2.    After His Excellency had left, the cadets also had tea ; and then a few of them were allowed to go through the hospital. It was a touching sight to see these healthy boys standing in the wards, surrounded by the sick little ones, and lustily singing “ Soldiers of the Queen ” and “ Rule Britannia,” while, in each ward, longing voices murmured, “ Oh, bring the boy soldiers in here.”

3.    Darkness had come on before all the “boy soldiers” had taken their departure, and quietness and rest again reigned in the home of the sick children ; but both they and the visitors felt better for that afternoon, and, we trust, thanked God for the love and sympathy shown by our noble Queen, and for the kindness of those in humbler walks of life who had striven to lighten the children’s burden of pain.

—Mrs. Turnbull, in The Record [Adapted).

1. Lieu-ten-arit-GOV-ern-or, an officer of a state or colony, being next in rank to the Governor, and, in case of the death or resignation of the latter, himself acting as Governor.

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, PUZZLES, ETC.

Nc. 3.    No. 4.

A PIECE OF GOOD ADVICE IN FOUR WORDS, CONTAINING TOGETHER FOURTEEN LETTERS.


A CERTAIN PROFESSOR HAD A WINDOW TWO FEET SQUARE. He BLOCKED UP HALF OF IT, AND STILL IT MEASURED TWO FEET EACH WAV. HOW DID HE MANAGE IT?


—From The Child’s Companion.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

The Suva Public School, Fiji.

1.    The annual speech-night and distribution of prizes in connexion with the Suva Public School, Fiji, took place on the 29th of June.

The following is an extract from the report in The Fiji Times of the speech made by the Assistant Colonial Secretary, the Hon. W. L. Allardyce, who attended to distribute the prizes :—

2.    “ I may mention that, while in Victoria recently, I made a point of getting permission to see your School Paper printed. Mr. Brain, the Government Printer, was good enough to conduct me personally and show me all the photographs and plates which were being got ready for the monthly issue. Were I to endeavour to explain to you all I saw, or even to minutely relate a few of the details connected with the publication of your School Paper, I should keep you here to a much later hour than would please your parents But I may tell you briefly that the Government printing establishment, which is a very large one, employs about 500 hands, and that the production of the illustrations is the work of experts, and that the monthly issue of yonr Paper to the different classes involves a very great deal of careful and delicate work. It is, as you know, not only a literary reading-book, but a history of current events, from the war in South Africa, including the departure of the Colonial contingents, of whom we are all very proud (cheers), to Australian federation (cheers), and, amongst other things, gives you an intimate acquaintance with such national heroes as Lord Roberts (cheers), Generals Buller, White, French, Lord Methuen, and last, but not least, Baden-Powell (cheers), including the portraits of several of them. This shows then to what an extent, even in this respect, we are beholden to the Government of Victoria and its Education Department, and leads up to the point which I particularly wish to impress upon you, that is, the splendid opportunities which you, the rising generation in this colony, are afforded while at school. It behoves you to take full advantage of them.”

Kruger can Run.

1.    No one who has seen a representation of the heavy figure of the President of the Transvaal Republic would ever think that there was a time in Kruger’s history when he was a surprisingly able athlete. Once, however, in his younger days, he ran a race which gave him a considerable reputation among the native tribes.

2.    There was a Kaffir chief whose fleetness of foot had made him widely known throughout the district as one who, for speed, could not be beaten. At last, some of the Boer youths ventured to challenge him, and they selected young Kruger as their representative.

3.    The conditions were a twelve-hours’ run, the better man at the end of this feat to be acclaimed the winner. After eleven hours, the Kaffir chief found that he had had more than enough of the contest, and he dropped unconscious in his tracks. Oom Paul, however, went on running alone for the next hour ; and those who were looking on declared that he was as fresh at the finish as he was at the start.— The Globe (London).

The World’s Output of Gold.

The output of gold from the Klondike has raised Canada to the fifth place in the list of gold-producing countries. In a report recently issued, the production of the leading countries is given as follows :—The Transvaal, 73,476,000 dollars; the United States, 64,300,000 dollars ; Australia, 61,480,763 dollars ; Russia, 25,136,994 dollars ; and Canada, 14,190,000 dollars. (Take a dollar as worth 4s. 2d. of our money.)

The World’s Military Forces.

The population of the Earth, according to a recent calculation, is only thirty-two times as large as the total of its soldiers. If all the soldiers on our planet were to stand in a row, they would make a line almost as long as the Equator; while an express train would take 70 days to travel from one end of this army to the other.

A Prompt Answer.

1.    A long list might be made of men who have owed their advancement in life to a smart answer given at the right moment.

One of Napoleon’s veterans, who survived his master many years, was wont to recount with great glee how he had once picked up the Emperor’s cocked hat at a review.

2.    The latter, not noticing that he was a private, said carelessly—

“ Thank you, captain.”

“In what regiment, sire?” instantly asked the ready-witted soldier.

Napoleon, perceiving his mistake, answered with a smile—

“ In my guard, for I see you know how to be prompt.”

The newly-made officer received his commission next morning.

How the British Soldier Endures his Trials.

1.    What Tommy is made of I don’t know. I recall one terrible night in the veldt, during a flying march, when I was separated from my kit, and had only a borrowed mackintosh to cover me, or to put beneath me on the wet ground, as I pleased. A whole army lay in blankets around me ; and, as I could not sleep, I made half-a-dozen long tours among my neighbours. Certainly a quarter—perhaps a third— of the men were neither asleep nor trying to be. Some were standing in groups, some were sitting up and gossiping, one was actually singing for the entertainment of a little crowd. In the morning, I got on my horse, fevered and tired to the marrow ; but Tommy did an eleven miles’ march under a blazing sun, with jokes flying up and down the ranks, like heat lightning in a summer evening sky.

2.    He goes about his work like a cog in a machine. He may be awakened at half-past two o’clock in the morning, or at five, but he rises just as readily, with a ripple of good-natured comment. There is always a good deal of to-do about missing bits of kit, but he is fully

harnessed like a cart-horse, in ten minutes’ time, and waiting for his coffee or his cocoa. He may he roused for battle, or a blistering march, or a quiet day in camp, hut his demeanour is exactly the same under all circumstances. I have not seen six drunken soldiers, and I’ve lived with them six months.    —Julian Ralph, in The Daily Mail.

Homing Pigeons.

1.    Pigeon-flying is the national sport of the Belgians—even the King being a patron of the sport. Brussels is said to possess 50,000 fanciers, while Antwerp claims 80,000.

2.    The importance of pigeon races in England may be judged from the fact that, at Worcester (woos'-ter), thousands of birds are liberated during the Saturdays of the racing season. Last year, a special train of 18 vans left Manchester for Worcester; and the train contained nothing but pigeons, carefully packed in baskets. There were 25,000 birds, and they were all liberated at the same moment for the race home. Early in 1898, 30,000 birds were let loose at Worcester.

3.    From Nantes (nants), in France, to Lancashire, 440 miles, pigeons have flown in a single day ; and they have flown from the Shetlands to London in one spell of daylight. In June, 1897, the winner of such a race flew 591 miles 1,020 yards, and made a record for long-distance flying. It was liberated at 3.30 a.m., and reached its loft at 7.22 in the evening.

4.    These facts afford ample proof of the marvellous powers of endurance of the birds. The longest flight on record is said to be 1,100 miles. Some of the velocities attained are remarkable. A bird has flown 2,200 yards a minute in a race of 150 miles.

5.    In bad weather, they have great difficulties to contend with, and many are lost. To Orleans, in France, in 1897, 75,000 birds were taken, and only 10 per cent. (10 out of 100) reached Belgium the same day, owing to a whirlwind which burst on the line of flight. On a fine day, birds tossed in Spain in the morning will cross France and reach Belgium before night.

6.    The longest race on record is stated to have been one from Rome to Belgium. Of 200 pigeons liberated, less than 20 returned, and the first home was a fortnight on the way.

THE MINSTREL BOY.

Boldly.    Irish Air—“ The Moreen.”

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By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 38.] MELBOURNE. [October, 1900.-

DAYBREAK.

Hailed', called loudly to ; accosted.

Mar-i-ners, seamen; sailors.

CRan/ti-cleer, cock, so called from the clearness and loudness of his crowing'.

A wind came up out of the sea,

And said, “ 0 mists, make room for me.” It hailed the ships, and cried, “Sail on, Ye mariners, the night is gone.”

And hurried landward far away,

Crying, “Awake! it is the day.”

It said unto the forest, ‘ ‘ Shout!

Hang all your leafy banners out! ”

It touched the wood-bird’s folded wing,


Clar-i-on, kind of trumpet, the note of which is clear and shrill.

Bel-fry, bell tower.

Pro-Claim/ announce.

And said, “0 bird, awake and sing.” And o’er the farms, “ 0 chanticleer, Your clarion blow! the day is near.”

It whispered to the fields of corn,

“ Bow down, and hail the coming morn.” It shouted through the belfry tower, “Awake, 0 bell! proclaim the hour.”

It crossed the churchyard with a sigh, And said, “Not yet—in quiet lie.”

—H. W. Longfellow (1807-82).


A SCHOOLBOY’S LIFE IN CHINA.

i


=t=:


-0-


:t=t:


«


:mz~s:


rights shall guard, One


faith - ful harp shall


praise thee.


±=ä?


€ll


-o’Z


=1«:

:az=i:


The minstrel fell, but the foeman’s chain Could not bring that proud soul under ; The harp he loved ne’er spoke again,

For he tore its chords asunder,


And said, “ No -ohain shall sully thee,

Thou soul of love and bravery,

Thy songs were made for the pure and free, They shall never sound in slavery.”


Vig-Or-OUS-ly, powerfully; lustily.

Dis-tin-guish, see the difference.

Char-ac-ter, letter; symbol; distinctive mark.

Al-lot-ted, assigned or set apart as a share or lot.

Fer-ule, flat piece of wood, used for striking children, especially on the hand, in punishment.    • 22

Tal-ly, usually piece of wood on which notches are cut, as the marks of numbers.

As-SO-ci-ate, connect or place together in the mind.

Com-pet-i-tive, producing rivalry or common strife for the same object.

Es-says, written compositions on a particular subject.

Com-peR force.

indulging in the afternoon nap ; but the scholars are in their places as usual, although they may be suffered to doze at their desks as they can, for half the rest of the day. Were they allowed to take a regular nap at home, the teacher fears, and with good reason, that he would see no more of them for the day.

4.    The scholars generally do not leave the schoolhouse until it is too dark to distinguish one character from another ; and, in some schools, they are expected to come back in the evening to their tasks.

5.    Chinese teachers punish with the greatest rigour. Failure to learn by heart a certain task in the allotted time is sometimes punished to the extent of hundreds of blows. The ferule always lies upon the teacher’s desk, except when it is doing duty as a tally. Whenever a scholar goes out, he takes it with him. Two pupils are not allowed out at the same time.

6.    When the little pupil, at the age of perhaps seven or eight, takes his seat in the school for the first time, neither the sound nor the meaning of a single character is known to him. The teacher reads

Chambers’s Encyclopaedia.

A SCHOOL WITH THE MASTER OUT.

(From a picture by a Chinese artist.)

over the line, and the lad repeats the sounds, and is corrected until he can pronounce them properly. He then learns to associate a particular sound with a certain shape. A line or two is set as a lesson to each scholar, and his “study” consists in howling the words in as loud a key as possible, without reference to any one else in the room.

7. Every Chinese regards this shouting as a necessary part of the child’s education. If he is not shouting, how can the teacher be sure that he is studying ? And, as studying and shouting are the same thing, when he is shouting, there is nothing more to be desired. Moreover, by this means, the master, who rarely has more than eight or ten to teach, is supposed to be able instantly to detect a wrong sound, and correct it.

8.    When the scholar can repeat the whole of his task without missing a single character, his lesson is “learned;” and he then stands with his back to the teacher—to make sure that he does not see the book—and recites, or “ hacks,” it at railway speed.

9.    The task of learning to write the Chinese characters is a very serious one. Strange as it may seem, the characters which the teacher selects for the writing exercises of his pupil have no relation to anything which the hoy is studying. He has very likely never seen them before, and they do not at all assist his other studies. The only item of which notice is taken, is whether the characters are well or ill formed.

10.    The two things that a pupil is sure to learn in a Chinese school are obedience, and the habit of fixing his attention upon whatever he is reading to the entire disregard of what is going on around him.

11.    Positions under the Government, which are much sought after, are only to be obtained through competitive examinations. For hundreds of years past, these have been set upon the contents of certain ancient hooks ; and the ability of the candidates is determined by their power of turning the knowledge those books contain to account in the shape of essays and poems. The object of the teacher, therefore, is to compel his pupils, first, to remember, secondly, to remember, thirdly and, till after the examination at any rate, to remember.

—Compiled and adapted from Dr. A. H. Smith’s Village Life in China.

THE HORSE AND THE STAG.

■ (A Fable.)

Ad-ver-sa-ry, opponent; enemy. As-sist-ance, help; aid.

Grat-i-fied, indulged according to desire.


As-sist-ant, one who helps or aids. In-de-pend-ence, freedom from control by

others.

1.    A horse, having been insulted by a stag, and finding himself unequal to his adversary, asked a man for assistance.

2.    The request was readily granted; and the man, putting a bridle in his mouth, and mounting upon his hack, soon came up with the stag, and laid him dead at his enemy’s feet.

3.    The horse, having thus gratified his revenge, thanked his assistant. “ And now I will return in triumph,” said he, “ and reign the undisputed lord of the forest.”

“ By no means,” replied the man, “ I shall have occasion for your services, and you must come with me.” So saying, he led him to his home, where the unhappy steed spent the remainder of his days in hard work, having learnt, too late, that it is imprudent to call in the aid of others to accomplish our designs, at the risk of losing our own independence.

—HÜsop.


SOLDIER, REST.

Isle, island.

En-chant-ed, under the power of a charm or enchantment; over which a spell has been cast.

Champ-ing, biting with a snapping noise.

Pi-broch (pee-broch), music of the bagpipe.

Mus-ter-ing, gathering together. 23 24

Fal-low, land ploughed without being sowed for the season.

Bit-tern, wad ing bird that m akes a booming sound.

Sedg-y, overgrown with sedge ; plant growing in tufts in marshy places.

Ward-ers, watchmen.

Clan., tribe or collection of families, united under a chieftain, and bearing the same surname.

Chal-lenge, verb, demand the countersign from one who attempts to pass the lines.

Squad-ron, body of cavalry.

RECUMBENT MONUMENT.


CAPTAIN COOK —continued.

Ex-pe-di-tion, body oi persons entrusted with the carrying out of some important undertaking at a distance.

Trans-it, passage of a smaller heavenly body across the disc of a larger.

Sci£en-tif-ic, concerned in gathering knowledge of natural history and other sciences.

Coll-ier, vessel employed in the coal trade.

De-signed; planned.

Suc-cess-ful-ly, in a way that brought about the desired result.

Ac-COin-plished, performed; done.

Lieu-ten-ant (lef-te?i-ant), officer in the navy next in rank below commander.

Prob-a-bil-i-ty, likelihood.

Prom-i-nent, standing out.

Anch-or-age, place where a ship can anchor.

Ex-er-tions, efforts.

In-gen-ious, skilful; well-adapted.

Oak-um, old ropes untwisted and pulled into loose hemp.

Suc-tion, act of sucking up, as fluids, by exhausting the air.

Ef-fect-ing, doing-; carrying out.

Suc-ceed-ed, contrived.

Warped, towed or moved by means of ropes.

Man-grove, tree growing along the seashore in tropical regions.

Fort-u-nate-ly, happily; luckily.

Prep-a-ra-tions, arrangements.

1.    Iii 1767, Cook, as we have seen, returned to England, after having completed the survey of Newfoundland.1 In the following year, the British Government resolved to send out an expedition for the purpose of observing the transit of Venus,24 and also of making discoveries in the South Pacific and exploring New Zealand.

2.    Cook, as being the man best fitted for the work, was entrusted with the command, and promoted to the rank of lieutenant. Forming part of the expedition was a scientific party, the chief of which were

HULL OF THE “ENDEAVOUR.”


Mr. (afterwards Sir Joseph) Banks and Dr. Solander. The Endeavour, a collier built at Whitby, a stout, strong ship, designed for safety rather than for speed, was selected to convey the expedition.

3. On the 16th of August, 1768, the Endeavour set sail from Plymouth,3 and, after touching at Madeira 4 and Rio Janeiro,5 doubled Cape Horn, and reached Tahiti,6 the place fixed on for taking the observation. This having been successfully accomplished, Cook sailed south, and, on the 7th of October, sighted New Zealand, which had been discovered by Tasman in 1642.

4.    To the work of examining the shores of these islands, six months were given.

Cook did everything thoroughly: the feverish hurry of these days was then unknown. On the 31st of March, 1770, he left New Zealand, the name Cape Farewell marking the last land seen, and steered to the west.

5.    On the morning of the 19th of April, land was discovered four or five leagues distant, the southernmost part of which Cook called Point Hicks in honour of the first lieutenant. This point—the 'portion

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2 of Victoria first seen by Europeans—you will not find on the map under that name. It is in all probability the point south of Ram Head, now called Cape Everard. It seems somewhat unfair to the memory of Hicks, who appears to have been a good officer, that he should have been deprived of the honour meant for him by his captain.

6.    Then Ram Head, so called from its likeness to Ram Head at the entrance to Plymouth Sound, Gabo Island, and Cape Howe were sighted. Cook continued his course along the coast in a northerly direction, giving names to the more prominent capes and inlets.

7.    On the 28th April, the Endeavour anchored in the large bay, which, in after days, became so well known as Botany Bay.7 Here the expedition stayed for nine days. It is said that the first to land was a midshipman, Isaac Smith, Cook’s wife’s cousin. When the captain went ashore, he took the boy with him. “ Now then, Isaac,” he said, “ you go first ” ; and the lad jumped ashore.

8.    Cook thus describes his first meeting with the inhabitants :— “As we approached the shore, the natives all made off, except two men, who, at first, seemed resolved to oppose our landing. We endeavoured to gain their consent to land by throwing them some nails,

beads, &c.; but this had not the desired effect, for, as we put into the shore, one of them threw a large stone at us, and, as soon as we landed, they threw two darts at us ; but, on the firing of two or three muskets loaded with small shot, they took to the woods, and we saw them no more.

“ We found here a few poor huts, made of the bark of trees, in one of which were hidden four or five children, with whom we left some strings of beads, &c.”

9. On the 6th of May, the Endeavour left Botany Bay, and on the same date Cook writes :—“ At noon, we were abreast of a bay or harbour, in which there appeared to be a good anchorage, and which I called Port Jackson.” But Cook did not a kangaroo.    stay to examine it, and so

the beauties of Sydney Harbour remained hidden to the outer world for another eighteen years.

10.    Northwards the ship ploughed her way. All went well till, on

the night of the 6th of June, in spite of Cook’s care in taking soundings, she struck on a reef, and remained fast. All hands were at once on deck. You can imagine their dismay. Till daylight, they were employed in throwing overboard the heavier articles. During the day, they continued at this work, and, at 10 o’clock at night, when it was high tide, the Endeavour    got off the reef. But they were now exposed

to another danger, for the water flowed in through the leak so fast that all their exertions at the pumps could hardly keep the ship afloat.

11.    The following ingenious device, however, saved them. They took an old sail, and, having mixed a large quantity of oakum and wool, stitched it down in handfuls on the sail. Thus prepared, the sail was hauled under the ship by ropes, till it came under the leak, when the suction carried in the oakum and wool from the surface of the sail. They were now able to keep the water under with one pump.

12.    Cook’s next care was to find a suitable place for effecting repairs. This, after some trouble, he succeeded in doing. On the 22nd, they “ warped the ship up the river8 to a hank pitched upon, and, at 8 p.m., when it was high water, hove her ashore, her bow among the mangroves and her stern in three and a half fathoms water.”

13.    At low water, the ship’s bottom was examined, and it was discovered that four planks had been cut through by the rocks. One of the holes was large enough to have sunk her, even with eight pumps constantly at work ; but, fortunately, this hole was, in a great measure, stopped up by a large piece of coral, which had stuck fast in it.

14.    Stores were landed, tents erected on shore, and preparations made for repairing the damage done. The country round was explored, and the explorers saw more of the natives than hitherto they had done. Here, too, kangaroos9 were seen for the first time; one was shot and “ proved fine eating.”

[To be continued.)    —A. C. C.

1.    New-found-land/ (new'-fond-land'), large island, east of the Dominion of Canada, belonging to Great Britain.

2.    Trans-it of Ve-nus.—This planet, like the Earth, moves round the sun, but its orbit and that of the Earth being in different planes, it is only on very rare occasions that Venus comes between the Earth and sun, or as we say passes across the sun’s disc, these transits are very important, since they afford the best and most exact means we possess of ascertaining the sun’s distance.

3.    Plym-outh, town and naval station, south-west of England.

4.    Ma-dei^ra (ma-dee'-ra), islands off the north-west coast of Africa, belonging to Portugal.

5.    Ri-0 Jan-ei-ro (ree'-o jan-ee'-ro), capital of Brazil.

6.    Ta-M-ti (ta-hee'-te), in the South Pacific Ocean, the principal of the Society Islands.

7.    Bot^a-ny Bay.—It is noteworthy that the name first given to it by Cook was “ Stingray Bay," from the large number of these fish seen there. Second thoughts, we may presume, induced him to substitute for this the more pleasant sounding “ Botany Bay.” This name was suggested by the abundance of new plants found there by the botanists of the expedition.

8.    The River. —This Cook named the Endeavour River. On it now stands Cooktown.

9.    Kangaroo.—It is in the journals of Cook and Banks that the word occurs for the first time in any written language. It is noteworthy that it is not now found in the language of any of the native tribes.

NAT TAYLOR.

Tar-dy, slow; late.

Neg-lect-ed, failed to do ; omitted.

Er-rand, something to be told or done by one sent somewhere for the purpose.

Mis-chief, harm ; evil. 25

Bade {bad), wished ; said, as a wish.

Re-paired; mended.

Cig-a rette, fine tobacco rolled in paper for smoking ; little cigar.


2.    “ There he comes now, on his way to school. He is not the hoy to he late. His teacher says he is never tardy nor absent, and that it is really wonderful how fast he learns. He will be the top boy in his class at the end of the year, I feel sure.”

3.    One morning, however, Nat did not appear at school as usual. He was sick, and had to lie in bed; and everybody at school missed him. Some of the boys came to find out what the matter was, but he felt too miserable to see them.

4.    It was a day or two before he was well again, and then he was not quite his old self.. By-and-by, people began to ask, “ What has happened to Nat ? He doesn’t whistle so much as he used to.”

5.    He neglected to do errands for his mother, even when she had told him them two or three times over before he left home. He said he had forgotten, although he used to pride himself on his good memory. His teacher noticed the difference in school, and asked Mrs. Taylor if Nat were sick.

6.    “He is not so bright as he was,” she said; “Almost every day,” remarked his teacher, “ he seems dull and stupid a good part" of the time. Yesterday, he went to sleep twice in class ; something I never knew him to do before. I can’t make out what the trouble is.”

7.    Mrs. Taylor looked anxious. She called Nat, and asked him if he felt well. He said he did, but he hung his head, and looked as confused as if he had been caught in some mischief. Something certainly was wrong with Nat.

.    8. That night his mother found out what it was.

“ There’s a hole in the knee of my trousers,” Nat said when he bade them all good night. “Will you, please, mend it, Mother, so that I can have them to put on in the morning ? ”

9.    Mrs. Taylor repaired the torn place, and looked to see if there were other holes. “ There is sure to be one in the pocket,” she thought.

There was no hole there, for a wonder ; but she found something else which made what Nat called the “ sorry look” come into her eyes.

Can you guess what it was ?

10.    A cigarette ! She knew now what had made Nat sick, why he had forgotten to do her errands, and why he went to sleep in school instead of being bright and quick at his lessons. He had been learning to smoke.

When Nat came to breakfast in the morning, Mrs. Taylor said, “ Did you know there had been a thief in the house, Nat ? ”

11.    “Why, no ! ” exclaimed Nat, with wide-open eyes. “Did he

steal anything ? ”    '

“ Yes, he has been stealing my boy’s health, and his good spirits, and his memory, and leaving quite a different kind of boy in his place. What shall we do with him ? ” asked Mrs. Taylor, holding up the cigarette. “ Here he is.”

12.    Nat started to laugh, but he stopped when he saw his mother’s face, and they had a long talk together.

When it ended he said, with a little smile : “ Well, Mother, I don’t think we want any thieves in onr house.”

^    13. Mrs. Taylor did not find any more cigarettes in Nat’s pocket,

for he kept his breath sweet and his head clear by not smoking again.

He told his teacher the story one day, and, the next morning, she hung this card up in the school-room :

THE THIEF TOBACCO STEALS—

Our health.    Our strength.

Our good looks.    Our memory.

Our liking for play.


—Adapted from Schoolmates (N.Z.).

LLEWELYN1 AND

Brach (brak), female hound.

Hart, stag’; male of the red deer.

Hied, went.

Port-al, door; gate.

Fa-vour-ite, best-liked.

Guise, manner ; behaviour.

Be-sprenti sprinkled ; bespattered.

Fran-tic, raving ; violent; mad.

Sup-pli-ant, one who begs or implores. Con-cealed/ hidden.

Gher-ub, adj., beautiful; like the angels that are represented as beautiful children by painters.

1.    The spearman heard the bugle sound,

And cheerily smiled the morn,

And many a brach and many a hound Attend Llewelyn’s horn;

2.    And still he blew a louder blast,

And gave a louder cheer,—

Come, Gelert! why art thou the last Llewelyn’s horn to hear ?

3.    ‘ ‘ Oh, where does faithful Gelert roam?

The flower of all his race !

So true, so brave !—a lamb at home,

A lion in the chase ! ”

4.    That day Llewelyn little loved

The chase of hart or hare,

And scant and small the booty proved,—

For Gelert was not there.

5.    Unpleased, Llewelyn homeward hied;

When, near the portal seat,2 His truant Gelert he espied,

Bounding his lord to greet.


HIS DOG GELERT.

Tre-men-dous, terrible awful.

Heir, one who is entitled to succeed to the possession of any property after the death of its owner.

A-dieu' good-bye • farewell.

Rue, lament; grieve over.

Sculp-ture, carved work.

Sto-ried, bearing inscriptions. (An adjective formed from the noun story.)

For-est-er, officer appointed to watch a forest and preserve the game.

Pier-Cing, penetrating; keen.

6.    But, when he gained the castle door,

Aghast the chieftain stood :

The hound was smeared with drops of gore,—

His lips and fangs ran blood !

7.    Llewelyn gazed with wild surprise;—

Unused such looks to meet,

His favourite checked his joyfulguise, And crouched and licked his feet.

8.    Onward in haste Llewelyn passed,

(And on went Gelert too,)

And still, where’er his eyes were cast, Fresh blood-drops shocked his view!

9.    O’erturned his infant’s bed he found !

The blood-stained cover rent,

And, all around, the walls and ground With recent blood besprent!

10. He called his child. No voice replied ! He searched with terror wild ; Blood ! blood he found on every side! But nowhere found the child !


17.    Vain, vain was all Llewelyn’s woe:—

“Best of thy kind, adieu !

The frantic deed which laid thee low This heart shall ever rue.”

18.    And now a gallant tomb they raise,

With costly sculpture decked ;

And marbles, storied with his praise, Poor Gelert’s bones protect.26


DEER-HOUND.


11.    c< Monster ! by thee my child’s

devoured!”

The frantic father cried ;

And to the hilt his vengeful sword He plunged in Gelert’s side !

12.    His suppliant, as to earth he fell,

No pity could impart;

But still his Gelert’s dying yell Passed heavy o’er his heart.

13.    Aroused by Gelert’s dying yell,

Some slumberer wakened nigh ;— What words the parent’s joy can tell To hear his infant cry !


14.    Concealed beneath a mangled heap

His hurried search had missed,

All glowing from his rosy sleep,

His cherub boy he kissed !

15.    Nor scratch had he, nor harm, nor

dread :

But the same couch beneath Lay a great wolf, all torn and dead,— Tremendous still in death !

16.    Ah, what was then Llewelyn’s pain !

Por now the truth was clear :

The gallant hound the wolf had slain To save Llewelyn’s heir.


19.    Here never could the spearman pass, Or forester, unmoved;

Here oft the tear-besprinkled grass Llewelyn’s sorrow proved.

20.    And here he hung his horn and spear; And oft, as evening fell,

In fancy’s piercing sounds would hear Poor Gelert’s dying yell.

—W. R. Spencer (1770-1834).

1.    Llew-el-yn (loo-el-in). There was a Prince of Wales of the name, who died in the year 1240.

2.    Port-al seat, seat for the man whose duty it was to open or shut the gate; or, perhaps, his house (now called lodge) near the gate.

A TALK ABOUT TOPS.

Sen-si-tole, intelligent ; gifted with good sense. Dif-fer-ence, variation.


Spin-ning, moving round rapidly; revolving about its axis.

Con-tin-ues, goes on.


1.    “ Hallo, George ! what makes that top spin ? ”

“ I do, sir ! ”

“ But you are not touching it.”

“ I did touch it just now, sir. I set it going with this string.”

“ But you have taken the string away, George, and yet the top keeps spinning all the time. Why does it not fall down instead of keeping straight upright on its peg ? ”

2.    “ I do not know, I am sure, sir ! but, perhaps, it continues to whirl round because it has no time to fall down.”

You are not far wrong there, George. But why does it go round at all now that you have taken the string away ? ”

3.    The boy who had answered the first two or three questions

opened his mouth once again to reply, but closed it, and began to think, like a sensible fellow.    *


The person who had asked the questions was George’s teacher, who always liked to see the boys enjoying themselves.

4.    “ Well, the top is down now, George. Set it spinning again.” George did so at once.

‘‘Well, now, George, why does it go round ? ”

“ Because it cannot stop, I should think, sir ; but I am not able to tell why it cannot stop.”

“ I will tell you, then,” said his teacher.

5.    “ First, then, the top is a lifeless piece of wood, and cannot, of course, do anything by itself. Whilst it is lying on its side it will not, and cannot, stir until

HUMMING, PEG, AMD WHIPPING TOPS. some one moves it, and sets it going again.

So, although you may not think it, the top will not stop spinning unless some one or something stops it.

6.    “ There are two things, my boy, which are doing all they can to put an end to the to]3's motion. These two things are the rubbing of the peg on the ground, and the rubbing of the sides of the top against the air.”

7.    “ But can the air stop it much, sir ? I can understand that the ground would stop it, but I can’t understand how the air can stop it.”

“ I do not suppose you can at first, George ; but have you ever noticed how the wind hinders you when you are trying to run ? ”

“ Oh, yes, sir ; I have often noticed that.”

8.    “ And do you not know, George, that wind is only the air in

motion ? ”    .


“ I did not know before this moment, sir, but I am sure I shall never forget it now.”

“ Just in the same way, George, that the air hinders you, so the air hinders, and, at last, stops the top. Can you see it more plainly now, George ? ”

“ Yes, sir, I can understand it quite clearly.”

9. “ What would you think, George, if I told you that we could make a top spin for two hours and a half ? We could easily do that if we could get rid of all the air in a room, and then set the top spinning. Thus you see what a difference the air makes to the motion

of the top.    —Adapted from the Boy's Own Paper.

KING CANUTE THE DANE—(1017-35).

Courtiers (lcort-yers), persons in attendance at the court of a prince.

Quoth, said.

Ech-oed, repeated.

Ad-vanc-ing, moving forward.

Keep-er, important officer at the court of a prince.


In-flict-ed, caused to bear or suffer.

Re-spect; esteem : honour.

Re-buk-ing, cheeking; reproving.

Per-ceivei see.

Nov-el-ist, writer of novels, that is, stories invented or imagined.

Con-q uerecl, overthrown in battle.

1.    At about the time that the Saxon kingdoms of England became united under King Egbert, the Danes, or Northmen, began to invade the country. The new-comers inflicted on the Saxons almost the same evils that the Saxons had inflicted on the Britons. First, they came to plunder ; then, to settle; and, finally, to conquer and rule England.

2.    After more than two hundred years of almost constant fighting against them, the English nation, in the year 1017, chose the° Dane Canute (or Cnut) as their King. He was a great man, and he showed it by making the English respect and trust him, just as if he had been an Englishman.

3.    The writers that lived soon after his days tell many stories about him. One runs somewhat as follows:—

4.    King Canute was one day by the sea-shore near Southampton, in the south of England; and some of the men that were with him were loud in praise of his power and greatness, and said that even the waves would obey him. By way of rebuking these flatterers, he ordered a chair to be placed close to the water’s edge. KING CANUTE (1017-35).

5.    Then said Canute: “ 0 sea, I am lord; my ships sail over thee whither I will, and this land against which thou dashest is mine ; stay then thy waters, and dare not to wet the feet of thy lord and master.”

6.    But the waves rolled on, for the tide was coming in, and they splashed round-the chair on which Canute was sitting, and wet his feet and his clothes.

7.    The King then spoke to the men that were with him: “ Ye perceive how weak is the power of kings and of all men, for ye see that the waves will not hearken to my voice. Honour then God only, and serve him, for Him do all things obey.”

8.    Henceforth, King Canute would not wear his crown, but, to show his humbleness, placed it in a church.

Here is the story told in verse by the great novelist Thackeray:—

9. King Canute was weary-hearted ; he had reigned for years a score,

Battling struggling, pushing, fighting, killing much and robbing more;

And he thought about his actions, walking by the wild sea-shore.

10.    “ Leading on my fierce companions,” quoth he, “ over storm and sea,

I have fought and I have conquered ; where was monarch like to me ? ”

Loudly all the courtiers echoed, “ Where is monarch like to thee ? ”

11.    “Will the advancing waves obey me, courtiers, if I make the sign ? ”

Said the courtiers, bowing lowly, “ Land and sea, O King, are thine.”

Canute turned towards the ocean. “ Back,” he said, “ thou foaming brine.”

12.    “ From the sacred shore I stand on, I command thee to retreat;

Venture not, thou stormy rebel, to approach thy master’s seat ;

Ocean, be thou still, I bid thee ! Coihe not nearer to my feet.”

13.    But the sullen ocean answered with a louder, deeper roar,

And the rapid waves drew nearer, falling, sounding on the shore ;

Back the keeper and the bishop, back the king and courtiers bore.

14.    And he sternly bade them never more to kneel to human clay,

But alone to praise and worship That which earth and seas obey ;

And his golden crown of empire never wore he from that day.

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, ETC.

No. 5.—THE WEAVER’S KNOT.

A knowledge of how two strings are readily and securely joined by means of a knot is of service to girls as well as to boys. It is something they have to do nearly every day.

In uniting twine, the weaver's knot is perhaps the best; for joining two threads, it is certainly so. To make the tying of this form of knot easily understood, four sketches are supplied. They are the work of a scholar attending State School No. 2837, Moreland.

Fig. 1.    Fig. 2.    Fig- 3.    Fig. 4.

-S. S.


The two ends to be joined are taken and crossed (Fig. 1), the right one being placed underneath the left; both cords are held between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, at the point of crossing. The right cord is then looped back over its own end, and held fast (Fig. 2), while the end of the left cord is slipped through the loop (Fig. 3). The knot is then formed by drawing tight the right hand cord (Fig. 4).

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

The Western Australian Exhibit at the Paris Exhibition.

1.    A gentleman in Paris recently wrote to a friend in Melbourne concerning the Paris Exhibition, which is now open. He says :—

“ The Exhibition is a great, straggling place, where yon can walk until you are tired out without seeing a tenth part of it. There are thirty-six entrances to it, and no two close together ; in fact, it is quite a walk from one to the next.

2.    “ Western Australia is the only Australian colony that makes any show. It has a splendid gold exhibit —nuggets, rich specimens of fine and coarse gold,—the whole worth, it is estimated, about £90,000. The colony has made a good display of jarrah timber also; and the court seems to attract attention.”

The Oldest Newspaper in the World.

The Kin-Pau, published in Peking, has appeared regularly for over a thousand years. It began as a monthly, became a weekly in 1361, when Edward III. was King of England, and, since the beginning of this century, has been a daily. It now appears three times a day; and, in order that the purchaser may get the edition he wants, the first is printed on yellow paper, the second on white, and the last on gray.

MORNING SONG.

J. S. Stallybrass.

Mendelssohn.

1.    To

2.    Re*


Morning- Song-—continued.

f


V


i=P=


t:


3. The world with all its joy and sor - row, Is but a bridge o’er time’s deep flood, That

—1\—|--—j------p


bear me to my home and God, my    home, my home and God.


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 39.] MELBOURNE. [November, 1900.

BROTHERLY LOVE.

Un-trou-bled, undisturbed; peaceful.

1.    We are but two—the others sleep

Through death’s untroubled night; We are but two—oh, let us keep The link that binds us bright !

2.    We in one mother’s arms were locked—

Long be her love repaid !

In the same cradle we were rocked; Round the same hearth we played.


Hearth (harth), floor of a fireplace.

3.    Our boyish sports were all the same,

Each little joy and woe;

Let manhood keep alive the flame Lit up so long ago.

4.    We are but one—be that the bond

To hold us till we die!

Shoulder to shoulder let us stand, Till side by side we lie.

—Anonymous.

A SPRING WALK NEAR MELBOURNE.

En-ter-tained; amused with that which makes the time pass pleasantly.

Cu-ri-OS-i-ty, that which is curious, or fitted to excite attention.

Im-me-di-ate-ly, at once; without delay. 27 28 29 30 31

Mis£tle-toe, evergreen plant that grows on a shrub or tree.

Va-ri-e-ty, subdivision of a species; kind. Gorse, furze; prickly shrub.

De-ceived! imposed upon; misled; deluded.

“ Oh, sir, the pleasantest of walks ! I went from the Blackburn Railway Station along the Koonung Creek for a time, passed Doncaster, and travelled across the country towards the River Yarra near Heidelberg.”

“ Why,” said Mr. Andrews, “ that is just the walk George took, and he complains of its dullness, and prefers the main road.”

6.    “ I wonder at that,” replied Frank; “I am sure I hardly took a step that did not delight me, and I have brought home my handkerchief full of curiosities.”

“ Suppose, then,” said Mr. Andrews, “ you give us some account of what amused you so much. I fancy it will be as new to George as to me.”

7.    “I will, sir. Immediately upon leaving-the line at Blackburn, I entered paddocks thickly studded with saplings and flowering plants. From an old gum-tree grew a bunch of something green, quite different from the tree itself. Here is a branch of it.”

8.    “Ah! this is mistletoe,” replied Mr. Andrews, “a species similar to the plant of great fame which the Druids of old in Scandinavia, Germany, and Britain made use of in their religious rites.

It bears a slimy, whitish berry.

It is one of those plants that do not grow in the ground by a root of their own, but fix themselves upon other plants.

It was the mistletoe of the oak only, not that of other trees, that the Druids honoured.”    mistletoe that grows on the oak.

9.    “ A little farther on,” continued Frank, “ I saw a white-throated tree-creeper fly to a tree, and run up the trunk.”

“ It was seeking,” said Mr. Andrews, “ for the insects on which it lives. They are found in the bark of trees. These birds have been called from their habits Australian woodpeckers.”

10.    “When I got near the top of the hill,” said Frank, “how charming it was ! The air was so fresh, and the prospect on every side so very beautiful with orchards all round, and the ocean and grand mountains in the distance ! Then gay flowers were on every side, many of which I had never before seen. There were at least three varieties of heath (I have specimens of them in my handkerchief), and many other flowers, the names of which I should like you to tell me.”

11.    “That I will readily,” replied Mr. Andrews.

“ I also saw several birds that were new to me. There was a pretty grayish one about twice the size of a lark, that was hopping about the open ground. When he flew, he went straight into a thicket beside the creek away below me.”

12.    “ That was a gray shrike thrush,” replied Mr. Andrews. “ Fruitgrowers consider them very useful birds, because they eat so many harmful insects.”

“ There was, near some gorse, a flock of little black and white birds that amused me very much,” said Frank. “As I came near them, they kept calling ‘ tang ’ quite plainly, with a weak voice. As one rose from a bush, I thought I could have caught him, for he flew along the ground as if one of his wings were broken, and often tumbled in his course. But, as I came near, he always made a shift to get away.”

13.    “ Ha, ha!” laughed Mr. Andrews, “you were finely deceived then ! That was merely a trick of the bird to entice you away from the nest. Their nests are built in low bushes, and might easily be seen, did the birds not draw off the attention of intruders by their cries and pretended lameness.”

14.    “I wish I had known that,” said Frank, ‘‘for he led me a chase over a swampy piece of ground, and, of course, I fell into a pool of

COPPER-HEAD SNAKE.

(From McCoy’s Zoology of Victoria.)


water. However, it was the means of my meeting with an old man and a boy, who gave me a creature I had never seen before, a copperhead snake, which they had just killed. I. have seen several whip snakes, but never one so large as this creature.”

( To be continued.)

—Adapted by Robert Hall from Eyes and No Eyes (“Evenings at Home ”).

1. Hei^del-berg, town on the River Yarra, 8 miles to the eastward of Melbourne. Blackburn is about five miles south-east of Heidelberg, as the crow flies.

LIFE ON THE CANTON RIVER: CHINESE FISHING.

Mov-a-ble, not fixed.

Cu-ri-OUS, strange.

Cor-mo-rant, shag; kind of seabird of a greedy nature.

Wand (wdnd), small stick. 32

Prey, that which is or may be seized by animals or birds to be devoured.

Dis'ad-van-tage, drawback; condition that causes loss or injury.

De-struc-tion, ruin; extinction.

2.    Many of these boats have a strange appearance. Fancy boats on which rice can be grown ! and yet that is actually done. But, perhaps, they should not be called boats ; they are rather rafts, or small floating islands, formed out of planks and logs strongly fastened together, on the top of which soil is laid. Here it is that the owners build their houses, cultivate rice, and keep ordinary domestic animals— making a farm on a small scale on the raft. Then, with sails or oars, they move from place to place at their will.

3.    The river supplies this floating population with most of its food.

CHINESE FISHING: ONE MODE.


One of the ways employed by the Chinese to catch fish is shown in the picture.

4. From the bows of the fishing-boat hangs a dipnet, attached to shears, which, in turn, are fastened to a movable platform, by means of which the dip-net may be raised or lowered. A Chinese boy, as the picture shows, is having a see-saw on the platform, evidently helping to raise the net quickly by pressing down one end of the platform, while it is being-pulled down by ropes below.

5.    So the whole process is very simple : the loose end of the platform being raised allows the net to sink into the water, and then, when the fish are in or over the net, it is quickly raised.

6.    But the Chinaman has another curious method of obtaining fish, which saves him much personal exertion, that is, by means of birds called cormorants. These birds are trained so that, at a touch of a wand, they will dive into the water, catch the fish in their mouths, and return at once to their master with their prey.

7.    “But why don’t the cormorants swallow the fish?” some one may ask. Their owner takes good care that they are unable to do so, for, to prevent them from swallowing anything large, he fastens metal collars round their necks. He rewards them, however, after

8.    It must be an interesting sight to see a fisherman at work with his cormorants. He will sometimes have as many as a hundred of these birds under his charge at once ; and he certainly must he kept very busy if the fish are at all plentiful. But this kind of fishing has one disadvantage : the fish are somewhat mangled by the cormorants, and, in consequence, do not bring so high a price as they otherwise would.

they have caught a fish by giving them a little piece of one, which they can swallow even with their collars on.


9.    When any young fish are caught, they are fed with paste, and kept in tanks until they are large enough to be let loose in ponds, where they may be caught when

.    wanted. This is a very good way of

dealing with the young fish, and avoids the wholesale destruction that is carried on in some other places.

—Adapted from The Children’s Hour (S.A.).

THE GIANT AND THE DWARF.

Ban, curse.

Dwarf, very small person. Imp, evil spirit of small size. Suc-cour, help.


Spin-dle, part of the machine for spinning yarn. Trai-tor, false friend; one who betrays. Val-our, bravery.

Prompt-ly, at once.

1. As on through life’s journey we go day by day,

There are two whom we meet at each turn of the way, To help or to hinder, to bless or to ban;

And the names of these two are “I Can’t” and “I Can.”

2.     I Can’t” is a dwarf, a poor, pale, puny imp:

His eyes are half blind, and his walk is a limp;

He stumbles and falls, or lies writhing with fear, Though dangers are distant and succour is near.

3.    “I Can ” is a giant: unbending he stands;

There is strength in his arms and skill in his hands;

He asks for no favour, he wants but a share Where labour is honest and wages are fair.

4.    “I Can’t” is a sluggard: too lazy to work,

From duty he shrinks, every task he will shirk;

No bread on his board, no meal in his bag,

His house is a ruin, his coat is a rag. 33

G. “I Can’t ” is a coward half fainting with fright :

At the first thought of peril he slinks out of sight;

Skulks and hides till the noise of the battle is past,

Or sells his best friends, and turns traitor at last.

7.    “ I Can” is a hero: the first in the field,

Though others may falter, he never will yield;

He makes the long man-hes, he deals the last blow,

His charge is the whirlwind that scatters the foe.

8.    How grandly and nobly he stands to his trust !

When, roused at the call of a cause that is just,

He weds his strong will to the valour of youth,

And writes on his banner the watchword of Truth!

9.    Then up and be doing ! the day is not long;

Throw fear to the winds, be patient and strong!

Stand fast in your place, act your part like a man;

And, when duty calls, answer promptly, “ I can! ”

—Anonymous.

CAPTAIN COOK —continued.

Prev-a-lent, extensively existing; very common. Ex-Cite-ment, agitation; stir.

DiS-CUS-SiOH, debate; talk; dispute. Com-mand-er, an officer ranking next above a lieutenant.

Mys-ter-y, something not understood, and exciting curiosity.

Sur-vey, careful examination.

Con-sent-ed, agreed.

Trav-ersed, crossed; gone over.

Of-fered, said that he was willing.

Ex-trav-a-gant, excessive ; beyond reasonable

bounds.

Hos-pi-tal-i-ty, entertainment of strangers and guests without reward.

Cut-ter, small boat attached to ships of war. In-duc-ing, prevailing on.

De-tain-ing, holding in custody. Rev-'er-ent-ly, with respectful regard. Com-mit-ted, consigned ; placed.

Ig-no-ble, paltry.

Gen-ius (jee-ni-us), superior power of mind.

h *


900.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.


CAPTAIN OOOK PROCLAIMING NEW SOUTH WALES A BRITISH SETTLEMENT, 1770.

(The original picture by S. A. Gilfillan, owned by the Royal Society of Victoria, hangs in the National Gallery, Melbourne.)

three years, the Endeavour reached England. The arrival of the voyagers was hailed with rejoicing ; and the accounts of their discoveries naturally caused much excitement and discussion.

5.    Cook was promoted to the rank of commander. To us this does not appear by any means a fitting reward for the man who may be said to have given Australia to the British nation. But the Government was evidently not yet aware of the value of the gift.

6.    Cook spent only a year at home. Another task was awaiting him. For years there had been a strong belief in the existence of a great southern continent. His recent discoveries brought the question again to the front, and a fierce discussion raged. Something must be

THE “ENDEAVOUR” APPROACHING TAHITI.


done to solve the mystery, and who so fit to do so as Commander Cook ?

7. The Government, accordingly, fitted out two vessels, the Resolution and Adventure. The ships left Plymouth,6 in July, 1772, and made the usual stay at Cape Town. Thence Cook steered south, and for several weeks

_    skirted the great

ice wall of the Antarctic regions. When the approach of winter made further progress impossible, the vessels’ course was turned north.

8.    After making a further survey of Hew Zealand, Cook gave orders that the vessels should be headed for Tahiti.7 A stay of a fortnight in this delightful island made some amends to the crew for the hardships they had endured in their southern trip.

9.    But spring found the voyagers again busy in the exploration of the Antarctic Ocean; and, for a second time, they reached the great wall of ice. Then, when winter drove them back, came another holiday in pleasant Tahiti. Leaving this in May, 1774, they visited several islands, discovering among others Hew Caledonia.8 In Hovember, Cook sailed on his third and last attempt to find the southern continent. On this, as on the two previous occasions, he consented to return northwards, only when he coxld get no further south. He had traversed the Southern Ocean in all directions, and had found no southern continent anywhere.

10.    In July, 1775, the ships returned to England. Cook was appointed a captain in Greenwich Hospital, and received other honours. It might he thought that, after having been thirty-four years at sea, and having done so much, he might well rest and enjoy his well-earned repose. But, though the question of the southern continent was settled, there was another more important still to be solved. This was the question whether a North-'Western passage existed. It was hoped that a short way of reaching China from Europe by the sea north of America might be found.

11.    The Government determined to send out an expedition for this object. Cook offered to take the command, and, on board his old ship the Resolution, accompanied by the Discovery, he set sail in July, 1776. Tasmania and New Zealand were visited, and numerous islands

THE WORLD (ON MERCATOR’S PROJECTION), SHOWING COOK’S VOYAGES (l768-80).

(From The Raleigh History Readers: Messrs. Blackie & Son.)

in the Pacific, among them some of the Sandwich group.9 In March, the coast of North America was sighted and explored for three thousand five hundred miles.

12. In the summer of 1777, the ships passed through Bering’s Straits, and reached the region of Polar ice. Cook, seeing no hope of further advance for that season, steered south, reached the Sandwich Islands once more, and discovered Hawaii (ha-wye'-ee)—the chief of the group. Here the natives, doubtless taking Cook for one of their gods whose return they had long been expecting, treated him and his crews with extravagant honours and unbounded hospitality.

13.    After a stay of sixteen days, the voyagers took their departure ; but they had not been at sea more than a few days, when a heavy gale cracked the foremast of the Resolution, and they had to put back for repairs.

14.    In the meantime, the feelings of the natives had undergone a change. Quarrels between them and the sailors took place. The cutter of the Discovery was stolen. To enforce the return of this, Cook went ashore with the object of inducing the king to come on board and of detaining him till the cutter was restored.

15.    Cook with the king and a large company of excited natives had approached the shore, when a disturbance arose, the end being that he and four of his men were killed. A day or two afterwards, such of the remains of their lamented captain as were restored by the natives were reverently committed to the deep by his sorrowing crew.

16.    Thus fell, in an ignoble quarrel, a man whose genius and capacity had raised him high above his fellows, who had widely extended the bounds of human knowledge, and had opened up to the enterprise of his countrymen a new world. “ He was,” in the words of Mr. Sutherland, “ one of the straightest and most forcible characters of his time, and no other of that century accomplished a greater work. No one before him had ever sailed over so much of the surface of this earth, and, of his 300,000 miles of voyaging, fully half had been in oceans utterly uncharted. He made known Australia and New Zealand, New Caledonia, the Sandwich Islands, and three thousand miles of the coast of North America.”

17.    He not only made known these lands, but he was in advance of his age in the observations and the minute examination which he made into the religion, manners, customs, arts, and language of the natives wherever he went. It was he who directed these inquiries, and he was himself the principal observer.

18.    There is a monument erected to Cook’s memory at Ayton,10 in Sydney, and in Hawaii, on a spot overlooking the scene of his death. At Marton,11 where the great sailor was born, there is a school named after him.

—A. C. C.

1.    En-deav-our River. Cooktown has been built on the estuary of this river.

2.    Tor-res Strait, by Cook called Endeavour Strait.

3.    A small is-land, called Possession Island.

4.    Ba-ta-vi-a, the capital of the large island of Java, which belongs to the Dutch.

5.    Cape Town, capital of Cape Colony, a British possession in the south of South Africa.

6.    Plym-OUtll, town and naval station south-west of England.

7.    Ta-M-ti (ta-hee-te) in the South Pacific Ocean; the largest of the Society Islands, east of Fiji Islands.

8.    New Cal-e-do-ni-a, island east of Queensland. It is a French penal station, that is, a place to which persons convicted of crime are sent from France. There are 10,000 convicts now on the island.

9.    Sand-wich Is-lands, in the North Pacific Ocean, west of the United States of America. This name, given to the group in 1778 by Captain Cook, in honour of the First Lord of the Admiralty at the time (Lord Sandwich), was changed to Hawaii, when, in 1898, the islands were annexed by the Government of the United States.

10.    Ay-ton, a village in the east of Yorkshire, England.

11.    Mar-ton, a village in the east of Yorkshire, England

MARGARET WILSON.

[“A noble instance of self-sacrifice was recently witnessed at Newcastle.' While four children were playing on the railway near the station, an engine and tender came up. One little fellow ran for the platform, and his example was followed by his elder sister. Looking- back, however, she saw that the other two children were in danger. She returned to them, and drew them to her side between the rails and the platform. As the engine passed, the connecting-rod struck her down ; and she died in a few moments. The children she had so nobly protected escaped almost unhurt. The name of this heroic little maiden was Margaret Wilson, daughter of a miner.”—Daily News, London, June 3rd, 1868.]

11. Yet thy true heart, and fearless faith,

And agony of love in death,

God saw, and He remembereth.

—F. T. Palgrave (born 1824).

1.    New-cas-tle, city on the River Tyne, north-east of England. A great coal-mining and manufacturing centre.    •

2.    May, early summer time in England.


Self-sac-ri-fice, giving up one’s self, or one’s interests, for the sake of others.

Wit-nessed, seen.

Tender, car forming part of a train, for carrying a supply of fuel and water for the engine.

1. Four children at their little play Across the iron-furrowed way,

Joyous in all the joy of May.34 35

"2. Three, babies : and one, Margaret,

In charge upon the others set To lift and soothe them if they fret.

3.    The sky is blue, the sun is bright; The little voices, pure and light, Make music as they laugh outright.

4.    The noiseless weight of giant wheels Amongst them in a moment steals, And death is rolling at their heels.

•5. She ran with one to reach the side, And reached it; and looked back, and spied,

Where the dark wheels right towards them slide,


Pro-tect-ed, shielded from danger; preserved. He-ro-ic, brave.

Soothe, pacify; calm.

Her-O-ine, girl or woman of a brave spirit.

6.    The other two that were forgot, Playing by death and knowing not;— And dreW them to the narrow spot ;

7.    Between the rails and platform-side, Safe nestling down;—but, as they

glide,

The wheel-rods struck her, and she died.

8.    By those she died ; for there she lay, Nor any word could Margaret say ; But closed her eyes and passed away.

9.    My little heroine, though I ne’er Can look upon thy features fair,

Nor kiss the lips that mangled were:

10. Too small a thing for Fame to have A portion with the great and brave, And unknown is thy lowly grave ;


WHAT IS ALCOHOL?

El-der-ber-ries, small black or red berries, the fruit of a shrub.

Dan-ger-OUS, full of risk; unsafe.

A BUNCH OF GRAPES.


Fla-VOUred, having a distinct taste. Poi-SOn-OUS, noxious or very hurtful. Quar-rel-some, apt to quarrel.

surface with froth. The ^ . juice is all in motion.    J

3.    Sometimes, ripe grapes are gathered, and the juice which they contain squeezed out by means of a press. This is run into large tubs called vats, and is left standing in a warm place.

4.    Bubbles soon be- '    '    ‘

gin to rise and cover its ^


If the cook had wished to use this grape-juice to make jelly, she would say : “ Now, I cannot make my grape-jelly, for the grape juice is spoiled.”

5.    The sugar in the grape-juice is changing into something else. It is turning into alcohol and a gas1 that moves about in little bubbles in the liquid, and, rising to the top, goes off into the air. The alcohol is a thin liquid which, mixed with the water, remains in the grape-juice.

6.    The sugar is gone ; alcohol and the bubbles of gas are left in its place.

This alcohol is a liquid poison. A little of it will harm any one who drinks it ; much of it would . kill th« drinker.

7.    Ripe grapes are good food ; but grape-juice, when its sugar has turned to alcohol, is not a safe drink for any one. It is rendered poisonous by the alcohol. This

changed grape- ” juice is called wine. It is partly water,

partly alcohol, and it still has the grape flavour in it.

WINE PRESS.

(From MurcM's Science Readers : Messrs. Macmillan & Co.)


8. Wine is also made from currants, elderberries, and other fruits, in very much the same way as from grapes. People sometimes j make it at home from the fruits that grow in their own gardens, and think there is no alcohol in it, been use they do not put

any in. But, as you now know, the alcohol is made in the fruit-juice itself by the change of the sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid gas.

9.    It is the nature of alcohol to cause the person who takes a little of it in wine, or any other drink, to want more and more. In this way, wine has made many drunkards. Alcohol injures both the body and mind. It changes the person who drinks much of it. It will sometimes make a good and kind person thoughtless and bad ; and will make a bad person worse. Not every one who takes wine becomes a drunkard, but you are not sure that you will not if you drink it.

10.    Cider is made from apples. In a few hours after the juice is pressed out of the apples, if it is left open to the air, the sugar begins to change. Like the sugar in the grape, it changes into alcohol and carbonic acid gas.

11.    At first, there is but little alcohol in cider, but a little of this poison is dangerous. More alcohol is all the time forming until, in ten cups of cider, there may be one cup of alcohol. Cider often makes those who drink it to excess ill-tempered and quarrelsome.

12.    Wine and cider will turn into vinegar if left in a warm place long enough.

—Adapted from the Child’s Health Primer.

1. Gas, carbonic acid gas. It. is colourless and exists in small quantities in the air.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

“The Grand Old Flag.”

From an account written by one of the besieged in Peking, and published in The Argus recently, the following striking passage is extracted:—

“We can exclaim with Sir George White, ‘Thank God, we kept the flag flying.’ We flew the Union Jack in the British Legation grounds at 4 o’clock on the afternoon of June the 28th, and it remained there throughout the siege, except for a few minutes in the early days of our despair, when the halyards were shot away, and the flag came down ; but we speedily had it up again, and, to prevent another such,incident, we nailed the bunting to the mast. When we left Peking, the old flag was flying still, riddled though it was with Chinese bullets.”

The Royal Visit to Australia.

1.    All the readers of The School Paper are, no doubt, aware that His Royal Highness the Duke of York intends to visit Australia early next year to open, on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen, the first session of the first Parliament of the Australian Commonwealth.

2.    Once before, he visited these shores in company with his late brother, the Duke of Clarence and Avondale. The young princes then showed great interest in everything that concerned the colony. In a diary which they kept, and which has since been published in “The Cruise of the Bacchante,” occurs the following interesting passage, under the date, 1st July, 1881 :—-

3.    “ To-day is a public holiday, for it is the thirtieth birthday of Victoria. When the colony was born to separate life from New South Wales, its population was only 97,000 ; to-day, it is nearly 1,000,000. Accordingly, as we have just been reading in to-day’s paper, ‘first Victoria, and then Queensland have been detached, and, in all likelihood, the last named colony will, in the future, find further subdivision necessary. To each generation, however, its own work belongs. The duty of the men of 1851 was to secure local selfgovernment ; in 1881, whilst accepting local government as the necessary basis, we are called upon to labour for federal unity.’ ”

4.    Nineteen years have gone by, and, of the brothers, the elder has passed away, without seeing what the younger, we trust, will take an important part in, namely, the consummation of the union of the Australian colonies.

A Good Example.

1.    There is one thing a foreigner can never say when he is wounded by our bad manners1—that our good Queen sets a bad example. Her life, of which we know a great deal, is a series of courteous deeds, and never did a monarch show greater consideration for others than she has done.

2.    On the occasion of her last visit to France, she was one day out driving, when her coachman was obliged to stop, as the guards that preceded the carriage gave a sign that there was some obstruction in the way.

3.    They had cleared the path, and the carriage was about to drive on, when the cause of the delay was explained to the Queen. What do you think it was ? Simply a small funeral procession—some poor man carrying the coffin of his little dead child, followed by the mother and a few friends, who were sorry to have hindered the progress of the great Queen.

4.    I wonder whether those people will ever forget that our truly great Queen refused to pass the little procession—that she and her guards followed it with slow and reverent step, till it turned up a lane leading to the cemetery.

—Adapted from The Courtesy Reader (Messrs. Macmillan & Co.).

1. Our bad manners- It has been often stated that Englishmen, when compared with Frenchmen, Spaniards, Italians, and Japanese, exhibit a lack of good manners.

The Chinese View on the Education of Girls.

A father . never thinks of having his daughter taught reading. “ And why ? ” asks the foreigner, “ she is your daughter ! ”

“Not after she is married,” he replies; “she belongs then to her husband’s family; let them educate her themselves if they want her educated. Why should I teach her how to read, write, and reckon, when it will never do me any good ? ”

Chinese Proverbs.

1.    A wise man adapts himself to circumstances, as water takes the shape of the vessel that contains it.

2.    The error of one moment becomes the sorrow of a whole lifetime.

3.    If the root is left, the grass will grow again.

4.    A wise man forgets old grudges.

5.    Who swallows quickly can chew hut little (applied to learning).

6.    He who toils with pain will eat with pleasure.

Babyhood in Siberia.

1.    A gentleman who recently travelled through the Russian Empire makes the remark that babies in Siberia are not very attractive.

One day, he noticed in a house a curious bundle on a shelf, and another like it hanging by a rope from a peg in the wall, and a third suspended from a rafter. The last was smaller than the others, and woman was swinging it.

2.    On examination, the traveller discovered that each curious bundle contained a child, and that the one in the swinging bundle was the youngest. He looked at the baby, and found it so dirty that he exclaimed in disgust—“ Why do you not wash your baby ? ” The mother looked horror-stricken, and replied—“ Wash it! Wash the baby ! Why, a wash would kill it! ”

Japanese Ingenuity and Love for the Beautiful.

The Japanese are very skilful in making objects that are beautiful and novel. For example, they are not satisfied with placing flowers in bowls on the dinner table, but have cunningly prepared bits of wood, which, when placed in water, expand into oddly formed flowers. When the guests take their seats at the table, the pieces of wood are put into the bowls ; and they have the pleasure of watching the buds develop and expand into blossoms. The chrysanthemum, the Japanese national flower, is the favourite.

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, PUZZLES, ETC.

1Vo. 6.—How to Pierce a Half--penny with a Needle.

1.    It seems at first sight as if this were an impossibility, but it is by no means so, because the needle is harder than the coin. Indeed, it is possible with a needle to fix any of the coins of the realm together.

2.    An artifice must be employed, however, as it would be very difficult to hit the needle with a hammer so fairly on the head as to preclude the likelihood of its breaking.

3.    Embed the needle in a cork of its own length. This prevents it from having a lateral movement. Now, place the point of the needle above a coin, which may rest upon a bolt-washer, or even on a piece of wood. Strike a driving blow with a hammer. The cork yields sufficiently, when struck, to allow the needle to pass through the coin.

4.    Coin after coin may be thus fixed together, it being necessary only to cut successive slices from the cork so as to keep the head of the needle flush with the top of: the cork.

—Selected by S. S.

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The tumult and the shouting dies—

The captains and the kings depart— Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice—

An humble and a contrite heart. Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,

Lest we forget—lest we forget!

Far-called our navies melt away—

On dune and headland sink the fire— Lo 1 all our pomp of yesterday

Is one with Nineveh and Tyre 1 Judge of the Nations, spare us yet,

Lest we forget—lest we forget!

If, drunk with sight of power, we loose

Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe— Such boasting as the Gentiles use,

Or lesser breeds without the Law—

Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,

Lest we forget—lest we forget !

For heathen heart that puts her trust In reeking tube and iron shard :

All valiant dust that builds on dust,

And guarding calls not Thee to guard— For frantic boast and foolish word,

Thy mercy on Thy people, Lord.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PIPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 40.] MELBOURNE. [December, 1900.

THE NEW YEAR.

5. Let us, then, with songs of cheer,

Little children though we be,

Welcome in the glad New Year,

Gift from God’s eternity.

The Children’s Friend.


Guer-don, reward.

Re-ceive; give admittance to ; take in. Be-hest; command.

1.    Lads and lassies, don’t you hear

Some one knocking at your door ? Don’t you know the glad New Year Comes to you and me once more ?

2.    Comes with blessings rich and rare

From the hands of God above ; Blessings that we all may share— Guerdons of our Father’s love.

Fer-vent, earnest.

Suc-ceed-ing, coming after.

E-ter-ni-ty, endless time.

3.    How shall we receive this guest ?

How improve the gifts he bears ? We must join, at his behest,

Earnest deeds with fervent prayers.

4.    We must do, as well as pray ;

We must battle for the right;

And, with each succeeding day,

God will give us strength to fight.

CHRISTMAS IN MANY LANDS.

Re-joining, feeling joy or gladness.

Ham-per, large basket, used for the packing and carrying of articles. 36 37 38 39

Neigh-bours, those living near. Pro-mot-ing, furthering; advancing. Prompt-ing, moving (to action); inciting.

5.    “ On Christmas Eve,” lie said, u a quantity of clean, dry straw is brought into the large kitchen or living-room in every house where there are young children. This straw is spread on the floor, and the little ones sleep on it instead of in their beds, in memory of the time when the Christ-child lay on the straw in the manger at Bethlehem.”

6.    In Holland, the people have many curious customs, and there, Santa Claus, or St. Nicholas, as the Dutch children call him, comes in his sledge on the 5th of December. A friend who lived in Holland told me that the 25th of December is kept, as it is in England, just like a Sunday, and every one goes to church ; but all the fun that English people enjoy on Christmas Eve the Dutch people have on St. Nicholas’ Day.

_    7. And what a time for presents it is with them to be sure ! I have

just been looking at some St. Nicholas’ Day presents belonging to my friend, who told me that they were all made up in “ surprise packet ” fashion. Sometimes a gold brooch comes in an old boot, or a pair of ear-rings in a hamper packed with straw. Every one, young and old, always gets, amongst other presents, little Dutch cakes made with honey, in the shape of cows and horses, and men and women, reminding one of the queer little figures in a toy Noah’s ark. St. Nicholas comes down the chimney of course, and, in return for his kindness, the children strew the floor, just in front of the fireplace, with sweets and honey-cakes for the old fellow’s supper.

8. The French children get their presents on the same night as their Dutch neighbours. They, like English children, hang up their stockings, and sometimes a stocking may be seen on each of the four posts of a bed, for oue would not be large enough to hold all that the saint has to bring to the fortunate owner.

CHRISTMAS DAY: SKATING ON THE ICE.


_ 9. Though you would, no doubt, like most of the presents the Dutch children get, I am sure you would not enjoy their Christmas dinner, for their mothers do not know how to make plum-puddings and mince pies ; yet, when one comes to think of it, it may be rather a good thing for the children that they do not. They generally dine on boiled oxtongue, and rice pudding flavoured with rum !

riding sledges over


10. How strange our hot summer Christmas would seem to those French and German and Dutch children! While they spend the day skating on the ice or

Ill


the snow, and the evenings seated round blazing fires, we are doing all we know to keep ourselves cool.

11. However, it does not matter what part of the world we live in; we all love Christmas, and the dear old Christmas customs. Best of all is the good, kind, loving Christmas spirit that seems to come into every heart at this time of the year, promoting peace and happiness, and prompting us to do all we can to bring pleasure to those less fortunate than ourselves—the very poor, the sick, and the sad.

—Abridged from The Children's Hour (S.A.).

1. San-ta Claus, a corruption of the name St. Nicholas, a bishop who lived, it in supposed, in the fourth century. He was looked upon as the patron saint of children, especially of schoolboys. As the fictitious bearer of gifts, he symbolises the spirit of Christmas—“ On earth peace, good-will toward men.”

LITTLE BY LITTLE.

Fer-tile, producing fruit or vegetation in abun- I Cor-al, hard part or skeleton of certain minute dance ; rich ; productive.    sea-animals.

1. While the new years come and the old years go,

How little by little all things grow !

All things grow, and all decay—

Little by little passing away.

Little by little on fertile plain Ripen the harvests of golden grain,

Waving and flashing in the sun

When the heat of summer at last is done. 1

2 Low on the gi’ound an acorn lies—

Little by little it mounts to the skies,

Shadow and shelter for wandering herds,

Home for a hundred sirging birds.

Little by little the great rocks grew,

Long, long ago, when the world was new ;

Slowly and silently, stately and free,

Cities of coral under the sea

Little by little are builded, while so

The new years come and the old years go.

3. Little by little all tasks are done ;

So are the crowns of the faithful won,

So is heaven in our hearts begun.

With work and with weeping, with laughter and play,

Little by little the longest day

And the longest life are passing away—■

Passing without return, while so

The new years come and the old years go.

—Anonymous.

J. Ri-pen the har-vests    .    .    .    . heat of summer is done. This is the case in

England, where the grain crops are harvested in autumn.

DRYING AFRICOTS AND PEACHES.

De-vised; invented ; contrived ; planned. In-fe-ri-or less valuable.

Pre-serv-ing, saving from decay ; keeping good. 40

Ig-ni-ted, set on fire.

En -am elled, glazed ; covered with enamel, a kind of glass used to cover a surface, as of metal or pottery.

suitable, and the process is properly carried out, the preserved fruit, after careful cooking, is hut little inferior in flavour and appearance to the fresh, and will keep good for a long time.

2.    From Mildura, a settlement on the Murray River, north-west of Victoria, no less than 112 tons of dried apricots, and 56 tons of dried peaches, were sent to market this year.

3.    The method followed there of preserving these fruits is very simple, and some of the readers of The School Paper whose parents have orchards might very well try it on a small scale during the holidays.

4.    When the apricots and peaches are quite ripe, they are tenderly picked, placed in boxes, and carted to a shed. There, girls and boys carefully and evenly cut them in two, remove the pits40 or stones, and place the halves, with the cut sides upwards, in rows on wooden trays.

DRIED FRUITS READY FOR MARKET.

5.    As each tray is filled, it is put in a small, air-tight room or big packing-case. Care is taken not to leave the door open, as the cut fruit would be spoilt by the wind and sun. When the room is filled with trays, a dish containing sulphur2 is placed inside, the sulphur ignited, and the door closely shut. By this means, germ-life that would cause decay is destroyed, and the colour of the fruit is preserved.

6.    The fruit is left in the sulphur house for about eight hours, when the cup-like halves are found to be full of juice. Then the trays are taken out, and placed in rows on the ground, so that the sun’s rays may dry the fruit. To effect this, from two and a half to three and a half days of

7. Finally, all the fruit is carefully sorted according to quality and size, and packed in boxes, each containing 56 lbs., of which every pound

THE WORK OF PRESERVING APRICOTS AND PEACHES.

Christmas weather are required. When the fruit is dry enough, it is at once tied up in calico bags to prevent moths from laying their eggs in it.

AN APRICOT ORCHARD AT MILDURA.

(The trees have been planted only 3 years and 4 months. The channels are for irrigation purposes.)


represents about five of fresh fruit. Most kinds of apricots dry well, but only the full-flavoured, yellow kinds of peaches produce an article of high quality.

8. To stew3 dried apricots or peaches, pour boiling water on them, and let them stand in it for ten minutes ; then, place them in cold water, wash them well, and rub off the outer skin with the thumb ; next, lift them into an enamelled pan, and cover them with fresh, cold water; finally, add to the fruit its own weight of sugar, and let the whole simmer for about an hour.

J. D. Jennings, Irymple State School, Mildura.

1.    Pits. In winter time, the children attending- one of the Mildura schools take bags of pits to school for the stove, for when dry, they burn like coal, and give out great heat.

2.    Sul-phur. One pound of sulphur is used for every hundred cubic feet of space in the house.

3.    To Stew. There ave many recipes in a small book, entitled Dainty Dishes from Mildura, by “Tongola,” issued by the Mildura Horticultural Society.

THE LOST CHILD.

Bun-yip, fabulous monster supposed to inhabit swamps in Australia.

Pix-ies, elves; fairies.

Lure, entice.

Tep-id, moderately warm ; lukewarm. Com-ic-al, droll; laughable ; funny.


Roe, roebuck, a small, nimble kind of deer.

VlS-ta, view, especially a view through intervening objects, as trees.

Hur-dle, movable frame of stakes, used for enclosing a space, for gates, &c.

Quan-dong, edible fruit that grows on a tree native to Australia ¡—called also native peach.

1.    Four or five miles up the river from Garoopna stood a solitary hut, sheltered by a lofty, bare knoll, round which the great river chafed among the boulders. Across the stream was the forest, sloping down in pleasant glades from the mountain; and, behind the hut, rose the plain four or five hundred feet overhead, seeming to be held aloft by the bluestone columns which rose from the river-side.

2.    In this cottage resided a shepherd, his wife, and one little boy, their son, about eight years old—a strange, wild, little bush child, able to speak fairly well, but utterly without knowledge or experience of human creatures, save of his father and mother ; unable to read a line ; without religion of any sort or kind ; as entire a little savage, in fact, as you could find, and yet beautiful to look on—as active as a roe, and, with regard to natural objects, as fearless as a lion.

3.    As yet unfit to begin labour, all the long summer he would wander about the river bank, up and down the beautiful, rock-walled paradise where he was confined, sometimes looking eagerly across the water at the waving forest boughs, and fancying he could see other children far up the vistas, beckoning to him to cross and play in that merry land of shifting lights and shadows.

4.    It grew quite into a passion with the little man to get across and play there ; and, one day, when his mother was shifting the hurdles, and he was handing her the strips of green hide which bound them together, he said to her, “ Mother, what country is that across the river ?”

“ The forest, my child.”

5.    “ There’s plenty of quandongs over there, eh, Mother, and raspberries ? Why mayn’t I get across and play there ? ”

• “ The river is too deep, my child, and the bunyip lives in the water under the stones.”

“ Who are the children that play across there ?”

“ Black children, likely.”

“No white children ?”

6.    “ Pixies. Don’t go near them, my child ; they’ll lure you on. Don’t try to cross the river, now, or you’ll be drowned.”

7.    But, next day, the passion was stronger on him than ever. Quite early on the glorious, cloudless, midsummer day, he was down by the river-side, sitting on a rock, with his shoes and stockings off, paddling his feet in the clear, tepid water, and watching the fish in the shallows —black fish and grayling—leaping and flashing in the sun.

8.    There is no pleasure that I have ever experienced like a child’s midsummer’s holiday—the time, I mean, when two or three of us used to go away up the brook, and take our dinners with us, and come home at night, tired, dirty, happy, scratched beyond recognition, with a great nosegay, three little trout, and one shoe, the other having been used

for a boat till it had gone down with all hands out of soundings.

*-#**•*

9.    But, meanwhile, there sat our child, bare-legged, watching the forbidden ground beyond the river. A fresh breeze was moving the trees, and making the whole a dazzling mass of shifting light and shadow. He sat so still that a glorious violet and red kingfisher perched quite 'close, and, dashing into the water, came forth with a fish, and fled like a ray of light along the winding of the river. A colony of little shell parrots, too, crowded on a bcugh, and twittered and ran to and fro quite busily, as though they said to him, “We don’t mind you, my dear ; you are quite one of us.”

10.    Never was the river so low. He stepped in ; it scarcely reached his ankle. Now, surely, he might get across. He stripped himself, and, carrying his clothes, waded through, the water never reaching his middle, all across the long, yellow, gravelly shallow. And there he stood, naked and free, on the forbidden ground.

11.    He quickly dressed himself, and began examining his new kingdom, rich beyond his utmost hopes. Such quandongs, such raspberries, surpassing imagination ; and, when tired of them, such fern boughs, six or eight feet long ! He would penetrate this region, and see how far it extended.

12.    What tales he would have for his father to-night! He would bring him here, and show him all the wonders, and, perhaps, he would build a new hut over here, and come and live in it. Perhaps the pretty young lady with the feathers in her hat lived somewhere here, too.

13.    There ! There is one of those children he has seen before across the river. Ah, ah ! It is not a child at all, but a pretty, gray beast with big ears. A kangaroo, my lad. He won’t play with you, but skips away slowly, and leaves you alone.

14.    There is something like the gleam of water on that rock. A snake ! Now, a sounding rush through the wood, and a passing shadow. An eagle! It brushes so close to the child that he strikes at the bird with a stick, and then watches it as it shoots up like a rocket, and, measuring the fields of air in ever-widening circles, hangs like a motionless speck upon the sky, though measure its wings across, and you will find he is nearer fifteen feet than fourteen.

15.    Here is a prize, though! A wee native bear, barely a foot long-—a little, gray beast, comical beyond expression, with broad flapped ears—sits on a tree within reach. He makes no resistance, but cuddles into the child’s bosom, and eats a leaf as they go along, while his mother sits aloft and grunts, angry at the theft of her offspring ; but, on the whole, she takes it pretty comfortably, and goes on with her dinner of peppermint leaves.

16.    What a short day it has been ! Here is the sun gettiug low, and the magpies and jackasses beginning to tune up before roosting. He would turn, and go back to the river. Alas ! which way ?

(To be continued.)

—Adapted from a novel entitled Geoffrey Hamlyn, by Henry Kingsley.

HARMOSAN.

Mos-lem (the form for the plural when the sense is collective), Mussulmans; followers of Mohammed.

Gob-let, kind of drinking vessel without a handle.

Draught (draft), quantity drawn in at once in drinking. 41 42

Ca-liph (Jcay~lif), title of the successors of Mohammed, now used by the sultans of Turkey. .(The word kalifa (ka-leeffa) is a form of it, meaning successor.)

Treach-er-OUS, faithless; betraying a trust. Re-prieve; term allowed before a sentence, especially a sentence of death, is carried out. Sa-trap or sat-rap, governor of a province in

ancient Persia.

A SPRING WALK NEAR MELBOURNE —continued.

Quar-ry, place where stone is obtained from the earth, for building or other purposes; stone pit.


Ac-ci-den-tal-ly, by chance.

Par-tic-u-lar, special; precise.

TT „    ,    ,    ,    ,    Su-pe-ri-or-i-ty, state of being higher or

Un-ior-tu-nate-ly, unluckily j unhappily.    greater in degree.

L “Further along the hill, I could see in the distance fifteen church steeples, and could trace the winding of parts of the river between different ridges. Before leaving the hill, I walked to a quarry, and was much surprised to find some sea-*shells as hard as stone.”

SHELL

ROCK.

EMBEDDED


2.    “I do not wonder at your surprise,” replied Mr. Andrews,

“since many persons much older than you have been troubled to account for similar deposits. It is not uncommon to find great masses of shells in the sides of high mountains far from the sea. They are certainly proofs that that part of the earth was once in a very different state from what it is at the present time.”

3.    “ There is a thing I mean to do, sir, if you will give me leave.”

“ What is that P ” replied Mr. Andrews.    •

“ I want to go again, and take with me your plan of the district, and, from the tower at Doncaster, learn about the surrounding country.”

“ You shall have it,” said Mr. Andrews, “ and I will go with you, and take my field-glasses, so that we may be able to see distant objects more clearly.”

4.    “From this hill,” continued Frank, “I went straight towards Heidelberg, and, after a long walk, reached the River Yarra. As I was getting down the bank to pluck a reed, I heard something

A kingfisher.

catches in the

manner


which it

banks of creeks, and is a shv and beautiful bird.”


plunge into the water near me. It was a golden beaver-rat, and I saw it swim over to the other side, and go into a large hole. There were a great many dragon-flies, so I caught one, and have him here in a box in my hat. But how I longed to catch a bird that was hovering over the water, and, every now and then, diving into it! Its plumage was a mixture of beautiful blue and red. It was somewhat smaller than a thrush, and had a long, pointed bill and short tail.”

5. “ It was a kingfisher,” replied Mr. Andrews. “It lives on fish you saw. It builds in holes in the

6. “I must try to get another sight of it,” said Frank. “Well, I followed the river some distance, and saw plenty of swallows catching little insects for the baby swallows hidden away in holes in the cliffs.

A little further along, I saw a man catching eels in the river.

7.    “ While I was looking at him,” continued Frank, “ a heron came flapping over my head. He lit at the next turn of the river, and I crept softly behind the bank to watch his motions. He had waded into the river as far as his long legs would carry him. Presently, he. darted his sharp bill as quick as lightning into the water, and secured a crab. This he did twice. Unfortunately, I accidentally cracked a stick, at which he took fright and flew away to a tree.”

8.    “ Probably, his nest was there,” replied Mr. Andrews, “ because herons

_    build in trees. In Great Britain, this

family of birds used to be valued for the amusement of hawking, which some peojde are unwisely trying to renew.”

9.    “ What a number of new ideas this afternoon’s walk has afforded you ! ” said Mr. Andrews. “ I do not wonder that you found it pleasing; and it has also been very instructive. 1 )id you see nothing of all these sights,

George ? ”

10.    “I saw some of them,” replied George, “ but 1 did not take particular notice of them.”

“ Why not ? ” asked Mr. Andrews.    eels.

“ I don’t know,” replied George. “1 did not care for them, and I made the best of my way home.”

11. “ That,” said Mr. Andrews, “would have been right if you had been sent with a message, but, as you only walked for amusement, it would have been wiser to have sought out as many sources of it as possible. But so it is—one man walks through the world with his eyes open, and another with them shut; and, upon this difference,

1900.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IY.


depends all the superiority of knowledge the one acquires above the other.    Do you, then, Frank, continue to make use of

your eyes ; and you, George, learn that eye^ were given you to use.”

—Adapted by Robert Hall from Eyes and No Eyes (“ Evenings at Home ”).

PERSEVERANCE AND ITS REWARD.

Man-u-fac-tur-ing, employed in making wares    At-ten-tive-ly, with care or attention,

or other products on a large scale.

Cir-cum-stance, that which relates to a fact or ! Nec-es-sa-ry, such as must be; requisite; needevent; incident ; condition.    tul-

1.    Thirty years ago, a bare-footed, ragged lad presented himself before the desk of the chief partner of a manufacturing firm in Glasgow, and asked for work as an errand boy.

“ There is a great deal of running to be done,” said Mr. Black; “ you will need a good pair of shoes.”

The boy, with a grave nod, aisapjdeared. He lived by doing odd jobs in the market, and slept under one of the stalls.

2.    Two months passed before he had saved enough money to buy the shoes. Then he presented himself before Mr. Black one morning, and held out a package. “ I have the shoes,” he said quickly.

“ Oh,” said Mr. Black, with difficulty recalling the circumstances, “ you want a place ! Not in those rags, my lad ; you would disgrace the house.”

3.    The boy hesitated a moment, and then went out without a word. Six months passed before he returned, decently clothed in coarse but new garments. Mr. Black’s interest was aroused. For the first time, he looked at the boy attentively. His thin, bloodless face showed that he had stinted himself of food for months in order to buy these clothes. The manufacturer now questioned the lad closely, and found, to his regret, that he could neither read nor write.

4.    “ It is necessary that you should do both before we could employ you to carry packages,” he said. “We have no place for you.”

The lad’s face grew paler, but, without a word of complaint, he disappeared. He now went fifteen miles into the country, and found work in stables near a night school. At the end of a year, he again presented himself before Mr. Black.

“ I can read and write,” he said briefly.

5.    “ I gave him the place,” the employer said years afterwards, “ feeling that, in process of time, he would take mine if he made up his mind to do it. Men rise slowly in Scotch business houses, but he is now our chief foreman.”

Country Press.

“THE GRAND OLD FLAG.”

(This lesson was written with the view of its being read by the pupils of the higher classes, but as, for want of space, it could not appear this month in their paper, it has been inserted here.)

1.    Public attention was recently drawn to the practice obtaining in some countries of flying the national flag over the school-houses, and it was pointed out that the time was opportune for initiating the same practice in Victoria. In a few months, the first session of the Parliament of the Australian Commonwealth will be opened in Melbourne, by His Royal Highness the Duke of York (accompanied by the Duchess of York), and the State school children throughout the land will take a prominent part in the rejoicings. Nothing can be more appropriate, therefore, or tend more to ¡-Emulate patriotic feeling, and impress the idea of the unity of the British Empire on the minds of old and young, than to hoist the “ Union Jack ” over all our schools at the time when the opening ceremony is being performed.

2.    Sir Frederick Sargood made several valuable suggestions in reference to the carrying out of the scheme, and offered, on behalf of himself and Lady Sargood, to provide 200 Union Flags. Many other prominent citizens in different parts of the colony have also come forward with promises of flags for the schools in their districts.

3.    Briefly told, the history of the Union Flag is as follows:—On the 12th April, 1606, King James I. (who had ascended the English throne at the death of Elizabeth), in order to symbolise his sovereignty over both England and Scotland, issued an order directing that the distinguishing flag of England (St. George’s cross on a white field) should be blended with that of Scotland (St. Andrew’s cross on a blue ground). This flag was so used (except during the period of the Commonwealth) down to the 1st January, 1801, when Ireland became an integral part of the United Kingdom. Then St. Patrick’s Cross was introduced, thus giving us the Union Flag of to-day.

4.    The accompanying engravings represent the Union Flag—com-monly known as the “ Union Jack.”1 The straight cross of St. George is the main feature of the flag ; and the combined white and red saltires (or diagonal crosses) of St. Andrew and St. Patrick, together with the fimbriation (or narrow border) to the latter, occupy diagonal breadths which extend in straight lines from corner to corner.

5.    The significance of the colours is worth noting and remembering :—The red of St. George stands for ardent love; the blue of St. Andrew for truth ; and the white of St. Patrick for purity.

6.    “ Though the National Flag,” as Hulme in his work “ The Flags of the World” writes, “is primarily just so much silk or bunting, its design and colouring are full of meaning; and, though its prime cost may be but a few shillings, its value is priceless, for the national honour is enwrapped in its folds, and the history of centuries is figured in the symbolism of its devices. It represents to us all that patriotism means. It is the flag of freedom, and of the greatest empire that the

world has ever known. Over four hundred millions of people—in quiet English shires, amid Canadian snows, on the torrid plains of Hindustan, amidst the busy energy of the great Australian group of colonies, or the tropical luxuriance of our West Indian possessions—are to-day enjoying liberty and peace beneath its shelter. Countless thousands have freely given their lives to preserve its blazonry unstained from dishonour and

St. George’s Cross.


Union Flag, 1606.


The “Union Jack.” 1801. Plain spaces.    Blue - Horizontal lines.


Si’. Andrew’s Cross. St. Patrick’s Cross.

Red—Vertical lines.    White —

defeat, and it rests with us now to keep the glorious record as unsullied as of old; never to unfurl our Union Flag in needless strife, but, when once given to the breeze, to emulate the deeds of our forefathers, and to inscribe on its folds fresh records of duty nobly done.”2

1.    Un’on Jack. Although sanctioned by popular usage, it is a mistake to call our national flag the “Union Jack.” The Jack is a very small flag of the same pattern flown from the jack-staff on the bowsprit of a man-of-war.

2.    This fine passage might well be committed to memory.

N.B.—A committee, consisting of Sir Frederick Sargood, the Military Commandant, the Secretary for Education, the Deputy Postmaster-General (the three latter gentlemen acting with the approval of the Minister of Defence, the Minister of Public Instruction, and the Postmaster-General, respectively), Captain Archibald Currie, Mr. James Moore, and W. R. T. Chenoweth (chairman of the Council of Boards of Advice), has been formed to deal with all questions that may arise in connexion with the work of providing the State schools of Victoria with the national flag. Letters should be addressed—“ Lieut.-Colonel Cairncross, Hon. Secretary, State School Flag Committee, Surrey Hills.” For further information see the November number of the Education Gazette and Teachers’ Aid.

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, PUZZLES, ETC.

JACOB’S LADDER, AND HOW TO MAKE IT.

1. Why the old puzzle generally known as Jacob’s Ladder should have been so called I have never heard, and will not pretend to explain.

Its cost is a few pence. The blocks or pieces of wood composing the ladder may be of common deal. Any number of blocks may be used, but you should not have less than seven—-twelve are better. These should be cut from a plank three-eighths of an inch thick, and planed on both sides. Each block should be four inches long by two inches and a half wide; and"the ends should be neatly rounded off (See Fig. 1). They may be then sandpapered, small coloured figures or pictures glued on both sides, and finished with a coat of varnish ; or they may be coloured with a coat of bright paint. A contrasting colour on the opposite side has a pretty effect as the blocks turn over. A few brass tacks find some black or white tape about a quarter of an inch wide is all that will be required to complete the device.

2.    In Fig. 1 is represented the three top blocks (A, B, C) of the set. Block B is drawn as falling away, to show the arrangement of the tapes, which are secured in place by a touch of glue and a small tack or brad. There are three tapes to each block, and they should be all cut of the same length, just sufficiently long to go round the rounded ends of the blocks for about half an inch.

3.    The block A has the tape 1 secured to its upper end in the middle, and is then brought over and downwards under the middle of the lower end of block B. The tapes 2, 2 are now tacked to the lower end of the block A, about a quarter of an inch from the edge on both sides, and are then brought under and upwards over the top end of block B. The middle tape 3, 3 is attached to the block B at its upper end, and then brought down underneath to the middle of the top of block C, where it is secured with the glue

and tack the same as the others. The tapes must be arranged in this way throughout the whole set of blocks used.

4. The manner of holding the blocks when complete is shown in Fig. 2. The top block, held between the fmger and thumb, is turned so as to bring the second block to the same level The upper end of the second block then immediately falls into an inverte 1 position, and appears to pass rapidly downwards, first on one side and then on the other, until it finally reaches the bottom This is, of course, only in appearance, as, in reility, the second block simply becomes reversed, and falls back again into its former position. This brings it level with the third block, which then falls over on to the fourth, and so on to the end.

The effect produced is very illusive.

—H. W. Horden, in The Boy's Own Paper. (Selected by S. S.)

THE OLD AND THE NEW YEAR.

Arranged from Proch.

Note.—The refrain after each verse—“Listen, softly, softly pealing,” &c.

’Tis the old year moaning sadly, That no mortal weeps its death, But all nature welcomes gladly, E’en the hour it yields its breath. And the gay new year rings loudly, With the crown upon its brow, That the old year wore so proudly, But a short twelve months ago.


List, the voice hath ceas i that lonely, Mourn'd the hours for ever past, And the sounds of triumph only Are now borne upon the blast.

Yet we'll give one thought of sorrow, As soft tolls the midnight bell,

Then we’ll gladly hail the morrow, While the old year sighs farewell.


OUR LATE BELOVED QUEEN.

Born 24th May, 1819 ; ascended the throne of Great Britain and Ireland 20th June, 1837; married Prince Albert, 1840; proclaimed Empress of India, 1876 ; died 22nd January, 1901.

The earthly crown her brows have worn Is changed for one whose glory cannot fade.”

At this moment, the bond of a common loss unites in one the whole British® race ; the hush of a profound and sacred grief lies upon us all; while the hearts of millions in foreign lands are touched with sympathetic regret: for the most illustrious sovereign in the world, the greatest lady, the best-beloved woman has passed

“ To where beyond these voices there is peace.”

Our late Queen interested herself in everything of importance that happened in her wide-spread realms ; but, in no part of them, will her loss be more sincerely deplored than in the State which bears her name. The settlement of Victoria had begun but two years when she entered upon her reign, and its capital was named after her first Prime Minister. One of her last official acts was to sign the proclamation constituting the Commonwealth of Australia, in which Victoria was one of the federating States.

Just fifty years ago, Tennyson, in a perfect poem entitled “ To the Queen,” gave expression to the following noble wishes; and we, looking back, find comfort in knowing that almost all of them have been realised

“ May you rule long,

And leave us rulers of your blood As noble till the latest day;

May children of our children say,

‘She wrought her people lasting good;

‘ Her court was pure; her life serene;

God gave her peace; her land reposed;

A thousand claims to reverence closed In her as Mother, Wife, and Queen;

‘ And statesmen at her council met

Who knew the seasons when to take Occasion by the hand, and make The bounds of freedom wider yet

* By shaping some august decree,

Which kept her throne unshaken still,

Broad-based upon her people’s will,

And compass’d by the inviolate sea.’ ”


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA,

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 4L] MELBOURNE. [February, 1901.

AN AUSTRALIAN HYMN.

Aus-tral, southern. *

Jew-elled, dotted here and there with islands, as with jewels.

io-ry (lo-ry), parrot found in Australia.

Gage, pledge; security.

Her-i-tage, inheritance ; that which is derived by an heir from an ancestor.

Min-strel-sy, singing.

[Music for these words has been composed by Mr. Louis Lavater.]

1.    Look down, O Lord of Light,

Upon our Austral land ;

Protect her by the sleepless might Of Thy strong hand.

Thy Cross upon her brow Was set long since for sign ;

Oh, crown her ’mid the nations now With love divine.

2.    From jewelled sea to sea,

From shore to golden shore,

Thou gavest us our land in fee For evermore.

The forest scents that float,—

Our gift from Thee and gage,

The lory’s call, the bell-bird’s note,— Our heritage.


3.    The gully robed in fern,

The creek’s glad minstrelsy,

Where bright the wattle blossoms burn With fire from Thee,

Green hillside and gray rock,

The stockyard and the mine,

The boundless plain, the countless flock, All, all are Thine.

4.    Then look, 0 Lord of Light,

On us from Heaven above ;

And ever keep and guard aright The land we love.

Teach us to prize the more

This gift from Thine own hand,

Our country, one from shore to shore, Our Austral land.


—John Sandes, in The Argus.

THE ADVENTURES OF

BASS and flinders.

Mid-ship-man, officer in the naval service next in rank below a lieutenant.

Ex-pe-di-tion, journey of discovery.

A-bil-i-ty, power; capacity.

Suc-ceed-ed, was successful.

Ex-plo-ra-tion, thorough examination of a country.

Ad-ven-tur-OUS, daring; willing to incur hazard.

Beached, ran (as a vessel or boat) upon a beach ; stranded.

Am-mu-ni-tion, powder, balls, shells, and the like.

In-ter-est-ed, having the attention engaged.

Cau*tiOUS-ly, in a careful manner. 43

Au-thor-i-ties, government; thepersons or the body exercising power or command.

En-dur-ance, act of bearing or suffering without being overcome; fortitude.

Chasm (kas'm), cleft; fissure.

Me-mo-ri-al, petition; written request.

E-quip-ment, necessaries for an expedition or voyage.

Trend, general direction.

Re-spec-tive-ly, as each refers to each in order.

Nav-i-ga-tors, sailors who make discoveries.

Des-ti-na-tion, place set or determined on for the end of a journey.

and George Bass, surgeon. While on the voyage, Flinders and Bass planned an expedition, and, a month after their arrival in Sydney Harbour, preparations were made for carrying it out.

2.    They bought a small boat eight feet long, named it the Tom

Thumb, and, with a crew consisting of one small boy, embarked in it to make discoveries on the Australian coast. A sail was hoisted, which Flinders managed, while Bass steered, and the boy was kept to bale. They tacked to and fro about the harbour to test their sailing ability, and    then stood boldly    out    of the Heads43 into the ocean. The

Tom    Thumb danced about    like    a    feather on the waves, but she

succeeded in reaching Botany Bay. The first exploration was ascending the George River, which flows into that bay. The adventurous voyagers then returned to the sea, and got back safely to Sydney.

3.    In March, 1796, the Tom Thumb was again launched. A few days after starting, while attempting to come near the shore to procure

fresh water, a heavy surf broke ^gig|g|^    over the little craft, drenching

jMPPflgGk    the occupants and everything in

lUmm-    the boat.

111$;.,.' f JL    4. They now beached the boat;

wjM    fig    and had spread their provisions,

- ■ \§    clothes, and ammunition on the

■p    rocks to dry, and had taken their

vy; , m .    guns to pieces to clean and oil

them, when a crowd of over twenty natives arrived on the scene. The presence of mind of ■tli«-* young men was severely

MATTHEW FLINDERS (1774-1814).


taxed. The natives were known to belong to a tribe noted for its fierceness ; and, if the white men had shown the least fear, their lives would have been soon ended, for their weapons were now useless, and the blacks were armed.

5.    Flinders was called on to display his utmost skill in amusing the unwelcome visitors, while Bass and the boy were putting the muskets in order, and preparing for escape. For a time, Flinders kept the natives interested by showing them various articles such as knives and buttons. Then, when their curiosity seemed almost exhausted, he produced a pair of scissors, and began cutting their long hair and beards.

6.    The simple creatures shrieked with delight, as they noted the changed appearance of their companions who had passed through the hands of the barber. Flinders so entered into the fun of the strange scene that he almost forgot the danger his party was in, and was tempted to snip the ear of a native to see how he would like it.

7.    At length, Bass made a sign that everything was safely stowed


in the Tom Thumb. The explorers, having now their weapons in good order, cautiously launched the boat, and managed to get safely away from their awkward position.

8.    When they had explored about forty miles of the coast, they turned their boat’s head towards Sydney. On reaching home, they received high praise from the authorities, not only for their daring and endurance, but because Flinders had made a map of the coast they had seen, on which all the features were marked with rare skill.

9.    It was not long before Flinders was sent on a surveying expedition. Bass, too energetic to continue idle, started off to explore the Blue Mountains. Here his courage and daring were signally displayed. Arming his feet and his hands with iron hooks, he made repeated efforts to climb the craggy cliffs and cross the yawning chasms that opposed his passage ; but, after fifteen days of great exertion and fatigue, he was compelled to return.

10.    When he came back to Sydney, he drew up a memorial to the governor asking for the means for another expedition along the coast. His request was granted. He only needed a whale boat, a

SYDNEY IN 1800.

(From A Short History oj Australia, by Arthur W. Jose : Messrs. Angus and Robertson.)

crew of eight men, and provisions for six weeks. With this slender equipment, he started from Sydney in December, 1797. Clearing the Heads of Port Jackson, the crew found themselves in the broad Pacific.

11. After sailing south for some days, and exploring the harbour and river of Shoalhaven, as well as Jervis and Twofold Bays, Cape Howe was sighted. The coast seemed to trend to the south-west, and Bass was burning to decide the question whether or not Tasmania2 was united to Australia. The weather, however, was rough, and there was not a chance of shelter upon that shore ; but there was an open sea

[Photo, by C. Rudd, Melbourne.)    SYDNEY IN I900.-CIRCULAR QUAY.

before them, and every heavy roller which came from the west sent a thrill of pleasure through Bass, for he believed that the strait which now bears his name was discovered. Proceeding westward, he found the fine harbour of Western Port ; but the time at his disposal did not enable him to examine it. He returned to Sydney without fully settling the question whether Tasmania was separated from the continent or was but a part of it.

12.    When Bass brought back to Sydney his report of the supposed strait existing between the continent and Van Diemen’s Land, a small vessel, the Norfolk, was put under the command of Flinders and himself, with instructions to complete the survey of the southern coast. They weighed anchor on the 7th of October, 1798, and, on the 4th of November, the northern side of Van Diemen’s Land was sighted—a part of the island which had never been seen before. The fine harbour on this coast, and the river in which it was found to end, were named respectively Port Dalrymple and the Tamar. The Norfolk sailed round the island, and thus solved the problem that had baffled so many navigators.

13.    Bass shortly after left Sydney. It is not known what was his destination, or what the object of his voyage. The vessel in which he sailed was never heard of again. According to one story, it was taken by the Spaniards, and he was sent to work in the silver mines of Peru. When and where this brave Englishman died is, therefore, unknown.

{To be continued.)

1.    Heads, North Head and South Head, at the entrance to Port Jackson.

2.    Tas-ma-ni-a was so named in 1856. Till then it was called Van Diemen’s Land.

Va-cant, empty.


ISLE OF


BEAUTY.

Ves-per, of or pertaining to the evening.


1. Shades of evening, close not o’er us, Leave our lonely bark awhile ! Morn, alas ! will not restore us Yonder dim and distant isle.

Still my fancy can discover

Sunny spots where friends may dwell; Darker shadows round us hover,

Isle of Beauty, fare thee well!


2. ’Tis the hour when happy faces Smile around the taper’s light.

Who will fill our vacant places ?

Who will sing our songs to-night ? Thro’ the mist that floats above us Faintly sounds the vesper bell,

Like a voice from those who love us, Breathing fondly, ‘ ‘ Fare thee well!’

3. When the waves are round me breaking As I pace the deck alone ;

And my eye in vain is seeking Some green leaf to rest upon ;

What would I not give to wander

Where my old companions dwell !    .

Absence makes the heart grow fonder—

Isle of Beauty, fare thee well !

T. H. Bayly.

Two things stand like stone,— Kindness in another’s trouble, Courage in your own.

THE LOST CHILD—(continued).

De-spair; loss of hope; hopelessness. Pen-e-tra-te,d, went into or through.

Sol-emn, fitted to awaken serious thoughts; grave.

Be-wil-dered, confused ; mystified.

Sum-mit, top.

Ey-ry or ey-rie (eye-rl), nest of a bird of prey or other large bird that builds in a lofty place.

Sol-emn-ly, in a grave or serious manner.

In-COIl-ceiv-a-'ble, not capable of being understood or believed.

Down, here, flattish-topped hill.

1.    He was lost in the bush. He turned back, and went, as he thought, the way he had come, but soon arrived at a tall, steep cliff, which, by some magic, seemed to have got between him and the river. Then he broke down; and that strange madness came on him which comes even on strong men when lost in the forest—a despair, a not knowing what to do, which has cost many a man his life. Think what it must be with a child !

2.    He was fully persuaded that the cliff was between him and his home, and that he must climb it. Alas ! every step he took aloft carried him further from the river and the hope of safety; and, when he came to the top, just at dark, he saw nothing but cliff after cliff,

AMONG THE GRAMPIANS—WESTERN VICTORIA.

(Photo, by A. J. Relph, Esq.)

range after range, all around him. He had been wandering through steep gullies all clay without thinking, and had penetrated far into the mountains. Night was coming down, still and clear, and the poor little lad was far away from hefp or hope, going his last, long journey alone.

3. Partly walking, and partly sitting down and weeping, he got through the night; and, when the solemn morning came up again, he was still tottering along the leading range, bewildered, crying from time to time, “ Mother, Mother ! ” still nursing his little bear, his only companion, to his bosom, and holding still in his hand a few flowers he had gathered up the day before. Up and on all day; and, at evening, passing out of the great zone of timber, he came on the bald, thunder-smitten summit of the ridge, where one ruined tree held up its skeleton arms against the sunset, and the wind came keen and frosty. So, with failing, feeble legs, upward still, toward the region of the granite and the snow, toward the eyry of the kite and the eagle.

********

4.    Brisk as they all were at Garoopna, none were so brisk as Cecil and Sam. Long before the others were ready, they had strapped their blankets to their saddles, and, followed by Sam’s dog, Rover, now getting a little gray about the nose, cantered off up the river.

5.    Neither spoke at first. They knew what a solemn task they had before them ; and, while acting as though everything depended on speed, guessed well that their search was only for a little corpse, which, if they had luck, they would find stiff and cold under some tree or crag.

6.    Cecil began—“ Sam, depend on it, that child has crossed the river to this side ; if he had been on the plains, he would have been seen from a distance in a few hours.”

“ I quite agree,” said Sam. “ Let us go down on this side till we are opposite the hut, and search for marks by the riverside.”

7.    So they agreed, and, in half an hour, were opposite the hut, and, riding across to it to ask a few questions, found the poor mother sitting on the doorstep, with her apron over her head, rocking herself to and fro.

“We have come to help you, mistress,” said Sam. “In what direction do you think he is gone ? ”

8.    She said, with frequent bursts of grief, that, “ some days before, he had mentioned having seen white children across the water, who beckoned him to cross and play; that she, knowing well that they were fairies, or perhaps worse, had warned him solemnly not to mind them; but that she had very little doubt that they had helped him over, and carried him away to the forest, and that her husband would not believe in his having crossed the river.”

9.    “ Why, it is not knee deep across the shallow,” said Cecil.

“ Let us cross again,” said ¡Sam. “ He may be drowned, but I don’t think it.”

In a quarter of an hour from starting, they found, slightly up the stream, one of the child’s socks, which, in his hurry to dress, he had forgotten. Here brave Rover took up the trail like a bloodhound, and, before evening, he stopped at the foot of a lofty cliff.

10.    “Can he have gone up here?” said Sam, as they were brought up by the rock.

“ Most likely,” said Cecil. “ Lost children always climb from height to height. I have heard it often remarked by old bush hands.

Ho one can explain why they do so; but the fact is beyond denial. Ask Rover what he thinks.”

11.    The brave old dog was half way np, looking back for them. It took them nearly till dark to get their horses up ; and, as there was no moon, and the way was getting perilous, they determined to camp, and start again in the morning.

12.    At early dawn, they caught their horses, which had been hobbled with the stirrup leathers, and started afresh. Both were more silent than ever, and the dog, with his nose to the ground, led them slowly along the rocky rib of the mountain, ever going higher and higher.

13.    “ It is inconceivable,” said Sam, “ that the poor child can have come up here.”

“The dog disagrees with you,” said Cecil. “ He has something before him, not very far off. Watch him.”

14.    The trees had become dwarfed and scattered. They were getting out of the region of trees. The real forest zone was now below them, and they saw they were emerging toward a bald, elevated down, and that a few hundred yards before them was a dead tree, on the highest branch of which sat an eagle.

“The dog has stopped,” said Cecil: “ the end is near.”

“ See,” said Sam, “ there is a handkerchief under the tree.”

“ That is the boy himself,” said Cecil.

15. They were up to him and off their horses in a moment. There he lay dead and stiff, one hand still grasping the flowers he had gathered on his last, happy play-day, and the other laid as a pillow between the soft, cold cheek and the rough, cold stone. His midsummer holiday was over: his long journey was ended. He had found out at last what lay beyond the shining river he had watched so long. He had gone to the land, fair and beautiful, that lies over the range.

—From Geoffrey Hamlyn, a novel treating of Australian life, by Henry Kingsley.

THE BURNING OF THE “ GOLIATH.”1

Con-fu-sion, state of disorder. Frigllt-ened, terrified; alarmed. Com-rades, mates; associates; companions. Barge, large boat.

Cri-SiS, turning-point.


Self-de-ni-al, act of yielding up one’s own interest or feeling's; allowing another to have the advantage.

Ad-vai^ta-ges, benefits.

Work-house' poorhouse; house where the poor are boarded and lodged at public expense, and provided with work.

1. Let me give you an example of self-denial which comes from near home. I will speak to you of what has been done by little boys of seven, of eight, of twelve, of thirteen;—little English boys, and English boys with very few advantages of birth; not brought up, as most of you are, in quiet, orderly homes, but taken from the London workhouses. I will speak to you of what such little boys have done, not fifteen hundred or even two hundred years ago, but last week—last Wednesday, on the River Thames.

2.    Ho you know of whom I am thinking ? I am thinking of the little boys, nearly five hundred, who were taken from different workhouses in London, and put to school to be trained as sailors on board the ship which was called after the name of the giant whom David slew2—the training-ship Goliath.

3.    About eight o’clock on Wednesday morning, that great ship suddenly caught fire, from the upsetting of a can of oil in the lamp-room. It was hardly daylight. In a very few minutes, the ship was on fire from one end to the other, and the firebell rang to call the boys to their posts. What did they do ? Think of the sudden surprise, the sudden danger—the flames rushing all around them, and the dark, cold water below them ! Did they cry, or scream, or fly about in confusion ? No ; they ran each to his proper place !

4.    They had been trained to do that—they knew that it was their duty; and no one forgot himself—no one lost his presence of mind.They all, as the captain said, “ behaved like men.” Then, when it was found impossible to save the ship, those who could swim jumped into the water by order of the captain, and swam for their lives. Some, also at his command, got into a boat; and then, when the sheets of flame and the clouds of smoke came pouring out of the ship, the smaller boys for a moment were frightened, and wanted to push away.

5.    But there was one among them—the little mate: his name was William Bolton : we are proud that he came from Westminster:4 a quiet boy, much loved by his comrades—who had the sense and the courage to say, “ No ; we must stay and help those that are still in the ship.” He kept the barge alongside the ship as long as possible, and was thus the means of saving more than one hundred lives !

6.    There were others who were still in the ship while the flames went on spreading. They were standing by the good captain, who had been so kind to them all, and whom they all loved so much. In that dreadful crisis, they thought more of him than of themselves. One threw his arms round his neck, and said, “ You’ll be burned, Captain ; ” and another said, “ Save yourself before the rest.” But the captain gave them the best of all lessons for that moment. He said, “That’s not the way at sea, my boys.”

7.    He meant to say—and they quite understood what he meant—that the way at sea is to prepare for danger beforehand, to meet it manfully when it conies, and to look at the safety, not of one’s self, but of others. The captain had not only learned that good old way himself, but he also knew how to teach it to the boys under his charge.

—Extract from a sermon preached in Westminster Abbey by Dean Stanley.

1.    The burn-ing Of the “ Go-li-ath.” In December, 1875, this ship, on board which lads were being trained as sailors, caught fire. She was lying in the River Thames—the river on which London is built,— and, through the excellent discipline that the captain had established, and the courage of the lads, out of 600 on board, only twelve lost their lives.

2.    The gi-ant whom Da-vid slew. The account of the contest between David and Goliath is to be

found in the 17th chapter of the Second Book of Samuel.

3.    Pres-ence of mind. Coolness in the midst of danger ; acting calmly in time of peril.

4.    West-min-ster, district in the west of London, where the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey are built.

“THAT’S NOT THE WAY AT SEA!”

(Reply of the captain of the training-ship “ Goliath,” when his boys entreated him to save himself from the burning wreck.)


Scorch-ing, burning.

1 He stood upon the fiery deck,

Our captain, kind and brave ;

He would not leave the burning wreck, While there was one to save.

We wanted him to go before,

And we would follow fast;

We could not bear to leave him there, Beside the blazing mast.

But his voice rang out in a cheery shout,

And noble words spoke he—

That’s not the way at sea, my boys,

That’s not the way at sea ! ”


Re-sound' sound loudly.

2. So each one did as he was bid;

And into the boats we passed,

While closer came the scorching flame;

And our captain was the last.

Yet once again he dared his life,

One little lad to save ;

Then we pulled to shore from the blaze and roar,

With our captain kind and brave.

In the face of Death, with its fiery breath,

He had stood—and so would we ! For that’s the way at sea, my boys, For that’s the way at sea 1


3. Now let the noble words resound,

And echo far and free,

Wherever English hearts are found,

On English shore or sea.

The iron nerve of duty, joined

With golden vein of love,    .

Can dare to do, and dare to wait,

With courage from above.    .

Our captain’s shout among the flames A watchword long shall be—

“ That’s not the way at sea, my boys,

That’s not the way at sea ! ”

—Frances R. Havergal (1836-1879).

THE BRAVE CABIN-BOY.

Na^val, oi ships or a navy,    I Des-per-ate, hopeless ; full of peril.

VoRun-teers, persons who offer for any service. j De-featf overthrow; loss of a battle. Hes-i-ta-ted, paused respecting action.    Mod-est, not boastful ; rather retiring than

pushing one’s self forward.

1.    During a terrible naval battle between the English and Dutch, the English flagship, commanded by Admiral Narborough, was drawn into the thickest of the fight. Two masts were soon shot away, and the main-mast fell with a fearful crash upon the deck. Admiral Narborough at once saw that all was lost unless he could bring up some ships he had in reserve on the right. Hastily scrawling an order, he called for volunteers to swim across the boiling water, under the hail of shot and shell. A dozen sailors at once offered their services, and, among them, a cabin-boy.

2.    “ Why,” said the admiral, “ what can you do, my fearless lad ?” “ I can swim, sir,” the boy replied. “ If I am shot, I can be more

easily spared than any one else.”

3.    Narborough hesitated, but only for a moment: his men were few, and his position was desperate. The boy plunged into the sea, amid the cheers of the sailors, and was soon lost to sight. The battle raged more fiercely, and, as time went on, defeat seemed certain. But, just

as hope was fading1, a thunder of cannon was heard from the right, and the reserve were seen bearing down upon the enemy.

4. By sunset, the Dutch ships were scattered far and wide, and the cabin-boy, the hero of the hour, was called in to receive the honour due to him. His modest bearing so won the heart of the old admiral that he exclaimed, “ I shall live to see you have a flagship of your own.” The words came true when the cabin-boy, having become Admiral Cloudesley Shovel, was knighted by the King.

1. Ad-mir-al Cloudes-ley Shov-el (1659-1707). At the age of 24, after working his way up from

the position of cabin-boy, he became a lieutenant under Sir John Narborough. In the naval battles between the French and the English, which followed the accession of William III. to the throne, he took a prominent part, and was knighted for his gallant conduct by that monarch.

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, PUZZLES, ETC.

THE BOWLINE KNOT.

Fig. 2.


1. The value of any knot depends upon its holding firm, and, at the same time, being readily undone, no matter how tightly it has been drawn.    •

2.    The true bowline knot is perhaps the most important one that has ever been devised. It will not slip, though subjected to the severest strain. Moreover, it is applicable to the smallest cord as well as to the largest rope. Further, this knot has the merit of being quickly and easily let loose, however much it has been tightened.

Fig. 3.


3.    To make the tying of this form of knot clearly understood, three sketches are supplied. A loop has first to be made in the cord as in Fig. 1, and held in the left hand. The end a of the cord is then passed by the right hand through this loop,

as in Fig. 2. This end a is led around b and passed through the loop, as in Fig. 3.

4. After pulling the parts tight, you will have a knot that is perfectly secure. It is invaluable to landsmen as well as sailors.

—S. S.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

Annual Demonstration of Swimming Clubs connected with State Schools in Victoria.

1.    The annual demonstration of swimming clubs connected with several of the State schools of Victoria took place at the South Melbourne Baths, on the 9th of March, 1900.

The events were keenly contested, and the splendid work shown by the competitors won the approval of the senior members of the Victorian Amateur Swimming Association.

2.    The Executive Committee (Messrs. Barclay, Hanson, and Planner) were assisted by the officers of the Education Department, members of the Victorian Amateur Swimming Association, and the teachers of the competing schools.

3.    The trials were this year far harder than in the first demonstration, the weather being very cold and windy; still, in spite of this, the contests were, on the whole, done in quicker time than last season, when the water was smooth.

Mr. G. R. Lamhle, Head Teacher.


Mr. W. P. Dawson, Teacher in charge of Swimming Class.

4.    Geelong again carried off the honour of first place in the competition by A. Hodges, of State School No. 1094, winning the championship, and by the team from the same school winning the Teams’ Race, thereby entitling their club to the title of Champion State School Swimming Club.”

5.    We reproduce a photograph of this team, and urge tjie senior readers of The School Paper to do all in their power to make the swimming clubs in their schools a success during this season.

Rifle Shooting : Schools’ Cadet Matches, Victoria.

1.    The annual schools’ cadet matches took place on the 7th of December, 1900, at the Williamstown rifle-range. The shooting was, as a whole, a little above the average for cadet matches.

2.    In the junior matches for cadets under fifteen years of age, the Echuca lads were the most successful, winning the first, third, and fourth prizes for teams, and the first, second, and third prizes for the individual match. Their success was mainly due to the excellent coaching of Lieutenant James, the head master of the school. He had similar success with teams at Seymour and Colac, before his connexion with the Echuca school.

3.    The gold medal for the junior individual match was won by A. Kilgour, of Echuca, with the fine score of 60 points.

The silver cup and the five silver medals in the junior field-firing match were won by the Stawell team.

4.    The first prize in the Consolation Match was won by Colour-Sergeant O’Halloran, of Stawell.

A. Kilgour, of Echuca, won the gold medal for the champion junior shot; and H. Burns, of Port Melbourne, the gold medal for the best young shot.

Trees that Whistle.

1.    The musical tree, found in the West India Islands, has a peculiarly shaped leaf, and pods with a split or open edge. The wind, passing through these, forms the sound which gives the tree its peculiar name. In Barbadoes, there is a valley filled with these trees ; and, when strong winds blow across the island, a constant moaning, deep-toned whistle is heard from it, which, in the still hours of the night, has a very weird and unpleasant effect.

2.    A species of acacia, growing abundantly in the Soudan, is also called the whistling-tree. Its shoots are frequently, by the agency of insects, distorted in shape, and swollen into a globular bladder, from one to two inches in diameter. After the insect has emerged from a circular hole in the side of the swelling, the opening, played upon by the wind, becomes a musical instrument, equal in sound to a sweet-toned flute.

3.    Reading of these trees, an Australian at once calls to mind the she-oak, which might well be called the “ sighing-tree.” The wind among its sail-needle-like leaves produces a melancholy sound. Thus writes Mr. Henry Lawson, a living Australian poet, concerning it—

1 ‘ The creek went down with a broken song,

’Neath the she-oaks high ;

The waters carried the song along,

And the oaks a sigh.”

The Early Struggles of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

In receiving a deputation of working men the other day, the Archbishop of Canterbury quickly put them at their ease by declaring he was a worker, too. “ My father was only a poor officer,” he said, “and I had a hard struggle with poverty. I was born in Santa Maura, in the Ionian Islands, and did not come to England until I was eight and a half years old. When my father died, we were left very poor. But I am proud to say that, since I was seventeen, I have not cost any one a penny. I gained a scholarship, but that was not sufficient to keep me, and I had to take pupils in order to eke out a living. In the cold winter days, I wrapped myself in all the clothes I could find, for I was too poor to afford a fire.”

Remarkable Endurance of a Child.

A remarkable instance of endurance in a mere baby has recently come under notice in Hew South Wales. A boy only two years old strayed from his home one day, and was lost in the bush. Search parties were out all the night following, which was bitterly cold and wet; and, during the next morning, they found the baby about a mile from home, seemingly little the worse for the exposure.

Time that is past thou never canst recall;

Of time to come thou art not sure at all •

The 'present only is within thy power,

And therefore now improve the present hour.

—Byron.

THE GRAND OLD FLAG.

Words by Vincent Pyke.    Music by W. It. Furlong.*

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Three crosses in the Jack,

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And stand by it, back to back.

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When danger’s tempest low’rs,

We’ll show the world that Britain’s cause And Britain’s foes are ours.

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’Tis not with serfs down-trodden,

Nor yet with craven slaves,

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But with men, free, bold, and fearless,

United heart and hand,

To guard the honour and the fame Of the flag of the Fatherland.

Of the brave old British flag, my boys, <fcc.

* The right to publish this setting in The School Paper has been presented to the Minister of Public Instruction by the composer.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA,

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 42.]


MELBOURNE.


[March, 1901.


VICTORIA.

In Mbmoriam.

Im-pearled7 (used only in poetry), formed into that which resembles pearls in beauty and preciousness.

1.


Right-eous-ness, godliness; holiness; purity. Sac-ri-fice, surrender of anything for the sake of some one or something else.

White Star of Womanhood, whose rays Thro’ years of peace and years of stress Shed wide o’er all thy people’s ways The light of nobleness—

A memory in their hearts impearled

To nerve thy sons where’er they roam—

Empress and Queen o’er half a world,

Yet Angel of the Home.

2.


Now, when the Shadow of Death has crost The belt of Empire, sea by sea,

The wide world weeps that freedom lost A friend like thee,

Who strove for righteousness, who wore A hero’s soul in woman’s breast:

God fold thee, now thy work is o’er,

In robes of rest.

Death came not to thy fearless eyes A King of Terrors, but a friend,

Whispering : ‘ ‘ Long years of sacrifice At last shall end.

Sleep, for the stress of Life is o’er,

And on thy heart is laid release :

Lay down the Crown of Empire for The Crown of Peace.”

23rd January, 1901.


—Geo. Essex Evans (an Australian poet, born 1863).

THE PERSONAL LIFE OF OUR LATE QUEEN.

HER INFANCY AND GIRLHOOD.

Re-ferred' to, alluded to ; spoke of. Right-eous-ness, godliness ; uprightness. Reproach; disgrace.

Rec-re-aition, amusement ; pastime. ' Ap-pear-ance, look.

Com-plex-ion, colour of the skin.

So-Ci-e ty, company ; people of rank. In-sist-'ed, said it must be ; urged.


Re-ceived; got.

Vac-ci-narted, having had vaccine matter introduced into the blood.

Nat-U-ral-ly, according to the usual course of things.

De-scribed; gave an account.

Lan-guage, speech.

Hes-i-tate, waver.

1. Her late Majesty was born on the 24th of May, 1819, at Kensington Palace, near London. Her father was the Duke of Kent, fourth son of the reigning King, George III.

Price Id.

2.    She received the names, Alexandrina Victoria—the former, at the request of the Prince Regent,1 after Alexander, the Emperor of Russia, and the latter, because it was her mother’s name. She was called “ Little Drina ” all through her early years.

3.    Little Drina was the first member of royal blood to be vaccinated. Soon after this was done, in order to escape the severity of a London winter, she was taken by her father and mother to Sidmouth, a town on the coast of England.

4.    When she was eight months old, her father died. The Duchess of Kent was a German, and her thoughts naturally turned to her home in Germany. Some years afterwards, she thus described her position on the death of her husband:—“ We stood alone, almost friendless, and unknown in the country. I could not even speak the language of it. I did not hesitate how to act. I gave up my home, my kindred, and other duties, to devote myself to a duty which was the sole object of my future life.”

KENSINGTON PALACE.

5.    The “duty” she referred to was the training of her little daughter for the high position—that of Queen of England—which it was probable she would be called to fill. To carry this out, the Duchess with her little child went to live at Kensington Palace. For eighteen years this was their home.

6.    As soon as her daughter was old enough, and before she could read the Bible for herself, the Duchess used to read to her out of it every day. _ Doubtless, she was taught the excellent lesson, even when a child, that “Righteousness exalteth a nation; but sin is a* reproach to any people.”

_    7. The recreation of the young Princess was to walk, or ride in a

little carriage, round Kensington Garden, or have a scamper through the rooms and passages of the palace. Till she was thirteen years old, she was under the care of a governess; but, at that age, Dr. Davys was appointed her teacher.

8.    There could not have been many idle moments in the Princess’s clay at this time. She had to learn drawing, painting, singing, French, German, and Italian, besides other subjects, such as arithmetic and geography. But all these studies were no‘t allowed to shut out the study of God’s Word.

9.    Her appearance when a girl has been thus described:—“ She was not tall, but upright and graceful, with a fresh, pink-and-white complexion, and large, well-opened, blue eyes.”

10.    When she was about seventeen, her two cousins, Prince Ernest and Prince Albert, of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha,44 45 came with their father to pay a visit to the Duchess of Kent at Kensington Palace. The young people saw much of one another, and went about to view the sights of London together. After a stay of several weeks, Prince Albert returned to his home in Germany, hut he and the Princess often heard of each other through friends.

11.    From the time of this visit, Princess Victoria went more into society. Towards the end of his reign, William IV. insisted upon her going to Court,46 even against the wish of her mother.

1- Prince Re-gent, the Prince of Wales, ruling in the place of his father, George III., who through illness was debarred from ruling.

2.    Saxe-Co-burg-Go-tlia, small state now forming part of the German Empire.

3.    Court, residence of a sovereign.

THE MAIDEN MONARCH: VICTORIA REGINA.

Re-gin-a, Latin word meaning queen. Oc-curredi took place.

Arcll-bisll-cp, chief bishop.

Can-ter-bur-y, town in the south-east of England.

Coun-cil, body of men elected or appointed to give advice.

Gov-ern-ment, ruling power.

Pre sid-ed, occupied the place of chairman. Doc-U-ments, written or printed papers. Proc-la-ma-tion, general notice. Gf-fi-cial, made by authority.

Liege, sovereign.

Af-fect-ed, overcome ; moved.

4. At exactly 11 o'clock, the young Queen held her first Council. There were about a hundred members present—Ministers of the Crown and nobles. She seated herself at the head of the Councilboard, and took the usual oaths respecting the government of the kingdom. One who was present records that she presided with as

S181

QUEEN VICTORIA AT HER ACCESSION.

much ease as though she had done nothing else all her life. In signing the State documents put before her, the Queen wrote “ Victoria” only ; not “ Alexandrina Victoria” as it was thought she would.

5.    The public proclamation took place next day in front of St. James’s Palace. It was the official notice of the death of King William IV., of the vacant throne, and of the accession of “the high and mighty Princess Alexandria Victoria,” who is “become our only lawful and rightful liege lady, Victoria, by the Grace of God, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the Faith.”

6.    When the concluding words “ God save the Queen ” were uttered, a royal salute was fired, the bands played the National Anthem, and cheer after cheer arose from the crowds of people on every side. The Queen was much affected, and, turning to her mother, burst into tears.

THE THRONE ROOM.

/.It was not till the 28th of June, 1838, that the grand and solemn ceremony of crowning the Queen took place.

When the Queen ascended the throne, the affairs of the nation were in the hands of a Ministry, at the head of which was Lord Melbourne. He thus became, and for some years remained, her chief adviser.

. k. It was -in 1837 that Governor Bourke visited from Sydney a little village on the Parra Yarra River in order to inspect the planning out of its streets. He named the place Melbourne after the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

HER MARRIED LIFE.

1. In 1839, Prince Ernest and Prince Albert again came over from the Continent to pay a visit to their cousin of England. After they


Be-trothed/ promised with a view to marriage. Pro-ces-sion, train of persons advancing in order. Coun-te-nance, face.

In-dus-tri-OUS, not slothful or idle. Par-lia-ment, assembly of the representatives of a nation having authority' to make laws


Tours (tuors), journeys ; excursions ; trips. Man-U-al, done by the hand.

Do -mes-tiC, relating to home life. En-cour-a-ging, helping forward.

Ty-phoid, very dangerous fever which lasts from two to three weeks.


PRINCE ALBERT WHEN HE WAS MARRIED.


had been at Windsor Castle a short time, the nation was rejoiced to hear that the Queen was betrothed to Prince Albert.

2.    The marriage took place early in the following year. The morning of the wedding-day was wet, cold, and foggy; hut, in spite of the bad weather, people were out in crowds to see the procession. We are told that the Queen’s eyes were swollen with tears, hut great happiness was shown in her countenance. Her look of trust and comfort at the Prince as they walked away, man and wife, promised well for their future happiness.

3.    Her trust was not misplaced. He proved a loving husband and father, a wise and industrious prince. He was known, and will he known hereafter, through the ages, as Albert the Good. Parliament, to show its trust in him, bestowed upon him the title of Prince Consort. Throughout the twenty-one years of their married life, the Queen turned to him in all her difficulties.

OSBORNE HOUSE, ISLE OF WIGHT-WHERE THE QUEEN DIED.

4. As the years rolled on, the nursery was filled with young children. Victoria Adelaide Mary, the Princess Royal, was the first of these. At the age of eighteen, she was married to the late Emperor of Germany. (The present Emperor of that country is her son, and, therefore, the grandson of our late Queen.)

5.    Then came the Prince of Wales on November 9th, 1841.

The Royal couple often went on tours through the country to the delight of the people. They also visited Ireland, Scotland, and the Continent.

6.    Prince Albert bought two estates, and had beautiful mansions built upon them. One—Balmoral Castle—is in the Highlands of Scotland, on the River Dee. The other—Osborne House—was the Queen’s seaside home in the Isle of Wight. It was the habit of the

Prince to retire with his wife and children to these at times, in order to enjoy freedom and rest.

Wherever her abode was, the Queen spent a part of her time in visiting the sick, bringing comfort and joy into many a home.

7.    Once, when her birthday came round, the Queen surprised her children and gave them much delight, by presenting them with a building known as Swiss Cottage, which was situated about a mile from Osborne House. It was not to be merely a playhouse for them, but was to serve as a school, in which they could be taught manual-exercises and domestic duties. Among other things, it had a kitchen, dairy, and carpenter’s workshop. There was also a garden around it, in which the children had to work under the direction of a gardener.

8.    There was no scheme for the public good which the Prince Consort was not ready to forward; he was always earnest in encouraging peace and good-will among men. In 1861, when in the prime of life, this good man died from typhoid fever. The whole nation sorrowed with the Queen for her loss, which was also theirs. For many years-after this sad event, the Queen was rarely seen by her subjects.

HER WIDOWHOOD.

Il-lu-min-a-tions, decoration of buildings with-lights ; lights put up on buildings as tokens of joy.

Loy-al-ty, fidelity to the sovereign to whom one is subject.

Rep£re-sent-a-tives, persons acting for another or others.


In-ci-dents, events; occurrences.

Ju-bi-lee, season of general joy; strictly speaking, the joyful celebration held on the fiftieth anniversary of any event.

An-ces-tors, those from whom a person is descended ; forefathers.

Mem-O-ra-ble, very important; worth remembering.

1.    Among the many incidents in the Queen’s life during her widowhood, none possessed more interest for the people than the celebration of her Diamond Jubilee, which took place on the 21st of June, 1897. Having on that date completed the sixtieth year of her reign, she had worn the crown for a longer period than any of her ancestors.

2.    In all parts of the world, the Queen’s subjects celebrated this memorable event with great heartiness. The rejoicings throughout the United Kingdom, and Greater Britain, as the portions of the Empire outside the United Kingdom are often called, were without equal in their history. In every town there were festivals, decorations, and illuminations, and, in many places, feasts were given to vast numbers of school children. The Queen’s state visit to St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, was notable, as showing the loyalty of her vast colonies and possessions: representatives from every spot where the British flag waves had a place in the procession.

HER DEATH.

An-nounce-ment, making known; publication.    Realms, regions; countries.

Re-qui-em, grand musical composition, per-    Car-Ol-ling, singing or sounding joyfully,

formed in honour of a dead person.

1. Throughout her long life, Queen Victoria’s health had been so good that the sudden announcement on the 19th of January that

she was seriously ill gave a severe shock to her subjects far and wide throughout her vast Empire. Millions hoped and prayed for her recovery ; but the end was nigh, and, on the 2.2nd of the month, in the eighty-second year of her life and the sixty-fourth of her reign, in the presence of many of her children and grandchildren, she passed peacefully to her rest and to her reward.

2. The effect of the news on her people far and wide and their feelings are truly and beautifully expressed in these verses

John Sandes, and printed in


The North and the South foredone Have mingled their tears in vain ; The West and the East are one In a world-wide pain.

“ Now that her life is o’er,

Let her be laid to rest In the place, for evermore,

That her soul loved best.

Nobly amid the free

She hath done her royal part,— Sound may her slumbers be On her husband’s heart.”


from a poem written by Mr.

The Argus:—

“ Listen in every land

To the mournful bells that toll,

Blent in a requiem grand For a passing soul.

Deep as the seas that spread,

Wide as the winds that blow,

Is the grief for that noble head,

In death brought low.

“Not in her realms alone

Are the carolling joy-bells dumb ;

Not only upon her own Hath the sorrow come ;


TOO BEAUTIFUL TO KILL.

Ex-pe^ri-enced, taught by use or practice. Oc-ca-sion-al, occurring at times.

Ant-lered, furnished with antlers (deer’s horns). As-sur-ing, making sure or certain.


An-gle, difference of direction of two lines. Dis-ap-point'ed, defeated of expectation or hope.

Cu-ri-ous-ly, in an anxious or prying manner.


1. Here is a story of Fergus, a Scotch lad, fourteen years old, whose parents had settled in Manitoba, on the shores of Lake Winnipeg. His father had given him a new rifle and a new canoe, and now he was expecting to shoot his first deer.

STAG’S HEAD AND ANTLERS.


2. On an August day, he went from camp with Calvin, an experienced hunter, and was about to embark on the lake. It was so lovely that Fergus held his breath to look, till, all at once, he felt Calvin’s hand on his shoulder. One glance at his companion’s face, and

he knew that something was happening. At first, Fergus heard nothing but his own heart-beats. Then, as he recovered himself a little, he could hear a rustling and an occasional crackle ; and, presently, looking up the bank, he discovered the swaying of a bush. Something was moving there.    .

3.    Suddenly, the bushes parted, and a head looked through ! It was the head of which Fergus had lovingly and longingly dreamed— •a beautiful antlered head held proudly up, the eyes alert, and nostrils wide apart. As the creature broke from cover, his mouth was open ; he was hot, and thirsty, and eager to get at the water.

4.    “ Does he see us ? ” whispered Calvin.

Fergus shook his head.

Let him get well out of the bushes, then raise your rifle,” •whispered the guide.

5.    Inch by inch Fergus had already lifted his rifle, and was now looking along it when the deer advanced, coming twenty feet nearer. Then assuring himself that all was safe, he stood, his ears at a sharp angle, directly facing Fergus. He could see the beautiful scared eyes •of the deer.

“ Fire ! ” said Calvin.

6.    But, instead, Fergus dropped his rifle to his side. There was a ■sudden movement, a crashing of boughs, and the place was empty.

“ Why, Fergus !” cried Calvin, disappointed and amazed ; “ why, Fergus ! ”

7.    He looked curiously into the boy’s face, and discovered that each bright eye had a tear in it, and that the underlip was quivering.

“Oh, Calvin!” cried Fergus, “I couldn’t do it. I hadn’t the heart to do it. I’d die myself before I’d kill anything so beautiful.”

—From Schoolmates, N.Z.

DON’T CROWD.

Realm, dominion ; department.


FOS-ter-ing, nourishing ; encouraging.

1.


3. Don’t crowd the good from out your heart By fostering aught that’s bad,

But give to every virtue room—

The best that may be had ;

Be each day’s record such a one That you may well be proud ;

Give each his right, give each his room, And never try to crowd.


Don’t crowd: this world is large enough

For you as well as me,

The doors for all are open wide,

The realm of thought is free.

Of all earth’s places, you are right To choose the best you can, Provided that you do not try To crowd some other man.


2. What matter though you scarce can count

Your piles of golden ore,

While he can hardly strive to keep Gaunt famine from the door ?

Of willing hands, and honest hearts, Alone should men be proud ! Then give him all the room he needs, And never try to crowd.


THE WOMBAT.

Prac-tised, experienced; skilled.

Ten-ant, dweller; occupant.

In-spec-tion, act of looking at carefully ; close


investigation.

Mar-su-pi-al, having a pouch for carrying the


young.

Me-di-um-sized; neither big nor small; having


a mean or average size.

Lo-CO-mo-tion, movement from place to place. Mar-vel-lous-ly, wonderfully.


Pe-cu-'li-ar-i-ty, singularity.

Cleft, divided; split.

In-ci-sors, cutting teeth.

Mo-lars, grinding teeth.

Ca-nine' pointed like the long teeth of a dog. Pref-er-a-ble, more desirable.

country.

Es-sen-tial, important in the highest degree. In-tel-li-gence, understanding.


Ab-0 -rig-i-nes, earliest known inhabitants of a.

1.    A wanderer through the mountains on the eastern slopes of New South Wales, and in the east of Victoria, would he often struck by the number of holes or burrows—usually at the foot of some large fallen and dead tree—which he would see. Great heaps of yellow clay and pebbles here and there meet the eye, while the entrances of the holes are well beaten and smooth, showing that some creature, and not a small one either, is in the habit of regularly entering and leaving them. Others there are that have been deserted, and" are as easily recognised by the practised eye as is a hut that has not had a tenant for some years.

2.    If he will closely examine one of these burrows of recent formation, he will notice certain footmarks on the freshly-turned-up clay, marks of a rather singular kind, and which might be taken for the footprints of a goat or a pig, or, to come still nearer the mark, those of a wallaby or kangaroo, by those unacquainted with bush life. A closer inspection will reveal the fact that the burrow dips considerably as it goes in, and, if he is anxious to learn a little more, he may sit down by the burrow and listen, If the day is warm and the sun getting westward, he may, in all likelihood, listen in vain, for the occupant or occupants may be out; but, if it is about noon, he will most likely hear a strange, grunting noise, accompanied now and then by a sort of whimpering, not unlike what one now and then hears from a number of very young puppies fighting among themselves. This is the home of the Australian wombat.

3.    The Australian wombat is a marsupial, and, when seen at a distance running through the bush, is very like a medium-sized, black pig ; but its mode of locomotion is by far clumsier. This is not to be wondered at when an examination of the feet is made. They are long and flat, and have each five claws or toes, of great strength and power, such as we might expect to find in creatures that can burrow as wombats do, and turn up the earth in cartloads with marvellous speed.

4.    The body is, on the average, about two and a half feet long, and covered with coarse, brownish-black or grayish-black hair. This hair is very coarse, and has one remarkable peculiarity—it is coarser at the ends than at the roots, and in this respect resembles another very remarkable animal, the South American sloth. The head is fairly large,, broad, and flat; and the eyes and ears are small, while the muzzle is blunt, and the upper lip cleft. The wombat has altogether 24 teeth— four chisel-shaped incisors, two above and two below ; and 20 molars, five in each jaw, above and below. There are no canine teeth.

5. The best time to study the habits of the wombat is about sunset on a warm summer’s day, or on a clear, moonlit night. They then leave their burrows and go in search of food, returning in the morning about daylight to sleep the hours away that we value so much. Their food -consists of grass, herbs, and roots, and they are not above finishing a w y.v    _    meal with such in

sects or worms or grubs ns may come in their way.

6. The wombat is generally plump and fat, and its flesh tastes like pork, and is eaten by those who prefer a novelty in the way of animal diet. It g * is certainly prefer'    able to wallaby or

_    kangaroo. The

~    aborigines con-

wombats.    sidered its flesh

quite a treat, and hunted it eagerly, often sending the boys of their tribe into the holes to capture it,—at what danger we may guess, for the creature, when provoked, can be savage, and has the power of inflicting severe wounds with its sharp claws.

7. The wombat is usually taken by shooting; but, as its powers of hearing and smell are very acute, it needs much caution and bush experience to capture it, dead or alive. It is essential, as a rule, to get between it and its burrow, and then it may be either shot or taken alive with the aid of dogs and a strong sack. Its strength, however, is so great that one, and even two, dogs are sometimes unable to pin it down and hold it.

The wombat has often been tamed, but it is a creature of little intelligence, and does not make a very interesting pet.

—Adapted from an unsigned article in The New South Wales Educational Gazette.

You ask me for the golden time;

I bid you “seize the hour,”

And fill it full of earnest work While yet you have the power.

To-day, the golden time for joy Beneath the household eaves;

To-day, the royal time for work—

For “bringing in the sheaves.”

—Margaret E. Sangster.

KING HACON’S LAST BATTLE.

2.    Nobler freight none ever bore. About a thousand years ago, Scandinavia and Denmark were inhabited by a nation called Norsemen. They were great warriors, and made themselves masters of the sea to the north-west of Europe. When a Norse king was about to die, he, with his crown on his head and his sword in his hand, was placed in the ship that had often borne him over the waves. This ship was either buried in a spot overlooking the sea, or it was sent forth with sails set, and a slow fire burning in it, that, when out at sea, it might blaze up in flame, and in such manner worthily close the life of the old warrior.

3.    Vi-kingS. They called themselves Vikings, which means those who dwell in bays or creeks (vicks or wicks), because there they always had their ships ready, and could sail out to rob and plunder other countries whenever they wished. Viking differs in meaning from sea king, with which it is frequently (as in this poem) confounded. Hacon was probably pronounced hay-kon.


De-scend-ing, going down.

Blend-ing, mixing.

Con-quer-or, one who gains a victory. Des-per-ate, terrible ; very severe.

Rev-er-ent, respectful; loving.

Spoil, plunder; something taken by force. Mur-mured, said in a low voice.

An-gri-ly, hotly; wrathfully.

Dis-dain' scorn.

DesrO-late, solitary; barren.

1.    All was over ; day was ending

As the foemen turned and fled. Gloomy red

Glowed the angry sun descending;

While, round Hacon’s dying bed, Tears and songs of triumph blending Told how fast the conqueror bled.

2.    “ Raise me,” said the King. We raised

him—

Not to ease his desperate pain ;

That were vain !

“ Strong our foe was—but we faced him: Show me that red field again.”

Then with reverent hands we placed him

High above the battle plain.

3.    Sudden, on our startled hearing,

Came the low-breathed, stern command—

“ Lo ! ye stand ?

Linger not—the night is nearing ;

Bear me downwards to the strand, Where my ships are idly steering Off and on, in sight of land. ”

4.    Every whispered word obeying,

Swift we bore him down the steep, O’er the deep,

Up the tall ship’s side, low swaying To thestorm-wind’s powerful sweep, And his dead companions laying l Round him—we had time to weep.

5.    But the King said, “Peace! bring

hither

Spoil and weapons, battle-strown— Make no moan;

—Lord Dufferin, 1. Lay-ing is attributive to “we.”


Keel, ship ; timber or beam running from end to end along the bottom of a ship.

Core, heart or inner part of a thing.

Freight (/rate), load ; cargo.

Il-lume', make bright.

Vi-king (vie-kin<i), one belonging to the pirate-crews from among the Northmen, who plundered-the coasts of Europe in the eighth, ninth, and* tenth centuries.

Pyre, heap of firewood for burning a dead body

Leave me and my dead together;

Light my torch, and then—begone.,y But we murmured, each to other,

“ Can we leave him thus alone ?

6.    Angrily the King replieth ;

Plashed the awful eye again With disdain—

“ Call him not alone who lieth Low amidst such noble slain ;

Call him not alone who dieth Side by side with gallant men.’

7.    Slowly, sadly we departed ;

Reached again that desolate shore, Never more

Trod by him, the brave, true-hearted, Dying in that dark ship’s core ! Sadder keel from land ne’er parted, Nobler freight none ever bore ! 2

8.    There we lingered, seaward gazing,

Watching o’er that living tomb, Through the gloom—

Gloom which awful light is chasing— Blood-red flames the surge illume ! Lo ! King Hacon’s ship is blazing ;

’Tis the hero’s self-sought doom.

9.    Right before the wild wind driving,

Madly plunging—stung by fire—

No help nigh her—

Lo ! the ship has ceased her striving ! Mount the red flames higher, higher,

Till, on ocean’s verge arriving, Sudden sinks the viking’s3 pyre— Hacon’s gone !

a living statesman and writer, born 1826.


FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK

Bush Fires.

1. As the season had been very favourable to the growth of grass, the scorching north wind and the burning sun of the 7th of February supplied the other conditions necessary to turn the few dying embers of a swagman’s lire, the burning match thrown carelessly aside, the live spark from a furnace, or the phosphorus poison carelessly laid, into a rushing torrent of flame. Such a widespread and disastrous conflagration has not, it is said, been experienced in Victoria since “ Black Thursday,” the 6th of February, 1851—fifty years ago.

2.    The newspapers have had column after column taken up with the sad news. They record the loss of eight human lives, the burning of cattle and sheep, the destruction of homesteads, of stacks of corn, of hundreds of miles of fencing, and thousands of acres of grass.

3.    The origin of many of the fires will ever be a mystery. One fact remains : people are far too prone to be negligent and careless, and to take unnecessary risks.

4.    We trust that the readers of The School Paper will always keep in mind the dangers that attend the careless use of fire, and be sure that no act of theirs may cause a bush fire to spring up.

5.    The law declares:—“If any person shall (except as hereinafter mentioned) ignite or use, or carry when ignited, any inflammable material within twenty yards of any growing crops or stack of corn, pulse, or hay, or within three yards of any stubble-field or grass land, and thereby the property of any other person shall be injured or destroyed,—or if any person shall leave fire which he map have lighted or used in the open air before the same be thoroughly extinguished,—he shall forfeit and pay for any such offence any sum not exceeding one hundred pounds, or be imprisoned, with or without hard labour, for any period not exceeding six months.

“ Occupiers of land are permitted to burn straw, stubble, grass, herbage, wood, &c., only under certain conditions.”

A Little Hero.

1.    An instance of real courage in defending a helpless creature comes from the Mercy secretary of Queensland.

2.    A little boy endeavoured to prevent his schoolfellows from torturing a frog, and received a black eye from the cowardly boys in consequence; but he succeeded in rescuing the frog, put it in his pocket, and carried it in triumph home to his mother. When receiving pity for his injured face, he exclaimed, “Never mind, they didn’t hurt the frog! ”

We wish we knew his name, that it might be duly honoured.

Band of Mercy, Sydney.

Our National Anthem.

1.    The National Anthem will now revert to its original form, as written by Henry Carey, the gender of the sovereign being masculine. The opening words are :—

“ God Save our Gracious King,

Long live our noble King,

God Save the King.”

Both the words and the music were composed by Carey in 1740.

2.    It is said that God Save the Queen ” has been sung in twenty languages.

THE GARMENT OF TRUTH.

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The garment of truth is the name it shall bear.

EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 43.] MELBOURNE.    [April, 1901.

HEAVENLY WISDOM.

Ce-les-tial, heavenly ; divine. In-no-cence, freedom from guilt or sin. Be-stows; gives.

1.    O happy is the man who hears

Instruction’s warning voice ; And who celestial wisdom makes His early, only choice.

2.    For she has treasures greater far

Than East or West unfold ; And her reward is more secure Than is the gain of gold.

Hoar-y, gray with age.

In-creasef become more.

Pleas-ant-ness, pleasure ; cheerfulness.

3.    In her right hand, she holds to view

A length of happy years ;

And, in her left, the prize of fame And honour bright appears.

4.    She guides the young, with innocence,

In pleasure’s path to tread ;

A crown of glory she bestows Upon the hoary head.

5. According as her labours rise,

So her rewards increase ;

Her ways are ways of pleasantness,

And all her paths are peace.

—John Logan (1748-88).

MATTHEW FLINDERS : EXPLORATION OF THE SOUTH COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

Nav-i-ga-tors, those who direct the course of a ship.

Chart, map especially for the use of seamen. Ref-er-ence, regard; respect.

Dis-col-or-a-tion, state of being changed to a different colour.

Na-val, belonging to a navy, that is, the officers and men attached to the war vessels of a nation.

Voy-a-gers, those who make a journey by water

to a distant place.

Ca-tas-tro-phe, great misfortune.


Lieu-ten-ant (lef-ten-ant), in the British navy, the officer in rank next below a commander.

Em-i-nent, famous; celebrated.

Bot-a-nist, one having a knowledge of plants.

Ac-com-pa-nied, went along with.

Gov-ern-ment, the ruling power.

Pro-mo-ted, exalted in rank; raised to a higher class.

In-struc-tions, directions; commands.

Mid-ship-man, in the British navy, officer next in rank below a lieutenant. 47 48

commander, and gave him the command of a small war vessel, the-Investigator, with instructions to examine the unexplored south coast of Australia.    ' 49

the greatest botanist of his age, was one, and John Franklin, midshipman, in after years Governor of Van Diemen’s Land and Arctic explorer, was another.

4.    On the 6th of December, 1801, Flinders sighted Cape Leeuwin, and, in January, had reached the farthest point touched by previous navigators along the coast to the eastward. This is now in South Australian territory, a little to the east of the head of the Great Australian Bight.

5.    From this point began the work of sighting, naming, and placing on the chart the features of the coast-line. The first opening (Fowler Bay) was named after the lieutenant of the Investigator. Then the two islands of Nuyt’s Archipelago (St. Peter and St. Francis) were examined, and Denial Bay, near at hand, which was named with reference to the former saint’s denial of his Master. Streaky Bay got its name from the streaky discoloration of the water in it.

6.    At Anxious Bay, a storm nearly wrecked the vessel. The Investigator Islands were next marked. Then came Coffin Bay, now noted for the fine oysters obtained there. It was called after Sir Isaac Coffin, a naval officer of high rank.

7.    By the end of February, the most southerly point of the large triangular Eyre (air) Peninsula was reached ; and, then, to the surprise of the voyagers, the coast altered in direction, turning suddenly to the north-east. Around the officers’ table that night, little was talked of hut the chances they now had of entering a great gulf, which probably would run up to the north coast of Australia, and be the outlet of mighty rivers.

8.    Next day, the high spirits of all were damped by a mournful accident. As fresh water on board was getting low, Mr. Thistle, one of the officers of the ship, was ordered to take a boat and a crew of six sailors, and search the coast for a supply. When night was coming on, the boat was seen to leave the shore to return to the ship. Suddenly she disappeared. Little could be done that night to learn the fate of the crew, but, at daylight, the search began. The boat was found ashore with her sides smashed in, but there was no trace of the missing men. The strong current that runs on that coast, or the sharks, had, probably, removed all signs of the unfortunate sailors.

9.    Flinders caused the sad event to be remembered in several ways. The important headland close by was called Cape Catastrophe; Thistle Island and six other small islands near were named after the officer and the sailors. On the shores of the little inlet of Memory Cove, a brass plate, on which was engraved a short account of the accident and the names of the drowned men, was fixed on a stout post.

10.    The sad spirits of the discoverers were cheered shortly afterwards, when the Investigator threaded the narrow passage between the mainland and the south of Boston Island, and the beautiful curving shores of Port Lincoln were first seen. Every one was charmed with the beauties of the finest harbour on the South Australian coast. The anchor was dropped, and parties were allowed on shore. Lincoln was the name of the comity in England in which Flinders was born. Boston Island was named after a large seaport in that county.

(To be continued.)

—In part from the Children's Hour, South Australia.

1. Her-vey Bay, inlet, south-east of Queensland, between Great Sandy Island and the mainland.

THE TWO CHURCH-BUILDERS.

Dome, rounded roof.

Bur-nished, polished.

E-late; puffed up.

Ha-lo, circle of light.

E-rasei rub out.

Won-drOUS, astonishing; very strange.

1.    A famous king would build a church,

A temple vast and grand ;

And, that the praise might be his own,

He gave a strict command That none should add the smallest gift To aid the work he planned.

2.    And, when the mighty dome was done,

Within the noble frame,

Upon a tablet broad and fair,

In letters all aflame With burnished gold, the people read The royal builder’s name

3.    Now, when the king, elate with

pride,

That night had sought his bed,

He dreamed he saw an angel come (A halo round his head),

Erase the royal name, and write Another in its stead.

4.    What could it mean? Three times

that night

That wondrous vision came ;

Three times he saw that angel hand Erase the royal name,

And write a woman’s in its stead,

In letters all aflame.


Court-iers (kort-yers), those who attend a royal court; followers of a monarch.

Cul-prit, wrong-doer.

Sooth, truth.

Crave, beg.

Ruth, pity.

5.    Whose could it be? He gave com

mand

To all about his throne To seek the owner of the name That on the tablet shone ;

And so it was the courtiers found A widow poor and lone.

6.    The king, enraged at what he heard,

Cried, Bring the culprit here ! ” And, to the woman, trembling sore, He said, ’Tis very clear That you have broken my command ; Now let the truth appear ! ”

7.    “ Your majesty,” the widow said,

I can’t deny the truth ;

I love the Lord,—my Lord and yours,—

And so, in simple sooth,

I broke your majesty’s command (I crave your royal ruth).

8.     And, since I had no money, sire,

Why, I could only pray That God would bless your majesty ;

And, when along the way The horses drew the stones, I ga ve To one a wisp of hay. ”


9. “ Ah ! now I see,” the king exclaimed— “ Self-glory was my aim ;

The woman gave for love of God,

And not for worldly fame :

’Tis my command the tablet bear The pious widow’s name.”

THE DEAD ASS.

Wal-let, small bag.

Ac-cent, tone.

A-pOS-tro-phe, address.

Pan-nel, kind of saddle.

Wist-ful-ly, in a longing manner. Sim-pliC-i-ty, artlessness or openness of speech. Post-Chaise/ carriage for the conveyance of travellers. 50

Dis-tenUper, disease; illness.

Be-reft/ deprived.

Trib-ute, what is paid as due or deserved. As-sured/ satisfied.

Sep-a-ra-ted, parted.

Af-flic-tions, troubles; griefs.

2.    The mourner was sitting upon a stone bench at the door of the inn, with the ass’s pannel and its bridle on one side, which he took up from time to time—then laid them down—-looked at them, and

‘ shook his head. He then took his crust of bread out of his wallet again, as if to eat it; held it some time in his hand—then laid it upon the bit of his ass’s bridle—looked wistfully at the little arrangement he had made—and then gave a sigh.

3.    The simplicity of his grief drew numbers about him; and, as I continued sitting in the post-chaise, while the horses were getting ready, I could see and hear over their heads.

4.    He said he had come last from Spain, where he had been from the farthest borders of Franconia ;x and had got so far2 on his return home, when his ass died. Every one seemed desirous to know what business could have taken so old and poor a man so far a journey from his own home.

5.    It had pleased Heaven, he said, to bless him with three sons, the finest lads in all Germany; but, having in one week lost two of the eldest of them by the small-pox,3 and the youngest falling ill of the same distemper, he was afraid of being bereft of them all, and made a vow, if Heaven would not take him from him also, he would go in gratitude to St. Iago,4 in Spain.

6.    When the mourner got thus far in his story, he stopped to pay nature her tribute—and wept bitterly.

7. He said Heaven had accepted the conditions; and that he had set out from his cottage with this poor creature, who had been a patient partner of his journey—that it had eaten the same bread with him all the way, and was unto him as a friend.

8.    Everybody who- stood about heard the poor fellow with concern

•—some offered him money. The mourner said he did not want it—it was not the value of the ass—but the loss of him. The ass, he said, he was assured, loved him ; and, upon this, told them a long story of mischance upon their passage over the Pyrenean mountains, which had separated them from each other three days ; during which time the ass had sought him as much as he had sought the ass, and that they had neither scarce eaten or drunk till they met.    .

9.    “ Thou hast one comfort, friend,” said I, “ at least, in the loss of thy poor beast; I am sure thou hast been a merciful master to him.”

10.    “Alas !” said the mourner, “ I thought so when he was alive, but now that he is dead I think otherwise—I fear the weight of myself, and my afflictions together, have been too much for him—they have shortened the poor creature’s days, and I fear I have them to answer for.”

11.    “ Shame on the world ! ” said I, to myself—“ Did we but love each other as this poor soul loved his ass, ’twould be something.”

—Laurence Sterne (1713-68).

1.    Fran-CO-ni-a, old duchy in the south of Germany. It has been absorbed into other duchies.

2.    So far. He was at a town near Amiens (ah-'mi-an(g)') in the north of France.-

3.    Small-pox/ a dangerous disease marked by fever and eruptions on the skin.

4.    St. I-a-gO (saint ee-ah-go), Santiago (the Spanish name for St. James), where there is a cathedral which was a favourite resort of pilgrims.

THE ABORIGINAL METHOD OF HUNTING THE KANGAROO AND THE OPOSSUM.

boomer.....1 f®?«»


the


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ABORIGINAL of new south wales.

(From Ratzel’s History of Mankind: Messrs. Macmillan and Co.)


'In-ter-est-ing, pleasant to think about; engaging the attention.

Ab-O-rig-i-nal, a first inhabitant of a country; one of those found in a country at its earliest known settlement.

In-sert-ed, put or thrust in.

Boom-er-ang, curved flat piece of hard wood used as a weapon for throwing by the aborigines of Australia.

Wom-er-ah, stick about two and a half feet long, with a hook at one end, used for throwing the spear.

Stealth-y, furtive ; sly ; cautious.

1.    Perhaps there is no object in wild life to be seen more interesting than an Australian aboriginal in search of his game.

Let ns endeavour to reproduce him as we once saw him hunting the kangaroo.

2.    He was a young man, perhaps from twenty to twenty-five.

Round his middle was wound in several folds a girdle of opossum skin, in which were inserted his ang, tomahawk, a short, heavy stick to throw at any smaller animals which he might see perched upon the branches of the trees. In his hands were his womerah or throwing-stick, and several spears pointed in two or three different ways, so as to be suitable either for purposes of war, of hunting, or of fishing.

Over his shoulders was a kangaroo-skin


Im-mov-a-ble, without motion.

Stat-ue, image.

Dis-tin-guish-a-ble, capable of being known, or of being picked out from others. Re-as-sured/ freed from fear ; made quite sure. Trans-fixed/ pierced through, and so fixed firmly.

Op-por-tu-ni-ty, chance ; suitable occasion. Wa-ry, cautious; watchful.

Hap-less, unfortunate; unlucky. De-struc-tion, slaying.

As-cent/ mounting upward.

Al-terUiate-ly, by turns.


cloak when he started ; hut this was shortly afterwards allowed to fall to the ground.

bo p


3. He moved with a quiet, noiseless, and stealthy pace, glancin from side to side in an uneasy manner as if his own life were i ^ danger. Nothing escaped his sight. At length, his step is arrested. He stands as immovable as a statue, and scarcely distinguishable from the charred stumps of the trees by which he is surrounded.

4.    Meanwhile, the kangaroo is standing erect upon its hind legs,

and looking watchfully    boomerangs.

around in case of any alarm ; but, being reassured, it drops upon its fore paws, makes a leap or two, and quietly commences feeding again.

5.    All this while, the aboriginal has stood as if transfixed to the earth ; but it is now his turn for action, and, without moving his body, he fixes his spear in his womerah, and raises his arms to the position for throwing, from winch he never takes them till the spear is hurled, or the kangaroo takes to flight.

MANNER OF HOLDING SPEAR AT THE INSTANT BEFORE THROWING IT.

(The womerah is the hooked stick.)


6. All now being in readiness, he watches his opportunity to steal slowly upon his prey, no other parts of his body moving but his legs.

The kangaroo, however, is again alarmed, and rises to look round.

7. Behold the savage now, fixed in his position, as motionless as a stone ! There he stands, no matter how long, until the animal is again assured of its safety, and once more commences to nibble the herbage. Again the wary native advances, and so on for several times, until the spear penetrates the hapless beast, when the woods resound with the shouts of the women and children, who all join pell-mell in the destruction of the animal. This being accomplished, it is carried to some convenient resting-place, where it is cut up and

HEAD OF A DOUBLE-BARBED WAR SPEAR.

A hard, tough wood such as messmate or tea-tree is used for making spears of this kind. With a piece-of quartz, a native cuts a groove on each side of the upper end, and inserts chips of some hard stone. The chips are fixed in their places by means of gum.


enjoyed with relish worthy of the patience and skill displayed in its capture and death.

8.    The opossum is hunted either by day, or during a moonlight night. The marks by which its ascent of a tree are discovered are usually too faint for the undirected eyes of a white man.

9.    The native, when he approaches some massive stem which looks likely to be the haunt of an opossum, carefully examines the bark,

HEAD OF A DOUBLE-BARBED WAR SPEAR.

This is made wholly of wood. It must have cost much care and labour to carve. Spears of this kind vary

in length from eight to eleven feet.

and, if his eyes are arrested by certain indications on a single spot, he looks up the line of the tree to discover the marks made by the claws of the animal in its ascent.

10.    But this is not all. He has yet to determine whether these footmarks are new or old. One way of doing this is to find an impression to which a few grains of earth are clinging. If, when gently blown upon, the grains are too damp to fly away, he concludes that the animal has recently ascended the tree.

11.    Out, then, comes his tomahawk, with which he notches the bark about four feet from the ground. Into the notch he inserts the big toe of his right foot. Then, throwing his right arm round the

A STONE TOMAHAWK.

This kind of tomahawk was usad by the aborigines of the Yarra before they were able to procure from the whites those with iron heads. The stone is hard, and has a cutting edge. The handle is of wood, and is well and firmly fixed to the stone. Gum was used in making it secure. The handle near the head is strongly bound with fibres of string-ybark. It weighs nearly a pound.

tree, he, with his left hand, drives his tomahawk into the bark as high as he can reach, and thus gets a stay by which he-drags himself up. Having made this step good, he cuts another notch for his left foot, and thus proceeds alternately right and left, until he gains the hollow where the opossum is hid. If he can reach the animal,, he quickly seizes it by the tail, and puts an end to its life ; but, if noR he may go to the trouble of smoking it out.

—Adapted from an old number of The Boys' Magazine.

TO A CHILD.

Small service is true service while it lasts :

Of humblest friend, bright creature, scorn not one !

The daisy, by the shadow that it casts,

Protects the lingering dew-drop from the sun.—Wordsworth.

HUNTING SONG.

Re-joice; are glad.

1. The hunt is up, the hunt is up,

And it is well-nigh day;

And Harry our King1 is gone hunting To bring his deer to bay.2


Lust-y. cheerful; handsome.

2. The east is bright with morning light, And darkness it is fled ;

And the merry horn wakes up the morn To leave his idle bed.


STAG HOUNDS.


3.    Behold the skies with golden dyes

Are glowing all around ;

The grass is green, and so are the treen,3 All laughing at the sound.

4.    The horses snort to be at sport,

The hounds are running free,

The woods rejoice at the merry noise Of hey tantara tee ree !


5.    The sun is glad to see us clad

All in our lusty green,

And smiles in the sky, as he riseth

high

To see and to be seen.

6.    Awake all men, I say again,

Be merry as you may;

For Harry our King is gone hunting, To bring his deer to bay.


1.    Harry our King, probably Henry the Eighth (1509-47), who was fond of hunting.

2.    To bring his deer to bay, to cause the stag to turn and fight the hounds.

3.    Treen, trees. It is an old form of the plural.'

A SUPPLY OF HOT WATER WITHOUT LIGHTING A FIRE.

In a place in the United States, a lake of hot water, 170° Fahr. in temperature, situated 400 feet below the surface of the ground, has been discovered. There is pressure enough ujion the water to force it to the top floor of most of the houses ; and arrangements are being made to use it for heating purposes.

THE HISTORY OF

A DROP OF RAIN.

E-vap-O-ra-tion, process by which a solid or


Ta-pour, any substance in the gaseous state, the


condition of which is ordinarily that of a liquid


or solid.

Sur-face, outside.

Parched, dried up.

Bar-ren, not fertile or productive.

Fer-tile, fruitful ; producing fruit or vegetation


in abundance.

In-stance, occasion; time.

Crys-tal, clear ; pure ; transparent. Con-tin-U-al-ly, without stopping or ceasing.


liquid is changed by heat into vapour. In-vis-i-ble, that cannot be seen. Sub-stance, material; body Prov-'i-dence, foresight; care. Veg-e-ta-tion, plants ; growth of plants. Or:i gin, beginning ; source. Cir-cu-la-tion, moving round. Riv-U-letS, small streams. Ir-ri-ga-ting, watering; wetting. Lay-er, bed.

1.    Where does the rain come from'( This seems a very simple question, and a great many will be ready to answer it at once by saying that it comes from the clouds. But how did the water get into the clouds, and what are those gray and white masses which we call clouds, and which we see floating in the blue sky above us, and looking as unlike drops of rain as possible ? These questions must first be answered before we can get at the real history of a drop of rain.

2.    If the rain comes from the clouds, it is clear' that the clouds must be made of water. And so they are, though they are not made of water in the same state in which we see it in a drop of rain. Water is able to take three forms: it can be liquid, as it is when we drink it, or see it in a pond or river ; it can be solid, as it is when frozen into ice ; and, when heated to a certain degree, it takes the form of vapour. The steam1 which we see pouring out of the spout of a kettle is nothing more than water which was inside the kettle, turned into vapour by the heat of the fire. The clouds are water in a state of vapour. But, of course, the vapour must once have existed in a liquid state, so that, if we want to know where the rain comes from, we must first find out where the vapour comes from, of which the clouds are made.

3.    By far the larger portion of the earth’s surface is covered by the sea, and, perhaps, at first sight, it may seem as though there was a great deal of room wasted in the world by this being so. People cannot live in the sea, and they cannot drink sea-water. But, without all this water, the earth on which we live would be nothing but a parched and barren desert.

4.    Every drop of water which we drink, or which renders the soil fertile, came in the first instance from the ocean. Whether it falls on the earth in the shape of dew or rain, whether it gushes out of the ground in clear crystal springs, or flows along in streams and rivers, it came first of all from the great salt ocean, and, to that same ocean, the greater portion of it will sooner or later return. The ocean is the great source from which supplies of water are continually being drawn to refresh the dry land. This is done by what is called evaporation, a word which means simply the turning of water into vapour by means of heat.

5.    Water need not be made very hot in order to send off some portion of itself in the shape of vapour. Great heat only makes the

to their former state of water, and fall If the air happens to he very cold indeed when the rain drops fall, they freeze, and reach the earth in the shape of snow or hail.

change go on faster. Bnt the warmth of the sun, even on a winter’s day, in this climate, is quite enough to produce evaporation.

6. It will, therefore, be easily understood how it is that the warm rays of the sun, as they fall on the broad surface of the ocean, are constantly changing large quantities of the water into vapour. This

vapour, when first it rises from the sea, is invisible, that is to say,, we cannot see it as we see the steam which pours out of the spout of the-bettle. But, as it cools, it becomes visible in the form of mist or clouds ; and, as the air gets still cooler, these to the earth in


SCENE IN ENGLAND.


clouds return drops of rain.


CONDENSATION.

PROCESS

EVAPORATION.

OF CIRCULATION.


7. But it may he said that sea-water is salt and bitter,'whilst that of springs and rivers, as well as the rain which falls from the sky, has no such taste.

If all the rain were in the first place drawn up out of the sea, would not it be as salt as the sea itself ?

8. No, for when water evaporates it leaves behind it whatever other substance may have been before mixed with it. Mud is water mixed with earth ; but, when the water evaporates out of a muddy ditch, the earth that is mixed with it is left behind, and nothing hut the pure water rises into the air. When -this water falls back to the earth in the shape of rain, it is pure and tasteless. And it is the same with the salt sea-water ; the water only evaporates, and the salt is left behind. This is one of the many instances of God’s good providence ; for, were it otherwise, the rain would fall back on the earth charged with salt or other substances which would destroy vegetation, whilst the springs and rivers, which owe their origin to the rain, would be quite unfit to drink.

9.    This constant circulation of the waters of the globe, from the sea to the clouds, from the clouds to the earth, and from the earth back again to the ocean, is the grand means by which they are kept pure and fresh, and by which a constant and needful supply is provided for the earth.

10.    All the rain that falls does not lie on the surface of the earth;

SECTION OF HILL-SIDE, SHOWING SPRING.

(A) The upper part of the hill—limestone—through which the rain-water passes. (B) The clay below, through which the water cannot pass, and upon which it flows to the spring (C), or place where the water breaks forth from the hill, (From Blaclcie’s Geographical Reader.)


•some of it soaks into the soil, and makes it fertile, nourishing the roots of plants, and feeding their    stems    with    juice    or

sap.    Some    of it    falls    on

the tops of mountains, and runs down their sides in the form of rivulets. When many of these unite together, they swell into rivers, which flow through valleys and plains, irrigat- f| ing the lands through which they    pass,    till,    at

last,    their    waters once

more find their way back into the ocean. Sometimes, the rain, after sinking into the earth, reaches a layer of clay or hard rock through which it cannot sink any further. It thus rests in a sort of underground basin, whence, on finding some outlet through which it can make its way, it gushes forth again in the form of springs.

1. Steam, strictly speaking-, the invisible fluid into which water is converted when heated to the 'boiling point (212° Fahr.); but, in popular usage, the mist, or visible vapour, formed when this has been slightly cooled.

MAKING THE BEST OF IT.

Base-ment, outer wall of the ground story of a building.

Ban-ner-ets, small banners.

Dan-de-li-on, well-known plant bearing yellow flowers. 51

Cran-ny, crevice ; small, narrow opening.

Stretch.-er, frame upon which canvas is stretched for a painting,

Vic-tO-ri-OUS, winning; conquering.

2.    Two sisters lived in the house—one old and feeble ; while the younger one, who was an artist, had a small drawing class, and painted bannerets and book-marks for Christmas and Easter.

3.    Looking from her kitchen window, she made a sketch of the short wall, the grass at the top of it, and the three rough stone steps. It became a favourite study with her pupils.

4.    “ That looks like something I have seen in Rome,” said a caller, putting up her glasses to examine the sketch. “ Is it Roman ? ”

The drawing teacher laughed, and showed the view from her back window.

5.    By-and-by something happened. A dandelion root had found a cranny to grow in at the end of one of the steps. It seemed to springout of the stone, and up it sent its vigorous green leaves, and then topped off with two or three dandelion flowers.

“ See the dandelions! ” said the elder sister.

6.    The younger saw, and her dark eyes sparkled, for her soul saw too. The brave dandelions, as sturdy and yellow as if they had a whole field to grow in, spoke straight to her, and this is what they said :

u We’re making the best of it! ”

7.    She took down a little unused stretcher and her oil paints, and worked till dark, putting in the wall, the rough stone steps, the cranny, and the victorious dandelions. One of them was already going to seed and, as she painted its white down, perhaps she thought of her own whitening hair. When the picture was done, she gave it a name : “ Making the best of it.”

8.    Everybody who came in wanted it. She would not sell her first sketch, but she made copies, and orders flowed in. Into many homes went the lesson of the cheery dandelion growing between the stones,, and making the best of it.

9.    u I didn’t have to travel away from home for that! ” she said to herself. “ I must never forget to look out of my own windows.”

MOTHER’S WAY.

Greet-ing, words of kindness and joj’.    I    Pre-cious, beloved; highly esteemed.

Boun-ty, that which is given liberally.    I    Cease, stop; give up.

1.    Oft within our little cottage, as the shadows gently fall,

While the sunlight touches softly one sweet face l upon the wall,

Do we gather close together, and, in hushed and tender tone,

Ask each other’s full forgiveness for the wrong that each has done. 52

S. Sometimes, when our hands grow weary, or our tasks seem very long, When our burdens look too heavy, and we deem the right all wrong,

Then we gain a new, fresh courage, as we rise to proudly say:

“ Let us do our duty bravely; this was our dear mother’s way.”

4. Thus we keep her memory precious, while we never cease to pray That, at last, when lengthening shadows mark the evening of the day, They may find us waiting calmly to go home52 our mother’s way!

I One sweet face, the portrait of the mother.    —ANONYMOUS.

2. Go home, die, and so pass from this world to Heaven.

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, PUZZLES, ETC.

No. 9. A Method of Dividing a Square.

By drawing lines as shown in the diagram, a square may he divided into five equal squares. One of the squares is in the centre, and the other four are made up by combining,^., A. 1. and A.2. together, and so on round the original figure.

No. 10. The Magic Square.

H

24

7

20

3

4-

32

25

8

16

17

S

13

2!

9

SO

18

l

14

22

23

6

19

2

15


An interesting arrangement of numbers is to be seen in the magic square. It consists of numbers placed in parallel and equal rows in the form of a square. The sum of each line taken any way in the square is the same.

The diagram contains the numbers from 1 to 25, and it will be found that the sum of every line of five figures, taken any way of the square, amounts to 65.

This arrangement has other remarkable properties.

The sum of the central number and the four corner numbers is 65. The group of four numbers standing in a circle around tiie central number together with the central number

amounts to 65. The diagonal    _

cross of the five numbers in the middle also makes 65.—S. S.

0 SLUMBER, MY DARLING.

Melody by Whittaker. Harmonized by John Hullah.

1st Part.


titter


*


=!V


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***

£~ v


Oh,

Oh,


slum-ber my    dar-ling, thy sire is a knight, Thy mother a

slum-ber my dar-ling, the time soon shall come When thy sleep shall be

1

Iz®

a .

J

1

-49-i--

ber,

Slum

■2nd & 3rd Parts.

Slum

Slum


ber,

=>;=^PF=s:

la - dy both    love-ly and bright. The woods and the glens from the towers which we

bro-ken by    trum-pet and drum. Then slum-ber my dar-ling, take rest while you

iS ^ ,


:i=i—


I «NW

---0 g


zzzztszqs;: iqfczz: #.


—zzte:


see, They all are be - longing, dear ba - by. to    thee. \

may, For strife comes with man-hood as    wak-ing with day. \


3

Oh,


rest thee babe,


• # J •! t    =i , *

* *    0 0 * 0 * Y / '/


--1— -


Oh,


-0-

rest


* È *v !    * 1'^ v-f #NÄNT *


*Wr----sfa.


Izt:


rest thee babe, sleep on till day. Oh, rest thee babe, rest thee babe, sleep while you may

=1=


0

-0-

thee,


ZU


0

thee,


: : ,

st    thee babe, sleep while you may.


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, VICTORIA.

THE SCHOOL PAPER.

FOR CLASS IV.

Vol. IV., No. 44.] MELBOURNE.    [May, 1901.

GOD SAVE OUR

Auserai, southern ; lying in the south. Fed-er-al, pertaining to an agreement between States.

Hom-age, worship.

Yearn, desire eagerly.

1. God save our Austral land,

Close knit the federal band That makes us one.

For treasures manifold,

Rich store of gems and gold,

“Increase of field and fold,”

Be homage done.

AUSTRAL LAND.

Fra-tern-i-ty, brotherhood.

Char-i-ty, love; good-will.

Guard-i-an, protecting.

An-gel, heavenly being. (The word is used here in a figurative sense.)

2. But richer gifts, O Lord,

Than all thy works afford,

We fain would find :

Give kindly spirits free ;

Give hearts that yearn to see A true fraternity

Of all mankind.

3. Be home of equal laws,

And freedom’s holy cause,

This Austral strand. Justice and liberty,

And Godlike charity,

Our guardian angels be.

God save our land !

Rev. William Allen, Petersham, N.S.W.

MATTHEW FLINDERS: EXPLORATION OF THE SOUTH COAST OF AUSTRALIA —continued.

In-te-ri-or, inland part of a country. Pro-ceed-ed went forward ; advanced. Man-groves, trees that grow on muddy shores, especially in tropical regions. Dis-ap-point-ed, defeated of expectation or hope. 53

Ex-pe-di-tion, excursion by a body of persons for a valuable end; journey of discovery.

Pass-port, document permitting the person therein named to pass or travel from place to place, without molestation.

Charts, maps especially for the use of seamen.

The longest range in South Australia, of which Mount Brown forms a part, is known as the Flinders Range. Brown was delighted with the number of new trees and flowers he saw during his trip, hut disappointed at the view of the country he got from the top of the mount, for, as far as the eye reached, he could see no signs of rivers or lakes.

3.    The sails were again spread, and, in a few days, the eastern shores of the gulf were examined. The name of Spencer was given to the great opening, from Lord Spencer, a great English nobleman, who had much to do with sending out the expedition.

4.    Passing south of Yorke Peninsula, through Investigator Strait, a landing was made at Nepean Bay, Kangaroo Island. The island was so named because, on landing, large numbers of kangaroos were seen. So tame were these creatures that they allowed the sailors to knock them down with a stick. Many were killed in this way, and their flesh was eaten. It formed a very agreeable change from the salt beef, which had been the food of the crew for months. Flinders supposed that the kangaroos, generally the most timid of animals, had taken the men for seals, the only large animals they had seen; and he concluded that there were no natives on the island, or the kangaroos would have

FRENCHMAN’S ROCK, HOG BAY, KANGAROO ISLAND.1

(From a photograph by the Editor of The. Children’s Hour, S.A.)


been more wary.

5. St. Vincent Gulf was next explored, and named after Earl St. Vincent, an English statesman. As the Investigator stood well out from the coast, the opening on the east side of the gulf known as Port River, was not noticed; but Mount Lofty was named,and marked down on the chart. A landing was made at the head of the gulf, near Port Wakefield, and then a course steered for Kangaroo Island, where the kangaroos were the suiferers again for a day or two.

6. The voyage was then continued through Backstairs Passage, along the high coast past the Bluff and Granite island. On the Nfh of April, the Investigator entered a broad sheet of water, which received its name—Encounter Bay—from the incident that now occurred. The man on the look-out reported a large white rock ahead, but, as the ship proceeded, it was seen, to the great surprise of all, to be a man-of-war in full sail. At her mast-head flew the French flag. She proved to be a French exploring vessel named the Géographe (zha'-o-graf or jee-o-graf 7), commanded by Captain Baudin (bow-dan(g)'). A sailor from this ship carved an inscription on the face of a rock at Hog Bay, and this rock is still called Frenchman’s Rock.

7.    When Flinders had started on his expedition, England was at war with France ; but, by an arrangement with Napoleon, who was told for what purpose Flinders was going, a passport was given him by the French Government, promising safety from the attacks of French ships in any part of the world.

8.    Napoleon’s far-seeing mind had grasped the fact that England was laying the foundations of her greatness by building up colonies in Australia; so he resolved that France should follow her example. He, therefore, fitted out the expedition under Baudin to explore the southern coasts of Australia, and claim it by right of discovery.

9. The Frenchmen had been exploring the coast of Van Diemen’s Land, Victoria, and the southeast of South Australia, including part of Kangaroo Island.

Rivoli ('rïv'-o-lï) and Lacepede Bays, and Cape Borda are traces of their visit, for Flinders adopted the names of the places, but those only, which the French were really the first to discover.    captain baudin.

10. As the two ships approached each other, Flinders ran up the English flag, and cleared his decks for action, half expecting that Baudin would treat him as an enemy. He showed, however, that he had no wish to tight, and Flinders, accompanied by Dr. Robert Brown, who could speak French, rowed over to the Géographe, and was kindly received. The two commanders showed each other their charts, explaining the work each had done, and parted with the best of feelings.

—Adapted from The Children’s Hour, South Australia.

1. French-man’s Rock. The carver of the inscription did not work with much care. The words are not well divided, the “C” in the word “ Oommendant” has been made into an “0,” and the letter E in the same word should be A.” The date was 1802, not 1803. The English of the inscription is :—■ “Expedition of discovery by Commander Baudin in the Geography, 1803.”

(To he continued.)

THE LIFE-BOAT.

Bark (or barque), small ship.

Hu-man, of or pertaining to man.

A-vert/ turn aside.

Doom, ruin ; destruction.

Reef, ridge of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water.

Fa-tal, causing death or destruction. Va-pour-y, misty.

De-spair/ loss of hope; hopelessness.

Wail, cry of despair.


Gal-lant, brave; courageous.

Heights, cliffs.

Ark, vessel. (The allusion is to the large vessel in which, as recorded in the seventh and eighth chapters of Genesis, Noah and his family were saved during the Deluge.)

Fatted, doomed.

Fath-om, measure of length, containing six feet; space to which a man can extend his arms

Cope, straggle; contend.


FIRST VOICE.

1. Quick ! man the life-boat ! See yon bark That drives before the blast!

There’s a rock ahead, the fog is dark,

And the storm comes thick and fast.

Can human power, in such an hour,

Avert the doom that’s o’er her ?

Her main-mast is gone, but she still drives on To the fatal reef before her.

ALL.

The life-boat ! Man the life-boat !

SECOND VOICE.

2.    Quick ! man the life-boat ! Hark ! the gun

Booms through the vapoury air ;

And see ! the signal flags are on That speak the ship’s despair.

That forked flash, that pealing crash,

Seemed from the wave to sweep her;

She’s on the rock, with a terrible shock ;

And the wail comes louder and deeper.

ALL.

The life-boat ! Man the life-boat !

THIRD VOICE.

3.    Quick ! man the life-boat ! See the crew

Gaze on their watery grave ;

Already some, a gallant few,

Are battling with the wave ;

And one there stands and wrings his hands,

As thoughts of home come o’er him :

For his wife and child, through the tempest wild, He sees on the heights before him.

ALL.

The life-boat! Man the life-boat!

1901.]    THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IV.


THE LAUNCH OF THE LIFE-BOAT,

(From Macmillan’s Australasian Readers.)

Oi


FOURTH VOICE.

4.    Speed, speed the life-boat ! Off she goes !

And, as they pulled the oar,

From shore and ship a cheer arose That startled ship and shore.

Life-saving ark, yon fated bark Has human lives within her ;

And dearer than gold is the wealth untold Thou’lt save if thou canst win her.

ALL.

On, life-boat ! Speed the life-boat !

FIFTH VOICE.

5.    Hurrah ! the life-boat dashes on,

Though dark the reef may frown ;

The rock is there ;—the ship is gone Full twenty fathoms down.

But, cheered by hope, the seamen cope With the billows single-handed ;—-They are all in the boat !—hurrah ! they’re afloat !— And now they are safely landed By the life-boat !

FIRST VOICE.

Cheer the life-boat !

ALL.

Hurrah ! hurrah for the life-boat !

THE FLOWER-POT.

Sto-ry, stage or floor of a building.

Trice, instant.

Mourn-ful-ly, sorrowfully ; sadly. Ge-ra-ni-um, plant bearing showy flowers. (Note, however, that most of the so-called “geraniums,” are pelargoniums.)

So-cial, ready to associate with others ; companionable.

Prompt-ly, quickly ; without delay. 54

Ac-ci-dent, mishap; sudden and unexpected event.

Grieved, made sorrowful; caused to suffer.

Dom-i-noes, pieces with which the game of dominoes is played.

Aid-ed, helped.

Sanc-ti-ty, holiness.

Self-sac-ri-fice, act of sacrificing one’s self, or one’s interest, for others; self-devotion.

4. Mrs. Primmins was much afraid of my father ; why, I know not, except that very talkative, social persons are usually afraid of very silent, shy, thoughtful ones. She cast a hasty glance at her master, who was beginning to show signs of attention, and cried very promptly, “No, ma’am, it was not the dear boy—it was I! ”

5. “ You ! how could you be so careless ? and you knew how I prized them both. Oh, Primmins ! ”

Primmins began to sob.

“ Don’t tell fibs, nursy,” said a small shrill voice; and I, coming out of the house as bold as a lion, continued rapidly, “ don’t scold Primmins, Mamma ; it was I who pushed out the flower-pot.”

6.    “ Hush ! ” said my nurse, more frightened than ever, while gazing at my father, who had taken off his hat, and was regarding the scene with serious eyes, wide awake. “ Hush! And if he did break it, ma’am, it was quite an accident; he was standing so, and he never meant it. Did you, Master Edward ? Speak! ” this in a whisper, “ or papa will be so very angry?'

7. _ “Well,” said my mother, “I suppose it was an accident: take care in future, my child. You are sorry, I see, to have grieved me. There is a kiss ; don’t fret.” “ No, Mamma, you must not kiss me ; I pushed out the flower-pot on purpose.”

8.    “ Ha ! and why ? ” said my father, walking up. Mrs. Primmins trembled like a leaf. “For fun ! ” said I, hanging my head ; “just

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and that’s the truth of it.”

9. My father threw his book away, stooped down, and caught me to his breast. “ Boy,” he said, “ you have done wrong; you shall repair it by remembering all your life that your father blessed God for giving him a son who spoke truth in spite of fear.”

10. The box of dominoes was my delight. “Ahl” said my father, one day when he found me playing with it in the parlour,—“ ah ! you like that better than all your playthings, eh? ” “ Ah, yes, Papa.”

11. “ You would be very sorry if your mamma were to throw that box out of the window and break it for fun.” I. made no answer.


to see how you’d look, Papa;

“ But perhaps you would be very glad,” he resumed, “ if, suddenly, one of those good fairies you read of would change the domino-box into a beautiful geranium in a beautiful blue-and-white flower-pot, and that you could have the pleasure of putting it on your mamma’s window-sill.”

12.    “Indeed I would,” said I, half crying.

“ My dear boy, I believe you; but good wishes don’t mend bad actions—good actions mend bad actions.” So saying, he shut the door, and went out; I cannot tell you how puzzled I was to make out what my father meant.

13.    The next morning, my father found me seated by myself under a tree in the garden ; he paused, and looked at me with his grave, bright eyes very steadily. “ My boy,” said he, “ I am going to walk to town, will you come ? And, by-the-bye, fetch your domino-box ; I should like to show it to a person there ” I ran in for the box, and we at once set out.

14.    “Papa,” said I, by the way, “there are no fairies now.”

“ What then, my child ? ”    “ Why, how then can my domino-box be

changed into a beautiful geranium and a blue-and-white flower-pot ? ”

15.    “My dear,” said my father, leaning his hand on my shoulder, “ everybody who is in earnest to be good carries two fairies about with him ; one here,” and he touched my forehead—“ one here,” and he touched my heart. “ I don’t understand, Papa,” said I. “ I can wait till you do, my boy,” said he.

16.    Aided by my father, I made the exchange, and, on our return, ran into the house. Ah ! how proud, how overjoyed I was, when, after placing pot and flower on the window-sill, I plucked my mother by the gown, and asked her to follow me to the spot! “ It is his doing and his money,” said my father; “good actions have mended the bad.”

17.    “What!” cried my mother, when she had learned all; “and your poor domino-box that you were so fond of ? We shall go tomorrow and buy it back, if it costs us double.”

18.    “Shall we buy it back, my boy?” asked my father.

“Oh no—no—no—it would spoil it all!” I cried, burying my face on my father’s breast.

19.    “My wife,” said my father, solemnly, “this is my first lesson

to our child—the sanctity and happiness of self-sacrifice: undo not what it should teach him to his dying hour! ”    ^

—Lord Lytton, English novelist (1803-73).

TERMITES OR WHITE ANTS.


1. Termites, or white ants, as they are commonly called—though they, in reality, belong to another order of insects—are spread in


Ter-mites, insects of which there are many species.

Trop-ics, two parallels of latitude, situated 23J° each side of the equator.

Hab-i-ta-tions, dwellings; residences.

Con-i-cal, having the- form of a cone, that is, circular at the base and tapering to a point.

Hov-els, huts ; small, mean houses.

At-tackedi assailed ; fell upon with force.


E-nor-mous, very large ; out of due proportion. Ap-pear-ance, coming into sight; arrival. Con-tin-u-al-ly, without stopping. En-ti-tled, named.

Ap-par-ent, visible to the eye.

Pres-tO, suddenly ; quickly.

Oc-cu-pants, those who occupy or are in possession.

Lo-cal, of or pertaining to a particular place.


countless numbers over the warmer regions of the earth, hut more especially between the tropics. They are called ants because they are similar to true ants in their habits.

1. Male.

TERMITES.

2. Soldier. 3. Worker. 4. Female, half natural size. b Natural size. c Natural size.


2.    They make clay homes, which often reach the height of twelve feet. These habitations are, as a rule, of a conical form, and might be mistaken at a distance for the hovels of Indians or negroes. They are worked up from the soil of the country by the termites, and are so strong that a buffalo-has been known to take' up its position on the top of one of them for the purpose of observation:

live together in their wings; the


the central cell near the workers, who nurse the


3.    There are four classes found in the colony of the termite.

The king and queen, who ground, after having lost

HOMES OF THE TERMITES IN HOT COUNTRIES.

(From Ants and their Ways, by W. F. White.)


young and build; the soldiers, who never nurse nor build, but whose duty consists in defending the nest when attacked.

4.    The soldiers, which are easily known by the enormous size of their heads, provided with long and sharp jaws, are remarkable for their courage. When a breach is made in the walls of their nest, the labourers at once retire ; upon which a soldier makes his appearance, and then withdraws to give the alarm. Three or four others next appear, scrambling as fast as they can one after another. To these succeed a large body, which rush forth with as much speed as the breach will permit, their numbers continually increasing during the attack.

5.    In their haste, these little heroes frequently miss their hold, and tumble down the sides of the hill. They soon, however, recover themselves, and, being blind, bite everything they run against. Woe to him whose hands or legs come within their reach, for they will make their fanged jaws meet at the very first stroke, and never quit their hold, even though they are pulled limb from limb.

ANT-EATER.

6. The queen, when about to form a colony, increases greatly in bulk, and attains a length of several inches. Having reached her full size, she begins to lay her eggs. As she does this night and day for about two years, at the rate of fifty or sixty a minute, their total number may probably amount to more than fifty millions !

7. Wood is the termites’ favourite food, and, in procuring it, they work unseen. Outwardly, the timberwork of a house, after the termites have been at work, may appear quite sound, though nothing is left but a thin shell. Scarcely any substance remains free from their attacks. Forcing their resistless way into trunks, chests, and wardrobes, they will devour, often in one night, all the books, clothes, and papers they contain.

8.    Professor Drummond, in one of his books entitled Tropical Africa, has the following about these destructive little creatures:— “ One may rise from his chair at night, and go to bed ; get up in the morning, and see it standing there apparently unchanged. But let him take his seat in it, and presto ! he and the chair are in a heap on the floor. What is the matter ? Why, the white ants have come in the night, and eaten all the inside out of the wooden legs, seat, and frame. Ho indication appears on the outside, but the chair is a mere shell by daylight. Worse than this, unless one is keenly on the alert, his whole house will be thus bored through and through, and, without warning, some fine day when he thinks he has goods laid up, its walls will tumble about his ears. All this time he has not seen an ant ! ”

9.    One of the worst foes of the termites is the ant-eater, which digs holes into the sides of the nest, and licks up the occupants by thousands with its long tongue.

10.    Man is also a consumer of termites. In South Africa and in South America the natives dig into the mounds, and, when the insects come forth, brush them quickly into a vessel. They are then roasted in iron pots over a gentle fire, and eaten by handfuls. They are said to taste like sugared cream.

11.    Though the termites of Victoria do not build mounds like their cousins in the northern parts of Australia and other tropical regions, they supply ample evidence of a like destructive energy. Concerning the flavour of the local article, we regret that we cannot, at present, supply any information !

THE SONS OF AUSTRALIA.

Bar-ri-ers, lines of separation ; obstacles.    | Dis-U-nit-ed, parted; separated.

Air: “ The Gallants of England

1.    From the north to the south, from the east to the west,

The cry has gone forth, “From our strife let us rest ! ”

One in race, one in speech from the shore to the shore,

The barriers that part us shall part us no more !

With faith for our guide,

We will not be denied,

And the sons of Australia stand fast, side by side !

2.    United we stand, disunited we fall ;

Our safety and pride—“ All for each, each for all ? ”

We strike off the fetters unworthy the free,

And our Land shall be ONE, from the sea to the sea !

With faith for our guide,

We will not be denied,

And the sons of Australia stand fast, side by side !

3. We will tarry no more—we have tarried too long;

We have dared to be weak—let us dare to be strong!

Be the cost what it may, we will break from the past,

One in blood, one in fortune—a nation at last !

With faith for our guide,

We will not be denied,

And the sons of Australia stand fast, side by side !

—W. H. Dawson, Hobart, Tasmania.

RED CROSS DOGS.

Ca-ninei of or pertaining’ to dogs.

Com-pan-ion-ship, fellowship; act of keeping-company with any one.

Ve-hi-Cle, means of conveyance on land, as a coach, cart, bicycle, &c.

An-nu-al, yearly; reckoned by the year.


Am-bu-lanee, field hospital that follows an-army in its movements so as to aid the wounded as soon as possible.

Bri-gadei body of persons (troops, &c.) organised for acting or marching together under authority.

Dis-tin-guish, recognise; perceive.


1. An old name for the dog is “ The Friend of Man,” and all who have any knowledge of the canine nature will admit that dogs fully deserve this name. What would thousands of homes throughout our country be, without the dogs which do so much by their dumb companionship for old and young alike ? There are some countries, such as Belgium, where dogs are made to do hard work in drawing

A RED-CROSS DOG.


milk-carts and other small vehicles, and, indeed, it is not so very long ago that dogs were used in England for the same purpose ; but all English-speaking people are agreed that the dog is well worthy of his keep and the small annual tax his owner has to pay for him, even if he does no more than fill the part of a companion.

2. It has been left to a German, however, to provide a new field for our four-footed friend, to give him a part to play which more than ever entitles him to be called “ The Friend of Man.” In Germany, dogs have been trained to assist in the merciful work of the Ambulance Brigade. Although these dogs have not yet been tried on an actual battlefield, it has been proved beyond doubt that they are able to assist in ambulance work to an extent which justifies us in hoping that they may become as famous for saving life in war as the dogs of St. Bernard have long been for aiding travellers.

3.    After every great battle, there is always a large number of soldiers reported “ missing and, as a rule, the poor fellows whose names come under this heading have been severely wounded, but, having crawled for shelter into some ditch or hidden place, they are often overlooked when the stretcher-bearers pass by. Here is just the work for our friend, the dog, whose keen senses of smell and hearing enable him to find people whom men would miss in their search.

4.    This has been completely proved by the dogs belonging to a society formed in Germany recently. Out of two hundred men who were disposed as wounded over a large tract of country, the stretcher-bearers failed to find eighteen, and all of these were discovered by the dogs 1

—Albert Allrigiit, in The Children’s Friend (Adapted).

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, PUZZLES, ETC.

No. 11.—Wire-fencing Knot.

In the country it is often necessary to unite the ends of two separate pieces of wire. For this purpose a knot, which when formed resembles a figure of 8, will be found serviceable. The accompanying sketches, which have been kindly supplied by an artist friend, will make clear how this knot may be tied.    '

A simple loop has first to be made in one of the pieces of wire as shown in Fig. 1. Through this loop the end of the other wire is passed as in Fig 2, and then with this end another loop like the former one is made as in Fig. 3. The knot is now loosely formed. If a strain is put on the wires, the completed knot will then take the appearance shown in Fig. 4.    —S.S.

FROM OUR NOTE-BOOK.

A Celebrated Cricket-ground.

The celebrated London cricket-ground, The Oval, belonging to the Duchy of Cornwall, has passed with the other lands and revenues of the Duchy into the hands of the new Duke. Though the ground would produce a large income if let in building lots, yet the King, while Duke of Cornwall, refused to allow it to be cut up for this purpose. Cricketers are asking one another whether the. present owner will imitate his father in this matter.

Two most Queenly Acts.

1.    According to Lord Rosebery, the two most queenly acts of Queen Victoria’s life were her visit to London in the dark days of Colenso and Spion Kop, when Ladysmith, Kimberley, and Mafeking were all invested ; and her visit to Ireland in the following spring.

2.    By coming suddenly to London during that terrible winter of 1899-1900, the aged Queen bade the citizens of her capital be of good cheer, and reminded them that she had lived through the Indian Mutiny.1

3.    By crossing over to Ireland in a state of health that was already infirm, she personally thanked the Irish for the bravery of their countrymen on the field of battle.

1. In-di-an Mu-ti-liy. A mutiny of Sepoys (native soldiers in the employ of the British) broke out at Meerut in May, 1857, but was suppressed and came to an end early in 1858.

The Children of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York.

Photograph by the LonddTi Stereoscopic Company.

HENRY WILLIAM.

A Token of Sympathy.

PRINCE EDWARD. PRINCESS VICTORIA. ALBERT.

(Photograph by R. Milne.)


The late Queen Victoria was much attached to the children of the Duke and Duchess of York; and, during the illness of Her Majesty, Prince Edward and his brother and sister were greatly exercised in their minds as to what they could do for their suffering great-grandmother.    They

finally decided to send her their favourite picture-book.

Photographing Royalty.

1.    A London

photographer, in relating his experiences    with

royal sitters, tells the following concerning the Duke of Cornwall and York:—

2.    “ The Duke of York is one of the most pleasant and most natural of sitters, and soon makes you feel quite at your ease.

The last time I had the honour of taking his Royal Highness he came himself up to my studio.

3.    “ 41 am in a great hurry,’ he said in his usual frank way. ‘Do you nnnd snapping me off just as I am ? Any position will do, won’t it ? ’

4- /“ If your Royal Highness will allow me to make a suggestion,’ I replied, ‘ I would advise you to be taken as vou are now—with your hand in your pocket. The position is most natural.’

. 5. “‘A good idea,’ said his Royal Highness, briskly. ‘Yes; I think I^will take your advice. I am going to open a bazaar in half-an-hour s time, and, as I shall have to put my hand in my pocket all the time I am there, I may as well keep it in now for practice.’ ”

Cat and King.

On the morning of the proclamation, before King Edward came ont of Marlborough House, he was preceded by a little black cat, which ran out of the garden, and, calmly sitting down in the middle of the drive, washed its face in the presence of the people. There it remained for half-an-hour. If a carriage came down the drive, it ran away, only to return again to its former position, until the arrival of the King, when a servant caught it up. A black cat is said to bring luck.

UNFURL THE FLAG.

Aus - tra - lia’s sons your flag' un

fold,

And proud-ly

wave the ban - ner

high,

That ev’ - ry


Words by Francis Hart.

Sir Wm. Kobinson.

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Rejoice in fruitful teeming soil,

In fleecy flocks and noble kine ; Rejoice in fruits of manly toil,

For honest labour is divine.

Unfurl the flag, &c.

Rejoice in treasures ’neath the earth, In precious gold in store profuse ; Grant us to know its noblest worth, Its object and its fitting use. Unfurl tile flag, &c.


In visions hopeful, fair, and bright,

Our country's future shines afar ;

Now as a nation we unite ’Neath freedom’s blest and beaming star. Unfurl the flag, &c.

Rejoice, Australia's sons, but ne’er Forget your fathers’ native land,

Dear England, glorious and fair.

She claims your heart and willing hand. Unfurl the flag, &c.


£This copyright song is published with full pianoforte accompaniment by W. H. Glen and Co., 272 and 274 Collins-street, Melbourne.J

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.

1

   It is difficult for a boy to become a hero among boys ; but it is still more difficult for a boy to become a hero among men. Little Bugler Dunn (he is not yet fifteen years old) has done both. He was at the battle of Colenso,1 where he was the first of many hundreds on the British side to be wounded during that day of disaster. .

2

   When the war broke out, and one of the battalions of his regiment (the Dublin Fusiliers) was ordered to the front, it was suggested that the little bugler should remain at home. He pleaded, however, so hard to go that his wish was granted, and he accompanied the others to Durban. From there the battalion proceeded to Frere, and then to Chieveley. In view of the approaching battle, it was considered that that was as far as boys ought to go; but, again, Bugler Dunn objected to being left behind. “ I want to be with my company,” he said, and permission was granted him.

3

   At the battle of Colenso, he was one of the first to swim across the Tugela. He got through in safety, and was doubling, in the front line, towards the enemy, when he was wounded. A piece of shell

Price Id.

4

   From Cape Town to Mafeking1 (a distance of 870 miles) is the most monotonous railway journey I ever took. The country is mostly mountainous, and there is nothing to be seen of interest the whole way in the various stations and villages we passed, except at Kimberley.2 Our train—the mail—travelled at an average speed of only 20 miles an hour, and right glad was I when we arrived at Mafeking, having been 57 hours on the train.

5

   Leaving Mafeking, we soon passed through the flat, bare plains in its neighbourhood into park-like, bushy country, of which I saw much during the next few days.

6

   Kim-ber-ley, diamond-mining town, east of Griqua Land West, a province of Cape Colonv See the last month’s number of The School Paper-Class IV.

7

   Bul-a-way-O, capital of Matabeleland, a part of Rhodesia.

8

   Salis-bur-y (saulz-ber-y, named after the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury), capital of Mashonaland, a part of Rhodesia, shortly to be connected by railway with Bulawayo, and already' connected with Beira (oay-e-rah) on the east coast in Portuguese East Africa.

9

   “ Last Friday, I was out all day prospecting with Uncle Tom at Eskdale,” said Fred, as he jumped into bed.

“Prospecting? What’s that?” inquired his brother Joe from his bed on the other side of the room.

“ Looking for a reef, of course,” replied Fred.

10

   Fred had spent his Christmas vacation at his uncle’s place in the Mitta Mitta Yalley, at a township called Eskdale. He had just

11

   There came a tale to England

Of suffering, want, and woe;

Of the night watch in the trenches,

Of the sortie by the foe—

12

’Mid rain, and storm, and sickness, With no rest, no pause between ; And there was grief through England From the humblest to the Queen.

13

   It’s cattle on camp, or colts to brand;

14

It’s brumbies about the Peel;— 7

15

There’s a fellow I know—perhaps you know him too,— And a genius great is he;

But somehow I don’t expect much result Of his wonderful powers to see.

It’s little he wins at games or work,

Of honour, or prizes, although He is sure that, if ever he deigned to try,

He “ easily could, you know ! ”

16

William Dampier, the first Englishman to set foot on the shores of Australia, was born in a village in the county of Somerset, England, in 1652. On the death of his mother, when he was sixteen years old, he was sent to sea, as he wished to be a sailor.

17

“ Hurrah ! for dear old England ! ”

Our gallant fellows cry ;

They shout it in the deadly breach,

And where the wounded lie.

They wear the charm about their necks

As maidens wear their curls ;

They treasure up its memories As princes treasure pearls ;

And. while they breathe their last fond thoughts

For those they can’t forget,

The accents die upon their lips—

“Ay,—we—shall—conquer yet.”

Edward Capern

18

   An account of the life and labours of Captain Cook should be of interest to every Australian. To him, more than to any other man, is due the fact that this island continent of ours has been settled by people of British blood. But for him it was within the bounds of possibility that France would anticipate Great Britain in the discovery and colonization of the eastern portion of Australia.

19

   James Cook was born in the village of Marton, in the east of Yorkshire, England. The date of his birth is the 27th of October, 1728.

20

   Mas-ter, the officer whose chief duty it was to navigate the ship.

21

On the 1st of June, the Hospital for Sick Children looked very-bright and festive : the main hall and wards were gaily decorated with flowers, flags, and streamers of red, white, and blue ; and many friends of the institution and helpers in the forthcoming bazaar were present. They were assembled to witness the unveiling by the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Madden, of the portrait of Her Gracious

22

   In China, the schoolhonse is, as a rule, a room in a private house, or in a temple. Renting a place for a school, or having one built, is almost or quite unknown.

2.    The furniture required by a boy (girls are not sent to school) is provided by his parents, and consists simply of a table and a stool or bench. The four “ precious articles ” needed in the way of books and material are an ink-slab, an ink-cake, a little well to hold water with which to rub up the ink, a brush for writing, and paper.

3.    The scholars in a Chinese school are expected to be present at an early hour, and, by sunrise, perhaps, they are howling vigorously away. When it is time for the morning meal, they return to their homes, and, as soon as it is finished, again return. About noon, they are released for dinner, after which they go back as before to school. If the weather is hot, every one else—man, woman, or child—is

Price Id.

23

   Soldier, rest ! thy warfare o’er,

Sleep the sleep that knows not breaking ;

Dream of battled fields no more,

Days of danger, nights of waking.

In our isle’s enchanted hall,

Hands unseen thy couch are strewing ;

Fairy strains of music fall,

Every sense in slumber dewing.

Soldier, rest ! thy warfare o’er,

Dream of fighting fields no more ;    •

Sleep the sleep that knows not breaking,

Morn of toil, nor night of waking.

24

   No rude sound shall reach thine ear,

Armour’s clang, or war-steed champing,

Trump nor pibroch summon here

Mustering clan, or squadron tramping ;

Yet the lark’s shrill fife may come At the daybreak from the fallow ;

And the bittern sound his drum.

Booming from the sedgy shallow.

Ruder sounds shall none he near,

Guards nor warders challenge here ;

Here’s no war-steed’s neigh and champing,

Shouting clans, or squadrons stamping

—Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

25

“ What a bright boy Nat Taylor is,” Mrs. Eason used to say to her husband. “ It does me good to see him go by the house. He is always whistling or singing away to himself, as if he were too happy to keep still, and yet he hasn’t nearly so many pleasures as most boys and girls.

26

   The pres-ent vil-lage Of Beth-gel-ert (grave of Gelert) is said to be the place where the faithful hound was buried

27

   “Well, George, where have you been this afternoon?” said Mr. Andrews to one of his pupils at the close of a holiday.

“I went, sir,” replied George, “to Blackburn, and from there to Doncaster Tower, and round to the Yarra near Heidelberg.”1

28

   “Well, that’s a pleasant walk,” replied Mr. Andrews.

I thought it very dull, sir; I met scarcely a person, and would rather by half have gone along the Burwood and White Horse roads, and returned by the train from Blackburn.”

29

   “ Why, if seeing men and horses were your object,” replied Mr. Andrews, “you would indeed have been better entertained upon the main road. Did you see Frank?”

“We set out together from the station, but he lagged behind in a paddock, so I walked on and left him.”

30

   “That was a pity,” said Mr. Andrews; “he would have been company for you.”

“Oh, he is so slow,” replied George; “always stopping to look at this thing and that! I would rather walk alone. I dare say he is • not home yet.”

31

   “ Here he comes,” said Mr. Andrews. “ Well, Frank, where have you been ? ”

Price Id.

32

The city of Canton, on a river of the same name, is one of the numerous large towns of China that has many points of interest about it. Its population numbers two millions, nearly twice as many as that of all Victoria. Thousands of families, having no houses on the land, live in boats on the river.

33

   “I Can” is a worker : he tills the broad fields,

And digs from the earth all the wealth which it yields; The hum of his spindle begins with the light,

And the fires of his forges are blazing all night.

34

   Ripe grapes are full of juice.

This juice is mostly water, sweetened with

a sugar of its own. It is flavoured with something which makes us know, the jnoment we taste it, that it is grape-juice, and not cherry-juice or plum-juice.

35

   Apples also contain water, sugar, and apple flavour; and cherries contain water, sugar, and cherry flavour. The same is true of other fruits. They all, when ripe, have the water and the sugar ; and each has a flavour of its own.

36

   This month, I suppose that you are all wondering what your good old friend Santa Claus1 is going to bring you for Christmas, and trying to make up your minds about the presents you mean to give to your friends. It is delightful to receive presents, hut I really think it is more delightful to give them. If that is the case, then Santa Claus must be the happiest person in existence, for he gives presents in every country in the world where the season of Christmas is observed.

37

   In some European countries, the children place their shoes at the foot of the bed to receive their presents, instead of hanging up their stockings as English children do.

38

   In Germany, every family tries to have a Christmas tree, from the Royal family itself down to that of the poorest working-man in the country.

39

   In Norway and Sweden, Christmas is always a time of great rejoicing and merry-making; and, of course, as the cold is intense in those countries in December, all the fun goes on in-doors, round the great wood fires. A Swedish gentleman whom I once knew told me of a strange custom which prevails in his country, and also, I think, in Norway, at Christmas time.

Price Id.

40

As fruit forms such a wholesome and pleasant food, hut, in its natural state, remains good for only a short time after it has been picked, people have devised many methods of preserving it. The best method with peaches and apricots is to dry them. If the climate is

41

   Now the third and fatal conflict for the Persian throne is done,

And the Moslem’s fiery valour has the crowning victory won.

2.    Harmosan, 1 the last and boldest the invader to defy,

Captive, overborne by numbers, they are bringing forth to die.

3.    Then exclaimed that noble captive: “ Lo, I perish in my thirst !

Give me but one drink of water, and let then arrive the worst! ”

4.    In his hand he took the goblet; but a while the draught forebore,

Seeming doubtfully the purpose of the foemen to explore.

5.    Well might then have paused the bravest, for around him angry foes With a hedge of naked weapons did that lonely man enclose.

6.    “ But what fear’st thou?” cried the caliph ; “is it, friend, a secret blow? Pear it not! our gallant Moslem no such treacherous dealing know.

7.    “ Thou mayst quench thy thirst securely, for thou shalt not die before Thou hast drunk that cup of water. This reprieve is thine—no more !

8.    Quick the satrap dashed the goblet down to earth with ready hand,

And the liquid sank forever, lost amid the burning sand.

9.    “ Thou hast said that mine my life is till the water of that cup

I have drained ; then bid thy se-rvants that spilled water gather up.

10.    Por a moment stood the caliph as by doubtful passions stirred,

Then exclaimed, “ Por ever sacred must remain a monarch’s word !

42

    Bring another cup, and straightway to the noble Persian give.

Drink, I said before, and perish; now, I bid thee drink and live ! ”

—Archbishop Trench (1807-86).

1. Har-mos-an, a Persian satrap who made a determined resistance to the Mohammedans when they invaded Persia some centuries ago.

43

When Captain Hunter, who commanded the first fleet which brought colonists from England to Australia, was sent out, in 1795, to succeed Governor Phillip at Sydney, there were under his command two remarkable men. These were Matthew Flinders, midshipman,

Price Id.

44

   King William IV.’s death took place during the night of the 19th of June, 1837. Though this had been almost hourly expected for some days before it really occurred, the little household at Kensington Palace went on as usual, till it was aroused by a loud knocking at the outer gate in the early morn of the 20th. The porter hastily called some of the servants, and told them that the Archbishop of Canterbury and a nobleman had come to see the Princess.

45

   “ But she is asleep, and it is only five o’clock in the morning,” said one of the surprised servants.

“ No matter what time it is, we must see the Princess at once,” said the Archbishop ; and so the servant went to call her.

46

   The lady did not keep them waiting so long as the servant had done. In a white dressing-gown, with a shawl drawn round her shoulders, her long, fair hair falling down her back, she hastened to see the visitors. On being told that she was now Queen of England, she stood silent for a minute, and, then, with much feeling, said to the Archbishop, “ I ask your prayers on my behalf.”

47

   After his voyage with Dr. George Bass round Tasmania (then called Van Diemen’s Land), in 1798, and a trip, the next year, along the coast north of Sydney, to Hervey Bay,1 which resulted in the discovery of Moreton Bay, Lieutenant Flinders returned to England, and published the result of his discoveries.

48

   He received great praise, and, through the influence of Sir Joseph Banks, the eminent botanist who, in 1770, had accompanied ’Captain Cook in his voyage along the eastern coast of Australia, the British Government, in 1801, promoted Flinders to the rank of

Price Id.

49

Flinders was now twenty-eight years of age. He had with him some clever men who afterwards became famous. Dr. Robert Brown,

50

“And this,” said he, putting the remains of a crust into his wallet—“ and this should have been thy portion,” said he, “ hadst thou been alive to share it with me.”

I thought, by the accent, it had been an apostrophe to his child ; but it was to his ass, and to the very ass we had seen dead in the road.

51

There were three stone steps leading down from a little back yard to the back basement door of an old bouse in the city. The house was small, and hemmed in by cottages and stores; but, in the front yard, still bloomed a lilac bush, and, in the back yard, there was grass ;and sunshine.

52

   Should you wonder why this custom at the ending of the day,

Eye and voice would quickly answer, “ It was OQce our mother’s way !’* If our home be bright and cheery, if it hold a welcome true,

Opening wide its door of greeting to the many, not the few;

If we share our Father’s bounty with the needy, day by day,

’Tis because our hearts remember this was ever mother’s way.

53

   After a few days’ rest, the Investigator started np the gulf. The Sir Joseph Banks group of islands was examined, and herds of large seals noted sprawling on the rocks. A few days more of voyaging northwards, and the high hopes that had been formed of the gulf leading far into the interior of Australia were gone. It was seen that the two shores were approaching one another, and the gulf was ending. The ship was anchored a few miles south of what is now Port Augusta, and Flinders proceeded in a small boat till the mangroves and shallow water stopped him.

2.    During the two days he was away, Dr. Robert Brown, the botanist, and some companions, walked to the summit of a lofty peak about twelve miles from Port Augusta, and now called Mount Brown.

Price Id.

54

DOMINOES.