n fi







Vol. V., No. 45.] MELBOURNE.    [June, 1901.



Fount, fountain.

1. Men of thought, be up and stirring Night and day ;

Sow the seed ; withdraw the curtain ; Clear the way ;

Men of action, aid and cheer them As ye may.

There’s a fount about to stream ; There’s a light about to beam ;

There’s a warmth about to glow ; There’s a flower about to blow ; There’s a midnight blacknesschanging Into gray—

Men of thought and men of action, Clear the way.

Un-im-ag-ined, not imagined or thought of.

2. Once the welcome light has broken, Who shall say

What the unimagined glories Of the day ?

What the evil that shall perish In its ray ?

Aid the dawning, tongue and pen ; Aid it, hopes of honest men ;

Aid it pen, and aid it type ;

Aid it, for the hour is ripe ;

And our earnest must not slacken Into play—

Men of thought and men of action, Clear the way.

—Charles Mackay (1814-89).




Survey, careful measurement of any portion of the earth’s surface.

Spec-U-la-ting, turning over a subject in the mind, and viewing it in different aspects.

Ten-der, small vessel accompanying a larger one.

Dis-persedi scattered.

Plan-tains, tropical fruits, somewhat like bananas.

Bar-ter, exchange of goods.

Symp-toms, signs; indications.

Com-part-ments, parts into which an enclosed portion of space is divided.

In-hos-pi-ta-ble, barren ; bleak.

Mon-soonsi winds that blow over the Indian Ocean for the one half of the year in one direction, and for the other half in the opposite direction.

Scur-vy, a skin disease, generally due to bad food and the lack of green vegetables.

Dys-en-ter-y, a disease of the intestines.

all the time that so large a sheet of water should have so small au outlet, and speculating on the future settlement, “ which, doubtless, will be founded hereafter.”

3.    After leaving Port Phillip, the Investigator's explorations on the south coast of Australia were at an eud, for Bass, in an open whaleboat manned by six men, had, in January, 1708, discovered Western Port, and had carefully examined some six hundred miles of coast between it and Sydney.

4.    When Flinders arrived in Sydney, he found there another French ship, one of Baudin’s expedition, which had consisted of two

ships ; and it was not long before that commander himself followed, in the Geograpketo obtain provisions.

5. The work that Flinders had undertaken was not yet finished. He sailed from Sydney on the 22nd of July, 1802, taking with him, as a tender, the Lady Nelson,, surveying ship. The object of the expedition was to examine Hervey, Keppel, and Shoal water Bays,which had been only imperfectly seen both by Cook and by himself. Flinders was then to proceed through Torres Strait, and to examine the Gulf of C arpentaria. The first part of the voyage was uneventful. Port Curtis on the east coast was surveyed and named.

fi. At Keppel Bay, good land was found, but the country near the coast was not inviting. A party of savages threw stones at a boat’s crew of the voyagers ; but a volley of small shot fired over their heads speedily dispersed them, and no harm was done on either side.

7.    On the 18th of August, Flinders left Keppel Bay, and proceeded to Port Bowen, which he named, and thence passed into Torres Strait, after passing with difficulty through the Barrier Reef.5

8.    Scarcely had he anchored at one of the islands in the strait, when forty or fifty savages came off in canoes. They would not come alongside of the ship, but lay off at a little distance, holding up cocoa-nuts, joints of bamboo filled with water, plantains, and bows and arrows. A barter was soon commenced, which was carried on in a curious manner. A hatchet or a piece of iron being held up by one of the ship’s crew, the savages offered an armful of cocoa-nuts, a bunch of green plantains, a bow and quiver full ot arrows, or the like, in exchange. One of the savages then leapt overboard, swam to the ship, and made the exchange. They did not show the slightest fear.


(From a picture kindly lent by J. J. Shilling-laEsq., F.G.S.)

9.    Farther westward, a large opening presented itself to view, but the water was too shallow to allow of the ship entering it. This opening was the Gulf of Carpentaria. On the 6th of September, a breeze sprang up, and carried the Investigator along the low coast of the gulf. Here Flinders was in the track of the early Dutch navigators.The voyage, as respects fresh adventures, was a perfect blank ; but the Investigator was beginning to show symptoms of breaking up. An examination of her condition showed that there was scarcely a sound timber remaining in her hull. . The seamen were alarmed ; for how were they ever to get back again in such a rotten vessel ? Still, Flinders never flinched from his mission. He resolved upon making Port Jackson if possible ; if not successful, he would try to reach India.

10.    On some of the islands in the gulf, they saw many natives, who were in the habit of escaping from view in a very remarkable manner. On examination, it was found that they hid themselves in caves dug in the ground. Sometimes, a cave contained two compartments, each large enough for a man to lie down in.

11.    On the 5th of March, 1803, Flinders left the inhospitable shores of the gulf. The south-east monsoons had set in ; his ship was leaky and rotteu, and the crew were suffering so severely from scurvy that a return to Sydney without fresh provisions was impossible. Reaching Timor,7 provisions in abundance were procured ; but, unhappily,

dysentery began to scourge the crew. All haste was made to reach Port Jackson, but many of the sailors were stricken down before the Investigator reached its desired haven.

( To be continued.)    .

1.    Port Phil-lip. Lieutenant Murray named the bay Port King’, after the Governor of New South Wales at the time ; but, at the request of the latter, the name was changed to “ Phillip,” in honour of the first Governor of New South Wales.

2.    Ar-thur’s Seat, hill about 1,000 feet high in the south-west of County Morning-ton, Victoria.

3.    You Yangs, low range in County Grant, Victoria. Its highest point is Station Peak.

4.    Her-vey, Kep-pel, and Shoal-water Bays. They are all east of Queensland.

5.    Bar-ri-er Reef, a hank of coral extending along the coast of Queensland at varying distances from the shore.

6.    Dutch nav-i-ga^tors. Ill 1606, an exploring party, from a Dutch colony in Java, visited in the Duyfhen, the Gulf of Carpentaria. This is the first authentic discovery of Australia. Other Dutch navigators followed at intervals, and discovered most of the northern, western, and south-western coast of our continent, to which they gave the name New Holland.

7.    Ti-mor, island in the Malay Archipelago, north of Western Australia.


Mar-i-ners, seamen; sailors.

Yeast-y, frothy ; foamy.

Berth, sea-room.

Lee, side sheltered from the wind.

League, measure of length equal to three miles. Chasms (kazms), deep gaps or openings.

1. How cheery are the mariners— Those lovers of the sea !

Their heartsare likeits yeasty waves, As bounding and as free.

They whistle when the storm-bird wheels

In circles round the mast,

And sing when deep in foam the ship

Ploughs onward to the blast.

Can-vas, here, sails.

Hull, body of a ship.

Se-cure-ly, safely.

Tasrselled, adorned with tassels, or tufts of loose ribbons.

Tem-per, modify ; make m.lder.

2.    What care the mariners for gales?

There’s music in their roar When wide the berth along the lee, And leagues of room before.

Let billows toss to mountain heights, Or sink to chasms low,

The vessel stout will ride it out,

Nor reel beneath the blow.

3.    With streamers down, and canvas


The gallant hull will float Securely, as on an inland lake A silken-tasselled boat;

And sound asleep some mariners, And some with watchful eyes, Will fearless be of dangers dark That roll along the skies.

4.    God keep those cheery mariners !

And temper all the ga.es That sweep against the rocky coast To their storm-shattered sails ; And men on shore will bless the ship

That could so guided be Safe in the hollow of His hand,

To brave the mighty sea !

—Park Benjamin.


Im-pu-dent, rude ; impertinent.

Cu-ri-OS-i-ty, desire of knowing.

Sire, title of respect formerly used in speaking to elders and superiors, but now only in addressing a sovereign.

Treas-ur-er, officer who has charge of the public money arising from taxes, duties, &c.

Max-im, proverb ; saying.

Sil-li-ness, foolishness.

Court, body of persons in attendance on a sovereign ; residence of a sovereign.

Lan-cet, sharp, two-edged knife.

A-vaili profit ; benefit; help.

Treach-er-y, breaking of allegiance or of faith ; treason.

Con-fes-sion, avowal ; admission, i Ad-dress-ing, speaking to.

T. A king of Tartary 1 was one day riding with his followers to the hunting-field. On the road, they overtook a priest, who called out : “ Give me a hundred crowns, and I will give you a piece of good advice.’’    •

2.    The company at first paid no attention to this strange demand: they fancied that the man was either a fool or an impudent cheat. Bat, as he continued to follow them, repeating the same cry, the king’s curiosity was awakened, and, turning to the priest, he asked, “ What advice is this that you value at so large a sum ? ”

3.    “ Sire,” answered the man, “ please to give me the money, and you shall hear it. Believe me, you will never regret the bargain.” The king, expecting to hear something very strange, told his treasurer to count out the sum demanded by the priest, who then uttered this weighty maxim : “ Begin nothing without considering what the end may he.”

4.    The king’s followers smiled at the rashness of the priest, and what seemed to be the silliness of their master. They.expected that the king would either treat the matter as a jest, or threaten the impudent priest with punishment. But, to their surprise, he was neither amused nor angry.

5. Turning to those around him, he said, in a serious tone, “ Why do you laugh? I see nothing absurd in this good man’s advice. On the contrary, it seems to me most wise. This maxim shall he my rule of conduct in future ; and that it may always he before me, I shall have it engraved upon my plate,1 and written clearly on every door and wall of my palace.”

6.    Some time after this, one of the chief nobles resolved to murder the king and to seize the throne. The better to carry out his wishes, he won over one of the court surgeons, to whom he gave a poisoned lancet, saying, “Bleed the king with this lancet, and I will give you a thousand pieces of gold. When I ascend the throne, you shall be still more rewarded.”

7.    A few days afterwards, the king fell faint and ill, and desired to he hied.2 The surgeon, concealing the poisoned lancet in his pocket, hastened into the royal chamber, and prepared to go about the work. He was about to plunge the fatal weapon into the vein, when his eye caught the words on the basin that had been brought to receive the blood. The words were these : “ Begin nothing without considering what the end may he.”

8.    On reading* these words, his hand shook, and his face grew pale with fear. “ What am I going to do ? ” he said to himself. “ The king will certainly die, and I shall be put to a cruel death ; and then, what will all the gold and honours in the world avail me?” This thought flashed through his mind with the quickness of lightning ; and he hastily returned the poisoned lancet to his pocket, and drew out another.

9.    The king, observing this action, asked him why he had changed the lancet. The terrified surgeon stammered out an explanation that the second lancet was sharper than the first; but his manner was so confused that the king’s doubts were aroused. Starting up from his couch, he exclaimed, “ There is treachery in this ! Tell me instantly what it means : a full confession alone will save your life.” The wretched man fell upon his knees, and told the whole matter, confessing that, but for the warning words on the basin, he would have used the deadly lancet.

10.    His life was spared by the king, but he was dismissed in disgrace. The court was summoned, and the noble who had formed the plot was arrested and speedily beheaded. The king, addressing the other nobles, said, “ You see now that the priest did not ask too much for his advice. He is worthy of the highest honours, for he has saved my life.”

1.    Tar-ta-ry, region in Asia and Europe, stretching from the Sea of Japan to the Dnieper River.

2.    Plate, domestic vessels and utensils, as flagons, dishes, cups, &c., wrought in gold or silver.

3.    De-sired' to be bled, wished to have a vein opened so that some blood might escape. The operation of bloodletting, with the object of obtaining relief in certain diseases, was common many years ago.


Hearth (harth), floor of a fireplace. In-ter-est-ing, drawing the attention. Zo-o-log-i-cal, pertaining to animals. Scor-pi-Otl, well-known insect found in warm countries. (Its sting is in its tail.)

De-Cayedi passed gradually from a sound state to one of imperfection; rotted. 3 1 2

Ligrnite, kind of coal that retains the texture of the wood from which it was formed.

Bi-tu-mi-n0US, containing bitumen or mineral pitch.

Graph-ite, native carbon in crystals of a certain shape. (It is so soft as to leave a trace on paper.)

4. Lily was a great lover of stories, and she was sure that, although told by an “ old black ” piece of coal, it must he very interesting. So she drew her chair close to her mother, and, leaning her head upon her hand, she awaited the story of the coal.

5. “ Did you ever see a swamp?” began the little piece of coal. <i If you have, and have observed it closely, you have seen the first of me, for many, many ages ago a swamp was my home—my first

home. A very strange home you, no doubt, think. Large? Yes, very large, much larger than the great Dismal Swamp which perhaps you may have seen. Indeed, very much of the land was swampy in those times. It was a very big home, certainly, but I did not wander around it. The blackish water was all about me. Queer trees grew around. Not such trees as you are used to seeing. No great, broadleaved oaks, no tall gums, no palms, no cedars : such trees cannot live with their roots in the water.

6. “ But, instead of these, there were plants much like our ferns and club mosses, growing to the size of small trees. They were very thick over the swamp, making my home a very dark, dreary place.

And then the animals that lived at this time! How different from those you see around you every day, or such as you see at the Zoological Gardens which you visit. Think of it. No birds of any kind, no serpents, no squirrels, no lions—in short, only a few kinds of such insects as cockroaches, spiders, and scorpions: and a large, lizardlike animal. The only sounds that broke the silence of those shady wastes were the sounds of the wind among the trees, the fall of branches, the dashing* of the waves upon the rocky and lonesome shore, or the thunder of the heavens; and none to hear such sounds as there were except a few insects.

7. “ A strange world, you think. Yes, it would have been a strange world to you, but this impression in coal left by a plant, was long ages before there were any human beings on our earth. But such was^my early home. And what was I? Always the same black coal I am now, you think. No, I was a part of the growing trees and moss. Yes, I knew you would smile when I told you that I—a dusty, black piece of coal that I am—was once a part of the fresh green leaves and branches. But such I was, and the wonderful change by which I came to be the piece of black coal you now see, is the story I have to tell you.

8. “ Along with other parts of the trees and smaller plants, the leaves, branches, and even whole trunks, 1 fell into the blackish water which spread over the whole swamp. Now, you have seen how plants that die and fall on the dry land rot away. You have seen where the trunks of large trees have lain and decayed, and the grass has begun to grow again, and ordy a few scattered fragments of the wood remain to tell that a large tree lay there. But, when plants lie beneath the water, no such a thing as this happens. Myself and all the other pieces of plants which lay about me did not decay, but only softened, and turned black. And here, in this queer place, I found that for a long time before, year after year, the leaves and branches had been falling into this water, and changing into a soft, black mass of matter like the ‘peat’ of the swamps of this day, which, in some countries, the people now use for fuel. And soon 1 myself was a part of this great mass of peaty matter.


9.    “This was my first change on my way from plant to coal.

But the long years of my life in darkness had just begun. It was as the morning to the day.

For a long time,

I lay as part of this peat, and more leaves and branches had

fallen into the water upon me and around me; and they, too, had been changed into peat.

10.    “But, after a long time, the land began to waver, and sink slowly down. Slowly, very slowly, year after year, the land sank lower and lower, and let the water of the sea spread over us. The great ocean of water rolled above us, leaving us far down in the dark, and the currents of the water brought mud and sand from the shore and the rivers’ mouths, and spread them over us until all the peat was buried beneath a thick layer of this ground-up rock. Layer after layer was laid over us, until it became so solid that it was a great layer of rock. And the weight of the water and rock pressed the small pieces of peat into a more solid state, and we became a kind of brown coal called lignite. This was the second step in our change from branch

to coal.    SEAMS OF COAL.

11.    “But the rock above us continued to grow thicker, and its weight, and ihe heat from the interior of the earth hastened our change to a still harder and blacker coal, which is known among miners as bituminous coal. And now, had we been allowed to remain where we

were, still greater weight and heat would have changed us into a still harder coal, and, finally, into graphite or plumbago—that grayish-black substance, so unlike either wood or coal, which is used in making the ‘black lead’ of our pencils, and the small pots in which metals are melted.

12.    “But, instead of remaining longer under the sea, I found myself with all my companions slowly rising upwards. After long ages, I learned that the rocks above me were dry land instead of sea bottom, that there was a good soil upon them, and that trees and plants, quite unlike those of which I was once a part, grew above me.

13.    “And then, after a time, men called miners came, and dug down into the dark earth, and 1 was taken out among tons of other coal which was sent, all over the country, on great barges down the rivers, or over the land on the long lines of railroad. Aud so, here I am to burn and flicker in the grate, and warm and cheer your cosy

little room.”    T, T>    . r , ,,.

-—Li. Jii. -tattisox, m lutelur/ence (Adapted).


Tyr-ant, cruel master.

De-grad-ing, debasing; demeaning; bringing shame

Gos-pel, good news concerning Christ, the Kingdom of God, and salvation.

Il-lus-tra-tion, example intended to make clear.

Mis-sion-a-ry, one sent to spread religion.

ListUess, heedless; indifferent.

Ap-pealed,' made earnest request.

Ex-pe-ri-enced, skilful or wise by use or observation.    ■

Dis-cuss-ing, talking over for the purpose of examining thoroughly.

Whit-tlitlg, shaping a piece of wood with a small knife.

two-bladed ones ; but this one is a splendid,

5.    The missionary knew how fond the Indian hoys were of pocket-knives, and decided to try them by offering a reward. So he went into the Indian school one day to hear them sing. The boys, as usual, left almost all the singing to the girls, were inattentive, and seemed deaf to the appeals made by their teacher.

6.    The missionary took from his pocket six good pocket-knives, and, holding them up before the class, said—

“ Boys, hear me. I am going to give these six knives to the six boys who will sing the best. Look now. Five of the knives are good,

four-bladed knife, best of all.” sing, and it was in a month’s time, one hymn after long, however, to set aside, and six the best singer ? after another was


I will give this to the boy who sings the

7.    At once, all the boys were ready to arranged that the test should take place When the day came, the boys sang another with zest. It did not take very weed out the poor singers. They were remained. But who of the six was This was hard to decide, tried over and over again ; but still it was hard to come to a decision. Five of the boys were strong, active, healthy lads, full of life and fun; but the sixth lad was lame : one leg was shorter than the other, so that he had to use crutches.

8.    While the missionary and the teacher were discussing the question, the five boys also had a little talk aside. Then one of them asked if he might say something.

“ Certainly,” said the missionary.

And this is what he said—

We can run. We can catch the We can skate and climb. But He cannot run in the woods. He He is fond of whittling. He can

9.    “ Well, you see, we are strong, partridge, rabbit, and other game.

Jimmie has a bad leg ; he is lame, cannot skate on the ice in winter, make good bows and arrows and paddles. A fine knife would be good for him. So we have talked it over. He is a cripple. We will be glad if you will give Jimmie the best knife.”

So lame Jimmie had the best knife. The rest were given an extra red jacket for their unselfish act. The spirit of the Gospel was reaching them.

—Pennsylvania School Journal (Adapted).

1. Man-i-tO-ba', province of the Dominion of Canada, the inhabitants of which are engaged in pastoral and agricultural pursuits. Its chief town is Winnipeg.

No boy or girl can really be strong and pure without the world being the brighter and better for it, without some one being cheered and helped.


Haunts, resorts.

Coot, water-bird that frequents marshy places. Hern, water-bird that frequents marshy places. Bick-er, brawl.

Thorps, hamlets; townships.

Ed-'dy-ing, whirling.

Fal-lOW, land ploughed, but not sown.

Fair-y, fanciful.

Forehand, piece of ground running out into the bed of the brook.

Mal-low, wild plant that grows in marshy ground.

Lust-y, strong.

Gray-ling, kind of small fish

Haz-el, kind of shrub, on which grows the hazel« nut.    .

Cov-ers, woods, underbrush, &c., which shelter and conceal game.

Bram-bly, full of rough, prickly shrubs.

Wil-der-ness-es, wild, uncultivated places.


1. I come from haunts of coot and hern, I make a sudden sally,

And sparkle out among the fern,

To bicker down a valley.

By thirty hills I hurry down,

Or slip between the ridges;

By twenty thorps, a little town,

And half a hundred bridges;

Till, last, by Philip’s farm I flow,

To join the brimming river;

For men may come, and men may go, But I go on for ever.

2. I chatter over stony ways,

In little sharps and trebles;

I bubble into eddying bays.

I babble on the pebbles.

With many a curve my hank I fret By many a field and fallow,

And many a fairy foreland set With willow-weed and mallow.

I chatter, chatter, as I flow To join the brimming river;—

For men may come, and men may go, But I go on for ever.

3.1 wind about, and in and out,

With here a blossom sailing,

And here and there a lusty trout, And here and there a grayling,

And here and there a foamy flake Upon me as I travel,

With many a silvery water-break Above the golden gravel,

And draw them all along, and flow To join the brimming river; —

For men may come, and men may go, But I go on for ever.

4. I steal by lawns and grassy plots,

I slide by hazel covers,

I move the sweet forget-me-nots That grow for happy lovers.

I slip, 1 slide, I gloom, I glance, Among my skimming swallows;

I make the netted sunbeam dance Against my sandy shallows.

I murmur under moon and stars In brambly wildernesses;

I linger by my shingly bars;

I loiter round my cresses;

And out again I curve and flow To join the brimming river;—

For men may come, and men may go, But I go on for ever.

—Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-92).


So-vere-ly, sternly.    i En-dure/ last.

Cel-e-bra-ted, kept; honoured.    I In-ter-ruptf break in upon.

1.    “ Children,” asked Miss Mary, the teacher, “do you know what day this is ? ”

“ Yes, ma’am,” cried Bobby Wilkins, looking up with sparkling eyes.

“ Does any one else know ? ” asked Miss Mary. No one spoke.

2.    “ It is a day,” said Miss Mary, looking round rather severely, “which ought to awaken joy in the heart of every Englishman, young or old.” Bobby felt his cheeks glow, and his heart swell. He thought Miss Mary was very kind.

3.    “It is a day,” she went on, “to be celebrated with feelings of pride and delight.”

Bobby felt the bright, new half-crown in his pocket, and thought of the splendid kite at home, and of the cake that his mother was making when he came away. He had not wanted to come to school that day, but now he was glad he had come. He had no idea that Miss Mary would feel this way about the matter. He looked round to see how the others took it, but they all looked blank.

4.    “ It is a day,” said Miss Mary, with kindling eyes, for the ehildren were really very trying that morning, “which will be remembered in England as long as freedom shall endure.”

Bobby felt as if he were growing taller. He saw himself in the highest positions of all.

5.    “ Over ten hundred years ago to-day,” continued Miss Mary—

“Oh—oh indeed, it isn’t!” cried Bobby Wilkins, springing up.

“ It’s only seven.”

“ Bobby, what do you mean ? ” asked Miss Mary, looking at him severely. “ You are very rude to interrupt me. What do you mean by ‘ seven ’ ? ”

6.    “ My birthday,” faltered Bobby. “ I—I’m not ten hundred and anything, I’m only seven ! ”

“ Come here, dear,” said Miss Mary, holding out her hand very kindly ; “ come here, my little boy. I wish yon very many happy returns, Bobby dear. But—but I was speaking of the battle of Hastings.”

—Adapted from The Children's Paper.

1. Bat-tie Of Hast-ings, an important battle, fought in lOfifi, in the south of England, betweea the Normans under William and the English under Harold. The Normans gained the victory after a hard struggle, and William became King of England.


Temp-ta-tion, that which entices to what is wrong.

Com-rades, mates; companions.

Cope, struggle; combat.

Con-quers, overcomes; causes to yield.

Val-our, courage; bravery.

Le-gions, great numbers ; multitudes. Stead-fast, firm; resolute.

Con-flict, struggle; contest.

1.    Here’s a hand to the boy who has courage

To do what he knows to be right ;

When he falls in the way of temptation,

He has a hard battle to fight.

Who strives against self and his comrades Will cope with a powerful foe ;

All honour to him if he conquers—

A cheer for the boy who says “No.”

2.    There are battles fought daily about us

That we can know nothing about;

There’s many a brave, unknown hero WThose valour puts legions to rout.

He who struggles with wrong and o’ercomes it Is more of a hero, I say,

Than he who leads soldiers to glory,

And conquers by arms in the fray.

3.    Be steadfast, my boy, when you’re tempted,

And do what you know to be right;

Stand firm by your manhood, my hero,

And you will o’ercome in the fight.

“ The Right ” be your battle-cry ever,

As you share in the conflict of life,

And God, who knows who are the heroes,

Will strengthen your arm for the strife.

—Eben E. Rexford, in The Boy's Own Paper.


The Victorian cadet system, in its splendid and unique completeness, is one that must impress the Royal visitors almost as much as anything they have seen, and, added to this, at the State Schools’ Demonstration was plenty to illustrate that the lads in uniform were but a passing evidence of the systematic physical training of our youth. Some of the effects produced in the marshalling of thousands of children were remarkably fine, and there have been few items in the whole series of pageants of a more striking character. No one could witness the remarkably well executed evolutions by the children without being satisfied that our State schools are in the hands of very capable and painstaking teachers.

—The Age.


The Duke saluting.



Words by C. W. Chipian.

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Vol. V., No. 46.] MELBOURNE.    [July, 1901.


Frae-tion, portion.

In-de-pend-ence, power to think and act for one’s self.

Com-pe-tence, property or means sufficient for living in comfort.

Lei sure, spare time.

3.    No dread of toil have we or ours ;

We know our worth, and weigh our

powers ;

The morewe work, the more we wTin: Success to trade !

Success to spade !

And to the corn that’s coming in ! And joy to him who, o’er his task, Remembers toil is Nature’s plan ; Who, working, thinks,

And never sinks His independence as a man.

4.    Who only asks for humblest wealth, Enough for competence and health,

And leisure, when his wrork is done, To read his book By chimney-nook,

Or stroll at setting of the sun ; Who toils, as every man should toil, For fair reward, erect and free ; These are the men—

The best of men—

These are the men we mean to be. —Charles Mackay (1814-89).

Ap-point-ed, fixed ; marked out.

Com-mits' does.

Knave, dishonest person ; rogue.

Pro-por-tioned, equal.

Feud, strife.

Suf-fi-cient, enough ; ample for wants.

1. Who lags for dread of daily work, And his appointed task would shirk, Commits a folly and a crime;

A soulless slave—

A paltry knave—

A clog upon the wheels of time. With work to do, and store of health, The man’s unworthy to be free, Who will not give,

That he may live,

His daily toil for daily fee.

% No ! Let us work ! We only ask Reward proportioned to our task ; We have no quarrel with the great, No feud with rank,

With mill,! or bank—

No envy of a lord’s estate.

If we can earn sufficient store To satisfy our daily need;

And can retain,

For age and pain,

A fraction, we are rich indeed.

1. Mill, here, cotton mill, or large factory.


Resting in state below in his cabin,

There with the lantern’s light dimly shed, Lies the beloved form of the captain Keeping the silent watch over the dead

But with the first grey streaks of the morning, Shotted his shroud will plunge ’neath the wave, Down where the ocean caverns are yawning, There will the skipper rest in his grave.

The-a-tre, large place with stage on which plays are acted.

Suit-a-ble, fitting.

Dif-fi-cul-ty, trouble ; distress.

In-vit£ed, asked.

Re-served' set apart.

Re-ceived; took.

Ap-plause' praise shown by cheering, clapping, or the like.

Prac-tise, do ofien.

2.    A number of young men, seeing the difficulty and confusion the old man was in, made signs to him that they would give him a seat, if he came where they were sitting.

3.    The good man, therefore, made haste through the crowd ; but,, when he came to the seats to which he had been invited, the jest among the young fellows was to sit close, and still further confuse him within view of all the people.

This they kept on doing till the fun went round all the benches set apart for the Athenians.

4.    But there were on this occasion certain places in the theatre kept for visitors from other countries.

When the good man, covered with confusion, came towards the seats reserved for the Spartans, these honest, though less polished, people rose from their places, and, with the greatest respect, received the old gentleman among them.

5.    The Athenians, being suddenly touched with a sense of the Spartans’ politeness and their own misconduct, gave a thunder of applause. Thereupon, the old man rose, and said, “ The Athenians understand what is good, but the Spartans2 practise it.”

1.    Greece. This incident is supposed to have taken place some hundreds of years before the birth of Christ, when Athens was a seat of refinement and learning, and the capital of Attica, the chief state of Greece.

2.    Spar-tans, citizens of Sparta, the capital of Lacedsemonia or Sparta, a state of ancient Greece. The Spartans were noted, at the time, for their hardihood and frugality.


Ac-CUS-'tomed, made familiar by use.

Or-der, in natural history, an assfmblage of genera having certain important characters in common.

Prac-ti-cal-ly, in away capable of beingturned to use.

Rhe-a, ostrich-like bird found in South America.

Cas-so-wa-ry, ostrich-like bird found in the East Indies and the northern parts of Australia.

Dis-tricts, portions of a country of indefinite extent; regions ; tracts.

Ab-O-rig-i nes, earliest known inhabitants of a country ; native races. 4

A-dult' adj., having arrived to full size and strength.

Pro-duc-tive, profitable; having the power of yielding or furnishing.

Giz-zard, second, or true, stomach of a bird, in which the food is crushed and ground, after being softened in the first stomach, or crop.

Di-ges-tion, conversion of food, in the stomach and intestines, into products capable of being absorbed by the blood.

Dis-card; reject.

Es-Chew/shun; avoid.

Nui-sance, that which annoys, or gives trouble

or vexation.

The emu inhabits the open country throughout Australia, where, at one time, it was very common, but is now rarely seen wild in the settled districts. With an eye to its preservation probably, the aborigines had a law that permitted only men to eat emu flesh.

3.    When full-grown, the emu sometimes reaches nearly seven feet in height. It has a long neck, and a small head, with dark, »leaming eyes. On each foot are three toes, and the bird kicks sideways like a cow. Although its legs are shorter and stouter than those of the ostrich, which it resembles in many points, it is very swift of foot. The usual mode of capturing the emu is to ride it down, using dogs to pull it to the ground.

4.    The colour of the adult bird is grayish brown ; and its feathers are very loose and hairy, and are curious in that there are two plumes to each stem. The young have broad, black stripes down the back, which disappear as they grow up.

5.    This bird is very good eating, if you know the part to select, the legs proving tough, EMUZOOLOGICAl- gardens, Melbourne.

while the back is nearly as tender as fowl. To the bushman, the most valuable thing about the emu is its oil, which is an excellent remedy for bruises and sprains, when rubbed into the injured part. It, is of a light-yellow colour, and, as it does not become sticky, is in much request for oiling the locks of fire-arms.

6.    The usual mode of obtaining the oil is to skin the bird, then pluck out all the feathers, cut the skin into pieces, and boil them in a pot; but a still simpler plan, though less productive, is to hang th * skin before a fire, and catch the oil as it drips down. A full-sized bird will yield from six to seven quarts.

7.    The food of the emu consists of grass and various kinds of seeds and fruits. Like the ostrich, it swallows stones and other hard substances, which remain in its gizzard, and assist digestion by crushing and grinding up the food. The American poet, Bret Harte, writes, with some show of truth,

“There’s nothing so hard that the bird will discard,

And nothing its taste will eschew,

That you

Can give the long-legged emu.”

8.    Its nest is a shallow hole scraped in the ground, or a little bark or few twigs raked together, in some sheltered, scrubby spot.

The eggs are very large, being nearly six inches in length by three and a half in width. Dr. Bennett remarks that “there is always an odd number, some nests having been discovered with nine, others with eleven, and others again with thirteen.” When fresh, the eggs are of a dark-green colour, and are in much request for mounting in silver as cups ; but, after a little while, the colour changes to a dirty


brownish-green. The male and the female bird take it in turns to sit on the eggs; and the young are able to run about as soon as they leave the shell, it is worthy of remark that the parent birds never go straight up to their nest, but walk round and round in a narrowing circle, of which the nest is the centre.

9.    The emu is not a savage bird. It is easily tamed, and may be seen on many cattle and sheep stations, running about the paddocks. It is usually a nuisance, however, often doing mischief—either frightening the horses, or stealing things from the workmen.

10.    “ 1 saw one cured,” relates the Rev. Charles H. Eden, “of his thievish habits for a long time. He always loitered about the kitchen when dinner was being served; and, if the cook turned his back for a moment, his long neck was thrust through the window, and anything within reach—from an onion to a spoon—disappeared with lightning speed.

“ But my friend made a mistake when he bolted two scalding potatoes, steaming from the pot. He rushed round and round the


(By permission of the proprietors of The Australasian.)

little paddock, and, at last, dropped down, as if dead, from pain and fatigue. Poor wretch, he must have suffered very much, and we all, I am sure, pitied him, except the cook, whose patience he had quite worn out.”


Bunding, woollen stuff of which flags are made. En-sign, flag ; especially the national flag.

1.    It is only a small bit of bunting,

It is only an old coloured rag,

Yet thousands have died for its honour, And shed their best blood for the flag.

2.    It is charged with the cross of St.


Which, of old, Scotland’s heroes has led;

It carries the cross of St. Patrick,

For which Ireland’s bravest have bled.

Tri-um-phant, victorious.

Em-blem, sign; symbol.

3.    Joined with these is the old English


St. George’s red cross on white field, Round which, from King Edward2 to Wolseley,3

Britons conquer or die, but ne’er yield.

4.    It flutters triumphant o’er ocean,

As free as the wind and the wave, And the bondsman from shackles unloosen’d,

’Neath its shadownolonger’sa slave.

5. We hoist it to show our devotion

To our King, to our country, and laws ;

It’s the outward and visible emblem Of advancement and liberty’s cause.

Sr George's Cross.

Union Flag, lGOd.

st. Andrew’s Cross.

St. Patrick's Cross.

6. You may call it a small bit of bunting, You may say it’s an old coloured


But freedom has made it majestic, And time has ennobled The Flag.

The “ Union Jack,” 1801.

Red—Vertical lines.    White—Plain spaces.    Blue—Horizontal lines.

1.    Charged With the cross of St. An-drew, has the cross of St. Andrew represented upon it. Charged is a term used in heraldry. The cross of St. Andrew is a white diagonal cross, or, strictly speaking, saltire, on a blue field. (See p. 144 of the last number of The S;hool Paper—Classes V. and VI.)

2.    King Ed-ward. Edward I (1272-1307) and Edward III (1327-77) were warriqr kings. The former was particularly noted for his wars with Wales and Scotland ; the latter for his wars with France.

3.    Wolse-ley (ivoolz-lee), distinguished British soldier, who recently, after his term of service, retired from the position of Commander-in-Chief of the British army. He was born in 1833.


Fa-mil-iar (J'a-mil-yer) with, accustomed to; used to.

Tel-e-SCOpe, instrument for magnifying distant objects so as to make them look marer to the eye. 5

Sur-Viv-ors, those who outlived the occurrence. De-spair-ing, hopeless.

Her-O-ine (hir-o.in), very brave woman. Hom-age, marked respect.

feared some shipwrecked people were cast on the rocks not far from the lighthouse. William Darling was soon ready, and he and his daughter, with the help of a telescope, saw at no great distance a number of people, men and women, clinging to the fore part of a steamer which was stuck fast on a ridge of rocks.

5.    The wrecked vessel was the Forfarshire, a steamer from Hull, bound for Dundee. When leaving Hull, her engines were out of repair, and, during the fearful storm of the previous night, they became utterly useless, and she drifted helplessly about at the mercy of the angry sea, till she came asunder on a sharp rock. The after part of the ship was carried away by a current which runs between the islands, .and all the unfortunates who were on it were lost.


6.    All night long, the survivors clung to the bow, and, when daylight showed the dim outline of the lighthouse, they raised a wild, •despairing cry for help, in the forlorn hope that they would be heard by the inmates.

7.    As soon as Grace discovered that there were men and women on the wreck, she urged her father to launch the boat and go out to their aid.

“ Ho, my daughter,” he said sadly ; “it would be certain death to venture out in such a sea. I should never be able to reach them; and, besides, who is there to help me with the oars ? My strength is not sufficient to carry even a small boat through that boiling surf.”    "

“ Oh, Father, only think of those poor people! Must we stand here and see them die, while hearing their cry for help? Take me with you ; I can row well. Let us try, and God will help us.”

8.    Brave man though he was, Darling hesitated to do what he fully believed would involve the loss of his own and his (laughter’s life, while failing to save those on the rock; so he only shook his head when the brave girl begged hard to be allowed to go.

9. “ Do you think, Grace, frail, delicate girl as you are, that your arm would be strong enough to hold an oar in those weaves ? ” he asked, pointing out over the raging sea that lashed with wild fury the ragged rocks all round them.

10.    “ Only let me try, Father,” she urged again, as she took the telescope in her hand. After looking for a moment, she exclaimed— “We must go. I see little children there; a half-drowned woman is holding two of them in her arms, while she tries to keep her footing on the slippery wreck.”

11.    At last, Darling consented to attempt a rescue, and yet he went to work with many misgivings. Would Grace’s strength last till the terrible struggle was over ? Her courage, he knew, would never fail.

12.    When Mrs. Darling heard of her husband’s resolve, she begged him with tears not to go ; but, when Grace spoke of the mother and the two babies, she too was moved to pity, and, with trembling hands,, helped her husband and daughter to launch the boat.

13.    The task of the brave rescuers was even harder than they had imagined. One moment they were down in a valley between two giant waves, then riding high on the crest of another, then down once more ' into another watery valley ; often in imminent danger of having their little boat flung against the rocks by a breaker and dashed to pieces as-if it were a nutshell.

14.    However, after much battling with the wind and waves, they succeeded in reaching the wreck ; and now came the worst part of the


struggle. Darling wished to get from his boat to the rock, and, while he was away, Grace must do the best she could alone.

15. Taking an oar in each hand,, and with a prayer to Heaven foist r e n g t h an d courage, the youthful heroine managed the boat in that furious jea with wonderful skill and coolness ; then, at a.

signal from her father, she put forth all her remaining strength, and brought the boat near enough to the wreck to take in the survivors.

16.    Tears rained down her pale face as the mother, with her two> babies (who, alas ! were dead) still clasped in her arms, was helped into the boat. One by one, all the sufferers were got in, and the dangerous journey back to the lighthouse began. After much battling with the stormy sea, they reached the island in safety.

17.    One can easily imagine the warmth of the welcome given te both rescued and rescuers by the anxious mother. Food was at once supplied to the famished jieople, beds were made, fires were lighted to-dry and warm them, and everything was done that loving sympathy could do to comfort those who had iost all but life.

18.    In a few days, all England rang with the name and fame of Grace Darling and her father ; numbers of people flocked to the lonely Fame Islands to see the heroine of that gallant rescue. The sum of £700 was presented to her, besides many other valuable gifts. Even the Queen sent a token to her noble young subject.

19.    Gentle Grace Darling was not spoiled, as many a girl would have been, by this notice and flattery; and, though poets sang her praises, and artists painted her sweet fair face, she remained her own simple self.

20.    Four years after, in October, 1842, this famous girl died.

“ A maiden gentle, yet at duty’s call,

Firm and unflinching as the lighthouse reared On the island rock, her lonely dwelling-place. *****

Pious and pure, modest and yet so brave,

Though young, so wise ; though meek, so resolute. ”

That is what the good old poet Wordsworth wrote of Grace Darling, in a poem composed in the year of her death.


Puz-zled, thought deeply.    [    Es-trangef part.    ?.

Blos-som-ing, bearing flowers.    |    Fi-nal, last.

1.    Little bush maiden, wondering eyed,

Playing alone in the creek-bed dry,

In the small, green flat, on every side Walled in by the Moonbi Ranges high;

Tell us the tale of your lonely life,

’Mid the great, gray forests that know no change.

“I never have left my home,” she said,

“I have never been over the Moonbi Range.

2.    “ Father and Mother are both long dead,

“ And I live with Granny in yon, wee place.”

“ Where are your father and mother? ” we said.

She puzzled awhile with thoughtful face ;

Then a light came into the shy, brown eye,

And she smiled, for she thought the question strange On a thing so certain—“ When people die,

They go to the country over the range.”

3.    “And what is this country like, my lass? ”

“ There are blossoming trees, and pretty flowers,

And shining creeks where the golden grass “ Is fresh and sweet from the summer showers.

“ They never need work, nor want, nor weep ;

“No troubles can come their hearts to estrange.

“ Some summer night, I shall fall asleep,

“And wake in the country over the range.”

4.    Child, you are wise in your simple trust,    -

For the wisest man knows no more than you.

“ Ashes to ashes, and dust to dust ” :

Our views by a range are bounded too ;

But we know that God hath this gift in store,

That, when we come to the final change,

We shall meet with our loved ones gone before To the beautiful country over the range.

—A. B. Paterson in his volume of poems, entitled, The Man from Sno wy River. (Mr. Paterson, an Australian poet and journalist, was born in 1864.)


Trop-iC, within the tropics,— the two parallels of latitude situated on each side of the Equator at a distance of 23£ degrees.

All-Cient, old ; belonging to time long past.

Pol-yps, minute sea animals that form coral.

Mon-U-ment, something that stands, or remains, to keep in remembrance what is past.

Var-i-e-ty, difference; diversity.

Buoy (bwoi or boi), float; floating object, moored to the bottom, to mark a channel, or to point out the position of something beneath the water, as a rock, shoal, &c.

Men-ace, indication of a probable danger to come. Em^er-ald, precious stone of a rich green colour. Re-flectsi throws back light, heat, or the like. In-di-ca-ted, shown; made known; pointed out.

Vis£i-t)le, capable of being seen.

No-tice-a-ble, likely to be seen; capable of

being observed.

Is-let (eyc^let), small island.

1. We speak of the “ everlasting hills,” yet some of them are built up of numberless shells, beautifully shaped and frail while the living

creature dwelt in them, but now forming a shapeless mass as firm as a rock.”

2. In the warm waters of the tropic seas,and, especially, in the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea, tiny creatures are doing as great a work as those star coral.    ancient mountain

builders, for they are making islands. These island builders are called polyps. They gather from the waters of the ocean living creatures too small for our eyes to see, drawing them into their months to serve as food. Each polyp, having lived its life, dies, and leaves its skeleton towards building the family monument.

Thus it comes to pass that islands are built of bones. They are called coral islands, and present the greatest variety of forms, from a rock no larger than a buoy, to islands miles long.

3.    The little builders cannot live in the air and sunshine, so that their efforts cease before the islands appear above the water.

Many such reefs, as they are hidden just beneath the surface of the water, are a constant menace to passing ships.    END OF A BRANCH OF TREE CORAL"

4.    In many places, the bottom of the ocean is constantly changing. It has been discovered that some coral reefs are being lifted gradually above the waves ; while a few islands, on the other hand, are slowly sinking under the water.

5. As soon as a coral island is lifted so that any portion of it is .above the waves, the coral begins to decay, and, by degrees, a thin coating

of soil is formed. In this, coarse grass and hardy plants begin to take root. Sea-birds brings seeds of various kinds, and the currents floating cocoa-nuts, to this speck in the ocean. ■

6. In the course of time, these islands have palm-trees waving above them, and vegetation covering them, and may be likened to emeralds set in shining 7 silver, for their beaches | are made of worn-out s coral, which is very ~ white, and reflects the 1 rays of the sun almost e like snow.

^    7. Sometimes, these

S islands have the form of | a circle. The waters b enclosed are like a calm lake, even when the waves are booming on the reefs outside. Here and there are passages into the charmed circle, through which vessels may enter, and find a quiet harbour. Usually, these are narrow, but, sometimes, they are broad and deep enough to admit large ships. The position of these openings is, in most cases, indicated so as to be visible at a great distance. Had there been merely an opening in the coral rock, it would hardly have been noticeable from the sea. In general,

however, there is, on each side of the passage, an islet, raised on the points of the reef, which, being commonly tufted by cocoa-nut


trees, is visible as far off as the island itself, and forms an excellent landmark.

—Adapted from The Children’s Paper.


Ap-plied/ made request.

Ad-dress/ name, and place of residence, of a person.

Cor-rect-ly, without error.

Re-ceived,' got. 6

Dis-heart-ened, discouraged; cast down in spirits.

Com-part-ment, one of the parts into which an inclosed portion of space is divided.

Thor-ough ly, completely ; fully.

Er-rand, message.

5.    Then Mr. Harper took him into a back room, in which all kinds of things were kept, such as empty boxes, pieces of rope, cardboard, and nails. Pointing to a large box that was lying on the floor in one •corner of the room, he said to the lad, “ Take off your jacket, and sort the things in that box.”

6.    David did not altogether care for the job, for the box contained a lot of rusty nails, screws, bits of old iron, broken locks, old keys, and a hundred other things. However, he could not refuse to obey the first order he had received, so he took oif his jacket, and, kneeling down by the box, he began to turn over “ the rubbish,” as he called it.

7.    No one came near him for two or three hours, and then Mr. Harper looked in to see how he was getting on. He found David quite disheartened with the job, and, in reply to a question, the lad said that he thought there was nothing worth saving in the box.

8.    “Then don’t waste any more time over it,” said Mr. Harper. '“You can go now. I have your address, and, if I want you, I will let you know.”

9.    Thomas Baker was the next, to call and inquire about the place. He was treated exactly in the same way as David Wilson had been, and with the same result. So the box remained very much as it was, and the card also remained in the window.

10.    The third boy to apply was William King. He did not know the other two boys, and so he had not heard anything about the box when he was shown into the hack room and told to put it in order.

11. All that afternoon, William was kept very busy. Just before closing time, he went into the shop, and said that he had done all he •could, and hoped that it would do.

12.    “ I found this near the bottom of the box,” he said, holding out a shilling; “ it must have dropped in when you were looking for a nail.”

“ Thank you,” said Mr. Harper, taking the shilling.

13.    Then he went into the back room, and found that all the nails, und the screws, and the other odds and ends had been put in separate lots, and bits of cardboard had been placed between them to make little compartments. Mr. Harper smiled when he saw how thoroughly the sorting had been done, and he at once told William that he could have the place.

14.    That night, the ticket was taken out of the window, for the boy who was wanted had been found. Honest boys who are not afraid of work are always wanted, and, when they get a place, they generally keep it. William King is now the owner of the shop which he entered as an errand boy, and the box may still be seen in the little back room.

__    —Schoolmates (N.Z.).

The bird that soars on highest wing Builds on the ground her lowly nest ; And she that doth most sweetly sing Sings in the shade when all things rest In lark and nightingale we see What honour hath humility.




Fiar. 1.

1. The air, like everything else about us, has weight, and as a result exerts pressure. Now, the air extends upwards from the surface of the earth for many miles. In consequence of this, though it is a light substance as compared with water, the air presses heavily upon everything.

2.    A strikiug experiment, which will give some idea of this pressure, may be performed with a bottle, a hard-boiled egg stripped of its shell, and a piece of paper.

3.    Light the paper, and lower it into the bottle (Fig. 1). When the paper is almost consumed, close the neck of the bottle by means of the egg (Fig. 2). In a short time, the egg is, as people say, “ sucked ” gradually down, and then, all at once, it enters the bottle with a loud report.

4.    The burning paper heats the air in the bottle, causing it to expand. Some of the heated air, say about one half, is forced out. At this moment, the egg is placed in the mouth of the bottle, completely closing up the opening. In a short time, the inside air cools, and its pressure then becomes much less— about one half. The egg not being supported from below, and being pressed upon from above by the weight of the outside air, yields under the greater pressure, and is pushed into the bottle.






104.    Roland Rogers, Mus. Doc.

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By Authority : Rr n. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.




Yol. V., No. 47.] MELBOURNE.    [August, 1901.


Din^gy, soiled; of a dark or dusky colour.

Mi-gnon-ette' (min-yun-et'), plant having greenish flowers, and giving forth a sweet smell.

1.1 saw a window dim and tall Far down a city lane,

Full seldom could the sunbeam fall Against the dingy pane.

12. Yet, mindful of things green and sweet, Some hopeful hand had set Upon that dirty window-seat A box of mignonette.

3.    The paint had fallen from the wood

That bound the narrow ledge ;

The sooty sparrows came and stood And twittered on its edge.

4.    The crumbling earth lay hard and bare

Around the ragged roots,

The little flowers showed dull and rare Among the stunted shoots ;

Fra-grance {fray-graneé), sweet smell; pleasing odour.

In-hale', breathe; draw into the lungs. La-bo-ri-ous, toilsome.

5.    But, when the sash was upward thrown,

’Mid all the dirt and gloom,

A gentle fragrance all their own Passed to the inner room.

6.    The weary woman stayed her task

The perfume to inhale ;

The pale-faced children paused to ask What breath was on the gale.

7.    So deeds of love will cheer and bless

The most laborious life ;

So words of peace and gentleness Glide in and soften strife.

8.    So prayers in crowded moments given

Of tumult, toil, or woe,

Will sweeten with a breath from heaven Our weary path below.



Prompt, quick.

Sen-ti-nel, soldier who watches while his comrades rest.

Sooth-ing-ly, in a quieting manner.

Blanched, pale; white with fear.

En-vel-ope, inclosing cover; especially the cover or wrapper of a document, as of a letter.

E-ter-ni-ty, here, state which begins after death.

Com-rades, companions ; associates ; mates.

Bag-gage, what a soldier carries on the march ; luggage.

Ben-try, sentinel. 7

Rev-er-ent-ly, in a humble or respectful manner.

Re-prievef delay in the execution of a criminal; respite.

Colo-nel (kur-nel), commanding officer of a regiment.

Pas-ture, grass growing for the food of cattle ; grass land for cattle.

In-cred-i-bly, in a manner surpassing belief.

Cul-pa-ble, blameworthy.

Neg-li-gence, neglect; disregard.

Dis-patch' or Des-patchf message in writing sent in haste.

Fer-vent-ly, with great earnestness.

2.    “ I know lie slept only one little second—he was so young, and

so strong, that boy of mine ! Why, he was as tall as I, and only eighteen ! and now they shoot him because he was found asleep when doing sentinel’s duty !    ‘ Twenty-four hours,5 the telegram said—only

twenty-four hours. Where is Bennie now ? '5

3.    “ We will hope with his Heavenly Father,” said Mr. Allen, soothingly.

“Yes, yes, let us hope; God is very merciful.”

u £ I should be ashamed, Father,5 Bennie said, when I was a man,, to think I never used this great right arm5—and he held it out so proudly before me—‘for my country, when it needed it.5

“ ‘ Go then, my boy ! 5 I said, ‘ and God keep you !5 God has kept him, I think, Mr. Allen ;55 and the farmer repeated those last words slowly, as if, in spite of his reason, his heart doubted them.

“ Like the apple of His eye, Mr. Ow'en ; doubt it not!55

4.    Blossom sat near them, listening with blanched cheeks. She had not shed a tear. Her anxiety had been so concealed that no one had noticed it. How she answered a gentle tap at the kitchen door, opening it to receive from a neighbour’s hand a letter. “ It is from him !55 was all she said.

5.    It was like a message from the dead. Mr. Owen took the letter, but could not break the envelope on account of his trembling fingers, and held it toward Mr. Allen, with the helplessness of a child.

6.    The minister opened it, and read as follows :—

“ Dear Father,—When this reaches you, I shall be in eternity. At first, it seemed awful to me ; but I have thought about it so much now, that it has no terror. They say that they will not bind me, nor blind me ; but that I may meet my death like a man. I thought, Father, that it might have been on the battle-field, for my country, and that, when I fell, it would be fighting gloriously; but to be shot down like a dog for nearly betraying it—to die for neglect of duty ! 0 Father, I wonder the very thought does not kill me ! But I shall not disgrace you. I am going to write you all about it, and, when I am gone, you may tell my comrades : I cannot now.

7.    “You know I promised Jemmie Carr’s mother I would look after her boy ; and, when he fell sick, I did all I could for him. He was not strong when he was ordered back into the ranks, and, the day before that night, I carried all his baggage, besides my own, on our march. Toward night, we went at double-quick, and the baggage began to feel very heavy. Everybody was tired ; and, as for Jemmie, if I had not lent him an arm now and then, he would have dropped by the way.

8.    “We were all tired out when we came into camp ; and then it was Jemmie’s turn to be sentry, and I would take his place ; but I was too tired, Father. I could not have kept awake if a gun had been

pointed at my head ; but I did not know it until—well, until it was too late.”

“ God be thanked ! ” interrupted Mr. Owen, reverently. “ I knew Bennie was not the boy to sleep carelessly.”

9.    “They tell me, to-day, that I have a short reprieve—‘time to write to you,’ our good colonel says. Forgive him, Father, he only does his duty ; he would gladly save me if he could ; and do not think ill of Jemmie. The poor boy is broken-hearted, and does nothing but beg and entreat them to let him die in my stead.

10.    “I can’t bear to think of Mother and Blossom. Comfort them, Father ! tell them I died as a brave boy should, and that, when the war is over, they will not be ashamed of me, as they must be now. God help me ; it is very hard to bear ! Good-bye, Father.

11.    “To-night, in the early twilight, I shall see the cows all

coming home from pasture, and precious little Blossom standing at the back door, waiting for me—but I shall never, never come ! God bless you all ! Forgive your poor Bennie.”    _

12.    Late that night, the back door opened softly, and a little figure glided out, and down the footpath to the road that led by the mill. Two hours later, the same young girl stood at Mill Station, watching


the coming of the night train ; and the guard, as lie opened the door of the carriage, wondered at the tear-stained face that was upturned toward the lantern he held in his hand. A few questions and ready answers told him all ; and no father could have cared more tenderly for his only child than he did for our little Blossom.

13.    She was on her way to Washington1 to ask President Lincolnfor her brother’s life. She had stolen away, leaving* only a note to tell her father where and why she had gone. She had taken Bennie’s letter with her. Ho good, kind heart, like the President’s, could refuse to be melted by it.

14.    The next morning, they reached Hew York,3 and the guard hurried her on to Washington. Every minute, now, might be the means of saving her brother’s life. And so, in an incredibly short time, Blossom reached the capital, and hastened immediately to the White House.4 The President had just seated himself at his morning’s task of looking over and signing important papers, when, without one word of announcement, the door softly opened, and Blossom, with downcast eyes and folded hands, stood before him. •

15.    “Well, my child,” he said, in his pleasant, cheerful tones, “ what do you want so bright and early in the morning ?”

“ Bennie’s life, please, sir,” faltered Blossom.

“Bennie? Who is Bennie?” “ My brother, sir. They are going to shoot him for sleeping at his post.”

16.    “ Oh ! yes,” and Mr. Lincoln ran his eye over the papers before him. “ I remember. It was a fatal sleep. You see, child, it was at a time of special danger. Thousands of lives might have been lost through his culpable negligence.”


17.    “ So my father said,” replied Blossom, gravely ; “ but poor Bennie was so tired, sir, and Jemmie so weak. He did the work of two, sir, and it was

Jemmie’s night, not his ; but Jemmie was too tired, and Bennie never thought about himself—that he was tired too.”

“ What is this you say, child ? Come here ; I do not understand.”

18. Blossom went to him : he put his hand tenderly on her shoulder, and turned up the pale, anxious face toward his as she told her simple and straightforward story, and handed him Bennie’s letter to read.    .

He read it carefully; then, taking up his pen, wrote a few hasty lines, and rang his bell.

19.    Blossom heard this order given: ‘‘Send this dispatch at once.”

The President then turned to the girl, and said, “ Go home, my child, and tell that father of yours, who could approve his country’s sentence, even when it took the life of a child like that, that Abraham Lincoln thinks the life far too precious to be lost. Go back, or—wait until to-morrow; Bennie will need a change after he has so bravely faced death ; he shall go with you.”

“ God bless you, sir,” said Blossom.

20.    Two days after this interview, the young soldier came to the White House with his little sister. He was called into the President’s private room, and Mr. Lincoln then said, “ The soldier that could carry a sick comrade’s baggage, and die for the act without complaining, deserves well of his country.”

21. Then Bennie and Blossom took their way to their home. A crowd gathered at Mill Station to welcome them back ; and, as Farmer Owen’s hand grasped that of his boy, tears flowed down his cheeks, and he was heard to say fervently, “ The Lord be praised ! ”

1.    Wash-ing-ton, capital of the United States.

2.    Pres-i-dent Linc-oln (link-on). Born in 1809, he was shot at and killed in 1865, just after his re-election as President of the United States of America. The civil war in the United States was being waged during his presidency.

3.    New York, largest city in America.

4.    White House, the residence of the President of the United States.


Dell, small valley.

Lapse, a passing away.

Can-O-py, covering extended overhead. Mat-ed, having a mate or companion.

Lea, meadow ; grassy field.

1.    Every valley drinks,

Every dell and hollow ;

Where the kind rain sinks and sinks Green of spring will follow,

2.    Yet a lapse of weeks,

Buds will burst their edges,

Strip their wool-coats, glue-coats, streaks,

In the woods and hedges,

3.    Weave a bower of love

For birds to meet each other, Weave a canopy above Nest and egg and mother.

4.    But for fattening rain

We should have no flowers,

Never a bud or leaf again But for soaking showers,

Pied, spotted.    y

Dai-sies, well-known flowers of a low-growing plant.

Liny, well-known flower, of which there are many kinds.

5.    Never a mated bird In the rocking tree-tops,

Never indeed a flock or herd To graze upon the lea-crops.

6.    Lambs so woolly white,

Sheep the sun-bright leas on,

They could have no grass to bite But for rain in season.

7.    We should find no moss

In the shadiest places,    ■

Find no waving meadow grass Pied with broad-eyed daisies;

8.    But miles of barren sand,

With never a son or daughter ;

Not a lily on the land,

Or lily on the water.    ;

—Christina G. Rossetti (1830-94).


Ef-fect' result; consequence ; outcome. As-cend-ed, went up ; climbed.

Man-tie, covering.

Brack-en, fern, common in almost all countries. No tice-a-ble, capable of being easily seen.

Din-goes, wild dog-s found in Australia. Dor-mant, sleeping.

Ma-jor-i-ty, the greater number ; more than half.

Ap-pear-ance, look; aspect.

I-ei-Cles, hanging masses of ice, formed by the freezing of dripping water.

Ceased, stopped ; left off.

Es-pe-cial-ly, chiefly.

1.    During the latter part of the month of June, it was very cold in Victoria, and much snow fell on the mountains. There are, however, thousands of the little readers of The School Paper who have never seen the white, powdery substance, and still more of them who know very little of its effects. I, therefore, purpose writing something about what I saw during a trip that I lately took with a friend to some snow-clad mountains.

2.    We went to Alexandra1 by train and coach, and then drove about fourteen miles to the Blue Range, a spur of the Dividing Range, near the township of Taggerty.

3.    The next day was bright, and we rode up one of the peaks of the range as far as our horses could carry us. Then, fastening them securely, we continued the climb on foot.

4.    On the mountain side, we soon came to patches of snow; and, as we ascended, these grew larger and more numerous, till, at last, the ground was covered with a beautiful white mantle. The hard brackens were bent down by the weight of snow on their fronds, and only their stems were visible. The air here was colder than at the foot of the mountains, and it was necessary to move briskly in order to keep at all warm.

5.    As we got higher, the snow became deeper, and walking, therefore, more difficult. We found it best for one to go ahead, and the other to follow in his footsteps.

6.    Many of the smaller animals native to Victoria, such as mice, lie dormant during the winter months ; but the tracks of several of our larger animals were very noticeable in the snow. We saw those of dingoes, foxes, wallabies, kangaroos, wombats, and rats.

7.    On arriving at the top of the mountain, we found the snow about eight feet deep. Several young wattle-trees, which, if upright, would have been about 15 feet high, were represented by soft, white mounds, for the snow had gradually bent them down into a bow-like shape, and covered them up. The big gum-trees, too, had their coverings, not only the limbs, but also the upright trunks on one side being coated with snow.

8.    A large majority of the branches had either fallen to the ground, or were hanging down broken. The bunches of hanging leaves had the appearance, from a distance, of large white flowers ; and the trees looked as if some one had climbed up them, and broken every branch. It is clear from this that a heavy fall of snow does much to destroy the gum-trees on the mountain ranges.

9. In many places, long icicles were hanging from the trees, and .glistening in the sun. When the thaw commenced, it was dangerous

to go under the trees, as icicles, masses of snow, and branches kept falling down.

10. Koalas (native bears) suffer severely in this weather, and many die of cold. Opossums come off better, as they are sheltered in their holes. Wombats, being heavy, and having short legs, find a difficulty

in getting along, and leave a deep furrow behind them. To obtain food is no easy task for any of them while the snow is over everything.

11. Looking at this vast expanse of snow, one ceases to wonder why Victorian rivers (especially the Murray) sometimes rise without much rain falling. A rapid thaw means that an immense amount of water is set free to find its way to them.

—D. Le Souef.

1. Al-ex-an-dra, town in county Anglesey, Victoria, near the Goulburn River.




Buc-kler, kind of shield.

In-teg-ri-ty, uprightness; rectitude. Cour-te-sy (kHr-te-sy), politeness ; civility. Bur-nish, brightness; gloss.

Ac-cou-tred, equipped; attired; furnished with, dress.

Gal-lant, brave; high-spirited.

1.    The buckler of integrity

Throw broadly o’er thy breast Thy helmet let bright honour be,

And truth thy stainless crest.

2.    Let kind and gentle courtesy

Be burnish to thy mail;

’Twill turn full many a strokefrom thee When rougher arms would fail.

3.    Accoutred thus, go forth in joy,

While rings thy battle-cheer ;

On !—on !—fear God, my gallant boy— But know no other fear.



Strewed, covered by scattering something' over. In-mates, occupants in any place or dwelling.

PebUiles, stones rounded by the action of water.

Re-ceivesi gets; takes.

Dis-trib-U-ted, dealt out; dispensed. Cur-rent, stream; body of fluid moving continuously in a certain direction. 8 9

Per-fect-ly, wholly ; thoroughly. Sat-is-fac-tO-ry, yielding content. Ap-pear-ance look; aspect.

Af-fecUed, influenced.

Sealed, here, frozen over ; covered. Im-por-tance, consequence ; moment. Nav-i-ga-tion, act of passing from place to place on water in ships.

3.    The chalk cliffs of England and of the greater part of North America are the work of the sea and of its countless inmates. The sand on the shore is the result of labour performed by its waves. They grind the rocks and pebbles into powder, and then carry it off to improve the soil of other lands.

4.    The sea, at this hour, is full of workshops, where millions and millions of little workers are busy, night and day, in altering the earth’s surface, and building up islands from the ocean’s bosom to be the dwelling-place of man.

5.    The heat which the sea receives from the sun it carefully stores away, and, in due time, gives out for our good. Some of this

Cape Woolamai,

S.E. of Phillip I.

[Photograph by A. J. Relph, Esq.]    Griffith Point,

A SEASCAPE.    S. of County Mornington, Vic.

heat is distributed by the currents of the sea, while part of it is given to the winds, furnishing them with the warm vapours which moderate the cold in winter and the heat in summer, in far distant regions.

6.    It is from the sea, moreover, that all the rivers of the earth are supplied. From it rises the moisture which forms the rain, brooks, and running water, with which all the lands in the world are refreshed'

7.    By sea came many of the articles of dress we wear, as well as most of the good things which gladdened our breakfast table this morning. With a spoon made in England, many in Victoria stirred their tea brought from China, or their coffee from South America or Aiabia. Ihe sugar which sweetened it probably came from Mauritius, Java, or Queensland.

8.    The sea is salt. Why is it salt ? Whence comes its salt ? These are questions often asked, but they are questions to which it is not easy to give a perfectly satisfactory answer. We are able, however, to point out some of the good that results from the saltness of the sea.

9.    Were the sea not salt, more water than at present would pass off from its surface in the form of vapour. This, again, would cause many countries to have more clouds, less sunshine, and a greater rainfall than they have.

10.    The rivers would be larger, and the soil would soon be soaked with moisture. The appearance of these countries would be changed, and the well-being of plants and animals would be very seriously affected. It is good, therefore, that the sea is salt.

1L Moreover, the salt of the sea helps to maintain that continual motion among its waters which is of great importance in various ways.

12. Were the sea not salt, many parts of the ocean that are now dotted with ships would be sealed to navigation with the seal of the Frost King, and for many months of the year rendered useless to mankind.

1. The sea, the five oceans with their indentations.


State-ly, majestic.

Ha^ven, harbour or port for ships.


Van-ished, passed from view; lost sight of, as by death or absence.

Crags, steep, rugged rocks.

1.    Break, break, break,

On thy cold, gray stones, O Sea !

And I would that my tongue could utter

The thoughts that arise in me.

2.    O well for the fisherman’s boy

That he shouts with his sister at play !

O well for the sailor lad

That he sings in his boat on the bay !

3.    And the stately ships go on

To their haven under the hill ;

But O for the touch of a vanished hand,

And the sound of a voice that is still !

4.    Break, break, break,

At the foot of thy crags, O Sea !

But the tender grace of a day that is dead

Will never come back to me.

—Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-92).



He-ro-ic, brave ; daring.

Ex-plo-ra-tions, examining carefully, for the purpose of geographical discovery.

Ad-mi-ral-ty, British State department which manages naval matters.

Pro-test, earnest putting forward of reasons in opposition to something.

A-ban-doned, left ; deserted.

Con-sort, ship sailing in company with another ship.

Veg-e-ta-tion, plants in general.

Cut-ter, Vessel with one mast.

De-spatched' or dis-patched' sent off.

Launched (lanched, the “a” as in arm), set afloat.

Schoon-er, small vessel with two masts.

Route (root), course ; way.

Vol-un-teered' offered service of one’s own free will.

Com-pelled; forced; obliged.

Pass-port, authority to travel through a foreign country.

Col-O-ny, company of people transplanted from their mother country to another, and remaining under the rule of the parent state.

Cap-tiv-i-ty, imprisonment; confinement.

Pub-li-ca-tion, act of offering a book, &c., to the public, for sale or free distribution.

Dis-posed' inclined.

1.    The spirit of the heroic Flinders never flagged. Notwithstanding the dangers of the voyage to Torres Strait, he applied for another vessel to complete his explorations in the north ; but the Governor of New South Wales had no vessel to give him, and the Investigator was quite worn out. There was nothing for it but to return to England, and ask for another ship from the Admiralty. Accordingly, Flinders took a passage, as a private person, in the Porpoise, which, in July, 1803, sailed from Sydney, accompanied by two trading vessels, the Cato and the Bridgewater.

2.    In passing through Torres Strait, on the night of the 17th of August, the Porpoise struck on a coral reef, and took a fearful heel over, and began to break up. The Cato also struck, and was ■completely wrecked. The Bridgewater grazed the reef and escaped. After his escape, the captain of the Bridgewater, one Palmer, sailed away in spite of the protests of his mate, without making any effort to aid his companions. He continued his voyage, and, on his arrival in India, reported that all were lost.

3.    When the P or poise and the Cato were thus abandoned by their consort, Flinders was given the chief command. He safely landed the crews of the two vessels on a sand-bank, collected stores, erected tents, and formed an encampment. The bank was about three hundred yards long and one hundred broad, on which not a blade of vegetation was growing.

4.    It was determined that the largest cutter should be repaired and despatched, under the command of Flinders, to Port Jackson—a distance of seven hundred and fifty miles. On the 26th of August, the cutter was launched, and was named the Hope. The voyage was a daring one, and was bravely conducted, and, on the thirteenth day, Flinders reached Sydney.

5.    Governor King lost no time in engaging the ship Holla, then lying in port, but about to sail for China, to go to the rescue of the officers and crews of the Porpoise and Cato. As she was bound to continue her voyage to China, the Governor ordered two colonial schooners to accompany her, to bring back those of the shipwrecked crews who preferred returning to Port Jackson. The anxiety of Flinders to get to England as quickly as possible induced the Governor to offer him one of the schooners to go through _ Torres Strait, and thence by the shortest route to Europe. In this miserable craft of twenty-nine tons burden, named the Cumberland, he set sail, accompanied by the other two vessels. The shipwrecked men were


(From a reproduction (kindly lent by J. J. Shillinglaw, Esq., F.G.S.) of a painting executed while Flinders was a prisoner in Mauritius.)

rescued, and some of them volunteered to accompany Flinders. About the middle of December, the Cumberland was off Mauritius, and the leaky state of the vessel compelled him to put in there for repairs.

6.    War was then raging between France and England. Although he held a passport from the French Government, Flinders was detained a prisoner by the governor of the island, which was then a French colony, and the journals and charts of his Australian discoveries were seized. Copies of them were sent to France, where they were published as the work of Baudin,10 and were received with great applause by the French nation. French names were given to all the discoveries of Captain Grant and Flinders on the south coast of Australia, and it was kept out of sight that they had ever been upon the coast. The newspapers asserted that no voyage ever made by the English could be compared with that of the Géographe and Naturaliste.

7.    For six weary years, the great Australian navigator and explorer was kept in captivity at Mauritius, the French Government refusing to order his release. At last, in 1810, he was allowed to return to England, where he commenced to write an account of his explorations.

8.    After four years of constant labour, his work was ready for publication ; but the hardships he had undergone during his voyages and his imprisonment had so seriously injured his health, that, at the early age of forty, he died just as his book was published.

9.    The name and fame of Flinders stand next to those of Cook on the roll of the founders of Australia. Flinders’ work was one of love : he sought no reward, and obtained none. He lived a life of toil, and did good service for mankind, leaving a name which the world is every year more and more disposed to honour.

1. Bau-din' [bow-dan(g10 )]. This explorer, whom Flinders had met, in Encounter Bay in 1802, and ag-ain, shortly afterwards, at Sydney, had died at Mauritius just before Flinders arrived there. In 1805, his brother tried to obtain the release of Flinders, but was unsuccessful.



Hun-gry, having a keen appetite. Boot^y, plunder.

Arch, cunning; sly.

Out-weighs/ is heavier than. Pre-tence/ false show ; pretext; excuse. Tri-fling, small; paltry.

5.    Upon this, he nibbled first one piece and then the other, till the poor cats saw that their cheese was in a fair way to he all eaten up. They, therefore, most humbly begged him not to put himself to any further trouble, hut to give them what was still left.

6.    “ Ha ! ha ! ha! not so fast, good ladies,” said the monkey; “we owe justice to ourselves as well as to you ; and what remains is due tome as the lawyer.”

So he crammed the whole into his mouth at once, and very gravely broke up the court !

7.    This fable teaches us that it is better to put up with a trifling loss, than to run the risk of losing all we have by going to law.

—iEsop, about 500 B.C.


Pen-Sioned, in receipt of a regular allowance on account of age or sickness Fron-tier, extreme part of a country bordering on another country.

Sol-emn-ly, with gravity ; seriously. Rec-ol-lec-tions, things called to mind; memories.

Grat-i-tude, thankfulness.

1.    The French and the Germans call their native country the fatherland. The following is from a book written by a Frenchman :—

2.    “ When I was fifteen years of age,” said an old soldier to a young companion with whom he was talking, “ I began to visit an uncle who had lost his leg in the wars, and was now pensioned off.

3.    “ One day, I found him looking very grave. ‘Jerome,’ said he, ‘knowest thou what is going on at the frontier?’

“ ‘ No, Uncle,’ I answered.

“ ‘ Well then,’ he said very solemnly, ‘ the fatherland is in peril.’

4.    “ Seeing that I did not quite understand, he laid his hand on my shoulder, and said, ‘ Thou hast never thought, perhaps, what the fatherland means. It means everything that surrounds thee, everything that has reared and nourished thee, everything thou hast loved.

5.    “ ‘ That green country thou seest, those trees, those young girls passing and laughing yonder—that is the fatherland.

6.    “ ‘ The laws which protect thee, the bread that pays thee for thy

■work, the words thou exchangest, the joy and sadness that comes to thee from the people and things among which thou livest—that is the fatherland.    .

7.    “‘Thou seest it, thou breathest it everywhere! Picture to thyself thy rights and thy duties, thy affections and thy needs, thy recollections and thy gratitude ; join all these under a single name, and that name will be th% fatherland, ! ’ ”

—Adapted from The Courtesy Reader. Messrs. Macmillan and Co.


A Sad Occurrence.

On the 18th of June, just too late for insertion in the July number of The School Paper, the following letter was received from Mr. J. M. Lyons, head teacher of State School No. 3201, Bunyip South :—

“ I feel that I ought to bring under your notice the fact that two of my pupils, Jane Duncan and Ernest Duncan, were drowned on Friday, the 14th instant, while on their way to school. Jane attempted to cross the Main Drain by means of a plank about one foot wide, but she fell from the plank into the swift stream. Ernest saw his little sister in the water, and first called to her to lie on her back, but, seeing that she was in distress, he threw off his school-bag, and plunged into' the almost frozen water. He succeeded in reaching Jane, and actually held her for some moments above water ; but there was no one near to render aid, and the doomed children sank.

“Jane was just an ideal school-girl, being bright, intelligent, cheerful, and most exemplary in her conduct. Though only nine years old, she was in the fourth class. Ernest was ten years and nine months old, and also in the fourth class. He was a most amiable and polite boy, and must have had in him 4 some of the stuff of which heroes are made.’ But praise is now of no avail to Jane Duncan and the gallant boy who tried to save her. Yet it may cause a ray of comfort in the stricken home they left for ever on that fatal Friday morning.”

The Temperature of the Body.

The ordinary temperature of an adult, when a thermometer is placed in the armpit, is 98-78° Fahr.; in the mouth, 98-96°. The blood is 99-14°. Blood heat is marked on the thermometer at 99° Fahr. In fever this is much exceeded, and the heat of the patient may rise to 105° or 106° ; a higher temperature than this will generally prove fatal, unless it decreases soon. The highest temperatures recorded, when the patients have recovered, have been in cases of scarlet fever and tetanus (lock-jaw), when that of the body rose to 114-8°.

The British Empire.

When, in 1837, Queen Victoria came to the throne, the area of her possessions was seven millions of square miles, and she ruled over 250 millions of people. Her successor rules over 400 millions of people, spread over more than twelve millions of square miles.

“ Something will Turn Up.”

There is no more common thought among young people than the foolish one—that, by-and-by, something will turn up by which they will suddenly acquire a fortune. No, my boys, things don’t turn up in this world, unless somebody turns them up.


Thomas Moore.    Harmonized by John Hullah.

Adaqio.    IW

" A.,- , i- rt-i—U-P-j-    ,    !---1-






rin, the

r • ^

tear and the

smile in thine



Erin, thy silent tear never shall cease,

Erin, thy languid smile ne’er shall increase Till, like the rainbow’s light,

Thy various tints unite,

And form in Heaven’s sight One arch of peace.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.




Vol. V., No. 48.] MELBOURNE. [September, 1901.


Daf-fO-dil, plant bearing beautiful flowers, usually of a yellow hue. (Daisies, buttercups, daffodils, cuckoo-buds, and cowslips are wild spring flowers in England.)

Fain, adv., with joy ; gladly.

Prow, bow ; fore part of a vessel. Un-COn-SCiOUS, not knowing or regarding. Thrall, bondage ; servitude.

1.    Heigh ho ! daisies and buttercups,

Fair yellow daffodils, stately and tall;

When the wind wakes, how they rock in the grasses,

And dance with the cuckoo-buds, slender and small;

Here’s11 two bonny boys, and here’s mother’s own lasses,

Eager to gather them all.

2.    Heigh ho ! daisies and buttercups,

Mother shall thread them a daisy-chain;

Sing them a song of the pretty hedge-sparrow,

That loved her brown little ones, loved them full fain ;

Sing, “ Heart thou art wide, though the house be but narrow ”— Sing once, and sing it again.

3.    Heigh ho ! daisies and buttercups,

Sweet wagging cowslips, they bend and they bow ;

A ship sails afar over warm ocean waters,

And haply one missing doth stand at her prow.

0 bonny brown sons, and O sweet little daughters,

Maybe he thinks of you now !

4. Heigh ho ! daisies and buttercups,

Fair yellow daffodils, stately and tall;

A sunshiny world full of laughter and leisure,

And fresh hearts, unconscious of sorrow and thrall, Send down on their pleasure smiles passing its measure, God that is over us all.

—Jean Ingelow (1820-99).

1. Here’s put by poetic licence for “ Here are.”


Del-i-cate-ly, softly.

'Gaff, barbed spear or hook with a handle, used by fishermen in securing heavy fish.

Es-tu-a-ry, wide mouth of a river or lake in which the tide conies up.

Cas-cadei waterfall less than a cataract; fall of water over a precipice.

Ex-haust-ed, worn out.

Dor-sal, pertaining to, or situated near, the back of an animal.

Spawn, noun, ova, or eggs, of fishes, oysters, and other aquatic animals.

Sur-vi-vors, those that outlive the others, sta-ple, chief; principal.

be caught, taken to a factory, cleaned, cut in pieces, “ canned,” boiled; then the tins have to be tested, packed, and sent a long voyage.

2.    From the Rogue River in California1 round to the Amur River in Siberia, every stream, little and big—and the Yukon,2 the Amur, the Columbia,3 and the Fraser4 are very large rivers—is choked during* part of the summer with salmon, varying in weight from seven pounds to eighty-five pounds.

3.    In the season, people go down to the banks of one of these

streams, take out a dozen fish with the gaff in five minutes, select the fattest for dinner, then leave the rest to rot on the ground.

4. On small creeks and estuaries, the writer has seen the salmon so crowded that the weaker were jammed out of the water, while thousands were wounded in the struggle; and, at the top of a cascade, where they were exhausted with climbing, they could be easily taken out by hand. You have only to catch the creatures behind the gills, and throw them on the bank.

5. Once, when pulling a flat-bottomed boat into an estuary, I found that the salmon got in the way of the oars, making it almost



impossible to row, while the boat seemed to grate over a shoal, and swarms of fish breaking away on both sides splashed me wet through with the swish of their dorsal fins.

6. The salmon go up the river to spawn, and it is certain that most of them die of exhaustion in the upper waters. They change their colour like the leaves of the trees in autumn, from clear silver to splendid ruby and gold, the lips shrinking away, the jaws becoming sharply hooked with their leanness. At last, a muddy-gray steals over the bright hues, the under parts being dull cherry and rose colour. They make no attempt to escape, and can be easily killed with sticks. Then they die, and drift upon the banks in heaps.


7.    In spring, when the spawn dropped in the shallow pools become little fishes strong enough to swim, they go down to the sea, where big fish eat them by millions. In the fourth year after that, the survivors, now full-grown, return to their native river to spawn.

In one case, on the south coast of Alaska,12 a sand-bar was thrown by the tide across the mouth of the river. When the salmon came, thousands of them, finding the water-course so blocked, wriggled across the dry sand at low tide.

8.    The instinct to seek fresh water is so strong that the salmon will do things which seem quite impossible;, but, besides that, they are urged on by the desire to escape from the swarms of dogfish (small sharks), which lurk on the skirts of the shoal, and from the seals, which, although no bigger than sheep, dispose of fully fifty pounds of fish every day.

9.    Vast numbers of salmon are speared by Indians. All round the North Pacific, these people eat smoked salmon as their staple food. The food is badly cured, and generally covered with brown sand, which grinds down the teeth till they are worn to flat stumps.

10. White men live on the salmon also, which is served in about fifty different ways of cookery; but, in spite of this, it soon becomes hateful when there is nothing else to eat.

—Adapted from an article by P. Norman, in The Penny Pictorial Magazine.

1.    Cal-i-for-ni-a, large state, south-west of the United States of America.

2.    Yu-kon, river flowing through Canada and Alaska into Behring Strait.

3.    Co-lum-bi-a, river flowing through British Columbia and the United States into the Pacific Ocean.

4.    Fra-ser, river flowing through British Columbia into the Gulf of Georgia, which is between Vancouver Island and the mainland.

5.    A-las-ka, territory embracing the extreme north-western portion of North America. It was purchased by the United States from Russia in 1867.


In-dig-nant, wrathful; feeling wroth, as when unjustly treated.

Mien (mean), bearing ; manner.

Coun-sel, advice ; opinion.

Sage, wise; grave.

Dru-id, one of the priests of the ancient Britons. Hoar-y, gray with age.

Re-sent-ment, wrath; anger; hostility provoked by a wrong or injury experienced. Ab-horred/ hated ; loathed; detested. Har-mo-ny, musical art Prog-en-y, race ; descendants.

Pos-ter-i-ty, descendants ; offspring to the furthest generation.

1.    When the British warrior Queen,

Bleeding from the Roman rods, Sought, with an indignant mien, Counsel of her country’s gods,

2.    Sage beneath a spreading oak

Sat the Druid, hoary chief ;

Every burning word he spoke Full of rage and full of grief :—

3.    “ Princess ! if our aged eyes

Weep upon thy matchless wrongs, ’Tis because resentment ties All the terrors of our tongues.

4.    “ Rome shall perish 2!—write thatword

In the blood that she has spilt ! Perish, hopeless and abhorred,

Deep in ruin as in guilt. 12 13

In-vin-Ci-ble, incapable of being conquered or overcome.

Bard, poet; among the ancient Britons, a man who composed and sang verses concerning great deeds and famous men.

Pro-phet-ic, foretelling events.

Preg-nant, weighty; full of consequence or results.

Ce-les-tial, divine; heavenly.

Chords, strings.

Aw-ful, inspiring fear and admiration.

Lyre, kind of harp much used by the ancients as an accompaniment to poetry.

Pit-i-less, hard-hearted; merciless. Venge-ance, punishment inflicted in return for an injury or an offence.

6.    “ Other Romans shall arise, •

Heedless of a soldier’s name ; Sounds, not arms, shall win the prize, Harmony the path to fame.

7.    “Then the progeny that springs

From the forests of our land,

A rmed with thunder, clad with wings,4 Shall a wider world command.

8.    “ Regions Csesar 5 never knew,

Thy posterity shall sway ;

Where his eagles never flew—

None invincible as they.”

9.    Such the bard’s prophetic words,

Pregnant with celestial fire,

Bending as he swept the chords Of his sweet but awful lyre.

10.    She, with all a monarch’s pride,

Felt them in her bosom glow ; Rushed to battle, fought, and died,— Dying, hurled them at the foe :

the next ninety-seven years. Then they set to work in earnest to subdue the people, which they succeeded in doing. The sacred places (groves and altars) of the Druids were destroyed in 61 A.D., and many of the priests slain. In 410 a.d. the Emperor at Rome had to withdraw all his forces to defend his capital, and the Roman occupation of Britain came to an end.

In 61 a.d., Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni, a British tribe, was shamefully beaten by the Romans, and all her possessions seized, though her husband, at his death, had left them half his wealth. She raised an army to avenge her wrongs and deliver the country. London was reduced to ashes, and 70,000 Romans were killed. The Romans avenged their loss in a great battle in which 80,000 Britons were killed. Boadicea poisoned herself rather than fall into the hands of her enemies.

2.    Rome shall per-ish. Rome was besieged in three successive years, 408-9-10 a.d., and the Western Errm; -e of the Romans was extinguished in 476 a.d.

3.    Gaul, a native or inhabitant of Gaul, which, in the time of the Romans, included France and Upper Italy. (The poet might have written “ Goth,” for the Western Goths under Alaric (al-'a-ric) had the largest share in overrunning and finally overturning the Roman Empire.)

4.    Armed with thun-der, clad with wings, a reference to Britain’s navy.

5.    Cse-sar (see-'zar). . The poet probably refers to Julius Caesar—one of the ablest of Roman generals and statesmen. Jle lived from 100 to 44 b.c.—a time when the Roman Empire embraced almost the whole of the then known world. Augustus Caesar was the first Roman Emperor (63 b.c. to 14 a.d.).


Prus-sians, inhabitants of Prussia, a part of the German Empire.

Mead-OW, land producing grass which is mown for haymaking.

May-or, chief magistrate of a city or borough.

Bul-le-tin, any public notice or announcement, especially of news recently received.

De-feats; overthrows. 14

Oc-ca-sion-al-ly, at times.

Em-broid-ered, ornamented with needlework. Re-ceived; gave admittance to.

Re-Cite,' repeat, as a lesson.

Pig-eons, birds, of which there are many kinds. Con-cert, agreement.

Sen-tence, complete thought expressed in words. Signed, signalled ; made a sign to.

6.    I hoped to be able to take my seat in all this noise without being seen ; but, that morning, the room was quiet and orderly. Through the open window, I saw my schoolmates already in their places. The master was walking up and down the room with the iron ruler under his arm and a book in his hand.

7.    As I entered, he looked at me kindly, and said, without scolding, “ Go quickly to your place, little Franz ; we were just going to begin without you. You should have been here five minutes ago.”

8.    I stepped over the form, and sat down at once at my desk. Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master wore his fine green coat, and his black silk, embroidered cap.

9.    But what surprised me more was to see some of the village

people seated on the forms at the end of the room.

From Macmillan’s Geographical Readers.]


One of them was

holding an old spelling-book on his knee; and they all looked sadly at the master.

10. While I was wondering at this, our master took his place, and, in the same kind tone in which lie had received me, he said: “ My children, this is the last time that I shall give you a lesson. An order has come from Berlin14 that no language but German may be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.2 A new master will come to-morrow who will teach you German. To-day is your last lesson in French. I beg of you to pay good attention.”

11. These words frightened me. This is what they had posted on the bulletin-board, then! This is what the blacksmith was reading. My last lesson in French ! I hardly knew how to write, and I never should learn now. How I longed for time lost, for hours wasted in the woods and fields, for days when I had played, and should have studied! My books that, a short time ago, had seemed so tiresome, so heavy to carry, now seemed to me like old friends.

12.    1 was thinking of this when I heard my name called. It was my turn to recite. What would I not have given to be able to say the rules without a mistake ! But I could not say a word, and stood without daring to lift my head. Then I heard the master speaking to me.

13.    “I shall not scold you, little Franz. You are punished enough

now.    Every day you have said to yourself: 41 have plenty of

time. I will learn my lesson to-morrow.’ Now you see what has happened.”

14.    Then he began to talk to us about the French language, saying that it was the most beautiful tongue in the world, and that we must keep it among us, and never forget it.

15.    Finally, he took the grammar, and read us the lesson. I was surprised to see how well I understood. Everything seemed easy. I believe, too, that I never listened so closely ; and it almost seemed as if the good man were trying to teach us all he knew in this last lesson.

16.    The lesson in grammar ended, we began our writing. For that day, the master had prepared some new copies, on which were written, u A1 sace, France; Alsace, France.”

17.    They seemed like so many little flags floating about the schoolroom. How we worked ! Nothing was heard but the voice of the master, and the scratching of pens on the paper. There was no time for play now.

18.    On the roof of the schoolhouse, some pigeons were softly cooing ; and I said to myself, “ Will they, too, be obliged to sing in German ? ”

19.    From time to time, when I looked up from my page, I saw the master looking about him as if he wished to impress upon his mind everything in the room.

20.    After writing, we had a history lesson. Next, the little ones recited in concert their “ Ba, be, bi, bo, bu.”

Oh, I shall remember that last lesson !

Suddenly, the church clock struck the hour of noon.

21.    The master rose from his chair. “ My friends,” said he, “ my friends,—I—I— ” But something choked him ; he could not finish the sentence. He turned to the blackboard, took a piece of chalk, and wrote in large letters, “ Vive la France/”15 Then he stood leaning against the wall, unable to speak. He signed to us with his hand : “ It is ended. You are dismissed.”

—Translated from the French of Alphonse Daudet.

1.    Ber-lin, on the Spree River, capital of Prussia and the German Empire.

2.    Al-sace' and Lor-rainei provinces of the German Empire, lying on its western border next to France. For centuries, they have been disputed territory, under the rule, first of the one nation, and then of the other. After the Franco-German war of 1870, in which the Germans were victorious, France had to yield them up, and the people were obliged to conform to German laws and methods.


War-fare, fighting.

Isle, island.

En-chant-ed, under the power of a charm or enchantment; over which a spell or charm has been cast.

Champ-ing, biting his bit (said of a horse). Pi-broch. (pee-brok), music played on the bagpipe;—generally applied to those airs that are played on the bagpipe before the Highlanders when they go out to battle.

Mus-ter-ing, gathering together.

Clan, tribe or collection of families, united under a chieftain, and bearing the same surname. Squad-ron, troop or body of cavalry.

Fal-l0W, land ploughed without being sowed for the season.

1. Soldier, rest! thy warfare o’er,

Sleep the sleep that knows not breaking !

Dream of battled fields no more,

Days of danger, nights of waking.

In our isle’s enchanted hall,

Hands unseen thy couch are strewing,

Fairy streams of music fall,

Every sense in slumber dewing. Soldier, rest ! thy warfare o’er,

Dream of fighting fields no more;

Sleep the sleep that knows not breaking,

Morn of toil, nor night of waking.

Bit-tern, long-legged wading bird that makes a booming or drumming sound.

Sedg-y, overgrown with sedge—a plant growing in tufts in marshy places.

Ward-ers, watchmen.

Chal-lenge (verb), demand the countersign from one who attempts to pass the lines ; summons.

Slum-brous, or slum-ber-ous, inviting to sleep.

Re-veil-le (pronounce, here, so as to rhyme with “assail ye”), beat of drum, or bugle call, at break of day, to give notice that it is time for the soldiers to arise. (After the reveille sentinels cease challenging.)

2. No rude sound shall reach thine ear, Armour’s clang, nor war-steed champing,

Trump nor pibroch summon here, Mustering clan, nor squadron tramping.

Yet the lark’s shrill fife may come,

At the daybreak, from the fallow, And the bittern sound his drum, Booming from the sedgy shallow. Ruder sounds shall none be near, Guards nor warders challenge here ; Here’s1 no war-steed’s neigh and champing, .

Shouting clans or squadrons stamping.

3. Huntsman, rest! thy chase is done,

While our slumbrous spells assail ye,

Dream not with the rising sun Bugles here shall sound reveille.

Sleep ! the deer is in his den ;

Sleep ! thy hounds are by thee lying ;

Sleep ! nor dream in yonder glen How thy gallant steed lay dying. 2 Huntsman, rest ! thy chase is done,

Think not of the rising sun,

For, at dawning to assail ye,

Here no bugles sound reveille.

—From The Lady of the Lake, by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

N.B.—In a former number of The School Paper—Class IV., the first and second verses of this poem were, unfortunately, printed under a misleading illustration. The poem is a song sung by Ellen, the Lady of the Lake, before Fitz-James retires for the night. He had been out hunting, and had lost his way. Ellen, having by chance met him, conducted him, as hospitality demanded, to her father’s house, which was on an island in Loch Katrine in the West Highlands of Perthshire, Scotland.

1.    Here’S put by poetic licence for “ Here are.”

2.    Steed lay dy-ing. Fitz-James had ridden till his horse, his “gallant gray”, had fallen exhausted, never to rise again.


1.    To be polite is to have a kind regard for the feelings and rights of others.

2.    Be as polite to parents, brothers, sisters, and schoolmates as you are to strangers.

3.    Do not bluntly contradict any one.

4.    It is not discourteous to refuse to do wrong.

5.    Look people fairly in the eyes when you speak to them, or they speak to you.


Un-suc-cess-ful, unlucky; meeting with failure ; not fortunate.

Hos^pi-ta-ble, receiving strangers with kindness.

Va ri-e-ty, kind.

Cav-al-cade' procession of persons on horseback.

De-li -Cious, grateful to the senses, especially the taste.

Draught, drink ; quantity drawn in at once in drinking.

Cra-dle, here, machine on rockers, used for washing earth for gold.

Com-mis-sion-er, person having a warrant to perform some office for the government.

Ar-ti -san, one who works at a trade ; mechanic.

In-ti-mate, close in friendship or acquaintance.

Quartz, glass-like rock, a form of silica, occurring in six-sided crystals.

Gi-gan-tic, immense.

Stra-tUUl, layer or bed of gravel or rock of one kind.

Im-preg-na-ted, mixed or infused with particles of.

Marl, earthy substance, consisting of carbonate of lime, clay, and sand.

Li-" cence or li-cen.se, here, document granting permission to dig for gold.

Suc-ceed-ed, followed.

Sax-horn' brass musical instrument. (It was invented by a man named Sax.)

Har-mo-ni-ous, blending agreeably.

1.    The morning broke bright and fresh ; the ground was white with frost; at daylight, the train of gold-seekers was crossing the plain, the Germans with wheelbarrows leading the way. At Ballan,1 we find the inn “ eaten out.” A horse passes at speed, bearing on his back two horsemen. We meet sulky parties of the unsuccessful returning.

2.    The forest grows denser. Towards evening, we reach the hospitable roof-tree of Lai Lai,2 where, at daybreak, all the laughing jackasses of the colony seemed to have established themselves. “ Ha, ha, ha ! ho, ho, ho ! hu, hu, hu! ” ring forth in every variety of key.

3.    The cavalcade in motion splashes through a broad river, where our driver walks beside, and urges on, his horses, fearful of his dray sticking on the way. Our next point is Warrenheip,3 where we refresh ourselves with a delicious draught from a mineral spring. Two miles from Warrenheip, the hills begin gradually to slope toward Ballarat. Within a mile and a half of Golden Point,4 tents appear here and there through the trees.

4.    The bank of the creek is lined with cradles, and the washers are in full operation. Round the base of the mountain, on the farther side, at right angles with this creek, the river Leigh5 flows, and, for half a mile along its bank, the cradles are at work. “ Rock, rock, rock ! swish, swash, swish ! ” such is the universal sound.

5.    Higher up the hill’s crest, along its sides, and stretching down to the swamp far away to the right and left, are tents, thickly clustered and pitched, and, far beyond, lofty white-barked trees form a background. This is Ballarat.

6.    Crossing the swamp, we reach the commissioner’s tent, where he is trying a thief, who, for want of a lock-up, has been tied to a tree all through the night’s hard frost. Troops of horses, drays, carts, and gigs, with their owners, are all around. Squatter, merchant, farmer, shopkeeper, labourer, shepherd, artisan, lawyer, doctor, and clergyman —all are represented here.

7.    You meet men you have not seen for years, but they recognise you first, for even your most intimate friends are scarcely to be known in their disguise of costume, beard, and dirt.

“ Welcome to Golden .Point! ”

“Ah, old friend! I hardly knew you; how are you getting on?”


“ I did nothing for a week ; tried six holes, and found no gold. My party, disheartened, left me. I formed another party; sank eighteen feet until we came to the quartz, ahd dug through it ;

and now I have reached the blue clay. It is a capital hole; come and see it.”

8.    Imagine a gigantic honeycomb, in which the cells are eight feet wide,6 and from six to twenty-five feet deep, with thin partitions. To follow a friend, and to find a hole in the very midst, is dangerous work. The miners move nimbly about, with barrow, pick, and bag, swarming along the narrow ledges, while, below, others are picking and shovelling.

9.    “ No danger, sir : our bank is supported by quartz. We’ve got to the gold at last. Made an ounce yesterday. There was a man killed yesterday, three holes off: the bank fell down on him. His mate had his head cut, and was covered up to the throat.”

10.    Down the excuse for a ladder, half the way, then a jump, and


the bottom of the capital hole is gained. Nearly four feet of rock sand formed the upper layer ; next a stratum of pipe-clay, below which lie quartz boulders ;7 then a formation of quartz pebbles, with sand impregnated with iron; this penetrated, the bluish marl is reached, in which the much-desired gold is found. Down among the men washing, at the creek, there is nothing to be observed. The work is earnest, no time for talk.

11. The commissioner is kept busy issuing licences. His tent has the mounted police on one side, and the native police on the other.

The evening shadows fall ; the gun from the commissioner’s tent is tired^ the signal for digging to cease ; the fires blaze up, their smoke floating over the trees as over a city ; the men gather round them for their evening meal; the sounds of labour are hushed, but are succeeded by loud voices and ringing laughter, mingled with the bells of grazing bullocks, and dogs baying more loudly as the darkness grows more dark.

12. Hark to the saxhorns from the Black Hill,8 floating to us across the valley ; close at hand the sweet melody of the German hymn in chorus rises ; and then, from toward the river, comes the roaring-chorus of a sailor’s song. The space and distance mellow in one harmonious whole all the sounds; and, as we retreat, they fall upon one wearied with hard labour, like the rich hum of an English meadow in harvest-time.

—Adapted from an article in The Port Phillip Magazine.

1* Bal-lan, town, about 50 miles west of Melbourne, on the Werribee River.

2.    Lai Lai, town in County Grant, on the Moorabool River.

3.    Warrenheip, in the north of County Grant.

4.    Golden Point, a low hill forming part of the Ballarat Goldfield. Gold was discovered here earlv

in September, 1851.    *

5.    Leigh (or Yarrowee), tributary of the Barwon River, flows south between Grenville and Grant Counties. (It separates Ballarat West from Ballarat East.)

6.    Cells are eight feet wide. This seems absurd, but many an inexperienced digger actually put down a shaft nearly the width and length of his claim, which was eight feet by eight.

7.    Quartz boul-ders. These were a peculiar feature of the diggings at Golden Point.

8.    Black Hill, part of the Ballarat Goldfield. (It has been so tunnelled, and its surface cut into to such an extent, that it is now whitish, rather than “ black,” as it appeared when covered with timber.)


Po-lite( well-mannered.

Be-nev-O-lent, kind; charitable.

Ac-count-ing for, explaining.

Del-i-cate, dainty.

Vag-a bond, wanderer ; tramp ; sometimes, as here, worthless person.

In-tox-i-ca-ted, excited, stupefied, or rendered senseless by strong drink. 16

Or-di-na-ry, usual; common.

Phi-los-O-phy, practical wisdom; calmness of temper and judgment.

Par-ish, district under the charge of a clergyman. Rec-om-mend/ advise.

Im-ag-i-na-ry, fanciful.

Ex-pe-ri-ence, personal acquaintance.

“ 1 never tasted yours,” said the donkey ; “ mine is very pleasant.”

6.    “ Do you mean to say, friend,” asked the cow, “ that you prefer carrying that heavy load to living at ease as I do ? ”

“ I never lived at ease ; I am used to my burden,” said the donkey.

7.    “ I should think, my poor fellow,” said the gentleman, “ you would be glad to change places even with your master, vagabond as he is.

You would certainly escape beating and starvation. I see the marks on



our head where his    THE HORSE-

lows have fallen, and your ribs tell plainly what your ordinary fare is.”

8.    “ Sir,” said the donkey, “I am greatly obliged to you for your pity, but I assure you it is misplaced. My master is more of a brute than I am, both when he gets intoxicated, and when he beats me. I don’t like beating, especially about the head; but it is part of my lot to bear it, and, when the pain is past, I forget it. As to starving, there are degrees in starvation.

I am many points from the bottom of the scale, as you may see by the delicate piece of thistle I was finishing when you spoke.

I believe that my master, who cannot dine on thistles, more frequently suffers from hunger than I do.”

9.    “Well, my friend,” said the gentleman, “your philosophy is great; but that burden must be too much for you. It is twice

the contented donkey.    too heavy for your size.”

10.    “ It is heavy, sir; hut who is without a burden? You, sir, for instance—pardon me; not for worlds of thistles would I bring you on a level with a poor donkey,—you are, as I should judge, the clergyman of this parish ?”

“ Yes,” said the gentleman.

“ And you have a family ? ”

Yes; six children.”

“ And servants, of course ? ”

“ Yes; three.”

11.    “Dear me!” said the donkey. “ Sir, excuse me again; but what is my burden to yours ? A parish, six children, and three servants ! ”

“ Oh, but my cares are such that I am fitted to bear them.”

12.    “Just so, sir,” said the donkey; “and my burden fits my back. The truth is, sir, I believe, and I would recommend you (once more excuse me) to put it into your next sermon, that half, and more than half, of our wants are created; half, and more than half, of our miseries are imaginary; and half, and more than half, of our blessings are lost for want of being seen. I learned this from my mother, who was a very sensible donkey; and my experience of life has shown me its truth. With neither of my friends over the hedges would I change places, scornful as they look while I say it. As for you, sir, let me tell you that a thunderstorm is coming on. It will not injure my old gray coat, but it will spoil your new black one ; and I advise you to hasten home, while I finish my dinner.”



1.    The first of a series, I hope, of State school journeys took place on Friday, the 28th of June. For some time previous, the elder boys of several of the schools in the part of the Goulburn Valley about Numurkah and Shepparton were in a state of excitement, and much anxiety was shown respecting the weather ; but, to the delight of all, the morning of the trip dawned with a white, hard frost, indicative of a bright and beautiful day.

2.    The Numurkah boys, among whom I was, left that town at 6.20 a.m., and arrived at Shepparton at seven, the frost still on the ground. There, our friends regaled us with a good breakfast, after which we assembled at the school, and were addressed by the Minister of Education, who, in the course of his speech, expressed himself pleased with us, and promised to give a prize to the boy who wrote the best account of the trip.

3.    We started for Dookie at nine o’clock. On the way, we came to a halt, and Mr. Cronk gave us an instructive lecture on soils. We arrived at Dookie at two, and, after dinner, were driven to the Agricultural College. We were shown over the grounds and the various departments, and were treated to an ample repast,

The Minister. Mr. Inspector Betheras.    [Photograph by Miss Smith, Shepparton.





the whole afternoon’s proceedings being very enjoyable.    '

4.    On onr return to the township, we had tea, and then went to a concert given by the scholars of the various schools. The hall was packed, and the programme excellent.

5.    In the morning, we marched to Chateau Dookie, and were shown over the vineyard, the wine-cellars, and the distillery. We were much interested in all we saw, and, after a short stay, we proceeded to Mount Saddleback, on the top of which lessons on geology, insectivorous birds, and geography were given. Next, we visited a neighbouring farm, and had the good points of a cow indicated to us.

6.    We returned to the township for dinner, and, shortly afterwards, set out on our return journey for home. Calling at Mr. Fletcher’s farm on the way, we received a splendid lesson on cleanliness, and were strongly urged to do with a will whatever we had to do.

7.    Throughout the whole •journey, we endeavoured to carry out the injunction of the Minister—“ Keep your eyes and ears open.”

8.    The Numurkah contingent reached home safe and sound, and delighted with the trip.

—C. Mkdling, Nuvmrlcah State School.





Vol. V., No. 49.] MELBOURNE.    [Octobeb, 1901.


Ver-dure, greenness; freshness of vegetation. Choir (Jcwir), band of singers.

Spray, light twig.

E-ther (ee-ther), here, air.

Trans-lu-cent, partially transparent; clear, but not permitting objects to be distinctly seen through it.    ,

1. Ye coax the timid verdure Along the hills of spring,

Blue skies, and gentle breezes,

And soft clouds wandering.

The choir of birds on budding spray Loud larks in ether, sing;

A fresher pulse, a wider day Give joy to everything. 17

A-thwart' across.

Lea, grassy field ; meadow. Dark-ling, becoming dark or gloomy. Ver-nal, belonging to spring.

Re-ap -pears, comes into view again. Slum-her, sleep; repose.

2. The gay translucent morning Lies glittering on the sea,

The noonday sprinkles shadows Athwart the daisied lea ;

The round sun’s sinking scarlet rim In vapour hideth he,

The darkling hours are cool and dim As vernal night should be.


Re-mem-brance, recollection.

Cen-tu-ry, period of a hundred years.

In-te-ri-or, inland part of a country.

Neph-ew, son of a brother or sister, or of a brother-in-law or sister-in-law.

Heir (pronounced air), one on whom the law bestows the title or property of another at the death of the latter.

Modesti trouble ; disturb.

Im-prove-ment, betterment ; advance.

Trea-ty, agreement between two or more nations.

Na-vy, fleet of ships.

El-e-ment, here, water ; the sea.

Fu-gi-tive, fleeing from pursuit.


Se-vere-ly, with rigour; harshly.

Jew-el, precious stone ; dress ornament, a part of which is a precious stone.

Reigned, ruled over as a king.

De-scend-ants, offspring, however remote.

Per-se-ver-ing, persistent; pursuing steadily any object or course chosen.

En-ter-pri-ses, things attempted to be performed ; undertakings.

In-dus-try, steady attention to business; diligence.

Per-se-ver-ance, steady attention to business; industry.

Ad-mi-ra-tion, wonder; approval.

‘ ‘ So long as I have lived, I have striven to live worthily. I desire to leave the men who come after me a remembrance of me in good works."—From The Life of Alfred, by Asser, a Welsh monk of St. David’s (died 910).

Price Id.

1. In 78?, the Danes or Norsemen, from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, began to plunder the villages on the north-eastern coast of England. As years went by, they tried to force their way into the interior ; and a long and bitter struggle went on between them and the

English,1 who, some three centuries before, had driven the Britonsout of most of their country, and had settled in it.

2. In 871, Ethelred, King of Wessex,17 the only part of England that had not been overrun by the Danes, was wounded in a great battle with them, and died. Alfred, his brother, who was now in his twenty-second year, was placed upon the throne. Ethelred had left a son, but he was too young to rule in such

From Alfred the Great, by Thomas Hughes. (Messrs. Macmillan and Co.)    tfOUbloilS


addition, the right of the eldest son to succeed his father as king was not recognised in those days.

3. King Alfred had to prepare at once to meet the Danes, who already held a large part of his land. The first great battle, fought at Wilton,4 was gained by them. But the advantage was so slight that they readily made peace with Alfred, and promised not to molest Wessex. Alfred then devoted himself to the improvement of his kingdom, and strove to strengthen himself for the next Danish attack, which he knew would soon come, notwithstanding the treaty. He also formed a navy to withstand the Danes on their own element, and, in 875, the first English naval victory was gained at Swanage, south of England.

4.    Three years later, the Danes were again in arms under Guthrum;5 and, so strong were they, that Alfred had to leave his court, and seek refuge in the Island of Athelney,where he stayed in the house of a herdsman. But he had not given up hope; and, when news came that a victory had been gained by the men of Devonshire,18 the, fugitive king again donned his armour, and gathered together his triends. Soon, a Saxon army was in the field, and the astonished Danes were thoroughly defeated, at the battle of Ethan-dune19 (Eding-ton). After the victory, the Treaty of Wed-

more20 (878) was signed, and the Danes again agreed to withdraw to the Danelagh.21

5.    After this, the land enjoyed peace for some time, until, in 893, Hasting, a daring Danish chief, attempted again to disturb it. He was defeated, and, two years afterwards, forced to leave the country.

6.    As great and good in peace as he was great and good in war, King Alfred never rested from his labour to improve his people. He loved to talk with clever men, and with travellers from foreign countries, and to write down what they told him for his people to read. He had studied Latin, after learning to read English; and, now, another of his labours was to translate Latin books into the English tongue. He founded schools for his people, and he made just laws, that they might live more happily and freely. He was so careful of their property, and punished robbers so severely, that it was a common thing to say that, under the great King Alfred, golden chains and jewels might have hung in the streets, and no man would have touched one.

7.    All this time, he was suffering from a disease, which caused him violent and frequent pain. He bore it as he had borne all the troubles of his life, like a brave, good man, until he was fifty-two years old, and then, having reigned thirty years, he died. He was buried at Winchester, the capital city of his kingdom of Wessex, in the year 901 ; but, long ago as that is, his fame, and the love and gratitude with which his subjects regarded him, are freshly remembered to this present hour.

8.    “ Under the great Alfred,” as Dickens writes in “ A Child’s History of England,” “ all the best points of the English Saxon character were first encouraged, and in him first shown. It has been the greatest character among the nations of the earth. Wherever the descendants of the Saxon race have gone, have sailed, or otherwise made their way, even to the remotest regions of the world, they have been patient, persevering, never to be broken in spirit, never to be turned aside from enterprises on which they have resolved. In Europe, Asia, Africa, America, the whole world over; in the desert, in the forest, on the sea; scorched by a burning sun, or frozen by the ice that never melts, the Saxon blood remains unchanged. Wheresoever that race goes, their law, and industry, and safety for life and property, and all the -great results of steady perseverance are certain to arise. I pause to think with admiration of the noble king, who, in his single person, possessed all the Saxon virtues.”

1.    Eng-lish (ing-glish). The Jutes, Saxons, and Anglians—tribes from Denmark and the northwestern part of Germany—spread, during the fourth and fifth centuries, over the midland and northern districts of Britain, occupying most of the land. They were kinsmen, “ closer than cousins,” and spoke the same language—English. When they had made the country fairly their own, they called it after themselves, Engla-land, England.

2.    Brit-ons, earliest inhabitants of Britain of whom we have any knowledge. They were of the Celtic (or Keltic) race. The Welsh and the Gaels of Scotland and of Ireland are descendants of the ancient Britons.

3.    Wes-sex, one of the old English kingdoms, that of the West Saxons. It was founded by Cerdic in 519. Its king, Egbert, became Overlord, or King-in-Chief, of all England in 827.

4.    Wil-ton, in Wiltshire, in the south of England.

5.    Guth-rum. Great numbers of Danes landed in East Anglia in 868, and, in the course of four years, conquered it. Guthrum, their leader, then assumed the crown of East Anglia, and many Danes settled there. After being defeated by Alfred in 878, he became a Christian. 22 18 19 20 21


Strain, race; stock.

North-men, Norsemen; ancient Scandinavians (inhabitants of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark).

Main, the great sea, as distinguished from an arm, hay, &c.; the ocean.

Realms, kingdoms; countries.

Wrack, ruin.

Barks, ships ; vessels. (It is also spelt barque.)

E-rin (ee-rin), an early, and now a poetic, name of Ireland.

Pi-rates, sea robbers; freebooters.

For-ayed, plundered; pillaged.

Wel-kin, sky; vault of heaven.

Burgh-ers, townsmen; people living in borough.

Peas-ants, countrymen ; rustics.

Bea-COns, signal fires.

Aye (d, pronounced as in “ ale”), always; ever. Ire, anger.



Count Witikind came of a royal strain,

And roved with his Northmen the land and the main.

Woe to the realms which he coasted, for there

Was shedding of blood, and rending of hair,

Stealing of child, and slaughter of priest, .

Gathering of ravens and wolves to the feast.

When he hoisted his standard black,

Before him was battle, behind him wrack;

And he burned the churches, that heathen Dane,

To light his band to their barks again.

On Erin’s shore was his outrage known;

The winds of France had his banner blown ;

Little there was to plunder, but still His pirates had forayed on Scottish hill ;

But, upon merry England’s coast,

Most frequent he sailed, for he won there the most.

So wide and so far his ravage they knew,

If a sail but gleamed white ’gainst the welkin’s blue, Trumpet and bugle to arms did call,

Burghers hastened to man the wall,

Peasants fled inland his fury to ’scape,

Beacons were lighted on watch-tower and cape,

Bells were tolled out, and, aye as they rung,

Fearful and faintly the gray brothers 1 sung—

‘ ‘ Defend us, 0 Lord, from flood and from fire,

From famine and pest, and the Northman’s dread ire.”

—Adapted from Harold the Dauntless, by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

1. Gray broth-ers, monks


Naught, nothing.

Realms, kingdom.

Flue, chimney.

Seized, caught hold of; snatched away.

Bade (bad), told; ordered.

Pome-gran-ates, fruit as large as an orange, with a hard rind, containing many rather large seeds, each one separately covered with crimson, acid pulp. (They grow well in Victoria.)

1.    King Pinto’s Lome was deep down in the earth where the rays of the sun could not be seen. In it, there was no joy of life, no light of day, and naught but grief and tears and the shades of night. And so he was glad at times to come up to the land of love and hope and joy, to find, if he could, something that would cheer his sad life, and make it less full of woe.

2.    One day in autumn, when the frost had not yet touched the leaves, and the fields were still

“Ablaze with flowers that brighten as thy footstep falls,”2

King Pluto thought that he would ride out in his car, and see some of the fair things that had been born of the earth and sun—things which but to look at might touch a spring of joy in his sad heart. He rode up by way of Mount Etna,3 and out through the clouds of steam that pour from its top. Then, with a sharp word to his four coal-black steeds, he drove in great haste down the steep slopes, and did not stop till he reached the green fields at their base.

3.    Some girls, who lived in that place, had gone out to spend the day in the fields. With them was a fair young maid whose name was Persephone,4 the child of Dame Ceres, the great Earth-mother.Persephone, tired of play, sat down on a stone to rest; and her companions were soon out of sight. Then, all at once, a black car drawn by four coal-black steeds was at her side. In the car stood a tall, sadfaced man, dark-eyed and pale, who wore a crown of gold on his head. Persephone screamed, and stood still—it was all that she could do. Then she was caught up in the strong arms of King Pluto, who, at the same time, swung his long whip in the- air, and cried out to his steeds : “On, on, ye dark ones! Race with the stars that shoot through the sky! Speed ye! Speed ye ! ”

4.    The wild steeds, urged by whip and speech, flew through the air. They climbed up, up, up the steep sides of Etna, and paused not till they stood on the edge of the great black cup, and the flue that led down to the dark land of Pluto. Poor Persephone screamed, and tried to leap from the car; but a sheet of flame shot up, and shut out the light of day; and the steeds, the car, the king, and the maid went down, down, down, and were seen no more.

5.    When news was brought to good Dame Ceres that her child was lost, she went out at once in search of her. For a whole year, she searched in vain. Then she thought that she would ask Helios,6 him who drives the sun car through the skies. “ Great Helios,” she said, “I know that your eye takes in the whole world, and that all the deeds of men are known to you. Tell me, I pray you, have you seen my lost child Persephone?”

6.    Kind Helios was glad that she had come to him. Yes, he had seen Persephone. He had seen Pluto as he rushed down from Etna; he had seen him lift the child from the ground into his black car ; he had seen the wild leap down Mount Etna’s throat. “The maid is in Pluto’s dark realms,” he said; “and Pluto has made her his queen. But he would not have seized her as he did, had he not had leave of Jupiter,7 the king of earth and air.”

7.    Then Dame Ceres gave way to grief and rage; and she sent word to Jupiter that no fruits nor grain should grow in all the world while Pluto kept Persephone in his dark home. It was Dame Ceres who gave life to the trees and plants, and made them bloom and bear fruit.

8.    Jupiter and the great ones that were with him knew that the dame would be as good as her word, and the thought filled them with fear. “The best thing that we can do,” said Jupiter, “is to bring Persephone back.” So he bade Mercury,8 who had winged feet, to go down to the halls of Pluto, and fetch the lost maid back.

9.    Pluto was glad to see Mercury, but he frowned when he learned why he had come.

“ Do you know the law?” he asked.

“What law?” said Mercury.    .

“There is a law which no one can break,” said Pluto. “I will read it to you.” Then he took a black book from a shelf on the wall, and, when he had found the place, read these words :—“ That one, he it god or man, maid or child, who tastes food while in the land of Pluto, shall not go thence so long as the world, stands.”

From Chambers’s Encyctopcedia.]


10.    Then Mercury asked Persephone if food had passed her lips since the day that she had come' to Pluto’s land. She told him that she had been too sad to think of food; yet once she had plucked some bright red fruit, which grew on a tree by the banks of the dark stream that men call the Styx.9

11.    “Did you taste it?”

“Yes, I took one small

bite, and then threw the rest far from me.”

King Pluto laqghed loud and long. But Mercury asked him, “What kind of bright red fruit grows on the banks of the dark stream which you call the Styx?”

“ Pomegranates,” said the king.

“Is a pomegranate food?” asked Mercury. “At the best, not more than one-third of it is fit to eat. The rest is skin and seeds.”

Then he took Persephone back to the earth.

“And the sun

Burst from a swimming fleece of winter gray,

And robed her in his day from head to feet.”

12.    Dame Ceres stood at the entrance of the great cave, and Mercury placed her dear child in her arms. Then he told her that, for two-thirds of each year, Persephone might stay with her, and make her home and all the world glad. But he said that, for the rest of the time, she must go back to Pluto's dark realms.

13.    Hence it is’that, so long as the grains ot corn lie dead in the ground, Persephone stays in the drear land of Pluto. But, when the stalks begin to grow, and the buds of the fruit trees burst, then the sad-faced king brings her back to Dame Ceres’ door. There the fair maid lives all through the spring and the warm months of the year, till, at last, the chill days of early winter bring the frost. Then comes the grim king on the wings of the storm cloud ; and he bears her to Etna’s top, where both are lost to sight in smoke and red flames.

Note.—The story is an ancient Greek myth, expressive of the revival of nature in spring after the death of winter.    ,

1. Plu-tO. He was, in the religion of the ancient Greeks, the dark and gloomy god of the lower world, where he ruled over the spirits of the dead.

2 A-blaze'    . falls. This line and the other metrical quotation are from Tennyson s

“ Demeter and Persephone.” ’(Teachers would do well to read this poem before taking the lesson.)

3. Mount Et-na, volcano, east of Sicily.

4 Per-seph-O-ne (per-sef-o-nee). In ancient days, before the people became Christians, she along with her mother Demeter (Latin, Ceres) was worshipped in Greece, Sicily, and part of Italy.

•    5 Dame Ce-res the great Earth-mother, one of the chief divinities of the Greeks (under the name

Demeter) and of the Romans. She was the Earth-goddess, the patroness of agriculture and of fruits.

6. He-li-OS (hee-li-os), Greek name of the sun, who was worshipped as a god.

7'. Ju-pi-ter, in the ancient Roman religion, the supreme deity, king of gods and men. He corresponds to the Greek Zeus (zoos)

8 Mer-CU-ry in the ancient Roman religion, god of commerce and gain. He was treated by the poets'as identical with the Greek Hermes, messenger of the gods, and conductor of souls to the lower world.

9. Styx (stiks), principal river of the lower world, which had to be crossed in passing to the regions ot the dead.


Ar-Chi-teCtS, persons who plan or design buildings.

Fate, force by which all existence is determined and conditioned.

Mas-sive, weighty; here, important.

Rhyme, verse; poetry.

Fash-ion, mould. 23

Yawn-ing, open wide; vacant.

Wrought, worked.

Mi-nute( very small.

As-cend-ing, rising; moving upward.

At-taini reach.

Tur-rets, little towers.

Each minute and unseen part;

For the gods see everywhere.

6.    Let us do our work as well,

Both the unseen and the seen; Make the house, where gods may dwell* Beautiful, entire, and clean.

7.    Else our lives are incomplete,

Standing in these walls of Time, Broken stairways, where the feet Stumble as they seek to climb.

8.    Build to-day, then, strong and sure*

With a firm and ample base;

And, ascending and secure,

Shall to-morrow find its place.

9.    Thus alone can we attain

To those turrets, where the eye Sees the world as one vast plain,

And one boundless reach of sky. v Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-82).


Com-fort-a-ble, contented ; in a state of freedom from pain or anxiety, with wants supplied. De-ViS-ing, considering; contriving. De-ter-mined, resolved.

Ac-COm-pliSbed, done; performed. Suf-fi-cient, enough; ample.

O-rig-i-nal, preceding all others ; first in order. Sat-is-fied, contented.

Ll-cence or li-cense, here, document granting permission to dig for gold.

Com-mis-sion-er, person having a warrant to perform some office for the government. Con-trivedi managed.

Damp-er, bread made of flour and water, without yeast, and baked in the ashes. Con-tri-vance, arrangement; artifice. At-tempt-ed, tried.

De-scribe' give an account of.

Skil-ful, expert; skilled ; clever. Nec-es-sa-ry, such as must be.

Com-mence-ment, beginning.

As-ton-ish-ing, surprising ; wonderful.

Cir-cu-lar, in the form of, or bounded by, a circle.

Dex-ter-i-ty, skill and ease in using the hand ;


Trias-U-ry, place in which stores of wealth are deposited.

Un-pro-duc-tive, unprofitable; yielding no valuable result.

Suc-ceed-ed, followed.

Stratum, layer or bed of clay, gravel, or rock, of one kind.

Quartz, glass-like rock, a form of silica, occurring in six-sided crystals.

Par-ti-cles, minute parts or portions ; little bits.

Mi -ca, mineral that readily splits into very thin leaves. (It is a very light substance in comparison with gold.)

A-ban-doned, given up ; left; deserted.

1.    As the day after our arrival at the Eagle Hawk23 was Sunday, we passed it in making ourselves comfortable, and in devising plans for the future. We determined to move from our present quarters, and- pitch our tents a little higher up the gully, near Montgomery’s store. This was accomplished the first thing on Monday morning.

2.    As soon as the tents were pitched, all set to work to unpack the

dray ; and, after taking out sufficient flour, sugar, tea, &c., for our own use, the remaining goods were taken to the nearest store, where they were sold at an average of five times their original cost. The most profitable portion of the load consisted of gunpowder and caps. The day after, by great good fortune, we disposed of the dray and horses for £250, being only £40 less than we had paid for them. As the cost of keeping horses at the diggings was very great, besides the constant risk of their being lost or stolen, we were well satisfied with the bargain.    -

3.    This business settled, the next was to procure licences, which meant a walk of nearly five miles to the commissioner’s tent, Bendigo, and wasted the best part of Wednesday. On Thursday, two claims were marked out ready to commence working the next day. These claims were the usual size, eight feet square.

4.    About noon on Friday, I contrived to have a damper and a large joint of baked mutton ready for the “ day labourers,” as the men of our party styled themselves. The mutton was baked in a large camp-oven hung from three iron bars, which were fixed in the ground in the form of a triangle, about a yard apart, and were joined together at the top, at which part the oven was hung over a wood fire. This grand cooking contrivance was, of course, outside the tent.

5.    Our butcher would not let us have less than half a sheep at a time, for which we paid 8s. I was not good housekeeper enough to know how much it weighed, but the meat was very good. Flour was then a shilling a pound, or two hundred pounds weight for nine pounds in money. Sugar was Is. 6d., and tea 3s. 6d. a pound. Fortunately, we were well provided with these latter articles.

6.    The hungry diggers did ample justice to the dinner I had provided for them. They brought home a tin-dish full of surface soil, which, in the course of the afternoon, I attempted to wash.

7.    Tin-dish-washing is difficult to describe. It requires a watchful eye and a skilful hand. The tin-dish, which, of course, is circular, measures generally about eighteen inches across the top, and has sloping sides three or four inches deep. The one I used was rather smaller. In it, I placed about half the “ dirt ”—diggers' term for earth or soil—

From an old woodcut.]


that they had brought, filled the dish up with water, and then, with a thick stick, commenced making it into batter : this was a most necessary commencement, as the soil was a very stiff clay. I then let this batter—I know no name more suitable for it—settle, and carefully poured off the water at the top. I now added some clean water, and repeated the process of mixing the dirt up. After doing this several times, the dirt, of course, gradually becoming less, I was overjoyed to see a few bright specks, which I carefully picked out, and, with renewed energy, continued this by no means elegant work. Before the party returned to tea, I had wrashed all the stuff, and procured from it nearly two pennyweights of gold-dust, worth 6s. or 7s.

8. Tin-dish-washing is generally done beside a stream, and it is astonishing how large a quantity of dirt those who have the knack of doing it well and quickly can get through in the course of a day. To do this, however, requires strength to give the dish a circular motion, and some dexterity to get- rid of the stuff little by little, without allowing it to carry the gold with it. Much gold is lost by careless washing. A man once obtained ten pounds weight of the precious metal from a heap of dirt that his mate had washed hurriedly.

From an old woodcut.]


9.    Before noon on Saturday, the two holes were “ bottomed ” with no paying result. The men were rather low-spirited about it, as the work had been hard. The rest of the day they spent in washing some surface soil, and about an ounce and a half of gold-dust, counting the little I had washed out on the Friday, was collected. In the evening, it was dried by being placed in a sbovel over a quick fire. We had before determined to square accounts, and divide the gold every Saturday night; but, as this small quantity was not worth the trouble, it was laid by in the digger’s usual treasury, a German match-box. These round, wooden boxes hold, on an average, eight ounces of gold.

10.    These two unproductive holes—“duffers ” as they were called —had not been very deep. The top, or surface soil, for which a spade or shovel is used, was of clay. This was succeeded by a stratum almost as hard as iron, known as “ burnt stuff,” which robbed the, pick of its points nearly as quickly as the blacksmith steeled them at a charge of 2s. 6d. a point. Luckily for the arms of the diggers, this stratum was thin ; and to sink through the yellow or blue clay which followed was easy work, here and there only, an awkward lump of quartz requiring the use of the pick. Suddenly, they came to some glittering particles of a yellow colour, which, with heartfelt delight, they hailed as gold. It was mica ! They dug through the clay to the solid rock, and, having thus “ bottomed ” the holes to no purpose, they abandoned them.

( To be continued.)

—Adapted from A Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings of Australia, in 1852-53, written on the spot by Mrs. Charles Clacy.

1. At the Eagle Hawk. The word “Diggings” is understood. Mrs. Clacy says—“ Eagle Hawk derives its name from the number of eagle-hawks seen in the gully before the sounds of the pick and shovel drove them away.” Now, trams run between Bendigo and Eaglehawk (which has become one word). The party had travelled from Melbourne, having landed a short time before from England, with the intention of seeking for gold.



E-quip^ment, articles comprising an outfit ;

necessaries for an expedition or voyage. Rec-og-nised or rec-og-nized., conceded ;

admitted ; allowed.    .

Im-pos-si-hle, incapable of being done. In-tel-li-gent, apt at understanding or learning. Re-quired; needed.

Ac-cus-tomed, used.

E-las-tiC, springy.

Du-ra-ble, lasting.

Ob-sta-cles, obstructions; things in the way, Hitched, made fast.

Tre-men-dous, fitted to excite fear by its force or size.

1.    A vessel from Loudon, named the Discovery, will shortly arrive in Melbourne, hound on a voyage of discovery to the dreary regions that lie within the Antarctic Circle.1 She has been built specially for the wrork, and her equipment is as perfect as it is possible to make it.

2.    By another vessel, twenty-three Eskimo2 dogs were lately brought to Melbourne, where they remained for a week or two before being taken to Lyttleton, New Zealand. They are for use on the ice-bound land that the explorers hope to reach within a few weeks after they leave Lyttleton, with the prow of the Discovery heading southwards.

3.    In the far north of North America and Asia, the utility of the Eskimo dog is fully recognised. Without him, to travel long distances would be impossible, and he may be said to bear to the Frozen North the same relation that the camel does to the desert.

4.    Puppies, when three months old, have to commence to learn their work. They are harnessed with older dogs, by means of a broad leather collar and traces, to a sledge, and broken in. The driver is armed with a big whip,3 and no mercy is shown them ; but, as they are intelligent animals, they soon learn what is required of them, and, with the older dogs, get into their places to be harnessed, and obey their driver's orders to start or stop, to increase or slacken speed.

5.    In Siberia, from which country the dogs for the Discovery have -been brought, the sledges they have been accustomed to draw are made of stout canes, which are found floating in the Behring Sea and Arctic Ocean. The canes are bound together with the sinews of wolves. The result is that the sledges are strong, elastic, and, when sheathed with copper, very durable. Their size is generally 20 ft. long and 3 ft. wide,

slightly tapering towards the front, which is turned up so as to glide over obstacles.

6. A traveller thus describes ho w an Eskimo set out for a drive:—-



I    ¡I!

“ The seven dogs were cold, and eager to be off. They were hitched to the sledge in a few moments. The Eskimo threw out the long coils

of Lis whip, which he held in his right hand, and, pushing the sledge forward a few paces, he uttered the startling cry, ‘ Ka ! ka !—ka ! ka!' This sent the dogs bounding to their places, and away they dashed.

7. The driver, guiding the sledge among the blocks of ice, kept the

dogs in with the cry, ‘Ay !. ay ! ’ which they well understood. Having reached smooth ice, he dropped upon the sledge, and took his seat. Then,letting his whip trail behind him in


brought round with a tremendous crack that would make the whole team yell with fear, he once more shouted ‘ Ka ! ka !—ka ! ka !5 to the dogs, and they increased their pace to a gallop.”

1.    Ant-arc-tic Cir-cle, circle 23j° distant from the South Pole.

2.    Es-ki-mo (also Es-qui-mau, plural, Es-qui-maux), one of a race inhabiting Arctic America and Greenland.

3.    Whip. The handle is about sixteen inches long, and the lash twenty feet. The latter is made of the toughest seal-skin, and is as thick as a man’s wrist near the handle, whence it tapers off to a fine point. Many among the Eskimos can use these whips with great dexterity, just as some Australians can a stockwhip.


Ac-cents, sounds of the voice ; words. In-no-cent, harmless. In-ter-min^gled, mixed; streaked. Cher-ish, foster; tend.

Dearth, want; absence of joy.

Af-fec-tion, love.

Fath-om, measure of length, containing six feet. Re-nowni glory; fame.

1.    Be kind to thy father : for when thou wast young,

Who loved thee as fondly as he ?

He caught the first accents that fell from thy tongue, And joined in thine innocent glee.

Be kind to thy father : for now he is old,

His locks intermingled with gray ;

His footsteps are feeble, once fearless and bold—

Thy father is passing away.

2.    Be kind to thy mother : for, lo ! on her brow

May traces of sorrow be seen;—

Oh, well may’st thou cherish and comfort her now, For loving and kind hath she been !

Remember thy mother : for thee will she pray As long as God giveth her breath ;

With accents of kindness, then, cheer her lone way, E’en to the dark valley of death.

3.    Be kind to thy brother : his heart will have dearth

If the smile of thy love be withdrawn ;

The flowers of feeling will fade at their birth If the dew of affection be gone.

Be kind to thy brother : wherever you are,

The love of a brother shall be An ornament, purer and richer by far Than pearls from the depths of the sea.

4.    Be kind to thy sister : not many may know

The depth of true sisterly love ;

The wealth of the ocean lies fathoms below The surface that sparkles above.

Thy kindness shall bring to thee many sweet hours, And blessings thy pathway to crown;

Affection shall weave thee a garland of flowers, More precious than wealth or renown.


Clerk {Mark), one employed to keep records or accounts.

GliS-ten-ing, shining ; sparkling.

Fa-mil-iar, well known.

Con-SUl, person stationed in a foreign country to care for the interests of the people of the country that stationed him there.

Pen-ni-less, without money.

1.    Nathaniel Hawthorne was a kind-hearted man as well as a great writer. While he was consul at Liverpool, a large city in the west of England, a young American boy walked into his office. The boy had left home to seek a fortune, but had not found it, although he had crossed the sea in his search. Homesick, friendless, nearly penniless, he wanted his passage home. The clerk hinted that Mr. Hawthorne could not be seen, and said that the boy was not an American, hut was trying to steal a passage.

2.    The boy stuck to his point, and the clerk went into the little room, and said to Mr. Hawthorne : “ Here is a boy who insists upon seeing you. He says he is an American, but I know that he is not.”

3.    Hawthorne came out of his room, and looked keenly at the eager face of the boy. “ You want a jiassage to America ? ”

“ Yes, sir.”

“ And you say you are an American ? ”

“ Yes, sir.”

“ From what part of America ? ”

“ United States, sir.”

“ What State ? ”

New Hampshire, sir.”

“ Town ? ”

“ Exeter, sir.”

4.    Hawthorne looked at him for a minute before asking him the next question : “ Who was it that sold the best apples in your town ? ”

5.    “ Skim-milk Folsom, sir,” said the boy at once, and with glistening eyes, as the familiar nickname brought up the dear scenes of home.

“ It’s all right,” said Hawthorne to his clerk ; “ give him a passage. ’    -—From Schoolmates, N.Z.

THE SCHOOL PAPER—CLASS IY. [Oct., 1901. __ ^


Cel-e-bra-ted, famous; renowned.    j Dis-tressed' troubled; grieved.

Ca-det; young man in training for military or    Con-tainedi held,

naval service.

1.    A story is told of a celebrated German general who was noted for his great kindness of heart. He was strolling in one of the public gardens in Berlin, and met a young cadet who was walking along slowly, looking very distressed, and evidently searching for something. “ What are you looking for ? ” inquired the general kindly.

2.    “I’ve lost the locket off my watch-chain, sir,” answered the lad ; “ and I valued it greatly, for it contains some of my father’s hair.”

“Never mind,” said the general, “I will help you to find it;” and he began to hunt about for the lost treasure.

3.    A few moments’ diligent search, and the general caught sight of the missing locket, and, picking it up, handed it to the boy, who was so overcome at recovering his prize that he could scarcely find words to express his thanks; but, when the general asked him what the time was, he blushed deeply, stammered, and had to admit that he did not possess a watch.

4.    “ Come along with me then,” said the kind-hearted soldier, and straightway took the boy to one of the best watchmakers in Berlin, and, purchasing a watch, presented it to the much astonished cadet. “ Accept this,” he said, “ for he who honours his parents deserves to be encouraged.”



FIG. 2.

1.    By means of this knot, one can secure almost anything, while at the same time, it may be readily cast loose, no matter how tightly the rope has been drawn. It will be found very serviceable in temporarily fastening a horse to a post with the end of a rope.

2.    Fig. 1 gives the form of the loops previous to placing them on the post. When the rope is drawn tight, they appear as shown in Fig. 2.

3.    This useful knot depends for its firmness upon

the friction of the several parts. The greater the strain, the tighter the knot becomes.

When tied, it cannot come loose, as the friction is sufficient to hold the rope firm on a smooth post.

4. This knot is also used by workmen to secure building material, and it is in constant use on board ship.    —S. S.

By Authority: Root. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.




Yol. V., No. 50.] MELBOURNE. [November, 1901.


Re-joi-ces, feels joy.    Plash-y, watery; abounding with puddles

[This is a description of a bright morning in the Lake Country, Cumberland and Westmoreland, north-west of England.]

1.    There was a roaring in the wind all night;

The rain came heavily and fell in floods.

But now the sun is rising calm and bright;

The birds are singing in the distant woods;

Over his own sweet voice the stock-dove broods ;

The jay makes answer as the magpie chatters;

And all the air is filled with pleasant noise of waters.

2.    All things that love the sun are out of doors;

The sky rejoices in the morning’s birth ;

The grass is bright with rain-drops ; on the moors,

The hare is running races in her mirth,

And with her feet she from the plashy earth Raises a mist that, glittering in the sun,

Runs with her all the way, wherever she doth run.

—William Wordsworth (1770-1850).


At-tempt-ed, tried.

Chap-lain, clergyman who performs certain duties.

A-gree-a-bly, pleasingly; in a manner to give pleasure.

Stra-tum, layer or bed of clay, gravel, or rock, of one kind.

Lard^er, room or place where articles of food are kept before they are cooked.

By-the-bye[ in passing ; by way of digression.

Prof-it-a-ble yielding profit or gain.

Va ca-ted, abandoned; left empty.

Di-min-ish, lessen.

Pro-ceed-ings, acts performed.

Reg-U-lar-i-ty, here, uniform motion. 24

Per-fo-ra-ted, pierced with a hole or holes. Sep-a-rate, part.

A-qua-ri-US, the Water-bearer, name of a group of stars.

Fos-sick-ing-knife[ strong knife for picking out pieces of gold when prospecting.

Es-COrt, guard of armed men. (An escort office on the early gold-fields of Victoria was a place where the diggers left their gold for safe keeping till it could be taken under guard to Melbourne.)

Im-ag-in-ing, thinking; supposing.

Ri-Ot-OUS, causing a disturbance; unrestrained.

Pan-iC, sudden fright.

Pos-sess-or, owner.

2.    At an early hour on Monday, our party commenced “ sinking ” in a new spot, at some distance from the tent. After a thin layer of black surface soil had been removed, they came to a stratum of yellow clay, in which gold was often very abundant. Some of it was at once washed in a tin-dish, and showed good gold. As it was very stiff, it would require puddling, and was therefore carried in buckets to the tent. This work went on all day.

3.    In the evening, some of our shipmates arrived, and began to put up their tent about forty yards from us. Frank and his mates lent a helping hand, and their united efforts speedily accomplished the business ; after which, an immense quantity of cold mutton, damper, and tea made a rapid disappearance, almost emptying my larder, which, by-the-bye, was an old tea-chest.

4.    The holes commenced on Monday were duly “ bottomed ” on Tuesday, but no nice “pocket” of gold was the result. Our shipmates, however, met with better luck, having found three small nuggets weighing two to four ounces each, at the depth of not quite five feet from the surface.

5.    Wednesday was spent in puddling and cradling.

Puddling is similar in method to tin-dish-washing, only on a much larger scale. Wooden tubs are filled with the wash-dirt and fresh water, and the former is chopped about in all directions with a spade, so as to set the precious metal free from the soil and pipe-clay. Every now and again, the dirty water is poured off gently; and, with a fresh

supply, which is furnished by a mate with a long-handled dipper from a stream or pond, you puddle away. The great thing is, not to be afraid of over-work, for the better the puddling, the easier and more profitable the cradling.

6. After having been well beaten in the

From an old woodcut.]    tubs, the Wash-

CHILDREN CRADLING.    dirt ig put i,ltO

the hopper of the cradle, which is then rocked gently, whilst another person keeps up a constant supply of fresh water. In the right hand of the cradler is held a thick stick for breaking up any clods that may be in the hopper.

7.    There was plenty of water near us, for heavy rain during the night had filled several vacated holes, and, as there were five pairs of hands, we hoped, before evening, greatly to diminish our heaps of wash-dirt.

8.    Now for an account of our proceedings.

Two large wooden tubs were firmly secured in the ground, and four of the party set to work puddling, while Frank busied himself in fixing the cradle. He drove two blocks into the ground: they were grooved for the rockers of the cradle to rest in, so as to let it rock with ease and regularity. The ground at one part was lowered so as to give the cradle a slight slant, and thus enable the water to run off more quickly. If a cradle dips too much, however, a little gold may wash off with the light sand.

9.    The cradling machine, though simple in itself, is rather difficult to describe. In shape and size, it resembles an infant’s cradle, and, over that portion of it where, if for a baby, a hood would be, is a perforated plate with wooden sides, a few inches high all round, forming a sort of box with a perforated plate for a bottom : this box is called the hopper.

10.    The wash-dirt is here placed, and the constant supply of water, after well washing the stuff, runs out through a hole at the foot of the cradle. The gold generally remains on a wooden shelf under the hopper, though, sometimes, a good deal will run down with the water and dirt into one of the compartments at the bottom, and, to separate it from the sand or mud, tin-dish-washing is employed.

11.    As soon as the cradle and sufficient earth were ready, one of our party began to rock, and another to fill the hopper with water. Richard continued puddling. William enacted Aquarius for him, whilst a fifth was fully occupied in conveying fresh dirt to the tubs, and taking the puddled stuff from them to the hopper of the cradle. Every now and then, a change of hands was made, and thus passed the day. In the evening, the products were found to be one nugget weighing a quarter of an ounce, and eight pennyweights ten grains of fine gold, the whole worth, at the digging price, about thirty-five shillings.

12.    Thursday was passed in puddling and cradling with rather better results than on the first day; still, it was not to our satisfaction, and, on Friday, two holes were sunk. One was shallow, and the bottom was reached without a speck of gold making its appearance. The other was left over till the next morning. This was altogether very disheartening work, especially as the expenses of living were not small. There were many, however, much worse off than ourselves, though, here and there, a lucky digger excited the envy of all around him.

13.    Saturday found our party hard at work at an early hour; and words cannot describe their delight when they hit upon a “ pocket ” full of the precious metal. The “ pocket ” was situated in a dark corner of the hole, and William was the one whose fossicking-knife first brought its hidden beauties to light. Nugget after nugget did that dirty soil give up: by evening, they had taken out five pounds weight of gold.

14. This night, for the first time, we were really in dread of an attack, though we had kept our success quite secret, not even mentioning it to our shipmates ; nor did we intend to do so till Monday morning, when our first business would be to mark out three more claims round the lucky spot, and send our gold down to the escort office for safety. For the present, we were obliged to content ourselves with “ planting ” it, that is, burying it in the ground. Not a footstep passed

From an old woodcut.]


in our neighbourhood without our imagining ourselves robbed of the precious treasure; and, as it was Saturday night—the noisiest and most riotous at the diggings,—our panics were neither few nor far between. So true it is that riches entail trouble and anxiety to their possessor.

—Adapted from A Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings of Australia in 1852-3, written on the spot by Mrs. Charles Clacy.


1. 0, such a commotion under the ground

When March1 called “ Ho, there ! Ho ! ” Such spreading of rootlets far and wide, Such whispering to and fro.

Com-mo-tion, excitement; disturbance.

Root-lets, little roots ; radicles.

Scil-la, here, probably, the blue-bell or wild hyacinth.

Cro-CUS, plant of which there are several kinds bearing flowers of different colours. One kind blooms very early in spring.

Nar-cis-sus, plant bearing handsome flowers having a cup-shaped crown. Daffodils and jonquils are narcissi.

Ere (air), before.

Hy-a-cinth, plant bearing beautiful spikes of fragrant flowers.

Wrought, worked.

And “Are yon ready?” the Snowdrop asked, “’Tis time to start you know.”

“Almost, my dear,” the Scilla replied;

“I’ll follow as soon as you go.”

Then “Ha ! ha ! ha !” a chorus came,

Of laughter soft and low,

From the millions of flowers under the ground— Yes—millions beginning to grow.

2. “I’ll promise my blossoms,” the Crocus said, “When I hear the bluebirds sing.”

And straight thereafter Narcissus cried,

“My silver and gold I’ll bring.”

“And ere they are dulled,” another spoke,

“The Hyacinth bells shall ring.”


And the Violet only murmured, “I’m here,”

And sweet grew the air of spring.

Then “Ha! ha! ha!” a chorus came,

Of laughter soft and low,

From the millions of flowers under the ground—

Yes—millions beginning to grow.

3. Oh, the pretty, brave things ! through the coldest day,

Imprisoned in walls of brown,

They never lost heart, though the blast shrieked loud,

And the sleet and the hail came down;    .

But patiently each wrought her beautiful dress,

Or fashioned her beautiful crown;

And now they are coming to brighten the world,

Still shadowed by winter’s frown;

And well may they cheerily laugh “Ha! ha!”

In a chorus soft and low,

The millions of flowers under the ground—

Yes—millions beginning to grow.


1. March, early spring in the northern parts of the United States of America, where, probably, the scene of the poem is laid.    ,


Mel-an-chol-y, sad; doleful.

Hap-pened, took place; occurred.

Min-ute (rnin'it), sixtieth part of an hour; sixty seconds.

Hov-ered (huv-ered), remained floating about over a place.

Crev-iee, narrow opening ; cleft.

Tor-pid, inactive; sluggish.

1. Once came to our fields a pair of birds that had never built a nest, nor seen a winter. Oh, how beautiful was everything! The fields were full of flowers, and the grass was growing tall, and the bees were humming everywhere. Then one of the birds fell to singing, and the other bird said : “ Who told you to sing?” And he answered: ‘‘The flowers told me, aud the bees told me, and the winds and leaves told me, and the blue sky told me, and you told me to sing.” Then his mate answered: “When did I tell you to sing?” And he said: “Every time you brought in tender grass for the nest, and every time your soft wings fluttered off again for hair and feathers to line the


nest.” Then his mate said : “What are you singing about?” And he answered:    “ I am singing about

everything and nothing. It is because I am so happy that I sing.”

2.    By-and-by, five little speckled eggs were in the nest, and his mate said: “Is there anything in all the world as pretty as my eggs ?” Then they both looked down on some people that were passing by, and pitied them, because they were not birds, and had no nests with eggs in them. Then the father-bird sang a melancholy song, because he pitied folks that had no nests, but had to live in houses.

3.    In a week or two, one day, when the father-bird came home, the mother-bird said : “ Oh, what do

you think has happened?” “What?” “One of my eggs has been moving.” Soon, another egg moved under her feathers, and then another, and another, till five little birds were born.

4.    Now the father-bird sang longer and louder than ever. The mother-bird, too, wanted to sing ; but she had no time, and so she turned her song into work. So hungry were these little birds that it kept both parents busy feeding them. Away each one flew. The moment the little birds heard their wings fluttering again among the leaves, five yellow mouths flew open so wide that nothing could be seen but five yellow mouths !

5.    “Can anybody be happier?” said the father-bird to the mother-bird. “We will live in this tree always, for there is no sorrow here. It is a tree that always bears joy.”

6.    The very next day, one of the birds dropped out of the nest, and a cat ate it up in a minute, and only four remained; and the parent-birds were very sad, and there was no song all that day, nor the next. Soon, the little birds were big enough to fly; and great was their parents’ joy to see them leave the nest, and sit crumpled up upon the branches. There was then a great time! One would have thought the two old birds were two dancing masters, talking and chattering, and scolding the little birds, to make them go alone. The first bird that tried flew from one branch to another; and the parents praised him, and the other little birds wondered how he did it. And he was so vain of it that he tried again, and flew, and flew, and couldn’t stop flying till he fell plump down by the house door; and then a little boy caught him, and carried him into the house,—and only three birds were left. Then the old birds thought that the sun was not bright as it used to be, and they did not sing so often.

7.    In a little time, the other birds had learned to use their wings, and they flew away and away, and found their own food, and made their own beds, and their parents never saw them any more.

8.    Then the old birds sat silent, and looked at each other a long while. At last, the wife-bird said : “Why don’t you sing?” And he answered, “I can’t sing, I can only think and think.” “What are you thinking of?” “I am thinking how everything changes—the leaves are falling down from off this tree, and soon there will be no roof over our heads; the flowers are all gone or going; last night, there was a frost; almost all the birds are flown away, and I am very uneasy; something calls me, and I feel restless, as if I would fly far away. Let us fly away together! ”

9.    Then they rose silently, and lifting themselves far up in the air, hovered about for a short time, and then darted off in a straight line. All day they flew, and all night they flew and flew, till they found a land where there was no winter—where there was summer all the time; where flowers always blossom, and birds always sing.

10.    But the birds that stayed behind found the days shorter, the nights longer, and the weather colder. Many of them died of cold; others crept into crevices and holes, and lay torpid. Then it was plain that it was better to go than to stay.

—Hexry Ward Beecher {Adapted).


Fer-ti-lized, supplied with nourishment for plants; enriched.

Com-merce, trade or traffic on a large scale. Con-trib-U-ted, furnished or supplied with. 25

Mid-dle-man, any dealer between the producer and the consumer.

Por-tu-guese, people of Portugal.

Cen-tu-ry, period of a hundred years.

rough-barked trees at least six feet from the roots. Then they clear away the underbrush, leaving, however, trees enough for shade. The vines are trained twice a year, and the roots fertilized with dead leaves.

2. Pepper is harvested twice a year, just as the fruits are beginning to turn red, and before they are ripe. They are dried in the sun for a

From The Children's Paper.]


few days, and then sent to market in bags holding either sixty-four pounds or else double that amount. This is the black pepper of commerce.

3. White pepper is prepared either from black pepper, by removing the fruit coat, or, more commonly, from the ripe fruits. After keeping the latter in the house three days, they are bruised, and washed in a basket by hand until the pulp and stalks are removed. The berries are then dried for market.

4.    Pepper was one of the earliest spices known to m;m. Luring the Middle Ages,25 it was one of the chief articles of export from India, and therefore contributed much to the wealtli of Venice2 and Genoa,3 the “middlemen” between Europe and the East, in that and other products.

5.    The price of pepper was so high, and it was so much in demand in those days, that to find a new and cheaper route to bring it to Europe was one of the reasons that led the Portuguese to seek a way to India by sea.

6. The finding of the passage around the Cape of Good Hope,therefore, naturally caused a fall in its price. At the same time, it began to be cultivated in the Malay Archipelago.5- But, for three centuries later, all pepper grown belonged to the Portuguese crown.

—Adapted from Domestic Science in Grammar Grades, by L. L. W. Wilson (The Macmillan Company, New York).

1.    Mid-dle A-ges, the period of time intervening between the decline of the Roman Empire and the revival of letters. Hallam, the historian, regarded it as beginning with the sixth and ending with the fifteenth century.

2.    Ven-ice, city, north-east of Italy. It is built on about 120 islands in a shallow lake, which is separated from the Adriatic Sea by a chain of low, narrow islands. For years it was the capital of republic, the leading maritime and commercial power in the world.

3.    Gen-O-a (jin-o-a), seaport city, north-west of Italy. From the 11th down to the 18th century, Genoa was, with some interruption, the capital of a commercial republic, which planted numerous colonies in the Levant (eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea) and on the shores of the Black Sea.

4.    Cape Of Good Hope, south-west of Africa. It was so named by the King of Portugal beoause its doubling in 1487 by Bartholomew Diaz, who called itCaboTormentoso or Stormy Cape, afforded good hope of the discovery of the long-sought-for sea-way to India.

5.    Ma-lay' Ar-cht-pel a-go lies between Asia and Australia, comprising the Sunda Islands, Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas, Philippines, &c.


Re-ceivedi took ; suffered ; w as subjected to.

Keel, timber extending' from stem to stern along the bottom of a vessel.

Ab-bot, superior or head of an abbey.

Buoy, float; floating object to mark a channel, or to point out the position of something beneath the water.

Mar£i-ners, seamen; sailors.

Quoth, said.    .

Plague, annoy.

Float, here, raft to which the bell was attached. Scoured, swept over in quest of plunder.

Break-ers, waves breaking upon the coast or rocks.

Me-thinksi it seems to me.

1. No stir in the air, no stir in the sea,

The ship was still as she could be;

Her sails from heaven received no motion, Her keel was steady in the ocean.

2.    Without either sign or sound of their shock, The waves flowed over the Inchcape Rock ;So little they rose, so little they fell,

They did not move the Inchcape Bell.

3.    The worthy Abbot of Aberbrothock 26

Had placed that bell on the Inchcape Rock; On a buoy in the storm it floated and swung, And over the waves its warning rung.

4.    When the rock was hid by the surge’s swell, The mariners heard the warning bell;

And then they knew the perilous rock,

And blessed the Abbot of Aberbrothock.

5. The buoy of the Inchcape Bell was seen, A darker speck on the ocean green ;

Sir Ralph the Rover 3 walked his deck, And he fixed his eye on the darker speck.

From an old woodcut.]


6.    His eye was on the Inchcape float ;

Quoth he, “My men, put out the boat,

And row me to the Inchcape Rock,

And I’ll plague the Abbot of Aberbrothock.”

7.    The boat is lowered, the boatmen row,

And to the Inchcape Rock they go:

Sir Ralph bent over from the boat,

And he cut the bell from the Inchcape float.

8.    Down sank the bell with a gurgling sound,

The bubbles arose and burst around ;

Quoth Sir Robert, “ The next who comes to this rock Will not bless the Abbot of Aberbrothock.”

9.    Sir Ralph the Rover sailed away,

He scoured the seas for many a day ;

And now, grown rich with plundered store,

He steers his course to Scotland’s shore.

10.    So thick a haze o’erspreads the sky,

They cannot see the sun on high ;

The wind hath blown a gale all day,

At evening it hath died away.

11.    “ Canst hear,” said one, the breakers roar ?

For methinks we should be near the shore;

Now where we are I cannot tell,

But I wish I could hear the Inchcape Bell !”

12.    They hear no sound, the swell is strong;

Though the wind hath fallen, they drift along Till the vessel strikes with a shivering shock—

0 heavens ! it is the Inchcape Rock !

13.    Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair ;

He cursed himself in his despair ;

The waves rush in on every side,

The ship is sinking beneath the tide !

Robert Southey (1774-1843).

1.    Inch-cape Rock, dangerous rock some miles from the coast of Forfarshire, Scotland. The Bell Rock lighthouse now stands upon it. (The building of this lighthouse is well told by Ballantyne in a book for boys, entitled The Lighthouse.)

2.    Ab-er-broth-ock' (mouth of the Brothock), formerly the name for Arbroath, a seaport and manufacturing town, in Forfarshire, east of Scotland. The Bell Rock is 12 miles from the town.

3.    Sir Ralph the Ro-ver, a pirate or robber on the seas.


Plum-age, entire clothing of feathers of a bird.

Es-pe-cial-ly, chiefly; in an uncommon degree.

Cat-er-pil-lar, larval state of a butterfly and certain other insects.

Cen-ti-pede or cen-ti-ped, many-jointed, creeping, venomous creature having a great number of feet.

A-bun-dant, plentiful. 27 26

Lig-num, in Australia, a species of Acacia.

In-stinct, natural unreasoning impulse by which an animal is guided to the performance of any action.

Neigh-bour-ing, near ; adjacent.

Gra-zier, one who pastures cattle, and rears them for market.

3.    Ibises are found in almost every part of Australia ; but the glossy ibis is not so common as the others, especially in Victoria.

They live in flocks that vary in size from a few to many scores, and even thousands at nesting time.

Grasshoppers, caterpillars, centipedes, and any insects that they can catch on the ground form their food.

They nest generally in October, choosing a locality where there has been an abundant rainfall, as that will insure plenty of food for themselves, and for their young when they are hatched.


4.    Last year, the Riverina District—that part of New South Wales lying between the Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers—was blest with a good fall of rain; and, on the thick lignum bushes in one of the swamps which we were fortunate in being able to explore,. a great many straw-necked ibises formed a nesting colony.

They came from all directions to this spot, many of them being guided by instinct over hundreds of miles of country to the place where, probably, they had been hatched and reared.

5.    When a company arrived, its members at once chose a bush on

which to build, and set to work, each pair making its own nest close to a neighbouring one. The first work, however, was to beat d^wn the bush till it formed a platform about six inches above the surface of the water. Three eggs were, as a rule, laid in each nest. They were white, and about as large as a hen’s egg.    •

6.    Some of the companies of birds arrived sooner than others, and they built on the bushes near the middle of the swamp ; but, by the time the last-comers had made ready their home, the swamp, which covered about 600 acres, was nearly full of nesting birds.. The number could not have been less than 200,000.

7.    Now, the stomach of a full-grown ibis at this swamp was found to contain 2,410 young grasshoppers, several caterpillars, fresh-water snails, &c. It is not difficult to calculate that the stomachs of the birds on that one swamp in Riverina, if we take an average of only 2,000 grasshoppers, &c., for each, will contain 400,000,000 of these creatures. Then, too, when the young birds hatch out, they will require daily a vast amount of food of a similar kind.

8. How valuable, therefore, must the ibis he to the farmer and grazier, who is in constant dread of insect pests, which sometimes


devour everything that is green before them ! We should do our best to protect this bird and other insect-eaters, preventing, when we can, thoughtless persons from shooting them.

E. Lpj Souef.


Lum-ber-ing, moving heavily, or in a clumsy manner.

Busi-ness (fiiz-nes), duty; matter; occupation. Ache, pain. 28

Dif-fi-cul-ty, obstruction ; obstacle. Neigh-bour-ing, lying near ; adjacent. Re-sumed', went on with alter an interruption.

for, of course, one can’t expect them to use their wings properly all at once. Dear me ! it is a sad pity you cannot fly yourself. But I have no time to look for another nurse now, so you will do your best, I hope.

3. “ Dear ! dear ! I cannot think what made me come and lay my eggs on a cabbage-leaf! What a place for young butterflies to be

born upon ! Still, you will be kind, will you not, to the poor little ones ? Here, take this gold-dust from my wings as a reward. Oh, how dizzy I am ! Caterpillar, you will remember about the food-”

4. And, with these words, the butterfly drooped her wings and died ; and the green caterpillar, who had cabbage butterfly.    not had the chance of even

saying “ Yes ” or “ No ” to the request, was left standing alone by the side of the butterfly’s eggs.

5.    “A pretty nurse she has chosen, indeed, poor lady !” exclaimed the caterpillar, “ and a pretty business I have in hand ! Why, her senses must have left her, or she never would have asked a poor, crawling creature like me to bring up her dainty little ones ! Much they’ll mind me, truly, when they feel the gay wings on their backs, and can fly away out of my sight whenever they choose ! Ah ! how silly some people are, in spite of their painted clothes and the golddust on their wings ! ”

6.    However, the poor butterfly wras dead, and there lay the eggs on the cabbage-leaf; the green caterpillar had a kind heart, so she resolved to do her best. But she got no sleep that night, she was so very anxious. She made her back quite ache with walking all night round her young charges, for fear any harm should happen to them ; and, in the morning, she said to herself—“ Two heads are better than one. I will consult some wise THE caterpillar. animal upon the matter, and get advice. How should a poor, crawling-creature like me know how to act without asking my betters ? ”

7.    But still there was a difficulty—Whom should the caterpillar consult ? There was the shaggy dog who sometimes came into the garden. But he was so rough !—he would most likely whisk all the eggs off the cabbage-leaf with one brush of his tail if she called him near to talk to her, and then she would never forgive herself.

8.    There was the tom cat, to be sure, who would sometimes sit at the foot of the apple-tree, basking himself, and warming his fur in the sunshine ; but he was so selfish and careless !—there was no hope of his giving himself the trouble to think about butterflies’ eggs.

9.    “ I wonder which is the wisest of all the animals I know,” sighed the caterpillar, in great distress ; and then she thought, and thought, till, at last, she thought of the lark ; and she fancied that because he went up so high, and nobody knew where he went to, he must be very clever, and know a great deal ; for to go up very high (which she could never do) was the caterpillar’s idea of perfect bliss.

10.    Now, in the neighbouring cornfield there lived a lark, and the caterpillar sent a message to him, to beg him to come and talk to her ; and, when he came, she told him all her difficulties, and asked him what she was to do to feed and rear the little creatures so different from herself. “ Perhaps you will be able to inquire and hear something about it next time you go up high,” observed the caterpillar, timidly.

11.    The lark said perhaps he would ; but he did not further satisfy


her wishes. Soon afterwards, however, he went singing upwards into-the bright, blue sky. By degrees, his voice-died away in the dis tance, till the green caterpillar could not hear a sound. It is nothing to say she could not see him for, poor thing ! she never could see far at any time, and had a difficulty in

looking upwards at all, even when she reared herself up most carefully, which she did now ; but it was of no use, so she dropped upon her legs again, and resumed her walk round the butterfly’s eggs, nibbling a bit of the cabbage-leaf now and then as she moved along.

12.    “ What a time the lark has been gone ! ” she cried, at last. “ He must have flown up higher than usual this time. How I should like to know where it is that he goes to, and what he hears in that pretty blue sky ! He always sings in going up and coming down, but he never lets any secret out. He is very, very close.”

And the green caterpillar took another turn round the butterfly’s eggs.    [To be continued.)

—Adapted from Mrs. Gatty’s Parables from Nature.



1. “ Strobic circles ” were first exhibited by Professor Silvanus P. Thompson. They present a remarkable optical illusion.

A series of concentric circles as shown in Fig. 1 should be drawn in black and white upon a card, so as to present the appearance of a black and white target. On giving this card a rapid twisting motion before the eyes, each of the concentric circles will seem separately to revolve on its axis, the effect being heightened by the appearance of a hazy cross rotating in the same direction.


2. In Fig. 2, another curious visual illusion is produced. At the places where the white strips separating the black squares cross one another hazy circular patches appear.

FIG. 2.

If, however, the eyes are directed straight to any one of these spots it will be found to disappear, though the others remain visible. It would be interesting to vary the dimensions of the squares and intervening white spaces, and thus determine when the effect ceases to be seen.    —S. S.

Note.—The diagrams were kindly prepared by Miss Hall, State School No. 2837, Moreland.

Correction.Fig. 1 under this heading in last month's number is somewhat misleading; it is upside down.


mf.    Traditional Melody.

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And what is worse for mother still,

I’m the oldest of them all:

Though little I be, yet I fear not work, If you will me employ To plough and sow, and reap and mow, And be a farmer’s boy.

“And, if that you won’t me employ, One fatour I have to ask,

Will you shelter me till break of day, From this cold winter’s blast ?

At break of day, I’ll trudge away, Elsewhere to seek employ To plough and sow, and reap and mow, And be a farmer’s boy.”

The farmer’s wife said, “ Try the lad,

No farther let him seek” ;

“ Oh yes, dear father,” the daughter cried, While tears ran down her cheek.

“ For those that will work it’s hard to want, And wander for employ To plough and sow, and reap and mow, ' And be a farmer’s boy.”

In course of time he grew a man ;

The good old farmer died,

And left the boy the farm he had,

And his daughter for his bride.

The boy that was, the farm now has,

Oft smiles and thinks with joy Of the lucky day he came that way To be a farmer’s boy.

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Vol. V., No. 51.] MELBOURNE. [Decembee, 1901.


Min^i-a-ture (or, as here, and generally, min-i-ture), being on a small scale; much reduced from the reality.

Sleigh (slay), sledge ; vehicle moved on runners.

Hur^ri-cane, violent storm.

Ob-sta-cle, that which stands in the way;

hindrance; obstruction.

Droll (drole), amusing and strange ; comic.

Elf, imaginary being, or little sprite, much like a fairy.

Ere (air), before.

’Twas the night before Christmas, when, all through the house, Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse.

The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,

In hopes +hat St. Nicholas 1 soon would be there.

The children were nestled all snug in their beds,

While visions of sugar-plums danced in their heads ;

And mamma in her kerchief, and I in my cap,

Had just settled our brains for a long winter’s nap—

When, out on the lawn, there arose such a clatter,

I sprang from my bed to see what was the matter.

Away to the window, I flew like a flash,

Tore open the shutters, and threw up the sash ;

When, what to my wondering eyes should appear,

But a miniature sleigh and eight tiny reindeer,

With a little old driver, so lively and quick,

I knew in a moment it must be St. Nick.

More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,

And he whistled, and shouted, and called them by name : “Now, Dasher ! now, Dancer ! now, Prancer and Vixen !

On ! Comet, on ! Cupid, on ! Donder and Blitzen—

To the top of the porch, to the top of the wall,

Now, dash away, dash away, dash away all!”

As dry leaves that before the wild hurricane fly,

When they meet with an obstacle mount to the sky,

So, up to the house-top, the coursers they flew With a sleigh full of toys—and St. Nicholas, too.

And then, in a twinkling, I heard on the roof The prancing and pawing of each little hoof.

As I drew in my head, and was turning around,

Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound.

He was dressed all in fur from his head to his foot,

And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;

A bundle of toys he had flung on his back,

And he looked like a peddler just opening his pack.

His eyes, how they twinkled ! his dimples, how merry !

His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry ;

His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,

And the beard on his chin was as white as the snow.

He was chubby and plump—a right jolly old elf,

And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself.

A wink of his eye, and a twist of his head Soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread.

Price Id.

He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work,

And filled all the stockings : then turned with a jerk,

Sprang on to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle,

And away they all flew like the down of a thistle.

But I heard him exclaim, ere they drove out of sight,

“ Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good-night ! ”

—Clement C. Moore.

1. St. Nich-O-las, patron saint of boys. He is said to have been a bishop, and to have died in the-year 326. He is the Santa Claus of the Dutch ; and is represented as the bearer of presents to children on Christmas Eve.


Mit-ten, cover for the hand, but without a separate sheath for each finger.

Hon-est-ly (on-est-ly), justly ; fairly.

Ex-claim-ing, calling out loudly.

Dis-ap-point-ed, defeated of expectation or hope.

Be-lievef be persuaded of the truth of; regard as true.

Char-i-ty, good will; affection ; tenderness: liberality.

Guest, visitor.

Hol-ly, tree having glossy green leaves with a spiny wavy edge, and bearing berries that turn red or yellow.

1.    As three little girls trudged home from school, they were heard talking.

“ I am so glad to-morrow will be Christmas Day, because I shall get so many presents.”

“ So am I glad, although I expect nothing but a pair of mittens.”1

“ And so am I, hut I shall have no presents.”

2.    As Tilly spoke, the others looked at her with pity, and with some surprise, too, for she spoke cheerfully. They wondered how she could be happy if her parents and friends were so poor that they could give her no presents at Christmas time.

“ Don’t you wish you could find a purse full of money just here in the path?” said Kate, the girl who was going to have many presents.

“Oh, don’t I, if I could keep it honestly!” and Tilly’s eyes brightened at the thought.

“ What would you buy ? ” asked Bessie.

3.    “ I would buy a pair of large, warm blankets, a load of wood, a shawl for my mother, and a pair of shoes for myself.”

As they went along the snowy road, they looked about them, half in earnest, half in fun. Suddenly, Tilly sprang forward, exclaiming :

“ I see it! I’ve found it.”

4.    The others followed, but stopped, disappointed. It was not a purse; it was only a little bird. It lay upon the snow with its wings spread, but too weak to fly.

“Nothing but a stupid old robin!” cried Kate, sitting down to rest.    _

“ I shall not touch it. I found one once, and took care of it. As soon as it was well, it flew away, without even saying ‘ Thank you,’ ” said Bessie.

5. 44 Poor little birdie ! How miserable he looks, and how glad he must be to see some one coming to help him ! I’ll take him np gently, and carry him home to my mother. Don’t be afraid, I’m your friend,” said Tilly, as she put her hand over the bird, and gently lifted it up.

Kate and Bessie laughed. “ Don’t stop for that thing. It is getting late. Let us look for the purse.”

°    6. “You wouldn’t leave it here to die ?” cried Tilly. ‘41 would

rather have the bird than the money. The purse wouldn’t be mine. I should only be tempted to keep it. I’m so glad I came in time. How I have a Christmas present, after all,” she said, smiling, as they walked on. “I have always wanted a bird, and this one will be a pretty pet for me.”

7.    “ He’ll fly away as soon as he is well. You had better not waste your time over him,” said Bessie.

44 He can’t pay you for taking care of him, and my mother says,

4 It isn’t worth while to help folks that can’t help us,’ ” added Kate.

8.    “My mother

says, ‘ Do as you would be done by I am sure I    AT    CHRISTMAS    TiME    m    England.

should like some one to help me if I were dying of hunger and cold.

4 Love your neighbour as yourself’ is another of her sayings. This bird is my neighbour. I’ll love him and care for him, just as I often wish our rich neighbour would love and care for us.”

9.    44 What a funny girl you are ! ” said Kate, “ caring for that silly bird, and talking about loving your neighbour in that sober way. Mr. King does not care for you, and never will, though he knows you need his help. I don’t think your plan is worth much.”

10.    441 believe in it, though. I shall do my part. Good night. I wish you a 4 merry Christmas,’ and hope you’ll have many presents,” said Tilly, as they parted. The little girl’s eyes filled with tears. She felt very poor as she went on alone toward the little old house where she lived. She thought, 44 How pleasant it would be to have some of the pretty things that all children like to find in their stockings on Christmas morning! Then I should be happy if I could give my mother dark room.

something nice. So many things are needed, But there is no hope of getting them. We can barely get food and fire. Never mind, birdie,” she said at last. “We’ll make the best of what we have. You shall have a happy Christmas. I know God will not forget us, if others do.”

11. “ See, Mother, what a nice present I have found!” she cried, going into the house with a cheery face that was like sunshine in the

“ I am glad of that, my dear, for I haven’t been able to get my little girl anything but a rosy apple. Poor bird ! Give it some warm bread and milk.”

12. After feeding the bird and putting it to bed, Tilly helped her

mother to get supper. Such a poor little supper, yet such a happy one ! for love, charity, and contentment were guests there.

“We must go to bed early, for we’ve only wood enough to last over tomorrow. I shall be paid for my work the day after, and then we can get more,” said Tilly’s mother as they sat by the fire.

13. “ If my bird were only a fairy, and'would give us three wishes, how nice it would be ! Poor bird, he can’t give me anything ; but it’s no matter,” said Tilly, looking at the robin as he lay with his head tucked under his wing, a feathery bunch.

“ He can give you one thing, Tilly—the pleasure of doing good. That is one of the sweetest things in life. The poor can enjoy it as well as the rich. Now go to bed, dear; I will come soon. We shall sleep as soundly as if we had all the wealth of our rich neighbour.”

14. Soon the house was dark and still. No one saw the Christmas spirits at their work that night.

When Tilly opened* the door next morning, she gave a loud cry, clapped her hands, and then stood still, speechless with wonder and delight. There before the door lay a great pile of wood, all ready to burn, and, near it, a big bundle and a basket full of holly. “ Oh, Mother ! did the fairies do it ? ” cried Tilly, as she handed the basket to her mother, and took the bundle in her arms.

15.    “Yes, dear, the best and dearest fairy in the world, called ‘ Charity.’ She walks abroad at Christmas time, does beautiful deeds like this, but stays not to be thanked,” said her mother, as she undid the bundle. There they were—the warm, thick blankets, the warm shawl, the new shoes, and, best of all, a pretty hat for Tilly. The basket was full of good things to eat. On the holly lay a paper, with these words written on it, “For the little girl who loves her neighbour as herself.”

16.    “Mother, I really think my bird is a fairy bird, and all these good things came from him,” said Tilly, laughing and crying by turns, with joy.

It really did seem so, for, as she spoke, the robin dew to the window, hopped to the basket, and, perching upon the holly, sang one of his sweetest songs.

17.    The sun streamed in on dowers, bird, and happy child. No one ever knew that Mr. King had seen and heard the little girls the night before. No one dreamed that the rich man had learned a lesson from his poor neighbour.

18.    Tilly’s bird was a fairy bird. By her love and tenderness to the helpless thing, she brought good gifts to herself, and happiness to the giver of them.

—Louisa M. Aloott [Adapted).

1. Mit-tens.—In the northern part of the United States of America, where the scene of the story is laid, Christmas falls in winter. The longest day in Victoria is the shortest day there.


Land-scape, portion of land that the eye can take in at a single view.

Quiv-er-ing, shaking. 29

Parch-ing, making dry and thirsty.

Mead-ow, level land producing grass which is

mown for hay.

2. In heat, the landscape quivering lies ; The cattle pant beneath the tree ; Through parching air and purple skies, The earth looks up in vain for thee; For thee—for thee, it looks in vain,

0 gentle, gentle summer rain I

3. Come thou, and brim the meadow streams, And soften all the hills with mist,

0 falling dew ! from burning dreams,

By thee shall herb and flower be kissed j And earth shall bless thee yet again,

0 gentle, gentle summer rain !


Cul-ti-va-tion, tillage.

Peas-ant, countryman ; one of the lowest class

Sal-ad, vegetables, such as lettuce, celery, water cress, onions, usually dressed with salt, vinegar, oil, and spices, and eaten for giving a relish to other food.

Let-tuce (let-tis), plant, the leaves of which are used as salad.

Spe-eies, kind ; sort.

of tillers of the soil in European countries. Va-ri-e-ty, diversity ; state of being various. Ap-pear-anee, act of becoming visible to the


Cen-tu-ry, period of a hundred years.

1.    Of the many plants that we use for food, none are so useful,

and none so widely spread over the earth, as the various kinds of grasses.    «

“ Grasses ?—but we don’t eat grass !” I fancy I hear you say.

2.    Well, we don’t boil it like cabbage, or make it into salad like lettuces, certainly ; but we'do eat it when the sheep and oxen have


made it into beef and mutton for us ; and our bread is made from one species of grass, and our sugar comes from the juice of another.

3.    Wheat, barley, rice, millet, oats, rye, and maize are all grasses which have been improved by cultivation; so, too, the sugar-cane, which grows to a height of from eight to twenty feet, and the bamboo, which is taller still—fifty or sixty feet high—are as much grasses as the small plants to which we commonly give the name. Grasses have jointed and, usually, hollow stems, and their seeds are hard, and contain more or less flour.

4.    It is so long since man began to cultivate grasses that we are unable to discover when it was ; and none of those that we use for food are now to be found in their wild state.

5.    In the north of Germany, “corn bread” is made of rye ; and this is what the poorer people eat, and like better than wheat bread, for it is sweeter and very nourishing, though rather dark and heavy. In Sweden, the peasants made rye-cakes, which, as they are baked only twice a year, are generally as hard as a board.

6.    Rye can be grown in poor, sandy soils that are not fit for wheat ; and it will ripen in a colder climate than wheat will. Barley and oats, however, can be grown in still colder climates—in Europe, farther north than any other kind of grain. They are the chief food of the people in Norway, Sweden, Finland,1 and part of Siberia.

7.    Barley, which is thought to have been the first corn cultivated, can be grown in a greater variety of climates than any other ; and, in warm countries, such as Spain, the farmers are able to gather two

crops in the year, the one being sown in the winter, and the other in the summer.

8.    At the top of each stem of barley, a number of tiny green flowers make their appearance, one above another in the form of a spike. Each little flower forms a seed, and then the flowers drop off, and the seeds swell, while the green stem turns to yellow straw. Each seed of barley ends in a sort of bristle, called an awn.

9.    In Australia, barley is mainly used for making the malt used in brewing, and for feeding poultry. Oats are given to horses, though a large quantity is ground into meal for use in making porridge—a more nourishing food than white bread.

10.    When the Spaniards discovered America at the close of the fifteenth century, they found there none of the corn-grasses common in Europe and Asia ; but the Mexicans had a corn-grass of their own, the beautiful maize, with its broad, flag-like leaves.

11.    The first person wise enough to sow wheat in Mexico was a poor slave who found three or four grains mixed with some rice. These he planted; and, from them, all the wheat of Mexico is said to have sprung.


12. It might be supposed that it would take a long time for three or four grains to multiply into enough to sow even a single field. But a root often sends up several stalks. One plant of wheat has been known to be divided over and over again, until.

Chambers’s Encyclopedia.]


a, upper portion of the stem, with foliage; b, root-stem; c, section of stem.

at last, there were 500 strong plants bearing 21,109 fine ears among them, and the number of grains was supposed to be 576,840, all produced by the sowing of a single grain.

—Adapted in part from Chatterbox.

1. Finland, part of the Russian Empire, lying to the north-west. It is bounded on the north by Lapland, on the south by the Gulf of Finland, and west by Sweden and the Gulf of Bothnia.


1. At last, the lark’s voice began to be heard again. The caterpillar almost jumped for joy, and it was not long before she saw her friend come down, with hushed note, to the cabbage-bed.

Be-lieve; place confidence in ; regard or accept as true.

Sim-plic-i-ty, lack of acuteness and sagacity. Per-sist-ed, continued steadfastly.

ReaOlon-a-ble, supported by common sense; proper.

Im-pos-si-ble, incapable of existing, or of being done.

Re-ceive; take, as something that is offered.

Re-la-tion, relative ; kinsman or kinswoman.

Chrys-a-lis, pupa state of certain insects, especially of butterflies, from which the perfect insect emerges.

“News, news, glorious news, friend caterpillar!” sang the lark ; “ but the worst of it is, you won’t believe me ! ”

“ I believe everything I am told,” said the caterpillar, hastily.

2.    “ Well, then, first of all, I will tell yon what these little creatures are to eat,”—and the lark nodded his beak towards the eggs. “ What do you think it is to be ? Guess !”

“ Dew, and the honey out of flowers, I am afraid,” sighed the caterpillar.

“ No such thing, old lady ! Something simpler than that. Something that you can get at quite easily.”

3.    “ I can get at nothing quite easily but cabbage-leaves,” murmured the caterpillar, in distress.

“ Excellent! my good friend,” cried the lark, joyfully;    “ you

have found it out. You are to feed them with cabbage-leaves.”

“Never!” said the caterpillar, loudly. “It was their dying mother’s last request that I should do no such thing.”

4.    “ Their dying mother knew nothing about the matter,” said the lark ;

“but why do you ask me, and then disbelieve what I say ? You have neither faith nor trust.”

“ Oh, I believe everything I am told ! ” said the caterpillar.

5.    “ Nay, but you do not,” replied the lark ;

“ you won’t believe me even about the food, and that is but the beginning of what I have to tell you. Why, caterpillar, what do you think those little eggs will turn out to be ? ”

“ Butterflies, to be sure,” said the caterpillar.

“ Caterpillars !” sang the lark ; “ and you’ll find it out in time ;” and the lark flew away, for he did not want to stay and contest the point with his friend.

6.    “ I thought the lark would have been wise and kind,” observed the mild green caterpillar, once more beginning to walk round the eggs ; “ but I find that he is foolish and saucy instead. Perhaps he went up too high this time. Ah, it’s a pity when people who soar up so high are silly and rude nevertheless I I still wonder whom he sees, and what he does up yonder.”

7.    “I would tell you if you would believe me,” sang the lark, coming down once more.

“ I believe everything I am told,” repeated the caterpillar, with as grave a face as if it were a fact.

“ Then I’ll tell you something else,” cried the lark, “ for the best of my news remains behind. You will one day be a butterfly yourself.’”

8.    “ Wretched bird ! ” exclaimed the caterpillar, “ yon jest with my simplicity—now you are cruel as well as foolish. Go away! I will ask your adwice no more.”

“ I told you that you would not believe me,” cried the lark, nettled in his turn.

9.    “ I believe everything that I am told,” persisted the caterpillar ; “ that is, everything that is reasonable to believe. But to tell me that butterflies’ eggs are caterpillars, and that caterpillars leave off crawling, and get wings, and become butterflies ! Lark I you are too wise to believe such nonsense yourself, for you know it is impossible.”

10.    “ I know no such thing,” said the lark, warmly. “ Whether I hover over the cornfields of earth, or go up into the "heights of the sky, I see so many wonderful things, I know no reason why there should not be more. Oh, caterpillar ! it is because you crawl, because you never get beyond your cabbage-leaf, that you call a thing impossible.”

11.    “ Nonsense! ” shouted the caterpillar,

“ I know what’s possible, and what’s not possible, according to my light and power, as well as you do. Look at my long green body and these endless legs, and then talk to me about my having wings and a painted feathery coat!

Foolish creature !-”

12.    “ And foolish creature you ! you would-be-wise caterpillar ! ” cried the angry lark.

“ Foolish that I am, to attempt to tell you about what you cannot under- caterpillar and chrysalis of gooseberry stand I Do you not hear    butterfly.

how my song swells with rejoicing as I soar upwards to the great wonder-world above ? Oh, caterpillar; what comes thence to you, receive, as I do, upon trust.”'

“ That is what you call-”

“ Faith,” said the lark.    .

“ How am I to learn faith ? ” asked the caterpillar.

13.    At that moment, she felt something at her side. She looked round—eight or ten little green caterpillars were moving about, and had already made a show of a hole in the cabbage-leaf. They had broken from the butterfly’s eggs !

Shame and wonder filled our green friend’s heart, but joy soon followed ; for, as the first wonder was possible, the second might be so too.

14.    “Teach me your lesson, lark!” she said; and the lark sang to her of the wonders of the earth below and of the heavens above. And the caterpillar talked all the rest of her life to her relations of the time when she should be a butterfly. But none of them believed her. She, nevertheless, had learned the lark’s lesson of faith ; and, when she was going into her chrysalis grave, she said—I shall be a butterfly some day ! ”

15. But her relations thought her head was wandering, and they only said, “ Poor thing ! ”

And, when she was a butterfly, and was going to die again, she said—“ I have known many wonders ; I have faith—I can trust even now for what shall come next! ”

—Adapted from Mrs. Gatty’s Parables from Nature.


Pru-dence, carefulness ; discretion.

Er-rand, something to be said or done by one sent somewhere for the purpose.

4.    Beautiful hands are those that do Work that is earnest, brave, and true, Moment by moment the long day


5.    Beautiful feet are those that go On kindly errands to and fro—

Down humblest ways, if God wills it so.

6.    Beautiful lives are those that bless Silent fivers of happiness,

Whose hidden fountains but few may guess.

Hon-es-ty (on-es-ty), trustiness; truthfulness. Crys-tal, clear.

Ut-ter-ance, speech.

1.    Beautiful faces are those that wear— It matters little if dark or fair— Whole-souled honesty printed there.

2.    Beautiful eyes are those that show Like crystal panes where heart-fires


Beautiful thoughts that burn below.

3.    Beautiful lips are those whose words Leap from the heart like songs of birds, Yet whose utterance prudence girds.


De-Sign? pattern of something to be executed. Lib-er-ty, freedom.

Al-le-gi-ance, devotion; loyalty. 30 31 32

Re-pub-lic, state in which the sovereign power resides in the whole body of the people, and is exercised by representatives chosen by them. In-di -Vis-i-ble, incapable of being divided.

4. “It is your flag. The first flag was made in June, 1777. It was made by Mrs. Ross, who lived in Arch-street, Philadelphia.1 Mrs. Ross was known far and near as a neat sewer.

Flag of the East India Company, founded 1600.2

Flag of the United Colonies, used by General Washington in 1776.

Flag of the United States. 1777.

5.    “ This is why George Washington32 and two other gentlemen went to see her one day in June, to ask her to make the first American flag.

“Mrs. Ross did not think that she could make it. Washington told her that it wras a very simple thing to do. Then he drew an outline of the flag for her.


6.    “ Mrs. Ross said that she would try. She went to work with a [; it was not long before she had the stars cut out for the field.

“ The field was blue, just as you see it now in the flag that waves o>rer your school. She made the stripes red and white. It took her just three dsys to make the first flag.

“ ’Tis the star-spangled banner, Oh ! long may it wave • O’er the land of the free,

And the home of the brave !:

7. “ When Washington saw it, he was delighted with it. Every American is not only delighted with it, but he loves the dear old flag.

“ That is why the 14th of June is set apart as Flag Day. 33 34 35


SCTll-ler, one who sculls, that is, rows a boat with two sculls or oars.

Ex-pe-ri-ence, practical wisdom gained by personal knowledge ; knowledge gained by doing a thing or seeing it done.

Nec-es-sa-ry, such as must be.

PrO-fes-siOH, calling; employment.

Pre-Ci-sion, exactness; accuracy.

En-dur-anee, quality of lasting.

Com-pet-i-tor, rival.

Hes-i-ta-tion, doubt; suspension of opinion or


Self-con-fi-dence, self-reliance.

Af-fect-ed, acted upon ; influenced. In-ter-feredf came into opposition.

Judg-ment, faculty of judging or deciding rightly or wisely.

1.    One day about thirty years ago, when I lived on the Thames, near where the great boat races are held, a sculler came to my house. He was a Thames champion, and had won a large number of races. He was a little unwell, and I thought he looked weak and ailing, and I said to him, “ You ought to take a little wine or beer.”

3. “ Why, surely it is necessary and helpful to you sometimes, is it not ? ”

2.    “ I cannot do that,” he replied, “ it will not suit my business; I do not abstain entirely from strong drink, but I know that, as a matter of experience, I must keep away from it.”


to act at a moment’s notice, and I must not be put out by noise, or cheering, or shouting, or finding fault, and I must always hold on to the last.”

4.    “That,” I replied, “means precision, decision, presence of mind, and endurance.”

“ True,” he said, “ all my success turns upon those four qualities. I can get them all if I abstain, while I lose them if I take ever so little strong drink. Let me tell you a story.

5.    “ Once I was going to row a race with a strong competitor, who was, I knew, quite equal to myself. I felt that I should have a hard task to beat him; and, as it happened, he won the toss, and thus had two points in his favour. He had the better side of the river, and the sun was shining more directly in my face than in his.

6.    44 But, just as he was getting into his boat, I noticed one of his friends give him a glass of whisky.

44 4 Take another,’ said a second friend, as he passed him a second glass of whisky.

44 Those two glasses of whisky, said I to myself, quite make up for my losing the better side of the river, and having the sun in my face.

7.    44 We were ready to start; the steamers went behind us, and we were off. We both pulled so regularly, and with such precision, that it seemed as if only one oar was touching the water instead of four. We pulled like this for a long time, and were still side by side, when, all at once, I heard the smallest possible tingle in one of his strokes. His oar had struck the water out of time, and I knew he was losing stroke.

8.    44 A little further on, something like a boat turned upside down floated past us. I was collected, and knew what course to take without any hesitation.

9.    44 Not so my companion : he wanted to see what I did, so he lost time and self-confidence, and now I got a bit ahead of him. Next minute, he began to be affected by the noise from the people on the steamers and shore. He looked at them, and made what we call 4 spurts,’ and this interfered with his judgment. At last, while I was still quite fresh, he began to get tired, and. to pull more irregularly and more feebly than at first. Of course, the race, sir, was mine.”

—Sir B. W. Richardson {Adapted).



1.    An optical illusion results when a square is drawn inside a circle. Any one looking at the diagram would think that the circle is flattened out at the points where the corners of the square touch it.

2.    Such is not the case, as the circle is perfectly round, being accurately drawn with compasses.

, Note.—The diagram was kindly supplied by Mr. Percy L. Smith, State School No. 484, Coburg.


1. “I can believe my own eyesight” is a common enough expression. It is not always

<true, as a glance at the diagram will show you.

2. Any one merely looking at it would certainly say that the distance between the points A and B was less than that between B and C. As a fact, the distance in each case is the same. •

Note.—The diagrams were kindly supplied by Miss Hall, State School No. 2837, Moreland.    —S. S.


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(Have the pupils recite the following.)

“ ‘ I pledge allegiance to the flag and the republic for which it stands ; one nation, indivisible, and with liberty and justice for all.’ ”

When the Christmas Bells are Ringing—continued.

D.S. for verses 2 and 3.

Peace from God thou dost inherit, See thou lose it never ;

Lo, by His eternal merit,

Be at peace for ever.

Banish envy, banish wrong, Threats and wars he ended!

Sing with hope the angel’s song, Peace over earth he extended, Peace over earth be extended.

Love with God will never wither, Nay, is never sleeping ;

Plant the tree of love together, Thus the feast be keeping.

Widely spreading may it grow, Blessed by Heaven and lighted,

So the world like Heaven will show, Men of good-will all united,

Men of good-will all united.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.



FOR CLASS IV. (1902).

No. 52.]    MELBOURNE. [February, 1902


Di-vine' heavenly ; godlike.    ■    Aye, ever.

Orbed, round in shape.    !    Whith-er, to what place.

]. They glide upon their endless way,

For ever calm, for ever bright ;

No blind hurry, no delay

Mark the daughters of the Night;

They follow in the track of Day,

In divine delight.

2. Shine on, sweet orb^d souls for aye,

For ever calm, for ever bright;

We ask not whither lies your way,

Nor whence ye oame, nor what your light ;

Be—still a dream throughout the day,

A blessing through the night.

—B. W. Procter (1787-1874) (Barry Cornwall).


E-venti that which happens ; incident.

Re-lat-ed, told ; narrated.

Op por-tu-ni-ty, fit or convenient time; chance.

In-quired,' sought for information by putting questions.

Pa-tience, act of calmly waiting for something hoped for.

Cli-ent, person who consults or employs a lawyer, or agent.

Busi-ness, (btz-nes), occupation ; affair ; concern.

Law-suit/ any legal proceeding before a court for the enforcement of a claim.

A-gree-ment, here, contract in writing.

Per-plexed,' puzzled; confused Vo-ca^ion, employment; calling. . Re-main-der, rest; balance.

Lis-tened, gave ear; heard the statement. Dif-fi-cul-ty, trouble.

Ad-Vice^ recommendation; information. Dis-trict, part of a country.

Neigh-bour-ing, being near; adjacent; living close to.

Ex-pe-ri-ence, actual enjoyment or suffering;

what one has had personal acquaintance with. Com-mand-ment, order given by authority; here, one of the laws given by God to the Israelites at Mount Sinai.

2.    He inquired at once where Lawyer Longhead lived, the only lawyer’s name he could call to mind. Having found the office, he took his seat in the waiting-room, and had to remain there such a long time that his patience was almost worn out. At last, his turn came, and he was shown into the great man’s room.

3.    Mr. Longhead asked him to sit down ; and then, settling his glasses on his nose so as to get a good look at his client, begged him to state his business.

“ Upon my word, Mr. Lawyer,” said the farmer, uneasily twisting his hat in his hand, “ I can’t say that I have any business with you ; but, as I happened to be in town to-day, I thought that 1 should be losing an opportunity if I did not get an ‘ opinion ’ from you.”

4.    “ I am much obliged,” replied the lawyer. “ You have, I suppose, some law-suit going on ? ”

By permission of the proprietors of The Australasian.']


“ A law-suit ? ” said the farmer, “ I should rather think not! There is nothing I hate so much ; and I never had a serious quarrel with any one in my life.”

5.    “ Then, I suppose, you want some family property fairly divided ? ”

“ f beg your pardon, sir ; my family lives with me in peace ; we draw from the same well, as the saying is in our part of the country, and have no need to think of dividing the property.”

6.    “Perhaps, then, you want an agreement drawn up about the sale or purchase of some property ? ”

“ Not at all! I am not rich enough to buy any more property, and not poor enough, I’m thankful to say, to wish to sell any.”

7.    “ Then, what on earth do you want me to do, my friend ? ” said the perplexed lawyer.

“ Well, Mr. Longhead, I thought that I had already told you that,” replied Bernard, with a sheepish laugh. “ What I want is an ‘ opinion ’—1 am ready to pay for it. You see, I am in town, and it would be a great pity if I were to lose the opportunity.”

8.    The lawyer looked at him, and smiled ; then, taking up his pen, he asked the farmer his name.

“ Peter Bernard,” replied the latter, quite pleased that the lawyer at last understood him.

“ Your age ? ”

‘‘Forty-five years, or somewhere about that.”

“ Your vocation ? ”

“ My vocation—what’s that ? ”

I am a farmer.’


[From the Natural Advanced Geography.

“ What do you do for a living ? ”

“ Oh ! that’s what ‘ vocation’ means, does it ?

9.    The lawyer, still smiling, wrote two lines on a piece of paper, folded it up. and gave it to his strange client.

“ Is that all ? ” cried Bernard. “ Well, well, so much the better ! I dare say you are too busy to write much. What is the price, learned sir ? ”

u Six and eightpence.”

10.    Bernard paid the money, gave a bow and a scrape, and went away, delighted that he had not missed his opportunity of getting an “ opinion ” from a great lawyer.

11.    When he reached home, it was four o’clock in the afternoon ; he was tired with his journey, and he made up his mind to rest for the remainder of the day. It happened, however, that his hay, which had been cut for. some days, was now quite dry, and that one of his men came to ask whether it should be carried in and housed that night, or not.

12.    “ This night! ” said Bernard’s wife, “ who ever heard of such a thing ? Your master is tired ; and the hay can just as well be got in to-morrow.”

The man said that it was no business of his, but the weather might change, and the horses and carts were at hand, and the labourers had nothing important to do for the rest of the day.

13.    To this the wife, who did not like to find herself opposed in this way, replied that the wind was from a favourable quarter,2 so that there could by no chance be any rain, and that they would not be able, if they were to try their utmost, to get the work done before nightfall.

14.    Bernard, having listened to both sides of the question, was at a loss how to decide it, when, all of a sudden, he remembered he had in his pocket the paper that the lawyer had given him. “Stop a minute ! ” cried he ; “I have an ‘ opinion ’—a famous opinion—an opinion that cost me six and eightpence. That’s the thing to put us straight. You are a scholar, my dear, and can read : tell us what it says.”

15.    His wife took the paper, and, with much difficulty, for the lawyer’s writing was far from good, read out these words :—“ Peter Bernard, never put off till to-morrow what you can do to-day.”

16.    “That’s the very thing!” exclaimed the farmer. “Quick! Come along ! Out with all the carts ! Every one to the hay-field ! It shall not be said that I bought a six-and-eightpenny opinion from a lawyer, and made no use of it. I’ll follow his advice.” He hurried off, and did not return home till he had seen all the hay safely housed.

17.    As it happened, what followed seemed to show the foresight of the lawyer. The weather changed during the night, and a sudden storm broke over the district. The next morning, it was found that the river had overflowed, and had carried away almost all the hay that had been left in the fields of the neighbouring farmers. Bernard, alone, had not suffered any loss.

18.    His first experience gave him such faith in the lawyer’s opinion, that, from that day forth, he took it as his rule of conduct, and became, therefore, one of the richest farmers in that part of the country.

19.    Nor did he forget the service Mr. Longhead had rendered him, for he sent him every year a present of two fat, young fowls ; and, whenever the talk turned upon lawyers, he never failed to remark that, “ after the ten commandments, there was nothing that should be more strictly followed than the opinion of a good lawyer.”

1.    0-pin-iOJl, usually what a person thinks about a certain matter. A lawyer’s opinion, however, is his statement, generally in writing, of what he thinks of the merits of some case.

2.    Fa-vour-a-ble quar-ter. In some countries, more markedly than in Victoria, the direction from which the wind is blowing indicates fairly whether there is likely to be rain or not within a certain time.


Smith-y, blacksmith’s shop.

Sin-ew-y, having strong muscles; very strong.

Mus-Cles, fleshy parts of an animal’s body which makes it strong.

Brawn-y, muscular; powerful.

Tan, bark of various trees, used in making skin into leather. (After being used it is also called tan, and is of a reddish-brown colour; hence the allusion.)

Hon-est (on-est), real and true from hard work. Sledge, large, heavy hammer; sledge-hammer. Meas-ured, equal; uniform.

Forge, smithy fire.

1. Under a spreading chestnut tree,

The village smithy stands;

The smith, a mighty man is he,

With large and sinewy hands;

And the muscles of his brawny arms Are strong as iron bands.


Thresh-ing-floor or thrash-ing-floor, space on which grain in olden time, and still in some parts, is beaten out from the straw.

Choir (lcwire), band of singers, especially one belonging to a church.

Par-a-dise, heaven; abode of the blest.

Toil-ing, working hard.

Re-joic-ing, being glad.

Sor-row-ing, grieving; mourning.

At-tempt-ed, tried.

An-vil, large mass of iron, usually with a steel face, upon which metals are hammered and shaped.

Wrought, worked out.

2. His hair is crisp, and black, and long; His face is like the tan;

His brow is wet with honest sweat;

He earns whate’er he can,

And looks the whole world in the face, For he owes not any man.

3. Week in, week out, from morn till night

You ean hear his bellows blow;

You can hear him swing his heavy sledge,

With measured beat and slow,

Like a sexton ringing the village bell, When the evening sun is low.

4. And children, coming home from school,

Look in at the open door;

They love to see the flaming forge, And hear the bellows roar,

And catch the burning sparks that

fly    n

Like chaff from a threshing-floor.

[After the painting by Sit Edwin Landseer.]


5. He goes on Sunday to the church, And sits among his boys;

He hears the parson pray and preach;

He hears his daughter’s voice Singing in the village choir,

And it makes his heart rejoice.

6. It sounds to him like her mother’s


Singing in Paradise;

He needs must think of her once more, How in the grave she lies,

And, withhishard rough hand, he wipes A tear out of his eyes.

7. Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing,

' Onward through life he goes;

Each morning sees some task begin, Each evening sees it close: Something attempted, something done,

Has earned a night’s repose.

8. Thanks, thanks to thee, my worthy friend,

Eor the lesson thou has taught ! Thus, at the flaming forge of life,

Our fortunes must be wrought; Thus, on its sounding anvil shaped Each burning deed and thought.

—H. W. Longfellow (1807-82).


Fer-men-ta-tion, change that takes place when yeast is added to dough, and the dough is kept warm; process of undergoing an effervescent change, as by the action of yeast.

Por-ous, full of pores or minute openings.

Con-vert-ed, changed from one state to another.

In-tes-tines, bowels; entrails.

Pen-e-trate, pierce; pass.

Nour-ish-ment, food ; that which makes animals and plants grow.

Fi-bre, threadlike substance or material.

Glu-ten, sticky substance forming a part of dough.

Cen-tre, middle portion of anything.

Pro-cess or proc-ess, operation; method of doing something.

Di-ges^tion, change of food into a fluid that can be taken up by the blood to support life.

Di-gestUve, having the power to cause or help digestion.

Tem-per-a-ture, degree of heat.

1. If we slice an ordinary grain of wheat through the middle, we shall find it to consist of several layers . the outer, a fruit coat, chiefly woody fibre and useless for food. Then comes the hard seed coat of matter very rich in gluten, the part of the wheat that really nourishes

us. In the centre, there

o0^ O

C\ /7) 'Ao.“o’

Yeast (yeest), scum of beer ; ferment.

From Blackie’s Object Lesson Handbook. ]

is a white, powdery mass, which is pure starch.


2. In making flour by the new process, the outer layer, which forms what we call bran, is usually removed, leaving the gluten and the white starchy flour of the centre. Formerly, little but the starch was used for flour. The present method is to use all the seed, but not the woody fruit coats.

3.    To be fit for digestion, starch must be softened by boiling or baking ; so we bake our bread, because cooked starch is more easily acted on by the digestive juices than raw starch.

4.    Let us see what changes take place in making the flour into a loaf of baked bread. The flour is put into a pan with half its weight of water, some salt and yeast, and mixed up into what is known as the “ sponge.” This is left for some time in a warm place, after which it is kneaded with the rest of the flour, and again left to rest. The dough is then divided into small parts, put in tins, and set aside until they have risen to twice their previous size.

5.    It is the yeast that causes the raising of bread by producing a gas by its action on some of the starch. The little bubbles of this gas try to escape from the mass of the dough, but become entangled in the gluten and gum which the flour contains ; and thus every part of the dough becomes full of little cavities.

6.    If this went on, the bubbles of gas would find their way out in the end. The dough would “ fall,” and the bread would be heavy. But the baker guards against this by putting it, at the proper time, into a hot oven, the heat of which first increases the fermentation. In a few minutes, however, the heat becomes great enough to kill the yeast;—the fermentation, therefore, stops, the starch grains are burst by the heat, and the mass keeps the porous form. During the baking, the starch of the outer parts of the bread has been browned by the heat, and changed into a kind of sugar.

7.    The heat of the oven has changed the outside of the bread into sugar, and the starch in the inside has in fact been boiled in the steam of the water which the dough contained, so that it has become ready to be converted into sugar by the action of the juices of the mouth and the intestines. The porous nature of the bread helps in this change, for the juices easily penetrate through the whole mass.

8.    It must be remembered that the starch of bread does not give us nourishment. It produces heat ; and, just like the coal of the engine, the starch 'or sugar is burned up inside us to keep up the temperature of the body. It is the gluten, the sticky material of the grain, which is the flesh-forming material.

—Adapted from a lesson in Domestic Science, in Grammar Grades, by L. L. W. Wilson. (Messrs. Macmillan and Co.)


Freight (/rate), lading; cargo. As-ton-ish-ment, wonder; surprise. Om-ni-bus, long carriage having seats for many people.

Con-vey-ance, carriage ; carrying ; transporting. 36

Mys-ter-y, something that has not been or cannot be explained.

In-hab-it-ants, those who dwell permanently in a place.

Prod-uce, that which is yielded or produced; agricultural products.

3.    Sometimes, line green hedges are seen ; but wooden fences, such as we have, are rarely met with in Holland. As for stone fences, a Hollander would lift his hands with astonishment at the very idea. There is no stone there, excepting those great masses of rock that have been brought from other lands, to strengthen and protect the coast. Boys, with strong, quick arms, may grow up, without ever finding a pebble to start the water-rings, or set the rabbits flying.

4.    The water roads are nothing less than canals crossing the country in every direction. These are of all sizes, from the great North Holland

Ship Canal, which is the wonder of the world, to those which a boy can leap. Water-omnibuses constantly ply up and down these roads for the conveyance of passengers; and water-drays are used for carrying fuel and goods.

From the Natural Elementary Geography.\    q Instead of

scene in Amsterdam.    green country

. lanes, green canals stretch from field to barn, and from barn to garden ; and the farms are merely great lakes -pumped dry. Some of the busiest streets are water, while many of the country roads are paved with brick.

The city boats, with their rounded sterns, gilded bows, and gaily-painted sides, are unlike any others under the sun.

6. One thing is clear, you may

think that the From the Natural Elementary Geography.] inhabitants need    country scene in Holland.

never be thirsty. But no; Odd-land is true to itself still. With the sea pushing to get in, and the lakes struggling to get out, and the overflowing canals, rivers, and ditches, in many districts there is no water that is fit to swallow. Our poor Hollanders must go dry, or send far inland for that precious fluid, older than Adam, yet young as the morning dew. Sometimes, indeed, the inhabitants can swallow a shower, when they are provided with any means of catching it ; but generally they are like the sailors told of in a famous poem, who saw

“ Water, water, everywhere,

Nor any drop to drink !” 1

7.    Great flapping windmills all over the country make it look as if flocks of huge sea-birds were just settling upon it. Everywhere one sees the funniest trees, cut into all sorts of odd shapes, with their trunks painted a dazzling white, yellow, or red.

8.    Horses are often yoked three abreast. Men, women, and children go clattering about in wooden shoes.

Husbands and wives lovingly harness themselves side by side on the bank of a canal, and drag their produce to market.

—Mary Mapes Dodge, editress of Si. Nicholas.

1. Water . . , drink. These lines are from Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner.


Peace-ful, quiet ; tranquil.

Mort-gage (mortgage), conveyance of property upon condition, as security for the payment of a debt.

Roan, having a bay, chestnut, brown, or black colour, with gray or white thickly interspersed.

Trough, long, hollow vessel, generally for holding water or other liquid.

1. Home from his journey, Farmer John Arrived this morning safe and sound ;

His black coat off, and his old clothes on, “Now I’m myself,” said Farmer John ;

And he thinks, “ I’ll look around.”

Up leaps the dog : “ Get down, you pup ! Are you so glad you would eat me up ? ” The old cow lows at the gate to greet him ; The horses prick up their ears to meet him. “ Well, well, old Bay !

• Ha, ha, old Gray !

Do you get good feed when I’m away ?

2. “You haven’t a rib,” says Farmer John ; “The cattle are looking round and sleek ; The colt is going to be a roan,

And a beauty, too ; how he has grown !

We’ll wean the calf in a week.”

Says Farmer John, “ When I’ve been off,

To call you again about the trough,

And water and pet you while you drink,

Is a greater comfort than you can think 1 ” And he pats old Bay And he slaps old Gray ;

“ Ah ! this is the comfort of going away.

3.    “For after all,” says Farmer John,

“ The best of a journey is getting home.

I’ve seen great sights, but I would not give This spot, and the peaceful life I live,

For all their Paris and Rome ;

These hills for the city’s stifled air,

And big hotels, and bustle and glare ;—

Land all houses, and roads all stones

That deafen your ears and batter your bones !

Would you, old Bay ?

Would you, old Gray?

That’s what one gets by going away.

4.    “ I’ve found out this,” says Farmer John,

“ That happiness is not bought and sold,

And clutched in a life of waste and hurry,

In nights of pleasure and days of worry,

And wealth isn’t all in gold,

Mortgage, and stocks,! and ten per cent.,37 38 But in simple ways and sweet content,

Few wants, pure hopes, and noble ends,

Some land to till, and a few good friends,

Like you, old Bay,

And you, old Gray,

That’s what I’ve learned by going away.”

—J. T. Trowbridge, a living American novelist and poet (born 1827).

1.    Stocks, property consisting' of shares in the obligations of a government for its funded debt.

2.    Ten per cent. Ten pounds for the loan of a hundred pounds.



Res-i-dence, act of dwelling; stay.

Par-tic-u-lar, special; exact.

Ex-trem-i-ty, extreme need; greatest peril.

Primed, had gunpowder in the pan, so as to communicate fire to the charge in the barrel. (In the flintlock gun or pistol, a piece of flint fixed in the hammer strikes the steel, causing a spark, which ignites the priming in the pan.)

Bar-ba^ri-ans, savages ; men in a rude, savage, or uncultivated state.

Sus-pense/ state of anxiety.

Di-et, food.

Ebb, flowing back ; receding.

In-spired;' animated ; infused into.

Pur-sued/ chased.

1 Car-goes, loads carried by a ship or boat.

rest till they had found me out. In this extremity, I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the ladder after me, and made all things without look as wild and natural as I could.


(Prom the edition of Robinson Crusoe published by Messrs. T. Nelson and Sons.)

3. Then, I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defence. I loaded all my cannon, as I called them, that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortification. My pistols, too, were primed and ready; in short, I resolved to defend myself to the last gasp—not forgetting seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the ha nds of the barbarians.

4. I continued in this uncertainty about two hours, and began to be impatient for news abroad, for I had no spies to send out.

After sitting a little longer, and musing what I should do, I was unable to bear further suspense ; so, setting my ladder to the side of the hill, and then pulling it after me, I set it up again, and thus mounted to the top of the hill.

Pulling out my spy-glass, which I had taken on purpose, I lay

down flat on the ground, and began to look for the place. I presently found there were no less than nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire they had made—not to warm themselves, for the weather was warm enough,—but, as I supposed, to dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had brought with them, whether alive or dead I could not tell.

5.    They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up upon the shore ; and, as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to me to be waiting for the return of the flood to go away again.

As I expected, so it proved ; for, as soon as the tide set in to the westward, I saw them all take their canoes, and paddle away.

6.    About a year and a half after this, I was surprised one morning at seeing no less than five canoes all on shore at one time on my side of the island. I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual. Here I observed by means of my glass, that there were no less than thirty in number,, that they had a fire kindled, and meat dressed.

7.    While I was thus looking on them, I perceived by my glass ,. two miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they

had been laid by, but were now brought out for the slaughter. I noticed one of them immediately fall—being knocked down, I suppose, with a club, or wooden sword, for that was their way of killing. Two or three others set to work imme-

“l BEGAN TO LOOK FOR THE PLACE.»    diatelv Cutting

(From fche edition of Robinson Crusoe published by Messrs. T. Nelson and Sons.) p Open for the

purpose of being roasted; while the other victim was left standing by himself, till they should be ready for him. At that very moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at liberty, and being unbound, was inspired with hopes of life; he started away from them, and ran with great swiftness along the sands, directly towards that part of the coast where my habitation was.

8.    I was dreadfully frightened, I must acknowledge, when I saw him run my way; and, especially, when, as I thought, I saw hi in-pursued by the whole body. I expected that he would certainly take shelter in my grove; but I could not tell that the other savages would not pursue him thither, and find him there. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to recover when I found that there were not above three men that followed him.

9.    There was, between them and my castle, the creek where I had. landed my cargoes from the wreck ; and this I saw plainly he must swim over, otherwise the poor wretch would there be caught. But, when the runaway came to the creek, he made nothing of it, though the tide was then up ; but, plunging in, swam over it in about thirty

strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with remarkable strength and swiftness. When the three savages came to the creek, I found that two of them could swim, but the third could not. Standing on the other side, he looked at the others, but came no farther, and, soon after, went slowly back again; this, as it happened, was very lucky for him in the end.

(To be continued.)

—Daniel De Foe (1661-1731).



Bram-ble, here, blackberry.

Brake, place overgrown with shrubs and brambles.

Wood-binei climbing plant, usually called honeysuckle.

Flaunt, show; display ; show as a flag in the wind.

Fra-grant, sweet-smelling. t



I. Tby fruit full well the school-boy knows,

Wild bramble of the brake!

So, put thou forth thy small white rose; I love it for his sake.

Though woodbines flaunt, and roses glow

O’er all the fragrant bowers,

Thou need’st not be ashamed to show Thy satin-threaded flowers.

Del-i-cate, fine; not strong ; easily hurt:

Gauz-y, thin; light. (Gauze is a very thin, light, transparent stuff, generally of silk.)

Hymns, sacred songs, generally of praise or thanksgiving.

Beau-te-OUS, full of beauty; very nice looking. Gad, ramble ; wander; roam about.

For dull the eye, the heart is dull,

That cannot feel how fair Amid all beauty beautiful,

Thy tender blossoms are;

How delicate thy gauzy frill,

How rich thy branchy stem,

How soft thy voice when woods are still,

And thou sing’st hymns to them.

While silent showers are falling slow,

And,    ’mid the

general hush,

A sweet air lifts thi little bough Lone    whispering

through the bush.

The primrose to the grave is gone;

The hawthorn flower is dead ;

The violet by the mossed gray stone Hath laid her weary head.

4. But thou, wild bramble, back dost bring, In all their beauteous power,

The fresh, green days of life’s fair spring, And boyhood’s joyous hour.

Scorned bramble of the brake, once more Thou bidd’st me be a boy To gad with thee the woodlands o’er In freedom and in joy.


Con-sid-ered, thought; regarded ; believed. I Glimpse, short, hurried view.

De-light-ed, glad ; pleased.    * Joy-OUS, gay j merry.

1.    One morning, when Hercules1 was a lad of twelve years, he was sent out to do something that he disliked very much. As he walked slowly along the road, he kept on grumbling because others, whom he considered to be no better than himself, were living in ease, while for him there was little but hard work. Thinking upon these things, he came after a while to a place where two roads met; and he stopped., not quite certain which one to take.

2.    The road on his right was hilly and rou°rh, and there was no beauty about it ; but he saw that it led straight toward a range of blue mountains in the far distance. The road on his left was broad and smooth, with shady trees on either side, where sang thousands of beautiful birds ; and it went winding in and out, through groves and green meadows, where bloomed countless flowers ; but it ended in fog* and mist long before reaching the wonderful mountains of blue..

3.    While the lad stood in doubt as to which way he should go, he saw two ladies coming toward him, each by a different road. The one who came down the flowery way reached him first, and Hercules saw that she was very beautiful. Her cheeks were red, her eyes sparkled, her voice was clear and sweet.

4.    “ 0 noble youth,” she said, “ this is the road which you should choose. It will lead you into pleasant ways where there is neither toil nor hard study. Your ears shall always be delighted with sweet sounds, and your eyes with things beautiful and gay; and you need do nothing but play and enjoy the hours as they pass.”

5.    By this time, the other lady had drawn near, and she now spoke to the lad.

“ If you take my road,” said she, “ you will find that it is rocky and rough, and that it leads over many a hill, and through many a bog. The views which you will sometimes get from the hilltops are grand and glorious, while the deep valleys are dark, and the uphill ways are toilsome ; but the road leads to the blue mountains of endless fame, of which you can see faint glimpses, far away. They can not be reached without labour ; for, in fact, there is nothing worth having without that. If you would have fruits and flowers, you must plant and care for them; if you would gain the love of your fellow-men, you must love them and suffer for them ; if you would be a man, you must make yourself strong by the doing of manly deeds.”

6.    Then the lad saw that this lady, although her face seemed at first very plain, was as beautiful as the dawn, or as the flowery fields after a summer rain.

“ What is your name ?” he asked.

“ Some call me Labour,” she answered, “ but others know me as Truth.”

7.    “And what is your name?” he asked, turning to the first lady.

“ Some call me Pleasure,” said she with a smile ; “ but I choose to be known as the Joyous One.”

“And what can you promise me at the end if I go with you ?”

“ I promise nothing at the end. What I give, I give at the beginning.”

8. “ Labour,” said Hercules, “ I will follow your road. I want to be strong, and manly, and worthy of the love of my fellows. And whether I shall ever reach the blue mountains or not, I want to have the reward of knowing that my journey has not been without some worthy aim.”

1, Her-CU-les, Grecian hero of fable, who was celebrated for his great strength, and, especially, for the accomplishment of twelve great tasks or “ labours.”


2. A violet by a mossy stone,

Half-hidden from the eye !— Fair as a star, when only one Is shining in the sky.

1. She dwelt among the untrodden ways Beside the springs of Dove ;

A. maid whom there were none to praise, And very few to love :

3. She lived unknown, and few could know

When Lucy ceased to be ;    ,

But she is in her grave, and, oh !

The difference to me !

—William Wordsworth (1770-1850).



The Fisherman’s, or English knot consists of two simple knots (see Fig. 1) slipped over each cord, as in Fig. 2. When drawn tight, its front appearance is shown in Fig.

FIG. 3,

3, and its back in Fig. 4. To

anSlers lt; is a useful knot, as the two parts mav be separated by pulling the ends, a, b, and a third line inserted between them    Y

FIG. 4.

. lhls knoV? also f.®1"viceable in joining two ropes for temporary purposes onlv as it is secure, and is readily cast loose no matter how tightly it has been drawn -s s’


I    ores.

i *




Ye    mar - i - ners




Eng - land, That guard our na - tive


seas; Whose

» s

flag has braved a



g TT ft?

thou - sand years The





sweep through the deep, And







1 'Er

sweep through the





sweep through the


~ JO



While the

deep, And


storm - y

tem - pests



bat - tie rag - es


and long, And the


tem - pests blow.

The spirits of your fathers Shall start from ev’ry wave!

For the deck it was their held of fame, A nd ocfan was their grave ;

Where Blake and mighty Nelson fell, Your manly hearts shall glow,

As ye sweep through the Hf While the stormy tempests blow, &c.

Britannia needs no bulwarks,

No towers along the steep ;

Her march is o'er the mountain waves, Her home is on the deep.

With thunders from her native oak, She quells the floods below ;

As they roar on the shore,

When the. stormy tempests blow, &c

The meteor flng of England Shall yet terrific burn ;

Till danger's troubled night depart,

And the star of peace return.

Then, then, ye ocean warriors l Our song and feast shall flow.

To the fame of your name,

When the storm has ceased to blow, &c.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.



FOR CLASS IV. (1902).

No. 53.]    MELBOURNE.    [Makch, 1902.


Bills, small brooks ; little creeks.

Stream-lets, small streams.    '

Bil-lows, waves.

Frag-ruents, little pieces.

1.    Little rills make wider streamlets ;

Streamlets swell the river’s flow ; Rivers join the ocean billows, Onward, onward as they go.

2.    Life is made of smallest fragments,

Shade and sunshine, work and play : So may we, with greatest profit,

Learn a little every day.

Com-pose/ form ; make up.

Hon-est (on-est), upright; sincere; just. En-deav-our, effort or attempt made to gain some object.

3.    Tiny seeds make boundless harvests ;

Drop^ of rain compose the showers ; Seconds make the flying minutes,

And the minutes make the hours.

4.    Let us hasten then, and catch them

As they pass us on the way ;

And with honest, true endeavour, Learn a little every day.



Jack-al, cowardly, flesh-eating animal inhabiting Asia and Africa, related to the dog and wolf.

Hy- e'na, large, cowardly, flesh-eating animal inhabiting Southern Asia, and a large part of

, Africa, related to the dog and wolf.

Moun-tain OUS, full of, or containing, mountains.

Route (root), course ; road.

Sleigh (slay), vehicle moved on runners; sledge. 39

Pro-ceed; go forward.

Serf, one bound to work on a certain estate, and thus attached to the soil, and sold with it into the service of whoever purchases the land, as was the case till 1861, in Russia.

Pur-suiti chase.

Ap-proaeh-ing, drawing near.

In-scrip-tion words written or engraved on a solid substance for preservation.

night, and, saying it was too early in the season for wolves, ordered the horses to be put to. In spite of the repeated warnings of the innkeeper, the party proceeded on their way.

o. The driver was a serf who had been horn on the nobleman’s estate, and who loved his master as he loved his life. The sleigh sped swiftly over the hard snow, and there seemed to be no sign of danger. The moon rose and shed her light, so that the road seemed like polished silver. Suddenly, the little girl said to her father, “ What is that strange, dull sound I heard just now ? ” Her father replied, “ Nothing but the wind sighing through the trees,”

The nobleman listened; and far, far awav in the

6. The child shut her eyes, and kept still for a while; but, in a few minutes, with a face pale with fear, she turned to her father, and said, Surely that is not the wind ; I hear if again ; do you not hear it

distance behind him, but distinct enough in the clear, frosty air, he


bowline: that the child had first heard.

heard a sound of which he knew the meaning, though those who were with him did not.

7.    Whispering to the serf, he said, “ They are after us. Get ready your musket and pistols ; I will do the same. We may yet escape. Drive on ! drive on!”

8.    The man drove wildly on; but nearer, ever nearer, came the mournful

it was perfectly clear to the nobleman that a pack of wolves had got scent, and was in pursuit, of them. Meanwhile, he tried to calm the anxious fears of his wife and child.

9.    At last, the baying of the wolves was plainly heard, and he said to his servant, “ When they come up with us, single out the leader, and fire. I will single out the next; and, as soon as oue falls, the rest will stop to devour him. That will cause some delay, at least.”

10.    By this time, they could see the pack fast approaching. The nobleman and the serf singled out two, and these fell. The pack at once stopped, turned on their fallen comrades, and tore them to pieces. The taste of blood only made the others advance with more fury, and they were soon again baying at the sleigh. Again, the nobleman and his servant fired. Two other wolves fell, and were instantly devoured. But the next village was still far distant.

11.    The nobleman then cried to his serf, “ Let one of the horses loose, that we may gain a little more time.” This was done, and the horse was left on the road. In a few minutes, they heard the lond shrieks of the poor animal as the wolves seized him. The remaining horses were urged to their utmost speed, but, again, the pack was in full pursuit. Another horse was cut loose, and he soon shared the fate of his fellow.

12.    At length, the serf said to his master, “I have served you since I was a child, and I love you as I love my own life. It is clear to me that we cannot all reach the village alive. I am quite prepared, and I ask you to let me die for you.”

13.    “No, no!” cried the master, “we will live together or die together. You must not, must not give your life for us ! ”

But the serf had made up his mind ; he was fully resolved. “ I shall leave my wife and children to you ; you will be a father to them : you have been a father to me. When the wolves next reach us, I will jump down, and do my best to delay their progress.”

14.    The sleigh glides on as fast as the two remaining horses can drag it. The wolves are close on their track, and almost up with them. But what sound now rings out sharp and loud ? It is the report of the servant’s pistol. He is fighting with the wolves, but, in the end, he falls a prey to them. Meanwhile, precious time has been gained for those in the sleigh, the village is reached, and they are safe.

15.    On the spot where the wolves had pulled to pieces the devoted servant, there now stands a large, wooden cross, erected by the nobleman. It bears this inscription: “ Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friend,s.” 1

1. From the fifteenth chapter of The Gospel according to St. John.


Ban-ners, flags.

Na-vy, fleet of ships.

Suf-fered, permitted ; allowed: let.

Aye, always.

Pur-sued^ followed.

Ban-ished, driven away.

Dot-ing, dwelling fondly on the subject. HogS-head, large cask.

Wrought, worked.

Live-long, entire.

La-bo-ri-ous, working hard.

Lurk-ing, keeping out of sight.

Launched, slid into the water.

Rud-der, that by which a boat is steered. Neigh-bOur-ing, lying near at hand ; adjacent.

1. Napoleon’s 1 banners at Boulogne 2 Armed in our island every freeman; - His navy chanced to capture one Poor British seaman.

Un-COm-passed, without a compass.

In-ter-laced; intertwined; wove like basket-work.

Sor-ry, here, poor.

Wat-tied, woven; plaited.

E-quipped; fitted out.

JeerUng, making fun of.

Tid-ingS, news.

Se-rene; calm.

Wont-ed (wunt-ed), accustomed; usual. At-ti-tude, position.

Ad-dressed; spoke to.

Fash-ioned, shaped.

Im-pas-sioned, in love.

Scantily, scarcely; with difficulty.

2. They suffered him—I know not how— Unprisoned on the shore to roam; And aye was bent his longing brow On England’s home.

7.    From neighbouring woods,


3.    His eye, methinks, pursued the flight

Of birds to Britain, half-way over, With envy; they could reach the white

Dear cliffs of Dover.3

4.    At last, when care had banished sleep,

He saw one morning, dreaming, doting.

An empty hogshead from the deep Come shoreward floating.

5.    He hid it in a cave, and wrought

The livelong day laborious; lurking Until he launched a tiny boat By mighty working.

6.    For ploughing in the salt sea-field,

The boat had made the boldest


Untarred, uncompassed, and unkeeled—

No sail—no rudder.

he interlaced His sorry skiff with wattled willows;

And, thus equipped, he would have passed The foaming billows.

8.    A French guard caught him

on the beach,

His little Argo4 sorely jeering;

Till tidings of him chanced to reach

Napoleon’s hearing.

9.    With folded arms Napoleon


Serene alike in peace and danger;

And, in his wonted attitude, Addressed the stranger.

10. “Rash man, that would’st yon channel 5 pass On twigs and staves so rudely fashioned,

Thy heart with some sweet British lass

Must be impassioned.”

13.    He gave the tar a piece of gold,

And, with a flag of t nice, 6 com man ded He should be shipped to England Old, And safely landed

14.    Our sailor oft could scantly shift

To find a dinner, plain and hearty; But never changed the coin and gift

Of Bonaparte.

—Thomas Campbell (1777-1844).

4.    Ar-gO, ship, that in days of old, according to tradition, carried the Greek Jason and his companions In their quest of the Golden Fleece.

5.    Chan-nel, the English Channel, which separates England from France.    •

6.    Flag Of truce, white flag of peace.

1.    Na-po-le-on Bo^na-part (or Bo-na-par'te, as in the last verse) was born in 1769 and died in 1821. He was a great general, and for years was Emperor of the French In 1804, he gathered an army in the north of France with which to invade England ; but his fleet was destroyed by Nelson and others in 1805, and he had to abandon the project.

2.    BOU-logne' (bd6-lon'), town in the north of France, on the English Channel.

3.    Do -ver, town, south-east of England, on Strait of Dover.    .


Con-struc'tion build; structure.

Flex-i-fole, easily bent; supple; pliable. Mu-se-um, place where a collection of animals, plants, &c., is kept; the collection itself. San-dal, kind of shoe consisting of a sole strapped to the foot.

Es-teemed; valued; prized.

De-scrip-tion, account.

Ef-fect-ed, accomplished ; brought to pass. Im-me-di-ate-ly, at once ; without delay. Ad-her-ing, sticking ; clinging.

Liq-uor, any liquid substance, as water, milk, juice, and the like.

Trans-ferredi conveyed from one place to


So-lidri-fy, make solid or compact.

So-lu-tion, product resulting when a substance

is absorbed by a liquid.

Sup-ple-ness, flexibility; pliableness. Up-hol-ster-er (up-hole-ster-er), one who provides hangings, coverings, cushions, curtains, and the like.

1.    Leather forms an important part of our clothing, is used for harness for horses, covers of books, and enters into the construction of furniture and machines. It is an old saying, “ There is nothing like leather;” and, in one sense this is true, for nothing conkl take the place of this tough and yet flexible material.

2.    Leather, which consists of the skins of animals changed in such a way by tanning that they will not easily decay, has a long history. In pictures on the tombs of Egypt, the tanner may be seen sitting amid his pits, surrounded by tools much the same as those used at the present day. In the British Museum, real tanned-leather sandals are to be seen, such as are known, from paintings, to have been worn in Egypt more than three thousand years ago.

3.    Many kinds of skins are made into leather. The hides, as the skins of cattle are called, furnish that very thick leather which is used for the soles of boots and for luggage trunks, and which is sometimes split to form thinner kinds. Calf skin is much used for book-binding, and for the upper leather of boots and shoes of good quality. For the latter purpose, kangaroo skin is much esteemed. Sheep skin is used for the covering of chairs, sofas, and writing tables. It is also of great service as parchment, on which wills, deeds, and other matters of importance are written. Lamb skin is in great demand for gloves. The finest sorts of gloves, however, are made from the skin of the kid and the rat ; and the most elegant binding for books, called morocco, is obtained from the skin of the goat. H'og skin affords a thin, tough leather, which is used for saddles.

4.    The operations of tanning vary widely, but a description of the treatment of ox-hides for sole-leather will make clear the general process.

5.    The first object of the tanner is to clean and soften the hide. This is done by washing with water, and bending the hide backwards and forwards over blocks of wood. The unhairing and removal of the outside skin is the next operation, and this is effected by steeping the hides in pits containing lime-water, and then scraping them, as they lie across a block, with a long, blunt, two-handled knife, called a flesher. Immediately afterwards, the flesh side is gone over with a sharp knife, and any fragments of fibre, flesh, or fat adhering to it are pared away.

6.    The hides, after being freed from all traces of lime, are placed in layers in a pit containing tan liquor, and are turned over every day. After a time, they are transferred to another pit containing stronger liquor, and so on, the handling of the hides becoming less and less frequent, as the tanning, which occupies some months, progresses.

7.    When finally taken from the tan-pit, the hides are drained, and

hung up to dry. To finish them, they are softened in water, scoured, oiled, and worked over with rollers, so as to take out creases and solidify the leather.    •

8.    The tan liquor is a solution of ground bark in water. The barks that are most used are those of the oak of Europe, the hemlock of America, and the wattle of Australia.

9.    Leather, not intended for the soles of boots or other similar coarse purposes, has to undergo a great deal of preparation after it has been taken from the tan-pit. The tanner, having tanned the skins, and thus

From Murché’s Domestic Science Readers.]


converted them into leather, sends them to the currier.

10. It is the business of the currier, by beating, scouring, scraping, oiling, and blacking, to give the tanned leather that smoothness, colour, and suppleness, by which it is brought into a condition to suit the various purposes of the bootmaker, the saddler, the upholsterer, and the bookbinder.

11.    Russia leather is any smooth, thin leather, tanned with the bark of the birch-tree, which contains an oil. On account of this, Russia leather has a peculiar odour which, as it happens, is much disliked by insects, and. therefore, books are bound in russia.

12.    There are many light leathers that are not tanned in a tan-pit with bark, like the heavier sorts, but are prepared with alum, salt, and other substances.

13.    Leather is made in Australia, but vast quantities of hides and skins are sent from this country to Britain to be tanned. Russia, the Argentine Republic (South America), and Cape Colony are also very large suppliers to the same market.

14.    The trade in leather is immense, and the value of the articles made every year from it is quite beyond the power of one’s mind to grasp.


Czar or tzar (zar), title of the Emperor of Russia.

Mil-i-ta-ry, belonging to a soldier.

Dig-ni-ty, loftiness and grace of manner; stateliness.

Fa-mil-iar, easy ; unconstrained.

Haugll-ty, overbearing ; arrogant. Fu-ri-OUS-ly, fiercely ; violently.

Lica-ten-ant (lef-ten-ant), officer of the army next below a captain.

In-fe-ri-or, one lower in rank or standing.

ColO-'nel (kur-nel), chief officer of a regiment. Ex-cel-len-cy, title of honour given to certain high dignitaries. (It was formerly sometimes given to kin^s and princes.)

Pomp-OUS, full of self-importance.

Im-pe-ri-al, of or pertaining to an empire, or to an emperor ; belonging to, or suitable to, , supreme authority, or to one who wields it.

Cour-te-ous (lcur-te-us or kort-e-us), well bred ; police.

1.    A Czar of all the liussias, Alexander the First, while travelling, came one day to a small town of which he knew very little ; so, when he found that he must change horses, he thought that he would look around and see what the neighbourhood was like.

2.    Alone, dressed in a plain military coat, without any mark of his


high rank, he wandered about the place until he came to the end of the main road that he had been following. There he paused, not knowing which way to turn, for two paths were before him—one to the right, and one to the left. He saw a man standing at the door of a house; and, going up to him, the Czar said, u My friend, can you tell me which of these two roads I must take to get to the village of A-?”

3.    The man, who was in full military dress, was smoking a pipe with an air of dignity almost laughable. Astonished that so plain-looking a traveller should dare to speak to him in such familiar tones, the smoker answered shortly, “To the right.”

4.    “ Pardon!” said the Czar.

“ Another word, if you please.”—

“ What ? ” was the haughty reply.

—“ Permit me to ask you a question,” continued the Czar. “What is your grade in the army?” —“Guess.”    And the pipe blazed away furiously.—“Lieutenant?”

said the amused Alexander.—“ Up !” came proudly from the smoker’s lips. — “ Captain ? ”— “ Higher.” —“ Major ?” — “ At last! ” was the lofty response. The Czar bowed low in the presence of such greatness.

5.    “ Now, in my turn,” said the major, with the grand air that he thought fit to assume in speaking to an. inferior, “what are you, if you please ?”—“ Guess,” was the reply.—“ Lieutenant ?”—“ Up !”— “ Captain ?*”—“ Higher.”—“ Major ?”—“ Go on.”—“ Colonel ?”— “ Again.”

(5. The smoker took his pipe from his mouth: “Your Excellency is, then, general ?” The grand air was fast disappearing.—“ You are coming near it.”—The major put his hand to his cap : “ Then vour Highness is field-marshal?"

7.    By this time, the grand air had taken flight; and the officer, so pompous a moment before, looked as if the steady gaze and the quiet voice of the traveller had reduced him to the last stage of fear.— “ Once more, my good major,” said the Czar.—“ His Imperial Majesty ?” exclaimed the man, in surprise and terror, letting his pipe drop from his trembling fingers.

8.    “ His very self,” answered the Czar; and he smiled at the wonderful change in the major’s face and manner.

“ Ah, sire, pardon me ! ” cried the officer, falling on his knees,— “pardon me !”—“And what is there to pardon ?” said the Czar, with simple dignity. “ My friend, you have done me no harm. I asked you which road I should take, and you told me. Thank you !”

9.    But the major never forgot the lesson. If, in later years, he was tempted to be rude or haughty to his so-called inferiors, we may well believe that there rose at once in his mind a picture of a well-remembered scene, in which his pride of power had brought such shame upon him.

10.    Two soldiers in a quiet country town made but an every-day picture, after all; but what a difference there had been between the pompous manner of the officer and the natural, courteous dignity of the Czar of all the Russias !


Un-at-tend-ed, with no one accompanying him. Spec-ta-cle, sight.

Beck-oned, made signs to.

Mus-ing, thinking deeply.

Un-hon-oured, not regarded with esteem or respect.

Ar-ti-san, one trained to manual work in some-trade.

Clerk {dark), one employed to keep records or accounts.

Roy-al, kingly ; like a king.

1.    Unarmed and unattended walks the Czar

Through Moscow’s' busy street one winter day. The crowd uncover as his face they see :

“ God greet the Czar ! ” they say

2.    Along his path there moved a funeral,

Grave spectacle of poverty and woe—

A wretched sledge, dragged by one weary man Slowly across the snow.

3. And, on the sledge, blown by the winter wind, Lay a poor coffin, very rude and bare ;

And he who drew it bent before his load With dull and sullen air.

4. The Emperor stopped, and beckoned to the man. “Who is’t thou bearest to the grave ?” he said. “Only a soldier, sire !” the short reply,—

“ Only a soldier, dead.”

6. “ Only a soldier ! ” musing, said the Czar ;

“ Only a Russian who was poor and brave. Move on : I follow. Such a one goes not Unhonoured to his grave.”

6. He bent his head, and silent raised his cap; The Czar of all the Russias, pacing slow, Followed the coffin as again it went Slowly across the snow.

From The Children’s Hoar, South Australia.]


7.    The passers of the street, all wondering,

Looked on that sight, then followed silently—

Peasant and prince, and artisan and clerk,

All in one company.

8.    Still as they went, the crowd grew ever more,

Till thousands stood around the friendless grave,

Led by that princely heart, who, royal, true,

Honoured the poor and brave.    —Anonymous.

1.    MOS-COW, large city on the River Moskva, near the middle of Russia, of which it was formerly the capital.

2.    Krem-lin, great fortress and pile of buildings in Moscow.


Man Friday—continued.

In-clined' disposed; tempted. Hes-i-ta-ted, paused; was in doubt. As-ton-ished, amazed.

Rai-sins, dried grapes.

Draught, drink.

Come-ly, good-looking; handsome.

Prov-i-dence, God, regarded as watching over his creatures.

Pur-su-er, one who chases.

Hal-loo-ing, shouting after.

Loth or loath, unwilling.

Per-ceived' saw.

1. It came warmly upon my thoughts, that I was plainly called by Providence to save this poor creature’s life. I, therefore, ran down the

ladders with all possible speed, fetched my two guns, and, getting up again with the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea. Making a very short cut, all down hill, I placed myself in the way between the pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled. He was at first as much frightened at me as at his enemies, but I beckoned to him with my hand to come back.

2. In the meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that followed; then, rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him


(From the edition of Robinson Crusoe, published by T. Nelson and Sons.)

down with the stock of my gun. I was loth to fire, because I did not wish the rest to hear the report. Having knocked this fellow down, the other stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I advanced towards him. But, as I came nearer, I perceived he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me. 1 was, therefore, obliged to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot.

3. The poor runaway savage, though he saw both his enemies fallen,

yet was so frightened by the noise of my gun that he stood stock-still, and neither came forward nor went backward, though he seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come on. I hallooed again to him, and beckoned him to come forward. My signs he easily understood, and he came a little way. He hesitated, and then approached a little farther, and stopped again. I could then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner, and was about to be killed as his two enemies were.

4.    I smiled at him, and gave him all the signs of encouragement 1 could think of, and, at length, he came close to me. Then he kneeled, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon it; then, taking me by the foot, set it upon his head. This, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him up, and made much of him, and encouraged him all I could.

5.    He appeared greatly astonished at the way in which I had killed the other savage so far off; so, pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to him ; and I told him, as well as I could, to go. He ran to him, and turned him from side to side, and looked at the small hole the bullet had made. Upon this, he made signs that he should bury the dead men. He fell to work, and, in a short time, had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him, and did so also with the other.

6.    Then, calling him away, I took him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther part of the island. Here, I gave him bread and a'bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which, I found, he was indeed in great need of. Having refreshed him, I made signs to him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had laid some nice straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself sometimes. So the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

7.    He was a comely fellow, perfectly well-made, with straight, strong limbs, not too large, tall, and well-shaped ; and, as I supposed, about twenty-six years of age.

8.    In this way, I came by a servant and companion. In a little

time, I began to speak to him, and to teach him to speak to me ; and, first, I let him know his name should be “ Friday,” which was the day I saved his life ; I called him so in memory of the day. I likewise taught him to say “ Master,” and then let him know that was to he my name. I likewise taught him to say “ Yes ” and No,” along with the meanings of them.    —Daniel de Foe (1661-1731).


Par-a-dise, blessed or happy place.

House-wife, mistress of a family; female head of a hou-ehold.

Vies, strives; tries to beat.

De-VO-tion, loving attention.

Jo-king-ly, not seriously.

Not-a-ble; thrifty ; careful.

Yore, time long past; long ago.

Ex-haus-tion, state of the strength being used up. 40

Ve-lli-ele, any kind of carriage or conveyance. Per-mit-ted, allowed; let.

Sep-a-ra-ted, divided.

Chris-ten-ing, giving a Christian name to. Pom-pous, stately; given to show.

Mag-is-trate, justice of the peace; one whose duty it is to see that the law is obeyed in the town or district over which he is appointed.

Per-vadesi spreads over; is a part of.

of that country. These pastures are the source of its wealth ; for it is famous for its dairies, and oval cheeses which are sent all over the world.

2.    What, however, renders Broek so perfect a paradise in the eyes of all true Hollanders is the matchless height to which the spirit of cleanliness is carried there. It amounts almost to a religion among the inhabitants, who pass the greater part of their time in rubbing, washing, and painting.

3.    Each housewife vies with her neighbour in her devotion to the scrubbing-brush ; and it is jokingly said that a notable housewife in


days of yore is still held in remembrance, for having died of pure exhaustion in a vain attempt to scour a black man white !    _

4.    The village is situated on a sheet of water connected with a canal. Round the border of the port, or harbour, are little pleasure-houses, adorned with flower-beds and box-trees clipped into all kinds of shapes. Ho horse or vehicle is permitted to enter the village.

5.    The houses are built of wood, and painted in green, yellow, and other bright colours. They are separated from one another by gardens and orchards, while the streets are paved with yellow bricks, so clean that one might eat from them. Indeed, they are actually worn, not by feet, but by the scrubbing-brush.

6.    The front doors of the houses are never opened except for

christenings, marriages, and funerals ; on all ordinary occasions, visitors enter by the back door. Formerly, they had to put on slippers ; but this custom is no longer in force.    .

7.    A story is told of what once happened to a pompons magistrate who went to visit a lady in Broek. A stout Holland girl opened the door to him, and, in answer to his question, said that the lady was at home, hut that his shoes were not very clean. Without another word, she took the astonished man up by both arms, threw him across her back, carried him through two rooms, set him down at the bottom of the stairs, pulled off his shoes, then seized a pair of slippers that stood there, and put them on his feet. Then, and not till then, she told him that her mistress was on the floor above, and that hè might go up.

8.    It must be mentioned that this village is the paradise of cows as well a-s of men ; indeed, one would almost suppose the cow to be an object of worship there. The same cleanliness which pervades everything else is shown in the treatment of this useful animal. She is not permitted to roam about the place ; but, in winter, when she forsakes the rich pastures beyond the village, a well-built house is provided for her, well painted and kept in perfect order. Her stall is of ample size ; the floor is scrubbed and polished, and her hide is daily ourried and sponged to her heart’s content.

—Washington Irving (1783-1859).


lawn, smooth ground covered with grass.

Mur-mur-ing, giving forth a low, indistinct sound.

1.    I love the cheerful summer-time

With all its birds and flowers,

The grassy lawn beneath my feet,

The cool, refreshing showers.

2.    I love to hear the little birds

That sing among the trees;

I love the gentle murmuring stream,

I love the evening breeze.

3.    I love the bright and glorious sun

That gives us light and heat;

I love the pearly drops of dew That sparkle ’neath my feet.

Pa-tient, not hasty.

In-dus-try, diligence; close attention to work.

4.    I love to hear the busy hum

Of honey-making bee,

And learn a lesson, hard to learn,

Of patient industry.

5.    I love to see the playful lambs,

So innocent and gay;

I love the faithful, watchful dog, Who guards them night and day.

6.    I love to think of him who gave

Me eyes that I might see,

And strength, and health, and life, who made

Those pleasant things for me.



President, one who is elected or appointed the chief officer of a society, company, or the like; chief officer of the government in certain republics, for example, the United States.

Re-spectSf ways ; manners.

Pa t ern, person or thing to be copied.

(no'e-a-ble), famous; remarkable.

Punc-tu-al-i ty, being in time; exactness. 41

Guests, persons invited.

Con gress, the parliament of the United States

of America.

In-vit-ed, asked.

En-gage-ment, piece of business. Ap-point-ment, arrangement for a meeting. De-lay-ing, putting off.

to_ himself. Truth, honesty, and justice were deeply rooted in his mind ; and nothing aroused his anger so soon as the discovery of the want of those virtues in any one whom he trusted.

2.    He was also a pattern ot punctuality. When he fixed noon as the hour for a meeting with any one, he never failed to be at the place just as the clock was striking twelve.

3.    His rule was to dine at a certain hour, and, if his guests were not present, the dinner went on without them. Sometimes, when new members of Congress were invited, not knowing what his habit was in


this respect, they would come late, perhaps when dinner was half over. Washington would make no excuse for having 'begun in their absence, but would simply say, “ Gentlemen, we are punctual here.”

4.    The next time that those gentlemen were invited to dine with the President, they, no doubt, took good care to be in time.

5.    On one occasion, a man had a pair of horses that he wanted to sell. Washington thought they might suit him, and fixed a day and hour when they were to be brought for him to see them.

6.    The horses did not appear till a quarter past the time fixed ; and the man was told that the President was not then to be seen, that he had been there waiting, but had now gone to keep another engagement, and would not make a fresh appointment. The man lost a good chance of selling his horses by delaying a quarter of an hour.

7.    A clerk, whom Washington had in his office, was often late, and he always laid the blame on his watch.

“ You must get another watch,” said his master, when he had heard the same excuse two or three times, “ or I must get another clerk.”


Better late than never. Better never late. To-morrow is the day when lazy people like to work. A careless watch invites a vigilant foe.

Be active, for idleness is the rust of the mind.

By doing nothing, we learn to do ill.


No. 23.

If you gaze steadily for a few seconds at Figure 23, the four rings will appear to turn in and out in a striking manner. (This curious optical illusion is reproduced from The Penny Pictorial Magazine.)

In Figure 24, how many cubes do you see? The fact is, six or seven appear* according to the way the blocks catch the eye. Six cubes may, at first, be counted—■ three in the bottom row, two in the middle, and one on top. Then, on the figure changing, seven cubes appear—two in the top row, three in the middle, and two below.

—S. S.


Com-pli-ments, words' of greeting; expression I Wel-come, free to have or enjoy without pay-of regard.    j ment.

Brown. John, go to Mr. Green’s room, and ask him to lend me Livingstone’s2 Travels in Africa.

John. Mr, Green, my master sends me to beg yon will lend him Livingstone’s Travels.

Green. Tell Mr. Brown that I make it a rale never to lend my books; but, if he will take the trouble to come to my room, he can read Livingstone’s Travels as long as he likes.

Green (three months afterwards'). Thomas, go and ask Mr. Brown to lend me his bellows to blow my fire. You will never be able to light it without them, I am quite sure.

Thomas Mr. Brown, your friend, Mr. Green, has sent me to beg the loan of your bellows to blow his fire.

Brown. I am very sorry. Give my compliments to Mr. Green, and tell him I make it a rule never to lend my bellows ; but, if he will give himself the trouble of coming into my room, he is welcome to blow my tire as long as he likes.

1. Ox-ford, large university on the River Thames, in England.-2. LiV-ing- Stone (1817-73), Scottish

missionary who made extensive explorations in South and Central Africa.


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FOR CLASS IV. (1902).

No. 54.]    MELBOURNE.    [Apbil, 1902.


Bard, poet ; singer.

Be-trays'. is false to ; proves faithless to. Chords, strings of a musical instrument. Sul-ly, disgrace ; stain ; tarnish.

Min-Strel, singer and harper ; some hundreds of years ago, one of an order of men who sang verses to the accompaniment of a harp or other instrument.

War-ri-or, soldier.

1.    The minstrel-boy to the war is gone,

In the ranks of death you’ll find him ;

His father’s sword he has girded on,

And his wild harp slung behind him.—    ,

“ Land of song ! ” said the warrior-bard,

*■ Though all the world betrays thee,

One sword, at least, thy rights shall guard,

One faithful harp shall praise thee ! ”

2.    The minstrel fell—but the foeman’s chain

Could not bring his proud soul under ;

The harp he loved ne’er spake again.

For he tore its chords asunder ;

And said, i! No chains shall sully thee,

Thou soul of love and bravery !

Thy songs were made for the brave and free,

They shall never sound in slavery ! ”

—Thomas Moore (1779-1852).


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t=A—4 :

Em-pire, territory or countries under the rule of an emperor.

Re-cent-]y, lately ; not long since.

Al-li-ance, union or connexion of interests.

San-dal, kind of shoe consisting of a sole strapped to the foot. (In Japan many are made of straw.)

Gush-ion, case or bag stuffed with some soft material.

Bal-anced, poised ; supported on a narrow base, so as to keep from falling. 43

Pan-el, board having its edges inserted in the groove of a surrounding frame.

Chim-ney, tube or flue for carrying off smoke. Cen-tre, middle.

Ma-ple, tree common in Europe and North America.

Guest, visitor; person received and entertained in one’s home or at one’s table.

Vis-i-tor, one who comes or goes to see another.

their war with the Japanese in the year 1899. In the middle, the four islands of Hondo, Yezo, Iviushu (Jiyoo-shoo'), and Shikoku (she-ho-koo) form Japan proper.

2.    The home of a well-to-do family will serve as a type of the houses in Japan. It is light and flat, and never more than two-storied. High and heavy buildings are always in danger in Japan, for it is a land of earthquakes. Its capital Tokyo (toc-ke-oh) is said to feel one shock every day of the year.

3.    From the - outside, a Japanese house is a big, black barn;

inside it is a spotless doll’s house on a very large scale, all wood and wicker and paper.

4. How clean everything is ! The road in front of the house is well swept. You can see yourself in the strip of bare floor that runs round the house about two feet above the ground, like a porch; and the rooms are interior of a house in japan.    covered with stuffed

wicker mats, and pieces of matting made of white straw. This matting forms the carpet of Japan. The people always take off their sandals before entering a house, and do not wrear slippers, so that it is easy to keep the floor clean.

5.    There is nothing like our furniture in sight. Where are the tables ?

There are none, for the Japanese do not use such tables as ours. Where are the chairs ? Those cushions that lie on the mats take their places, for these people prefer to recline on the floor as on a conch, or to squat, balanced on their heels. At mea*l-times, they sit down on the floor anywhere, Japanese sandals or shoes.

and have their food placed before them on a raised tray.

6. The walls of the rooms consist of panels that slide in grooves, so that, at pleasure, a new room may be formed by sliding enough panels in their grooves to enclose the space, or several rooms may be thrown

into one.    .

7.    How is the house heated ? It has no chimney. The heating is done by little brass-lined boxes filled with ashes, in the ceutre of which, a handful of charcoal is burning. They form a poor means of heating during cold weather; and, as winter comes on, the people keep warm by putting on more underclothing, so that they appear to he growing fatter and fatter as the weather grows colder. But how do they cook ? They have little clay ovens in which they put charcoal, and boil and fry over the coals.


8. The Japanese are very cleanly, and the house of every well-to-do family has its own bathroom.

The custom is such that all the family bathe in the same water and in the same tub; guests have the first turn, and the servants get in at the last. No soap is used till after getting out of the tub, and the body is finally washed by pouring water over it after the soaping.

There are public baths in all the cities; and, in Tokyo, they number about eight hundred, in which over three hundred thousand people bathe daily, at a cost of less than a halfpenny for each person, so that even the poorest can keep themselves clean.

9. Behind every Japanese house, however small and humble, there is a




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grow shrubs with odd and gaudy palms, maples, and bamboos.

10. On going to bed, a visitor does not retire to a bed-room; he simply makes one by sliding the walls round the spot he has chosen. He then takes some quilts from a box, lays them on the floor, and turns down the last one for a cover, sheets being unknown. A block of wood about the size of a brick, with a roll of soft paper on top, answers as a pillow for a Japanese, wlio puts his neck on it, and lets his head project beyond the edge.

—Adapted in part from a charming book, entitled Carpenter’s Geographical Reader: Asia, from which also the illustrations have been reproduced.


1.    Ho-hen-lin-den, or Liniden Heights, a village about 20 miles from Munich, the capital of Bavaria. It lies between the Iser and the Inn, tributaries of the River Danube. Here, on the 3rd of December, 1800, the Austrians and Bavarians were defeated by the French.

2.    Sun was low, just before sunset.

3.    Fires of death, discharge of guns and cannons.

4.    Shook the hills, the surrounding country seemed to shake with the firing of the artillery.

5.    Frank, the ancient name for the French, who, in the third century, overthrew the Roman dominion in Gaul, and settled there.

6.    Huns, or, as they are now called, Magyars, are the inhabitants of Hungary, and belong to the Mongol race. They form a portion of the Austrian Empire.

7.    Munich (mu-nik), the capital of Bavaria, a state of the German Empire, which is in the south of Germany. It is a very fine city, built on the River Iser. Its palace contains one of the finest collections of paintings in Europe.

8.    Wind-ing sheet, sheet in which a corpse is wound or wrapped.

Scen-e-ry, natural aspect, as woods, hills, &o. Ar-rayedi drawn up ; set in order. Rev-el-ry, hustle and din of battle.

Riv-en, torn asunder.

Dun, of a dull brown colour.

1.    On Linden, when the sun was low,All bloodless lay th’ untrodden snow, And dark as winter was the flow

Of Iser, rolling rapidly.

2.    But Linden saw another sight,

When the drum beat at dead of night, Commanding fires of death 3 to light

The darkness of her scenery.

3.    By torch and trumpet fast arrayed, Each horseman drew his battle-blade, And furious every charger neighed

To join the dreadful revelry.

4.    Then shook the hills4 with thunder


Then rushed the steed to battle driven, And, louder than the bolts of heaven, Far flashed the red artillery.

Sulph’rous for sul-phur-ous, containing- sulphur, one of the substances in gunpowder.

Can-O-py, kind of covering.

Chiv-al-ry, cavalry; soldiers. (Usually, valour.) Sep-ul-chre, place of burial; tomb.

5.    But redder yet that light shall glow On Linden’s hills of stained snow; And bloodier yet the torrent-flow

Of Iser, rolling rapidly.

6.    ’Tis morn, but scarce yon level sun Can pierce the war-clouds, rolling dun, Where furious Frank, 5 and fiery Hun 6

Shout ’mid their sulph’rous canopy.

7.    The combat deepens. On, ye brave Who rush to glory, or the grave !

W ave, Munich! 7 all thy banners wave, And charge with all thy chivalry!

8.    Few, few, shall part where many meet! The snowshall be theirwinding sheet,8 And every turf beneath their feet

Shall be a soldier’s sepulchre.

—Thomas Campbell (1777-1844).



1. Do you see those two cottages on opposite sides of the street ? How bright their windows are, and how prettily the vines trail over

Op-po-site, placed over against; facing. Pret-ti-ly, in a pleasant or elegant manner. Trail, climb.    *

For-lorni wretched; miserable.

Un-ti-dy, not neat.

Waist-coat, vest ; sleeveless garment worn under the coat.

Ear-nest-ly, seriously; earnestly ; intently. In-ter-rupt-ed, broke in.

Cob-bler, one who mends boots and shoes.

Awl, pointed tool for piercing small holes in leather or wood.

Flitch, side of a hog salted and cured. Chim-ney, tube or flue to carry off smoke. Pet-tish-ly, in a fretful manner.

Shab-by, poor-looking.

Busi-ness (biz-nes), affair ; concern.

Wa-ges, pay for services.

Re-peat-ed, went over again ; did or said again. Ur-gent-ly, in a pressing manner.

them ! A year ago, one of them was a dirty, forlorn-looking place, and its mistress a very untidy woman.

2.    She was, one day, sitting at her door with her arms folded, as if deep in thought. Her gown was torn and shabby ; her shoes were down at the heel ; her apron, which had once been neat and white, had a great rent in it, and was dirty ; and, altogether, she looked poor and forlorn.

3.    She sat for some time gazing across the street, when, suddenly, she heard a sound as of stitching. She looked around, and, sitting-under a bush close by, she saw a funny little man. He wore a blae coat, a yellow waistcoat, and red boots. He had a small shoe on his lap, and was stitching away at it with all his might.

4.    “ Good morning, ma’am ! ” said the little man,’ “ a very fine day. Why were you looking so earnestly across the street ? ”

“ I was looking at my neighbour’s cottage,” said the young-woman.

“ What! at Tom Gardener’s ? A very pretty cottage it is, too. Looks thriving, doesn’t it ? ”

5.    “ Oh, Polly was always lucky,” said Bella (for that was the young woman’s name) ; “ and her husband is always good to her.”

“You both had good husbands at first,” interrupted the little cobbler, without stopping.—“ Please reach me my awl, will you ? It lies close by your feet.”

6.    “Well, I can’t say but they were both good husbands at first,” replied Bella, handing him the awl with a sigh ; “ but mine has changed for the worse, and hers for the better. And then, see how she thrives ! Only to think that we were both married on the same day ; and now I’ve nothing ; and she has two pigs, and a Sunday gown of as good green stuff as ever was seen, and a handsome silk handkerchief for an apron, and a red waistcoat with three rows of blue glass buttons for her husband, and a flitch of bacon in the chimney, and a rope of onions. Oh, she is a lucky woman ! ”

“ Ay, and a lot of flax she spun last winter,” continued the cobbler ; “ and a fat baby in the cradle.”

“ Oh, I’m sure I don’t envy her that last,” said Bella, pettishly ; “ I’ve little enough for myself and my husband, without children.”

7.    “ Why, is not your husband at work ?” asked the cobbler.

“ No ; he spends most of his time at the pnblic-house.”

“ Why, how is that ? He used to be very sober. Can't he get work?”

“ His last master wouldn’t keep him because he was so shabby.”

8.    “Humph !” said the little man. “ Well, as I was saying, your neighbour opposite thrives ; but no wonder ! Well, I’ve nothing to do with other people’s secrets ; but I could tell you, only I’m busy, and must go.”

“ Could tell me what ? ” cried the young wife. “ Oh, good cobbler, don’t go, for I’ve nothing to do. Pray tell me ivhy it is no wonder that she should thrive.”

* >


9.    “ Well,” said he, “ it is no business of mine, you know, but, as I said before, it is no wonder people thrive who have a servant—a hard-working one, too, who is always helping them.”

“A servant !” repeated Bella, “ my neighbour has a servant! No wonder, then, that everything looks so neat about her. But I never saw this servant. I think you must be mistaken : besides, how could she afford to pay her wages ?”

10.    “She lias’a servant, I say,” repeated the cobbler—“a oneeyed servant; but she pays her no wages, to my certain knowledge.— Well, good morning, ma’am, I must go.”

“ Ho stay one minute,” cried Bella, urgently. “ Where did she get this servant ?”

“ Oh, I don’t know,” said the cobbler. “ Servants are plentiful enough ; and Polly uses he^s well, I can tell you.”

{To be continued.)


Fre-quentf visit ofren.

Dot-ter-el, or dot-trel, kind of plover. ROOk-er-y, breeding place of a colony of rooks, and so, of other birds that flock together. Pro-hib-it-ed, forbade.

Ut-tered, spoke ; gave forth.

In-ter-est-ing, taking Che attention..

Dis-turb-ing, exciting from a state of rest; troubling.

Gai-ter, covering of cloth or leather for the leg from the knee to the ankle.

Gran-ite, rock consisting of quartz, feldspar, and mica.

Pen-'gu.ins, birds found on the seacoast in south temperate and antarctic regions.

gulls, terns, &c.; and, on the larger islands, eagles, hawks, black cockatoos, ducks, swans, and many other birds.

3.    The Furneaux Group is noted for its mutton-bird rookeries, which are to he found on many of the smaller islands. These birds exist in thousands. The Tasmanian Government has lately prohibited the taking of tlieir eggs ; but allows the birds to be caught when nearly fledged, that is, for six weeks in March and April The annual catch is about 600,000 birds. These are plucked, cleaned, and salted down in casks ; and all the islanders and others have a busy time while the work lasts. Most of the young birds are taken out of the burrows, but others are caught as they are making their way to the sea.

4.    We were enabled to watch the birds coming in to a rookery just at dusk one evening. The sight was a wonderful one, as they

Photograph by Mr. 1). Le Souef.]


came from the sea in many thousands. The air seemed full of them, flying low" and very quickly. They soon found their burrows, ;md alighted on the ground close by, each bird making its way to its mate, which had been sitting on the egg all day. The birds then uttered several grunts, which sounded very strange, coming, as they did, from the ground in all directions.

5. The mutton-bird lays only one egg, which is large and white. Thousands of these are collected every year at Cape Woolamai (;wool'-a-migh), south-east of Phillip Island, and sent to Melbourne, where they are largely used by pastry-cooks, being very like clucks’ eggs.

0. On Cat Island, there is a rookery of gannets, about 2,000 birds, each sitting on a single white egg. It is interesting to watch the-home life of these birds. They are quite fearless of man, and one-

can walk among them without disturbing them, provided, however,, one has gaiters on, as every bird that the passer-by comes in reach of pecks him with its powerful beak. They sit just out of one another’s reach ; and, if one bird comes too close to another, fighting* results.

7.    On an island near Cat Island was a rookery of white-breasted cormorants. These had their nests built on the bare granite rocks. All the nests we saw contained either eggs or young.

8.    Penguins and little stormy petrels (Mother Carey’s chickens) were plentiful on the various islands ; and, at the time of our visit, were nesting in burrows, or under rocks.

—Adapted from an article by D. Le Sottef, in The Australasian.

1.    Fur-neaux (fur-know) Group. These islands were discovered in 1773 by a French navigator named Furneaux. Captain Cook was near them in 1770.

2.    Laun-ces-ton, town on the Tamar River, in the north of Tasmania.


Fur-row, plough up. (The furrow is the long narrow groove or channel made by the plough.)

Pre-par-ing, making ready.

Fal-lOW, that has lain untilled or unsowed for some time after ploughing.

Re-ceive; be able to take in. Mirth, joy ; pleasure.

War-i-ly, cautiously; carefully Un-spar-ing-ly, here, very hard. Gar-ner, store up.

1.    Now, hands to the plough, boys, cheerily,

Let us furrow the fallow field,

Preparing the soil to receive the seed,

And a harvest to man to yield :

For the seedtime has come, and merrily The seed from the broad sheet we fling,

For surely we know that the seed which we sow A reward for our labour will bring.

2.    Now, hands to the plough, boys, manfully,

As toiling o’er valley and hill—

Let us guide the plough with a strong, sure grasp,

Let us work with a hearty will:

Let us cover the good seed carefully,

In the lap of the warm, brown earth :

Then to us shall the time of the harvest prove A season of gladness and mirth.

3.    Now, hands to the plough, boys, warily,

Let the furrow be straight and fair ;

The time of our sowing full often we find A season of labour and care :

And e’en as we labour unsparingly The seed in its season to sow,

So joy shall be ours when we garner the grain In the glory of summer’s glow.

—Caroline Chisholm (1808-77).


Honour and shame from no condition rise—

Act well your part; there all the honour lies.    _p0pB.

Never seem wiser or more learned than the people yon are with.

—Lord Chesterfield.

A good listener has often a better chance to be agreeable than a. good talker.    —George Eliot (Mrs. Lewes).


As-sem-bled, collected into one place.

Hor-i-zon-tal, on a level.

Sep-a-ra-ted, divided.

Con-VerS-ing, talking together.

CaRcu-la-ting, reckoning; estimating.

Se-lec-ted, chosen.

Suc-ceed-ed, followed.

Pen-du-lum, body so hung from a fixed point as to swing freely to and fro. (It is used to regulate the movenientsof clockwork and other machinery.)

Pro-ceed-ed, arose; issued.

Com-rades, companions; mates.

Ges-ture, motion of the body or limbs intended to express an idea, passion, &c.

Be-hav-iour, mode of conducting one's self; conduct.

Pre-ced-ed, went before.

Sus-pend-ed, hung.

Op-po-site, standing or situated over against or in front.

1. The tree upon which the monkeys were assembled stood near the edge of the water, but there was another still nearer. This was also a tall tree full of branches for a great way up. On the other bank of the stream was a similar tree, and the long, horizontal branches of the two were separated from each other by a space of about twenty feet. It was with these two trees that the attention of the monkeys appeared to be occupied, and they were conversing about, and calculating the distance between, their upper branches. For what purpose ? Surely they do not expect to be able to make a crossing

between them ? No creature without wings could pass from the one to the other!

2. Rut, at a commanding cry from the chief, several of the largest and strongest monkeys swung themselves into the tree that stood on the edge of the water. Here, after a moment’s consideration, they were seen to get upon a horizontal limb—one that projected over . the stream. There a spider monkey.    were no limbs exactly

underneath it on the same side of the tree; and, for this very reason, they, no doubt, had selected it.

3.    Having advanced until they were near its top, the foremost of the monkeys let himself down upon his tail, and hung head downward. Another slipped down the body of the first, and clutched him around the neck and fore-arms with his strong tail, with his head down also. A third succeeded the second, and a fourth the third, and so on until a string of monkeys dangled from the limb.

4.    A motion was now produced by the monkeys striking other branches with their feet, until the long string swung back and forward like the pendulum of a clock. This motion was gradually increased, until the monkey at the lower end was swung up among the branches of the tree on the opposite side of the stream. After touching them once or twice, he discovered that he was within reach; and, the next time when he had reached the highest point of the curve, he threw out his long, thin fore-arms, and, firmly clutching the branches, held fast.

5.    The motion now ceased. The living chain, with a slight curve, stretched across the stream from tree to tree. A loud screaming, and gabbling, and chattering, and howling proceeded from the band of monkeys, who, up to this time, had watched the movements of their comrades in silence—all except the old chief, who, now and then, had given directions both with voice and gestures. But the general gabble that succeeded was, without doubt, an expression of the satisfaction of nil, that the bridge ivas built.

6.    The troop now proceeded to cross over, one or two old ones going first—perhaps to try the strength of the bridge. Then went the mothers carrying their young on their backs, and, after them, the rest of the band.

It was quite an amusing scene to witness, and the behaviour of the monkeys would have caused any one to laugh.

7.    The old chief stood at the near end, and directed the crossing. Like a brave officer, he was the last to pass over. When all the others had preceded him, he crossed, carrying himself in a stately manner. None dared to bite at his legs. They knew better than to play off their tricks on him.

8.    Now, the string still remained suspended between the trees. How were the monkeys that formed it to get free again? Of course, the one that had clutched the branch with his arms might easily let go, but that would bring them back to the same side from which they had started, and would separate them from the rest of the band. Those forming the bridge would, therefore, be as far from crossing as ever.

9.    There seemed to be a difficulty here—that is, to some of our

travellers. To the monkeys themselves, there was none. They knew well enough what they were about, and they got over the seeming difficulty in the following manner:—The one at the tail end of the bridge simply let go his hold, and the whole string then swung over, and hung from the tree on the opposite bank, into which they climbed without any trouble.    —Captain Mayne Reid, in Forest Exiles (Adapted).


Fi-del-i-ty, faithfulness; close observance of duty.

Mu-ti-ny, uprising' against a government cr ruler.

Re-lief; aid; help.

Res-i-dents, people who live in a place. Ceased, stopped. 44

Sub-urbs, places outside but near a town. Ab-sorbedi much taken up with.

For-got-ten, let go from the memory.

Route (root), way ; course ; road.

Re-flec-tions, images given back from a surface.

the mutiny in India in 1857, and was one of the generals who, by rapid marches, came to the relief of the small body of British troops that, with women and children, and other residents, was shut up in Lucknow, and exposed to a hail of bullets, which ceased neither day nor night.

2. In the year 1849, he was allowed leave of absence for the sake of his health, and returned to England for a short time. He took a house in one of the suburbs of London. One morning after breakfast, he set out for the city on important business, taking with him his son, a little


boy of about eleven years of age; and, as his business might occupy a good deal of time, his intention was to return late in the evening.

3.    The two were soon in the heart of the great city, among the hundreds of thousands who every hour stream along its streets. Suddenly, when at the north or city end of London Bridge, a thought struck the father, and he told his son to remain where he was until he should come back—which he promised to do in a short time.

4.    Sir Henry was quickly absorbed in the business that had drawn him to the city. He went from street to street, and from office to office, to see different persons ; and his whole mind was filled with what he had to do. The press of work entirely drove his promise to his son out of his mind. He finished his business, and made his way home to his house in the distant suburb.

5.    It was late in the evening when he got home ; and one of the first questions put to him on entering was : u But where is Henry ?”

Dear me!” lie cried, “ I’ve quite forgotten him; he must beat London Bridge still; I must go and fetch him at once.”

££ 0, do sit down and have something to eat!” said his wife.

6.    ‘£ Certainly not; I must not leave him there a minute longer than I can help.” He hurried off, and made his way as speedily as lie could by the same route which he had taken in the morning. He reached the bridge at midnight.

7.    There, on the very spot where he had left him twelve hours before, he found his faithful son pacing quietly up and down till his father should come to rejoin him. Hour after hour had passed away, each hour becoming longer, more weary, and more leaden-footed than the last; but the boy stuck to his post. Day became evening, and evening passed into night; but the boy did not think of moving. Light came out after light, and the long lines of lamps streamed their broken reflections on the cold, flowing river; but the boy quietly paced up and down, and stuck to his post. Tens of thousands of human faces swept past him ; but he looked in vain for the face of his father among them. He began to feel cold and hungry—he was only eleven years old, and quite tired out; but he knew that his father would come, because he had made a promise.

8.    Well, the boy was very glad when it was over ; and the father was very glad to find his son at his post, and very sorry to think that he had forgotten his promise to him for so long. In India, many years afterwards, the son, as a soldier, proved himself on several battlefields to be as brave and faithful as he had been when a boy.


Scent-less, having no scent or odour. 1. ’Tis the last rose of summer

Left blooming alone ;

All her lovely companions Are faded and gone ;

With-ered, faded; shrivelled up.

No flower of her kindred,

No rosebud is nigh To reflect back her blushes,

To give sigh for sigh.

2.    I’ll not leave thee, thou lone one,

To pine on the stem ;

Since the lovely are sleeping,

Go sleep thou with them.

Thus kindly I scatter Thy leaves o’er the bed,

Where thy mates of the garden Lie scentless and dead.

3.    So soon may I follow

When friendships decay ;

And from Love’s shining circle The gems drop away.

When true hearts lie withered,

And fond ones are flown,

Oh ! who would inhabit This bleak world alone ?

—Thomas Moore (1779-1852),


Cor-por-al, officer of the lowest rank.    I U-ni-form, dress of a particular style or fashion

Ac-quaint-ed with, knew personally.    I    worn by persons in the same service or order.

1.    One day, during the American War of Independence (1775-83), when his army was in camp, Washington was walking about alone to see what was going on. As it was winter, he had put on a long overcoat that hid his uniform : and so the soldiers among; whom lie passed, unless they were acquainted with him, did not know that he was the general.

2.    At one place, there was a corporal with his men building a breastwork of logs. They were just about raising a very heavy log when Washington came up.

3.    “ Heave ho !” cried the little corporal who was in command of the party. “ Up with it, men ! Up with it! ” But he did not put a hand to it himself. The men lifted with all their might. The log was almost to its place, but it was so heavy they could not move it any farther.

4.    The corporal cried again, “ Heave ho! Up with it!” The men were not able to do more ; their strength was almost gone ; the log was about to fall.

. 5. Then Washington ran forward, and, with his strong arms (he was a powerful man, and over six feet in height) gave them the help they so much needed. The big log was lifted upon the breastwork, and the men looked their thanks at the stranger who had been so kind. But the corporal said nothing.

6.    “ Why don’t you take hold and help your men with this heavy lifting ?” asked Washington.

“Why don’t I ?” said the little man. “ Don’t you see that I am the corporal ?”

7.    “ Oh, indeed !” said Washington, as he unbuttoned his overcoat, and showed the uniform which he wore. “ Well, I am the general and, the next time you have a log too heavy for your men to lift, send for me, and I will gladly come to help you again.”

8.    You can imagine howT the little corporal felt when he saw that it was General Washington who stood before him. It was a good lesson to him.


[On the wall of a bedroom in Skibo Castle, the country seat in Scotland of that rich and liberal man, Mr. Andrew Carnegie, is the following little poem in gold lettering on watered silk, bordered with sprays of green.]

1. Sleep sweetly in this quiet room, 0 thou, whoe’er thou art,

And let no mournful yesterday Disturb thy peaceful heart;

2. Nor let to-morrow scare thy rest With dreams of coming ill;

Thy Maker is thy changeless friend— His love surrounds thee still.

3, Forget thyself and all the world, Put out each glaring light;


The stars are watching overhead : Sleep SAveetp’ then—Good-night!

No. 27.

The ascent of heated air is illustrated by the following simple experiment:—



Mrs. Southey.


A spiral, of the shape shown in the figure,

is cut out of a sheet of stiff writing paper, and lightly balanced over the flame of a lamp.

The cold and heavier air flowing in from all sides displaces the column of warm and lighter air over the flame, and creates a draught upwards. The force of this ascending air will cause the spiral to turn round rapidly.

—s. s.


“ Frena dei torbidi.”

• » «

Id .,d : d

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Launch thy bark ma - ri - ner ! Christian, God speed thee ! Let loose

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Look on the

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weather bow ! Break - ers are round thee ! Let fall the








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Slack - en not


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sail yet, At

I s : s ,t-r' ,s I s in - let or is


I . d' :d . d

s I . d':d . d I

land, Straight for the

The Christian Mariner—continued.



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1 r . ,r : r I d . s : m . d I s : s I    :    I s . ,s : s •

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blast !

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I - r» : t - s I d :

Heav’n is thy home !

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home !

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.


FOR CLASS IV. (1902).

No. 55.]    MELBOURNE.    [May, 1902.


Pas-ture, grass land for cattle, horses, &c.

El-der-tolooms' flowers of the elder, a shrub that bears small black or red berries.

State, whole body of people who are united under one government; nation.


They drive home the cows from the pasture,

- Up through the long shady lane,

Where the thrush47 whistles loud in the wheat fields

That are yellow with ripening grain.

They find, in the thick waving grasses,

Where the scarlet-lipped strawberry grows;

They gather the earliest snow-drops,

And the first crimson buds of the rose.

They toss the new hay in the meadow;

They gather the elder-blooms white;

They find where the dusky grapes purple48 49

In the soft-tinted October light.

Au-thor, one who composes or writes a book.

States-man, man versed in public affairs and in the principles and art of government.

Pal-ette (pdl-et), thin board, with a thumb hole at one end for holding it, on which a painter lays and mixes his colour.

They know where the apples grow ripest,

And are sweeter than Italy’s wines; They know where the fruit hangs the thickest

On the long, thorny blackberry-vines.

3. But those who toil bravely are strongest;

The humble and poor become great; And so from these brown-handed children

Shall grow mighty rulers of state. Then the pen of the author and statesman,

The noble and wise of the land, — The sword, and the chisel, and palette Shall be heldin the littlebrownhand.


United States of America.

3 the catavvba, a wild grape of the United States.


As-ton-ish-ment, wonder; surprise.

Bus-i-ly, in a busy manner.

Vex-a-tion, annoyance.

Curds, thickened part of milk.

Whey (hway), watery part of milk, separated from the curd in making cheese.

Par-tic-U-lar, careful; exact.

Clean-li-ness {klen^li-nes), state of being clean. Suc-ceed; obtain the object desired. Dis-ap-peared[ passed out of sight.

Glimpse, short, hurried view.

In-dus-try, steady attention to work.

2.    “ Dear me! ” said Bella, holding up both her hands in

astonishment. “Well, Polly is a lucky woman, and I have always said so. She takes good care, however, that I never see her servant. What sort of a servant is she ? and how came she to have only one eye ?    _

3.    “It runs in her family,” replied the cobbler, stitching busily; “they are all so—one eye apiece; yet they make a very good use of it. And Polly’s servant has four cousins who have no eyes at all; and they sometimes help her. I’ve seen them in the cottage myself. And that is the way Polly gets a good deal of her money. They all work for her ; and she sells what they make, and buys, with the money, all those handsome things you mentioned.”

4.    “Only think,” said BeLla, almost ready to cry with vexation, “and I’ve no one to do anything for me, how hard it is!” and she took up her apron to wipe away her tears.

The cobbler looked closely at her. “Well, you are to be pitied, certainly,” he said; “and, if I were not in such a hurry,—”

5.    “Oh, do go on, pray—were you going to say you could help me? I've heard that people like you are fond of curds and whey. Now, if you would help me, I would set the nicest curds and whey on the hearth every night for you.”

6.    “Well, you see,” said the cobbler, stopping, “my people are very particular about—in short, about—cleanliness, mistress; and your house is not what one would call very clean. No offence, I hope?”

7.    Bella blushed deeply. “Well, but it would be always clean if you would—if you would help me. Every day of my life, I would scrub the floor ; and the hearth would be white-washed, and the windows cleaned.”

8.    “Well,” said the cobbler, seeming to consider, “well, then, I should not wonder if I could find a one-eyed servant for you; but it may be several days before I succeed,—but mind, mistress, I’m to have a good dish of curds and whey.”

“Yes, and some nice cream too,” replied Bella, full of joy.

The cobbler then took up all his tools, wrapped them in his leathern apron, and disappeared.

9.    Bella was delighted, and, at once, set to work to clean and tidy her house. Her husband scarcely knew it when he came home, she had made it so bright and clean ; she had washed the curtains, cleaned the windows, rubbed the fire-irons, scrubbed the floor, and set a great jug of flowers on the table.

After tea, her husband, instead of lighting his pipe and strolling up to the public-house, borrowed a spade, and began to dig in the garden.

10.    Bella kept a sharp look-out both for the tiny cobbler and on her neighbour’s house, to see whether she could possibly catch a glimpse of the one-eyed servant. But no; nothing could she see but her neighbour hard at work, scrubbing, washing, sewing, day in and day out.

11.    At last, one day, when she was quite tired of waiting and watching, she heard the voice of the cobbler outside. She ran to the door, and cried out—

“ Oh ! please come in, sir ; only look at my house ! ”

“Really,” said the cobbler, looking round, “I declare I should hardly have known it. This is an improvement. The sun can now shine brightly through the clean windows; and what a sweet smell of tlowers !”

12.    “Have you found the servant for me?” asked Bella. “You remember, I hope, that I can’t pay her any wages;—have you met with one that will come?”

“All’s right,” replied the little man, nodding. “I’ve got her with me.”

“Got her with you?” repeated Bella, looking round. “I see nobody.”

13.    “Look, here she is,” said the cobbler, holding up something in a piece of folded paper.

Would you believe it?—the one-eyed servant was nothing but a needle !

But the little cobbler had written the word “Industry” on the paper. Bella and her husband took the hint, and soon were as thriving as their neighbours. By the way, it was not long either before Bella found work for the needle’s four blind cousins.



Set-tle-ment, place or region newly settled.

Of-fered, proffered; tendered.

Col-O-niStS, members of a colony, or company of people transplanted from their mother country to a remote province, and remaining under the rule of the parent State.

Scar-ci-ty, short supply ; want.

Sur-vey-Or, one who surveys or measures land.

Re-ceiv-ing, taking what is given.

Stir-name, family name; name added to the Christian name.

• Ex-plor-er, one who ranges over a new country for the purpose of discovery.

Cir-cum-stance, fact; condition.

Drought (drout), want of rain or water.

Ex-pe-di^tion, journey over a new country by a body of persons for a valuable end ; persons making such a journey. 50

Con-vict, person found guilty of a crime ; here, such a one who has been transported, or sent from his native land to a prison in a remote province.

A-ban-don-ing, giving up.

Anx-i-e-ty, care ; disquiet; uneasiness.

Re-lief? ease; that which removes or lessens evil, pain, or discomfort.

Ex-cur-sion, short trip or journey.

Ev-i-dent-ly, clearly; plainly.

De-scribed; set forth ; related.

Dif-fi-cul-ties, obstacles; obstructions ; things hard to do.

Dis-ap-point-ment, failure of expectation or hope.

offered, could find a way to the region that lay beyond, till 1813, when a party of three—Lawson, Blaxland, and Wentworth—discovered a pass after seventeen days’ hard work.

2.    Soon, the pent-up flocks and herds of the colonists were driven over to the Bathurst Plains ; and the people of Sydney began to desert their ordinary occupations for wool-growing. Land was to be had for the taking, but there was a scarcity of water. Ruin hung over the head of every flock-owner who was not within reach of a permanent stream. The Government surveyors were, therefore, always on the look-out for rivers.

3.    In 1815, the Lachlan was discovered by Evans, and traced in a south-westerly direction for three hundred miles. It was called after

the Governor, his Christian name being given to it. The Macquarie had been found by the same surveyor, two years before, and named after the Governor, receiving his surname. These rivers surprised their explorers by ending in vast, reedy marshes. From this circumstance, it was supposed that the interior of the continent was an immense sea, into which all the rivers emptied themselves ; and interest in exploration died out for a time.

4.    The discovery, however, by Ovens and Currie, iu 1823, of the Murrumbidgee River, and, by Hume and Hovell, in 1824, of the Hume (afterwards renamed the Murray), both flowing westward, revived this interest, and increased the belief in the existence of an inland sea.

5.    In 1828, a severe drought prevailed in Hew South Wales,

and Governor Darling thought that an expedition undertaken during the drought might be able to settle the question.

6.    He gave the command of the expedition to Captain Charles Sturt, who was in the colony on service, and was known to be fond of taking journeys into new country on his own account. With him went Hume, two soldiers, and six convicts. Their orders were to explore, for a period of six months, the country beyond the Macquarie Swamps.

7.    With ample stores, horses, a team of bullocks, and a boat, they traced the Macquarie downwards, till it lost itself in a marsh densely covered with reeds, through which the explorers were unable to travel

very far. The ground was often moist, but never wet; and there was little to suggest that the whole surface had been under water, as Oxley had found it ten years earlier.    _

8. Abandoning all hope of taking up the Macquarie again, Captain

145°    150


Sturt, with his party, took a more northerly course. As they advanced, the dry state of the country caused them much anxiety, and the want of water began to tell upon the horses. They obtained some relief, however, when they discovered the Hew Year Creek (named the Bogan, afterwards, by Mitchell), down which they travelled till it also was found to end in beds of dry reeds.

9. In an excursion northwards from it, they suddenly found themselves on the banks of a noble river. From a sloping bank on which they stood, there stretched, some forty feet below them, a stream, seventy or eighty yards broad, evidently very deep, and covered with pelicans and other wild fowl.

10. “Our surprise and delight,” wrote Sturt, “may he better imagined than described. Our difficulties seemed to be at an end, for here was a river that promised to reward all our exertions. Its banks were too steep to allow of our watering the cattle, but the men eagerly ran down to quench their thirst. Never shall I forget their cries of amazement, and their looks of disappointment, when they called out to inform me that the water was unfit to drink. Thil was, indeed, too true. The discovery was a blow for which I was not


(Photo, kindly supplied by the Rev. J. Milne Curran. This picture appears also, with good letterpress, in Taylor’s Geography of Hew South Wales : Messrs. Angus and Robertson.)

prepared. The cup of joy was dashed out of our hands, before we had time to raise it to our lips.”

11.    The explorers kept the bank of the river, which Sturt called the Darling after the Governor, for sixty or seventy miles downwards, but, as it still continued salt, they had to return to the Bogan. This stream they followed up, worked round the swamps again to the Castle-reagh, and traced its dry bed to the Darling, which was found no less salt than it was where they had left it ninety miles lower down. They discovered, however, that its saltness was due to brine springs along its course, so that their first idea that it formed part of an inland sea had to be given up.

12.    The whole country was parched, the men were becoming ill, the cattle could scarcely crawl, and so Sturt turned for home, feeling that he had done as much as was possible in such a drought.


Pert, bold ; saucy.

Com-ments, remarks.

Min-ute (min-it), sixtieth part of an hour. Re-plied/ answered.

Quar-relled, fell out; had a difference. Im-i-ta-ting, copying ; following as an example. Mis-for-tune, disaster; mishap; ill. Dis-a-gree/ differ; quarrel.

1.    A fine bright-eyed needle was resting one day,

After two or three hours of labour,

When a pert little pin, that had plenty to say,

Began to find fault with her neighbour.

“ Pray what are you good for?” the little pin said,

“A poor, slender creature without any head.”

2.    The needle was vexed by such comments as these,

And gave this unfriendly reply:

“Of what use is your head I would ask, if you please,

So long as you have not an eye?”

“Of what use is an eye,” said the pin in a minute,

“ If, from morning to evening, you have something in it?”

3.    “Well, I am more active,” the needle went on,

“Than you, and more work I get through.”

“Yes,” answered the pin, “but you will not live long;

So I have the better of you.”

“Not live? and, pray, why not?” the needle replied.

“Because you have always a stitch in your side.”

4.    “How crooked you are,” said the needle, “how small

Is your figure ! how clumsy your make ! ”

“But you are so proud that you can’t bend at all,”

Said the pin, “or your back you must break.”

Thus foolishly quarrelled the needle and pin,

For the battle was one in which neither could win.

5.    A little girl came to the workbox, and tried—

Imitating her mother—to sew;

She soon broke the needle, and threw it aside;

Then she took up the pin; but you know That it has not an eye, so she tied on the thread,

But, in trying to sew, she tore off its head.

6.    “We have something to cry about now,” said the pin,

“As here in misfortune we lie.”

“Ah, how silly we were such a strife to begin,”

The needle replied with a sigh;

“And people, I fancy, when they disagree,

A picture in us of their folly may see.”    —Anonymous.


1. A soldier’s widow lived in a hut on the outskirts of a village in the Tyrol (ttr*oZ), a mountainous part of Austria lying to the north-east

Sur-den, that which is wearisome or grievous ; load.

Con-trolf subdue ; govern.

Ty-rol-ese (tie-rol-ease, or tyr-o-lease), native or inhabitant of the Tyrol; the people of the Tyrol.

Re-sist-ed, withstood ; strove against.

De-ter-mined, resolved ; had a fixed intention.

De-feat-ed, overthrew.

In-vad-ers, those who enter a country with a view to conquest or plunder.

Ex-ist-ed, was.

In-hab-it-ants, those who dwell permanently in a place.

Anx-i-e-ty, uneasiness ; disquiet; trouble.

In-va-sion, entrance into a country of a foreign army.

Op-por-tu-ni-ty, suitable occasion ; chance.

Sin-gU-lar, strange ; unusual.

Com-rades, mates; companions; associates.

Tur-pen-tine, liquid obtained from the pitch of the pine-tree. (It readily catches fire.)

Weap-on, something to fight with, as a gun, sword, &c.

An-guish, extreme pain, either of body or mind.

of Switzerland. Her only child, Hans, was a cripple. He loved his mother, and would g’ladly have helped her to bear her burdens, if he had been strong enough to do so. He had reached the age of fifteen, and he often felt keenly the fact that he was useless to his mother and to the world.

2.    The great, emperor of the French, Napoleon Bonaparte,1 was, at this time, making his power felt throughout Europe, and he had sent a large army to gain control of the Tyrol.

3.    The Tyrolese resisted bravely. The men, women, and children of that mountain-land were determined to defend their homes to the last. On one occasion, ten thousand invaders were destroyed in a single mountain-pass, by an immense mass of rocks and trees prepared and hurled upon them by an unseen foe.

4.    Among the Tyrolese, there existed a secret plan whereby the approach of the enemy was to be made known from village to village. It was to be done by means of signal-fires from one mountain height to another, and great heaps of dry wood, ready to be lit, were piled up in certain places.

5.    The village where Hans and his mother lived was in the direct line of march the French army would take ; and the inhabitants of the neighbourhood were, therefore, full of anxiety and fear. All were preparing for the expected struggle, the widow and her crippled son alone seeming to have no part but to sit still and wait.

6.    “ Ah, Hans,” she said, one evening, “ it is well for us now that you can be of little use ; they would otherwise make a soldier of you.” At these words, tears began to roll down the lad’s cheeks. “ Mother, I am useless,” cried Hans, in bitter grief. “ Look round our village— all are busy, all ready to strike for home and fatherland—I alone am useless.”

7.    “ My boy, my kind, dear son, you are not useless to me.”

“ Yes, to you ; I cannot work for you, cannot support you in your old age. "Why was I ever born, Mother ?”

“ Hush, Hans,” said his mother ; “ such thoughts are wrong. You will live to find the truth of our old proverb—

‘ For every man God has His plan.’ ”

8.    Little did Hans think that, before many weeks had passed, the truth of the saying would be shown. Easter holidays, the joyful season of the Tyrolese, came. For a time, the people lost their fears of invasion in the sports of the season. All were busy in the merrymaking—all but Hans. He stood alone at the door of his mother’s hut, looking across the village.

9.    In the evening of Easter Monday, after his usual evening prayer, in which he prayed that the Father of Mercies would, in His good time, afford him some opportunity of being useful to others, he fell into a deep sleep.

10.    He awoke in the night, as if from a dream, with the idea strong in his mind, that the French army was approaching. This thought he conld not shake off; and, with the hope of ridding himself of it, he rose, and, leaving the house, began to make his way slowly np the mountain-path.

11.    He was refreshed by the cool air, and continued his walk till he reached the signal-pile. Hans limped round the pile ; but where were the watchers ? They were nowhere to be seen ; perhaps they were making merry with their friends in the village. Near the pile was an old pine-tree ; and, in its hollow trunk, the flint, steel, and tinder-box used in making fire in those days were laid ready.

12.    Hans paused by the hollow tree, and, as he listened, a singular sound caught his attention. He heard a cautious tread, then the click of muskets, and then he saw two soldiers creeping along the cliff. Hans was hidden behind the old tree ; so the soldiers, seeing no one near the pile, gave the signal to their comrades in the distance.

13.    At once, Hans saw the plot and the danger: the secret of the signal-pile had been made known to the enemy ; a party had been sent forward to destroy it ; the army was marching to attack the village. With no thought of his own danger, and, perhaps, thinking of the proverb his mother had so often repeated to him, he seized the tinder-box, struck a light, and flung the blazing tinder into the pile of wood, over which turpentine had been poured to make it take fire quickly.

14.    The two soldiers, whose backs were turned as they stood waiting for their comrades, were seized with fear ; but they soon saw that there were no foes near the pile—no one to be seen but a lad running down the mountain-path. They fired, and lodged a bullet in his shoulder. But the signal-fire was blazing high, and the whole country would soon be astir. It was already aroused from mountain-top to mountain-top, and the plan of the advancing army was defeated. The invaders dared not make the attack when they found the brave Tyrolese ready to meet them.

15.    Fainting and bleeding, Hans made his way to the village. There, he found the people gathering in great numbers, with their weapons in their hands, and ready to meet their foes. But the foes came not, because they knew that the whole country was alarmed. The inquiry was everywhere heard, “ Who lighted the pile ? ”

16.    “It was I,” said, at last, a faint voice. Poor, crippled Hans tottered among them, saying, “ The enemy—the French were there.” He faltered, and sank upon the ground. “Take me to my mother,” said he ; “ at last, I have been useful.”

17.    They stooped to lift him. “ What is this?” they cried; “he has been shot. It is true : Hans, the cripple, has saved us.” They carried Hans to his mother, and laid him before her. As she bowed in anguish over his pale face, Hans opened his eyes, and said : “ It is not now, my dear mother, you should weep for me; for I am happy. Yes, Mother, it is true—

‘ For every man God has His plan.’

You see He had it for me, though we did not know what it was.”

18.    Hans did not recover from his wound ; but he lived long enough to know that he had been of use to his friends of the village and to his country. He lived to see his mother honoured by the grateful people whom her son had saved at the cost of his own life.

19.    Great opportunities like that which came to Hans cannot come to everybody. To all, however, the Tyrolese proverb may speak . and all will find it to be true. None need stand useless members of God’s great family. There is work for every one to do, if he will but look

for it.    —M. F. Cowdrey (Adapted).

1.    Na-po^le-on Bo-na parte was born in 1769, and died in 1821. He rose from a humble place in the French army to be the conqueror of nearly the whole of Europe He became Emperor of France in 1804, was defeated by the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo, in 1815, and, six years later, died at St. Helena, to which island he had been banished.

2.    Flint, steel, and tinder-box. Before lucifer matches were invented, a fire was kindled by striking sparks from a hard stone called flint, by means of a piece of steel, and causing them to fall upon tinder, which consisted of scorched linen or cotton material, usually kept in a small metal box.


1. Sab-bath Of our God, the rest and peace of Heaven.

Twi-light (adj.), evening ; seen at twilight. Bur-den, load ; tasks; labour.

1. Come to the sunset tree !

The day is past and gone ;

The woodman’s axe lies free,

And the reaper’s work is done.

■2. The twilight star to heaven,

And the summer dew to flowers,

And rest to us is given

By the cool, soft, evening hours.

3.    Sweet is the hour of rest!

Pleasant the wind’s low sigh,

And the gleaming of the west,

And the turf whereon we lie,

4.    When the burden and the heat

Of labour’s task are o’er,

And kindly voices greet The tired one at his door.

5.    Come to the sunset tree 1

The day is past and gone ;


Yearn-ing, longing.

Sab-bath, day of rest; Sunday.

The woodman’s axe lies free,

And the reaper’s work is done.

6.    Yes, tuneful is the sound

That dwells in whispering boughs ; Welcome the freshness round,

And the gale that fans our brows.

7.    But rest more sweet and still

Than ever nightfall gave,

Our yearning hearts shall fill In the world beyond the grave.

8.    There shall no tempest blow,

No scorching noontide heat;

There shall be no more snow,

No weary, wandering feet.

9.    So we lift our trusting eyes

From the hills our fathers trod,

To the quiet of the skies,

To the Sabbath of our God.1 Felicia D. Hemans (h'Zmranz), 1793-1835.


Suit-a-ble, fitting; proper.

Pro-duc-tion, work of producing or making.

Es-tabmshed, set up in a place.

A-re-a, extent of surface.

Sluice, passage for water, fitted with a valve or gate for stopping or regulating the flow.

E-vap-O-ra-ting, passing off in vapour.

Den^si-ty, relation of the quantity of matter to its bulk or volume.

Gon-sid-er-a-bly, in a degree not trifling or unimportant; much.

E-vap-O-ra^tion, process by which a liquid passes oil in the form of vapour.

De-pos-i-ted, laid or thrown down.

Dense, thick ; containing much matter in a small space.

Crys-tal, regular form which certain substances take in solidifying.

Un-whole-some, not tending to promote health. Thatched, covered with a roof of straw, reeds, or some similar material.

Dis-SOlv-ing, melting.

Re-fined; reduced to a fine, unmixed, or pure state.

1. There are several sources from which the hundreds of thousands of tons of salt used, year by year, throughout the world are obtained.

2.    In many places, beds of salt have been discovered in the ground. Some of these are worked by miners, who sink shafts, make tunnels, and dig out the substance called rock-salt. Others, however, are not worked in this way. The owners find it cheaper to have them flooded with water, which, being allowed to stand, becomes brine. This is pumped out, and run into large, shallow pans placed over a fire. The water is thus driven off in the form of vapour, and the salt is left.

There are also salt springs, from which the brine is drawn, and treated in the same way.

3.    The main source, however, of qommon salt is sea-water. Hence the name bay-salt. Bay-salt can be produced only in countries that have a warm, dry climate, such as, for example, France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, in Europe. The climate of Victoria is suitable for its production ; and, a few years ago, a spot was chosen, and works


established at Stingaree (sting-a-ree ) Bay, a shallow inlet of Corio Bay, about three miles from Geelong. Thousands of tons of salt are harvested there every year.

4.    The salt garden, as the works are called, is about 500 acres in extent, and is divided by miles of walls into nearly a hundred and fifty tanks, which vary in size from one to fifty acres. The whole area is cut off from the sea by a wall, in which there are sluice-gates to admit the sea-water when it is required.

5.    When the water enters through the sluice-gates, it is held in the largest tanks until, through the evaporating action of the sun and wind, its density is raised considerably. It is then run into other tanks, where it remains until, through evaporation, its density becomes that of brine. By this time, it has lost some of its impurities (the chief one being lime), which, as the water gets denser, are deposited on the bottom of the tanks.


6.    This brine is then pumped into other tanks; and, as the evaporation goes on, the water becomes too dense to hold the salt, and deposits it in beautiful crystals on the bottom, where it forms a layer.

7.    When the water has lost all the pure salt it will give up, it is pumped into channels that carry it into the sea again. This mother-liquor, as it is called, contains many bitter and unwholesome substances ; and, if it were not removed at the right time, these impurities would be deposited on the pure salt.

8.    After the mother-liquor has been removed, the salt is harvested by shovelling it up into heaps. There it is allowed to drain for a time before it is made into stacks of several hundreds of tons each. The stacks are thatched to prevent the rain from dissolving the salt.

9.    As harvested, it is known as bay-salt, but much of this is refined by being dissolved in fresh water that is afterwards evaporated in iron pans over a fire. A large quantity also of pure crystals are crushed to fine powder to form table-salt.

10.    At the sale garden, Stingaree Bay, work begins in September, by letting the sea-water into the large tanks ; and it continues through the summer. In March, hundreds of heaps of salt, placed in lines, and glistening in the sun, are to be seen. It is a pretty sight—one worth going some distance to look at.



Tor-toise (tor-tiz or tor-tus), any one of several kinds of the class of animals called reptiles.

Scor-pi-on, creature found in warm countries of_ the world. (It has a sting- at the end of its tail, the wound from which is very painful, hut seldom, if ever, causes death to a human being.)

Hab-i-ta-tion, place of abode; settled dwelling.

Trav-elled, journeyed.


Hes-i-ta-tion,act of stopping respecting action ; doubt.

Whet-ting, sharpening.

Un-grate-ful, not thankful for favours De-fence; protection, as from violence or danger. De-Serv-est,meritest; art worthy of (something due, either good or evil).

In-grat-i-tude, unthankfulness.

1. A tortoise and a scorpion had once formed such a friendship that the one could not live without the other. These companions, one day, finding themselves obliged to change their habitatio n, travelled together ; but,

m their meeting a large deep river,

the scorpion,    the scorpion.

making a stop, said to the tortoise, “ My dear friend, you are well provided for what we see before us, but how shall I get over this water ?”

‘ way, with and

“ Never trouble yourself, my dear friend, about that,” replied the tortoise ; “ I will carry you upon my back, secure from all danger.”

2.    Upon this, the scorpion, without hesitation, got upon the hack of the tortoise, who began to swim across. But he was hardly halfway over the river when he heard a noise upon his hack, which made him ask the scorpion what he was doing.

“ Doing I ” replied the scorpion ; “ why, I am whejtting my sting to try whether I can bore this horny shell of yours, which covers your flesh like a shield.”

3.    “ Oh, ungrateful wretch ! ” cried the tortoise ; “ wouldst thou, at a time when I am proving my friendship—wouldst thou, at such a time, pierce with thy sting the defence which nature has given me, and take away my life ? It is well, however, I have it in my power both to save myself and reward thee as thou deservest.” So saying, he sank to some depth in the water, threw off the scorpion, and left him to pay with his life the price of his ingratitude.


Com-plained' grumbled ; found fault. Crav-ing, longing for.

Ob-tain^ing, procuring ; gaining possession of. Pre-ten-ces, appearances.

1.    A story is told of a dog that had been found guilty of obtaining goods under false pretences. He was very fond of sausages, and had been taught by his owner to go after them for himself, carrying a written order in his. mouth. Day after day, he appeared at the butcher’s shop, carrying his master’s order, “ Please, give the bearer a sausageand, by-and-by, the butcher became careless about reading the paper.

2.    Finally, when the butcher sent in his bill, the owner of the dog complained that he was charged for more sausages than he had ordered. The butcher was surprised ; and, the next time u Lion ” came to the shop with a slip of paper between his teeth, he took the trouble to look at it. The paper was blank; and, on the dog being watched, it was discovered that, whenever he felt a craving for sausage, he looked round for a piece of paper, and trotted off to the butcher's with it in his mouth !


Ra-vlne' (ra-veen'), deep and narrow hollow ;

Pet-al (pet-al), one of the leaves of the corolla,

mountain cleft.

Flo-ret (flow-ret), little flower. Mar, damage; do injury to.

or the coloured leaves of a flower. Ckal-ice (chal-is), cup.

Bon-ny, beautiful; pretty.

1. There is a story I have heard — A poet learned it of a bird,

And kept its music every word.

2. A story of a dim ravine,

O’er which the towering tree-tops lean With one blue rift of sky between;

3.    And there, two thousand years ago,

A little flower, as white as snow, Swayed in the silence to and fro.

4.    Day after day, with longing eye,

The floret watched the narrow sky, And fleecy clouds that floated by.

5.    And, through the darkness, night by


One gleaming star would climb the height,

And cheer the lonely floret’s sight.

6.    Thus watching the blue heavens afar, And the rising of its favourite star, A slow change came —but not to mar;

7.    For softly o’er its petals white There crept a blueness, like the light Of skies upon a summer night.

8.    And, in its chalice, I am told,

The bonny bell was formed to hold A tiny star that gleamed like gold.

9. Now, little people sweet and true, I find a lesson here for you,

'Writ in the floret’s bell of blue:


10. The patient child whose watchful eye Strives after all things pure and high,

Shall take their image by-and-by.



No. 29.


Make a small paper bag that will hold water, and suspend it, half-filled with water, as shown in the accompanying figure. It will be found that the water can be boiled by the aid of a spirit-lamp, whilst the paper containing it will not be scorched.

How does it come about that the paper is not scorched ? In this way:—The water cannot get hotter than boiling point, nor will it let the paper get hotter. This temperature is not high enough for the paper to catch fire. The heat is rapidly conveyed away from the paper by the water, and used up in evaporating the water.

—s. s.


Drowsiness will clothe a man with rags.

Better suffer for truth than prosper by falsehood.

He that studieth revenge keepeth his own wounds green.—Bacon. Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.—Shakspere.



Lord Mornington.





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By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.



FOR CLASS IV. (1902).

No. 56.]    MELBOURNE.    [June, 1902.


Hal-lOW, make holy.

Ex-ile, one who separates, or is forced to separ' ate, himself from his home.

Splen-dour, display ; pomp.

Daz-zles, bewilders or surprises by display of any kind.

Thatched, having a roof of straw, rushes, or the like.

1.    Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam,

Be it ever so humble, there’s no place like home !

A charm from the skies seems to hallow all there,

Which, seek through the world, is ne’er met with elsewhere. Home ! home ! sweet home !

There’s no place like home.

2.    An exile from home, splendour dazzles in vain :

Oh, give me roy lowly thatched cottage again ;

The birds singing gaily that came at my call :

Give me these, and the peace of mind dearer than all.

Home ! sweet, sweet home !

There’s no place like home.

—John Howard Payne (1792-1852), an American actor and playwright. He had no home, in the true sense, during the last forty years of his life.


Com-po-si-tion, making; invention.

Gen-ius (jeen-yus), superior power of invention. An-noun-cing, making known.

Paus-ing, stopping.

Peace-ful-ly, quietly; calmly.

Med-i-cine (med-isin or med-nin), physic. Ad-dressi name and place of residence of a person

Pro-vi-sions, eatables.

Ad-mit-ted, given a right of entrance. 51

Di-a-monds, precious stones, remarkable for their hardness and brilliancy.

Be-wil-dered, confused; greatly perplexed. Plain-five, mournful; sad.

Mel-O-dy, air or tune of a musical piece. In-stant-ly, at once.

Rec-Og-nised, knew again.

Ap-plaud-ed, shown approval of by clapping the hands, or by other signs.

the window. There he stood and watched a man putting up a bill with large letters, announcing that Madame Malibran would sing at a concert that evening.

3.    “ Oh, if I could only go ! ” thought little Peter. Then, pausing a moment, he clasped his hands. His eyes lit up, and, running to a little chest of drawers, he smoothed down his hair, and, taking from a drawer some papers, gave one eager glance at his mother, who was sleeping peacefully, and ran swiftly from the house,

4.    “ Who, did you say, was waiting for me ? ” said the lady to her servant. “ I am already very tired, and do not wish to see company.”

“ It is only a handsome boy, with yellow curls, who says, if he can only see you, he is sure you will not be sorry, and he will not keep you long.”

“ Well, let him come in,” said the beautiful singer, with a smile ; “ I can never refuse children anything.”

5.    Little Peter entered, his cap under his arm, and, in his hand, the papers he had taken out of the drawer. With manliness unusual in a child so young, he walked straight to the lady, and, bowing, said, “ I have called to see you, because my mother is very ill, and we are too poor to get food and medicine. I thought that, perhaps, if you would only sing one of my little songs at one of your concerts, I could sell it, and so get a little money to buy what my poor mother so much needs.”

6.    The tall and stately woman rose from her chair, took the papers from the boy’s hand, and softly hummed the air. “ Did you compose this ? ” she asked,—“ you, a child ! And the words, too ! Would you like to come to my concert, to-night ? ” she asked, after a pause.

“Oh, yes,” and the boy’s eyes grew bright with happiness; “but I could not leave my mother.”

7.    “ If you will give me your address, I will send some one to take-care of your mother for the evening; and here is some money with which you can get food and medicine for her. Here is also one of my tickets. Come to-night; that will admit you to a seat near me.”

8.    Almost beside himself with joy, Peter departed ; and, on his way home, bought some provisions, including a few oranges, which he joyfully carried to his sick mother, telling her, not without tears, of liis good fortune.

9.    When evening came, and Peter was admitted to the concert nail, he felt that never in his life had he been in such a grand place. The many lights, the music, the beauty of the ladies, the flashing of" their diamonds, and the rustling of their silk dresses, almost bewildered his brain. At last, Madame Malibran came ! and the boy sat with his glance fixed upon her beautiful face.

10.    Could he believe that the grand lady, all blazing with jewels, would really sing one of his little songs ? Breathless, he waited. Then the piano struck up a sweet, plaintive melody, which he instantly recognised, and clapped his hands for joy. But, oh, how she sang it! It was so simple, yet so plaintive, that many a bright eye grew dim with tears ; and the words of that song found an echo in every

listener’s heart, so touching were the words, so sweet and expressive the music !

11. What cared he about money now ? The greatest singer in the world had sung his song ; and thousands had listened to it—had applauded it. The next day, he was surprised by a visit from Madame Malibran. She laid her hand on his head ; and, turning to the sick woman, said, a Madame, your son has brought yon a fortune. I was offered, last night, three hundred pounds for his little song.”

Peter, adding hard study to his natural gift, became one of the greatest of French composers of music.


Cov-er-lid, coverlet; uppermost cover of a bed.

A-maz-ing-ly, in a manner to cause wonder or surprise.

Dearth, want; lack.

Cash, the only current coin made by the Chinese Government. It is a thin, circular disk of a very base alloy of copper, with a square hole in the centre. About 250 of them are equivalent to our shilling.

Pawned, given as security for the payment of money borrowed.

Drought (drout), want of rain or water.

Pur-Chase, buy for a price.

Co-coon', case constructed by an insect to contain its larva or pupa. (The cocoon of the silkworm consists of threads of silk spun by it just before it leaves the larval state.)

Ma-tured; full-grown.

En-vel-oped, surrounded.

Chop-Sticks', small sticks of wood, ivory, &c., used by the Chinese and Japanese to convey food to the mouth.

Skein (skane), quantity of yarn, thread, silk, or the like, put up together, and usually tied in a sort of knot

Bam-bOO' here, part of the stem of a plant that, in hot countries, grows to the height of about forty feet.

Man-u-fac-tured, made up for use,

and poor—rears silkworms. In the town or country, in the back lane or busy street, no matter where, you will scarcely go into a house, during the season, without seeing trays of silkworms stacked up in a frame in one corner of the room. Most of the work of caring for them falls to the women and children ; but the men help too, sometimes.

3.    You who have kept a few silkworms at home, know well the little white eggs laid by last year’s moths, and looking like little white spots on a sheet of paper. The women carry them in their bosoms, or put them on their beds under the coverlid to keep them warm until they are hatched. Then the little worms, in appearance like tiny threads, are put on to a tray with some chopped-up mulberry-leaves, which are to be their food.

so many and they

4.    They grow rapidly, and eat amazingly. Soon, instead of one trayful, one will see several trays full of living, wriggling masses of creatures, crawling over and eating the leaves, which are given to them whole as soon as their babyhood is past. There are of them that they make quite a noise with their munching, seem to be always eating ; seven times a day must they be fed.

5.    If there is a dearth of mulberry-leaves, alas for the poor silkworm-rearers. One season, the price went up from eight cash to eighty cash a catty (one and a third pounds). Many of the poor people pawned their clothing to buy food for the silkworms; they pawned their bedding and all they had, and still the hungry creatures were

not satisfied.    a tray of silkworms.

6.    The drought which caused the leaves to be so scarce was good for the silkworms, and they throve wonderfully, for the hot, dry weather suited them well ; but no more food could be procured, and so trayful after trayful was taken by the unfortunate owners, and turned out into the courtyard of the temple of the city god.

7.    If others, favoured with more means to purchase leaves at such a high price, liked to take them away, they could do so ; if not, it was a mute reproach to the gods who had not helped their owners in such a time of«distress.

8.    The women speak lovingly of them as their “precious ones,” and sing little rhymes to them as they tend them. Here is a sample :—

“ Now, dear grannie silkworm, make haste while you may,

The weather is fine, and the sun shines all day ;

If you’re careless and slothful, why, outside the door,

Some one will be grumbling that you’ve not done more.

Already they’re saying cocoons should be made,

All straight, slim, and proper, like a shut-up sunshade.”

9.    A matured worm is about two inches long. In forty days from the time they are hatched, it is noticed that the under part of the body of some is beginning to turn an orange colour; and the owners know then that these are ready to spin, so they have to be picked out. These “ old ones ” are put amongst some dry straw or withered branches, where they are left until they have enveloped themselves in a casing of bright gold or cream-coloured silk, and are called cocoons.

When ready, they are taken out of the straw, or the branches, and well dried in the sun ; then the silk must be wound off.

10.    A man who understands the business is now engaged. On his left, over a fire, he has a, large cooking-pot, full of boiling -water, into which the cocoons are plunged, whilst, with a pair of chop-sticks, he gathers up the ends of silk and starts winding. The silk is wound on to a large wheel, which he turns with his right foot.

11.    When the wheel is full, the silk is taken off, and tied up in large skeins with bright red cord, which contrasts well with the gleaming yellow silk. It is slung on one end of a bamboo and carried in the hand, or on both ends and carried across the shoulders, to the nearest market, where it is sold to small buyers, who, in their turn, pass it on to the larger buyers, and so on until, at last, some of it finds its way into the far, far distant countries of the West (Europe), where it is manufactured into all kinds of silks and satins.

12.    A few of the country people round Wei-cheng keep enough silk

to weave their <pwn best garment, and sell the rest to the silk-weavers of China to make up into the rich materials worn by the Chinese ladies and gentlemen.    —Gertrude E. Wells, in The Bound World.


Mel-an-chol-y, gloomy; dismal.

Wail-ing, making a mournful sound. Ed-dy-ing, moving in a circular direction. Beau-te-OUS, beautiful ; very handsome.

Or-Chls, plant with showy and often curiously shaped flowers. (There are many kinds of orchises. They are often called orchids.)

Wind^flow-er, anemone.

As-ter, plant that bears handsome flowers. Gold-en-rod' common flower in the United States of America.

Glade, grassy open or clear place in a forest. Fra-grance (fray-grans), sweet smell; perfume. Un-meeti not fit; not proper.

1. The melancholy days are come, the saddest of the year,

Of wailing winds, and naked woods, and meadows brown and sere.

Heaped in the hollows of the grove, the autumn leaves lie dead ;

They rustle to the eddying gust, and to the rabbit’s tread.

The robin and the wren are flown, and from the scrub the jay,

And from the wood-top calls the crow, through all the gloomy day.


2.    Where are the flowers, the fair young flowers, that lately sprang and stood

In brighter light and softer airs, a beauteous sisi erhood ?

Alas ! they all are in their graves : the gentle race of flowers Are lying in their lowly beds, with the fair and good of ours. The rain is falling where they lie ; but the cold November rainl

Calls not, from out the gloomy earth, the lovely ones again.

3.    The wind flower and the violet, they perished long ago,

And the wild-rose and the orchis died amid the summer


But on the hill the golden-rod, and the aster in the wood, And the yellow sun-flower by the brook, in autumn glory stood,

Till fell the frost from the clear, cold heaven, as falls the plague on men,

And the brightness of their smile was gone from upland, glade, and glen.

4.    And now, when comes the calm, mild day, as still such

days will come,

To call the squirrel and the bee from out their winter home,

When the sound of dropping nuts is heard, though all the trees are still,

And twinkle in the smoky light the waters of the rill,

The south wind searches for the flowers, whose fragrance late he bore,

And sighs to find them in the wood and by the stream no more.

5.    And then I think of one, who in her youthful beauty


The fair, meek blossom, that grew up and faded by my side :

In the cold, moist earth we laid her, when the forest cast the leaf,

And we wept that one so lovely should have a life so brief ;

Yet not unmeet it was that one, like that young friend LADY’S SLIPPER

of ours,    ORCHID

So gentle and so beautiful, should perish with the flowers.

—William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878),

an eminent American journalist and poet. 52


I Sur-prised/, astonished ; struck with wonder. Keas-oned, tried to persuade by argument. Whim, odd notion.

Pres-enC3, state of being within sight. Part-ner, one who shares.

Re-ceive; take as something that is given, paid, or the like.

Am-ply, fully.

Re-ward-ed, paid.

‘Con-veyed', carried from one place to another ; transported.

Quests, people received and entertained in one’s • house or at one’s table.

Hon-our (on'-our), esteem due or paid to worth. Ban-quet, feast.

Game, flesh of w Id animals served at table. Pros-pect, ground for hope or expectation. Nec-es-sa-ry, needful; requisite.

Tur-bot, kind of fish highly esteemed as food. (It often weighs from thirty to forty pounds.)

1.    A hundred years ago, before the days of railways, by means of which things can be conveyed long distances in a short time, a Scotch nobleman was visited by some guests of high rank. To do them honour, he told his servants to prepare a banquet for the next day.

2.    Now, there was plenty of meat, game, and fruit for the great occasion ; but, as the sea was very rough, there was little prospect of obtaining the fish that was necessary to make the banquet complete.

3.    The next morning, however, a poor fisherman came to the castle with a large turbot, and was brought to the chief cook. The cook looked at the fish, and, seeing that it was just what he stood in need of, said—“ A fine fish ! Name your price ; you shall be paid at once. How much do you ask ? ”

“Not a penny, sir ; I will not take money. One hundred lashes— not one less—with a whip, on my bare back, is the price of my fish.”

4.    This strange request was at once repeated to the nobleman, who, with his guests, was not a little surprised. The fisherman was brought before him, and he reasoned with the man, but in vain. At length, the nobleman said—“ Well, well, this fellow has a strange whim ; but we must have the fish. So lay on lightly, and let the price be paid in my presence.”

5.    After fifty lashes had been given, “ Hold, hold ! ” cried the

fisherman. “ I have a partner in this business, and it is only right that he should receive his share.”    *

“ What I are there two such fools in the world ? ” said the nobleman. “ Where is your partner to be found ? Name him, and he shall be sent for at once.”

6.    “ You need not go far for him,” said the fisherman. “You will

find him at your own gate, in the shape of your own servant. He would not let me pass until I had promised to give him half of whatever I should get for my turbot.”    ,

7.    “ Oh, ho ! ” said the nobleman, “ bring the fellow here at once ; he shall certainly receive his half with the strictest justice.”

The servant was, therefore, brought, and had to take his share of the lashes. 'He was then turned off from the nobleman’s service, and the fisherman was amply rewarded.



Con-sid-er-a-ble, of importance ; not trifling.

Reach, straight portion of a stream, as from one* turn to another.

Es-tab-lished, secured ; set up.

Re-la-tions, conditions.

Of-fered, proposed ; said they were willing to.

Es-COrt, safeguard on a journey.

Anx-i-e-ty, concern respecting some thing or event.

Con-jec-tures, opinions formed on defective evidence ; surmises.

Ra-pid-i-ty, swiftness; velocity.

Ex-pe-di-tion, excursion by a body of persons for a valuable end.

De-ter-mine, resolve on.

Ro-man-tic, wild; picturesque.

Scen-er-y, combination of natural views, as woods, hills, &c.

Junction, place of union or meeting.

De-cid-ed, determined ; came to a conclusion.

Pur-suedi went along, with a view to some end or object.

Nav-i-ga-tion, act of passing on water in ships or other vessels.

Tor-tu-OUS, twisted ; winding.

1.    Sturt, in his first expedition, had found no inland sea ; but, by tracing to their last drop, the Macquarie, the Bogan, and the Castle-raigh, he had discovered, in the Darling, a main channel of the western watershed of New South Wales. To determine the further course of that river, it would be necessary to regain its banks further to the south ; and Sturt, therefore, proposed to follow the Murrumbidgee.

2.    Governor Darling readily agreed to his plan, and, on the 3rd of November, 1829, Sturt, with McLeay, a young man of twenty, and several others, set out. They took with them, in pieces, a whaleboat, and an ample supply of provisions and firearms.

3.    The Murrumbidgee was reached at a point near its source, amidst wild and romantic scenery. It was here a stream with a strong current, whose waters, foaming and eddying along, gave promise of a continuous and reckless course. But, by-and-by, its character changed, and it ran muddy between reedy banks, with plains stretching away on both sides.

4.    The junction of the Lachlan with the Murrumbidgee had almost been reached when a vast expanse of reeds was met with. As it was impossible to take the drays any farther, Sturt decided to send them back, to put the pieces of the whaleboat together, and also to construct a small boat to carry the meat-casks and tools. After several days spent in boat-building, Sturt and a picked party, eight in all, embarked.

5.    The very next day after starting, the small boat struck upon a snag and sank. Most of the tools were recovered by diving for them, but the supply of salt meat was spoilt—a loss that was very severely felt in days to come.

6.    As they pursued their way, the channel gradually narrowed, and

great trees, swept down by floods, made navigation dangerous. “ On January 14, we rose,” says Sturt, “ with great doubts lest we should thus early witness the wreck of the expedition. The trees had been generally carried by the currents roots foremost; and, at the rate at which we were going, had we struck full on any one, it would have gone through and through the boat .    .    . On a sudden, the river,

while sweeping round in tortuous course to every point of the compass, took a general southern direction. We were carried at a fearful rate

down its gloomy and contracted stream, ont that we were approaching a junction ; and, within less than a minute, we were hurried into a broad and noble river. With such force had we been shot out of the Murrumbidgee, that we were carried nearly to the bank opposite its mouth, as we let the boat float while we gazed . in wonder on the large channel we had entered.

Presently, Hopkinson called

7. “ I could not o doubt that the ri ver a was the great channel of the streams from the south-east angle of the island, either to the south coast or to some important outlet.

Mr. Hume, in 1824, had crossed three very considerable streams, the Hume, the Ovens, and the Goulburn. I considered it more than probable that those rivers must have . already formed a junction above me. With a width of | about 350 feet, and a depth of from 12 to 20 feet, its reaches were from half to three quarters of a mile in length, and the views upon it were splendid.”

8.    No natives were seen on the Murray till late on the 17th of January. Scarcely were the tents pitched that evening, when, on the opposite bank, their wild cries rang through the woods as they advanced to the river. They were fully armed and painted for battle. But Sturt soon established friendly relations with them.

9.    Three days later, thirty-live natives visited the camp and were well treated. One of them, remarkable for his size and strength, with three others, offered to accompany the party some distance as an escort. Their offer was accepted, but, in a day or two, they disappeared.

10.    On the 23rd of January, a mob of natives, yelling a war-song, were seen on the bank ahead. Some had their ribs, thighs, and faces marked with white, and others with red and yellow—a sign of hostility. All held their spears quivering ready to hurl.

11.    Sturt kept the boat in the middle of the river, and the natives ran shouting along the bank. They made for a huge sandbank that


stretched nearly a third of the way across the channel. There they crowded in a dense mass, and some of the chiefs in warlike fury advanced to the water’s edge. To avoid a fight seemed impossible, and Sturt and his men levelled their guns. “ But,” writes Sturt, “ at that very moment, my hand on the trigger, my eye along the barrel, Mc'Leay called out that other blacks had appeared on the left bank. Turning round, I saw four men at the top of their speed. The foremost, when just ahead of the boat, threw himself from a considerable height into the water. He struggled across to the sandbank, and soon stood in front of the savage at whom I had aimed. Seizing him by the throat, lie pushed him into the water, and stamped up and down its margin, now pointing to the boat, then shaking his clenched hand in the faces of the most forward.”

12.    This peacemaker—the powerfnl native, as it proved, with whom a friendship had been formed a few days before—was successful, and soon, two of the daring explorers landed, and were at once surrounded by about 600 talkative and prying natives.

13.    Just past the sandbank, a beautiful stream was observed coming from the north. Sturt at once turned his boat’s head up the new river, which, for many miles, had a breadth of 100 yards, and was over 12 feet deep. The natives kept abreast of the boat, following its progress with evident anxiety, the cause of which became evident when a net was seen stretching across the stream. “ This,” says Sturt, u checked our course ; to have passed over it, disappointing the numbers who depended on it for their day’s food, would have been unfair. As the men rested on their oars awaiting further orders, my mind was full of the conjectures I had formed as to the course of the Darling. Were we now sailing on that very stream ? Believing that we were, I directed that the Union Jack should be hoisted, and we all stood up in the boat and gave three distinct cheers.

14.    “ The eye of every native was fixed upon that beautiful flag as it

waved over us in the heart of the desert. The sight of the flag and the sound of our cheers hushed their chatter ; and, while they were still lost in astonishment, the boat’s head shot round, the sail was sheeted home, and, wind and current favouring, we vanished from them with a rapidity which surprised even ourselves.”    .

{To be continued.)

1.    The Mac-quar-ie, the Bo-gan, and the Cas-tle-raigh (kas-l-ray). For the position of these rivers, see the map in the May number of The School Paper—Class IV.

2.    Dar-ling, Sir Ralph, was Governor of New South Wales from 1825 to 1831.

3.    Sheeted home, hauled upon the sheet till the sail was as fiat, and the clew as near the wind, as possible. Sheet, a rope or chain which regulates the angle of adjustment of a sail in relation to the wind; usually attached to the lower corner of a sail, or to a yard or a boom. Clew, lower corner of a square sail, or the after corner of a fore-and-aft sail.


Lone-li-ness, solitude.

Wal-la-roo; any one of several species of kangaroos.

Boom-er-ang, curved stick of hard wood, used as a weapon for throwing by the aborigines of Australia.

Woo-me-ra or Wom-er-ah &c., weapon of the Australian aborigines, used for throwing a spear.

Nul-lah or Nul-lah-nul-lah. club used as a weapon by the Australian aborigines. 53

U-looUa, evil spirit that the Australian aborigines believe in.

Smoul-der-ing, existing ill a state of suppressed activity; burning inwardly.

Yore, time long past; old time.

Cor-rob-o-ree, festive dance or assemblage of the Australian aborigines ; war dance.

Lu-bra, girl or woman of the Australian aborigines.

Des-O-late, deserted ; lonely ; gloomy.

Mar-vel-lous, astonishing; wonderful.

2.    The wallaroos grope through the tufts of the grass,

And turn to their covers for fear ;

But he sits in the ashes, and lets them all pass Where the boomerang sleeps with the spear—

With the woomera, nullah, and spear.

3.    Uloola, behold him ! The thunder that breaks

On the tops of the rocks with the rain,

And the wind which drives up with the salt of the lakes, Have made him a hunter again—

A hunter and fisher again.

cUt1RAC^ 'V£H\ ^'

From The Australasian.]


4.    For his eyes have been full with a smouldering thought;

But he dreams of the hunts of yore,

And of foes that he sought, and of fights that he fought With those who will battle no more—

Who will go to the battle no more.

5.    It is well that the water which tumbles and fills,

Goes moaning and moaning along ;

For an echo rolls out from the sides of the hills,

And he starts at a wonderful song—

At the sound of a wonderful song.

6.    And lie sees, through the rents of the scattering fogs,

The corroboree warlike and grim,

And the lubra who sat by the lire on the logs,    •

To watch, like a mourner, for him—

Like a mother and mourner for him.

7.    Will lie go in his sleep from these desolate lands,

Like a chief to the rest of his race,

With the honey-voiced woman who beckons and stands,

And gleams like a dream in his face—

Like a marvellous dream in his face.

—Henry Kendall (1842-1882).


Ap-pear-ance, personal presence; manner. Mi-nute' very small.

Ven-tured, dared.

E-ter-ni-ty, endless time. Dis-ap-pearedi ceased to be or exist. A-mazed' greatly surprised.

1.    Once upon a time, a shepherd lad became the wonder of all who heard him, by reason of the answers which he gave to the most difficult questions that could be put to him. His fame spread far and wide; and, at last, the king of the country heard of him, and ordered him to be brought into his presence.

2.    The king was pleased with the appearance of the lad, and said —“ If you give me an answer to the three questions that I am about to put to you, you shall not go back to your sheep, but shall live with me and be as my own child. The first is this : How many drops of water make up the ocean ?”

3.    In a moment or two, the lad replied, u 0 king, cause all the rivers on the earth to cease flowing. Permit not the smallest drop to fall into the sea till I have counted every one. Do this, and I will tell you the number of the drops of water that make up the ocean.”

4.    “ It is well answered,” said the king and those who stood near him. “ But what do you say to this question : How many stars are there in all the sky at night ?” The boy’s answer was quickly ready. “ Have cut for me,” he said, “ a large round sheet of white paper ! ” This was done. Then, with a pin, lie pricked so many minute holes in every part, that they could scarcely be seen, and still less counted.

5.    Then he said, “ The stars in heaven are as many as the holes in this paper. Have them counted ! ” But no one ventured to attempt to count them.1 “ My last question,” said the king, “ is this : Will you number for me the moments of eternity?”

6.    “ There is a mountain,” said the boy, uand it is a mile high, and broad, and deep. Let its grains of earth be carried away, one by one. When the whole mountain has disappeared, then is the first moment of eternity gone.”

7.    The king was amazed at the wisdom of the boy’s answers to all his questions, and henceforth the shepherd lad became as one of his own children.

1. To count them. It might be argued that, if the hoy could prick the holes, they could be counted.


Nat-U-ral-ist, observer of plants and animals. In-ter-est-ing, engaging the attention.

In.-tend.-ed, meant; purposed. Bar-racks, building for soldiers to live in.

1.    A naturalist tells the following interesting story. Some time ago, an English officer in India found a young parrot; and, as he stooped to stroke it, the bird buried its strong beak in the fleshy palm of his hand. Smarting with pain, the officer plunged the bird into a pail of water that stood handy. Instead of drowning it, however, as, perhaps, he had intended, he withdrew the struggling creature, and carefully dried it with a towel. From that moment, the parrot showed the greatest fondness for its master, following him all about the barracks, and sitting at his chair when he was at meals.

2. One day, a flock of wild parrots flew past, and the bird, forsaking its new friend, rejoined its old ones. About a month afterwards, as the officer was out riding, a flock of the same kind of parrots passed by. One of them, however, remained circling over his head, and, at last, down it came to the ground. It was the officer’s lost pet, and the faithful bird followed him back to the barracks, being better pleased to share its master’s company than to remain free.



Fur-rowed, ploughed.

De-scry; see; discover.

Rout, uproar; confusion.

Ag-O-ny, distress; anguish.

Ref^Uge, shelter; protection from danger.

Be-tldei may happen.

Wreaths, circling masses.

De-struc-tion, ruin ; overthrow.

Joy-ous-ly, in a manner that caused gladne ss. Lee, side opposite to that against which the wind

1.    There was joy in the ship as she furrowed the foam,

For fond hearts within her were dreaming of home.

The young mother pressed fondly her babe to her breast,

And sang a sweet song as she rocked it to rest;

And the husband sat cheerily down by her side,

And looked wdth delight in the face of his bride.

“ Oh, happy ! ” said he, “ when our roaming is o’er,

We’ll dwell in a cottage that stands by the shore.

Already in fancy its roof I descry,

And the smoke of its hearth curling up to the sky ;

Its garden so green, and its vine-covered wall,

And the kind friends awaiting to welcome us all.”

2.    Hark ! hark !—what was that ? Hark ! hark to the shout !— “ Fire ! fire!! ”—then a tramp and a rush and a rout,

And an uproar of voices arose in the air :

And the mother knelt down ; and the half-spoken prayer That she offered to God in her agony wild,

Was “ Father, have mercy ! look down on my child ! ”

She flew to her husband, she clung to his side ;—

Oh ! there was her refuge whatever betide.

3.    Fire ! fire ! it is raging above and below ;

And the smoke and hot cinders all blindingly blow.

The cheek of the sailor grew pale at the sight,

And his eyes glistened wild in the glare of the light.

4. They prayed for the light, and, at noontide about,

The sun o’er the waters shone joyously out.

“ A sail, ho ! a sail ! ” cried the man on the lee ;

‘ ‘ A sail ! ” and they turned their glad eyes o’er the sea.

“ They see us ! they see us ! the signal is waved !

They bear down upon us !—thank God ! we are saved ! ”

—Dr Mac kay.


No. 31.—The Two Half-hitches.

FIG. I.    FIG. 2,

The smoke in thick wreaths mounted higher and higher. 0 God ! it is fearful to perish by fire !

Alone with destruction !—alone on the sea !

Great Father of Mercy, our hope is in Thee !

The two half-hitches, or sailor’s knot, is quickly made. Further, this knot holds well, and at the same time is readily cast loose, however tightly drawn. With it one can secure almost anything. It is as useful for tying up a horse as for making fast a boat.    ,

In the diagrams, two varieties of this knot are shown. Its formation is evident. Pass the loose end a of the rope through a ring, or round a post, and bring it up through the loop b. This is one half-hitch. Two of these, one above the other, complete the knot (Fig. 1).


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Brinley Richards.





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A - mong our an - oient moun - tains, And from our love - ly vales, Oh

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let the pray - er

re - echo, God


bless the Prince of i N


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With heart and voice a - wak - en Those min - strel strains of yore, Till






This National Song is published in various forms by Robert Cocks and Co., 6 New Burlington-street W., London.



FOR CLASS IV. (1902).

No. 57.]    MELBOURNE.    [July, 1902.


Ves-per, evening.

1.    How dear to me the hour when daylight dies,

And sunbeams melt along the silent sea;

For then sweet dreams of other days arise,

And memory breathes her vesper sigh to thee.

2.    And, as I watch the line of light that plays

Along the smooth wave toward the burning west,

I long to tread that golden path of rays,

And think ’twould lead to some bright isle of rest.

—Thomas Moore (1779-1852).


Car-gO, lading- of a ship.

Vi-o-lent, furious; severe.

Franc (frank), silver coin of France, worth about tenpence.

Im-pos-si-ble, incapable of being- done. Ac-COm-pa-nied, amended.

Surf, swell of the sea breaking on the shore. In-quired; asked.

Ca-ble, large, strong rope or chain, of considerable length.

Dis-cour-aged, checked ; deterred or dissuaded from.

Hes-i-ta-ted, paused to think.

Yield-ed, gave way.

Per-il-ous, dangerous.

Un-der-tak-ing, attempt; enterprise.

Re-pent^ing, changing his mind on account ef regret.

Quay (key), bank, or wharf, for convenience in loading and unloading vessels.

Dis-grace-ful, shameful.

Prep-a -ra-tions, making ready.

He-ro-ic, brave.

Per-ceivedi saw.

Dis-tiH-guish-ing, knowing anything from other things with which it might, be confounded.

Anx-ious-ly, with painful uncertainty.

Anx-i-e-ty, concern respecting some other thing or event.

Corpse, dead body of a human being.

Per-mit-ted, allowed.

Fa-fugue' (fa-teeg'), weariness ; exhaustion.

prospect of carrying to her his little treasure—two five-franc pieces, which he had earned as his wages for the voyage.

4. The ship was beaten about a whole day by the storm, and it

From a painting' in oils by J. G. White, Esq.]


became impossible to steer clear of the rocks on the coast. By the gloom on the captain’s brow, it might be seen that he had little hope

of saying the ship. All at once, a violent shock was felt, accompanied by a horrible crash—the vessel had struck on a rock.

5.    “Lower the boats,” cried the captain. The sailors obeyed ; but, no sooner were the boats in the water, than they were dashed "to pieces, or carried away, by the violence of the waves.

6.    “We have but one hope of safety,” said the captain. “One of ns must be brave enough to run the risk of swimming with a rope to the shore. We may fasten one end to the mast of the vessel, and the other to a rock on the coast; and, by this, we may all get on shore.”

7.    “ But, Captain, it is impossible,” said the mate, pointing to the surf breaking on the sharp rocks. “ Whoever attempts to run such a risk will certainly be dashed to pieces.”

8.    “Well,” said the captain, in a low tone, “we must all die together.” At this moment, there was a slight stir among the sailors, who were silently waiting for orders.

“ What is the matter there ? ” inquired the captain.

9.    “ Captain,” replied the boatswain, “ this little monkey of a cabin-boy is asking to be allowed to swim to the shore with a strongstring round his body, to draw the cable after him ; ” and he pushed James into the midst of the circle.

“ Nonsense ! such a child can’t go,” said the captain, roughly.

10.    But James was not of a nature to be so easily discouraged. “Captain,” said he, timidly, “you don’t wish to expose the lives of good sailors like these : it does not matter what becomes of a ‘ little monkey ’ of a cabin-boy, as the boatswain calls me. Give me a ball of strong string, which will unroll as I go on, fasten one end round my body, and I promise you that, within an hour, the rope will be well fastened to the shore, or I shall perish in the attempt.”

11.    “ Does he know how to swim ? ” asked the captain.

As swiftly and as easily as an eel,” replied one of the crew.

“ I could swim up the Seine4 from Havre to Paris,” said little James. The captain hesitated, but the lives of all on board were at stake, and he yielded.

12.    James hastened to prepare for his perilous undertaking. Then he turned, and approached the captain. “ Captain,” said he, “as I may be lost, may I ask you to take charge of something for me ? ”

13.    “ Certainly, my boy,” said the captain, who wras almost repenting of having consented to letting him go. “ Here, then, Captain,” replied James, holding out two five-franc pieces wrapped in a bit of rag ; “if lam drowned, and you get safe to land, be so kind as to give this to my mother, who lives on the quay at Havre ; and will you tell her that I thought of her, and that I love her very much, as well as all my brothers and sisters ?”

14.    “Be easy about that, my boy. If you die for us, and we escape, your mother shall never want for anything.” With a grateful “Thank you,” James hastened to the other side of the vessel to be lowered into the sea.

The captain thought for a moment. “ We ought not allow this lad to run such a risk for us,” said he, at length. “ I must forbid it.”

15.    “Yes, yes,” said some of the sailors round him ; “it is disgraceful to us all that this little cabin-boy should set us an example of courage ; and it would be a sad thing if the brave child should die for old men like us, who have lived our time. Let us stop him 1 ”

16.    They rushed to the side of the vessel, but it was too late. They found there only the sailor who had aided James in his preparations, and who was unrolling the cord that was fastened to the body of the heroic boy.

They all leaned over the side of the vessel to see what was going to happen, and a few quietly wiped away a tear which would not be kept back.

17.    At first, nothing was to be seen but waves of white foam— mountains of water which rose almost as high as the mast, and then fell down with a thundering roar. Soon, some of the sailors perceived a little black point rising above the waves, and then, again, distance prevented them from distinguishing it at all. They anxiously watched the cord, and tried to guess, by its quicker or slower movements, the fate of him who was unrolling it.

t    O

18.    This anxiety lasted more than an hour ; the ball of string continued to be unrolled, but at unequal periods. At length, it slipped slowly over the side of the vessel, and often fell as if slackened. They thought James must have much difficulty in getting through the surf.

19.    “ Perhaps, it is the corpse of the poor lad that the sea is tossing backwards and forwards in this way,” said some of the sailors. The captain was deeply grieved that he had permitted the child to make the attempt; and, notwithstanding the perilous situation in which they were, all the crew seemed to be thinking more of the boy than of themselves.

20.    All at once, a violent pull was given to the cord. This was soon followed by a second, then by a third. It was the signal agreed upon to let them know that James had reached the shore.

21.    They hastened to fasten a strong rope to the cord, which was drawn on shore as fast as they could let it out, and was firmly fastened by some of the people who had come to the aid of the little cabinboy. By the help of this rope, many of the shipwrecked sailors reached the shore, and found means to save the others.

22. James was long ill from the effects of his fatigue, and from the bruises he had received by being dashed against the rocks. But he did not mind that; for, in reward of his bravery, his mother received a yearly sum of money, which placed her above the fear of want. He rejoiced in having suffered for her, and, at the same time, in having saved so many lives. 54 55 56 57


Shrouds, set of ropes serving as stays to support the masts of a ship.

Tran-quil, quiet ; calm ; peaceful.

1.    All day, amid the masts and shrouds,

They hung above the wave ;

The sky o’erhead was dark with clouds, And dark beneath their grave.

2.    Captain and men ne’er thought to


The boats went to and fro ;

With cheery face and tranquil nerve, Each saw his brother go.

3.    Each saw his brother go, and knew,

As night came swiftly on,

That less and less his own chance grew—

Night fell, and hope was gone.

4.    The saved stood on the steamer’s deck,

Straining their eyes to see Their comrades clinging to the wreck, Upon that surging sea.

An-guish, torture; agony; extreme pain, either of body or mind.

Shriek, shrill cry; scream.

5.    And still they gazed into the dark,

Till on their startled ears There came from that fast sinking bark

The sound of gallant cheers !

6.    Again, and yet again it rose,

Then silence round them fell— Silence of death—and each man knows It was a last farewell !

7.    No cry of anguish—no wild shriek

Of men in agony ;'

No dropping down of watchers weak, Weary and glad to die.

8.    But death met with three British


Cheers of immortal fame ;

For us the choking, blinding tears, For them a glorious name !

9. O England, while thy sailor host Can live and die like these,

Be thy broad lands or won or lost,

Thou’rt mistress of the seas.    —Anonymous.


Junc-tion, place of meeting or union.

Al-lu-vi-al, composed of soil that has been washed away from another place.

Pop-U-la-ted, peopled.

Pry, inspect closely.

Anx-i-e-ty, care; uneasiness; disquiet

Per-spi-ra-tion, sweat.

Im-pos-si-ble, incapable of being done.

De-pot' (de-po' or dep-o), place where stores and provisions are kept.

Rap-id., part of a stream where the current moves with great swiftness, but without actual waterfall. 58 59

Ee-laxed; eased ; unbent; relieved from strain. De-fence-less, unpreparedness to resist attack. At-tackedf fell upon with force ; assailed. Ex-haust-ed, worn out; deprived of strength. Rec-og-nised or rec-og-nized, knew again. RalTied, recovered power or strength.

De-spair utter helplessness.

Squat-ter, own r or occupant of a large area of land for stock—horses, cattle, and sheep.

Trav-ersed, passed across; crossed in travelling.

measure our hands and feet with their own, count our fingers, feel our faces, besmear our shirts with grease and dirt.” Sturt indeed drew the line at his pockets ! into which he never allowed a native to pry.

3.    On the 29th of January, 1830, he remarks:—“We had now been twenty-two days on the river. I began to feel anxiety about the men, and could not but regret the scantiness of the remaining provisions. We had little but flour to eat. Fish no one would touch,and, of wildfowl, there were now none to be seen. The men’s eyes were sore from the perspiration that ran into them ; and the poor fellows wrere much reduced. Yet we were still at the easiest part of our task, going down with the stream.”

4.    The party, on the 3rd of February, turned the “ Great Bend ” of

Photo, by G. Sweet, Esq.]


the Murray ; and, after doubling back till opposite their morning’s starting-point, they found themselves at last speeding south.

5.    The river became gradually wider, till it wras about a third of a mile from bank to bank. On the 9th of February, the boat passed out of the river, and the explorers found themselves on the bosom of a broad sheet of water, which was named Lake Alexandrina, after Queen Victoria, whose second name was Alexandrina.

6.    Sturt was desirous of sailing across to Launceston in Tasmania, whence a ship would take him and his party back to Sydney ; but it was impossible to get the boat from the lake into Encounter Bay, on account of the mud flats and the surf-covered bar between them.

7.    There was nothing for it but to return the way they had come ; and the prospect of reaching their depot on the Murrumbidgee, nearly 2,000 miles away, weak as they were, and with no food but a little flour, was gloomy indeed.

8.    However, on the 12th of February, they began this notable return. They had, after much toil at the oars, passed the mouth of the Darling, when, on a dark and rainy morning, the worst rapid of the river lay before them. “ We had not strength to pull up it,” writes Sturt, and our ropes were not long enough to reach the shore. The only thing possible was to get. into the water, and haul up the boat by main force. In our efforts, we got into the middle of the channel, and, up to our armpits in water, only kept our position

Photo, by the Editor of The Children’s Hour, S. A.]


by means of tbe rocks. So strong was the current, that, had we relaxed for an instant, we should have lost all the ground we had gained.

9. “ Just at this moment, we saw that, quite unawares to us, a large tribe of natives with their spears had lined both banks. Never were we so utterly in their power, or so defenceless. The rain had rendered our firelocks useless ; and, had the savages attacked us, we must have been helplessly slaughtered. We stood in the stream powerless and exhausted. The natives meanwhile watched us with earnest attention. At length, one of them called to us, and we recognized the deep voice of our former deliverer. .    . Soon the natives lent willing

aid, and the boat was worked up the rapid to the smooth water above.

It is rather remarkable that tiie explorers should have owed their safety to the same man, on two occasions, when they were in great peril.

10.    On the afternoon of the 16th of March, the boat’s head was turned, with a feeling of relief, into the gloomy and narrow channel of the Murrnmbidgee. Fortune now favoured the explorers for a little. They killed a fat swan that served as a feast for all.' The men rallied in spirits ; they had, as they said, broken the neck of the journey. The natives, however, proved very troublesome, and constant watch had to be kept at night for fear of attack ; and when, on reaching the depot, which they had left seventy-seven days before, it was found deserted, the men were almost in despair.

11.    For seventeen days longer, Sturt and his worn-out men toiled at the oars against the strong current ; but, at the end of that time, one man having lost his reason, and the others being quite unable to* go on, a camp was formed, and two of the strongest of the party went forward on foot, to a station about seventy miles off, to obtain relief.

12.    The rest, almost without food, had to wait for eight days before they had the joy of seeing them return, accompanied by men and horses bearing provisions.

13.    Exactly six months after their departure from Sydney, Sturt and his party returned to enjoy a well-won triumph. In their exploration of the Murrumbidgee and the Murray, they had traversed fully a thousand miles of new country. No former expedition into the interior had been so important.

1.    Co-lo^ni-al Sec-re-ta-ry, officer of state who conducts the correspondence, and attends to the relations, of the Home Government with those of the British colonies.

2.    Fisa no one would touch. The dislike of Sturt and his party to Murray cod and perch appear» to have been owing to their having eaten too much of it earlier in the expedition.


Riv-u-let,creek ; “little stream”{see 1. 38). Ex-pecUant, eagerly waiting.

Vic-to^ry, battle gained ; triumph.

1.    It was a summer evening,

Old Kaspar’s work was done ;

And he, before his cot! age door,

Was sitting in the sun ;

And by him sported on the green His little gi’andchild Wilhelmine.2

2.    She saw her brother Peterkm

Roll something large and round, That he beside the rivulet,In playing there, had found ;

He came to ask what he had found, That was so large and smooth and round.

Rout, confusion ; defeat.

Griev-ing, greatly sorrowing.

Quoth, said.

3 Old Kaspar took it from the boy,

Who stood expectant by ;

And then the old man shook his head,. And, with a natural sigh,

“ ’Tis some poor fellow’s skull,” said he,

“ Who fell in the great victory.

4. “I find them in the garden, for There’s many 4 here about;

And, often, when I go to plough,

The ploughshare turns them out For many thousand men,” said he.

“ Were slain in the great victory ”

“They say it was a shocking sight After the field was won ;

For many thousand bodies here Lay rotting in the sun ;

But things like that, you know, must be

After a famous victory.


From an old print.]


5.    “ Now, tell us what ’twas all about,”

Young Peterkin he cries ;

And little Wilhelmine looks up With wonder-waiting eyes ;

“ Now, tell us all about the war,

And what they killed each other for.”

6.    “ It was the English,” Kaspar cried,

“ That put the French to rout ;

But what they killed each other for,

I could not well make out.

But everybody said,” quoth he,

“ That ’twas a famous victory.”

7.    “ My father lived at Blenheim then,&

Yon little stream hard by,

They burnt his dwelling to the ground* And he was forced to fly;

So, with his wife and child he fled, Nor had he where to rest his head.

8.    “With fire and sword, the country


Was wasted far and wide,

And many a grieving mother then, And new-born baby died.

But things like that, you know, mustbe At every famous victory.

10. “ Great praise the Duke of Marlbro’won

And our good Prince Eugene ” 7 “Why, ’twas a very wicked thing !” Said little Wilhelmine.

“Nay—nay— my little girl,” quoth he, “ It was a famous victory.

“ And everybody praised the Duke Who such great fight did win.”

“ But what good came of it at last? ”

Quoth little Peterkin.

“ Why, that I cannot tell,” said he ;

“But ’twas a famous victory.”

—Robert Southey (1774-1843).

1. Blen-keim (bUn'him), village on the Danube in Bavaria, one of the southern states of the German Empire. Here, in 1704, the English and the Allies (Dutch, Germans, and Austrians) under the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy won a great victory over the French and Bavarian® under Marshal Tallard. Of the French and Bavarians, two-thirds of the whole army of 60,000 were either killed or taken prisoners. The Allies lost 5,000 killed, and had 8,000 wounded.

2.    Wil-hel-ffiine is put for Wil-hel-min-a, the feminine of Wilhelm, which is the German for William. Note that “ mine ” in Wilhelmine rhymes with “ green ” and also with “ Eugene.”

3.    Riv-U-let. This runs into the Danube, and had to be crossed by the English, before they could attack the French, ■who were posted at Blenheim.

4.    There’s many is put for “ There are many.”

5.    Kas-par was, therefore, a Bavarian. The poet is in error in making him call Eugene “ our good Prince ” {see 1. 56).

6.    Marl-bro’ stands for Marl-borough.

7.    Prince Ell-gene' {you-jeen'), the commander of the Allies.


Ca-ble-gram; message sent by telegraph cable laid under the sea.

De-struc-tion, killing ; ruin ; extinction.

Cli-max, highest point; greatest degree.

Ob-ser-va-tO-ry, place for making observations concerning the heavenly bodies, as well as the earth.

Dor-mant, not in action ; at rest; sleeping.

La-VU, melted rock that is ejected or flows from a fissure in the earth.

Sat-is-fac-to-ry, sufficient; relieving the mind from doubt or uncertainty.

Com-pressedi squeezed together; forced into a narrow compass.

In-te-ri-or, that which is within ; inside.

Con-tracti verb, shrink; be reduced in compass.

Sags, sinks, in the middle, by its weight, or under applied pressure.

Se-ries or se-ri-es, number of things or events succeeding in order, and connected by a like relation.

Frac-ture, act of breaking asunder.

Foun-der, fall; sink.

Ad-ja-cent, lying near; close.

Ex-tinct; extinguished ; put out; quenched.

In-di-ca-tions, marks ; signs ; evidences.

Pos-ses-sion, state of having.

Cra-ter, basin-like opening or mouth of a volcano, through which the chief eruption comes.

Con-i-cal, having the form of a cone; round and tapering to a point.

Ge-Ol-O-gist, one who studies the structure and mineral constitution of the globe.

6. The earth consists of a hard, cold crust, resting on a mass of very hot and very much compressed rocks. The hot interior is slowly cooling, and, as it cools, it must contract, and the heavy outer crust

sinks inward to keep pace with this shrinking. The crust may sink in gentle folds when the centre quietly sags ; or great blocks of the crust, sharply marked off from the rest by a series of fractures, may founder. Such a foundering of a block of the earth’s crust may cause an immense pressure on the softer, heated rocks beneath, and force them to the surface at the weakest points of the surrounding fractures. Such points of discharge are volcanoes.

Volcanoes are, therefore, always found adjacent to sunken blocks of ________the earth’s crust.3

7. It seems certain, also, that, in some parts of the world, water finds its way to the molten rock, and so steam is formed. If tins



From The Leader.]


lias a ready means of escape, all is well; but, if not, its pressure increases till it causes a terrific explosion.

8. Volcanoes may be classed as active, dormant, and extinct. An active volcano is one that is sending forth steam, boiling water, ashes, or molten rock : one that is not active, but which may become so, is called dormant ; while a hill that is known only from certain indications, such as the nature of the rocks or soil about it, the possession of a crater, or of a conical form, to have been a volcano in times long past, is called extinct.    .

9. There are many extinct volcanoes in Australia, Mt. Gambier, and Mt. Schauck, south-east of South Australia, and Tower Hill near Warrnambool, and Mt. Franklin near Davlesford, in Victoria, being

Photo, by the Editor of The Children’s Hour, S.A.]


notable examples. Hear Tower Hill, the skeleton of a dingo was found in volcanic ash, at a depth of about sixty feet. The blue metal used

Photo, by the Editor of The Children’s Hour, S.A.]


for making our roads is a result of volcanic action, but it is satisfactory to learn from geologists that there are no signs in any part of Victoria that an outburst is likely to occur again.

1. Mar-ti-nique' (mar-tl-neek'), one of the Lesser Antilles, was ceded by Great Britain, to France, in 1814. It is a fertile island ; sugar is its chief export. Most of the people are negroes and half-castes.

_ 2. St. Vincent, one of the Windward group, belongs to Great Britain. Sugar, molasses, rum, and spices are exported. La Soufrière, which has become eruptive, is the highest peak of a volcanic chain of mountains that run north and south through the island.

3. The foregoing description of volcanic action is adapted from an article in The Argus, entitled “ The West Indian Eruptions,” by Professor Gregory, Melbourne University.


Op-po-site, facing ; standing in front.

Bade (bad), ordered ; here, said.

Of-fered, said he Was willing.

Bus-i-ness (biz-nes), calling; occupation; trade.

Grate-ful-ly, thankfully.

Ac-cept^ed, agreed to; received.

Beau-ti-ful-ly, elegantly ; in a way that is very pleasing.

1.    One fine winter day in December, a gentleman, who was riding through the Hew Forest, in Hampshire (England), met a party of children who had come out to gather branches of holly to deck their houses, for the next day was Christmas Day. They were all busy cutting branches, or handing them to each other, or running to find a better branch than they had yet seen.

2.    But one bright little boy sat apart from the rest, under an oak-tree, and was so busy carving a piece of holly-wood with his knife, that he did not see the gentleman, who had stopped opposite him.

“ What are you busy with, my little man?” said the gentleman.

“ I am trying to carve a little dog out of this piece of white wood. But it is so very hard. I have been a long time at it; but I must keep on cutting until the dog is finished.”

3.    “ Who taught you to carve ?”

“ Hobody, sir.”

“ And have you been long carving ?”

“ About a year, sir.”

u And what do you do with the figures you make ?”

“ Mother takes them to the town and sells them, sir. My father is a wood-cutter ; I help him all day in the forest; and, in the evening, I carve my little figures. To-morrow is Christmas Day ; so we have a holiday to-day.”

“ When you have finished that dog,” said the gentleman, “ you may bring it to me, and I will buy it. I live in the first house on the right-hand side, up that road.”

4.    The gentleman bade the boy good-day, and rode off. The children went home, laden with their branches of holly, with its dark-green leaves and clusters of shining red berries. But the boy kept on cutting, and paring, and carving, and did not move till his task was finished.

5.    At last, the finishing touch was put to the figure of the dog, and he carried it off to the house. The gentleman was delighted with it, and asked him to bring all the figures he had at home. Next morning, he brought them, and the gentleman bought them all.

(3. The parents of this little boy had a large family ; and the gentleman, finding they were honest, hard-working people, offered to place the boy with a carver in the town, to be taught the business. The offer was gladly and gratefully accepted.

7. Many years after, a beautifully carved table, for his dining-room, was brought to the gentleman. It was a present from one of the first wood-carvers in Great Britain—the little boy who had cut the dog out of a piece of holly-wood on Christmas Eve.


Con-sumesi uses up.

Squan-der, spend wastefully ; waste. For-get-ting, failing to remember. Poul-try, domestic fowls, as hens, ducks, &c.

Bush-el, vessel (used in measuring) of the capacity of a bushel, which is a dry measure containing eight gallons. (A large number of articles, bought_and sold by the bushel, are measured by weighing, the number of pounds that make a bushel being determined by law or local custom.)

1.    A word to the wise is enough ; and many words won’t fill a bushel.

2.    Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labour wears ; whilst the key often used is always bright.

3.    Dost thou love life ? Then do not squander time, for that’s the stuff life is made of.

4.    How much more time than is needful do we spend in sleep, forgetting that the sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there will be sleeping enough in the grave.

5.    Lost time is never found again ; and what we call time enough, always proves little enough.

—Benjamin Franklin, an American philosopher and statesman (1706-90).



Each of these diagrams is open to two interpretations. All parts of Fig. A are in the same plane, but the inner square appears further off, or nearer than the outside square, just as I have a mind to think it. If I think the inner square further away, I call up

its resemblance to a room with a square wall at the end, and the floor, ceiling, and two sides sloping towards it. On the other hand, if I think the inner square is nearer to me, it is because I am thinking I am looking down on a pyramid with the top cut off.

Fig. B may represent a transparent cube with the lowest line nearest the leader, or a similar cube with the lowest line furthest away.

In the one case, he is partly looking on the top of the cube; in the other, partly upwards at the bottom of it.

Every part of the figure being in the same plane, it is clear that no muscles of the eye are concerned in this action. They are mental operations, pure and simple.


The Words by Charlotte Smith.

1st and 2nd Parts.

Key G. Allegro Moderato.

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speed •

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sun ■

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clay ;







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sil - ver wreath of    May,    The    sil -    ver wreath of    May.

hail’d her as she    pass’d,    And    hail’d    her as she    pass’d,

ear • ly dawn of    day,    At    ear -    ly dawn of    day.



FOR CLASS IV. (1902).

No. 58.]    MELBOURNE.    [August, 1902.


Re-buke[ reproof; fault-finding.

Chide, find fault.

Weigh, take account of.

Debt-Or, one who owes a debt.

1.    If Fortune, with a smiling face,

Strew roses on our way,

When shall we stoop to pic k them up ?— To-day, my friend, to-day.

But should she frown with face of care, And talk of coming sorrow,

When shall we grieve, if grieve we must ?—

To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

2.    If those who have wronged us own

their fault,

And kindly pity pray,

When shall we listen and forgive?— To-day, my friend, to-day.

But, if stern justice urge rebuke,

And warmth from memory borrow, When shall we chide, if chide we dare ?—

To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

1. Breach Of faith, broken promise.

Vir-tu-ous, good; righteous.

Re-sent-ment, anger; wrath.

Un-a-vail-ing, useless; vain.

Ap-pear,' become manifest or visible.

3.    If those to whom we owe a debt

Are harmed unless we pay,

When shall we struggle to be just ?— To-day, my friend, to-day.

But, if our debtor fail our hope,

And plead his ruin thorough,

When shall we weigh his breach of faith ?—60

To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

4.    For virtuous acts and harmless joys

The minutes will not stay;

We have always time to welcome them

To-day, my friend, to-day.

But care, resentment, angry words, And unavailing sorrow,

Come far too soon, if they appear To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

—Charles Mackay (1814-89).


Of-fered, made a proposal of; said he was willing.

Ex-pe-di-tion, excursion or journey by a body of persons for a valuable end ; body of persons making such an excursion or journey.

Ac-cept-ed, received with favour; assented to.

E-quippedi fitted out.

Sur-Vey-or, one who surveys or measures land.

O-a-Sis, fertile spot in a desert.

De-pot' (de-po' or dep-o), place where stores and

provisions are kept.

Route {root), course ; road; march.

Ab-so-lute, perfect.

Tem-per-a-ture, degree of heat or cold. Veg-e-ta-tion, vegetables or plants in general. Rock-etS, fireworks that rise high in the air, and thus are used for making signals.

Gre-vil-le a, Australian tree having handsome foliage. (The silky oak is a Grevillea.)

this question, Captain Start, who, in 1829, had discovered the Darling, and, the next year, explored a large portion of the Murrumbidgee and Murray, offered to lead an expedition into the heart of Australia.

2.    His offer was accepted, and a well-equipped party of sixteen men set out from Adelaide to a point on the Darling River, which Sturt considered suitable as a starting-place for his journey into the unexplored country.

3.    Mr. Poole went with him as second in command and surveyor, Mr. Browne as doctor to the party, and Mr. J. McDouall Stuart as assistant surveyor.

4.    In May, 1844, the expedition struck northward from Lake Cawn-dilla, near the Darling, across a cheerless country where water was very scarce. A low range of hills was met with, and named the Stanley, now better known as the Barrier. Sturt climbed to the top of the highest peak, but saw nothing hopeful in the prospect. How different the scene to-day ! The barren ridges have been found to contain rich deposits of silver, which have yielded fortunes to their owners. Sturt might have noticed that day to the south of him, across the mulga scrub, the bare summit of a hill, at the base of which is now the town of Broken Hill, with its twenty-five thousand inhabitants.

5.    Sturt had with him eleven horses, thirty bullocks, and two hundred sheep, and to find enough water for them was his first care. He had himself to ride forward, or send some one that he could trust, to makesure that the precious fluid could be obtained ahead before moving from a supply. Fortunately, the time of the year was the winter season, and the larger creeks and deeper holes had some water in them.

6.    The warm weather had set in by the time they reached a chain of hills, to which the name Grey Range (after the Governor of South Australia) was given ; and the days grew hotter and hotter, though the nights were often bitterly cold, as the weeks went by. The summer of 1844-5 was one of the most severe on record. As they travelled on, their sufferings were dreadful. They were often ill through having todrink impure water ; they were annoyed with countless flies by day and ants by night; the men’s shoes were burnt as if by fire, and their backs blistered ; while the dogs lost the skin off the soles of their feet. The sheep, however, throve well. They were quite fat, and their fleeces were as white as snow.

7.    On the 24th of January, 1845, Sturt and Browne returned to the camp after scouring the country without success, for twelve days, in search of a good supply of water. It seemed that no other course-remained but to retreat to the Darling, when a discovery was made by Poole of an oasis—a rocky glen containing a lake and several springs of water—among some hills. Ho time was lost in moving the camp to Depot Glen, as this spot was called.

8.    Here, both men and horses recruited for some time, while Sturt explored the country beyond for the purpose of finding a route to the north. With dismay, he found that the oasis ceased as suddenly

towards the north as it opened in the opposite direction, and the country beyond became an absolute desert. Retreat was cut off. The summer sun had dried up every pond and creek that had supplied them on the line of march, and six months’ imprisonment in Depot Glen became certain.

9. For six months, no rain fell, and the temperature was generally



Photograph by the Rev. J. Milne Curran.


very high, reaching, on one occasion, 132° in the shade. If a piece of metal was touched, it blistered the fingers. To escape from the rays of the scorching sun, a large underground chamber was dug,-to which the men retired during the heat of the day. In February, the thousands ot birds that had enlivened the glen departed; parrots, pigeons, bitterns, cockatoos, all passed away in a single day, taking their flight to the north-west. The vegetation around became mere snuff, and was carried away by the hot blast. Nothing was left but the naked rocks and the pool of water on which their lives depended. Hay by day, too, it yielded to the fury of the sun. “ Under its effects,” wrote Sturt, u every screw in our boxes had been drawn, and the horn handles of oar instruments, as well as our combs, were split into thin plates. The lead dropped out of our pencils ; our rockets were entirely spoiled ; our hair, as well as the wool on the sheep, ceased to grow ; and our nails had become as brittle as glass.” Scurvy attacked the party, and Mr, Poole was slowly dying.

10. In this condition, the winter months came slowly round, and the first refreshing shower fell. A litter of boughs and dead leaves was prepared, and six of the men set out for Adelaide with Mr. Poole. But he died a few hours after they had left the camp, and his body was brought back just as Sturt and the remainder of the expedition were about to start on their northern course. “Poole was laid to rest under a Grevillea, in the bark of which was cut 1 J. P., 1845,’ and he now sleeps in the desert.”

(To be continued.)


Fag-ot, bundle of sticks.

Ar-ray,' arrangement in regular lines. Des-O-late, lonely.

Trav-ersed, wandered over.

Fain, desirous ; strongly inclined.

Truce, short period of rest between two armies. Sen-ti-nel, adj., watching-.

Re-pos-ing, resting.

Pal-let, poor or rude bed.

Scar-ing, frightening.

1.    Our bugles sang truce, for the night-cloud had lowered,1

And the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky ;

And thousands had sunk on the ground overpowered,— The weary to sleep, and the wounded to die.

2.    When reposing that night on my pallet of straw,

By the wolf-scaring fagot that guarded the slain,2 At the dead of the night, a sweet vision 1 saw;

And twice ere the morning, I saw it again.

3.    Methought from the battle-field’s dreadful array,

Far, far I had roamed on a desolate track;

’Twas autumn, and sunshine arose on the way

To the home of my fathers, that welcomed me back.

4.    I flew to the pleasant fields, traversed so oft

In life’s morning march, when my bosom was young;

I heard my own mountain-goats bleating aloft,

And knew the swreet strain that the corn-reapers sung.

5.    Then pledged we the wine-cup, 3 and fondly I swore

From my home and my weeping friends never to part ; My little ones kissed me a thousand times o’er ;

And my wife sobbed aloud in her fulness of heart—

6. “ Stay, stay with us ! rest, thou art weary and worn ; ”

Anti fain was their war-broken soldier to stay ;

But sorrow returned with the dawning of morn,

■ And the voice in my dreaming ear melted away.

—Thomas Campbell (1777-1844).

1.    The night cloud had low-ered, darkness had come. Note that lowered and powered ” are intended to rhyme.

2.    Wolf-scar-ing fag-ot that guard-ed the slain, fire oi wood to keep the wolves away from the dead bodies.

3.    Pledged we the wine-cup, we caused our glasses to clink, at the same time expressing good

will and kindness.    .


Wag-on-ette, vehicle on four wheels—roomy and of light make for its size, as compared with a wagon.

Con-vey-ance, vehicle in which anything is carried from one place to another.

Cur-rent, stream.

Gov-ern-ment, ad)., belonging to the Government ; that is, the ruling power in a country. Whole-sale! engaged in trading with larga


Pur-chas-ers, buyers.

Ex-port-ed, sent out of a country, as goods, <feo., by way of commerce.

Chill-ing, affecting with cold; making very


Ro-dent, gnawer ; animal that has, in addition to oihet teeth, two larae cutting teeth in each jaw, such as rats, squirrels, and rabbits.

Oc-CU-pied, engaged; employed.

En-cour-age-ment, that which serves to support or promote

At-tached,' made fast; joined.

Adze, carpenter’s tool, formed with a thin* arching blade set at right angles to the handle.

Com-press-ing, squeezing together.

Con-ceai; hide ; cover or keep out of sight.

Op -er-a-tion, that which is done ; act or process of performing a work.

A-gree-ment, bargain; contract.

1. Those who live in the cities of Victoria often hear the cry of the

rabbit hawker, “Wild rabbit, 0 ! rabbit, 0 !” and many thousands of

pairs of these rodents are bought every week, for the table, in place of

butchers’ meat. When we learn, too, that, last year, over 2,000,000


pairs were frozen, as well as about 1,600,000 lbs. weight of rabbits preserved in cans, and the whole sent from Victoria, we may well take an interest in reading of the method by which such large numbers are obtained.

2.    Hundreds of men are occupied in trapping them, and those that work steadily rarely fail in making a good living, some earning as much as £4 or £5 a week during parts of the year. It is well that there is such encouragement for men to spend their time in killing these animals, for, since rabbits were brought to Australia, they have increased to such an extent as to become quite a pest. Ten full-grown rabbits, it is said, eat as much grass as a sheep.

3.    The rabbit trapper is provided with some dozens of spring traps,


each having attached to it a short chain with a large iron pin at the end. He is in a part of the country where rabbits are plentiful (not nowadays close to Melbourne), and, as a rule, lives in a tent.

4. The task of setting a trap that will catch a rabbit is not so simple as one might think. Having chosen a spot, generally a little mound


1, Chain. 2, Spring. 3, 3, Jaws. 4, Plate. 5, Catch.

where the animals play, the man makes with his setter (a kind of hoe or small adze) a shallow hole, about six inches wide by twelve long. Then he drives the iron pin into the ground near by, and, in the hole he has made, places the trap, after compressing the spring to open the jaws, and fixing the catch to keep them open. He covers with earth everything except the flat plate beneath the opened jaws ; and then, to conceal the plate, carefully sprinkles fine earth over it, as a stone or a lump of hard dirt might prevent the jaws from closing when the trap is sprung by a rabbit treading on the plate. Before leaving the place, he makes a mark on the ground, pointing in the direction he intends to set the next trap.

5.    Late in the afternoon, he goes the round of his traps (which in the case of some able trappers number a hundred); and, when he finds a rabbit caught, takes it out, kills, bleeds, and cleans it, and, then re-sets the trap.

6.    On his return to his tent with the rabbits he has obtained, he gets his tea, takes a short rest, and, provided with a lantern, sallies


forth again, to go through the same operations as before. It is probably midnight before he is finished. At daylight, he makes the round again ; and, this time, lifts his traps in order to re-set them in other places later on.

_ 7. The rabbits must next be conveyed without loss of time to a railway station, or hung up at some place that is nearer, where they can be obtained by a buyer, with whom the trapper has made an agreement concerning their sale.

8. rl he buyer collects the “catch ' of several trappers, and often drives a wagonette specially built for carrying rabbits. It will hold hundreds of rabbits. Sometimes, one may be seen with the animals not only hanging from bars inside the conveyance, but from its axles, springs, and even the step. They are always placed head downwards, as, in that position, they keep fresh longer.

9.    At the railway station, the rabbits are placed in open crates,

and are carried in cars that allow a free current of air to pass through them.    .

CP aq

10.    On the arrival of the train in Melbourne, no time is lost in bavin the crates carted to the Government cool stores, where the wholesal


purchasers check the numbers, and each rabbit is examined. Only those in very good condition and of a certain weight are exported. Those not fit to be eaten from any cause, and such as have not been trapped, are burnt.

IT. The rabbits passed as suitable for export are again packed in crates, and placed in a chilling chamber, where, in three or four days’ time, they are frozen hard, and are then ready for shipment.

—In part from Mr. R. Crowe’s article, “Rabbit Export Trade,” in The Journal of Agriculture of Victoria, and articles contributed by Messrs. D. McLachlan, Wannon State School, and W. H. Evans, Redesdale State School.


Be-queath' give or leave by will.

Glis-ten-ing, sparkling ; shining.

En-tire-ly, wholly; completely.

Fra-grant, sweet-smelling.

In-hal-ing, breathing in.

Per-fume or per-fume! pleasant odour. Cal-cu-late, reckon; estimate.

Un-rea-son-a-ble, not guided by common sense.

Peck, fourth part of a bushel.

Re-flect-ed, mirrored; thrown back after striking a surface.

Bur-nished, polished.

Rud-dy, of a red colour; reddish.

Im-ag-i-na-tion, power of forming or calling up images in the mind; power of forming mental pictures.

Mor-tal, subject to death ; belonging or pertaining to man.

Re-sort! haunt; place to which one often betakes himself.

Mis-chief, harm; damage.

Lus-trous, bright; shining.

1.    Once upon a time, there .lived a very rich man and a king besides, whose name was Midas ; and he had a little daughter, whom nobody but myself ever heard of, and whose name I either never knew, or have entirely forgotten. So, because I love odd names for little girls, I choose to call her Marygold.

2.    This King Midas was fonder of gold than of anything else in the world. He valued his royal crown chiefly because it was composed of that precious metal. If he loved anything better, or half so well, it was the one little maiden who played so merrily around her father’s footstool. But the more Midas loved his daughter, the more did he desire and seek for wealth. He thought, foolish man ! that the best thing he could possibly do for this dear child would be to bequeath her the largest pile of glistening coin that had ever been heaped together since the world was made.

3.    Thus, he gave all his thoughts Nathaniel hawthorne (iso4-64).

and all his time to this one purpose. If ever he happened to gaze for an instant at the gold-tinted clouds of sunset, he wished that they were real gold, and that they could be squeezed safely into his strong box. When little Marygold ran to meet him, with a bunch of buttercups and dandelions, he used to say, “ Pooh, pooh, child ! If these flowers were as golden as they look, they would be worth the plucking ! ”

4.    And yet, in his earlier days, before he was so entirely possessed of this desire for riches, King Midas had shown a great taste for flowers. He had planted a garden, in which grew the biggest, and most beautiful, and sweetest roses that any one ever saw or smelt. These roses were still growing in the garden, as large, as lovely, and as fragrant as when Midas used to pass whole hours in gazing at them, and inhaling their perfume. But now, if he looked at them at all, it was only to calculate how much the garden would be worth if each rose were made of gold. And, though he once was fond of music (in spite of an idle story about his ears, which were said to resemble those of an ass), the only music for poor Midas, now, was the clink of one coin against another.

5.    At length (as people always grow more and more foolish, unless

they take care to grow wiser and wiser), Midas had got to be so unreasonable that he could scarcely bear to see or touch any object that was not gold. He made it his custom, therefore, to pass a large portion of every day in a dark and dreary room underground, where he kept his wealth.    .

6.    Here, after carefully locking the door, he would take a bag of

gold coin, or a gold cup as big as a washbowl, or a heavy golden bar, or a peck-measure of gold-dust, and bring them into the one bright and narrow sunbeam that fell from a slit in the wall. He valued the sunbeam for no other reason but that his treasure would not shine without its help.    -

7.    And then would he reckon over the coins in the bag ; toss up the bar, and catch it as it came down ; sift the gold-dust through his fingers ; look at the funny image of his own face, as reflected in the burnished cup ; and whisper to himself, “0 Midas, rich King Midas, what a happy man art thou ! ”

8.    Midas called himself a happy man, but felt that he was not yet quite so happy as he might be. The very tiptoe of enjoyment could never be reached, unless the whole world were to become his treasure-room, and be filled with yellow metal which should be all his own.

9.    Now, I need hardly remind such wise little people as you are, that, in the old, old times when King Midas was alive, a great many things came to pass, which we should consider wonderful if they were to happen in our own day and country. And, on the other hand, a great many things take place nowadays, which seem not only wonderful to us', but at which the people of old times would have stared their eyes out. On the whole, I regard our own times as the stranger of the two ; but, however that may be, I must go on with my story.

10.    Midas was enjoying himself in his treasure-room, one day, as usual, when he saw a shadow fall over the heaps of gold ; and, looking up, he beheld the figure of a stranger, standing in the bright and narrow sunbeam ! It was a young man, with a cheerful and ruddy face.

11.    Whether it was that the imagination of King Midas threw a yellow tinge over everything, or whatever the cause might be, he could not help fancying that the smile with which the stranger regarded him

had a kind of golden brightness in it. Certainly, there was now a brighter gleam upon all the piled-np treasures than before. Even the corners of the room had their share of it, and were lighted up, when the stranger smiled, as with tips of flame and sparkles of fire.

12.    As Midas knew that he had carefully turned the key in th'e lock, and that no mortal strength could possibly break into his treasure-room, he, of course, concluded that his visitor must be something more than mortal. In those days, the earth was supposed to be often the resort of beings possessed of more than mortal power, and who used to interest themselves in the joys and sorrows of men, women, and children, half playfully and half seriously.

13.    Midas had met such beings before now, and was not sorry to meet one of them again. The stranger’s aspect, indeed, was so good-humoured and kindly that it would have been unreasonable to suspect him of intending any mischief. It was far more probable that he came to do Midas a favour. And what could that favour be, unless to multiply his heaps of treasure ?

14.    The stranger gazed about the room ; and, when his lustrous smile had glistened upon all the golden objects that were there, he turned again to Midas. “ You are a wealthy man, friend Midas ! ” he observed. “I doubt whether any other four walls on earth contain so much gold as you have piled up in this room.”

15.    “I have done pretty well—pretty well,” answered Midas, in a discontented tone. “But, after all, it is but a trifle, when yon consider that it has taken me my whole lifetime to get it together. If one could live a thousand years, he might have time to grow rich ! ”

16.    “What!” exclaimed the stranger. “Then you are not satisfied ? ”

Midas shook his head.

“ And, pray, what would satisfy you?” asked the stranger. “I should be very glad to know.”

—Adapted from A Wonder-book for Girls and Boys, by Nathaniel Hawthorne

(1804-64), an American author.

(To be continued.)


Main, sea; ocean.

Treach-er-OUS, harmful in reality, though not in appearance.

Reef, rocks lying at or near the surface of the water.

Eb-bing, returning, as the water of the tide towards the ocean.

Awe-some, causing fear.

Bea-con, fire, light, or other signal to giv« warning, or serve as a guide.

Murk-y, dark ; gloomy.

Vic-tor, winner in a contest.

Palm, symbol of victory-'or success; victory;


The tide comes up, and the tide goes down, Over the rocks so rugged and brown,

And the cruel sea, with a hungry roar, Dashes its breakers along the shore ;

But steady and clear, with a constant ray, The star of the light-house shines away.

2.    The ships come sailing across the main,

But the harbour mouth is hard to gain,

For the treacherous reef lies close beside,

And the rocks are bare ^t the ebbing tide,

And the blinding fog comes down at night, Shrouding and hiding the harbour light.

3.    The sailors, sailing their ships along,

Will tell you a tale of the light-house strong ; How once, when the keeper was far away,

A terrible storm swept down the bay,

And two little children were left to keep Their awesome watch with the angry deep.

4.    The fair little sister wept, dismayed,

But the brother said, “ I am not afraid ;

There’s One who ruleth on sea and land,

And holds the sea in His mighty hand ;

For mercy’s sake, I will watch to-night,

And feed, for the sailors, the beacon light.”

5.    So the sailors heard through the murky shroud The fog-bell sounding its warning loud ;

While the children, up in the lonely tower, Tended the lamp in the midnight hour, .

And prayed for any whose souls might be

In deadly peril by land or sea.

6.    Ghostly and dim when the storm was o’er,

The ships rode safely, far off the shore,

And a boat shot out from the town that lay Husk and purple, across the bay;

She touched her keel to the light-house strand, And the eager keeper leaped to land.

7.    And, swiftly climbing the light-house stair,

He called to his children, young and fair ;

But, worn with their toilsome watch, they slept, While slowly o’er their foreheads crept The golden light of the morning sun,

Like the victor’s crown when his palm is won.

8.    “ God bless you, children ! ” the keeper cried ; “God bless thee, father ! ” the boy replied.

“ I dreamed that there stood beside my bed A beautiful angel, who smiled and said,

‘ Blessbd are they whose love can make Joy of labour, for mercy’s sake ! ’ ”


Dis-ci-pline, obedience to orders.

O-be-di-ence, act of doing what one is told to do.

Self-sac-ri-fice, giving up one's own comfort or interests for the sake of another.

Trans-port, vessel employed for conveying soldiers, warlike stores, or provisions from place to place.

Col-onel (kur^nel), chief officer of a regiment.

Poop, deck raised above the after part of a vessel. 61

Di-rect-'ed (dl-rect-ed), ordered; instructed.

Pa-radeC review of troops. (On parade, in military order ; drawn up for inspection before a superior officer.)

For-beari refuse ; decline ; abstain from.

Mon-u-ment, something that stands to keep in remembrance what is past.

He-ro-ic, brave ; daring.

Con-stan-cy, firmness of purpose ; devotion.

2. In February, 1852, the Birkenhead, a large steamer employed as a transport, was on her way to Algoa Bay, south-east of

From a painting by Lance Calkin.]    “ The drowning ship sank low,

Still under steadfast men.”

Cape Colony, with about 630 persons on board, 132 being her own crew, and the rest officers and soldiers with their wives and children.

3.    In the dead of the night, the vessel, whose course, through the desire of the captain to shorten the voyage, was nearer the shore than it should have been, struck upon a sunken rock with such force that, in a few minutes, she was a wreck.

4.    The terrible shock caused every one to hurry on deck ; and the commanding officer of the soldiers, Colonel Seton, calling his officers about him, pointed out to them the need of preserving order and silence among the men.

5.    Sixty of them were placed at the pumps, others told off to assist in lowering the boats, and others to throw the horses overboard so as to lighten the ship, while the rest were sent to the poop to ease the fore part of the ship, in which a huge rent had been made by the rock.

6.    Every one did as directed, and not a murmur or cry was heard. They were as steady as if on parade, though it was soon known that there were only boats enough to carry the women and children to shore, and that these must be saved first.

7.    Twelve or fifteen minutes after the ship had struck, the boats having just pushed off, she broke in two parts, crosswise, and the stern part began to sink and fill with water. The captain called out—“ All those that can swim jump overboard and swim for the boats.”

8.    But Colonel Seton and the officers with him besought their men to forbear, showing them that, if they did so, the boats with the women must be swamped. And the soldiers stood still. Hot more than three made the attempt. Officers and men together stood on deck in their ranks, shoulder to shoulder, and waited for almost certain death, rather than endanger the lives of the women and children.

9.    The end soon came. In half-an-hour from the time when she struck, the Birkenhead went to the bottom, and the waves closed over a band of the truest heroes the world has ever seen.

10.    Queen Victoria caused a monument to be erected in Greenwich Hospital, in memory of the “ heroic constancy and unbroken discipline” which these officers and men displayed.

1. Green-wlch (gren-ij) Hospital, formerly a hospital for aged and disabled seamen ; now used a» a Naval College.


De-SCrip-tion, account ; narration Flank, side.

Thrilled, shook ; trembled.

Keel, principal timber of a vessel, extending from stem to stern along the bottom.

[The following description in verse of the loss soldier who escaped from the wreck.] 62 63

Bark, ship,

Glam-our-ing, shouting; calling.

Bab biers, idle talkers.

Stead-fast, constant; resolute.

Flinch-ing, shrinking ; drawing back, of the Birkenhead is supposed to be given by a

3.    And ever, like base cowards who leave their ranks

In danger’s hour, before the rush of steel,2 Drifted away, disorderly, the planks,

From underneath her keel.

4.    Contusion spread ; for, though the coast seemed near,

Sharks hovered thick along that white sea-brink.3 The boats could hold ?—not all—and it was clear She was about to sink,

5.    “ Out with those boats, and let us haste away,”

Cried one, “ere yet yon sea the bark devours.”

The man thus clamouring was, I scarce need say,

No officer of ours.

6.    We knew our duty better than to care

For such loose babblers, and made no reply ;

Till our good colonel gave the word, and there Formed us in line—to die.

7.    There rose no murmur from the ranks, no thought

By shameful strength unhonoured life to seek ;

Our post to quit we were not trained, nor taught To trample down the weak.

8.    So we made women with their children go.

The oars ply back again,4 and yet again ;

Whilst, inch by inch, the drowning ship sank low,

Still under steadfast men.

9.    What followed why recall ? The brave who died,

Died without flinching in the bloody surf,

They sleep as well beneath that purple tide,

As others under turf.

—Sir C. F. H. Doyle (1810-88), an English writer.

1.    Spir-it Of that Shock, movement caused by the shock.

2.    Rush Of steel, bayonet charge.

3.    White sea-brink, where the waves of the sea were breaking in foam against the land.

4.    Ply back a-gain'. The poet has made a mistake : the boats did not return for a second load'. On approaching the shore, the surf was found to be so high that landing was impossible ; and, after ■eeking till daylight for a safe landing-place, those in the boats were at last picked up by a schooner.



1.    An ingenious contrivance for shortening a rope, even when both ends are fast, is; the dogshank. The knot is so simple in construction that, at first, it is difficult to realize its security.

2.    Take hold of the rope or cord at each end of the piece you desire to dispense with ; bring the hands together, and you have three sections. All that is now necessary is.

to pass the bend through a simple loop, which is drawn tight. The other bend is fastened in a similar manner.

3. In this way, the knot shown in the figure is formed. The tighter the rope is strained, the firmer the hitches or loops will hold.

-S. S.


Buhns, 1792.    Scottish Melody.

fresh and fair? How can ye chaunt, ye    lit - tie birds, And

wood - bine twine; And il - ka bird sang    o’ its love And



«—m -














—- p-1—


o’ care? Thou’ll break my    heart,    ye

o’ mine, Wi’ light-some    heart I


warb - ling pu’d a

bird,- That rose, Fu’

wan - tons through the sweet up - on its



flow’r • ing thorn, Thou thor - ny tree ; And

mind’st me o’ de - part - ed joys, De - part - ed ne ■ ver to re-turn, my fause lov - er stole my rose, But, ah! he left the thorn wi’ me.




—v ^



ííü -

Y— I

9 P

p M P iz_

? • g p-~2 p




9 r.

r - * ■



J t



y? =-



1. Ye banks and braes o'    bon ■ nie Doon, How can ye bloom

2. Oft hae I rov’d by bon - nie Doon, To see the rose and


Of all pleasures, the fruit of labour is the sweetest. A man is relieved and gay when he has put his heart into his work and done his best.—Emerson.

An acre of performance is worth a whole land of promise.—Howell.

By Authority: Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne.



FOR CLASS IV. (1902).

No. 59.]    MELBOURNE. [September, 1902.


Chal-ice, cup or bowl.

Az-ure, sky-blue.

1.    Now the wildflower lifts her chalice

To the shining, azure sky;

Spring’s fleet foot is in her palace, And the rose’s reign is nigh.

2.    Life is in the wind that rushes

Through the green corn’s swaying sheaves;1

Hope is in the light that flushes The poppy’s crimson leaves.

fl. Like children’s voices calling

With the joy that youth instils,

Is the sound of waters falling From the distant, purple hills.

In-stils/ imparts; inspires.

Fra-grant, sweet-smelling.

4.    Every cottage has its bower,

And the peach bloom, as I pass,

In a fragrant, fleecy shower,

Strews its pink stars on the grass.

5.    Birds are in the branches singing,

And the sunlight’s on the dew;

And the heart’s love words are ringing

Spirit music sweet and true.

6.    Not a note of woe or sadness

Breathes upon the balmy air :

The Creator’s gift of gladness Sheds its glory everywhere.

—Marion Miller.

1. Sheaves, corn cut and tied in small bundles. Here possibly used to describe closely-growing corn swaying in bunches under the influence of se strong wind.


Dis-trict, portion of a state, city, &c.

Trib-U-ta-ry, stream flowing into a larger stream.

Gran-ite, rock consisting of quartz, feldspar, and mica, and usually of a whitish, grayish, or flesh-red colour.

Busi-ness (biz-nes), that which engages the attention of any one as his chief concern ; occupation.

Lei-sure, ease ; convenience; time free from employment.

Gills, organs (of fish, &c.) through which the blood circulates, and in which it is exposed to the action of air contained in the water.

Ob-sta-cle, that which stands in the way ;


Peat, kind of turf, usually in low situations, where it is almost always wet.

Man-groves, trees growing on muddy shores in the hot regions of the earth.

Mys-te-ry, something wholly unknown, or kept concealed, and therefore causing wonder and curiosity.

De-privedf hindered from possession. So-lU-tion, explanation ; clearing up.

1. On a fine summer’s day in holiday time, I was wandering among the hills near Bright, in the North-Eastern District of Victoria. When midday came, I sat down to eat my dinner on a bank of grass gay with buttercups, and overhanging a mountain stream, a tributary of the Ovens. Clear as crystal was the water as it murmured over the granite pebbles, or broke into silvery sparkles where the bed was rougher.

Price Id.

2.    As I looked into the little pool below the bank, 1 found that I was not alone. Trout were in the pool, the native-trout, called Galaxias. They are small fish, about three inches in length, but very quick and graceful in their movements. The trout seemed to be playing, but I soon saw that they kept one eye on business. A gay-looking saw-fly struck against a root of a tree, and fell into the pool. Quick as thought, it was seized by a trout, which dived with it into some weeds. Probably, the fly was too large to be swallowed whole, and the fish retired to dine at leisure.

3.    Then a second trout followed the first, and, in my desire to make one of the party, I nearly fell into the pool. Presently, both came out, and swam away down stream. So clear was the water that I could follow them a good distance.

Photograph by Mr. A. J. Kelph.]


4. Then I fell to thinking of a question which is still puzzling the men who know most about fish.

This little fish, which seemed to be so much at home in this pure mountain stream, is able to live for long periods in mud or moist earth! In Tasmania, indeed, the boys call it “ the burrowing fish.” Now, how can it do this ? When we hook a fish out of the water, it lives only for a few minutes. How can this fish live out of the water ? To think clearly of this puzzle, I took out my note-book and made a picture of the fish, showing roughly how the blood flows through it.

5.    If we look at the figure, we will see that the vessel by which the blood runs from the head to the tail and back again takes an oval course. In running round this course, the blood has to pass through the heart and through the gills.

6.    Take the oval formed by the blood-vessel as a racing-track, and bhe heart as a captain, who stands near the grand-stand. Up comes the tired runner, and the captain, with a kindly push and a

? “ Cheer-up! ” sends him forward on his race. Then come the gills, which ; look like an obstacle, but are really a help to the racing blood. The 1 blood of a fish needs fresh air, just as the blood of a man does. Now, there is air in water, which the fish can obtain by the aid of its gillS.

7.    If the fish had lungs like a man, the water that passes in through I the mouth to the gills would choke it; but the gills are so made that . they take the air out of the water, and pass this air into the blood.

I The water, after being robbed of its air by the gills, passes through an

opening in the fish behind the head. Refreshed by the new air, the blood is now able to run along to the tail, and back once more to the j heart and gills.

8.    We see now why a fish cannot live if removed from the water.

; It can get the air it needs out of water only. But this native-trout

« .

G///s Heart    Blood Vessel


before me can live when it is not in water. How is this ? The puzzle is only one of a thousand delightful puzzles which Australian boys and ; girls have to solve. The day will arrive when some one with knowledge, good eyes, and a clear head will solve it.

9.    I left the bank of buttercups, and strolled home. But I could not forget the trout puzzle, and, in the evening, I turned up a book which told of the Tasmanian Galaxias.

10.    Yes, there it was. A trout had been found eight inches below the surface in peat and sand. There was no water, but the soil was moist enough for worms. When placed in water, the trout swam freely, but, every half-minute or so, it came to the surface. The eyesight of this fish was good ; but trout of the same kind, though without eyes,

; were dug up on the west coast of the island. Twelve were dug up lately near Strahan.1 These lived in a pickle-bottle in water for two or three days.

11.    In New Zealand, there is a trout of the same family, which spends all its time in the mud. If placed in clean water, it dies. This fish is almost blind.

12.    Then, I thought of other kinds of fish that are able to live out of the water. There is the ling-fish of Queensland ; but that fish has lungs as well as gills. There is the mud-fish, also, which climbs among the mangroves near Rockhampton;2 but here, again, we are in the region of mystery, for the fish has no lungs.

13.    Soon, I ran into another line of thought. Many snakes and frogs sleep during the whole of winter. Now, if some creatures can live for months without food, may not others be able to live for a time without air?

14.    The snake, after its winter sleep, is very thin, showing that it has been living on itself during its long rest. In the same way, the sheep of Asia Minor can live for a time, if deprived of food, on the fat of their own tails. It is easy, therefore, to see how the trout gets on for a time without food; that it seems to live without air is the difficulty.

Here I gave up the search for a solution of the puzzle, and went to bed.

—Robert Hall, author of Insectivorous Birds of Victoria, &c.

(To be continued.)

1.    Stra-han (stra-an), mining town on Macquarie Harbour, west of Tasmania.

2.    Rock-hamp-ton, city on the Fitzroy River, east of Queensland.

3.    A-si-a Mi-nor, peninsula, forming the western extremity of Asia ; a portion of Turkey-in-Asia.


His face is like roses In flush of the June ;1 His eyes like the welkin When cloudless the noon ; His step is like fountains That bicker with glee, Beneath the green mountains, Down to the sea.

Wel£kin, sky.

BicR^er, move quickly and unsteadily, or with a pattering noise.

1.    Bill is a bright boy ;

Do you know Bill ?

Marching cheerily Up and down hill ;

Bill is a bright boy At books and at play,

A right and a tight boy,

All the boys say.


Girds, binds himself.

Con-quered (kon-kerd), overcame; gained a victory.

3. When Bill plays at cricket,

No ball on the green Is shot from the wicket So sharp and so clean ;

He stands at his station As strong as a king When he lifts up a nation On Victory’s wing.

4. When bent upon study,

He girds to his books ;

No frown ever ploughs

The smooth pride of his looks ; I came, and I saw,

And I conquered at will :

This be the law

For great Csesar 2 and Bill.

5. For Bill is a bright boy—

Who is like Bill ?

Oft have I marched yyith him Up and down hill.

When I hear his voice calling,

I follow him still,

And, standing or falling,

I conquer with Bill ! —Professor J. S. Blackie.

L June, a summer month in Scotland, where, in all probability, this poem was written.

2. Great Cse-sar (see-rar), Julius Csesar, who was born about the year 100 B.C. and murdered in the year 44 B.C., was an eminent Roman general and statesman—one of the great men in the world’« history. On one occasion, having obtained an important victory, he sent to a friend at Rome a letter containing these three words—“ Veni, vidi, vici," which mean 1 cam«, I taw, 1 conquered.

THE GOLDEN TOUCH —continued.

Lus-tre,brightness; brilliancy.

Grat-i-fy-ing, satisfying; pleasing.

Lus-trous, bright; shining.

Au-tum-nal, of autumn.

Par^ti-cles, little bits.

Pos-ses-sion, state of having as one’s own. Glis-ten-ing, sparkling; shining. Re-gret-ting, feeling sorrow or dissatisfaction on account of the loss of something.

Lin-en. adj., made of flax.

Fab-ric, manufactured cloth.

Tex-ture, that which is woven ; woven fabric. Tas-sel, ornament, attached to cushions, curtains, and the like, ending in a tuft of loose threads or cords.

As-sumed; took.

Splen-did-ly, magnificently; richly.

Il-leg-i-ble, incapable of being read. Hur-ried-ly, hastily.

Trans-for-ma-tion, change of form or conditions.

Hand£i-WOrki work done by the hands; any work done personally.

Spec-ta-cles, two lenses set in a light frame, and worn to assist sight.

Per-plex-i-ty, state of being puzzled or bewildered.

Trans-par-ent, clear ; admitting the passage of

light ; that can be seen through.

Crystal, ttere, transparent, colourless rock, or a fine kind of glass. (The lenses of spectacles are sometimes made from a crystal called Brazilian pebble.)

In-con-ven-ient, troublesome.

Sac-ri-fice, surrender of anything for the sake

of something else.

1.    Midas paused, and began thinking. He felt sure that this stranger, with such a golden lustre in his smile, had come hither with both the power and the purpose of gratifying his utmost wishes. How, therefore, was the fortunate moment, when he had but to speak, and obtain whatever possible, or seemingly impossible, thing it might come into his head to ask. So he thought, and thought, and thought, and heaped up one golden mountain upon another, in his mind, without being able to imagine them big enough.

2.    At last, a bright idea came to King Midas.

Raising his head, he looked the lustrous stranger in the face.

“ Well, Midas,” observed his visitor, I see that you have, at length, hit upon something that will satisfy you. Tell me your wish.”

3.    “ It is only this,” replied Midas. “ I am weary of collecting my treasures with so much trouble, and beholding the heap so small, after I have done my best. I wish everything that I touch to be changed to gold!”

4.    The stranger’s smile grew so bright that it seemed to fill the room like an outburst of the sun, gleaming into a shadowy dell where the yellow autumnal leaves—for so looked the lumps and particles of gold—lie strewn in the glow of light.

5.    “ The Golden Touch ! ” exclaimed he. “ You certainly deserve credit, friend Midas, for striking out so brilliant an idea. But are you quite sure that this will satisfy you ? ”

“ How could it fail ? ” said Midas.

“ And will you never regret the possession of it ? ”

“ What could induce me ? ” asked Midas. “ I ask nothing else, to render me perfectly happy.”

“ Be it as you wish, then,” replied the stranger, waving his hand in token of farewell. “ To-morrow, at sunrise, you will find yourself gifted with the Golden Touch.”

6.    The figure of the stranger then became very bright, and Midas had to close his eyes. On opening them again, he beheld one yellow sunbeam in the room, and, all around him, the glistening of the precious metal which he had spent his life in hoarding up.

7.    Whether Midas slept as usual that night, the story does not say. Asleep or awake, however, his mind was probably in the state of a child’s, to whom a beautiful, new plaything has been promised in the morning. At any rate, day had hardly peeped over the hills, when King Midas was broad awake, and, stretching his arms out of bed, began to touch the objects that were within reach. He was anxious to prove whether the Golden Touch had come according to the stranger’s promise. So he laid his finger on a chair by the bedside, and on several other things, but was much disappointed to find that they remained of exactly the same substance as before. Indeed, he felt very much afraid that he had only dreamed about the lustrous stranger, or else that the latter had been making game of him. And what a miserable afiair would it be, if, after all his hopes, Midas must content himself with what little gold he could scrape together by ordinary means, instead of creating it by the touch.

8.    All this while, it was only the gray of the morning, with but a streak of brightness along the edge of the sky, where Midas could not see it. He lay in a very miserable frame of mind, regretting the downfall of his hopes, and kept growing sadder and sadder, until the earliest sunbeam shone through the window, and gilded the ceiling over his head. It seemed to him that this bright, yellow sunbeam was reflected in rather a singular way on the white covering of the bed. Looking more closely, what was his astonishment and delight, when he found that this linen fabric had been changed to what seemed a woven texture of the purest and brightest gold ! The Golden Touch had come to him with the first sunbeam !

9.    Midas joyfully started up, and ran about the room, grasping at everything that happened to be in his way. He seized one of the bedposts, and it at once became a golden pillar. He pulled aside a window-curtain in order to admit a clear view of the wonders which he was performing, and the tassel grew heavy in his hand—a mass of gold. He took up a book from the table ; at his first touch, it assumed the appearance of such a splendidly bound and gilt-edged volume as one often meets with now-a-days ; but, on running his fingers through the leaves, behold ! it was a bundle of thin, golden plates, in which all the wisdom of the book had grown illegible.

10.    He hurriedly put on his clothes, and was rejoiced to see himself in a splendid suit of gold cloth. He drew out his handkerchief, which little Marygold had hemmed for him ; that was likewise gold, with the dear child’s neat and pretty stitches running all along the border, in gold thread !

11.    Somehow or other, this last transformation did not quite please King Midas. He would rather that his little daughter’s handiwork should have remained just the same as when she climbed his knee and put it into his hand.

12.    But it was not worth while to vex himself about a trifle. Midas took his spectacles from his pocket, and put them on his nose, in order that he might see more distinctly what he was about. In those days, spectacles for common people had not been invented, but were already worn by kings ; else, how could Midas have had any ? To his great perplexity, however, excellent as the glasses were, he discovered that he could not possibly see through them. But this was the most natural thing in the world ; for, on taking them off, the transparent crystals turned out to be plates of yellow metal, and, of course, were worthless as spectacles, though valuable as gold. It struck Midas as rather inconvenient that, with all his wealth, he could never again be rich enough to own a pair of serviceable spectacles.

13. “ It is no great matter, nevertheless,” said he to himself. “ We cannot expect any great good, without its being accompanied with some small inconvenience. The Golden Touch is worth the sacrifice of a pair of spectacles, at least, if not of one’s very eyesight. My own eyes will serve for ordinary purposes, and little Marygold will soon be old enough to read to me.”

— Adapted from A Wonder Booh for Girls and Boys, by Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64), an American author.

(To be continued.)


Gran-a-ry, storehouse for grain. |    Es-sayedf tried; attempted.

(These English birds are very similar to the Fairy Martins or Bottle Swallows of Australia.)*

1*    A swallow, in the spring,

Came to our granary, and, ’neath the eaves,

Essayed to make a nest, and there did bring Wet earth, and straw, and leaves.

2.    Day after day, she toiled

With patient heart ; but, ere her work was crowned, Some sad mishap the tiny fabric spoiled,

And dashed it to the ground.

3.    She found the ruin wrought;

But, not cast down, forth from the place she flew, And, with her mate, fresh earth and grasses brought, And built her nest anew.

4.    But scarcely had she placed The last soft feather on its ample floor,

When wicked hands or chance again laid waste,

And wrought the ruin o’er.

5.    But still her heart she kept,

And toiled again ; and, last night, hearing calls,

I looked—and lo ! three little swallows slept Within the earth-made walls.

6.    What truth is here, O man !

Hath hope been smitten in its early dawn ?

Have clouds o’ercast thy purpose, trust, or plan ? Have faith, and struggle on !


O-a^Sis, fertile spot in a desert.

As-sumedl took.

Par-al-lel, running side by side.

Sin-gu-lar, unusual; strange.

Quartz, hard whitish rock—a form of silica.

Herb, plant whose stem does not becom“ woody, but dies, at least down to the ground, after flowering.

Pro-trud-ed, pushed itself out.

Des-o-la-tion, waste; ruin.

Des-ti-tute, lacking; devoid.

Veg-e-ta-tion, vegetables or plants in general.

Fis-sures, narrow openings ; clefts.

Ex^pe-di-tion, excursion or journey by a body of persons for a valuable end ; body of persons making such an excursion or journey.

Ex-haust^ed, worn out; deprived of strength.

Pas-tor-al, suitable for cattle and sheep to graze over.

As-SO-ci-at-ed, connected 64

Spin-i-fex, grass of which there are several kinds, chiefly Australian. The seeds bear an elastic spine, whence the name (From Latin, spina, thorn ; facere, to make.) It has been confused with porcupine-grass.

A-ca-cia, tree and shrub of which there are several hundreds of kinds. It is often called the wattle-tree.

A-ban-doned, gave up; withdrew from.

Dis-trib-U-ted, divided among several; allotted.

Scur-vy, disease due to the want of vegetable


Mus-cles, fleshy parts of the body.

Rig-id, stiff; unyielding.

Con-tract-ed, shortened ; drew together.

Anx-ious-ly, with painful uncertainty.

Ve-hi-cle, means of conveyance upon land, as a, carriage, cart, sleigh, bicycle, &c.

Gaunt, lean, as with fasting or suffering.

Un-kempt( uncombed.

3. In a short time, the country assumed all the appearance of a desert. Neither grass nor water was visible, and the eye rested on

nothing but reddish-brown sand. As they advanced, this sand swelled into long, parallel ridges fifty or sixty feet high. At the distance of

about two hundred miles from Fort Grey, this singular country ended, and the explorers stood before what is now known as Sturt’s Stony Desert.

4. It was an immense plain, thickly strewn with fragments of quartz, firmly packed togeth'er, and rounded as if water-worn. Neither herb nor shrub protruded through the soil. No sound or movement could be heard or seen all round, and the dray wheels and the hoofs of the horses left no mark on the surface of the plain. All that could sustain animal and vegetable life, nature seemed to have excluded from this scene of desolation. Thus the sun went down, and Sturt and his men encamped for the night in the Stony Desert. ‘

From The Leader.]    [Photo, by Professor Spencer and Mr. F. J. Gillen


5.    With the morning, the party started again, and, at the distance of about thirty miles, the Stony Desert came to an end. An immense plain of dried mud lay before them, destitute of vegetation. No water could be found, and the earth was cracked by the heat of the sun into immense fissures. At length, the party arrived at the edge of this plain, and found the tall sand-ridges re-appear just as before.

6.    The explorers toiled over this solid ocean of red sand billows, till a small creek appeared ahead, and raised their hopes. It contained some good water, but it soon died out on the desert, leaving a country as destitute of vegetation as that already crossed. They were more than four hundred miles from Fort Grey, and had advanced two hundred miles beyond the Stony Desert, without any permanent change