In this Brochure we have used '’Faience,'" ''Tatra Cotta,” and "Architectural Terra Cotta” as inter > changeable terras.
"Faience” is the English designation. "Tetfa Cotta” American, and in Australia we have named our material "Architectural 'Terra Cotta/
PUBLISHED BY WUNDERLICH LIMITED
SYDNEY Baptist St., Rediem
Lord and Short Sts.
BRISBANE Amelia St., Valley
NEWCASTLE King St.
STH. MELBOURNE ADELAIDE
Hanna St. (near Sturt St.) Grot** and Morph'f t Sts.
139 Macquarie St. 71 St. John St.
1ìrloof ■ . ■■■ . "T
The growing use of Faience as a medium for the facing of buildings, and for the treatment of main Architectural features of facades and interior decoration calls for the fullest co-operation between the Architect and the manufacturer, as such co-operation is more essential with the employment of this ware than with most building materials.
The purpose of this Brochure is to give a general description of Architectural Terra Cotta or Faience, its history, advantages and manufacture, together with technical data as to its uses and employment with brick and concrete structures.
Every material has a character of its own, and the form which it takes depends on and expresses that character.
Terra Cotta is produced by firing clay to an intense heat over a period of days, resulting in minor irregularities of colour and form, and these accidental and beautiful variations give Terra Cotta its special character.
Terra Cotta cannot be treated as if it were Stone. Stone is self-coloured; it requires mouldings to break up its surface and to give horizontality; and colour variation is obtained principally by shadows.
Terra Cotta is entirely different; weather does not affect it, and, in order that the rain should keep it clean, overhanging mouldings, characteristic of stone, are entirely out of place. Light and shade effects are obtained by contrasting colours; deep reveals are not necessary for this purpose, and where mouldings are used they should be of restricted projection.
Architectural Terra Cotta’s main attributes are permanency and colour, and the Architect should think of this material for these qualities more than for any other advantages.
is nothing new nor modern in Terra Cotta or Burnt Clay as a building material, though during the last fifty years it has been presented architecturally under different forms, and fashioned ingeniously to fit in with modern construction methods. No written records make any reference to its history and development prior to the period of the Italian Renaissance, and it is only from actual examples of Terra Cotta extant to this day that we are able to trace its origin back to remote antiquity.
Not only in Europe, but in Asia, Africa and America, imposing ruins, magnificent monuments demonstrate that Terra Cotta was used liberally and successfully.
The oldest known example of this material is the decoration of a chamber in the Step Pyramid of Sakkhara, Egypt, about 3900 B.C. The Assyrians, as revealed by the explorations and excavations of Suze by M. Dieulafoy, used brick glazed with magnificent colours. It was also extensively employed in Ancient Babylonia and Persia for the embellishment of Temples and Palaces. The Polychrome friezes and
bricks from Nimrud, Khorsabad and other
cities, in the British Museum, and the “Archer frieze,” in the Louvre, show the perfection of the work and its permanency. In Ancient Greece, Corinth was a great centre for Terra Cotta. It was used in the Temple of Hera at Olympia, where fragments can still be seen. Etruria was another home for this decorative material, in which pediments, acroteria,
columns, friezes, cornices, consoles — even statuary — were carried out. The colossal quadriga that surmounted the Capitoline
Temple of Jupiter in
Rome (about 260 B.C.), and also the statue of the God, were of Terra Cotta. Glazed polychrome Terra Cotta adorned the Circus Maximus, the Temple of Ceres and
many other buildings in Ancient Rome. In Pompeii it was also
In Spain there is the Alhambra, at Granada, as a wonderful example of the architectural and decorative employment of burnt clay.
In England it was not till the 15th Century that Terra Cotta, which had fallen into disuse since the time of the Roman Conquest, was used in conjunction with stone for Cathedrals and Manor Houses.
The Italian Renaissance Age adopted Terra Cotta ubiquitously and successfully on all classes of buildings.
Michael Angelo. Brunelleschi, Donatello. Bramante, Leonardo da Vinci, and notably the Robbia family, all designed buildings which introduced Terra Cotta.
The Terra Cotta of this period was mostly red or buff moulded boldly by hand, as well as pressed from moulds.
Glazed ware was not used frequently, though the Robbia family of architects actually made their own glazed Terra Cotta, and the blue glaze of the Robbia ware is a colour famous to this day.
Most of the glaze formulas were the secret of the makers, and some defy reproduction by the modern ceramic chemist.
From this period of the Italian Renaissance till about sixty years ago, when America turned to Terra Cotta for the facing of buildings, Terra Cotta was not generally employed.
In 1872 the Boston Museum of Arts, under Architects Sturgis and Brigham, despite strong labour opposition, was carried out in Terra Cotta brought from England.
About this time, a Chicago firm, possessing to-day the biggest Terra Cotta unit in the world, began the commercial manufacture of Terra Cotta.
Polychrome Terra Cotta made its appearance in America in 1900. To-day it is claimed that more than 50 per cent, of the high buildings seen from the sea approach to New York are faced with glazed Terra Cotta.
The U.S.A. takes credit, with strong supporting evidence, for the modern revival of Terra Cotta as a building material.
The revival of the use of Terra Cotta during the latter years of the 19th century, to a big extent, is attributable to the production of glazes which would stand the same high temperatures as were required for firing the Terra Cotta clays. These glazes permitted the manufacture of glazed Terra Cotta, which could be fired at one burn, thus saving the expense and time of twice firing.
Australia’s serious association with Architectural Terra Cotta is of comparatively recent date. For many years the Wunderlich Brothers had been associated with the production of artistic materials for buildings, and it was fitting that, under their direction, the firm of Wunderlich Limited should have pioneered the Terra Cotta industry in the Commonwealth.
The commission of supplying the Architectural Terra Cotta facing for the monumental building of the Government Savings Bank of N.S.W. in Sydney was undertaken in 1923. A special plant was erected at Rosehill, modelled on a comparative scale from examples of the most up-to-date American factories.
The first Wunderlich ware, in the form of architectural trim, was supplied to Duerdin 0 Sainsbury’s offices in Melbourne, and the first big contract delivered was for Temple Court Building, also in Melbourne—a cream-faced glazed front that instantly arrested the attention of Architects by its successful appearance, and the service associated with its supply.
Prior to this there were examples of Terra Cotta in almost all the capital cities, but with the exception of Sydney, which possessed three entire terra cotta fronts, the terra cotta used was as a trim to other materials.
In 1926 Melbourne’s plant at Sunshine was established. To assure efficiency with the manufacture both in Sydney and Melbourne, American experts were brought from leading U.S.A. plants to superintend the manufacturing operations, and train Australian staffs in this work. They have succeeded in reaching a high standard, even when compared with old established plants in England and America.
In the short period of ten years the Terra Cotta industry has been firmly established in Australia, and in every capital city there are numerous examples of Wunderlich FAIENCE applied to important structures.
HE characteristics of Architectural Terra Cotta are permanence and colour. These two attributes emanate from the same fact, namely, the employment of a glaze that gives the desired colour to the material whilst at the same time weatherproofing its surface.
From the manufacturing aspect, this fact is also the one that presents the chief technical difficulties, and for this reason: The final product consists of a body composed entirely of clay, whilst the glaze, that is present only as a film, is a vitreous substance, having all the characteristics of glass.
The technical difficulty is that of producing a clay body having a shrinkage identical with that of the vitreous glaze, so that the two remain indissolubly linked for all time.
The clays have to be selected for definite qualities and mixed in studied proportions, ground up with a percentage of burnt clay termed “grog,” which corrects the tendency of the clay to warp in burning, and mixed with water till plastic and extruded in bats through a pugmill. The clay is then stored to weather or sour.
The next process is the pressing of the clay in plaster moulds and the drying of the pressed units. The blocks are then sprayed with a clay slip or glaze and burnt in kilns to a temperature of 1250 degrees C.
A recent development of Architectural Terra Cotta making for economy of production is “machine made” ware.
In this new manufacturing process the clay is extruded through dies to special sections and gives a two-sided profile containing a part centre cut, which, when the ware is glazed and burnt, is split asunder, thus giving duplication of face.
This “ machine ” Terra Cotta eliminates the use of plaster moulds and presents hollow glazed ware which has a bed, top and intermediate partitions with voids at the ends of the blocks.
This method can be employed where a long run of mouldings is required and where internal ashlar of a regular unit can be employed.
When burnt, the ware is drawn from the kilns, dressed, fitted and prepared, and numbered ready for erection.
The work associated with the manufacture of Terra Cotta is not mechanical—it is mostly manual; but it is a clean and healthy occupation, calling almost throughout its operations for high technical skill in chemistry, drafting, modelling and burning.
The setting or shop drawings are essential services. The are architecturally prepared and copies are supplied to both architect and builder, showing the construction, steel work and the placement of the Terra Cotta units.
All full-sized details are specially drawn up to a shrinkage scale, equalling 13 inches to a foot, and are submitted for the approval of the architect along with all setting drawings, jointing, etc. Models of all ornamental work are also prepared, thus permitting the architect, during the manufacture of the ware, to be closely in touch with the work prior to its assembly on the actual job.
Every piece of Wunderlich Terra Cotta is made by hand in accordance with the architects’ drawings, and is designed to occupy a certain place in a certain building.
ECAUSE of its ghzed face, Architectural Terra Cotta is non-porous and weather resisting. The glazed face of Terra Cotta ware is not affected by rain or dirt. It does not absorb nor suck in the acids of cities’ atmosphere. It is also invulnerable to salts or other air impurities, and in this respect the following comments and comparison with other materials deserve attention.
A recent publication entitled "The Weathering of Natural Building Stones,” issued by the British Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, mentions “that during the last 100 years, atmospheric impurities, caused by factories, etc., have considerably increased, and this condition is responsible for the accelerated decay and disfigurement of historical and archaeological buildings.”
Sir F. Baines estimates that the damage to stone work in England over the past 25 years has amounted to £55.000,000. This is an enormous charge of over £2,000,000 per year for repair and replacement.
“The Houses of Parliament of Anton stone, which stone was selected by a special commission for the very purpose of trying to assure security against weathering, is to-day continually in a state of disrepair.” ‘‘Sulphuric acid gas is a ravager of limestones.”
The report particularly recommends the elimination of large projections.
In a prefatory note to Report No. 12, February, 1929, signed by R. E. Stradling. Director of Building Research, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, London, the following paragraph of interest appears.
“An outstanding feature of the investigations has been the scarcity of examples of faulty Terra Cotta in service as compared with
faulty stone. The two years’ work has, indeed, made it clear how well the majority of Terra Cottas withstand exposure to the atmosphere of our towns.”
Long association with the building industry in all parts of the world brings out very clearly that whilst stone at its best is a building material of the highest character, the same cannot be said of many varieties of stone.
The general tendency is to use local stone, because of the economy of transport and dressing, without a thorough analysis of its weathering qualities. Apart from its construction or setting, the failure of stone is often due to motives of expediency.
An aggravating factor to the defacement of building facades is the increasing use of motor transport. The exhaust oil and carbon emitted by cars and motor conveyances is caught up by the city atmosphere and these deposits on building fronts quickly begrime them.
Ordinarily, rain cleanses the face of Terra Cotta, excepting where projections occur; and under the worst conditions, Terra Cotta can be readily cleansed down with soap and water.
The climatic conditions of the Australian cities, particularly the hard driving rains, which drench the walls of our buildings, dampen the exterior facing, and the dirt, soot and acid laden atmosphere of the cities are thus absorbed into the walls.
N this brochure particular reference has already been made to colour. Most publications dealing with colour in architecture are technical works; but an ordinary statement in simple
consequence, where a colour is prevalent or familiar in urban architecture, it is dismissed in the ordinary mind as not illustrating the use of any colour at all. It does not, however,
Reredos of an altar In Poly chrome Terra Cotta by Dei della Robbia, dating from the beginning of the 16th century. The lapse of four centuries has not dimmed in the slightest degree the detail of form or colour In this masterpiece. Each
intimate touch of the master hand has been preserved through the enduring quality of his chosen material as it was on the day it was taken from the kiln. It is eloquent of a use to which modern terra cotta lends itself, but is called for all too infrequently.
phrasing can be made of the basic principles covering this field.
We are accustomed to associate certain colour effects with certain materials. As a
follow that we are bound against any departure from the sphere of familiar things, nor that by doing so we introduce something bizarre or startling;—providing that the choice
and application of colour does not tend to destroy the sense of support, where it should remain evident.
No rules on colour can be regarded as authoritative. The selection and responsibility must remain with the architect, but taking a lead from the lavish use of polychrome by the Greeks, the clear colour of Renaissance Italy, the ceramics of Moorish Spain— timidity in colour and the preferment of anaemic tints should be avoided.
Greys, buffs and white are reliable colours, and with some class of buildings, allowing for Terra Cotta’s happy irregularity of colour, give the desired effect, but stores and commercial buildings can and should be treated with entire confidence in colour. Manufacturers must always co-operate in the selection of an appropriate colour scheme: and this cooperation consists in supplying a set of colour blocks at the request of the Architect, and in the
case of important buildings, the actual building up of some portion in Terra Cotta, sufficient for a materialistic demonstration. Generally the
cardboard model tryout is recommended.
The American Radiator Building in black and gold in New York was one of the earlier examples of colour. Of recent years colour in architecture has become universal in the States.
The green Carbide Building in Chicago, the Richfield Oil Building in Los Angeles in black and gold: banks, schools and churches have all
donned colors—daring clear tints—with successful results.
There are colours which offer a deal of difficulty to the ceramist, viz., vermilion, carmine and gold. These colours should be avoided. Of course, mauves, pinks, brick red, etc., are readily obtainable.
Terra Cotta, of all structural materials, most fully meets the present day demand for colour in architecture. An almost unlimited palette is ready to the designer’s hand.
O many factors enter into the cost of Terra Cotta that each and every contract must be estimated separately. An approximate figure can be readily given from the inspection of drawings and some rough dissection. But in making up a firm price, the minutest details must be considered. Every ashlar block is calculated as with stone work. Mouldings and ornaments are separately taken, etc., and this detailed methods of estimating is the only one satisfactory to all parties.
The time in which the material can be prepared is an important factor in the cost of Terra Cotta as applied to a city building. Within two months from the reception of complete drawings and the determination of colour, texture, etc., the delivery of Terra Cotta materials can be started. There is never any uncertainty as to the supply of raw materials.
As reported recently in an Architectural Journal, the setting of a Terra Cotta facade in Melbourne, covering 200 ft. frontage and 120 ft. high of Terra Cotta, was commenced in May, 1932, and finished in October, at the
Suppliers of Terra Cotta are at all times ready to place their staff at the disposal of the Architectural profession for the purpose of making designs and estimates.
The question of the REAL cost cannot be taken merely on the basis of the estimate, as corresponding savings in various directions must be set against the estimated cost.
rate, at times, of a storey every four or five days. In the words of the contractor: “The work was not once held up because of shortage of supplies.”
Then, again, the element of weight is a big factor from an economic point of view. Terra Cotta weighs approximately only 2,000 lbs. per 100 square ft. super.
This weight allows for a lighter form of construction that reduces the problems in engineering that have to be faced. And this particular factor of economy increases with every additional storey.
The need for expensive scaffolding, haulage equipment, cranes and gear, etc., is unnecessary, as Terra Cotta can generally be man-handled in setting.
The subsequent maintenance cost is considerably lowered. The periodical painting of stucco buildings is always a big expense where oil paint is used, and a more frequently recurring expense when the cheaper distemper is employed. The cost of cleaning down a stone front is a very expensive item. An amount of £6,500 was recently spent on a Melbourne
Public Building to clean and repair three of the four facades. In comparison, a Melbourne building of Terra Cotta, supplied by Wunderlich Limited seven years ago, was washed down with soap and water in four days at a nominal cost.
Machine-made Terra Cotta ware, as described under “Production,” can be quoted at per square foot super, and the development of this form of Terra Cotta, particularly for internal facing, presents an economical use of this material.
Finally, the high resistance against decay of Terra Cotta, in comparison with other materials, reduces the rate of depreciation and maintenance to such an extent as to make Terra Cotta one of the most economical building materials in the world.
The facade of the Equity Trustees Building is a practical example of the universal applicability of Wunderlich Terra Cotta; in this instance the Terra Cotta appears in combination with face brick.
RCHITECTS have been deterred, owing to the expense entailed, from using ornament, particularly carved or wrought work, in the design of buildings. From this point of view. Terra Cotta bears favourable comparison with other materials, because of the economy with which repeat ornaments can be produced in manufacture.
Here is an apt illustration: Quotations were called for two statues from the same model, and alternatively for one only. The quotations were: £75 for two and £60 for one. The expense of making the original drawings and moulds was halved by repetition.
Enriched or ornamental caps to pillars or pilasters, repeating architraves and archivolts, ornamental panels, continuous entablature ornament, cresting, etc., all of which call for repetition, can be economically manufactured in Terra Cotta, because out of the one mould thirty pieces or more can be pressed before the mould becomes impaired.
or Flood Lighting
LOODLIGHTING of Buildings for the enhancement of their architectural beauty by night, and for purposes of advertisement and attraction, is a modern world-wide innovation. Some buildings, such as Theatres and Cinemas, are not in use by day, and their appearance, adequately floodlighted and framed in the blackness of night, can be made very impressive.
On other buildings certain architectural features can be emphasised by floodlighting. Consideration should be paid to this aspect, having regard to the fact that floodlighting is the reverse of sunlight, in that it strikes the building from below and reverses daytime shadows. Soffits will be brilliantly illuminated and generally the high lights of the day will be in shadow.
Not all construction materials are suitable for floodlighting, but there is no doubt that faience offers, with its high index of light reflection, the
greatest possibilities for night display. The readiness and economy by
which it can be kept clean Floodlighting—
is a deciding factor. Uni‘y Tower'
The following table, arranged in groups, gives an indication of the floodlighting
efficiencies of the more commonly used building materials.
INITIAL REFLECTION FACTORS:— White T erra Cotta, Cream Terra Cotta, Light Marble—60 to 80 per cent.
Light Grey Limestone, Buff Limestone, Buff Building Bricks—40 to 60 per cent. Sandstone, Grey Bricks, Medium Grey Limestone—30 to 40 per cent.
Calculations of the relative light reflection factors of various colours are as follows:—
Fure White . . . 100
Texture is also important: and from experiments carried out by the General Electric Co., rough textured Terra Cotta, as a reflector of light, requires less floodlighting equipment and current than the smoother varieties.
■ ERRA COTTA, besides its application to entire facade facing, can be used for entrances, window trim, mouldings, cornices, panels, etc., where other materials are used for the field work. (See Drawing on opposite page.)
Interior walls and ceilings to lobbies and entrance porches can be treated entirely in Terra Cotta. In a number of American hotels the principal rooms have the walls treated in Terra Cotta. The Hotel McAlpine, in New York, furnishes a noted example of the possibilities in this field.
The interior walls, pillars, etc., of banking chambers lend themselves to effective treatment in Terra Cotta; here, again, American examples are frequent and very effective in appearance.
Altars and Statuary
can be treated to advantage in Terra Cotta. Statuary, particularly for exterior purposes, can be supplied in Terra Cotta, either white or cream or in colours. In the case of Altars, every effect obtained by the use of coloured marbles can also be obtained in Terra Cotta.
Stock Terra Cotta
Standard Glazed Terra Cotta blocks in buff colours, either moulded or plain weathered, are stock articles for coping to 9 inch brick work. Terra Cotta sills and parapet copings can be introduced with advantage in conjunction with ordinary brick work.
Pots, Boxes, Vases, Bird Baths, Fountains, Sun Dials can be readily manufactured to special detail in glazed Terra Cotta in bright, attractive colours.
Stock designs of Garden Vases, Boxes and Pots are available, and special designs can be produced to order.
Architectural Facing Bricks
An alternative medium for Architectural Terra Cotta Ashlar is Architectural Terra Cotta bricks manufactured primarily to bond with common bricks as backing, and where weight is of secondary importance.
They are made of a similar body and glaze as Architectural Terra Cotta. This new material has found a ready place in the Ultra-modern Architectural Construction.
The standard brick size as a unit appears specially suitable to the shaft portions of the elevations of commercial and institutional buildings, with the base and entablature of the buildings in contrasting Terra Cotta jointing and colour.
Architectural Terra Cotta brick can be either lustrous or glossy white, ivory, granitex, pulsi-chrome, mottled, green, black and blue colours. These bricks are also supplied in matt finish of buff, cream and gay colours, and in smooth, semi-smooth or rough textures.
Besides their use for facing, enamelled bricks can be used in the interior walling of Hospitals, Theatres, Engine Rooms, Outdoor and Indoor Swimming Pools, etc.
As a medium for facing the latest type of Swimming Pools both shallow and deep, also covered and uncovered, there is no better and permanent material than Architectural Terra Cotta Bricks.
Very fine examples are to be seen in U.S.A. and England, where pale green and blue aqua tints have been used under water with polychrome life rails and scum gutters.
The Architectural Terra Cotta Bricks are laid with their side-cut uppermost on the floor of pool.
One of the latest examples in England is the Finsbury Municipal Baths.
TYPE - SI
TERRA COTTA VERGE., APEX , KNEELERS, tympanum , plaques;
& WINDOW BOX LEND COLORFUL VARIETY .TO ELEVATION
/^iioTTTiiifflnj uinmuiDiu! thihe
TWO STORY 6RJCR VILLA SHOWING APPLICATION OF TO PLAQUES, SILLS, COPING
COPING SECTIONS /
Stock tenths measure X'-5Jf ExferTCll ^ |rfema[ Milns tn ariy ype in shock dimensions as above
&2 = i-O"
For facing work, Terra Cotta is usually made standard 4 in. deep. This depth is necessary to give a size that will hold its form during drying and burning, as well as furnishing a bed suitable for setting and construction. In exceptional cases the 4 in. thickness, after manufacturing, can be reduced to 2 in. thickness.
Terra Cotta is made hollow with approximately 1 in. surrounding walls, with webs or stiffeners so spaced and of such thickness as to perform their proper function with regard to form and structure.
Large size blocks in Terra Cotta can be made, but they are expensive. For plain ashlar work most satisfactory results are obtained by limiting the height of courses between 131 in. and 15 in., and blocks should not exceed 18 in. to 20 in. in length.
Structural Requirements — Brickwork
The combination of brick structural or curtain walls and Terra Cotta is standard construction; both materials being of clay, contraction and expansion are identical. (See Plate No. 1.) The brick walls are constructed simultaneously with the Terra Cotta setting, the brickwork bonding and engaging into the voids which are afforded by the skeleton construction of the Terra Cotta blocks.
The employment of glazed Terra Cotta face brick of standard size allows of this facing bonding in with common brick where brickwork is used for walling.
The 4£ inch thickness is used as part of the bearing walls, thus fulfilling a constructional purpose as well as a facing medium.
The compression point of glazed Terra Cotta bricks is estimated at 5,000 lb. per square inch.
Structural Requirements —
Reinforced Concrete or Steel Frame
Where Reinforced Concrete is used, or steel frame clad in concrete, Terra Cotta is applied as a veneer. Usually 1 in. cavity is allowed between the Terra Cotta and the face of the concrete. This inch cavity allows for the take up of irregularities in the face of the concrete and acts as dead space for insulation against sound and heat.
The face of the Terra Cotta ordinary ashlar is, therefore, 5 in. BEYOND THE FACE of the concrete.
Terra Cotta is attached to reinforced concrete by the following general methods. (See Plate 1 for Construction Details.)
ASHLAR AS APPLIED TO BPJCKWORR
(WHJiJST BUILT SIMULTANEOUSLY)
4*3*&'M-S‘An^lc bolted, to... Concrete &' 5s’ dla. Haryers am ''-... suspended from projecting flange of ancjle — Holes for hand's in ancjle to be slotted for adjustment to left or ripht.
Hangers pass between T-C- blocks at vertical joints s' hook around. ’2 Puns holing thru1 sides of blocks ¡2 dia. Continuous Rod suspended from Concrete Lintol by A Wire Ld Wires huraj from Rod passing dourn in vertical joints hook around W Pins passed thru1 holes in sides of Soffit blocks
In yood T*C-practice average length of Ashlar units —
It is inadvisible to exceed f“8 x !~4'
ll Ties embedded in concrete at all T-C- bed joints. --Adjustable Loops to enqaac with Wall Ties & hook into holes provided in top of all blocks
x 3 * Y M-S-Anple tolled to ooncrete at nearest bed joint to each floor line u; here piers or field ashlar extend up truo or more stories on facade ■ ■ ■
Elastic joir compound Anyle Shelf ensures safety to T-C- Eacmy in the expansion a contraction process encountered in concrete k steel superstructures
FIXING T° CONCRETE
TYPICAL SOFFIT WORK APPLIED TO CONCRETE
WUNDERLICH TERRA COTTA
Construction Details - Plate 1
1 « 1 1 1 1 1 » 1 I 1 » 1 6 ins.
(1) At every floor level a continuous mild steel angle shelf, usually 4 in. x 3 in. x -fa in., is bolted to the concrete. This shelf allows of any separate floor being set independent of any lower floor. The Terra Cotta block is fashioned to sit on this shelf, and yet not expose any of the steel support. This shelf carries the load of each floor, and care should be taken that the Terra Cotta block immediately underneath the shelf is topped with some elastic mastic, which will allow of settlement, contraction and expansion. This expansion joint immediately under each floor shelf is an essential feature of Terra Cotta application to concrete structures.
(2) At every 6 in. in every course height No. 6 gauge galvanized (or copper) wire ties are built into the concrete as the work proceeds. These wires should incline downwards in the concrete 5 in., and project on the face 2.] to 3 in. The projecting portions of wire are later bent back on the wall to form an “O,” through which an anchor of No. 6 gauge galvanized (or copper) wire, fashioned as a cramp, drops in and attaches the Terra Cotta block to the concrete.
(3) It is important that all iron, steel and wire ties should be well covered with cement grout as a protection against rust.
(4) A schedule of all anchors, ties, angles and steel work is prepared by us, with the submission of Terra Cotta estimates.
The setting of Terra Cotta is not carried out by the Manufacturer: this is recognised as the Contractor's work: but the Manufacturer co-operates with the setting by authorised inspection and checking, and by recommending tradesmen who have had both English and Australian experience.
The setting of the ware is usually done by leading hand bricklayers, but it is an advantage to engage one experienced man to organise and supervise the n. work as well as to work with them.
ISOMETRIC DETAIL OE BALCONY
CONDENSED FROM SHOP DRAWINGS ACTUALLY SUPPLIED FOR A CITY BUILDING
Outlookers formed, of 6'*3'*/i' Lirons back lo back-.., fixed bo stanchion, on plate bracket. 6'*3' Z iron—-i-bridged, across outer extremities of outlookers forms main support of TO facing.
Standard. Hangers Sr Pins bolted. to Z iron support T'C' plinth*
M-'dia Dowels embedded, in lop of
6" centres ér to blocks.
fé'dia.Hangers with Flat Plate
Spare 'Vfoshers suspended between Outlockens tobe grouted in TO Consoles.
WUNDERLICH TERRA COTTA
Construction Details - Plate 2
Vi" = i'-o"
dia. Pins inserted in holes provided in sides of T'C Soffit blocks. Me dmMfires hooked around Pins & around 'zdia. Continuous Rods suspended from Concrete Soffit. When Concrete floor slab is poured after T'C' soffit is set attach fixing wires to reinforcement in lieu of continuous rods. Fill voids inTO with weak concrete finishing Slab with regular Concrete mix.
Large Projections - .
Large projections, which entail the building out of steel out-lookers. cradling, etc., naturally increase the cost of the work; it is therefore recommended that wherever possible these features be eliminated. (See Plate No. 2 for Construction Details.)
Soffits of Balconies, Pediments, wide beams, etc., are filled with concrete, but of a weak mix; say, 1 of cement, 3 of sand, and 3 of screenings, brick or gravel.
Breeze concrete should not. on any account, be used for filling the voids of Terra Cotta, as the corrosive action of such concrete is most destructive to the metal supports used to hang the Terra Cotta.
Terra Cotta will stand a compression test of over 5,000 lbs. per sq. in., amply more than any load it is likely to be called upon to bear.
We recommend that the plinth course at Ground or Street level should always be of stone or solid material.
The rebate, or in brick parlance “frog.” which surrounds Terra Cotta is pronounced, being at least § in. deep and 2\ in. wide—this wide frog allows for filling with cement grout, leaving no voids at the sides and also materially assisting the weathering of joints. Usually the finished joint of Terra Cotta is J in. The pointing should be made with mastic; a material called “Non-porite, manufactured in Melbourne, is recommended. Joints should be raked out § in. deep and filled, and struck with this pointing, particular care being taken on sills, copings, parapets, and all weatherings. Hand holes and anchor holes are all provided in the Terra Cotta.
J he jointing of 1 crra Cotta should be decided by conference with the Manufacturers, as the jointing can make the Terra Cotta expensive or economical, apart from marring or enhancing appearance. (See Plate No. 3 for typical Construction Details.)
Keystones, statuary, fluted columns of large diameter can be readily built up by clever jointing.
Details - Plate 3
Short Form of Terra Cotta Specification with Concrete Structures
DRAWINGS - SAMPLES Shop Drawings
All shop drawings, conforming as nearly as practicable to the architect’s drawings, full size drawings and models of all ornamental features shall be submitted to the architect for his approval before the manufacture of the Terra Cotta is proceeded with.
The contractor shall be furnished with two copies of all drawings, showing the setting of the ware.
Samples of colours and textures shall be submitted to the architect for approval, and the Terra Cotta must conform to the approved samples without marked variation.
Terra Cotta facing, as indicated and shown on the elevation, shall be four inches (4") deep, with external and partition walls not less than one inch (1") thick.
Each piece of Terra Cotta shall be provided with the necessary anchor and hand holes, and shall be so formed as to engage properly with the structure.
All blocks will be fitted at the shop for assembly, and will be numbered in relation to the setting drawings.
All blocks broken, subsequent to delivery to site, shall be immediately notified in writing.
If overs are available, no charge will be made by manufacturer, but in the event of remaking, all such blocks will be charged for.
The glazed faces and arrises of Terra Cotta blocks must be protected from damage by stacking on bags, etc., or wood laths, whilst ware lays on the floor of buildings.
WORK BY OTHERS
Provision shall be made in the concrete work for the building-in at 6" centres at each course level -fe" galvanised wire, to form eyes to take ties for engaging Terra Cotta blocks with the concrete structure.
The Contractor shall also provide and fix all steel shelves, anchors, pins, bolts, etc., as required.
General scaffolding, centering and haulage shall be supplied and erected by Contractor.
The Contractor shall also provide proper scaffolding, haulage, wedges, centering and timber supports to soffits and arches, as required.
The Contractor shall allow for properly setting the Terra Cotta ware in strict conformity with the setting drawings to be supplied.
The Terra Cotta ware shall be well wetted and set in cement mortar composed of three (3) parts clean sharp sand to one (1) of approved cement.
Two No. 6B wire gauge galvanised wire ties shall be used with each block hooked to eyes already provided in the concrete work. All metal work of every description supporting or engaging the Terra Cotta with the concrete, as set out in schedule of metal work, shall be painted with Bitumen and protected against corrosion, by encasing same in cement mortar.
Beds &. Joints
Beds must be solid and all rebates in bed and cross joints shall be filled solid with mortar, leaving no voids. Joints shall be thick, the mortar raked out f" and joints pointed up with “Nonporite” caulking compound to approved colour. All Terra Cotta shall be set true to a line.
Special provision shall be made in setting the Terra Cotta blocks immediately under the shelves at each floor level, that they are bedded at this joint with an elastic caulking compound to act as expansion joints.
Uncompleted work shall be protected by bags and care must be taken of all sills and arrises against damage following setting.
Upon completion of Terra Cotta setting, clean down with soap and water and leave all clean and neat.
The advantages of Terra Cotta can be summed up as follows:
1. The material is everlasting, being weather, acid and dirt resisting.
2. It offers varied and permanent colours.
3. Being burnt ware, it is absolutely fireproof.
4. It affords an excellent reflector to flood lighting.
5. It can be quickly supplied.
6. It forms an attractive and complementary trim to emphasise architectural features in colour in association with stone, brick or stucco buildings.
7. Being hollow and light in weight, it can be economically set and does not require any heavy constructive support.
8. Acts as an insulator to noise, cold and heat when applied as a veneer to reinforced concrete walls.
9. Cleansing is both easy and economical.
10. As Enamelled Face Brick it can be used externally and for interior facing.
11. It is effectively used for interior wall decoration, fireplaces, stock window sills, etc., and
1 2. For statuary, altars, etc., and for garden ornaments.