O 4J.

TN extending to Farmers and Farm-workers an invitation to ^ take advantage of opportunities that exist for prosperous settlement in Australia, the Government of the Commonwealth wishes to make it clear that there is no desire to discriminate against other classes of settlers.

Agriculturists are specially invited and assisted to come to Australia because it is considered that in a progressive young country, with so much territory proved to be suitable for the growth of produce for which there is an ever-increasing demand in local and over-sea markets, such settlers will advance the interest of the country and of themselves.

The contents of this book have been compiled from information furnished by responsible authorities, to whom this opportunity is taken of expressing the thanks of the Government of the Commonwealth.

Department of External Affairs, Melbourne, Australia, 1915.


THAT the area of Australia is greater than that of the United States of America; that it is four-fifths of that of Canada; that it is more than one-fourth of the area of the whole of the British Empire; that it is nearly three-fourths of the whole area of Europe; that it is more than 25 times as large as any one of the following, viz., the United Kingdom, Hungary, Italy, the Transvaal or Ecuador, are facts which are not always adequately realised.

The Commonwealth of Australia, which includes the island continent of Australia proper, the island of Tasmania to the south, and the Dependency of Papua, forming the southern portion of the Island of New Guinea to the north, comprises in all an area of 3,065,121 square miles; the mainland alone containing about 2,948,366 square miles.

It comprises the six federated States and two Dependencies:—

Area in Square Miles.

Capital City.

Population of Capital.


New South Wales ..




Victoria .. ..




Queensland .. ..




South Australia ..




Western Australia ..




Tasmania .. ..




Dependencies— Northern Territory ..




Papua .. .. ..


Port Moresby


Total .. ..


The white population of Australia at present numbers 4 850,000, or less than two persons to the square mile. The aborigines and persons of non-European races number only 53,000.

Australia’s handful of people, aided by a salubrious climate, produce enormous wealth each year from the rich soils of their territory, and have built up an oversea trade which, per head of the population, is believed to be greater than that of any country.

Australia is capable of producing almost everything man requires for his sustenance or comfort, and it exports what all the world must have—wool, meats, wheat, butter and minerals.

These few statistics show at a glance the position in Australia today:—


Increase in 10 Years.

Population .. .

■ 4,733.°°°

= 21.88 per cent.

Area cultivated .. .

. i3.O38.OOO

= 53-88 ,,

Live stock—

Sheep .. .

. 83,264,000

- 55-M „

Cattle .. .

• 11,577,3°°

- 63.81

Horses .. .

. 2,408,000

= 57-94 „

Pigs .. .

. 846,000

= 8.74


Pastoral .. .

. $247,752,000.00

Agricultural .. .

. 219,619,200.00

Dairying .. .

. 97,344,000.00

Mining .. .

. 123.019,200.00

Forests and Fisheries ,

. 30,873.600.00

Manufactures.. .

. 273.705,600.00

Total .

.. $992.313.600.00


Oversea trade—

Imports . .. ,

• • $375,163,200.00


Exports .. .


80. r 1

Savings Banks—

Depositors ..

No. 1,736,000

64.86 ,,

Deposits .. .

• $321,393,600.00

97 45 ,,

• Five years' increase; only figures available.

Australia for Farmers

As regards the general appearance of the land surface, Australia may be described as a plateau, fringed for the greater part by a low-lying, well-watered coast, which presents an im-PHYSICAL    mense variety of features, from the most luxuriant

FEATURES.    tropical verdure of the north to the rock-bound

shores lapped by the cool southern seas. The coastal belt varies in width from a few miles to 200 miles or more, and on the north, north-west, east, and south-east, is intersected by numerous large rivers, for which the Great Dividing Range and other mountains serve as widespread catchment areas.

From the Great Dividing Range, which extends from north to south of the Continent, and rises to an average of over 3000 feet above sea-level, the land slopes gradually westward towards the centre of Australia. Practically the same condition occurs in the southern half of the western portion of Australia, the land sloping gradually from the Darling Ranges to the eastward. Australia’s greatest mountain, Mt. Kosciusko, occurs in the Great Dividing Range at the southern end of

New South Wales, but attains a height of only 7328 feet. Within the tropical portions of Australia there are elevated tracts of rich pastoral lands.

I lie portions <>i these sl-.pes varying from 400 to 2500 feet above sea-level, and reaching in places as far as 250 miles inland, and with an average annual rainfall of from 15 to 30 inches, have been proved to be suitable for agricultural purposes, chiefly wheat-growing, but below that altitude, except nearer the seaboard, the rainfall is not sufficiently re liable to enable the land to be cropped successfully each season.

The interior of Australia, from the foothills of the mountain ranges to the very heart of the Continent, produces naturally grasses, herbage and edible shrubs and trees, which enable a great wool industry with

an annual output worth between $240,000,000.00 and $288,000,000.00 to be carried on, the sheep on such country being dependent almost entirely on the natural growths for sustenance.

The rainfall becomes less reliable as the centre of the continent is reached, but by the utilization of artesian water underlying areas as great as France and Spain, and by conservation of some of the vast quantities of water that annually flows to waste in the oceans around Australia, and by the adoption of more scientific and provident methods of management of live-stock and cultivation areas, and by large irrigation projects, the effects of shortages in rainfall are being successfully combated throughout an annually expanding area of the interior.

Although within the boundaries of the Commonwealth


from the

banana to the raspberry, can be grown in one part or another, the conditions of the districts in which land is open for agricultural settlement are temperate. Throughout the vast territories in each State in which mixed farming has for twenty years or more been proved to be safe and profitable, the climatic conditions are ideal for eight or nine months in the year, that is, autumn, winter, and spring, with no bitter cold, no heavy snowfall, and no devastating

frosts It is cold, of course, in winter, and in exposed situations bleak, in some districts. Crops sown out of season will be nipped on low-lying river flats, and an occasional light fall of snow on the hillwill occur, but the fact that <m per cent, of all livestock. working horses, dairy cattle, and sheep are allowed to run at large all the year round without housing of any kind, and entirely dependent on natural growths of grass ami ' erhage. will afford farmer- and stock-keepers the best idea of the climatic conditio - f the Australian farming belts.

In -unnner the heat in many district- is considerable, but it is, except in the coastal regions of the north-east and north, a dry heat, seldom lasting for more than two or three days without a cool change. The elevation of most parts generally assures cool nights. Although a heat of 950 Fall, may appear to be great and may cause discomfort to some people, it is, in the experience

of those who have encountered both, far less oppressive than a temperature of anything over 8o° in Great Britain or Europe, where the air is nearly always laden with moisture. In the coastal districts of northern New South Wales and Queensland, where sugar-cane is grown, and where dairying is such a flourishing industry, the humidity of the atmosphere is considerable on account of the heavy rainfall— from 60 to over ioo inches per annum; but such districts almost invariably enjoy cool sea breezes at night. A fair idea of the worst three months of the year in the farming districts can be gathered from the fact that outdoor work goes on uninterruptedly, even during the hottest hours of the day and when hot winds are experienced. Little or no change is made in diet, which as a rule comprises meat three times a day. Sunstroke is seldom heard of, despite the fact that few

people, young or old, take any extra precautions or make any great change in their attire or headgear.

There are great areas of Australia which enjoy all the year round a beautifully even and pleasant temperature, slightly warmer in summer, and slightly colder in winter, broken only by a few days’ rain here and there through the seasons. Practically the only inclement weather is wet weather, and it is no doubt this magnificent climate, kind and genial, that renders Australia, both for man and stock, such a healthy country. Save in the mountain districts, on the highlands, only very light clothing is necessary all the year round; houses may be of exceedingly light construction and yet perfectly comfortable; men may camp in the open without a tent, and outdoor existence is by far the most pleasurable method of enjoying life. This mildness of climate is a matter of great importance to settlers, as it materially reduces the cost of farming, both by reason of the fact that live-stock require little or no artificial shelter, and that harvesting operations arc greatly facilitated.

The death rate throughout the Commonwealth is 11.23 Per 1000 of the population—the lowest in the world ; much less than that of Great Britain, and half that of many countries of Europe. The pioneers who braved fatigues and hardships in founding the pastoral, agricultural, and mining industries of Australia, were notorious for longevity, and the average Australian of to-day compares favourably with the best types of manhood in any country. The virility of the Australian and his pre-eminence in outdoor sports are the natural outcome of splendid climatic conditions and the high standard of living that such conditions make possible.

In the accompanying map, furnished by the Commonwealth Meteorologist, it will be observed that the rainfall of Australia is not evenly distributed, and that the moderate rainfall Rainfall. essential for successful farming occurs in an irregular strip, extending in some cases several hundred miles inland, and following the eastern, southern (including Tasmania), and about half of the western seaboard. It is difficult to compute the exact extent of the area thus embraced, but the 13,000,000 acres at present under cultivation represent probably less than one-tenth of it, even when allowance is made for rough mountainous country and other tracts, which for various reasons are unfitted for agriculture.

The annual production of over $216,000,000.00 worth of crops of all kinds on the 13,000,000 acres of the farming belt at present under cultivation, exclusive of over $96,000,000.00 worth of dairy products and a vast amount of wool and meat, affords proof of the suitability of climate and soil for farming purposes..

It would be idle to assert that bad seasons are not experienced in the farming districts of Australia. Every experienced farmer knows that such misfortunes are common to all countries. But the Australian wheat crop has failed only once during the past fourteen years. The man farming under Australian conditions has at least the consolation of standing to lose to the minimum extent, so far as outlay in planting is concerned ; and the prosperity of Australian farmers and their lavish outlay on up-to-date machinery and good live-stock afford ample proof of the recuperative powers of the land.

NEW SOUTH WALES is divided, climatically, into three main regions.

In the Coastal Division the difference between Climatic conditions the mean summer and mean winter temperature of States. averages not more than 24 degrees. There is no long, bleak winter, the days during the nominal winter months being for the most part warm and sunny.

The North Coast District, with rainfall averaging from 40 to 70 inches annually, is not subjected to excessive heat in summer or winter

frosts, and is particularly suitable for sub-tropical growths. This is the home of the great dairying industry.

The South Coast District, with a slightly lower average of rainfall, has even less variation of temperature than the northern, and is second only to the North Coast for its dairy products.

The Tablelands, which contain rich agricultural lands, afford a cooler climate. At the southern extremity of the tableland, where altitudes of 5°°° feet are attained, snowfalls are frequent, and during the winter months the country is snow-covered. It is only in these parts of the State that live-stock may need winter housing, or where one needs heavier clothes in the winter; but, so far, the extent of this class of country devoted to cropping is insignificant.

The Western Slopes comprise the wheat belt of the State, and cover approximately a strip stretching from the Queensland to the Victorian border, from 100 to 200 miles wide.

The rainfall varies from 20 to 30 inches per annum, according to altitude, and the climatic conditions generally are favourable for farming.

In the Far West, where the summer heat climbs to the highest point reached in the State, it is a dry warmth that does not enervate, and in numerous places now wheat is successfully grown where the average rainfall drops considerably below 20 inches. The plains of the western portion of the State suffer principally from the dry seasons which at times occur. There are being constructed at present great irrigation works, which are now opening up for close settlement a large tract of excellent country in the interior on easy terms and conditions.

VICTORIA.—This State is crossed midway from east to west by a range of mountains and hills which form a first boundary between two distinct climatic zones, the climate of the northern zone being warm and dry, while that of the southern zone, subject to the influence of the surrounding southern seas, is cooler, and blessed with a more regular and abundant rainfall. These two zones are naturally subdivided by topographical differences; so that it may be said there are four well-defined divisions—the north-west, north-east, south-east, and southwest.

The average annual rainfall of the North-western District is 14 inches per annum, but this varies from 10 to 20 inches in the settled portions of the Malice country, and 12 to 30 inches in the Upper Wimmera. The distribution of rains is beneficial for agriculture, the bulk of the precipitation occurring at times when crops are most in need of moisture.

In the North-eastern District there are plains, upper lands, and mountainous districts, and, consequently, a variety of climates. The annual average for the plains is from 17 to 27 inches, the smaller value occurring in the Echuca district, and the greater in the locality around Chiltern. The upper lands have averages from 30 to 40 inches, and the higher ranges 60 inches.

The distribution of the annual rains is favourable for agriculture. Of the total amount for the average year, 31 per cent, falls in winter, and 19 per cent, in summer, while the remainder is equally divided between autumn and spring. The natural productiveness of the soil is so enhanced by this favourable distribution that the valleys of the Goulburn, the Ovens, the Mitta Mitta, and the Murray Rivers have long been transformed into farming districts typical of a prosperous and happy land.

The winter of the north-eastern plains is mild and sunny, and even the excessive warmth of January and February causes no inconvenience to the local population, owing to the small percentage of relative humidity in the atmosphere, which is characteristic of the climate of these localities.

The topographical features of the South-eastern District are of the most varied character. From the snow-capped ranges which divide it from the north-eastern provinces, the southern slopes descend through large tracts of broken hilly country, and thence along the fertile valleys of the Tambo, the Mitchell, the Macallister, and La Trobe rivers, to the lower lands and districts on the shore of the Pacific Ocean.

A variety of climates is met with, but they all have in common those characteristics which are due to oceanic influence. The more prominent of these are a greater relative humidity, a greater rainfall, and a smaller range of temperature, than those which distinguish districts north of the range.    The periodic passage of antarctic

cyclonic systems from west to east along their track, south of the coast-line, causes frequent short, irregular weather changes, which at times mask the ordinary regime of the seasons, and give the southeastern climate its variable and sometimes capricious character. Some districts are fully exposed to the rain-bearing winds from the sea, while others are more or less sheltered from them by intervening land elevations In consequence of this, the rainfall is unevenly distributed. There is, however, abundant compensation to be found for these local peculiarities when we consider the regular and reasonable rainfa'l and other climatic conditions.

The south-eastern climate is undoubtedly remarkable for its abundant rainfall, its cool summer, its temperate and bracing winter, its equable and genial spring and autumn, and its salubrious qualities in all seasons.

The South-western District is open, and, to a great extent, unsheltered by land elevations from the influence of both the ocean and the interior of the continent. The Dividing Range in its trend from east to west gradually vanishes, and there are relatively small areas of hilly country. The district includes four fairly distinct sub-divisions—(i) The Otway Forest, (2) other coastal districts, (3) the midlands, (4) the upper lands.

The Otway Forest is a region of heavy rains, and some of the wettest stations in Victoria are found within this locality. Its climate is essentially maritime and moist, with a relatively cool summer, a wet winter, and a very small range of temperatures. The other coastal districts possess the same maritime climate, but with less rainfall.

The climate of the midlands is dry, with a moderate and very regular rainfall evenly distributed throughout the seasons, abundant sunshine, and moderate temperature conditions generally.

The upper lands have a cooler climate, dry and bracing, and a greater rainfall than the lower lands.

All the preceding remarks relate to the Victorian climate as viewed under the ordinary conditions of average years; in exceptional years these conditions of course vary to a certain extent.

With regard to temperature, it is to be observed that its extreme range is very great in every district. This is more especially due to the abnormally high readings of the maximum summer temperatures. The records of past years show that the thermometer has occasionally risen above 100 degs. F. in all parts of the State, above no degs. at many places, and to 120 degs. in the extreme north-west, while a temperature of 123.5 degs., which occurred at Mildura on 6th January, 1906, is the absolute maximum on the official registers of the State.

These phenomenally high readings are associated with certain types in the distribution of barometric pressure over the Australian continent, and, more directly, with the occasional persistence of strong northerly winds, which in summer become intensely heated in blowing across the plains of the interior. The State is thus subject to short periods of exceptionally great heat, whose frequency and duration, however, do not follow any precisely ascertained law, and can only be regarded as abnormal occurrences. The minimum winter temperatures, on the other hand, present no extremes of unusual severity, and the coldest seasons do not deviate from average conditions to any very remarkable extent. The lowest temperature on record in any part of Victoria is 16 degs. F., which occurred once at Mount St. Bernard, in the highest ranges (more than 5,000 feet above sea level). The thermometer has very rarely fallen below freezing point in the coastal districts, or below 20 degs. F. anywhere else inland.

It has been observed that—with the exception of the far northern plains—the average readings of the thermometer, at the hottest time of the day in the hottest months of the year, nowhere exceed 81.5 degs. F. Temperatures greater than 100 degs., and, in some places, no degs., may occur, but only in very exceptional and isolated cases. Thus, in Melbourne, the thermometer rises above 100 degs. not more than three times in the year, and rose to nr.2 degs. only once in half a century. Such summer conditions exhibit no abnormal phases, and need not be regarded with great concern, even in their severest form, as such are only a temporary inconvenience for a day or two in the year; otherwise the average conditions are ideally pleasant.

Over the north-western plains the maximum temperature of the summer’s day is, on an average, 93 degs. F., and has, in one case, reached 123.5 degs., as already stated. In these regions the heat during January and February is generally great, frequently excessive, and occasionally phenomenal; yet it does not disconcert people in their outdoor occupations, and has no injurious effects upon their health, as proved by the Mildura Settlement, where a prosperous community lives pleasantly in comfort and even luxury. The greatest heat 011 record in any part of the State has never been detrimental to the health of the community. Those ills and accidents to life which may be legitimately attributed to the effects of excessive heat are not more frequent in Victoria than they are in most European countries. This is clearly explained by the well-known fact that the physiological effect of temperature is associated with the amount of moisture present in the atmosphere. In damp climates high temperatures are extremely oppressive. In some parts of England, for instance, a temperature of 90 degs. is intolerable. On the contrary,

in dry climates much higher temperatures produce no discomfort, and are not in any way injurious. The general dryness of the Victorian climate makes the most intense heat of summer easily bearable, and causes it to be welcomed as a beneficial agent for the better maturing of the crops, table fruits, and grapes.

QUEENSLAND.—Broadly speaking there are three climates—

1.    The Coastal climate, marked by comparative evenness of tem

perature and a high degree of moisture. In this district sugar-cane, pine-apples, bananas, coffee, maize, and fibres thrive, and the magnificent pastures which flourish in the rich soil and abundant rainfall place a great portion of this immense tract in a foremost position for dairy-farming.

2.    The Central climate, which is characterised by a wide range

of temperature between summer heat and winter cold. The elevated country of the tablelands and slopes of the Great Dividing Range is eminently suitable for mixed farming. All kinds of cereals and fodder crops grow well, and fruits from oranges to cherries and strawberries thrive.

3. The Western climate, with the heat of summer and the cold of winter of a more intense kind, and also with great extremes of moisture, but a general tendency to extreme dryness of atmosphere. This climate prevails in the far southwest, west, and north-west of Queensland, practically adjacent to the South Australian border. Sheep and cattle breeding are extensively carried on in these areas. Grapes citrus and other fruits do well. On the highlands back from the coast the climate is almost perfect, even in districts within the tropics. The heat in the daytime during the summer months is sometimes considerable, but the hot days are almost invariably succeeded by cool nights. In Queensland snow is unknown, except in rare instances at a few places in the southern portion of the State. The people have no need to dread a severe winter, as they often do in other lands.

Mean Temperatures.—Brisbane, summer 76.7 deg,, winter 59.4; southern districts, summer 78.8. winter 57.9; Darling Downs, summer 66.5, winter 45.5; south-western districts, summer 80.8. winter 52.1; central districts, summer 80.5, winter 57.7; northern districts, summer 81.2, winter 68.7; north-western districts, summer 84.3, winter 62.2.

1 he death-rate is 10.96 per 1000 inhabitants, while the birth-rate, at the same ratio, is 29.70.

The following are the average annual rainfalls for fifteen years and upwards:—Northern Division—Peninsula and coastal, 55 inches 54 points; Gulf, 32.05; Central, 37.01; Far West, 22.40. Central

Division—Coastal 39.48; Central, 29.06; Far West, 15.06. Southern Division—Coastal, 41.47; Central, 30.92; Far West, 19.33.

It is hardly ever necessary to provide winter fodder for stock, or to house the animals (except, perhaps, valuable pedigree stock) during winter.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.—The climate of the southern part of South Australia closely resembles that of Spain or Southern Italy. The weather for the greater part of the year is agreeable and balmy, with clear skies and bright sunshine. The winter season is for the most part mild, and something like a wet autumn in England. The coldest month is July, the mean temperature of which at Adelaide is 51.6. The average maximum temperature (or greatest temperature in the daytime) for July is 58.7, and the average minimum (lowest night temperature) is 44.4. The lowest reading ever recorded at Adelaide was 32.0, on July 24th, 1908. Winter mornings are frequently frosty, especially in the hills and high-lying plains. Snow is a very occasional phenomenon in the higher altitudes during the passage of winter rain disturbances of very unusual character. The spring and autumn months and portion of the winter are, however, generally marked by delightful weather, and the rainfall during the whole period is excellently adapted for the agriculturist. Hence

wheat-farming is one of the great industries of the country, though by no means the only one for which the climate is suitable. The average rainfall at Adelaide for the seven months, April to September, is 16 inches. North of Adelaide the rainfall is lighter in character, and south of the capital it is heavier. The average annual rain at Adelaide is 20.33 inches. The greatest yearly fall on record is 30.87, in 1889, and the least 13.43 in [876. The hottest months of the year are marked by clear dry heat, tempered by frequent cool changes. Some trying heat waves are often experienced, but, as the air is very dry, these hot spells cause merely temporary discomfort, and do not stop outdoor work. The mean 9 a.m. humidity at Adelaide in January, the midsummer month, is 42 per cent. The mean temperatures in December, January, and Kebiuary are 71.4, 74.1, and 74.0 respectively. The mean maximum temperatures are 83.7, 86.5, and 86.0; the mean minimum temperatures 59.0 and 61.7 and 61.9. The highest temperature ever recorded at Adelaide during a heat wave was 116.3, on January 26th, 1858. These bursts of heat usually occur with dry north winds blowing from the interior. Near the coast, however, the summer heat is greatly reduced by cool breezes from the sea. Thus, at Adelaide, the prevailing direction of the wind in the summer months is south-west, i.e., off the sea. In winter, on the contrary, north and north-east winds prevail.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—The climate of the south-western portion of the State, of which Perth may be taken as the centre, is excellent. During the summer months the warm days are tempered by the sea breeze which comes up at noon, and makes the remainder of the day pleasantly cool. This breeze extends at least 150 miles inland over the whole of the agricultural areas.    The mean temperature of Perth for twenty-two years is 64.8.    The rainfall is

heaviest in the south-west, diminishing thence northward and eastward. It also decreases in the coastal ranges as we proceed further inland. On the coast, it is approximately 30 inches, while it is-necessary to go nearly 200 miles inland before the 10-inch limit is reached. The average rainfall for the past twelve years is, in the Eastern Districts, 970; in the South-western District, 24.95; an<i the Eucla District, 18.72, or an average of 17.7. The following table shows the average rainfall and temperature at the various places:—


Mean Temperature. Deg. F.







1S.17    66.8

33.25    64.0

36.06    62.0

35-67    59-4

16.25    63.8

9.28    65.5

A11 area of between 40,000,000 and 50,000,000 acres in the southern portion of the State is eminently adapted for the cultivation of wheat, oats, or barley. Commencing at the Darling Ranges, where the annual rainfall is 35 inches, the wheat belt extends eastward, with .1 gradually diminishing rainfall, to Merreden, where the average rainfall is over 10 inches. The whole of the land served by the Great Southern Rail-

way, the Midland Railway, and as far north as Northampton, lies within a rainfall belt of io inches as the minimum, and as the rains come regularly just at the time crops require them, it is safe to grow cereals anywhere inside this area. In fact, the only limit to the wheat-growing areas within this belt is the distance from railway connection, from 20 to 30 miles being the utmost limit at which it will be profitable to haul wheat. An enormous area of wheat lands has been made available to the selector by the construction of spur railways, and when those lines which it is intended to construct are completed, a further large area will be opened for settlement.

The South-western portion of the State, which enjoys a fairly heavy rainfall of over 30 inches per annum, is particularly well adapted for the growth of fruit, especially apples for export.

The elevation of the country—it is 1,200 feet above sea-level, even at Kalgoorlie—is responsible for the salubrity of the climate.

The North-west and Northern portions of the State are almost entirely devoted to the production of meat and wool.

The climate in the tropical areas is divided into two seasons, wet and dry, the former lasting from the middle or end of November to the end of March—the maximum temperature being in this period 100 degrees, occasionally more.

In the winter months, the weather is for the most part fine, clear, calm and pleasant.

The rainfall is from 10 to 33 inches, the heaviest falls occurring in the extreme tropics.    •

The regularity of rainfall has placed the pastoral industry of this State in a most flourishing condition.

TASMANIA.—As evidence of the mild and equable temperature, it may be mentioned that clothing found warm enough in winter is not unbearable in summer. The extreme maximum shade temperature recorded at Hobart since 1841. when observations first started, is 105.2 deg. F., which was recorded on 30th December, 1897. The mean maximum shade temperature for the year over the same period is 62.3 deg. F., the mean minimum 46.3 deg. F., and the mean temperature 54.3 deg. F.

The dull, depressing skies of Europe, at certain seasons, are unknown in Tasmania, where, and with the exception of the West Coast mining fields, there is no long continuance of wet or cold weather. There are few days so wet that one cannot go about. The annual rainfall varies in different parts of the State, but wherever there is cultivation the rainfall is ample for all forms of plant growth. The average annual rainfall, as recorded at eighty stations spread over the settled portions of the State, is 29.4 inches. The Midland District, devoted principally to sheep and wool production, has an average of 18 to 20 inches. In the Huon Valley, where fruit-growing is the staple industry, the annual rainfall is 35 to 40 inches. On the Northwest Coast, where potato and oat growing take the lead, the annual rainfall is from 36 to 40 inches; at Ringarooma, in the north-eastern district, the average is over 43 inches; and on the West Coast mining fields the annual rainfall ranges from 70 to 142 inches. Owing to the rapid evaporation, the number of clear, sunny days, and the permeability of the soil, an annual rainfall of, say, 45 to 50 inches appears to produce less wet weather than, say, 25 inches in England, for immediately a shower is over everything is usually bathed in sunshine. Nothing like the dull, grey, lowering weather so common in England is known in Tasmania, nor has rain the effect it has in England of

making the ground sodden, for after heavy rain the roads are soon dry.

All English cereals, fruits, and flowers will grow in Tasmania, and many that in England are reared only in a greenhouse. In and around Hobart grapes and lemons ripen in the open air; and heliotrope, pelargoniums, calceolarias, and similar flowers are to be seen flouiishing in open flower-beds in both summer and winter.

.Tasmania enjoys the unique distinction of possessing climatic conditions so favourable to infant life that nine out of every ten children born on the island survive their first year.

There is an enormous variety of soils in the farming belts of Australia, ranging from hungry sand to loam as rich and friable as gardener’s mould. Some of the best land in the SOIL AND RANGE more closely settled districts which has been under

OF FARMING. the one class of crop for half a century or more every year in succession, will to-day produce over ioo bushels of maize without the addition of manure of any description, and there are numerous instances all over the farming districts

where wheat has been grown after wheat for twenty years or more at a stretch, and the land is still in good heart and producing crops of over 25 bushels to the acre.

It is the abundance of rich virgin soil that does not require expensive cultural or manurial treatment, and no artificial drainage, which must commend Australia to the farmer.

The range of commercial crops is wide; the opportunities to crop the same land twice within the same year are considerable; and the range of natural and artificial fodders is without parallel in any country.

1 he native grasses, herbage, and fodder plants of Australia place the Commonwealth in a pre-eminent position as a pastoral country.

To the man who devotes a large portion of his Grasses and Fodder farm to the cultivation of turnips or mangels, who Plants.    has to laboriously prepare the seed-bed and heavily

dress with expensive fertilizers every square yard of his pasture, and who has to stall-feed his cattle and sheep and expend large sums in oil-cake to top them for market, it may seem incredible, but it is nevertheless a fact that on the native pastures of Australia cattle and sheep will attain a greater weight more speedily than is possible in Great Britain or the United States.

The production of over $240,000,000.00 worth of wool and meat per annum is ample evidence of the fattening properties of these valuable grasses. With no other feed than the native grass they crop during the night-halt, and for an hour or so at noon, horses perform long and arduous journeys in teams, and in the saddle. A peculiar feature of Australian grass is that long after it has passed maturity, and when it is bleached and withered on its roots, it is excellent fodder, equal to hay conserved in the ordinary way.

The presence of such a source of natural fodder, combined with a mild winter, enables the Australian farmer to sell practically everything he grows on the farm, and thus places him at an enormous advantage over the farmers in countries where it is necessary to devote perhaps a third of the area under cultivation to production of fodder for the farm stock.

For the purposes of dairying, however, it has been found that the excellent native grasses lack the sustained succulence essential for a good milk flow, and some of the best English meadow grasses and clovers have been introduced, and have'been found to thrive luxuriantly. In the coastal districts a grass that is capable of sustaining one milch cow to the acre during the greater part of the year is now spreading mile by mile, and the dairy farmers are thus assured of the right class of feed.

One practice which Australian farmers have adopted, but which is little known in other parts of the world, is the utilisation of the cereal crops for hay. Oats are most largely used for this purpose; wheat comes a good second. The yield per acre is usually about 2 tons, but exceptionally heavy crops in the moister districts may run from 3 to 4 tons per acre. Oaten and wheaten hay is so universally used, that Australian farmers may be said to know little of the dried grasses and clovers which form the staple “hay” in Europe and America.

In connection with the growth of cereal and fodder crops, it is remarkable that, in the vast majority of cases, the only manurial requirement of Australian soils of average fertility is phosphoric acid. As is well known, in the northern hemisphere, of the three plant foods— nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid—the two former usually give the best results. In the wheat-growing districts of Australia a long series of experiments has shown that the only manurial element necessary in the majority of areas to produce good crops is phosphoric acid—the least expensive of artificial fertilisers.

Some of the principal crops, showing the seasons of sowing or planting and average time they take to ripen :—

Artichokes ... .

• Spring.........

7 months.

Barley and vetches .

. Autumn ... ...

3-4 >.

Barley ... .

. Autumn ... ...

6-7 „

Beans... ... .

• Spring...... ...

3 >>

Clover ... .

. Autumn or Spring.

Cowpeas ... .

• Spring.........

3|-4^ months.


■ Spring...... ..

5 ..

Grasses ... .

. Autumn or Spring.


. Autumn ... ...

4 months.

Lucerne ... ..

. Autumn or Spring ...

First cut in about 4-5 months.

Maize... ... ..

. Spring to midsummer

3-4-\ ..

Millet (broom) .

• Spring.........

4 ..

Millet (Hungarian) .

■ Spring.........


Oats...... ..

. Autumn ... ...


Oats and Peas ..

. Autumn ... ...

3-4 n

Paspalum grass ..

. Autumn ... ...

6 months to establish

Potatoes ... ..

. Autumn and Spring...

44 months.

Pumpkins ... ..

■ Spring.........

5 »»

Rape ... ... ..

. Autumn ... ...

2^ ,,

Sorghum ... ..

• Spring.........

4i »

Sugar-cane ... ..

• Spring.........

8-11 ,,

Swedes ... ..

. Autumn ... ...

4 *.

Sweet Potatoes ..


7 ..

Teosinte ... ..

• Spring ......

5 »>

Turnips ... ..

Autumn ... ...

3 ..

Wheat ... ..

. Autumn . . ...

6-7 >.


Breaking new ground.

The main money crop in Australia is wheat. The conditions tend to the production of a wheat of excellent milling quality, and one for which in the world’s markets there is unlimited WHEAT.    demand at top prices, and yet the area under this

crop is only 7,340,000 acres.

The land that is found to be best adapted for wheat-growing is the red soil of fair depth, good natural fertility, and sufficiently well drained naturally to enable it to be reduced to fair tilth when worked wet or dry. The fact that plough teams of two to five horses are worked abreast will enable farmers to judge of the natural drainage of the average Australian wheat soils. Some of the heavier loams will pro-

■ ■■

With Australian Stripper-harvesters, wheat is harvested, threshed, and put into the bag for 8 to 10 cents, per bushel.

duce heavier crops, but since there is no serious need to house live-stock, and no present need in most districts for yard manure, straw is of little or no account. Therefore the wheat-grower generally endeavours to secure an area of medium light red soil that can be depended upon to return for some years fair yields, say from 12 to 20 bushels of grain, under a system of cultivation which, though inexpensive, is adequate to produce the results aimed at. As a rule, wheat land is ploughed with multiple rotary disc ploughs or mould-board ploughs to the depth of 2]/2 to 4 inches, about y2 to 1 bushel of seed is drilled in, and the crop may be harrowed when 8 inches high. When the crop becomes ready for harvesting, narrow strips are generally first cut with a reaper and binder, around and through it, for firebreaks and roadways—the resultant sheaves, cut on the green side, being made into hay for home use or market. The main bulk of the crop now thoroughly ripe is garnered with the stripper or complete harvester, which merely strips the ripe ears, and, in the case of the complete harvester, winnows them, and bags the grain as it proceeds, leaving the straw to be burnt off, fed off, or turned under as may appear to the farmer expedient.

After several years’ cropping, up-to-date farmers find it profitable to sow 50 lb. to 60 lb. superphosphate with the wheat seed at a cost of about $0.60 per acre. Manure of any other description is rarely if ever used; although there are among the conspicuously successful farmers of Australia men who have found that it pays handsomely to have some simple rotation of cropping, and to keep a small flock of sheep to convert the stubble into hard cash.

It will thus be seen that although the average Australian wheat returns are low as compared with those of the Motherland and other countries, the cost of production is remarkably small, and as the man who would work 100 acres in Great Britain would be able with the same

capital to crop 300 acres in Australia, it will be easily understood why wheat-farming in Australia appeals so strongly to all who want to get the best returns from their labour and capital.

In order to afford practical farmers definite information as to the cost of wheat production in various parts of the Commonwealth, figures have been obtained from a number of Australian wheat-growers, some of whom it will be noticed are growing wheat on land that has been continuously cropped for forty years, and others who have not so long ago transferred their operations from Great Britain to Australia.

The examples chosen are fair and typical, not the best, but such as can be equalled on average lands by men of ordinary experience and intelligence.

For instance, Mr. Reuben Free of Green Hills, Warwick, Queensland, has an area of 750 acres, of which 200 acres has been cropped with wheat and maize for forty years. The land is ploughed 3 to 4 inches, harrowed twice, a bushel of seed is drilled in, the crop is fed off with 600 sheep for a week at a time, three months in succession, and harvesting is done with reaper and binder. Mr. Free does not use artificial fertilisers, the droppings from his flock of sheep being sufficient to keep up the condition of the land.

Mr Free puts the total cost of producing and delivering his crop of 21 bushels per acre on rail at $9.60 per acre.

Mr. J. G. Brumpton, of Plain Farm, Hodgson, in the Maranoa district (South-western Queensland), states that he started farming in 1890 on a homestead selection of 160 acres, for which he paid $0.60 per acre. To-day he has an area of 1167 acres, the price paid

for the additional 1007 acres ranging

from $4.80 to $5.40 per

acre. In 1912 he had 210 acres under wheat, 60 acres of which was

converted into hay, the latter yielding 1

l/2 tons per acre. The hay

realised $21.60 per ton, or $32.40 per acre. Mr. Brumpton gives the following particulars in regard to his operations:—

Per Acre.


Ploughing .. ..

.. . . $1.20

Harrowing (twice) ..

. . . . 1.20

Drilling and harrowing..

. . . . .60

Seed .. .. ..


Binding and carting hay

.. .. 4.80

Cutting into chaff (per ton)

.. .. 3.60

Bags (per ton) .. ..

.. .. 4.80

Delivering at railway station

(per ton) 1.20

Total cost ..

.. .. $17.88


\]/2 tons per acre ..

.. .. $32.40

Net profit .. ..

.. .. 14.52

For grain—

Ploughing .. ..

.. .. $1.20

Harrowing (twice) ..

. . . . 1.20

Drilling and harrowing


Seed (l/t bushel of graded)


Harvesting with harvester

(at $0.12

per bushel .. ..

. . . . 1.02

Wheat sacks .. ..


Delivering at railway station

(at $.04

per bushel) .. ..


Total cost ..

.. .. $6.84


16 bushels at $0.88 per bushel .. $14.08

Net profit .. ..

.. .. 7.24

No manure or fertiliser was used by Mr. Brumpton, but he makes it a practice to fallow one-third of his land every year, and graze his sheep thereon. He has between 800 and 1000 sheep, and states that he finds it very profitable to breed sheep and grow wheat. Mr. Brumpton employs one man permanently on his farm, but

during the harvesting period he has six or seven men employed. This season (1913) he has 180 acres under wheat, 70 acres of which he has cut for hay, and he expected his crop of wheat to average 20 bushels per acre.

Mr. Matthew Potter, of Lake Albert, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, has supplied the following particulars of his operations:—

Per Acre.

Ploughing    ..    ..    ..    ..    $1.44

Cultivating    ..    ..    ..    ..    .42

Harrowing three times at $0.18    ..    .54

Seed, 45 lbs. at $1.08 per bushel    ..    .90

Manure, ]/z cwt. at Si .20 per cwt.    ..    .60

Drilling ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    .36

Harvesting with Harvester—one driver $2.40 per day; one boy, $0.96 per day, sewing bags; oil, $0.08 per day; five horses at $0.96 per day each : stripped

9 acres per day    ..    ..    ..    .91

Nine bags at $0.96 per doz.    ..    ..    .72

Cartage to railway, $0.24 per mile per ton ...........16

Total cost ..    ..    ..    $6.05


26 bushels at $0.90 per bushel .. $23.40 Net profit    ......17.35

Mr. Potter adds:—

“Fifty-two years of my life were spent in the North of England. Thirty years of these I farmed on my own account. During sixteen years I paid $2400.00 per annum rent; at the end of thirty years' farming I was very little better off than at the beginning. I mention this to show that my experience has been of the hard, practical kind.

“Seven years ago I came to Australia and have been farming since then in the Wagga district. I have had practical farmers visiting me from New Zealand and elsewhere; the opinions of the whole of them (not only some of them) are in full agreement with my own, namely, that we have here one of the finest, if not the very finest, districts for wheat-growing and agriculture generally, to be found anywhere. Our soil is exceedingly fertile and with reasonable care in cultivation we can always rely on a paying crop; even in 1907, when the rainfall was less than half the usual amount during the growing season, our crops paid well, hay being a good price.

“The other six harvests, over which my experience extends, have resulted in an average yield of 24 bushels per acre, and the only fallowed ground I had was a paddock of 75 acres in 1908. From this 75 acres 220 tons of hay were cut, weighed over the Railway weighbridge, besides a small quantity for my own use. Wheat and oats are our staple crops ; still, malting barley grows well, and is profitable as a change crop. Lucerne and rape can also be grown; stock of all kind do well, horses, cattle, and sheep. I have a small flock of Lincolns. These lambed in November, 1908, and at the Wagga show sales, August 27th, 1909, I sold the whole of the ram lambs nine months old at $15.12 each, off natural pastures, and '/+ lb. of oats per day each after the middle of June up to the date of sale. During the seven years the value of land has doubled, the area under crop has largely increased, and cultivation methods greatly improved. The whole district as well as the town is in a very flourishing condition.

MATTHEW POTTER, Lake Albert, Wagga.

Mr. H. C Piddington, of Eugowra, New South Wales, furnishes the following particulars of his operations.

His district is 800 feet above sea-level, with average rainfall of 21 inches. Of the total area of 320 acres, up to 197 acres has been cropped for 15 years. Cost of ploughing, 5 to 6 in., is $1.68 per acre, both disc and mould-board ploughs being used, and harrowing $0.24 per acre. Forty pounds seed are drilled in with 56 lbs. superphosphate. but Mr. Piddington states his best return was from unfertilised land.

In harvesting, the reaper and binder, costing $182.40, was used for the hay crop at a running cost of $0.84 per acre, with $0.30 for stooking, $0.96 for cartage, and $0.48 per acre stacking. .

For grain, the stripper-harvester, which cost $384.00 at nearest railway station, was worked at $0.72 per acre, including labour and sewing bags.

Cartage to Forbes railway station cost $0.08 per bag. The total cost of producing grain -works out at $5.52 per acre, including bags. Last year the yield was 21 bushels, for which he was offered $0.88 per bushel on the farm. The highest yield obtained on this area was 33 bushels, and the lowest 11 bushels.

Another farmer, Mr. G. H. Hubbard, of Mary Vale, New South Wales, furnishes a balance-sheet for a 300-acre farm, a here the fattening of sheep on the growing wheat crop is practised. It will be noted the sheep were purchased at $1.92, and disposed of at an advance of S0.72 per head.

Area of farm, 300 acres; area under cultivation, 200 acres, cropped fourteen years.



Interest on cost, farm, 5 % ... $504.00 Depreciation, machinery, 10 % 170.40 Cost cultivating laud and marketing wheat from 200 acres at $6.04 per acre ... ... 1208.00 600 sheep at $1.92 ... ... 1152.00 To balance ... ... ... 2149.60

4000 bushels wheat at $0.90 600 sheep at $2.64 ...

..$3600.00 .. 1584.00



In the estimate given below, concerning the cost of growing wheat, the figures quoted give the average cost during ordinary years, in a district in Victoria with a rainfall of 19 inches:—

Area of 500 acres.—Putting in Crop.

Preparation of land fat $i,68 per acre) ..    .. $840.00

Manure (]/a cwt. per acre, at $1.20 per cwt.)    ..    300.00

Seed wheat (bushel per acre, at $0.72 per

bushel) ............270.00

Drilling    ............120.00


Cost of putting in Crop, S3.06 per Acre.

Expense of Harvesting and Carting.

Wages ......

... $384.00

Stripping ......

... 480.00

Horse feed

... 144.00

Bags and filling ...

... 240.00

Cartage ... ...

... 192.00


Leaving a profit

Cost of taking off Crop per Acre, $2.88,

Total Cost per Acre.

Putting in......... $3.06

Harvesting (12-bushel crop) ......... 2.88

Total ...... 85.94

of 91348.80 net.

In the attached figures on the cost of wheat-growing in South Australia, four typical districts have been selected as examples. In each case, except with the scrub country, wheat is only South Australia, one item of revenue, mixed farming being practised. The profits shown do not include rent, rates, and taxes, as this item is too variable to be set down in definite figures, depending upon the cost of land and the system of cultivation adopted. It will vary from $0.24 per acre in scrub country to $7.20 per acre in the South-east. While the persons supplying the particulars in the schedule do not desire their names to be published, they are careful and trustworthy farmers. In many cases the costs are a great deal lower, but returns are also lower. These figures can, however, be accepted as fair averages where up-to-date methods of cultivation are adopted.





Eastern Scrub Country.

Altitude above sea level

1175 ft.

100 ft.

200 ft.

300 ft.

Average annual rainfall

19.9 in.

18 in.

3ii in.

15 in.

Area of holding......

1200 acres

325 acres

312 acres

900 acres.

Area of crop ......

390 acres

100 acres

29 acres

200 acres.

Length of time cropped

40 years

40 years

48 years

Previous crop ... ..


Oats, barley, wheat


1 st Crop.

2nd Crop.

Cost of ploughing, ac. Rolling, burning, and


So. 84



gathering sticks ... Depth of ploughing ...

si to 6 in.

to 6 in.

5i in-

#2.28 to $3

3 in.

Kinds of plough used .

3 & 4 fur-

3 furrow

2 furrow

4 to 6

row set







with short

and 2






Harrowing, cost per ac.

$0.12 on






Scarifying, cost per acre

Twice 81.08






So. 06

Quantity and value of

1 \ bush.,

65 lb.,

1 bush.,

45 lt>..

45 lb.

seed per acre




So. 80

So. 80

Quantity and value of

1 cwt.,

150 lb.,

1 cwt.,

56 lb.,

56 lb.

fertiliser per acre

$1.20 -$1.32


So. 60

$o. 60

Drilling, cost per acre ...

$o. 24

So. 24




Feedingoff,sheep carried


Length of time......


on season

Harvesting with Reaper

and Binder.

Running, cost per acre...


Cost of machine ...


Cost of stooking per acre Cost of carting and



stacking ......


Cost of threshing, per ac.


Value of straw, per ton


Harvesting with Stripper-


Running cost, per acre Cost of machine ...








$0.05 per bag to station, $0.06 per bush.,

So. 06 per bushel to port

$0.72 ton

$0.56 ton

$0.84 ton

rail to

Yield per acre .. ... Total cost per acre (ex-

22J bush.

20 bush.

28 bush.

9 bush.

12 bush.

elusive of rates, rents, and taxes) ... ...






Profit per acre (less rent,

rates, and taxes) ...






It should be noted that the cost of cultivation and harvesting in scrub country includes rolling and burning the scrub, an average

of approximately $2.64 per acre, which is not a recurring expenditure. It is not usual to plough these light scrub lands for the first year’s crop, and in many cases the land is worked with a scarifier or cultivator the second year to a depth of less than three inches with good results.

The price of Government lands ranges from $0.60 per acre for very inferior land to $24.00 per acre for lands repurchased and subdivided for closer settlement.

The principal wheat-growing areas of Victoria are the Mallee, Wimmera, and Northern Districts, all of which are situated North of the Dividing Range. Roughly speaking, 85 per Victoria. cent, of the areas cultivated under wheat are harvested in these districts, and in addition there are also about 20,000,000 acres which are still uncultivated, ihe greater portion of which is ideally suited for wheat-growing. In addition, large areas of land in other parts of the State, now being utilised for sheep-raising, will be placed under wheat in the near future.

The success which has attended wheat-growing is due to the economical and efficient machinery which ensures a low cost of production. The use of the multi-furrow plough, the seed-drill, and the complete harvester, coupled with the favourable prices regularly received for wheat, places the wheat-grower in a sound financial position.

Of late years wheat-growing has been greatly assisted by sheep and lamb-raising. The establishment of freezing works in various parts of the country districts, and also at Melbourne, Geelong, and Portland, has been the means of opening up a steady export trade in frozen mutton and lamb. Glutted markets are thus avoided and high prices assured, and in consequence most Victorian wheat farmers couple sheep-raising with their farming operations and find it most profitable.

It is the general practice where wheat-growing is associated with lamb-raising, to have one-third of the area under crop, one-third in fallow, and one-third in pasture. The holdings to enable this to be done must of course be large, but land values are low enough to successfully carry out the system, as the economic pressure has not, so far, been great enough to necessitate a more intensive method of cultivation.

The seed is sown in May, about 60 lbs. of superphosphate per acre, costing $0.60, being sown with it. Nitrogenous or potassic manures are not necessary, as experience has fully demonstrated that the yields are not increased by their use.

The profits in wheat-farming will naturally depend on the nature of the soil, the skill and judgment of the farmer, and on his business ability.

Including preparation of land, cost of seeds, manure, harvesting, and marketing, the total cost of production may be put down at $4.80 to $5.40 per acre.. A fair average crop may be set down at 12 bushels, though under a careful system of farming, crops of 20 to 30 bushels

are common in the wheat growing areas. The prices realised for wheat range between $0.72 and $0.96 per bushel.

The future of the industry is bright, there is ample room for expansion, and as improved methods are adopted, the yields will correspondingly increase.

Mr. Norman Fry of Victoria district, Western Australia, supplies the following particulars of his operations. His farm is 620 acres in area, and the area under wheat is 200 acres. The Western Australia, district is 900 feet above sea level and the average annual rainfall is 12 inches.

The land was ploughed 4 inches in depth at a cost of 8s. per acre with a three-furrow stump-jump plough. It was not harrowed or rolled. One and a quarter bushels of seed was drilled in with 56 lb. of fertilizer per acre. The fertilizer cost $0.60 and drilling $0.72 per acre.

The crop, which yielded 20 bushels per acre, was harvested with stripper harvester at a running cost of $1.20 per acre. Including bags, cartage to railway, and rail freights the total cost of producing and marketing his crop came to $6.72 per acre, leaving him a net profit of $10.08 per acre.

Mr. G. Ross Williams, of Pingelly, Western Australia, supplies the following figures: The district is 1,040 feet above sea-level, and average annual rainfall, 18 inches. Area of farm, 800 acres; area under crop, 250 acres. The previous crop was wheat and oats, and the area has been cropped for fifteen years.

The land was ploughed 5 to 7 inches in depth with a stump-jump plough at a cost of $1.44 per acre. It was then scarified at a cost of $0.60 and rolled at $0.48 per acre. One bushel of seed was sown with 1 cwt.. of Thomas phosphate, $1.20, which was drilled in at a cost of $0.60 per acre. The growing crop was lightly harrowed at a cost of $0.36 per acre.

Harvested with stripper-harvester at running cost of $1.68 per acre. The yield was 15 bushels per acre, and the total cost of production and marketing, including bags and freight, was $7.94 per acre, leaving a net profit of $5.26 per acre.

Mr. Ross Williams adds that the above figures correspond with local contract prices for the work enumerated.

Messrs. Gliddon and Sons, who hold 1,973 acres in the Northam district, which is 800 feet above sea-level with an average annual rainfall of 211/2 inches, give the following particulars with respect to their last crop, 500 acres.

Part of the land was ploughed from 3 to 5 inches in depth with a stump-jump plough, and the balance with a rotary disc plough, at a cost of from $1.68 to $2.04 per acre. Harrowing cost $0.72 per acre. No roller is used. As part of the crop was to be cut for hay, bushels of seed was used, while for the portion intended for grain i bushel was sown; 80 lbs. superphosphate, costing $0.90 per acre, was drilled in with the seed.. The cost of drilling is set down at $0.84 per acre, and harrowing the growing crop at $0.72 per acre. At intervals during three months the crop was fed off with sheep at the rate of two per acre.

The hay crop was cut with reaper and binder at a cost of $2.16 per acre for cutting, carting, and stacking. For the grain crop (16 bushels per acre) the stripper-harvester was used, at a cost of $1.68 per acre.

The total cost of producing the crop was $6.06 per acre, and of harvesting and cartage to market $2.52 per acre, which left a profit of $4.38 per acre.

The wheat average of Western Australia is 11 bushels per acre, and this has been steadily maintained for many years. There is no reason why this figure should not be largely increased by improved methods of cultivation. Indeed, there are many instances of 25-bushel crops in different parts of the State. The average cost of production, including preparation of land, seed, planting, manure, harvesting, bags, and twine, is $7.80 per acre, or on the basis of a 14-bushel average, $0.56 per bushel.

A recent shipment of Western Australian wheat to London realised

$9.24 per quarter. The cost of freights, handling, and marketing in London amounted to $0.16 per bushel. Under these circumstances the net profit was $0.44 per bushel, and it will be noted that this figure is arrived at after paying all costs of labour, much of which could be and actually is performed by the farmer himself.

The conditions of Tasmania are similar in many respects to those of the South of England. The winter, although not severe, is more pronounced than on the mainland, and wheat is not Tasmania. so widely grown as oats and potatoes. Mr. William Hingston, of Cressy, Tasmania, which is about 500 feet above sea-level, and has an average rainfall of 20 inches a year, occupies a farm of 169acres which has been cropped for fifty years. He grows wheat, oats, and peas.

The land is ploughed 4 to 6 inches in depth. Mr. Hingston states since the introduction of double-furrow ploughs the cost of this work has been reduced by half, now standing at $1,20 per acre. Harrowing costs $0.12, and the land is not rolled for wheat, of which bushels is drilled in at a cost of $0.12 per acre with 1 cwt. of fertilizer. If the land is in good order the crop receives no further attention until harvesting, which is done with a reaper and binder. The cost of cutting and stooking comes to $1.44, of carting and stacking $0.60, and of thrashing $1.20 per acre. In Tasmania straw is saved and marketed for bedding horses in the cities, and the value on the farm is generally estimated at $4.80 per ton.

Mr. F. J. Bratton, of the same district, who has been cropping 120

acres for six years, gives the total cost of producing wheat at $9.12 per acre, including everything, and says that the straw saved is worth $5.28 per acre..

It is not possible to indicate definitely the amount of capital requisite to prepare an area of even partially improved land for wheat-growing.

Much depends on local circumstances, and more Capital required depends on the practical experience and business for Wheatgrowing, capacity of the settler.

Wheat is not grown in any part of Australia where the indigenous forests comprise big eucalyptus trees. As a rule the best wheat land is naturally open forest or plain country with comparatively small trees, and generally speaking the total cost of clearing does not exceed $9.60 per acre, whereas in coastal districts and in the big timber belts where fruit and dairying generally prosper, clearing for cultivation may cost $48.00 per acre or more. Land that has been ringbarked for many years can be cleared for $4.80 or less per acre in the wheat belt.

Fencing, stock-proof, costs about $144.00 a mile, and rabbit-proof about $288.00 per mile, these prices varying with cost of haulage of posts and wire.

It is considered in most of the wheat districts of Australia that 200 acres is about as much wheat as a man can comfortably manage without outside help, except at harvest time. The plant and stock necessary for such an area of cultivation might be roughly set down as:—

6 horses    ..    ..    ..

6 sets harness ..    ..    ..

1 large dray ..    ..    ..

1 set dray harness ..    ..

1 disc plough (or four-furrow


1 set harrows, four-leaf, heavy 1 roller (if required)    ..    ..

1 seed drill ..    ..    ..

1 reaper and binder for hay    . .

Small tools ..    ..    ..

$864.00 to $1152.00 72.00 86.40 19.20



48.00 19.20




$1662.40 to $1910.40

Or if a stripper were purchased the cost for such a machine and a winnower would be about $384.00 more, $7.20 per acre may be

regarded as a fairly reliable estimate of the cost of equipping wheat farms up to 600 or 700 acres, which could be done proportionately cheaper than in the case of 200 acres. The high prices of horses at present, however, make it difficult to give more than a rough idea as to their cost. Some of the machines, like the drill and reaper and binder, could be either hired or purchased on terms. This could also be done in case of the stripping machine and winnower.

In several parts of the wheat belt, there are many opportunities of farming on shares for the man who is accustomed to the cultivation of grain crops. The terms of agreement between Shares    landlord and tenant in the case of share-farming

Wheat-farming.    for wheat are, on the whole, uniform, although

there are, of course, minor differences in particular cases. The landlord provides the land cleared, fenced, and ready for the plough, and often assists the tenant in the erection of a dwelling.

A nice little Mixed Farm—State of Tasmania.

The tenant provides all the implements and horses necessary to work the place, and all the labour. In sharing the profits, the almost universal rule is for the grain to be equally divided between the landlord and tenant, the half-share taken by the landlord representing the rent. On certain stations a bonus is allowed as a reward for good cultivation, the tenant receiving half the crop up to a certain yield per acre, and all in excess of this amount; and on some estates the tenant receives as much as two-thirds or three-fifths of the total yield. Each party usually finds the bags needed for his own share of the crop. Often the landlord supplies all the seed; but not infrequently the tenant is

required to provide the same proportion of the seed as he receives of the harvest.

For a man to succeed, or, indeed, even to make a beginning at sharefarming for wheat, it is, of course, essential that he should have the necessary experience and at least sufficient capital to buy horses and plant, and to provide a dwelling. In isolated instances landowners are prepared to assist their tenants by finding implements and horses for picked men who have first worked with them as labourers to prove their capacity; but, of course, one could not depend on being always able to get one of these places. Still, thrifty labourers have succeeded in providing the necessary implements and stock out of a few years' savings, and many agricultural implement sellers are willing to dispose of machinery on time payment to approved settlers.

The mixed farm, as the British farmer understands it, is the one for which a great proportion of the Australian territory at an elevation of from 700 to 2,000 feet, and with an annual rain-MIXED FARMING. fall of from 24 to 30 inches, is specially well adapted. No better idea of what is being done in this direction can be afforded than to reproduce particulars of typical Australian mixed farms and the methods of working them.

For instance, taking the case of a settler on a holding of 175 acres in a district nearly 2,800 feet above sea-level with an average rainfall of 33 inches:—

Total area, J75 acres; cleared portion, no acres.




Wheat for grain .

.. 22

Horses, draught .. ..

.. 6

Oats and wheat for hay..

.. 22

light .. ..

.. 13

Lucerne .. .

Cattle, dairy .. ..

.. 23

Orchard (young trees) ..

.. 30

Pigs ......

•• 37


.. a few

Statement of the year’s income

and outlay.



Wheat.. ..

.. $518.40

Wages .. .. .. ..


Hay .. ..

.. 369.60

Stripping wheat .. ..


Chaff .. ..

.. 153.60

Removing fence .. ..


Potatoes ..

.. 54.00

Cutting chaff .. .. ..


Cherries ..

.. X34.40

Pruning .. .. ..


Apricots ..

.. 43-20

Sundries .. .. ..


Apples .. ..

.. 5t.6o

Pears .. ..

.. 12.24

Nectarines ..

.. 5.76

Plums .. ..

.. 41-76

Preserved fruits

.. 57-6°

Vegetables ..

.. 23.64

Milk .. ..

.. 112.68

Eggs .. ..

.. 18.24

Poultry ..

.. 21.30

Pigs .. ..

.. 210.00

Cattle .. ..

.. 68.4O



which, it will be seen, leaves a credit balance of $1087.14, out of which expenditure for bags about $33.60, and domestic requirements, in view of the large amount of home-grown produce, would be very trifling. Or, another instance, in a district 2500 ft. above sea-level with an annual rainfall of 30 in.,:—

Total area, 800 acres; cleared portion, 221 acres.




Wheat ..


Horses, draught .. ..

. . 12

Oats for hay

.. ..25

,, light and young

. . II

Maize ..


Cattle, dairy cows ..

. . IO

Potatoes ..

...... 5

,, steers .. .. Sheep and lambs.. ..

. . 20

Pumpkins ..

...... 3

. . 890

Lucerne ..

...... 8

Pigs .......

. . 12

Poultry .. .. ..

100 head


and Expenditure for the year.





Wages .. .. ..



..... >4-4°

Threshing .. .. ..



.. .. .. 12.00

Shearing .. .. ..


Wool ..

.. .. .. 368.76

Bags and bales .. ..

108 00

Butter and eggs .. .. 45.84

Horses .. .. ..


Pigs ..

...... 38.88

Blacksmith’s account ..


Saddler’s account .. ..


Sundries .. .. ..




Leaving a credit balance of $1759.88.

These districts are good mixed farming districts, as are all the districts in which farmers are encouraged to settle. The present and prospective value of land in such districts is fairly high, and if the newcomer avails himself of the opportunities that exist to secure on easy terms an area of fair size, say not in excess of 400 to 500 acres, it will afford himself and his family ample scope for their energy and become more profitable than a very much larger area in more remote and less favourable districts where wheat as the sole crop, or sheeprearing for wool, can be more advantageously followed than general farming. The aim of every State is to secure and throw open for settlement areas that commend themselves to the practical farmer on the following grounds:—

Good soil.

Adequate and regular rainfall.

Proximity to railroads and to other farms, so that the farmer and his family may enjoy all the social advantages of living in a community where domestic necessaries, schools, churches, and shops exist. It must be remembered, of course, that the size of Australian holdings scatters the residents far apart, but progressive townships follow close on the heels of settlement.

Within reasonable reach of the splendid railway services of all the Australian States there is so much room for settlement that there is no present necessity for anyone desirous of undertaking mixed farming going into the “back blocks.” Certainly by going further back beyond the line of reliable rainfall and beyond profitable haulage distance of the railroad, extensive tracts of land can be acquired for a very small outlay, but newcomers are strongly advised to aim at settlement on an area that is likely to be well within their control and where there are prosperous farms as tangible evidence of the suitability of the district in all respects for farming.

Rotation Experiments. Hawkesbury Agricultural College, New South Wales :—i. Rape. 2. Chaff-troughs. 3. Long-wool Sheep on Rape. 4 A Romney Marsh. 5. Feeding off Turnips

There is so much fertile land in Australia that there is no need for any intending settler to take up poor, hungry soil. In some instances to secure land in dairying districts specially favoured, it is necessary for the settler to choose an area carrying heavy virgin forest timber or brush, and in such cases before a crop can be put in there is a great deal of hard pioneering work to be done. Unless a man has had some experience of this class of work or has capital to enable him to have it properly done by contract, it is wise to leave it alone and secure an area of partially improved land such as is made available under closer settlement schemes in several States, or which can be acquired from private owners on fairly easy terms.

The cost of stocking and working a mixed farm is based upon the assumption that the farm is of an area of 300 acres, 100 of which is devoted to arable farming, and the balance to grazing, and is situated in a district suitable for mixed farming.

Live-stock required—





28.80 4-32




57.60 192.00









15.60 O.48



3 draught horses, at $168.00 each* ..    ..

12 dairy cows, at $33.60 each ..    ..

100 ewes, off shears, at $2.40 each ..    ..

2 flock rams, at $14.40 each ..    ..    ..

2    breeding sows, in pig, at $14.40 each    ..

6 pairs of poultry, at $0.72 per pair..    ..

Machinery, harness, and tools required— x double-furrow plough    ..    ..    ..

1 set of three harrows    ..    ..    ..

1 two-horse dray    ..    ..    ..    ..

1 spring cart ..    ..    ..    ..    ..

1 reaper and binder    ..    ..    ..    ..

1 separator ..    ..    ..    ..    ..

1 set of swingle bars    ..    ..    ..    ..


3    horse collars, at $4.32    ..    ..    ..

3 pairs winkers, at $2.52    ..    ..    ..

3 sets of hames and straps,    at $1.80    ..

3 plough backs and chains, at $2.52    ..

1 dray cart saddle, breeching, and belly band 1 set leading harness..    ..    ..    ..

1 set cart harness (without collar or winkers) 1 set of plough reins    ..    ..    ..    ..

1 saddle and bridle    ..    ..    ..    ..

T ools—

Sundries ..    ..    ..    ..    ..


• See page 39.

The estimate of the live-stock required is based upon the assumption that crops are to be grown for the stock to supplement the natural pastures; without such practice the land would need to be beyond the average quality, or the number of stock reduced. The class of stock carried could be varied at the discretion of the farmer.

The estimate for machinery and tools is for those which are practically indispensable. A reaper and binder may advantageously be purchased for the use of two farmers, as one machine can very well deal with an area of 200 to 250 acres of cereals during one season. It might also be possible to get such work contracted for, thus saving the expenditure when only small areas are under crops necessitating its use.

The oat crop ranks next to wheat in regard to area and grain production, but in many districts wheat has supplanted oats for haymaking.

OATS.    In many parts of Australia oats grow rather

too well, the tendency being towards a very coarse straw and lightly filled head. When, however, lighter soils are chosen and care is taken to seed heavily—up to 2 to 3P2 bushels per acre— satisfactory crops of very sweet, nutritious hay or grain can be produced. Compared with the oats grown in colder countries Australian oats are thin and light, but are of excellent quality for gristing or fodder. The area under oats for grain is about 874,000 acres, and the

average yield in Victoria up to 21 bushels, and in Tasmania 36 bushels per acre, and 2 tons of hay.

Although wheat is largely used for hay-making, there is always a good demand in the cities and towns for oaten hay at remunerative prices, and a considerable export trade in both oaten hay and grain principally to South Africa and the East.

There are two distinct sheep industries in Australia—one where sheep, practically all merinos, are kept in large flocks on extensive stations with the prime object of wool produc-SHEEP-FARMING. tion ; the other where merino, long-woolled, or crossbred sheep are kept in comparatively small flocks on farms where the production of lamb and mutton for the local and export trade is the principal aim.

Many of the principal sheep stations in Australia are held by men who started with very little capital, but the fact cannot be overlooked

that with the advancement of Australia and of the standard of merino wool production, as well as with the necessity for great expenditure on fencing and netting, this branch of the sheep industry involves not only iarge capital, but mature experience of technical details that can only be acquired in the course of a prolonged apprenticeship. Men who cannot command extensive capital and the time to acquire intimate knowledge of merino sheep breeding are advised not to attempt this form of settlement, at any rate at the outset. There is in every farming district ample scope for the pursuit of sheep breeding in conjunction with ordinary farming, and from some of the small well-managed farm flocks a very considerable income is derived by disposal of pure stud sheep.

The British farmer will miss in Australia the root crops which play such an important part in British farming methods. Turnips, swedes and mangels will grow readily and produce very heavy ROOTS.    crops in most of the farming districts of Australia,

but most farmers find they can carry their sheep and cattle entirely on natural pasture with, in isolated cases, an occasional cultivated fodder crop. As the “edge” gets taken off the land it is possible that more attention will have to be paid to rotation, and the adoption of the expensive methods that are indispensable in countries with less virgin soil available. For the present the farmer in Australia can put into the bank the amount that the British farmer must spend on the cultivation of turnips, swedes, and mangels.

The growth of barley for malting purposes is one of the undeveloped industries of the Commonwealth. The area under barley grain is barely 135,880 acres, and maltsters import grain BARLEY. to the value of nearly $288,000.00 a year.

The ease with which wheat can be harvested as compared with a crop like malting barley, requiring the greatest care in threshing, is probably one of the reasons why many farmers pay no attention to this crop. Many wheat-growers who use part of their crop for chaffing to supply city markets object to barley on account

of its harsh beard when any self-sown plants happen to get into the wheat paddocks.

The climatic conditions of many important wheat districts of Australia tend to produce wheat that is very hard and of high gluten content. While these are very valuable qualities in wheat they are not appreciated by the maltster who requires a preponderance of starch in his bailey. Still there are hundreds of thousands of acres in the mixed farming districts of all the States where conditions of climate and soil are all that can be desired for malting barley, and in such districts grain of the highest quality is grown, the yield for the whole Commonwealth being about 20 bushels per acre and in many of the leading farms 40 to 50 bushels per acre. Local maltsters readily purchase all samples that are up to standard. When barley is rejected by maltsters, it is

generally on account of slovenly threshing, and rarely through lack oi good quality.

Samples of Australian barley sent to Great Britain have been reported upon most favourably.

Beef cattle are not bred and carried on farms in Australia as they are in Britain and Europe. No Australian cattle are housed and stall-fed, but are grazed on natural pastures from the CATTLE-BREEDING, time they are weaned until disposed of to the butcher or the meat preserving or exporting works. For this industry to be successful, extensive tracts of country are necessary, and the capital requisite is large. It is also necessary that any one embarking in this industry should possess practical and local experience.

Queensland is the chief cattle-breeding State of the Commonwealth. The herds number 5,210,891.

According to expert knowledge, an intending raiser of cattle in Queensland could, with $24,000.00 in cash and some assistance from one of the financial institutions, make a decent start on a 20,000-acre holding, which may be leased for a long period at a very low rental. At a low estimate, the country would carry at least one beast to every 10 acres; consequently, it would be necessary, if the new settler wished his run to become a paying proposition during

the first season, to stock it with from 1500 to 2000 head of mixed cattle. Good grade bulls can be obtained at about $60.48 per head, and cows at $13.20 per head upwards.

In North Queensland fat bullocks fetch from $26.40 to $31.20 per head, and fat cows from $18.00 to $20.40; while in the southern portion of the State bullocks realise from $32.40 to $37.20, and fat cows from $22.80 to $26.40.

Fully 80 per cent, of the beef breeds of cattle in Queensland are Shorthorns, 10 per cent, are Herefords, and the remainder Devons, Aberdeen-Angus Black Polled and Norfolk Red Polled.

On the majority of cattle and sheep stations, and on many of the larger farms, horses for saddle and draught purposes are bred in considerable numbers. There is always a large HORSE-BREEDING, local demand for horses, and buyers from India and other places visit the Commonwealth to secure animals for military purposes. For the man accustomed to British farming methods under which a few good horses are bred annually for sale there is an assured income in Australia, while in some of the more remote districts there are splendid openings for breeding horses on a large scale for the oversea markets. For the latter purpose considerable capital is indispensable.

In nearly all States stallions are inspected by Government Veterinary Surgeons or licensed.

Potatoes grow well in many parts of the Commonwealth. In certain districts the growth of this crop is the principal industry. In such districts land is generally of high value, but this POTATO-GROWING, condition of affairs is counterbalanced by the big profits obtainable. When a farmer is fortunate enough to secure an area of first-class potato land even at as high a ourchase price as $192.00 per acre, it is no uncommon occurrence for

him to be able to realise more than the price of it in a couple of good seasons. The lack of precautions in reasonable rotation has been the cause of unfavourable reports as to the financial results of this crop, but farmers accustomed to get the highest returns from limited areas would find the conditions of Australia most favourable.

In many districts that in former years were devoted wholly to potato production, dairying is now coming to the front, and this combination is proving very profitable indeed.

The area at present under potatoes is about 130,000 acres, and although the average of 3 tons per acre is not high, there are numerous

districts where 8 tons is considered a fair return, and crops of over 12 tons are not uncommon.

For maize as a market crop the rich alluvial flats of the river banks, of the eastern seaboard of Australia were, until recent years, considered to be without equal anywhere. But it has MAIZE.    now been demonstrated that this crop will grow

even more abundantly in many of the inland districts of all the States. Under natural conditions from 60 to 80 bushels per acre are often produced, and under irrigation and in certain districts favoured with heavy summer rains, yields of 120 bushels per acre are commonly harvested. The average for the Commonwealth for the past ten seasons is 28 bushels to the acre. In Victoria the average for the past ten years is 55. In Victoria the average for

Maize Crop,

South Australia.

Melons for Fodder.

1903 was 76, and for 1906 and 1909, 61 bushels. Queensland also produces maize in large quantities, and exceptionally high yields are recorded, particularly on the Atherton Tableland (N.Q.). The bulk of the maize grain harvested in Australia is utilised for horse feed, but with the growth of dairying, this crop, which can be depended upon to produce 20 tons of nutritious green fodder per acre, is being largely availed of.

It is the ease with which such prolific crops as maize and sorghum can be produced that places the Australian dairy farmer at so great an advantage.

The fact that land which will grow lucerne without irrigation readily * sells at $288.00 per acre affords some idea of the profits to be derived from this crop. Experiments have proved that LUCERNE. in many districts in Australia land that is offering at $19.20 to $28.80 per acre will grow lucerne, and where irrigation is possible results can be secured simi-

lar to those obtained on the Hunter River flats in New South Wales, where lucerne is cut for hay as many as six or seven times in a year. In certain districts of Queensland and Victoria similar yields are obtained.

Under irrigation it has been demonstrated that lucerne will carry fifteen to twenty sheep to the acre as pasture, and provide soiling for as many as seventy-five sheep to the acre.

Land that will produce good lucerne will also grow maize, sorghum, potatoes, and notably broom millet. The price of this commodity— $134.40 to $163.20 per ton of fibre, of which the BROOM MILLET. average yield is 12 cwt. per acre—has encouraged many farmers to try it, and the millet crops are taking an important place in adding to the returns of mixed farming.

Next in importance to wheat-growing is dairying. Australia is happily in the position to send to the British markets, at a time when ail the pastures of the countries of the Northern DAIRYING. Hemisphere are at their worst, supplies of butter from spring and summer pastures. The butter export industry has long since passed the experimental stage, and as the demand for Australian butter in the Home markets is continually increasing and the facilities for transportation are improving every year, men may embark in this industry with every prospect of prosperous advancement.

The conditions of the country permit of cattle being grazed all the year round on natural growths, and also enable the man, who is desirous of getting the very best returns, to cheaply and easily supplement the natural fodder with silage or soiling crops.

The areas of land where water supplies are abundant, where soil is sufficiently rich, and where already there are large factories thoroughly equipped for the manufacture of butter and bacon for export and all facilities for transportation, are so extensive that it can be said with perfect truth that the Australian dairying industry, with an annual output of over $96,000,000.00, is merely in its infancy. The fact that while in every district there are to be found dairy herds averaging barely 300 gallons per cow per annum, with a butter-fat percentage of little over 3.5, carried on the same class of land as herds which average over 500 gallons per cow, with over 4 per cent, butter-fat, will enable any dairy-farmer to realise how much room there is for improvement in this thriving young industry, and what scope there is for the man accustomed to get the best results from his land and his herd.

A conspicuous feature of Australian dairying is that for the most part the produce is handled by the farmers themselves in co-operation, the cash returns being divided monthly.

Cows are good, of all approved breeds, and the Governments of the respective States afford special facilities by way of importing and placing at the disposal of farmers stud cattle of the highest standards. There are also facilities for the acquisition of practical and scientific instruction in dairying and stock-raising.

Land for dairy-farming in Australia is not as cheap as wheat land, for instance, but there is no difficulty in the newcomer securing on easy terms excellent unimproved land in settled districts at prices ranging from as low as $9.60 per acre to $48.00 per acre.

Improved land can be purchased from private vendors at prices ranging from $24.00 per acre to $144.00 or more, according to the nature and extent of improvements.

To stock a dairy farm of 100 acres, the detailed cost of what is necessary to make a good start, exclusive of a bull, might be stated


Thirty cows, at $31.20    ..    ..    ..    ..    $936.00

Ten heifers, springing, at $24.00    ..    ..    ..    240.00

Two general purpose horses, at $86.40    ..    ..    172.80

Harness for plough horses ..    ..    ..    ..    31.20

Pigs—two sows, at $10.08; one boar, at $15.12 ..    35.28

Separator, cans, buckets, &c.    ..    ..    ..    192.00

Cart and harness    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    86.40

Plough, $21.60; harrow, $14.40; cultivator, $12.00    48.00

Sundry tools, &c.    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    24.00


Including the bull, the cost might roughly be put down at $1920.00, but allowances must be made for fluctuations in prices of cattle, and for the personal element that dominates stock transactions.

Mr. J. Anderson advises that he took up 200 acres of the Boonara Estate, near Goomeri (Burnett district), South Queensland, a couple of years ago on easy terms. His outlay during the first year was as follows:—

Rent: Deposit ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    $480.00

House of four rooms and verandah—reinforced

concrete (own labour)    ..    ..    ..    ..    336.00

Fencing—2)4 miles, with    posts and    two    barb

wires    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    192.00

Yards and bails..... ..    ..    ..    ..    67.20

Dairy (wood),    8 ft.    x 8 ft.    ..    ..    ..    ..    38.40

Barn (slab)    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    33.60

Well (slabbed), 12 ft. deep    ..    ..    ..    ..    19.20

Pigsties    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    57-6o

Horses—2 $192.00, 1 $43.20    ..    ..    ..    ..    235.20

Implements—single disc plough, harrows, log-

roller    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    102.00

Cart ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    48.00

Separator (60    gals.)    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    120.00

Dairy utensils    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    9.60

Eighty cows at $24.00 per head* ..    ..    ..    1920.00

Cultivating 20 acres at $7,20 per acre (own labour) 144.00


•The selector purchased young springers from the owners of the estate, and paid for them at the rate of $1.20 per head per week.

Mr. Anderson milked 40 cows during the year, and in April his cheque for milk and cream amounted to $182.40, while in August and September of the same year he received two cheques for $124.80. The receipts for the first year totalled $1920.00—$1440.00 for cream,

and $480.00 from the sale of pigs. The stock were fed on natural grasses. He expects his second year’s receipts to amount to at least $3120.00. He has 20 acres under maize and potatoes.

As in the case of other industries which are constantly expanding, difficulty is at times experienced by dairy-farmers in procuring sufficient skilled assistance. In many of the leading dairying districts good dairy hands have facilities for entering into arrangements for dairying on shares with the owners of large herds, and in many instances the class of men most suitable, by reason of their skill and intelligence, to assist in dairy-farming, exhibit the same disinclination to this class of work as many of the best North British farm workers do. The employment of dairymaids is not usual. The farmer who has children old enough to assist is at a great advantage, and some of the most successful dairy farms in the Commonwealth are worked mainly by the owners and their families. On the more up-to-date farms milking machines are used, and it is found that with their aid a large herd can be successfully handled with a minimum of labour.

Important irrigation schemes have been undertaken in Australia. Extensive tracts of irrigated lands are now ready for occupation in areas ranging from 10 to 20 acres to 200 acres and over. On such lands dairy-farming can be conducted under the most favourable conditions. While the pastures can be raised to a high state of productiveness by the introduction of the best grasses and maintained in good condition practically the whole year round, on such farms of limited area more attention is naturally paid to cropping. The cultivation areas need never be idle for a day at any time of the year. As one crop becomes fit to use, the land can be replanted irrespective of weather conditions. For instance, in spring (September) maize or sorghum can be sown, either over the whole area at once or at intervals of a week or a month up to January. In three to three and a half months, during which time the pastures are at their best and there is no need for supplementary fodder, the first of the areas will be ready for use as green fodder, or for conversion into silage to serve as a cheap and juicy winter

fodder. In many districts as soon as the earliest-sown maize crop is harvested a second maize or sorghum crop is planted, and by the time that is ready to cut, barley and vetches or field peas can be planted to come in to supplement the stores of winter fodder.

Maize is harvested for silage when the cobs are well filled, and the grain is beginning to glaze; at this stage a normal crop will yield about 20 tons of greenstuff per acre. Sorghum will produce about 15 tons and barley and vetches or peas about 10 tons per acre.

As the loss in the silo is insignificant, it can be realised how cheaply ample stores of the best class of stand-by fodder can be conserved. Silos to hold 100 tons cost about $480.00 to construct, and a cutter and elevator about $144,00. To this would have to be added the cost of a horse-works or engine; but until a settler is in a position to indulge in the most up-to-date outfit, he could follow the usual practice of conserving his green stuff in the form of stack silage, which entails a very moderate outlay.

This routine of cropping for the production of supplementary fodder can be followed in most of the dairying districts on the seaboard, and in some of the inland districts as well, but where irrigation can be practised, the farmer is practically independent of the weather.

While the dairy cow is just as much influenced in her milk flow by considerate treatment in Australia as is the case in every country, shelter is a matter that in most districts she can regard with indifference. On the tablelands, where dairy-farming is now thriving apace, farmers have found that it pays them to put rugs on the cows on winter nights. This provision is generally found to be ample, and it is rarely that any Australian dairy-farmer goes to much expense in the matter of sheds for his cattle, or in bedding them; although on some of the very large farms the owners take a pride in having everything on their holding as substantial and comfortable as possible, both for man and beast.

To be able to get such good results as are obtained in Australia without the expense of housing a dairy herd is a matter of importance to the beginner of limited means, as it leaves so much more of his capital free for the purchase of stock and appliances.

For practical dairymen, with children over 14 years of age, there are reasonable openings in dairy-farming on shares. The arrangements differ considerably in individual cases, but. gener-DAIRY-FARMING ally speaking, the owner of the farm provides the ON SHARES. homestead and land, with so many cows and working plant, and the share-farmer provides the labour, the returns being divided on an equitable basis, the share-farmer, as a rule, receiving $1.60 to $2.40 in $4.80 of profit made, and an allowance for rearing calves and pigs. In some cases, where the share-farmer is called upon to purchase portion of the plant and appliances, the returns are equally divided, and an allowance is made for all calves and pigs reared. Men who contemplate undertaking this class of farming should submit the fullest possible details of their experience and qualifications, to enable the officers of the Information Bureaux to make arrangements which will permit of settlement immediately on arrival. It is needless to remind experienced dairymen that any owner of dairy cows naturally feels it necessary to know a good deal about anyone to whom he is to entrust the sole management of a good herd.

It is not possible to state definitely the size of herd that any individual can manage, but it is by no means uncommon to see a herd of forty head with from twenty-five to thirty cows in milk at a time managed comfortably by a man and his wife, and one sturdy boy or girl of 15 or 16 years of age. The average returns from a fairly good herd, in the majority of districts, may be stated at $4.80 per head per month, and as each cow will be milking for seven or eight months at least, and there will be the calves and ample separated milk for a good many pigs, it will be seen that there is at least a fair living to be made, especially when it is remembered that the share dairy-farmer, under the ordinary arrangements, is living rent free, and under conditions which enable him to keep household expenses at a minimum.

The total number of dairy cattle in Australia is 2,000,000, the proportion of dry cows to those in milk being 30 per cent.

The annual production of milk is about 600,000,000 gallons. The present output of butter is 187,000,000 lb. a year, of which more than half is disposed of in British and other oversea markets. Meat, to a large extent, takes the place of cheese in Australian diet. Still, cheese of excellent quality can be made, and for the 16,000,000 lb. manufactured during the year, there is a good market. Condensed and con-

ccntrated milk factories have been started in New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland, and about 30,000,000 lb. of these popular commodities are being manufactured annually.

According to latest statistics, there are 530 butter, cheese, and condensed milk factories in Australia, and 78 bacon-curing establishments. The majority of these factories are equipped with all the latest appliances, and the output of some of the factories is over 15 tons of butter per day.

The conditions of the farming districts of Australia are ideal for pig-rearing, either as a subsidiary aid to mixed farming or dairying, or as a single line.

PIG-FARMING. In the coastal districts, where the dairying industry is going ahead by leaps and bounds, there is not only abundance of skim-milk to be had, either from one’s own herd, or from neighbours’, or from dairy separating stations, but the soil and climate are favourable to the production of maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, pumpkins, barley, and, in many parts, lucerne, as well as luxuriant pastures of clover and other nourishing foods for pigs.

In the majority of districts the pigs can be turned out to graze on grass or lucerne, or harvest such nourishing foods as Jerusalem artichokes or sweet potatoes in winter, with merely a few sheets of bark or galvanised iron for shelter. The only time they are penned up is during the few weeks they are supplied with grain and other special food, to top them for the butcher or bacon factory.

Pigs of all the standard breeds thrive and mature rapidly. Berk-shires are probably the most popular, but Yorkshires—large, middle and small, Large Blacks, and Tamworths, and their crosses, are all held in high favour.

Porkers at 4^ to 5 months old realise $6.00 to $7.20 in the average market, and baconers at 7 to 8 months, dressing up to 150 lb., fetch from $12.00 to $14.40.

In ^ many districts there are bacon factories, in some instances in conjunction with the co-operative dairy factories, and as a rule the pigs are disposed of at about $0.9 per lb., live weight. The local demand for bacon is good, and that Australian frozen pork can readily be disposed of in the British markets at remunerative rates has been proved by many successful shipments.

The number of pigs slaughtered in Australia exceeds one million per annum, the production of bacon and hams being over 54,000,000 lb. per annum.

Australian fruit fills an honoured place in the British markets. Indeed, it is doubtful whether any of the apples that find their way across the seas to Britain command such prices as those FRUIT-GROWING, from under the Southern Cross.

There was a time when Australia looked to one State, Tasmania, for nearly all the apples required for home consumption, but, notwithstanding the fact that Tasmania enjoys the re-

putation of producing apples without rival, it has been demonstrated that throughout a great extent of the farming districts of Australia, apples and pears can not only be grown to perfection, but can be landed in British markets at a time when supplies from all other sources are meagre, and thus command excellent prices. Apples and pears constitute at present the principal money crops in Australian orchards, and these are crops that can be produced without irrigation, on elevated land, that can be purchased at from $9.60 to $28.80 per acre For local markets citrus fruits come next, and in the vicinity of the cities and towns there are excellent openings for all that can be grown ; while far inland, under irrigation, oranges and lemons, that equal, if they do not excel, in quality, any that reach Covent Garden, are grown at great profit.

Grapes, peaches, apricots, and nectarines are produced almost anywhere in Australia in the open, and besides the demand for local des-

Peach Orchard-State of Victoria.

sert consumption, these fruits can be disposed of in unlimited quantities to large jam and preserve factories, which are established throughout Australia.

Under natural conditions, on land that can be purchased at from $14.40 to $24.00 an acre, and with irrigation under slightly greater

initial cost, raisins, sultanas, and prunes of the highest market quality are grown. It has been proved that in the British market these fruits can command the highest prices, but the lack of people to extend this flourishing industry hampers the trade..

Fruit-growing under Irrigation.

Curing Raisins at Rentnark, South Australia. An Orchard Mildura, Victoria. Two extremely prosperous settlements.

gards fruit-growing as a business need have little fear that his enterprise will be marred by the careless disregard of anyone else in respect of the spread of fruit pests and diseases.

Australian fruit-growers have also the benefit of laws which prohibit the introduction of fruit pests and diseases from abroad.

State Experiment and Demonstration Orchards have been established in all the States, where intending growers can obtain reliable practical advice as to choice of varieties for given localities, and beginners are assisted by visits of experts, free of cost, to instruct in pruning the trees, and handling the crop.

Queensland offers splendid chances of success to the fruitgrower. Many of the growers of pineapples in the Blackall Range district,

on the North Coast line, are making a profit of over $480.00 per acre.

The area devoted to fruit-growing, exclusive of grapes, is at present about 195,000 acres, and fruit to the value of $14,400,000.00 is produced annually.

The grape flourishes in the open in all parts of the Australian mainland. The Australians are not yet a wine-drinking race, and the progress made in the wine-making industry is not VINEYARDS. in any way proportionate to the natural facilities that exist, over immense tracts, for the production of wines of every kind, and of excellent quality.

In the lighter soils, wines of claret and hock type are produced of a quality that has been pronounced by connoisseurs to be equal to the light, dry wines of any

country, while on the heavier classes of soil full-bodied red wines, of the pore and burgundy type, are produced. It is characteristic of Australian vineyards that the yield of wine per acre is very large, from 500 to 800 gallons per acre being by no means uncommon, and that the wine has a natural bouquet and quality that places it in a high class.

The Australian wine-maker is protected by law from the unfair competition of adulterated wines, and has a chance of developing a large and lucrative industry in the manufacture of sparkling wines and of brandy.

The area under vineyards is about 62,000 acres. A large proportion of the grapes are used for table purposes and drying, and from the balance between 5,000,000 and 6,000,000 gallons of wine are made yearly. The annual value of grapes for table use is $1,080,000.00, and for drying, $2,707,200.00. South Australia is the principal winemaking State, though New South Wales and Victoria also produce large quantities. The average annual production of wine in South Australia is about 3,300,000 gallons. About half this quantity is distilled for brandy..

The chief wine-producing districts of Australia at present are South Australia, in the Valley cf the Murray River, in a belt of country extending about 70 miles north and 30 miles south of Adelaide; in Victoria and New South Wales; in the Valley of the Hunter River, New South Wales; in the South-Western Section of Western Australia; and in the Southern portions of Queensland. But beyond these districts in all the States there are numerous prosperous vineyards.

Australian grapes, shipped to British markets, realise high prices, and in point of flavour can more than hold their own with hot-house grapes.

Until quite recently the market-gardening industry in Australia was controlled by Chinese, most of whom were, in the course of time, enabled to retire to their native land, with a very MARKET    considerable fortune.

GARDENING.    These gardeners, for the most part, secured

areas in proximity to the larger centres of population, and in easy

access of abundant water and stable manure. For a long time Europeans regarded vegetable-growing with prejudice, but by degrees men found that to grow vegetables in Australia is one of the safest ways to competency. The Chinese work in droves, and on the forcing principle produce vegetables of a kind that leaves much to be desired. Dealers and consumers, by their eager demand, encouraged the European growers, and as the restrictions on tire introduction of Chinese deprived the Celestial gardeners of the cheap labour that is essential under their methods, the majority have dropped out of the business, and it is apparent that, before many years go by, very few Chinese gardeners will remain in Australia. The market-gardening industry is, therefore, one in which men from the Old Country, and their families, who have had experience in the work can find splendid openings. In the big cities and country towns the consumption of vegetables all the year round is enormous, and the prices obtainable are remunerative. Everything can be grown in the open, and, as small allotments, within easy reach of big markets, and areas of marvellously rich alluvial soil, on the

banks of permanent watercourses, can be procured without difficulty, this line is one that can be specially recommended for men of small capital and a large family. For the market gardener there is no “ dead ” season, as regular crop rotations can be maintained throughout every month of the year.

The demand for tomatoes (grown in the open), and all classes of small fruits, for preserving purposes, is great, and as a rule it is possible for intending growers of pickling onions, tomatoes, raspberries, strawberries, and similar crops, to make arrangements with big jam and preserve factories to take the entire crop.

On irrigated lands, that are now being made available for settlement, in small areas, ranging from io to 15 acres, the prospects of vegetable growing are particularly bright.

The total area of market-gardens in the Commonwealth is little more than 31,000 acres, and the annual production of the produce is valued at $4,620,168.00.

There are many parts of Australia where hops have been successfully tried, but it is principally in Tasmania and Victoria that the industry is followed, there being about 1000 acres HOPS.    in all under this crop in Tasmania, and a very

much smaller area in Victoria.

The average yield is about 12 cwt. per acre, and the price never less than $0.24 a lb. In some plantations poles are used, but in many of the larger fields a high wind-break of palings is erected, and in the shelter of this the hops are trained, on wires. On the whole the returns are regular and satisfactory, the climatic conditions being highly favourable for the safe harvesting of the crop, and plenty of skilful labour is obtainable.

Tobacco of all kinds, suitable for pipes, cigars, and cigarettes, grows well in many parts of the Commonwealth, particularly in Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria, and there TOBACCO. are large factories, employing over 4000 hands.

in the handling of Australian leaf. The returns per acre average from 8 to 9 cwt., and about 2700 acres are under the crop. Lack of population, to provide the considerable amount of hand labour essential in this industry, retards expansion.

The fact that Australian hens have broken all records in laying competitions, serves to indicate the suitability of climatic and other conditions for poultry-raising. On general farms, POULTRY FARMING, where the fowls live on food which might, in their absence, be wasted, poultry are a source of considerable profit. In isolated cases, poultry-farming, conducted as a sole industry, has proved successful, but the proportion of failures, where people of moderate means have embarked in poultry-farming, and have been dependent on outside sources for their food-supplies, is so considerable, that it is clear that there is not so much scope for expansion

in the direction of specialised poultryfarming as there is for poultry-keeping as a subsidiary aid to other lines of farming or fruit-growing.

In the wheat districts many farmers make a considerable sum annually by breeding turkeys.

The poults rarely die off in such districts, as they do where, during their early stages of life, there are heavy dews.

Food costs practically nothing, as the birds, roaming at large, find abundance of insects in the grass paddocks, and waste grain in the stubbles.


In the Wheat Belt Turkeys do well

In several States there are Government Cold Storage depots, to which eggs may be sent when local markets are glutted. The

charges for storage are nominal.

There are numbers of prosperous bee-farmers in various parts of the Commonwealth. The indigenous flora is rich in nectar, and the quantities of honey stored in single hives are astonish-BEE FARMING. ingly large, sometimes reaching 400 lb. weight.

As a rule a few hives are kept on farms, in the same way as in Great Britain. The local market for honey is fair, and successful efforts have been made to secure a footing for Australian honey in the British markets.



In Queensland and' the Northern Territory there is abundant scope for plantations of sugar-cane, bananas, pine-apples, and fibre plants.

North Queensland is a remarkably rich field for the cultivation of tropical products on a large scale. Besides sugarcane, coffee, tea, cocoa, ginger, cassava, cardamons, pepper, vanilla, yams, rice cotton, rubber, tropical, citrus, and deciduous fruits of all. kinds can be grown,’ successfully. Farm produce and vegetables also do well.

The Northern Territory of Australia includes 523,620 square miles of country lying in the centre and ncrth of the continent. Prior to the 1st January, 1911, it was under the control of the State of South-Australia, but on that date the Government of the Commonwealth, on behalf of the people of the whole of Australia, took over its management.

The greater part of this vast Territory remains practically unoccupied. The land varies considerably in quality, but there is no doubt that much of it is suitable for farming, especially when combined with grazing. At present the bulk of the best-watered regions is under long leases to men and companies engaged in raising cattle, but as means of access are improved, extensive farming districts will be surveyed and made available for smaller settlers.

The Australian people have resolved that this land shall be occupied by white men, and in order to prepare for closer settlement, the local Government are now engaged upon large public works which will have the effect of placing areas now given over to the grazing of cattle at the disposal of men desirous of establishing homes in this new country.

Broadly speaking, the Northern Territory may be divided into three parts :—(i) the well-watered regions of the north coast, intersected by many fine rivers; (2) the tablelands of moderate height, consisting of extensive plains; and (3) the poorer or drier parts of the south, which, however, contain many extensive patches of good country.

Though the major part of the Territory lies within the Tropics, it does not resemble other tropical countries in regard to its vegetation, which is typically Australian in character. Here and there near the northern rivers may be seen a small bit of jungle, but except in the mining districts, and in some of the more arid portions, it may be generally described as either well grassed, lightly timbered country, or else vast plains producing grasses of fine quality for stock.

Hitherto, the great difficulty has been the matter of access to markets, but the Government are taking steps to improve conditions in this regard. Steam vessels are provided which will carry at reasonable cost, to and from the river ports, all goods which settlers may desire to transport, and the construction of roads and railways into the interior is being pushed on.

The climate presents no hindrance to settlement by white people. None of the diseases of the tropics have their home there. Nothing is known of plague, smallpox, yellow fever, sleeping sickness, and there is no true malaria. The health reports of the town of Darwin show a remarkable freedom from disease of all kinds. Of course, the heat is considerable, but by adopting fashions of dress and food suitable for the climate and utilising the cooler hours of the day, there appears no reason why the white man cannot accomplish as much work in the day as in more temperate regions. There are no frosts, and open air life is possible all the year round, except during the wet season. There are no droughts, and each year’s rainfall can be reckoned upon with almost absolute certainty. The summer is the wet season, and practically all the rain that falls comes between November and April. In the north it is abundant, amounting to 60 inches in the neighbourhood of Darwin, but as one goes southward the quantity diminishes, till in the centre of Australia it averages only from 5 to ro inches.

It has long been known that the Territory will grow practically all the commercial products of the Tropics; tea, cocoanuts, bananas,

fibres, coffee, rubber, cotton, rice, and sugar have been raised in small quantities, but, excepting perhaps as regards sugar, which may become as profitable an industry as it is at present in Queensland, it is not on distinctively tropical products that the Territory will rely for its future. All of these industries, which require considerable

labour for a brief period only, may be found too expensive to be maintained.

There is in effect no native population available for farming work. The scattered tribes of aboriginals who roam through the Territory are not an agricultural people. They are nomads, and not to be reckoned with as an agricultural factor. It has now been proved by experiments that the cereals and farm products of the temperate zones can be grown successfully even in the far north. The Government have established experimental farms for the instruction of settlers, showing them how to accommodate themselves to the changed conditions of farm work, resulting from the fact that summer is the time of rains, and the winter the dry season. At present there are two of these farms, and more are contemplated. These two have been established for over a year, and have already taught many useful lessons, not the least valuable of which is that all the domestic animals, horses, cows, pigs, goats, and fowls live and thrive well. One of the most important public works about to be undertaken is the construction of Government Freezing Works, which will give farmers a market at their doors for all the fat stock they can raise.

In the present early stages of the development of the Territory cost of labour and transportation are inevitably high, and make

farming expensive. On the other hand, the cost of obtaining a farm is very low.

The Government have recently passed a Lands Ordinance, prescribing the terms on which land will be leased. There is no possibility of obtaining freeholds, as Parliament has decided that none of the Crown Land is to be parted with in fee simple, but the system of perpetual leases which has been adopted gives practically as good a tenure. A few blocks have recently been made available

on the terms that no rent at all is chargeable for the life of the original holder, or for 21 years, whichever is longer; after that time there will be re-appraisements of rent every 21 years, but in reassessing rent it is laid down as a rule that no regard shall be paid to improvements which have been effected on the land by the lessee. The result of this is that a man need not be deterred from improving his property by the fear that through making it more valuable he is likely to be required to pay a higher rent.

In consideration of the grant of the lease, the settler is required to reside on the land for a certain period in each year, and to fulfil conditions, which have been made very liberal, with regard to fencing, stocking, and cultivation.

The local administration have authority to grant deserving settlers substantial assistance in helping them in establishing homes and fulfilling conditions. This assistance may be in the form of money, though it is more generally likely to be in the way of grants of material for building, fencing, etc., at cost price from the Government stores. Repayments for these advances will be spread over a term of years, and moderate interest only will be charged.

The land laws prevent the aggregation of estates, and limits have been fixed as to the areas which may be granted to leaseholders. These vary according to the following table:—

Division I.—Pastoral Lands.

Class i.—Maximum    area    ...    ...    ...    300 sq.    miles.

2.    tt    ...    ...    ...    600    tl

3*    » h ...    ... ^5^    »

Division II.—Agricultural Lands.

Subdivision A.—Cultivation Farms.

Class    1.—Maximum area    ...    ...    ...    1,280 acres.

2.    i)    tt    ...    ...    ...    2,560    ,,

Subdivision B.—Mixed Farming and Grazing Lands.

Class    1.—Maximum area    ...    ...    ...    12,800 acres.

2.    ,,    „    ...    ...    ...    38,400    ,,

When the Territory becomes more widely known there is no doubt that it will become very popular, but it will be a mistake to suppose that the Northern Territory is a lotus-eating land, where men may lie beneath palm trees living lives of luxurious ease like the characters in the tropical novel. Rather is it a land where men of determination and enterprise are required, who will live under pioneering conditions and be prepared to meet and overcome hardships, but who can look forward to an ample reward under the liberal conditions of the Territory in becoming their own masters and creating their own homes.

The Government will provide educational facilities for children, and will give assistance and advice where needed, but it is on the settlers themselves, their character, energy and resourcefulness that success will depend.

Lands are at present being thrown open in small sets of blocks; so far two of these sets—one on the Daly River and the other at Stapleton, on the Railway Line—have been advertised, and the demand for them has been far in excess of requirements; but as the pre-

liminary work of examination of country, classification and survey proceeds larger numbers of blocks will be offered to the public, with full particulars as to conditions attached in each case.

Persons interested should enquire from the Director of Lands, Darwin, or from the Department of External Affairs, Melbourne. Settlers are not advised for the present to go to Darwin without previous communication, as in the event of all advertised lands being taken up prior to their arrival, they may have to wait some time before further lands are available.

In Papua the conditions are also pre-eminently favourable for cocoa-nuts and rubber-growing. Both vines and trees which produce rubber are indigenous to the country; land can be acquired on remarkably easy terms, with absolute security of tenure, and there is a native population to provide labour for plantation requirements.

To men possessed of capital to the extent of from $9600.00 to $24,000.00, Papua offers unique opportunities for the profitable pursuit of tropical agriculture.

PAPUA.    The Dependency of Papua comprises 90,540

sq. miles of the southern section of the Island of New Guinea, and lies wholly within the tropics.

There are mountains reaching an altitude of 13,000 feet, and as a consequence, the Territory is well watered by large and permanent rivers, most of which are navigable for many miles inland, in one case nip to 500 miles. Broadly regarded, the year is divided into two seasons —viz., that of the south-east trades, extending from May to November, and the North-west monsoon, from December to April.

Papua is not subject to hurricanes. The planter, therefore, runs no risk of having the fruits of his labours and capital lost by such visitations.

The Territory possesses large areas of some of the richest agricultural lands in the tropics, easily accessible by good harbours and navigable rivers.

The land laws are extremely liberal, leaseholds can be obtained for any period up to ninety-nine years. If the lease is for not more than thirty years, the rent payable is determined at 5 per cent, per annum on the unimproved value of the land. If the lease is for more than thirty years, the rent payable is determined at 5 per cent, per annum of the unimproved value of the land ; but no rent is payable for the first period of ten years.

The unimproved value of the land is to be appraised every twenty years during the currency of the lease, and the rent determined accordingly; but if on any appraisement the rent is raised by more than one-third, the lessee may disclaim the lease, and is thereupon entitled to receive compensation for the improvements he has effected on the area.

Agricultural Leases may be granted for areas up to 5000 acres, and the rental during the whole term cannot exceed the following amounts, subject to the provisions re voluntary forfeiture mentioned above:—

First twenty years—First ten years rental nil.

$.060 per acre. .080    „

io7    „

•142    „

.190    „

— Second    ten years, rental

Second twenty years ..    ..    ..    ,,

Third twenty years ..    ..    ..    „

Fourth twenty years ..    ..    ..    „

Balance of lease ..    ..    ..    „

Planters must commence work within two years from the date of the granting of the lease. One-fifth of the lease must be planted, some with approved plants, in five years, two-fifths in ten years, three-fourths in twenty years. Survey fees are paid by the lessee.

The rate of wages for native labourers in plantations ranges from $2.40 to $4.80 per month and rations.

The sugar industry of Australia is a large and important one. The cane flourishes in Queensland and the northern portion of New South Wales, about 2,000,000 tons of cane SUGAR INDUSTRY, being produced per annum.

The industry requires a fair amount of capital, as the land generally best fitted for the production of the crop is in its natural state heavily clothed with sub-tropical brush and jungle.

The bulk of the sugarcane grown in Australia is disposed of at contract prices to the sugar mills. In some cases the contract is entered into before the cane is planted, so that the planter has no doubt as to a market for his produce. For about ten years a bounty of $14.40 a ton was paid on sugar produced by white labour, and an excise duty of $19.20 per ton was imposed. By a recent enactment both the bounty and excise duty have been removed, so that the farmer now profits to the extent of the difference between these two amounts, viz., $4.80 per ton.

About 155,000 acres of cane are cropped, and the yield is worth about $4.320,000.00.,

QUEENSLAND holds undisputed premier position as the greatest sugar-producing State in the Commonwealth. As a matter of fact she produces over 90 per cent, of the cane grown and sugar manufactured therefrom in Australia. In 1912 fan unfavourable year) she had 141,652 acres under cane, the yield from the 78,142 acres crushed being 994,212 tons, while the production of sugar totalled 113,060 tons.

The reasons why Queensland stands paramount in this respect are:—

(1)    Because of the suitableness of the climate;

(2)    The wonderful productiveness of the soil;

(3)    Abundant rainfall; and

(4)    The immense areas of land available for cane-growing

In exemplification of the great importance cane cultivation plays in Queensland agronomy, it may be mentioned that in the year 1912, out of a total area of 668,483 acres under crops of all kinds, no less than 141,652 acres were under sugarcane. In other words, a little over one-fifth of the agricultural production of the State was derived from sugarcane. Then, again, looked at from financial standpoint, the sugar industry represents an approximate cash value annually of from $12,000,000.00 to $14,400,000.00.

As an investment, sugar-growing offers unlimited possibilities. Like all other agricultural crops, it is subject to the vagaries of the seasons. However, under ordinary circumstances, it is one of the most profitable occupations open to-day to the agriculturist. That there is still room for further expansion in Queensland in this branch of industry is conclusively demonstrated by the fact that there is not enough sugar produced in the Commonwealth to satisfy local requirements; consequently the saccharine product from other countries (Fiji and Java, in particular) has to be imported annually to supply the shortage. The total consumption for the whole of the Commonwealth is computed at about 250,000 tons, or about 120 lbs. per head of the population of 4,700,000.

Last season there were 3901 recognised sugar-growers in the State, and it is computed that these gave employment to at least ro,ooo field workers, the wages paid thereto aggregating fully $2,400,000.00. According to the Government Statistician, the sum of ?L953,292.80 was paid away in 1912 in salaries, wages, &c.. by the various Queensland sugar mills and refineries. These factories (48 mills and 2 refineries) employed 4282 hands last year. The amount invested in the industry is estimated at between $33,600,000.00 and $38,400,000.00, and is made up as follows:—Machinery, premises, and land, $11,818,876.80; land, farms, premises, &c., $21,600,000.00 to $24,000,000.00.

The sugar-growing districts of Queensland extend from Nerang Creek, in the South, to the Bloomfield River, in the Far North. Large areas of Crown lands suitable for the cultivation of sugarcane are available in different portions of the State. There are 48 raw-sugar mills, 2 refineries, and 4 distilleries in Queensland. Four

Typical Examples of Western Australian Farm Lands.

(x) Trees, (a) Scrubjbeing broken down with rollers or drags. (3) A cleared farm.

of the raw-sugar mills are directly controlled by the State Government. Two other Government Central Mills are about to be erected, and a large private mill is approaching completion.

The price paid by the mills for cane varies according to locality, and depends to a great extent upon its sugar-producing properties. In the North, as high as $7.10 is paid for cane, and from $4.80 to $5.52 per ton in the South.

There is still room for even greater expansion in the future, for as soon as sufficient sugar is produced for local requirements in Australia the possibilities of an export trade will, no doubt, demand consideration. According to latest official reports, the 1913 crop will yield fully 240,000 tons of sugar—almost sufficient to supply the requirements of the Commonwealth.

Australia offers in the production of fibres of every kind a practically unexploited field. In the cooler districts flax has been found to grow to perfection, and in the tropical portions of FIBRES. the Commonwealth it has been demonstrated that sisal, ramie, and practically all the fibres utilised for cordage purposes can be produced abundantly and cheaply, while throughout districts remote hundreds of miles from the seaboard, as well as all over the tropical littoral, cotton of the finest quality grows well.

The commercial success of fibre-growing has been proved by a few individuals, but in a land of more acres than men it is generally found

that farmers are inclined to neglect crops that call for much manual labour in favour of others equally as profitable and more easily handled.

In order to stimulate this industry the Commonwealth Government has provided for the payment of a bounty of $110,400.00 annually on fibres of local production.

This bounty has been very slightly availed of, however, during the past five years, and the unclaimed balance of it has accumulated to a sum of $762,072.00, which amount is available for the season 1913-1914.

If anyone were to traverse the whole farming belt of Australia, his journey would cover probably 3,000 miles, and he would see hundreds of distinct kinds of trees, all differing CLEARING LAND. in their roothold. But in order to give the intending settler some idea as to what the clearing of Australian land costs, (he timbered areas may be divided into four classes—light timber, heavy timber, brush, and scrub.

The land best adapted for wheat-growing and mixed farming, where wheat is a leading crop, is generally lightly timbered, that is to say, the trees are comparatively small, and such land can be cleared of green timber for from $9.60 to $24,40 per acre, and where the trees have been ringbarked for many years, the average cost may be set down at from $2.40 to $9.60 per acre.

In Western Australia a great portion of the wheat area is timbered with salmon, york, and white gums, gimlet, jam, and wattle, all of which burn readily. Old methods of grubbing have practically dis-

appeared, the timber is ringbarked, and at the end of a year, when dry, fires burn the trees down to the level of the ground, and with a little attention, several inches beneath.

The clearing suitable for stump-jump implements costs from $4.08 to $6.00 per acre.

Heavily-timbered land may carry trees several feet in diameter and 200 feet or more in height. Very often such land is extremely productive, and is especially valuable for maize and potatoes. If the trees are grubbed when green the cost of clearing may run from $48.00 to $144.00 per acre or even more, but if the trees have been ringbarked and the area has not been through the hands of the timber-getter, who usually leaves enormous stumps as a memorial of his attentions, most of it can be cleared at from $24.00 to $48,00 per acre.

Fruit lands may be put in the same class as heavily timbered lands in districts near the coast, but a great deal of land in the mixed farming districts is now being used for orchards, and the cost of clearing is more in accordance with that indicated for lightly-timbered lands.

Brush lands are generally clothed with a luxuriant sub-tropical forest, and the almost invariable practice is to first of all fell the trees, and when they are dry enough set fire to the fallen mass. The fire leaves a wilderness of charred logs and stumps, which can be removed with comparative ease. The cost of clearing this class of land for cultivation is from $19.20 to $28.80 per acre, and for pasture from $9.60 to $14.40 per acre.

Scrub such as mallee requires special treatment, as there is a good deal more tough wood beneath the soil than above it. The usual practice is to break the scrub down with rollers or chains, burn it off, and to work the land with stump-jump ploughs until such time as the cost of removing the roots can be incurred. To clear mallee outright would cost about $48.00 per acre, but by adopting the stump-jump

plough, areas in Victoria and South Australia are prepared for cultivation at a first cost of $0.72 to $2.16 per acre. The scrub generally shoots again, and for the next year’s cropping these shoots are knocked off at a very small cost. In the course of a few years most of the stumps are turned out by the plough, and thus got rid of, at probably a total cost of a couple of pounds per acre at the outside. In many cases the stumps are sold for firewood.

Any figures given with respect to clearing land must, however, be regarded as merely approximate, as the cost of the work may vary considerably on areas even within a few miles of each other.

As an offset against the cost of clearing, there is often a fair amount realised from the sale of timber, in some cases almost equal to the purchase price of the land, and there is nearly always a large

quantity of valuable building and fencing material, and sufficient fuel for a lifetime.

There are, however, available for settlement in all States large tracts of partially cleared and improved land, which can be prepared for cropping at trifling cost, and without any delay for burning oft.

In the pioneering days it was customary to use the bark of trees in the construction of houses and sheds. Even to this day there are farmers who declare that for the walls and roof BUILDING 0f a dwelling-house there is no material as good

AND FENCING as bark. Some found slabs which were easily MATERIALS. SpHt from the trees felled about the site of the dwelling and most convenient material for walls, while other settlers

constructed snug little homes with logs. In some of the heavily-timbered districts settlers still adhere to the plan of selecting the materials that lie closest to hand, which cost no more than the labour of hewing and hauling into position. But in the more closely-settled districts, and on most of the areas that are being thrown open for occupation under closer settlement schemes, there is not always much timber on the blocks which is suitable for building purposes, though as a rule there is ample for fencing purposes and for fuel. In such cases there is no great difficulty, on payment of a small fee, in obtaining suitable timber from the State forest reservations, which are maintained to supply the needs of settlers, or where this is not possible, timber of all descriptions can be obtained at reasonable rates from the local timber merchants and saw-millers.

While the majority of farmers select timber with galvanised iron for roofing as the cheapest building materials, a considerable number of more up-to-date farmers use stone or bricks, while others find that pise or rammed earth is not only cheap but ensures a most comfortable habitation.

During recent years, a good many farmers have recognised the convenience and comfort of the brilliant light afforded by acetylene gas, and have installed it in their homes. Such farmers have also the telephone connected, and their homes and surroundings leave little to be desired.

All the flowering plants and shrubs of the old world thrive in all parts of Australia, and it is only negligence or lack of taste that prevents any settler from surrounding his home with beautiful flowers, shrubs, and fruit-trees.

In many parts of the farming belt, and especially in those selected for dairying, the farmer has no difficulty in respect to his water supply, there being numerous rivers, creeks, and WATER SUPPLY, springs. In other parts water has to be either conserved in tanks or dams excavated or constructed so as to catch the rainfall, which is the more general plan on the score of sufficiency and economy, or wells are sunk. In the latter case it is at times possible to provide a large and unfailing supply at

moderate cost, but in some of the very best farming districts it is necessary to sink wells to a considerable depth and to employ wind or other power to raise the water.

For domestic requirements it is customary to depend largely on the catchment from the roof of the dwelling-house and sheds, the water being saved in tanks placed in convenient positions.

In South Australia a very large area of farming land has been supplied with water from reservoirs in the higher lands, thus ensuring ample supplies for stock even in the drier seasons.

In the irrigation areas, which are controlled in all cases by the State Governments, the charges levied for the use of water are nominal.

From artesian bores supplies to the extent of 500,000 gallons to 4,000,000 gallons per day are obtained, but the enormous territory comprising the artesian basin is to a large extent beyond the borders of the present farming belts, and the flow is for the most part used for pastoral purposes.

The following are the estimated charges for boring for artesian water in the State of Queensland .—For the first 1000 ft., $3.84; 1000 ft. to 1500 ft., $4.08; 1500 ft. to 2000 ft., $4.32; 2000 ft. to 2500 ft., $4.56; 2500 ft. to 3000 ft., $4.80. The foregoing prices depend to a great extent upon the facilities available in the districts in which the bores are about to be put down—such as transport, and wood and water. Where a farm is watered by natural streams no bore would be necessary. Even where there is no natural supply of water a farm might be supplied from a bore on an adjacent property. In this latter case an annual charge would be made by the owner of the bore, such charge usually being about $240.00.

Under the “ Rights in Water and Water Conservation and Utilisation Act of 1910,” grazing farmers and pastoralists are afforded assistance by the Government in putting down artesian bores on their holdings. Hereunder is an example of what can be done under the Act in question:—

Cost of putting down a bore on a grazing area of 60,000 acres, the whole of which would be benefited, say ..    ..    ..    $9,600.00

Twenty miles of drains at $72.00 per mile..    1,440.00

Total cost of work ..    ..    ..    $11,040.00

This cost would be treated as a loan to the grazing farmer or pastoralist for a period of thirty years, and the annual charges thereon would be:—

Interest and redemption on $11,040.00 at $27.76 per cent, per annum ..    ..    $638.48

Maintenance and administration of works,

say ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    960.00

Total annual charge ..    ..    $1,598.48

Or equivalent to a rate or charge per acre of $.026, or less than $0.03. At the end of the thirty years’ period the bore would become the property of the grazing farmer or pastoralist.

Many of the implements and machines used on Australian farms differ in important respects from those employed in Great Britain.

Some appliances common to both countries are RANGE OF PRICES more expensive in the Commonweath than in the OF IMPLEMENTS Mother Country, but the labour-saving implements AND MACHINERY, which have been designed to suit local conditions place the Australian farmer at the advantage of being able to cultivate his land and harvest his crop at a cost which leaves a wide margin of profit.

Owing to the great diversity of conditions of the farming districts of Australia, the machinery used differs much in style and size, and it is therefore not possible to indicate more than the approximate cost of the various appliances used. In most cases the range of prices may be regarded as strictly accurate for the machines in the capital cities. Rail freights on argicultural implements are nominal, and many of the firms dealing in these articles dispose of them on easy terms, extending in the case of some of the more expensive machines to three years.

Ploughs.— Mouldboard: Set. i. 2, 3, 4, or 6 furrow, from $16 80 to $175.20; gang, 2, 3, or 4 furrow. $38.40 to $81.60 ; stump-jump, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, or 10 furrow, $96.00 to $240.00; stump-jump cultivating ploughs, 3 to 12 furrow, $100.80 to $240.00.

Disc: Set, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 furrow, $76.80 tog$20i.6o ; stump-jump, 2 to 6 furrow, $115.20 to $240.00.

Convertible disc, single furrow, $72.00; hillside, $48.00 to $81.60.

Harrows.—Spike, 3 to 8 leaf, $19.20 to $72.00; zig-zag, 1 to 4 horse, $13.20 to $52.80; spring-tooth, $76.80 to $96.00; stump-jump with wheels, 3 to 8-leaf, $28.80 to $57 60; disc, $48.00 to $96.00.

Cultivators, Scufflers and Scarifiers.—Spring-tooth cultivators, 9-tme tontine, $62.40 to $129.60; stump-jump cultivators, 9 to 11-tine, $120.00 to $144.00 ; disc cultivators, 13-disc, $120.00; scufflers, $9.60 to $48.00.

Rollers.—Spike, $72.00.

Drills, for seed and fertilisers combined. 9 to 17 hoes, $129.60 to $216.00; disc, $153.60 to $211.20; maize drills, $22.80 to $33.12.

Harvesting Implements.—Mowing machines, $72.00 to $120.00; reaping and binding machines, $108.00 to $220.00; strippers. $192.00 to $336.00; winnowers, $96 00 to $163.20 ; stripper-harvesters, $240 00 to $480.00 ; hay-rakes, $43.20 to $52.80. Barn Machinery. -Chaff-cutters, $16.80 to $96.00 ; corn-shellers, $15.60 to $40.80; huskers and shellers, $79.20 to $108.00; corn crushers, $6 00 to $144.00; mangel cutters, $14.40 to $28.80 ; pulpers, $22.80 ; slicing machines, $22.80; root cutters, $25.20; silage cutters and elevators from $67.20; hay presses, $to8.oo; maize mills, $36.00.

Dairy Appliances.—Separators, hand, $36 00 to $192.00 ; power, $96.00 to $204.00 ; coolers, $9.60 to $24.00; cream-testers, $8.40 to $24 00 ; churns, hand-dash, $4.80 to $14.40; 200 lb.. $6600; power churns, to $201.60; butter-workers, $12.00 to $50.40; railway milk or cream cans (10 gallon), $360 to $4.44.

Milking machines, for 16 to 20 cows, $220.80 to $228.00 ; 64 to 72 cows, $924 00.

Complete installation machines and power to milk 4 cows at a time, $600.00 ; boiler required for working 16 to 18-cow plant, $192.00 to $240.00.

Power. —Stationary engines: Oil, 2 to 10 b.h.p., $264.00 to $792.00; petrol, 3 b.h.p., $312.00.

Portable engines: Oil, 3 b.h.p., $576.00; 5 b.h.p., $768.00; steam, 4 n.h.p., $840.00 ; to 10 n.h.p., $1680.00 to $1824.00.

Traction engines: $2400.00, $3360.00, to $4800.00.

Boilers : Vertical, h.p. to 12 h.p.. $168.00 to $696.00 ; horizontal, 3 h.p. to 12 h p., $264.00 to $696.00.

Windmills, $38.40 to $288.00 ; pumps, $9.60 to $48.00.

Vehicles.—Waggons, $144.00 to $336.00; drays, spring or tip, $67.20 to $144.00; spring carts. $72.00 to $120.00; waggonettes, $120.00 to $288.00; harness, $12 00 to $36.00.

For the enormous annual output of wool, meat, grain, dairy products, fruit, wine, eggs, and other products of the station and farm, Australia has the excellent home markets MARKETS. of nearly 5,000,000 prosperous people, and by reason of the geographical position of the Commonwealth the cheap access by sea carriage to not only British, European, South African, and American markets, but also to the expanding markets of the East.

For every pound of merino wool, in which Australia holds universal supremacy, there is eager demand on the part of buyers, who come from Great Britain, Europe, America, and the East.


Practical assistance is rendered the producers in all parts of the Commonwealth to handle their products economically and in accordance with the requirements of the big oversea markets.

Government freezing works are established, to which farmers may send perishable produce to be packed and prepared for shipment at the lowest possible rates, and in some instances, as in the case of the South Australian Export Depot, described hereunder, the Government undertakes the actual selling of the produce on behalf of farmers.

If desired by producers, the Department will undertake the whole of the business of shipping and selling produce on their behalf. All

Government Produce that is, necefa,rV for /he producer to do is to Department of ProPerly pack his produce and forward it on to South Australia the Government freezing works, Port Adelaide, • together with an intimation to the office as to his wishes. The Department will then engage freight, freeze, if necessary, ship, insure, and sell the produce in London.

The Government has a special commercial agent in London to attend to the sale of produce on behalf of shippers, and he takes delivery on arrival of the boats, and places to the best advantage in the English or Continental markets. When a sale is effected, the accounts are made out in London and forwarded to Adelaide, when accounts and cheque for the net proceeds are immediately forwarded to the producer.

The Department makes advances on produce entrusted to it for sale at the discretion of the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture. In the majority of cases this advance is 75 per cent, of the estimated value of the produce.

To assist Australian exporters to take advantage of every fresh avenue that opens for the profitable disposal of produce, commercial agencies are maintained in Great Britain, Europe and the East. These officials report as to the existing and prospective demand for commodities, and the manner in which produce should be packed and handled to prove most acceptable to buyers.

All goods exported are subjected to Government supervision in order that the standing of Australian products or demand for them in oversea markets may not be diminished by disregard on the part of individuals of the requirements of such markets.

In each State there is a well equipped railway system providing cheap means of conveying produce of the agricultural, pastoral, and mining districts to the principal towns and ports. In all, TRANSPORTATION there are 17,000 miles of railroad open for traffic,

OF PRODUCE. and with the exception of a few miles of private lines the whole system is owned and controlled by the State Governments. As settlement increases, the States are constantly building new lines. Up to the present over $772,800,000.00 have been expended on railways in Australia, and the policy is to keep the freights low, so as to simply defray working expenses and about 31/2 per cent, interest on capital invested.

In all the farming districts special attention is paid to road making so that farmers may be enabled to cart their produce to the railways or rivers.

NEW SOUTH WALES.—Nearly all of the State’s railroads radiate from Sydney, on the eastern coast. They are built to the standard gauge of the world, 4 ft. 8}4 in., and are as well equipped as those of any country. There are six main trunk lines. The Great Southern Line, connecting the capitals, Sydney and Melbourne, extends in the State from Sydney to Albury, a distance of 392 miles, and crosses the Southern tableland and the eastern edge of the Riverina district.

The main Northern line, which connects Sydney with Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, extends for a distance of 492 miles to the border town of Wallangarra. This line traverses the rich agricultural lands of the Northern tableland.

The North-western line has three extensions from Narrabri, 353 miles, and reaches its termini at Walgett, 457 miles, Collarenebri, 444 miles, and Inverell, 509 miles from the capital. It taps the rich wheat-

growing lands of the north-western slopes, and the fine sheep country to the west.

The main Western line, the longest in the State, crosses the Blue Mountains, the grazing areas of the central tablelands, the wheat lands of the slopes, and finally traverses, almost in a straight line, the portion of the western plains given over to the raising of merino sheep. The western extremities of this line reach Bourke at 508 miles and Brewarrina at 518 miles.

The South-western line traverses the Southern Riverina districts to Hay, 460 miles, by a branch which leaves the main Southern line at Junee, 292 miles.

The South Coast line, one of the most picturesque in the State, which skirts the coast for the greater part of its distance, extends to Nowra, 92 miles, and serves a rich dairying district.

Each of the main trunk lines has many branches, which shoot off to bring the more favoured portions of the State into quicker communication with the markets.

Important extensions are in course of construction at the present time. The great North Coast line, which, traversing magnificent dairying country, is to provide an alternative route to Sydney for the ever-increasing output of the dairy-farming districts, is the most important of these.

The total mileage of Government railways open for traffic is 3940.

VICTORIA.—The ramifications of the railway system of Victoria form a close network throughout the farming districts, and connect with the railways of overland express services of South Australia and New South Wales. At present there are 3,675 miles of railway, but new lines are being added. With the exception of about 80 miles of 2 ft. 6 in. gauge spur lines, the railroads of Victoria are 5 ft. 3 in. gauge.

The South-eastern system and branches extends 159 miles into the Dandenong, Port Albert and Aspendale-Stony Point districts.

The Eastern system serves the rich Gippsland and intervening districts, comprising a total of 311 miles.

The North-eastern system comprises the main express line between Melbourne and Albury, on the New South Wales border, and 472 miles of branch lines..

The Northern system extends to Echuca on the Murray, 135 miles, and has 925 miles of branch lines.

The North-western system main line from Rockbank to Serviceton is 266 miles in length, and has 210 miles of branch lines.

The Western and South-western systems serve the rich potato, cereals, and dairy country from Werribee to Portland, 272 miles, and there are 292 miles of branch lines connecting up other fertile districts.

The suburban system is extensive, and comprises 188 miles.

QUEENSLAND.— This State has the longest railway system in the Commonwealth. The Government lines open to date total 4662 miles. In addition to these, there are 294 miles of railway (owned by public bodies) also open for traffic, thus making a grand total of 4956 miles. The lines under construction aggregate 1350 miles, and a further 505 miles have been approved by Parliament

The four principal lines of Government railways are:—(i) The Southern and Western line, extending from the port of Brisbane to Charleville (483 miles), and Cunnamulla (604 miles) in Western Queensland, and to Wallangarra (233 miles), and Dirranbandi (425 miles) in Southern Queensland. (2) The Central Railway connecting the port of Rockhampton with the town of Longreach (428 miles). (3) The Great Northern Railway connecting the port of Townsville with the mining township of Cloncurry (481 miles), and the pastoral town of Winton (368 miles). (4) North Coast line, connecting Brisbane and Rockhampton (396 miles).

In addition to the above-mentioned main lines there are the South Coast line, connecting Brisbane and Tweed Heads (on the northeastern border of New South Wales), 69 miles; Mackay Railway, Bowen Railway, Cairns Railway, Cooktown Railway, and the Nor-manton Railway.

From the principal lines there are numerous feeders or branch lines, which tap splendid agricultural, timber, and mineral country.

In conjunction with their immigration policy, the Queensland Government are proceeding with the important matter of railway construction with all possible speed, and are trying to anticipate settlement, so that the new settler may not suffer hardship.

The railways under construction include two very extensive schemes—the Great Western Railway and the Great North Coast line. The former involves the building of 1282 miles of line, and includes the linking-up of all existing western lines. When completed, through communication from Brisbane to Camooweal, on the border of the Northern Territory (a total distance of 1335 miles), will be established. The North Coast Railway will, when open for traffic, give a continuous line from Brisbane to Cairns, and the present gaps, totalling 454 miles, will then be linked up. The total length of this line will be 1040 miles.

In addition to the above-mentioned lines, several are being laid into agricultural districts.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.— The settled portions of South Australia are well provided with railways, and vigorous steps are being taken to extend railway facilities to outlying districts, the total mileage open at present being 2253.

The broad-gauge system extends in a northerly direction to Terowie, which is 140 miles distant from Adelaide, with broad-gauge branch lines of about 102 miles in length. The Northern narrow-gauge system extends from Terowie to Oodnadatta, a distance of 549 miles, and there are branch lines extending from Quorn to Port Augusta (the latter town being the starting-point of the east-west transcontinental railway, which has recently been commenced), Petersburg to Cockburn, thence extending to Broken Hill, the large silver-mining centre located in New South Wales, which is only a few miles from the South Australian border, and from Petersburg to Port Pirie, this port being the outlet for the Broken Hill trade. These branch lines, including a spur line from Gladstone to Booleroo, cover a distance of 276 miles. The western narrow-gauge system connects with the northern narrow-gauge system at Gladstone, and with the broad-gauge system at Hamley Bridge,

forming connecting links with the towns of Wallaroo and Moonta; the length of this system totals 209 miles.

In a southerly direction from Adelaide the broad-gauge lines extend to Serviceton, a distance of 197 miles, with branch lines to Pinnaroo, Brown’s Well, and Victor Harbour, the branch lines totalling about 242 miles.

The South-eastern narrow-gauge system commences at Wolseley ■on the Southern system, and extends to Mt.. Gambier and Beachport, also from Narracoorte to Kingston, while there is a small spur line from Wandilo to Glencoe, the total mileage being 225.

Railway extensions are rapidly being carried out on the west •coast of Spencer’s Gulf (Eyre’s Peninsula). The railway from Port Lincoln extends to Minippa Hill, a distance of 157 miles, while the branch line from Cummins to Kimba covers no miles.

Large areas of agricultural land have recently been opened up by new railways, and further extensive areas will be opened so soon as the railways which have been authorised are constructed.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.— The total length of railways in this State is 2854 miles, as follows:—

Eastern and Eastern Goldfields, Fremantle to Laverton, 598 miles. The branches of this line are:—

Midland Junction to Karragullen, 21 miles; Clackline to Boolgart, 30 miles. A loop line Northam to Goomalling and on to Merredin, 145 miles, joining the Eastern line at Merredin, 168 miles east of Perth, A line has recently been constructed from Goomalling through Wongan Hills to Mullewa, connecting with the northern railway system, a distance from Goomalling of 231 miles.

Another line has been approved, and will shortly be built, from Wyalcatchem through Cowcowing and Mt. Marshall, providing facilities for a large wheat-growing district at present unserved by railway. Numerous other lines are also contemplated.

The branch lines off the Eastern Goldfields line and Goldfields area are Southern Cross to Bullfinch, 24 miles; Malcolm to Leonora, 15 miles; and a suburban line from Kalgoorlie to Boulder City round the mines and suburban blocks, and also a branch to Kanowna, about 12 miles in length. A line southward from Coolgardie to Norseman, a distance of 108 miles.

In addition to the above, the Trans-Continental Railway, to con-


nect from Kalgoorlie to Port Augusta, is under construction, and the works are well advanced.

The Northern Railway System extends inland from Geraldton to Sandstone, a distance of 309 miles, and Meekatharra, a distance of 334 miles. There are also branch agricultural lines running north ward. Geraldton to Ajana, a distance of 66 miles; from Geraldton to Una, a distance of 46 miles.

The Northern Railway System is connected with Perth by a private line belonging to the Midland Company, some 277 miles in length.

The South-Western districts are served by a railway which runs from Fremantle to Bunbury, and thence to Jarnadup, a distance of 200 miles from Perth, and this line is being extended to serve the timber mills which are being erected in this district.

Another branch line runs from Boyanup to Busselton, a distance of 27 miles, with a further extension from Wonnerup to Nannup, a further 50 miles.

A line has also been constructed from Brunswick, which connects with the Great Southern line at Narrogin, 114 miles; and another line from Donnybrook, connecting with the Great Southern at Katanning, a distance from Donnybrook of 131 miles.

The Great Southern railway extends from Fremantle to Albany, a distance of 352 miles. The branches from this line are: York to Bruce Rock, a distance of 96 miles, where it connects with the Wickepin-Merredin line.

A line is also nearly completed from Brookton to Kunjin, a distance of 55 miles, also connecting with the Wickepin-Merredin line.

The line from Narrogin to Wickepin has been extended to Merredin, a distance of 108 miles, and gives direct service from the Great Southern railway to the Eastern Goldfields.

A line is nearly completed from Yilliminning to Kondinin, a distance of 72 miles, which opens up a large tract of new country.

Railways to the eastward of the Great Southern railway have been built: Wagin to Kukerin, 49 miles; Katanning to Nyabing, 38 miles; Tambellup to Ongerup, 59 miles; also a line from Torbay Junction to Denmark, 27 miles in length, and passing through some very fine dairying country.

Agricultural lines have been authorised from Wagin westward to Bowelling, a distance of 58 miles; Newcastle-Boolgart extension northward, about 31 miles; and it is in contemplation to construct railways from Mount Barker to Manjimup, and from Jarnadup, via Nornalup Inlet to Denmark, thus giving a connection from Bunbury to Albany through the rich coastal areas of the south-west.

It is also proposed to construct a line from Narrogin to Armadale, giving direct communication from the centre of the Great Southern railway to Fremantle. This will effect a saving of about 70 miles on the present route.

TASMANIA.—The railways of Tasmania are well arranged to meet the needs of the principal agricultural and fruit-growing districts.

The Government lines exceed 500 miles in length, while there are 170 miles of private railways. Altogether Tasmania has fifteen railway systems.

In each State various descriptions of goods are classified, and the freight is charged according to classification. Both the classification and the rates charged vary someRAILWAY FRElGHTSwhat in the several States, but generally it may FOR PRODUCE. be said that low rates prevail, the charges having generally been reduced in recent years as the revenue from traffic has increased.

Railway Freights in Australia.

The Commonwealth Statistician furnishes the following analysis of ordinary rates for carriage of agricultural produce on Australian railways during the year 1912:—

For 50 Miles. 100 Miles. 200 Miles. 300 Miles. 400 Miles. Average rate per ton ..    .. $1.36    $2.08    §2.76    $3.30    $3 90

Average rate per ton per mile in

fractions of dollars ..    ..    .027    .020    .013    .011    .009

Thus it will be seen that while agricultural produce is carried for a little more than $0,025 per ton per mile over a distance of 50 miles, the rate per ton per mile over 400 miles is less than $0.01.

The average rates given in above are based upon the ordinary tonnage rates for each State. In some of the States these ordinary rates are slightly higher than in other States, but in Special Rates for such States there are, in addition, special cheap 6-ton Truck-load, rates for agricultural produce in truck-loads of 6 tons or more. These range from $1.00 to $1.50 per ton for 50 miles; $1.80 per ton to $2.14 per ton for 100 miles; $2.48 to $2.90 per ton for 200 miles; $2.52 to $4.08 per ton for 300 miles; and $2,72 to $5.28 per ton for 400 miles.

Low Rail Freights place the Australian Farmer at great market advantage.

It will be seen from the above Stable that the principle which rhas been followed has been to ^diminish the rates rapidly in proportion to distance, so as to enable distant areas to compete in the principal


markets. Special rates have been fixed in the interests of the producer for particular classes or for small packages of produce. The producer also has the benefit of reasonable rates in getting his implements, stock, and necessary commodities to his land.

Sea-borne traffic by coastal vessels plays an important part in the transport of the country. At intervals, along the coast, rivers or harbours provide ports of call for the vessels, COASTAL thus enabling produce to be taken at small cost STEAMERS. to the various markets. These vessels are of all sizes up to 10,000 tons burden, and the larger ones are fitted with refrigerating apparatus for the carriage of butter and other perishable produce.

An Australian Interstate Vessel.

The oversea trade of Australia is enormous, the annual value of goods, principally pastoral and agricultural products, exported COMMUNICATION amountn& to about $384,000,000.00. This large WITH THE trade naturally encourages a large shipping WORI D’S MARKETS business, and t^ie Australian producer has thereby cheap and constant access to the markets of Great Britain, Europe, South Africa, America, and the East.

So great is his advantage in this respect that the wheat-grower or dairy-farmer in Australia can compete on even terms on the London market with the farmer in the North and Midland Counties of the motherland.

in modern farming ready means of keeping in touch with the trend of markets is regarded as a prime necessity, and in this respect

PfKTii tci c the Australian farmer, with markets so far apart 1 , as London, Vancouver, and Yokohama, is well GRAPHIC, AND catered for.


COMMUNICATION. . Postal, telegraphic and telephonic communication is just as up-to-date in Australia as it is in the mother country and through important newspapers, which publish the latest cabled news daily of the markets at home and abroad, the farmer is able to keep thoroughly in touch with the movements in prices. Many of the large firms and stations utilise the telephone extensively, not only as a speedy means of communication with business people, neighbouring townships, and their friends, but for fire alarms.

lhe only native animals of Australia which can be regarded by the farmer seriously as pests—wallabies, paddymelons, and bandicoots, which attack crops; native cats and gohannas, PESTS AND    which levy occasional tribute on the poultry

DISEASES-    yards, and native dogs, which attack sheep and

lambs—so soon become things of the past in settled country as to be of little importance. The introduced rabbit is by far the most serious pest in Australia, but happily there are immense tracts, and especially in Western Australia, where the animals have not obtained a footing. While the task of keeping this prolific pest in check on the enormous pastoral holdings is attended with the utmost difficulty and great expense, landholders in the farming belt are able to cope successfully with these vermin. In many of the more closely settled districts rabbits are never seen, and in other places they are about on a par with those generally to be found on or in the neighbourhood of British farms. The annual exportation of about $4,320,000.00 worth of frozen rabbits and of rabbit skins has also something to do with keeping the pest down in districts handy to the railways.

Next to the rabbit, the English sparrow and starling are troublesome pests, but by concerted action on the part of local farmers their numbers have been reduced in so many districts that there is reason to believe they will not remain as permanent pests.

The fox, another importation, has unfortunately found a congenial home in Australia, and is, in certain districts, a troublesome pest.

There are, as in all countries, a number of minor pests that are part and parcel of farming operations, but if a consensus of all experienced farmers in Australia could be obtained, it is certain their verdict


would be that, on the whole, the losses occasioned by animal and insect pests are, except in rare cases, insignificant. Fruit-growers would not be so unanimous, as the codlin moth of the apple, fruit-fly, and other pests have in seasons favourable to them caused a good deal of havoc. But by the enactment of drastic laws these pests are being entirely stamped out in some districts and diminished in others.

Rust in wheat was a serious trouble in Australia until rust-resisting crossbred wheats were evolved, and nowadays, except in isolated cases,, where conservative farmers will not discard rust-liable varieties, rust is regarded as of no very serious importance.

The conditions of the country are extremely favourable for livestock of all kinds. All domestic animals have their ailments, but there are probably no flocks and herds in any country that receive so little personal attention and are as free from disease as those of Australia. Rinderpest is unknown, and the worst trouble which ever overtook the herds of the Commonwealth was the Texas cattle-tick. This was fortunately confined to only one portion of the continent, where the natural grasses afforded the pests the shelter that is essential. The cattle attacked were for the most part wild. In small herds of tame cattle the percentage of losses was not nearly so great, and in the open country where nine-tenths of Australian cattle are run, the ticks did not make an appearance. So far as the farming belt is concerned, all authorities are agreed there is no fear of this pest.

Of the 83,000,000 sheep depastured in Australia, at least 80,000,000 are perfectly free from foot-rot and fly, and are never likely to be troubled with either of those evils of moister climes. Many years-ago there was scab in some flocks, but the disease has been entirely stamped out.

Rigid quarantine laws are 5 enforced in the case of any animals introduced to Australia, and every care is taken to prevent the contamination of live-stock or crops with diseases from abroad.

Among stockmen there is the universal belief in the poisonous properties of certain plants, but as a matter of fact most elaborate scientific investigation has failed so far to prove any plant in Australia to be actually poisonous. Famished travelling sheep or cattle at times die in scores from a surfeit of some succulent growth encountered on their journey, and the natural tendency is to attribute the disaster to poison, when it is probably hoven or colic. There are, of course, certain plants, like the Darling or indigo pea, which excite the same depravity of taste and behaviour in sheep, cattle, or horses as some intoxicants and narcotics do in mankind, but on farms of reasonable area these dangerous plants can be easily detected and removed.

Beyond sharks in the surrounding seas and alligators in the waters of rivers in the tropical portions of Australia, and therefore of w> concern to the settler in the farming belt, snakes are the only creatures of menace to human life. Snakes are by no means numerous in all parts of Australia, and fatalities from snakebite are rare.


It is only necessary to look at the figures relating to the annual production of pastoral and agricultural products and the extent of SYSTEMATIC Australian lands that still await development, to realise how important it is to the people of the Commonwealth to take all reasonable steps to advance the producing industries.

In each State there is an alert Department of Agriculture, in which a staff of competent scientific investigators and practical demonstrators are engaged to assist farmers and stockbreeders to cope with outbreaks of disease in crops or animals, or other matters that affect their interests. In every direction in which a farmer may need advice, such as his soil, his seed, manures, or the marketing of produce, he may count on ready and competent help free of charge.

The newcomer may have advice as to districts in which to settle to follow any particular class of farming. Experts will visit his holding and do everything possible to put him on the right road. If he has doubts about his soil he has only to send to the Department of Agriculture a sample, which will be analysed, and he will be furnished free of any charge, with a report as to the most suitable treatment. If he desires information as to the suitability or otherwise of any particular variety of wheat, or potatoes, or fruit-trees, for his district, he can obtain reliable guidance for the mere asking.

In each State there are numbers of farms conducted by the Government to ascertain facts for the guidance of the districts in which they are situated, and these farms are open to the farmers at all times. Periodically excursions at extremely low fares are arranged to permit of farmers from a distance coming to see for themselves the results following the use of new kinds of machinery, or of new methods of growing or handling crops.

For the use of dairy farmers there are Government stud cattle of the best breeds obtainable in Great Britain, and farmers are not only enabled to see how the cattle of any given breed or strain suit particular districts, but can secure information without the risk and expense of experimenting on their own account as to various crosses.

In practically every country town of any importance in the farming belt there is an agricultural society, and hundreds of these societies receive from the respective State Governments substantial subsidies to encourage educative displays of the best stock, products, and machinery. At the large shows a daily attendance of 60,000 to 70,000 persons is not unusual, which will serve to afford some idea of the importance attached in Australia to anything likely to advance the interests of farmers.

The experts in the Departments of Agriculture come from all parts of the world, and the results of their researches locally and of their experience are conveyed to agriculturists per the medium of official journals, which are distributed free of charge to all settlers.

Chairs of Agriculture and of Veterinary Science have been founded at Australian Universities.

For the training of young men there are five agricultural colleges and thirty-six experiment farms, occupying a total area of nearly 65,000 acres, on which crops of every kind, and live stock of all descriptions, from dairy stock to ostriches, are grown and cared for by those undergoing training in scientific and practical farming.

At these colleges and farms it is customary to have special courses for farmers at a nominal fee, so that if any one desires to acquire special knowledge of any branch of his work he may do so without much expense or difficulty.

The Farmers’ and Settlers’ Associations are powerful organisations, and have a considerable voice in framing land laws and other matters of importance to agriculturists.

Ninety-seven per cent, of the 4,700,000 comprising the entire population of the Commonwealth, are either of British birth or descent.

In consequence the social conditions of the SOCIAL    country are not dissimilar to those of the Mother-

C0NDIT10NS.    land, but there is more personal independence

enjoyed by people of every class.

There are none of the hardships attendant on congestion of population or severity of climate. The Australian in every section of the community is enabled to lead a comfortable and healthy life, and if he is ambitious to succeed in any avocation he is perfectly free from conservative conventions peculiar to older countries.

In politics every adult, male and female, has equal privileges, and the laws of the country are framed for the benefit of all alike.

It would be absurd to affirm that there is no poverty in Australia, but it can truthfully be said that the number of absolutely destitute persons forms a comparatively negligible proportion of the entire population. No poor rate is levied in any part of the Commonwealth, for there is practically no pauper class to need it.

Much of the work of looking after the sick and destitute is in private hands, although the State subsidises Public Hospitals and maintains orphanages and asylums for the destitute, infirm and insane.

A Commonwealth scheme of old-age pensions has been adopted, and under this people 65 years of age and over, who are of good character and have resided in Australia for twenty years, are entitled to a pension of $2.40 per week. By Proclamation on 19th November, 1910, regulations were framed providing for payment of a pension to women of 60 years and over and to invalids of both sexes over 16.

In Australia the receiving of an old-age pension does not constitute a badge of social inferiority. It is not a charitable aid, but a statutory right.

A maternity allowance of $24.00 may also be claimed as a statutory right at the birth of every child.

The best index to the general prosperity of Australia is that about one person in every three of the whole population has something in the bank.

The total number of savings banks, with their branches and agencies in the Commonwealth, is 1941, and the depositors to the number of 1,721,000 have accounts amounting in all to $339,600,000.00, which averages nearly twice as much as the deposits in any other country.

Of ordinary banks there is an equally large number, and the amount of deposits irrespective of any other business represents a total of $720,000,000.00.

Taxation of the small farmer in Australia is light in comparison with other countries. There are no tithes, no poor rates, no education rates, no King’s tax. The principal taxation is in the form of customs duties levied on imported goods and commodities, and direct taxes on land and incomes. Liberal exemptions are allowed in the case of both the land and income taxes—the unimproved value of land being taken as the basis of assessment.

The great body of Australian law is, in its basic principles, founded on British law, but there have, of course, been considerable modifications and extensions to suit local circumstances.

Throughout the Commonwealth there are minor courts for the trial of petty offences and the settlement of trivial civil actions, such courts being presided over by magistrates or COURTS OF similar functionaries. Next in order come courts JUSTICE. of various designation, such as Children's Courts, Courts of Quarter Sessions, District Courts, County Courts, then the Supreme Courts, and, finally, the High Court of Australia. In certain circumstances appeal may be made from an Australian court to the Privy Council.

Australia enjoys the distinction of annually decreasing expenditure on gaols. Serious crimes are of rare occurrence, and settlers in the remotest districts live in security equal to that in any English village.

In all the States of the Commonwealth, public primary education is compulsory and free, while in those States possessing higher public schools and universities, free admission is EDUCATION granted to the children of parents unable to

OF CHILDREN. pay the fees. In New South Wales, Queensland, and South Australia, education at the high schools, as well as the primary schools, is free. Moreover, throughout Australia, there is very liberal provision in the way of scholarships and bursaries, which open the way to all children, without distinction of class or religion, to the higher State schools, to the secondary schools and to the universities. It has always been the aim of the Australian Parliaments to spread the advantages of primary education as widely as possible, and this is accomplished in various ways. All the capital cities and the larger towns, of course, have a university and are provided with a considerable number of schools, which in respect of general design and equipment are very similar to schools of the same class in the United Kingdom. Then in the more sparsely-peopled country districts, there are smaller State or “provisional” schools. In still more thinly-peopled areas, half-time schools are to be found, i.e., schools which are visited alternately by the one teacher, while itinerant teachers visit the scattered settlers in the “back blocks.” In some States, the plan has been adopted of closing clusters


of small country schools, and replacing them by a larger central institution, to which the children are conveyed each day in comfortable vehicles. This plan, besides being more economical, leads to greater efficiency.

There are in all 8047 State schools, where 18,000 teachers are engaged in the instruction of 763,000 children, and about 2000 private schools, with 7800 teachers and 164,000 pupils.

The development of technical education has so far been somewhat uneven in Australia, but the results achieved give every promise of greater success in the near future. Excellent TECHNICAL technical instruction in agriculture, mining, and EDUCATION. engineering is given at various institutions throughout the Commonwealth.

In most country towns there is a school of arts, to which is generally attached a public library, and newspapers containing cabled news from all over the world are regarded by Australians as a matter of daily necessity.

There is no State-established religion in the Commonwealth, nor are any religious distinctions operative in public affairs. There is, moreover, no religious test for admission to any RELIGIOUS of the rights and privileges of citizens. By far LIBERTY. the largest proportion of the inhabitants of the Commonwealth belong to the Church of England. The Roman Catholic is the next most numerous denomination, followed by the Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists.

NEW SOUTH WALES.— Arrangements have been made with the Aberdeen Line, P. and O. Branch Line (late Lund’s Blue Anchor Line), and the Shaw, Savill and Al-

HOW TO GET bion Line for reductions in the ordinary rates

TO AUSTRALIA. for third-class passengers from Great Britain.

and with the Norddeutscher Lloyd from Germany, Belgium and Italy. These arrangements may be extended or limited to suit the contingencies of the traffic. Besides these reductions, a Government contribution is made towards each fare, thereby reducing the cost of the assisted passage to the amounts quoted in the schedule hereunder. In some cases, however, the immigrants may be required to pay an amount equal to that charged by the shipping company, the Government contribution being withheld until the immigrant has taken up residence in New South Wales to the satisfaction of the Director.

Selected Immigrants.—The Government is granting assisted passages to approved agriculturists (farmers and farm workers) with their wives and children, and domestic servants. The net cost of the passage is shown below, but the amount actually paid by persons to whom an assisted passage has been granted is usually a little more than that shown in the table. This additional sum is refunded as soon as the Director of the Immigration Bureau, Sydney, is satisfied that the immigrant has settled in farm work or domestic service. As a rule, the refund is made within a month from date of arrival. In special circumstances where the necessity arises, the Superintendent of Immigration, London, has authority to advance a portion of the amount required for the passages of domestic servants, such amount to be repaid in instalments extending over not more than three months.

Applicants for assisted passages from the United Kingdom or Europe can obtain full information from the Assistant Superintendent of Immigration, New South Wales and Victoria, Melbourne place, Strand, London, W.C.

Residents of New South Wales may, at present, nominate their wives and children in the United Kingdom for assisted passages by paying to the Immigration Bureau in Sydney the fares shown below, either cash down, or, at the discretion of the Director, part of the passage money may be paid in Sydney, leaving the balance to be paid by the nominees in London before sailing.

All persons receiving assisted passages to New South Wales must be under 45 years of age, nominated passengers under 50 years of age, and domestic servants under 35 years of age, of sound bodily and mental health, of good character, and must be skilled in some form of industry.


Berth in 6 or 8-Berth Cabin.

Berth in 4-Berth Cabin.

Berth in 2-Berth Cabin.


Farmers and farm workers and their wives and children (over 12 years of age) ...............




Domestics ... ... ... ... ...




Nominated :

Wives and children (over 12 years of age) of farmers and farm labourers ...




Wives and children (over 12 years of age) of persons engaged in other than farm work ... ... ...




Children between the ages of 3 and 12 years at date of sailing are charged half rates, one child under three years being allowed free, any others being charged quarter fare.

VICTORIA.—Selected Immigrants.—The Government of the State of Victoria grants assisted passages from Great Britain to Victoria at the following rates:—

Third Class.

Rate of Passage Money.

Land Settlers and their wives and families.........

*938.40 per adult

Farm Laborers (experienced) and their wives and families...

38.40 „

„ (inexperienced) „ „ ...

48.00 „ $33.60 and $38.40

British Lads .....................

Artisans and their wives and families......... ...

967.20 per adult

Domestic Servants (female) ...............


♦ A refund of *9 60 per adult fare is allowed to land settlers who transmit the sum of S720.00 to Victoria through the Agent General's Office in London or the State Savings Bank, provided that the settler undertakes farming operations on his own account within twelve months of his arrival in the State.

Persons already resident in Victoria may nominate friends or relatives for assisted passages. Nominations must be accompanied by a portion of the passage money, and satis-NOMINATED factory guarantees obtained for the payment of PASSAGES. the balance, which is payable after the nominee has arrived in the State. When the instalments due have been paid, making up the net passage money, and the nominee has taken up his residence in the State, the transaction is closed by allowing as a rebate the Government contribution.

The rates chargeable for nominated passages vary with the relationship of the nominee to the nominator. They have been made expressly lower for wives and children to facilitate the reunion of families.    ,j

Family Nominations.—A man residing in Victoria may nominate his wife for an assisted passage to Victoria for $19.20 net, and a daughter over 12 years of age for the same amount. A nominated passage for his sons will cost $38.40 each. Children from 3 to 12 years of age cost $9.60 each; one child under three is carried free, and each additional child under three years of age costs $4.80 each.

Ordinary Nominations.—Persons residing in Victoria may also nominate relatives (other than their own family) or friends for passages at the rate of $48.00 per adult. Children from 3 to 12 years of age, $24.00 each; one child under three years free, and additional children under three years of age for $12.00 each.


Table X.

When the nominees are the wife, husband, or family of the nominator, the

payments are:—


See Footnote to this Table.


Net Passage Money.



Deposit (see footnote).

Balance payable by six equal monthly instalments.



Total Fare.

Wife .. .. ..





Daughters, 12 years and over*





Husband .. .. ..





Sons, 12 years and over* ..





Children, 3 to 12 years ..





One child, under 3 years .. Each additional child, under 3





years .. .. ..





• These special rates do not apply to sons or daughters who may be married or who (if travelling without their parents) exceed 18 years of age. The rates payable under the next table then apply.

When the nominees are friends or relatives of the nominator the payments are :—


Net Passage Money.




Deposit (see footnote).

Balance payable by six equal monthly instalments.



Total Fare.

Adults (either sex) .. ..





Children (3 to 12 years) ..





One child, under 3 years .. Each additional child, under 3





years .. .. ..





Note.—For accommodation in a Four-berth Cabin, $9.60 extra per berth, and for accommodation in a Two-berth Cabin, $14.40 extra per berth, should be deposited at the time of nomination, or must be paid by the nominee in England when arranging for berths.

QUEENSLAND.—Fees.—Passages may be granted to approved assisted, nominated and contract immigrants at the following rates:—

Males of 12 years of age and upwards ..    .. $33.60

Females of 12 years of age and upwards    ..    14.40

Immigrants’ children (under 12 years of age) 7.20 Infants (under 1 year) ..    ..    ..    .. Free.

Maximum Age.—Males, married women, and widows, 45 years: single women, 35 years.

Parents over the age limit desirous of accompanying their children may be nominated at full passage rates, viz., $61.92 each, or at the rate ruling at time of application.

Assisted Immigrants.—The Agent-General may grant assisted passages to immigrants approved by him, who deposit with him the sum of $4.80, in addition to the prescribed fee, the said deposit of $4.80 to be returned to them on their arrival in Queensland.

In the case of families applying under this section, one deposit only covers the whole family.

Nominated Immigrants.— Residents in Queensland wishing to obtain passages for their friends or relatives in the United Kingdom, or on the Continent of Europe, may do so at the rates mentioned above, provided that their nominees sail from London, or from any other port by a vessel charging steerage rates to Brisbane no higher than the present London to Brisbane steerage rate.

The application must be signed by the nominator, who must be of full age, and resident at least six months in the State. The Chief Secretary, however, has authority to waive this latter qualification in the case of newly-arrived immigrants nominating their families or dependents.

When the application has been approved by the Chief Secretary, a passage warrant will be given to the nominator for transmission to the nominee and presentation by him (or her) to the Agent-General, who, if satisfied as to the eligibility of the latter, and that all the conditions of this Order have been complied with, will provide the necessary passage.

A memorandum shall be printed on the warrant stating that it must be surrendered to the Agent-General before a passage can be obtained.

The Agent-General will refuse to provide a passage for any person named in the warrant if he finds that such person is not eligible to be nominated under the provisions of this Order, or that the description in the application is incorrect in any material particular, or that the nominee is otherwise undesirable.

Contract Immigrants.— Free passages may be granted from the United Kingdom to any part of Queensland to agricultural labourers introduced under contract if the employer pays a fee of $33.60 for each labourer introduced, and guarantees him a year’s employment at wages and under conditions approved by the Chief Secretary. The choosing of such labourers to be left to the Agent-General, unless they are known to the applicant, in which case the Agent-General’s duty is restricted to passing or rejecting them.

. The Chief Secretary may direct that a passage warrant be not issued in respect to any person nominated or proposed to be indented.

_ The Government will not be responsible for the loss of any immigrant’s luggage or other effects unless satisfactory proof is given that such property was duly entrusted by the owner to the Immigration Agent or one of his sub-agents.

Priority will be granted to (a) nominated over assisted immigrants ; (b) farm labourers and female domestic servants over all other immigrants; (c) married men over single men; and (d) immigrants for country places over those for towns.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.—Assisted Immigrants.—The Government grants assistance towards the passages of agricultural or other rural workers with their families, domestic helpers, and persons whose introduction into the State will not cause congestion in any occupation or trade, provided they are healthy, sober, industrious, and of good moral character, at the following rates, third class:—Males, $33-6o; females, $19.20; children under 12 years, $9.60; selected domestic helpers, $14.40.

Nominated Immigrants.—Any natural born or naturalised British subject, resident in South Australia or temporarily resident in the United Kingdom, may nominate for assisted passages persons who are closely related to him, who are agricultural or other rural workers and their families, or whose introduction into the State will not cause congestion in any occupation or trade. The rates are the same as for assisted immigrants (see above).

The age limit for immigrants to South Australia is the same as in Queensland.

In the case of nominated immigrants, the nominator or the nominee may pay the fare.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—Assisted Passages.—The Government of Western Australia offers assisted passages to farmers, farm labourers, vignerons, orchardists, market gardeners, female domestic servants, and to others of good health and character who have not previously resided in the State, and whose applications are approved by the Agent-General for Western Australia, at the following rates:—

All male immigrants ..    $28.80

All female ,,    ..    14.40

Children under 12 years ..    7.20

Third Class

Berth in 6 or 8-Berth Cabin.

Berth in 4-Berth Cabin.




Berth in 2-Berth Cabin.




In addition to the passage money, each assisted passenger (except domestic servants) will be required to deposit $14.40 with the Agent-General as landing money. Heads of families must deposit $14.40 for each member (except domestics) travelling with them. Such deposits are refundable on arrival in Western Australia.

Nominated Passages.—Persons resident in Western Australia who are natural born or naturalised British subjects may nominate their friends and relatives (who must be approved by the Minister in Perth and the Agent-General in London, in the United Kingdom or Europe), for passages at the same rates as those set out above for assisted immigrants.

Nominated immigrants must be of good health and character, and agree to submit themselves for medical examination on arrival, if so directed by the Minister.    .

A deposit of $2.40 is required with each nomination. The age limit for all assisted and nominated immigrants is for males and married women 45 years, for single women 35 years.

Part Refunded Passages.—Approved persons emigrating to Western Australia from countries other than the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand may obtain a refund of half the cost of passage money up to $28.80 per adult (children half rate), provided that within twelve months after arrival they take up land from the Government and settle thereon. This rebate is only obtainable when the applicant has been settled upon his land for such period as the Minister may decide, and is subject to proof of bona fides and progress being submitted. In order to take advantage of this concession it is necessary for the applicant to notify his intention of applying for it before emigrating to Western Australia.

TASMANIA.—Persons resident in Tasmania may nominate relatives resident in Great Britain for an assisted passage to Tasmania at the following terms:—The Government will contribute towards the fares of males $28.80; females, $43.20; children under 12 years, $21.60. These amounts must be deposited by the nominator.

If for any reason the fare costs more than $67.20 (third-class open berth), the usual amount charged by the shipping company, the nominator must pay the balance.

Nominees must be of good health and character, and approved by the Agent-General for Tasmania in London. The age limit is the same as in Queensland.

Passengers’ personal effects, that is, all wearing apparel and all articles of personal adornment or use bona fide the property of the passenger and not for sale, are exempt from CUSTOMS. Customs duty. Bicycles, saddles, firearms, fishing tackle, etc., for personal use are also admitted

free of duty.

Settlers’ furniture and household effects are admitted duty free to the extent of $240.00 worth per adult passenger, calculated on the second-hand value of the articles. Under this heading is included all articles ordinarily used in the household, such as boots, pictures, pianos, and other musical instruments, and domestic utensils of all kinds, provided such household goods have been in actual use by the passenger for at least one year prior to shipment.

If goods coming within the above class reach Australia within three months of the arrival of their owner or of his family, they are admitted free of duty.

In calculating the second-hand value of the goods on the basis of $240.00 free per adult, two children are reckoned as one adult.

NEW SOUTH WALES.—Vessels conveying immigrants to New South Wales are met upon arrival by officers of the Immigration and Tourist Bureau, who advise the immigrants RECEPTION where comfortable accommodation may be se-ON ARRIVAL. cured, according to the wishes and means of the newcomers, pending their departure for the country districts. No free lodgings are provided by the Bureau. Accredited baggage agents, who convey luggage from the ship to their store, or any part of Sydney and suburbs, at a low rate, are also in attendance. Assistance is rendered to immigrants in passing baggage through the Customs. Special care is taken of female domestics who have received assisted passages, and an officer conducts them to the Bureau. Nominated immigrants will receive the same attention if their friends are not present to meet them on arrival.

VICTORIA.—Immigrants, on arrival at Melbourne, are met by officers of the Immigration and Labour Bureau, and new arrivals are strongly advised to interview them before leaving the vessel. They are accompanied by accredited baggage agents, who will carefully and cheaply convey luggage to its ultimate destination at contract rates. Every assistance is rendered to new arrivals in passing baggage through the Customs.. Females travelling alone and domestic servants are met by the Matron of the Bureau, and the latter are dealt with under the supervision of an Advisory Board. No free accommodation is provided, but the Government has a large hostel at Richmond where immigrants may put up at reasonable rates whilst arranging to take up land or proceed to employment; the Bureau officers will also supply addresses where respectable lodgings may be obtained at reasonable rates. Lads and youths coming to the State are kept in close touch with the Immigration Bureau until they are well established in their new homes. Nominated passengers and those who have come to the State on their own volition are entitled to the same consideration as assisted immigrants.

QUEENSLAND.—Government immigrants, on arrival in Brisbane, are met by an officer of the Immigration Department, and taken to the Immigration Depot at Kangaroo Point, Brisbane, where they are comfortably housed for a few days, to enable them to get into touch with meir new surroundings.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.—All steamers coming to the Outer Harbour are boarded by an officer of the Intelligence and Tourist Bureau, who distributes pamphlets descriptive of the State and its productions and manufactures. Full information is given to inquirers and persons are invited to inspect the large display of South Australia’s products and manufactures in the Tourist Bureau kiosk at the Harbour. Full particulars with respect to rail and tramway rates and timetables are given, and arrangements made for motors to take visitors to the hills or other places if desired, applicants paying the charges.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—The Government has established a home for the reception of immigrants for the purpose of housing them for a limited period at the lowest possible cost.

On arrival at Fremantle, the immigrants will be met by an officer from the Immigration Department, who boards incoming steamers before they reach the wharf, and is then able to make himself acquainted with the needs of the passengers. This officer will assist in every way in connection with their luggage, business, accommodation, etc. The immigrants will be conducted to the Immigration Home, at which institution they are allowed three days’ board and residence free, and are allowed to remain seven days afterwards at a very moderate charge. Nominated immigrants are not admitted to the Immigrants’ Home. Those persons desiring land are then handed over to the Information Branch of the Lands Department, where they are advised as to the best places to go to, and where land can be obtained. Those requiring work are passed over to the Labour Bureau, where they are put on its list, and work found as soon as possible.

TASMANIA.— Anyone contemplating emigration to Tasmania should communicate with the Agent-General in London, and if he does not do that should, on arrival in Hobart, apply at the Immigration Office, Public Buildings. There is a Labour Bureau in Hobart, and the officials there will afford every possible guidance and information as to where work may be obtained. Female domestics may communicate with the Young Women’s Christian Association, 127 Bathurst-street, Hobart.

NEW SOUTH WALES.—Assisted immigrants are granted special railway concessions. Certificates are issued, entitling them to travel at reduced rates on the railways when RAILWAY    journeying from Sydney to their destination in

CONCESSIONS.    the country. As a further concession, they are

allowed to take with them a double quantity of luggage; and household goods and farming implements brought from their old home will be carried at reduced rates. Landseekers from overseas may secure a reduced fare enabling them to travel over the whole of the railway lines for a fortnight, at a cost of $16.80 second-class, and $25.20 first class.

VICTORIA.— Railway tickets are issued at half-rates over the State-owned railways to enable settlers to inspect available land, and if the land be taken up by the settler the cost is refunded. Free railway tickets are granted to a settler and wife and family when travelling to take up occupation of the land allotted to him, whilst his goods, chattels, and effects are carried at specially reduced rates.

QUEENSLAND. —All classes of immigrants from Great Britain and Europe, who decide to settle in Queensland, are granted a free second-class railway pass for themselves and families, also free carriage of luggage by rail, to any place in Queensland connected by rail, provided application is made for such privileges within fourteen days after their arrival in Queensland.

Any bona fide intending selector of an Agricultural Selection or a Selection under the Special Selections Act, wishing to inspect land previous to selecting, may apply to the Under Secretary for Public Lands for a certificate in respect of the railway journey to and from the railway station nearest to the land he wishes to inspect. On presentation of this certificate at the railway station at which the journey is to be commenced the usual railway ticket shall be obtainable at half the ordinary fare..

If the intending selector subsequently selects a selection of the tenure aforesaid, he will, on application to the Under Secretary for Public Lands, receive a refund of the half fare paid by him, and further certificates entitling him to the following concessions, viz.:— A free pass for the carriage by rail of the selector and his family to the railway station nearest to his selection.

A free pass for the carriage by rail of the selector’s ordinary household furniture and effects, with exception of pianofortes and other articles that are not indispensable, agricultural implements, seed, one dray, and one set of harness, to the railway station nearest to his selection.

A reduction of 25 per cent, on the ordinary classification rates for fencing and building material in respect of the carriage of any such material intended for use in improving the selection. This concession will apply also to live stock to a limited extent, and to such other articles as the Minister for Lands may consider it necessary for the selector to use in working his selection.

These concessions must be availed of within six months from the issue to the selector of a license to occupy the land.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. Farmers and farm labourers from abroad, on first going to settle on the land or to enter rural employment, are granted half-fares on the railways.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—On production of a certificate signed by the Under Secretary for Lands, certifying that the applicant is a bona fide selector, and has purchased land from the Government, the following concessions will apply:—

Goods and chattels of selectors who have purchased land from the Government, when first travelling to permanently settle on the land, will be conveyed from and to any station on the Government lines nearest to the selector’s holding at $4.80 per ton, minimum $28.80 and $57.60 for four and eight-wheeled truck respectively, owner’s risk.

Also a small four-wheeled and a large eight-wheeled truck of livestock will be conveyed for $24.00 and $48.00 respectively.

When convenient, selectors may load live stock and goods and chattels in the same truck, and in such case the truck rate will apply. When, however, one truck will not contain the whole and a second truck is necessary for either goods or live stock, the special rate of $4.80 per ton only will be charged for contents of second truck. Small consignments will be charged at the rate of $4.80 per ton, with a minimum charge as for 1 ton if less than the ordinary rate.

Such concessions are only granted within six months of date of approval of application.

The following fares will apply to selectors when first travelling to permanently settle on their land—from any station on Government lines to any station on Government lines nearest to selector’s holding:—

Selector, wife, and other members of the family—Half single fare.

Children above 5 and under 14 years of age—Quarter single fare.

Children not exceeding 5 years of age—Free.

NEW SOUTH WALES.—Immigrants with sufficient capital and experience^ who desire to procure land, are given every assistance and

ASSISTANCE IN PRO- *dXice- Their Jneed? *nd requirements are CURING LAND, AND furU>; ascertained, and they receive the benefit CONDITIONS OF    *ie knowledge and advice of officers of

SETTLEMENT. practical experience. Maps and plans, giving detailed information, are available for inspection. Particulars as to climatic conditions, nature of soil, class of timber, and the purposes for which the land is suitable are furnished. Information is also supplied as to the area which may be acquired, and the terms and conditions of occupancy or purchase of land either from the Crown or from private individuals. The newcomers are familiarised with the various classes of tenure under which they may acquire holdings from the Crown, and the Bureau also furnishes information of a practical nature regarding lands which are available in private subdivisions.

It is often found that newcomers are desirous of acquiring land which is either partially or wholly cleared and ready for early cultivation, so the Bureau keeps in close touch with the agents having country properties for sale or lease. The Bureau furnishes, without charge, practical advice as to the quality and situation of the land, and what it is best suited for, also the terms and conditions under which it may be acquired. Their experience and knowledge of the country districts enables the officers dealing with this matter to form a fair idea as to whether the prices set upon private lands are likely to be reasonable. Having examined the plans and perused the descriptions of the properties offered, the landseeker may make a personal inspection, and to enable him to do this easily and economically, he is, if an oversea immigrant, granted a fortnightly or monthly second-class railway ticket, available over all the lines of the State—3940 miles in length—for $21.60 and $32.00 respectively. The cost of a first-class ticket for the same periods is $25.20 and $48.00 respectively.

On arrival at his destination, the newcomer is put in touch with the Local Crown Land Agent or the agent for private lands.

The Bureau keeps a record of the large landowners who are ready to let their land to dairy and wheat farmers on the shares system, with the option of purchase later on. This system meets the needs of new arrivals, especially in cases where they have a large family, and who, though practical farmers, have not sufficient capital to immediately launch out upon their own account.

The land laws of New South Wales are very liberal, and they provide for the sale and lease of lands under various conditions.

The principal tenures provided for by the Crown Lands and Closer Settlement Acts of the State are:—

Homestead Farms.—A Homestead Farm is a lease in perpetuity, and for which, after five years from confirmation, a grant will issue, subject to conditions of residence and rent being fulfilled.

The available lands are notified weekly in the “ Government Gazette.” Rent is at the rate of 2^ per cent, of the capital value, and is payable half-yearly in advance. During the first five years, however, the rent will be waived on condition that the lessee expends during each year a sum equal to the annual rent upon fixed, permanent and substantial improvements. Such improvements are additional to any which may be required as a condition to the lease. A nominal survey fee is also payable, but if desired, may be spread over the first ten (10) years, with 4 per cent, interest added.

The conditions to be fulfilled are perpetual residence, payment of rent, survey fees, and of improvements not owned by the Crown, if any, on the land when selected.

Suburban Holdings.—A Suburban Holding is a lease in per petuity, and is subject to residence and payment of rent for all time. After five years, if the requirements have been fulfilled, a grant will be issued, subject to the conditions attached to the holding being complied with. The lands available are notified weekly in the “ Government Gazette.” Rent is payable half-yearly in advance, and is only 2per cent, of the capital value, including Crown improvements, with a minimum rent for any holding of $4.80 half-yearly. A nominal survey fee is also charged, which may, if desired, be paid in ten annual instalments, with 4 per cent, interest added. The conditions to be fulfilled are perpetual residence, payment of rent, survey fees, and of improvements not owned by the Crown that may be upon the land when taken up.

Crown Leases.—A Crown Lease has a term of forty-five years, and during the last five years the holder may convert so much thereof, not exceeding a home-maintenance area, into a Homestead Farm. Lands set apart as Crown Leases are notified weekly in the  Government Gazette.” Rent is at the rate of 1% Per cent, of the capital value, and is payable half-yearly in advance, with a minimum half-year’s rent of $4.80. A nominal survey fee attaches to each holding, which may be paid in full upon application, or in ten annual instalments with 4 per cent, interest added. The conditions are residence, payment of rent, survey fees and improvements other than Crown, if any, on the land when applied for.

Irrigation Farms.—An Irrigation Farm or Block is a lease in perpetuity, and is subject to perpetual residence, payment of rent and water rates, survey fee and value of improvements, if any, on the land when applied for. The rent is 2^/2 per cent, of the capital value notified in the “ Government Gazette” when setting the land apart, and is payable half-yearly in advance. The capital value is assessed for a period of twenty-five years, and for each subsequent twenty-year period the annual rental is 2^ per cent, of the capital value as separately determined by the Special Land Board, exclusive of improvements effected or owned by the lessee. The survey fee ranges from $14.40 for an area not exceeding 10 acres to $38.40 for an area of 320 acres. One-tenth part need only be lodged with the application, and the remainder in nine annual instalments, with interest at 4 per cent. The water rate charged is $1.20 per acre foot, and a fixed volume of water is guaranteed to every farm holder. Additional supplies of water may be arranged. A grant is issued to the lessee after the expiration of five years from the date of granting the farm or block, subject to all the conditions being fulfilled to the satisfaction of the Commissioner for Water Conservation and Irrigation. The leases are not generally transferable until after five years’ residence has been completed. The latest holder of an irrigation farm or block is granted tenant right in improvements other than Crown improvements.

Homestead Selection.—Only half a year’s rent and one tenth of the survey fee need be deposited with the application for such a holding, the balance of the survey fee being payable in instalments. The homestead selector must reside continuously on the land for five years, on the expiration of which a grant will be issued to him. After the issue of the grant he must continue to reside on the holding for at least seven months in each year. The annual rent for the first six years will be an amount equal to 1% per cent, of the capital value of the land (i.e., $0.06 in the $4.80), after which the rent will be increased to 2^/2 per cent, of the capital value. Areas up to 1280 acres may be held under this tenure, and the Act provides for the appraisement of the capital value and readjustment of the annual rent every fifteen years. Should an area granted under this tenure be found to be insufficient lor the maintenance of a home, it may, under certain circumstances, be increased. This provision also applies to settlement leases and conditional purchases.

Settlement Lease.—Areas up to 1,280 acres for agricultural purposes, and 10,240 acres for grazing, may be obtained as settlement leases. Such leases have a term of forty years, and provision is made for the reappraisement of the rent every fifteen years, since the introduction of the 1903 Act. A settlement lease cannot be granted to a minor. The area leased must be fenced within five years, and the lessee must reside continuously on his holding during the whole term of the lease. After five years’ residence the lessee may apply for a homestead grant of that part of the holding on which his dwelling-house is situated, but the area so applied for must not exceed 1280 acres.

Residential Conditional Purchase.—The intending conditional purchaser must, on application, pay the prescribed deposit, and a survey fee according to the fixed scale. The deposit is 5 per cent, of the price of the land as notified. At the end of the third year from date of application, an instalment of ninepence or one shilling per acre must be paid if the land is unclassified, and at the rate of ninepence for each pound of the price of the land. A similar instalment is due annually until the purchase money, with interest at 2^ per cent, on the outstanding balance due to the Crown, is paid off. The conditional purchaser will also be subject to conditions of fencing his holding within five years, and residing thereon for a period of ten years. He has the privilege of applying for a conditional lease of three times the area of his conditional purchase, and, having acquired such lease, he may, at his convenience, and on payment of the necessary deposit, convert the whole or any part of it into a conditional purchase. Further details in connection with this class of holding can be readily gathered from the Crown Lands Act and Regulations, and from the Departmental pamphlets on the subject.

Conditional Purchase Lease.—This tenure enables the intending settler, for a small initial outlay by way of deposit, for a moderate rent, and under easy conditions, to obtain a lease for forty years of land convertible at any time during that period into a conditional purchase. A deposit of half a year’s rent, and at least one-fifth of the survey fee, must be lodged with the application.

The annual rent for the first ten years is fixed at 2^2 per cent, of the capital value of the land, and should the applicant be dissatisfied with the amount, provision is made for reappraisement of the capital value at intervals of fifteen years during the term of the lease.

The conditional purchase lessee must within twelve months after confirmation of his application, begin to reside on his holding, and must reside thereon continuously for ten years; but, under certain conditions, beginning of residence may be deferred to any date within five years from such confirmation, and, with the permission of the Local Land Board, residence may be performed in any village or town in the immediate vicinity of the holding.

Closer Settlement Purchase.—The terms under which closer settlement farms are made available are very liberal. The preliminary deposit is 5yi per cent, of the notified value of the settlement purchase, and an instalment of a similar amount must be paid annually until the purchase money, with interest at 4per cent., is paid off. Under this scheme of payment the holding will become freehold in thirty-five years.

A condition of ten years’ residence attaches to every settlement purchase, and residence must be begun within twelve months from the date of the Land Board’s decision allowing the purchase. As in the case of a conditional purchase lease, the date of commencement of residence may be postponed by permission of the Land Board for any period not exceeding five years from the allowance of the purchase, and the residence condition may be fulfilled in any adjacent village or town.

VICTORIA.—Crown lands may be taken up under the following classes:—

Selections.—The clauses of the Land Act provide for selections at $4.80, $3.60, and $2.40 per acre for the freehold of areas up to 200, 320 and 640 acres of agricultural and grazing land (and in the case of Mallee lands in larger areas) according to classification as first, second and third class lands respectively. The annual rental charged is at the rate of $0.24 in $4.80 for a 20 years’ term, or $0.12 in $4.80 for a 40 years’ term, and the payments are credited towards the freehold, which may, if desired, be obtained after six years.

Mallee Lands.—As the result of scientific investigation and practical demonstration, it has been discovered by farmers, and much to their profit, that in a huge tract of mallee country in the northwest of Victoria the cultivation of wheat on an extensive scale can be undertaken at a minimum of cost. Portions of about 1,000,000 acres of this land will be made available from time to time in the near future, in areas ranging from 600 acres to 800 acres. The purchase money varies from $3.12 to $5.22 per acre, payable by halfyearly instalments over a period of 40 years at from $0.06 to $0,135 per acre per annum. A selection purchase lease is issued during the first six years, of which the selector must reside on the land and comply with improvement conditions varying from $2.40 to $4.80 per acre. He can then, by paying the balance of the purchase money, obtain the freehold of the land.

Under the Closer Settlement Acts special provision is now made for securing areas of improved or partially improved land for subdivision into farms of convenient size for land seekers, both from Australia and oversea.

Such areas are made fit for immediate occupation, and the settler has the advantage of existing good roads to cart his produce to rail or market; State schools and churches within easy reach, and on every side neighbours, so that any necessity for rough and wearisome pioneering and isolation is avoided.

Such areas are acquired by means of a Conditional Purchase Lease, providing for the payment of half-yearly instalments, equal to only 3 per cent, of the value of the land, and these instalments will, in addition to meeting the interest at the rate of 4l/i per cent., pay off the principal in 31years. Interest is charged only on

the balance of principal owing from time to time, and payments in advance may be made when convenient, a proportionate amount of interest thus being saved.

For instance, if a settler purchase a 25-acre block at $48.00 per acre, the payments will be as follow:—

25 acres at $48.00 per acre    ..    ..    ..    ..    $1200.00

Less deposit, being approximately 3 per cent, of the capital value ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    36.00

Balance of purchase money ..    .. $1164.00

On which the half-yearly instalment will be ..    $34.92

(Being 3 per cent, on $1164.00.)

If he purchase a 40-acre block at $48.00 per acre, his payments will be as under:—

40 acres at $48.00 per acre    ..    ..    ..    ..    $1920.00

Less deposit, being approximately 3 per cent, of the capital value ($2.40 extra is to even subsequent payments)    ..    ..    ..    ..    60.00

Balance of purchase money ..    .. $1860.00

On which the half-yearly instalment will be ..    $55.80

(Being 3 per cent, on $1860.00.)

The only other charge is $6.00 for registration and preparation of lease, and a small fee of $7.20 for the payment of the Crown grant when it is issued.

A person may acquire up to $1200.00 worth of any land resumed by the Government for Closer Settlement purposes.

Any individual—male of female—over eighteen years of age may apply for blocks up to this maximum.

Irrigated Lands.—Land in the irrigated areas may be purchased at from $38.40 to $72.00 per acre. This is its unirrigated value, and at these prices the Government offers it to settlers.

Advances.—On the irrigated areas the Government builds comfortable homes, and grades and seeds part of the area to lucerne, and, in addition, makes advances to the lessees up to 60 per cent, of the value of any permanent improvements effected by them.

In addition to the above assistance, advice is given to all settlers as to stock, preparation of land and other phases of farming.

On the dry areas the practice is to advance 60 per cent, of the value of the improvements effected by the settler.

In this way, any lessee may obtain up to $2400.00 as an advance on improvements.

Settlers are only required to make such improvements as would necessarily have to be made to profitably work his holding, and while during the first year they are required to make improvements, including fencing, of the value of 6 per cent, of the purchase money, they need only to increase this to an equivalent of 10 per cent, by the end of the third year, and a further 10 per cent, by the end of the sixth year. It is found in practice, however, that a settler is anxious to hurry on his improvements at a much greater rate than that required.

During the first six years, the settler cannot transfer, mortgage, or sub-let his property, but, on the other hand, he may sell his interest in his improvements to a bona-fide applicant and relinquish his lease. After this period, however, he may transfer to an eligible applicant, mortgage, or sub-let.

Residence.—The lessee is to reside on his allotment for eight months in each year, but such residence can be fulfilled by a member of his family over eighteen years of age, or any person approved by the Governor-in-Council. The Crown Grant, when issued, will contain this condition.

Farm Workers’ Blocks.—The maximum value of the land which can be held under this heading is $1680.00, and these allotments are made available on large estates, with the object of not only providing workmen for the farmer, but also providing an allotment that the lessee may work in his spare time on his own behalf, and be assisted by the members of his family.

Workmen’s Home Allotments of y8-acre, of town or suburban land, or 50 acres of rural land, may be acquired on easy terms and conditions of payment extending over 31 years.

The terms of purchase are the same as for the larger areas.

Assistance given under the Closer Settlements Acts to a Settler who wishes to buy a Farm Privately.—Any person resident in Victoria may enter into a provisional agreement with an owner of land not exceeding $12,000.00 in value, with a view to its purchase. This agreement, with full details of the property, must be submitted to the Secretary to the Lands Purchase and Management Board, accompanied by a valuation fee of $19.20. An inspection and valuation of the property will then be made. Should the Board acquire the land for the applicant, the purchaser must deposit an amount not exceeding 12 per centum of the value of the land, which will be disposed of under Closer Settlement conditions.

QUEENSLAND.—For the purpose of assisting the new settler in procuring land, the Queensland Government has instituted a Land Settlement Inquiry Office, which periodically issues a Directory showing the Crown land open or about to be thrown open for selection. This office gives him, orally, or by letter, all information regarding the Crown land open for selection.

The general terms and conditions of Crown land selection in Queensland are:—

Agricultural Farms, under which mode land suitable for dairying and general farming may be acquired in areas up to 2560 acres. The purchasing price ranges from $2.40 per acre upwards. The term is twenty years, and the annual rent one-fortieth of the purchasing price. No interest is charged, and all payments of rent are credited as part of the price. Within five years the selector must fence the land or effect improvements equal to the value of a fence. After five years the freehold may be obtained by the payment of the balance of the purchase money, but until the deed of grant is obtained the land must be continuously occupied by the selector residing personally on it, or by his manager or agent doing so. Those who undertake to personally reside for the first five years have priority.

Perpetual Lease Selections.—Land open as agricultural farms may also be opened for perpetual lease selection, and the latter mode may be conceded priority of application over the former. The rent for the first period of ten years is per cent, of the price of the land for agricultural farm selection, and the conditions of residence are the same as on an agricultural farm.

Agricultural Homesteads.—Land open for selection as agricultural farms is not available for agricultural homesteads unless so specially notified. The area allowed to be selected as an agricultural homestead cannot exceed 320 acres. The price for an agricultural homestead is $0.60 an acre, the annual rent $0.06 an acre, and the term ten years.

The land must be continuously occupied by the selector residing personally thereon.

Within five years from the issue of the license to occupy, or such extended time as the Land Court may allow, the selector must enclose the land with a good and substantial fence or make substantial improvements on it of a value equal to the cost of such a fence. On the completion of the improvements the selector becomes entitled to a lease, which, however, is not negotiable in any way.

At any time after five years from the commencement of the term, on the selector proving that the conditions have been duly performed, he may pay up the remaining rents so as to make his total payments equal to $0.60 an acre, and obtain a deed of grant of the land in fee-simple. A deed fee must be paid.

Free Homesteads.-—Land is not available for free homestead selection unless specially so notified, and the area of a selection must not exceed 160 acres. The term is five years, and throughout it the selector must personally reside on the land, and must enclose the land with a good and substantial fence or make substantial improvements on it of a value equal to the cost of such a fence. A free homestead cannot be sold or mortgaged until a deed of grant is obtained.

Group Selection.—Under the group system land may be set apart for any body of settlers who, having some measure of common interest or capacity for mutual help, are desirous of acquiring land in the same locality. The procedure to be followed is for a request to be made to the Minister by the members of the body, explaining the grounds on which they are co-operating and setting out the land they desire to acquire. Should the request be acceded to, the land will be opened for selection in the usual way, but for a period to be set out in the notification it will only be available for the members of the body of settlers for whom it has been set apart.

Grazing Selections.—The greatest area which may be applied for or held as a grazing homestead or a grazing farm under any circumstances is 60,000 acres, but, as in the case of other modes of selection, each notification opening land for grazing selection declares the maximum area which may be selected in the area to which it applies. In the event of lands open under different notifications, and of a total area exceeding 20,000 acres being applied for by the same person, a rental limitation of $g6o.oo per annum 1111st be observed as well as the maximum areas declared by the several notifications. Thus, of lands open at $0.04 an acre, the greatest area obtainable would be 24,000 acres; at $0.03 an acre, 32,000 acres, and so on. The term may be any number of years not exceeding twenty-eight, as the opening notification may declare. The annual ient for the first period of seven years shall be notified or tendered. The rent for each subsequent period will be determined by the Land Court.

During the first five years of the term of a grazing homestead the condition of personal residence applies, and prior to the expiration of such period, or the earlier death of the lessee, a grazing homestead is not capable of being assigned or transferred. Unless with the special permission of the Minister, a grazing homestead may not be mortgaged during such period of five years.

A grazing selection must be continuously occupied during the whole term of the lease by the selector residing on it personally or by bailiff.

Within three years from the issue of the license to occupy, or such extended time as the Land Court may allow, the selector must enclose the land with a good and substantial fence, and must keep it so fenced during the whole of the term. In the case of two or more contiguous farms, not exceeding in the aggregate 20,000 acres, the Commissioner may by special license permit the selectors to fence only the outside boundaries of the whole area. If the notification declaring the land open for selection so declares, the enclosing fence must be of such a character as to prevent the passage of rabbits.

When a grazing farm is enclosed in the manner required, the selector becomes entitled to a lease of it, and may thereafter mortgage it; or, with the permission of the Minister, may subdivide or transfer or sublet it.

Prickly Pear Selections.—The area of a prickly pear selection must not exceed 2560 acres. The term of lease is twenty-five years, divided into two periods, the respective lengths of which are declared by the notification opening the land for selection. During the first period the lease is subject to a peppercorn rent, and the prickly pear on the selection must during that period be eradicated in not less than equal proportions each half-year. The notified purchasing price must be paid in equal annual instalments during the second period. The land from which the prickly pear has been eradicated must be maintained clear till the end of the term of lease. The respective periods may be shortened at the option of the selector by accelerated eradication of the prickly pear or payment of the purchasing price of the land, but two years must elapse after the eradication has been completed before a deed of grant can be obtained. In the case of selections subject to the condition of personal residence a deed of grant cannot, under any circumstances, be obtained until five years of the term have elapsed.

In the case of very badly infested land the opening notification, instead of declaring a purchasing price to be paid by the selector, may offer a bonus to be paid to him in equal instalments as the eradication is effected, and two years after the eradication is completed, provided the land has been maintained clear, the selector will be entitled to receive a deed of grant without any payment except the deed fees.

No condition of improvement, other than the eradication of the prickly pear, is attached to prickly pear selections, and the selector is only required to reside if his selection is obtained under the group system or if he secured priority by offering that the condition of personal residence should apply. The liability to reside ceases after five years.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.—Applicants for land are furnished with details of localities, quality, and prices of land available for selection.

Government land may be obtained under agreement to purchase or on perpetual lease. The holder of land under agreement with covenant to purchase is not required to pay any interest for the first four years of the term of the agreement, which will be for thirty-six years. During the fifth and sixth years interest at 2 per cent, per annum on the purchase money fixed will be payable, and from the commencement of the seventh year the purchase money and interest (at 4 per cent, per annum) will be payable by sixty halfyearly instalments at the rate of $’13.54 for every $480.00 of the purchase money. The holder of land under agreement has the right to complete purchase at any time after the expiration of six years of the term, provided he has complied with all the covenants of the agreement, and has expended a sum equal to $1.20 per acre in effecting improvements on the block to the satisfaction of the Commissioner.

Under the same Act the rent under perpetual lease is fixed at 4 per cent, per annum on the value placed on the land by the Board. The lessee, however, is not called upon to pay any rent for the first four years of the lease. During the fifth and sixth years he will pay 2 per cent, interest on the purchase value of the block, and from the beginning of the seventh year the full annual rent, at the rate of 4 per cent, on the purchase value, will be payable.

Closer settlement lands are allotted under agreement to purchase only. The term of the agreement is thirty-five years, during the first five of which purchasers are required to pay interest only at the rate of 4 per cent, per annum on the purchase money, after which purchase money and interest is payable in sixty half-yearly instalments at the rate of $13.54 for every $480.00 of purchase money. The purchaser can hold these lands up to the unimproved value of $19,200.00 if suitable for agriculture or for agricultural and grazing purposes combined, or up to the value of $24,000.00 if the land is suitable for pastoral purposes only.

Homestead Blocks.—Lands for working men are offered in blocks not exceeding $480.00 unimproved value. The lessee or a member of his family must reside on the land for at least 9 months each year. These lands are offered on agreement to purchase or perpetual lease.

Reclaimed and Irrigation Lands are let on perpetual lease only. The rent and water rate are payable as follows:—1st year, one quarter of the annual rent; 2nd year, one-half; for the 3rd year, three-quarters, and for the 4th year the full amount is payable.

The rent is about $0.08 per acre in perpetuity. After that date the water rate will be required to cover the actual cost of supplying, plus interest on irrigation works at about 4 per cent., with 1 per cent, added for sinking fund. It is estimated that the amount of the future water rates will not exceed $9.60 per annum, and possibly not more than the present full rate, viz., $7.20.

The area of irrigation blocks ranges from 10 to 50 acres, and in addition, a block of high land, each about 100 acres, is allotted with each irrigation block.

The work of irrigation and reclamation is being vigorously proceeded with.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—Those new arrivals who desire to take up land for the purpose of settlement are sent to the Information Branch of the Department of Lands and Surveys, where the officers ascertain what particular branch of farming they require to go in for. They are then advised as to the locality to go to, what land is available, price per acre, &c. In many cases of survey before selection, the Agricultural Bank fixes the advances which will be made on the blocks. They can then make application for any block that is avail-■able. By means of the money advanced by the Agricultural Bank, 'they are enabled to make a start on very small capital.

The conditions under which Crown lands in Western Australia may be acquired for settlement are:—

Free Homestead Farmoi from io to 160 acres for $4.80, application fee and survey fees amounting to a maximum of $38.64, making the total cost of a 160-acre block $43.44. The conditions of the fret grant entail personal residence for 6 months in each year during the first 5 years and the making of improvements in the shape of clearing, fencing, and cultivation to the value of $3.36 per acre within seven years. Boundaries to be fenced, half within five years and the whole within seven years. Half value of fencing may be allowed towards improvements.

Conditional Purchase Lands.—From 100 acres to 1000 acres at from $2 40 upwards per acre, payable in 40 hall-yearly instalments. Conditions : Personal residence for six months in each of the first five years, one-half of boundaries to be fenced within five years, the whole within 10 years, and improvements to the full value of purchase money to be made within 10 years at the rate of one-fifth every two years. Half the value of boundary fence may be allowed in estimating value of improvements. Conditional purchase lands may also be selected without the condition of residence if the applicant holds land under residential conditions in the vicinity, in which case a sum equal to one and one-half the amount of the purchase money must be expended per acre in improvements.

Conditional Purchase by Direct Payment.—From 100 to 1000 acres • at from $2.40 per acre, payable within twelve months. Improvements to the value of $2.40 per acre required; to be fenced within three years. Improvements to be effected within seven years.

Land for Orchards, Vineyards, or Gardens, from 5 to 50 acres, from $4.80 per acre, payable in three years. Improvements: One tenth cultivated as a garden or orchard, including fence on boundaries, to be completed in three years.

The Minister may, in his discretion, permit any lessee to substitute in lieu of fencing any other prescribed improvement of equal value.

NEW SOUTH WALES.—Large areas of Crown lands are available for selection in places, and farms may still be obtained under easy PARTICUIARS AS TO conditions, though most of the land of the


best quality and nearest to the railway has been selected. Pioneering work would have to be done on those Crown lands now available before a farm could be evolved; but these disabilities were just as apparent to a great many of our present-day farmers when years ago they drove their pigs in the primeval forest through which men had scarcely trod, much less built roads or laid rails.

In the North Coast portion of the Eastern Division, where 98 per cent, of the 4,000,000 occupied acres are given over to pastoral and dairying pursuits, there still remains 1,195,580 acres of Crown lands, and large areas of this, particularly among the head waters of the coastal rivers, will, as facilities for transport increase, come under occupation as mixed farms, with dairying predominating. In the South Coast, though nearly 3,000,000 acres of Crown lands are unsettled, it is largely inaccessible country.

On the Tablelands, which occupy nearly 26,000,000 acres of the Eastern Division, over 5,000,000 acres still remain in the possession of the Crown, and though for the most part inaccessible country, areas large enough for farms are frequently found by the more adventurous settler.

The Western Slopes, Western Plains, and Riverina Districts, embracing part of the Eastern and the whole of the Central Division, with its enormous capabilities for producing wheat and wool, have still

9,000,000 acres of unsettled land, and particularly in this belt, as the pastoral leases expire, large areas become available for settlement.

Special areas that a few years ago were thought useless on account of the thick scrub clothing them, have been cleared by the Government, and are now proved to be suitable for mixed farms, with wheat for grain and hay, and crossbred sheep for lamb and mutton as the main lines.

The Government turns a sympathetic ear to the demands of the small settler. The greater portion of Crown lands of good quality and near railways has been alienated or is under lease. Still, in many parts of the State areas of Crown land of good quality are obtainable on easy terms and conditions.

Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area.—The soils of the western plains of New South Wales are noted for their fertility, but in consequence of the variable and sometimes inadequate rainfall, agriculture without ample provision for water in the drier months is uncertain. With the object of using some of these areas to their utmost capacity, the question of storing the ample rainfall of the highlands for use on the plains during the summer months was conceived.. The first fruits of this policy is an immense scheme carried out by the Government of New South Wales for the irrigation of the fertile lands of the Murrumbidgee Valley. For the purposes of this scheme the Government resumed an area of about i}4 million acres of land, almost one-quarter of which will be irrigated, and the balance used as dry areas to be worked in conjunction with the irrigated farms. The magnitude of the scheme may be gauged when it is realised that the cost is in excess of $24,000,000.00. and the Burrinjuck Dam for the storage of the necessary water is one of the largest of its kind in the world. Exhaustive examination has been made of the whole of the land concerned, and the soils tested for their mechanical and chemical properties, and the best only have been selected to be dealt with under irrigation. This huge undertaking provides for over 7000 irrigation farms in areas of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 50 acres. Every conceivable crop of fruit, vegetable, or fodder may be grown to perfection on the Murrumbidgee area, and dairying, pig, ostrich, and poultry farming and tobacco growing are making great strides, and are assured of a bright future. Lucerne, the king of fodder plants, and other hay crops, grow luxuriously, and anticipating great progress in the dairying industry, the Government has erected a modern butter factory capable of dealing with the products of 10,000 cows. Bacon-curing and fruit-canning factories are to be built as the demands of the settlements require. Grape-growing for currants and table use is also being exploited thoroughly.

The Commissioner for Water Conservation and Irrigation is prepared to build cottages, or supply building materials. Assistance is also granted for the erection of milking sheds and barns, but such assistance is limited to $480.00 on a 2-acre farm, and to $1920.00 on a 50-acre farm. The Commissioner further renders help to the holder of irrigation blocks by ploughing and grading up to 10 acres on each farm, in addition to forming head ditches and supplying fencing posts. Repayments for this work are to be made within ten years, with interest at the rate of 5 per cent, added.

The capital required to take up and successfully work an irrigation farm has been estimated to range from $1440.00 to $2400.00.

Government Experiment Farms have been established on the area, and the services of experts are available to offer free advice to settlers in the various branches of agriculture.

All over the State in places where agricultural pursuits can be profitably carried on, farms in private subdivisions are available for purchase on easy terms. In most cases, a period extending over many years is allowed for repayment. With the area of ordinary Crown lands, the irrigation areas, the lands made available under the Closer Settlement Act, and the areas voluntarily released by the


large landholders, a man with a little capital will experience no difficulty in getting a start in New South Wales. Land that is suited to wheat-growing combined with grazing will fetch from $9.60 to $24.00 an acre, according to the quality of the soil and proximity of market, whilst land that is best adapted to dairying and maize-growing will bring from $19.20 up to $96.00 per acre. In most cases where high prices are asked, it will be found that the farms are well improved and ready for immediate profitable occupation.

VICTORIA.—The eight main agricultural, dairying, and fruitgrowing divisions are Metropolitan, Western, Central, Wimmera, Mallee, Northern, North-Eastern, and Eastern (Gippsland). Each of these has its own special characteristics in respect to climate, rainfall, production, markets, and transport.

Prices of Land.—It is somewhat difficult to fix average prices at which privately-owned lands may be purchased for agricultural purposes in any of the above districts. Land suitable for market garden-

ing, in the Brighton and Mordialloc districts, ranges from $96.00 to $240.00 per acre. Good fruit-growing land can be obtained in the Doncaster and Diamond Creek districts from $48.00 to $96.00 per acre. Land for dairying and mixed farming may be obtained, according to quality and-locality, from $14.40 to $144.00 per acre.

Western District.—The rainfall of the Cressy portion of this District is about 23 inches per annum; the land is practically clear of timber, easily cultivated and moderate in price, ranging from $24.00 to $33.60 per acre. Around Hamilton and Casterton the price of land varies from $38.40 to $72.00 per acre, and on the rich volcanic lands around Camperdown, Colac, and Warrnambool, from $57.60 to $192.00 per acre. Farms of great fertility in the Koroit and Tower Hill districts have been sold at higher prices. In the Cape Otway Forest district, partially cleared land ranges from $9.60 to $57.60 per acre.

The main lines of production, for which time and experience have shown the Wimmera district best adapted, are wheat-growing and sheep husbandry. The farms average 500 to 800 acres each, and sheepgrazing is combined with cultivation. Since the export of frozen lambs to Great Britain has assumed large proportions, Wimmera farmers have given great attention to lamb-raising for export.

In the Central, Northern, and North-Eastern districts there are extensive tracts of fair to excellent farming lauds, much of which is already settled. In Gippsland, where conditions are eminently favourable for dairying, sugar-beet, and maize-growing, there are large tracts of Crown lands to be opened up.

Under the Closer Settlement Act large estates in districts of good soil and rainfall are purchased for subdivision in farming areas at reasonable prices, on liberal terms, (See page 125.)    .

The Mallee, so called because of the thick scrub of this name, a dwarf Eucalypt, with which the most of it was originally covered, contains about 11,000,000 acres, in the north-west portion of the

State. It adjoins the Wimmera; but the soil is light in character, and the rainfall is much less—about 11 to 14 inches per annum. There are still large areas of the Mallee held by the Crown, and being opened for settlement. About 3,000,000 acres, known as the Mallee fringe, adjoining the Wimmera district, have been settled during the last 20 years, and it is one of the great wheat-producing districts of Victoria.

The Important Irrigation Districts of the State derive their water supply from the Murray and Goulburn Rivers in the north, and the Werribee River in the south.

The State has acquired and subdivided land, and offers it to settlers in the Merbein, Nyah, Swan Hill, Koondrook, and Cohuna districts, which divert water from the Murray River; and in the Shepparton, Tongala, and Rochester districts, which divert water from the Goulburn River; and in the Werribee district, which diverts water from the Wrerribee River.

In the northern part of the State the following towns are situated in or near to these irrigation areas :—Kyabram, Shepparton, Rochester, Bendigo, Kerang, Cohuna, Swan Hill, Echuca, &c., while in the southern part of the State the Werribee district is only 18 miles from Melbourne. Settlers in these areas will, therefore, have no difficulty in procuring all supplies that they need, or obtain all banking or trade facilities. There are good local markets for both live stock and produce, and in every district postal, school, church, and other facilities are provided.

Owing to the extreme mildness of the winter, a very wide range of products may be grown on land in the irrigated districts. Fruits of the temperate and semi-tropical varieties may be most successfully grown.. Two cultivated crops per annum may be raised, and five, six, or even more cuttings of alfalfa (lucerne) hay. For the latter product there is a fine market, although the greater proportion grown will be fed on the farms rather than sold as hay.

Throughout the irrigation areas creameries and butter factories are already established, and, in the near future, canneries for fruit and vegetables will follow. In dairying, the rule is for the farmers to sell their cream to the butter factories, keeping the skim milk to feed to pigs. The price for butter fat averages from $0.21 to $0.23 per lb. A settler on a 40 to 50 acre block, with 20 acres under alfalfa (lucerne), can feed a milking herd of 30 cows, and the returns for cream and from the skim milk should bring in a revenue of from $48.00 to $72.00 per cow per annum.

Settlers in Victorian irrigation districts need have no fear of water-right controversies. The State, which owns all water-supply systems, does not desire to make any profits, and intends to charge irrigators only enough to meet interest and maintenance expenses, and to provide a liquidation fund of 2 per cent. As this fund reduces the liabilities, the price pf water will be correspondingly reduced.

The produce raised under irrigation is most diversified in character. Sultanas average not less than 1 ton of dried fruits to the acre, which will return to the grower (at present rates) $129.60 per acre, after deducting all expenses. Crops of sultanas have yielded as much as 2 tons to the acre. Currants, as a rule, yield more than sultanas, reaching (in some cases) as high as 3 tons to the acre. Oranges and lemons have returned as many as 400 cases (one bushel each) to the acre, and a fair average return for these would be $1.44 a case. In one particular instance, i}4 acres of lemons produced fruit to the value of $1099.20. In the Rochester district, an acre of tomatoes provided a return of $528.00. A 40-acre holding in the Cohuna district, with an imperfect water supply, has yielded an average return for the past seven years of $4800.00 per annum ; the following are the fruits which are grown and marketed:—Almonds, apples, apricots, cherries, figs, grapes, lemons, mulberries, nectarines, olives, oranges, peaches, pears, plums, pomegranates, prunes, quinces, walnuts, and water melons. A 50-acre holding at Mildura last year produced 10,000 cases of oranges. Maize 16 ft. high has been grown at Cohuna, and estimated to yield nearly 50 English tons to the acre. On 21 acres planted with paspalum dilatatum 350 sheep were maintained from March until July; these were sold at a good figure, and the same area maintained 25 blood horses in good condition throughout the summer. One acre of potatoes returned $240.00, and a quarter of an acre of Canadian Wonder beans, $76.80.

7he Goulburn System (the largest of the Victorian irrigation systems) draws its supplies from the Goulburn River, which rises in the heart of the Australian Alps, where the rainfall exceeds 60 inches per annum. This supply, coupled with the melting of the winter snows, provides a permanent supply of water. In addition, as the parent stream flows onwards, it is supplemented by numerous perennial streams until it reaches Alexandra, where it is a fine broad river, clear as crystal, and teeming with fish. Hence, constantly being added to by other streams, it flows on to Wahring, the site of the Goulburn Weir.

At this point the Goulburn River has the largest and most uniform flow of any river in Victoria, its average annual discharge over a period of 20 years exceeding 2,000,000 acre feet.

The system is now nearing completion. Reservoirs have already been constructed with a capacity of 220,000 acre feet, and surveys have been made, and plans and estimates prepared of another reservoir, which will hold 1,000,000 acre feet of water. This stored water, together with the supplies which can always be drawn from the river, will make ample provision in the driest seasons for all settlers having water rights*

The configuration of the country is such that the whole of the main, subsidiary, and distributing channels are operated by means of gravitation only. Water can, therefore, be conveyed from the head waters to the settlers’ land at a minimum of cost, and it can be confidently stated that the charge made for water from this system may be classed as one of the lowest in the world.

The areas commanded by this system have an ideal climate for the practice of irrigation. The varieties of crops which may be grown are practically unlimited. Not only are markets available locally for all kinds of produce, but growing markets are being established for fresh, dried, and canned fruits of all kinds, pickles, and canned vegetables, in Asia and South Africa; to say nothing of those already existing in Europe and North America, where markets are assured owing to the reversal of the seasons.

The areas now available, and those to be made available in the immediate future in these irrigation districts, will not only provide ample land for settlement, but also lucrative employment for thousands of men, women, and youths of both sexes, in one of the best countries and climates in the world.

Practically all the rivers flowing northward from the main Dividing Range of Victoria have weirs constructed across them for the purpose of conserving water for domestic and stock supplies, and in many cases also for irrigation purposes.

Mildura Irrigation Settlement, in the far north-west of the Mallee, affords an illustration of what can be done with such land under irrigation, for which it is well adapted. On less than 10,000 acres of cultivated land a population of over 4,000 is maintained by the results of irrigated fruit culture. The gross returns per acre average from $96.00 to $144.00.

Irrigated lands are now open for settlement on terms indicated on page 126 in the Goulburn, Rochester, Cohuna, Nyah, Swan Hill, Werribee, and other districts.

The irrigated land now offered to settlers has been subdivided into blocks to suit the needs of men of both ample and small means-There are 2-acre blocks for homes for farm employees; 10-acre blocks for market gardeners; and 20 to 200 acre blocks for farmers.

Prepanition of Lund for Irrigation.—The State renders the following assistance to settlers in the grading of land:—

1.    It rents settlers grading tools at the nominal charge of $o.6o-

a day, thus saving the settler a large expenditure on these implements.

2.    It furnishes at a nominal cost contour plans showing the

direction of the slopes, thus enabling the settler to tell how his land should be graded.

3.    It grades from 5 to 20 acres on about one-third of the blocks

in advance of settlement, and adds the cost of this to the price of the land.

The settler, therefore, has the option of either doing his own work or of taking a block where a part of the work has already been done. During the past year the State has in this way graded about 3000 acres of land for settlers, the cost varying from $9.60 to $19.20 per acre.


'', V i-v. v.ri+i


.if: /



■J.y:    ^

The Gap, Killarney District—State of Queensland.

QUEENSLAND.— Throughout the vast tracts of virgin land, comprising the farming belts of Queensland, there are millions of acres awaiting settlement. Areas of excellent land are available in the Darling Downs, Lockyer, Stanley, Rosewood, Fassifern, Logan, Albert, Wide Bay, Burnett, and other districts of the south. In these localities dairy-farming flourishes, but the soil and climate are suitable for a wide range of mixed farming.

Along the eastern seaboard, as far north as Cairns, dairy farming is extending by leaps and bounds, and large areas are available for occupation on easy terms. In the Blackall Range, to the north of Brisbane, dairy-farming, mixed farming, and fruitgrowing are flourishing, but the areas at present occupied represent only a small proportion of the lands fitted for highly profitable use.

Considerable portions of the Northern Tablelands and parts of Central Queensland have been proved to be suitable for dairying as well as for mixed farming, wheat, wool, and meat production.

In the north, the Atherton Scrub, which comprises

marvellously rich lands, has been opened up for settlement, and dairyfarming is rapidly spreading therein.

The price of land varies, as indicated on pages 127-130, from $0.60 per acre upwards, repayable in easy instalments.

The Western Districts of Queensland comprise excellent pastoral lands, occupied, as a rule, in large areas for sheep, cattle and horses.

In recent years many portions of large- sheep runs, held on leasehold tenure, have been resumed by the Government and cut up into blocks of about 10,000 to 20,000 acres as grazing farms. Many newcomers have settled upon these holdings in Western Queensland, and are doing well.

The Land Settlement Inquiry Office, George-street, Brisbane, issues periodically a Directory giving a list of the Crown lands open or about to be thrown open for selection. This may also be obtained from the District Land Agents throughout the State and from the Agent-General.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.—-Vast areas of country in various districts are being surveyed by the Government, and thrown open to settlers. The Government also purchases large pastoral estates and subdivides them for closer settlement. In a State of such vast extent, the soil necessarily varies in quality and constituents. Already nearly 4,700,000 acres have been brought under successful cultivation for fruits, fodders, vegetables and cereals, and there are still millions of acres of virgin soil enjoying a fair rainfall, which, by the aid of artificial manures and the practice of dry farming, will ere long be brought into requisition, and help to swell the already substantial wheat yield.

Although some 795,000 acres of land were surveyed during the year 1912, it was insufficient to meet the demand, and further large areas are being made available with all possible speed.

In the course of the next three or four years about 5,000,000 acres of good agricultural land within the line of ample rainfall will be surveyed and offered for application.

In the Murray Valley large areas are being made available for settlement. These areas are either swamp lands along the Murray, which are reclaimed by means of levees, and can be irrigated by gravitation, or higher land, to which the water is raised by pumping, and are suitable for fruitgrowing, dairying, and stock-fattening

There are 38,866 square miles of pastoral land open for selection.

The price of agricultural land varies considerably according to locality, class of soil, and average rainfall. Good farming land, with a reliable rainfall, and improved, is in great demand at prices’ from $19.20 to $96.00 per acre, and occasionally higher. Crown lands, principally scrubby, from $0.60 to $9.60 per acre; land repurchased and allotted for closer settlement from about $14.40 to $24.00 per acre. The rentals vary for Crown lands from 2 per cent, to 4 per cent, on purchase money.

For garden land in gullies and hill slopes of the Mount Lofty Ranges, where there is a good rainfall, prices vary from $24.00 to $480.00 or more per acre.

Grazing or pastoral leases are at rentals from the Crown of from about $0.36 to $9.60 per square mile.

Dairying land for dairying purposes realises from $19.20 to $48.00 for good grazing country, while land on which lucerne could be grown under irrigation varies from $96.00 to $480.00 an acre, and

Fruit anti Vegetable Lands —State of South Australia.

with rentals at from $4.80 to $48.00 per acre. In some instances, as at the Reedbeds, rentals I    are as high as $72.00

" 'i mwH n 1 1' 1 "***''•* **    per acre. The prices

for good grazing land suitable for dairy cattle are much the same as those for agricultural


WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—There are millions of acres of unalienated lands in the State available for settlement. Most of this land can be obtained under the conditional purchase system, but in the localities in which the greatest amount of settlement is taking place, the land has been reserved, and is being surveyed into suitable blocks before being thrown open. These blocks vary from 200 acres in the extreme south-west to 1000 acres or so in the eastern districts. The price per acre is fixed on every block before the land

is thrown open, and also the amount that the Agricultural Bank is prepared to advance to the settler, consequently the settler knows exactly what the position is before he applies for the land. There is a large number of surveyors constantly at work in the field subdividing land for settlement all over the agricultural areas. As soon as any lands are ready due notification is given in the Governinen Gazette. A man following almost any branch of farming can readily obtain land suitable for his requirements. Full information will be given to landseekers on application to the Information Branch, Lands Department, Perth.

Estates are purchased from time to time, and after subdivision made available to settlers on reasonable terms.

TASMANIA.—Crown lands are classed in three divisions, and free selection before survey is the practice.

The upset price of first-class land is not less than $4.80 per acre, with one-third added for credit; second-class land is valued at prices between $2.40 and $4.80 an acre, with one-third added for credit; and third-class land is valued at prices between $1.20 and $2.40 per acre, with one-third added for credit. Fourteen years are allowed to pay off the purchase-money, in instalments, and if a settler desires to

pay up and secure his grant deed he may do so at any time, provided he has improved his selection to the extent of $4.80, $1.20, or $0.60 per acre, according to its class, and, in the case of first-class land, resided on it.

Though at first sight it would seem as if first-class agricultural land was obtainable at mere nominal rates, it must be pointed out that the good Crown land still available is, as a rule, far from social and educational conveniences. Still, persons with agricultural knowledge, a little means, and a growing family, settle down in an outlying district, and before 20 years have passed find themselves the owners of comfortable homesteads and farms, surrounded by substantial comforts and all the conveniences of rural life,—roads, schools, churches, stores, post and telegraph offices having come to them with the development of the neighbourhood.

The annual rental of cleared agricultural farms ranges from $1.92 to $4.80 per acre, and purchase price from $14.40 to $120.00 per acre, according to locality and improvements.

NEW SOUTH WALES.—The Government advances loans to settlers, to assist them in purchasing farms, or in improving and deADVANCES ON yel°P'nj? their holdings. The Government Sav


ings Bank Act contains provisions which authorise the granting of advances ranging from $240.00 to $9600.00 to settlers. The interest is 5 per cent., and the terms of repayment are easy, extending over 31 years. Advances are made upon the security of land purchased or leased from the Crown, and on lands purchased

from private owners, as assessed by the Bank. On freehold lands, advances are made up to two-thirds of the value of the land as assessed by the Bank, plus half the official value of the improvements, the value of the improvements being the increased sale value they give the security in the open market. On leases and conditional purchases, the amount advanced does not exceed one-half the official value of the improvements, and the amounts lent vary according to the nature of the holding.

The tenures upon which advances are made are:—

Estates of inheritance in fee-simple in any land in the State, conditional purchases with or without associated conditional leases, homestead grants, homestead selections, settlement leases, settlement purchases, conditional purchase leases.

Loans are made to pay off existing encumbrances on, or to purchase the land; to pay off the money owing to the Crown in respect of the land; to make improvements on the land; or to improve and develop the agricultural or pastoral resources of the land; or to build a home.

VICTORIA.—The Closer Settlement Acts provide for advances to settlers by the Lands Purchase and Management Board. These advances are allowed not only to closer settlement lessees, but also to licensees and lessees under certain sections of the Land Acts. The full amount which may be advanced cannot exceed 60 per cent, of the value of improvements effected by a lessee or licensee, and must not amount to a total exceeding $2400.00. In special cases this amount may be increased to a total of $4800.00 subsequent to the first six years. Twenty years is the maximum period over which repayments may be made, and the interest charged is 5 per cent, per annum.

The Government will also erect small houses for settlers, the cost of them being advanced, and being repayable by regular instalments extending over a period of twenty years..

The Government, to enable a settler to get his land into working order promptly and effectively, is prepared to grade and seed a small portion of his holding. Payment for this work is also spread over a long term of years.

As the proper carrying out of irrigation practices is new to many settlers, the Government provide free of cost experts to instruct and advise settlers how to prepare and plant the land and utilise it to the best advantage. One of these officers is stationed in each estate, and settlers have obtained in the past much benefit through these advisors, it being their duty in every way to assist those who take up land.

The Government will also purchase cows for a settler, their cost being, of course, charged against him, but the repayments are extended over such a period as will enable him to get sufficient returns from them to repay the amount of their purchase money.

Settlers from oversea are met on arrival at Melbourne by officers of the Immigration Bureau, who will advise them in all matters.

QUEENSLAND.—The Government Agricultural Rank makes advances to settlers up to $3840.00, repayable in twenty-five years at 5 per cent., for payment of existing liabilities on the holding, purchase of stock, machinery or implements, and any improvements necessary to develop the area.

Under the provisions of the Workers’ Dwellings Act the Government makes advances for the purposes of enabling persons of small incomes to erect dwelling houses as homes for themselves and their families. The applicant must show that his income does not exceed $960.00 per annum and that he is not the owner of a dwelling-house in Queensland or elsewhere. The amount borrowed is repayable at the rate of $3.18 per month per $480.00 for twenty years. The maximum amount that can be borrowed is $1440.00 at the rate of 75 per cent, of the security.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.—The State Bank makes advances to farmers, producers, and others to the extent of three-fifths (60 per cent.) of the value of land and improvements, and to the extent of half the selling value of Crown leases.

Advances are repayable by uniform instalments, which include principal and interest, for terms from 1 to 42 years.

These instalments entirely liquidate the loan, with interest at 4Yt per cent, per annum.

The instalments for the following terms are as under:—

For each $480.00.

5 years ..    ..    ..    ..    $54.14 half-yearly.

7 " .......... 40.34



2( 1





30.08 22 A 8





12.78 ,

and a proportionate instalment for all sums under $480.00.

The State Bank may also make advances to persons in receipt of less than $1440.00 per annum to enable them to provide homes for themselves. Advances, at 5 per cent, interest, are made to the extent of four-fifths of the valuation for the purpose of assisting borrowers to erect, enlarge, or purchase a dwelling-house for himself and family. Up to 42 years is allowed for repayment.

The Advances to Settlers’ Board also advance to holders of a lease of or an agreement to purchase Crown lands or irrigation and repurchased lands for the purpose of improving their holdings, purchasing stock or discharging existing mortgages. Loans to any one settler are not to exceed $4080.00. The first $1920.00 will be advanced on the fair estimated aggregate value of the settler’s lease or agreement and any improvements on or in course of erection on the land. Any loan beyond $1920.00 is not to exceed three-fourths of the fair value of the improvements already made.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—The Agricultural Bank makes advances from $120.00 to $9600.00 to farmers, at low rates of interest, for the purpose of improvements on the holding, and for purchasing breeding stock and farm implements.

Surveyed Crown lands are valued by the Bank’s Inspectors, and the amount of advance the Bank is prepared to make is allocated to each holding before selection. Loans are from $120.00 to $9600.00 may be obtained, according to the value of the security and work to be done or purchases to be effected with the money advanced. Each bond fide selector is thus guaranteed a certain amount of working capital.

The inexperienced selector or the new arrival, unaccustomed to local conditions, has the Bank’s classification to guide him. As the Bank backs its classification to the extent of an advance, it is not likely to be unduly optimistic.

The proceeds of the loan raised for improvement purposes are paid over in instalments as the work proceeds.

Under the Irrigation Acts the Department will carry out improvements, such as channelling, fencing, grading, and grubbing on payment in advance of 15 per cent, of estimated cost, and with provision for repayment of the balance on the same general lines as above.

With the liberal help afforded, it is possible for a capable worker to earn current rates of wages while developing his own property.

TASMANIA.— The State Agricultural Bank makes advances of from $120.00 to $4800.00 on agricultural areas for the payment of liabilities already existing on the holding; for making prescribed improvements or adding to existing improvements; and for purchase of stock and implements. Interest is at the rate of 6 per cent., and repayment may extend over 30 years, if desired.


NEW SOUTH WALES.—Employment is guaranteed to skilled agricultural labourers and domestic servants who have been granted assisted passages. In these callings the demand generally exceeds the supply, and, as a rule, the new arrivals are allotted places at once. In most cases they leave for their new places on the same day as they reach Sydney. The Immigration and Tourist Bureau in Sydney is in constant communication with pastoralists, farmers, and dairymen, and the exact state of the labour requirements in the several districts of the State is known.

Other immigrants are given every assistance, and are notified where employment is likely to be obtained. In the majority of cases where they have references in proof, they are treated similarly to assisted immigrants and suitable employment is generally found for them.

Current Rates of Wages.

It is customary to provide rations and lodging for farm and station hands.

Boundary riders, $4.80 to $6.00 per week.

Bullock drivers, $4.80 to $6.00 per week.

Country blacksmiths—

Station, $7.20 per week.

General (without rations), $12.96 to $15.36 per week.

Dairy hands, $4.80 to $6.00 per week.

Farm labourers, $4.80 to $6.00.

Harvest hands, $1.44 to $1.68 per day.

During harvest daily wages of from $1.44 to $2.40 per day are paid on many farms.

Horse-team drivers, $6.00 to $7.20 per week.

Married couples—Wife, cook, $384.00 to $480.00 per year.

—Husband, cook, $480.00 to $576.00 per year. Rouseabouts and shed hands, $3.60 to $4.80 per week.

Orchard hands, $4.80 to $6.00 per week.

Shearers (per 100 sheep), no rations, $5.76.

Stockmen, $249.60 to $312.00 per year.

Useful boys, $1.80 to $3.00 (age 15 to 18) per week. Vignerons, $249.60 to $264.00 per year.

General Servants (18 and upwards), $2.88 to $4.80 per week. Cook and Laundress, $4.80 to $6.00.

House and Parlour Maids, $3.36 to $4.20 per week.


VICTORIA.— The Victorian Immigration and Labour Bureau is in constant communication with the country districts, and has agents in every centre. Vacancies for farm hands are always waiting There is a good demand for skilled agricultural labourers in all parts of the State, and the wages vary according to the ability of the individual. It must be noted that the demand for hands for sheep stations is not so great as in the other States, the agricultural labourer being the type most required.

The current rates of wages are:—

Agricultural labour: per week and found—

Farm labourers, $3.60 to $7.20; average, $4.80.

Female general servants, $2.40 to $4.80.

Harvest hands (per day), average, $1.44 to $2.t6.

Market gardeners (average), $4.80.

Married couples, $6.00 to $9.60.

Milkmen for dairies, $3.60 to $6.00.

Orchard gardeners (average), $4.80.

Ploughmen, $3.60 to $8.40.

Vineyard hands (average), $4.80.

Shearers, per 100 sheep shorn (shearers finding themselves), from $5.76 upwards.

Labour on sheep and cattle stations (per week and found)—

Cooks (male), average, $5.40.

Female servants, $2.40 to $4.80.

Generally useful men, $4.80.

Married couples, $6.00 to $9.60.

Sheepwashers, $4.80.

QUEENSLAND.—Prior to the arrival of the boat in port notice is given in the local daily papers, so that matrons and others may arrange to be at the depot at an appointed time to engage domestics and other classes of labour.

Applications for labour are also received from many country centres and no difficulty is experienced in placing domestics or farm hands of any experience.

The Government Labour Bureau at Brisbane, together with its labour agencies throughout the State, affords every facility in finding employment for new arrivals. Lor the latter six months of the year, labour in connection with the sugar industry (both in mill and field) is in great demand throughout the coastal districts of Queensland.

Current rates of zvages.

Agricultural Labour—Per week with rations and lodging.

Butter makers (keeping themselves), $9.60 to $19.20.

Farm labourers, $4.80 to $6.00.

Milkers, $3.60 to $6.00.

Ploughmen, $6.00 to $7.20.

Reapers and Mowers. $8.40 to $9.60.

Threshers, $8.40 to $9.60.

Pastoral labour—

Station hands, such as stockmen, shepherds, drovers and hut-keepers (per week, with rations and lodging), $6.00 to $9.60 and upwards.

Married couples, home stations (per year with rations and lodging), $432.00 to $576.00.

Shearers, per 100 sheep shorn (without rations), average


Shed hands (per week with rations), $9.00.

Shed hands, boys (per week), $6.00 to $7.20.

Wages in the Central Districts.—In the inland districts, which are mainly pastoral, employment for mechanics is scarcer; wages are as follows:—

General labourers, $1.92 to $2.16 a day.

Female servants (including cooks),$2.88 to $6.00; and men on sheep and cattle stations, $6.00 to $9.60: ploughmen, $7.20 $8.40 per week and found, or with rations.

Shearers, per 100 sheep shorn, $5.76, without rations.

Married couples, on farms and stations, $432.00 to $576.00 per year and found, or with rations.

Wages in the North.—Wages in the North are higher than in the South, but the cost of living is greater, and the climate is hotter. Thus at Townsville and Charters Towers, and other Northern places, wages are as follows:—

Per week and found, or with rations—

General labourers, $2.16 to $2.40 a day.

Men on sheep and cattle stations, $6.00 to $9.60.

Men on sugar farms (48 hours a week), $11.52.

Ploughmen. $11.52.

Sugar-cane cutters, $8.40 to $9.60.

Shearers, per 100 of sheep shorn, $5.76, without rations. Married couples on farms (per year and found) and stations, $480.00 to $624.00.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.—Persons desiring employment; and those desiring men, may have their names recorded at the Government Labour Bureau, with particulars of occupations, class of labour required, etc. In this way employer and employed are brought together.

Current rates of wages with keep or ivith rations.

Farm labourers, $6.00 to $7.20 per week; average, $6.48. Harvest hands, $8.64 to $10.80; average, $ro.o8.

Ploughmen, $6.00 to $7.20.

Dairy hands, $6.00 to $7.20.

Station hands (teamsters, drovers, stockmen), $249.60 to $360.00 per annum; shearers, $5.28 to $5.76 per 100 sheep. Farm youths, $2.40 to $4.80 per week.

Married couples, $360.00 to $480.00 per annum, and keep.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—New arrivals requiring employment are taken by the Immigration Officers to the Labour Bureau, where lists are kept of people in the country requiring labour. Many of those who are used to farm work are found employment almost immediately. The names of others are kept on the list until vacancies occur, or are forwarded to various parts of the country where there is a demand for labour at the time being.

The most suitable class of work which offers for new arrivals in this State is mixed farming, sheep breeding, and orchard work, either by obtaining work on a farm as a farm labourer, or by taking up land under conditional purchase terms, which, with the easy terms given, and the facilities offered by loans from the Agricultural Bank, enables anyone if they have a small capital to pay their rent, and to subsist until the first payment from the Agricultural Bank becomes due, to take up land on their own account, and speedily to become independent settlers.

Current rates of wages.

Ploughmen, average $7.20 per week, with board and lodging.

Shearers, per 100 sheep shorn, $6.00 (without board).

Stockmen, average $7.20 per week, with board and lodging.

Farm hands, average $7.20 per week, with board and lodging.

Lads for farms, $2.40 to $4.32 per week and keep.

Farm servants (female), $2.40 to $3.60 per week, with board and lodging.

Orchard hands, $6.00 to $7.20.

TASMANIA.—There is a Government Immigration Office in Hobart; immigrants are advised as to where suitable employment can be obtained. The chief demand is for general farm hands and men accustomed to fruit-growing and dairying, and also domestic servants.

Current rates of wages.

Without board and lodging, per week—

Jam factory hands, $10.80 (adults).

With rations, or board and lodging, per week—

Farm labourers, $4.80.

Ploughmen, $4.80 to $7.20.

Station hands, $2.40 to $6.00.

Shearers, per 100 sheep shorn (average) , $4.80 to $6.00.

Throughout Australia there are so many different crops grown, and so many kinds of farming practised, that it is impossible to lay down any general rule as to the conditions of farm FARM WORK work. The Australian-born farmer is generally

IN AUSTRALIA. his own working foreman, and is able and willing to turn his hand to every kind of work from grubbing trees, erecting fencing, and doing all sorts of rough bush carpentry, to effecting repairs to complicated agricultural implements and machinery. The Australian-born farm hands are, as a rule, just as resourceful as their employers, and on very few farms are there to be found men engaged all the year round in the same routine of work as falls to the lot of ploughmen, for instance, on North British farms.

Up-to-date machinery enters largely into Australian farming operations, and especially in the case of wheat-growing. On such farms a single-furrow plough is the exception, and ploughboys are rarely, if ever, employed. The ploughman is expected to manage single-handed a team of from three to seven horses hauling a multiple-furrow or disc plough, which is generally provided with a seat. Men who are accustomed to horses are, therefore, preferred, and as the areas worked are generally large, and the success of cropping depends very much on seasonable execution, a farm hand who is prepared to adapt himself to the work and its special needs is treated with every consideration.

The same conditions prevail in the case of harvesting. On the majority of Australian wheat farms the methods of harvesting are entirely different from those of the mother country; strippers and stripper-harvesters are largely used, and for manipulation of these machines men who have some mechanical skill are always in request.

In some of the older districts where mixed farming is more generally practised, the newcomer will find himself more at home, especially on well-established farms where all the pioneering work has long since been done with, and diversity of cropping and operations provides purely agricultural work at all seasons.

In the dairying districts the work is very much the same as in the South of England. In some districts milking machines are coming into use, and when such is the case young men who have had experience on well-kept British dairy farms will find plenty of scope, as scrupulous cleanliness is an absolute necessity.

It is not the custom in Australia for farm hands to be engaged for any set term. On many farms there are permanent hands employed, and often in such cases where a man is married, he is provided with a cottage. Sometimes both man and wife are paid a yearly wage and allowed various privileges. Single men are generally engaged by the week, the average wage for competent men being $4.80 per week and keep. While there is no complete stoppage of work at any time during the year beyond that occasioned by wet weather, it is not always possible for farm hands, except in the more closely settled districts, to depend upon permanent agricultural employment. On most farms some permanent hands are kept, but in the outlying districts where wheat is extensively grown as the sole crop, the demand for labour fluctuates, just as it does in Great Britain or any other country. In Autumn large numbers of men are required for the planting of the

crop, and as soon as operations are finished the men are paid off. However, in many cases, there is no difficulty experienced in obtaining work at clearing, fencing, or other farm developmental work until the time of harvest in early summer, when high wages are paid. Some men prefer the break from ordinary farm work, as it enables them to earn more money during the winter than could be obtained on the farm.

Many men also engage in road-making or carrying during the off-season.

In Queensland the harvesting of the sugarcane commences between July and August, and finishes before Christmas, as a rule. Sometimes, when the crop is an exceptionally heavy one, the harvesting period extends into the new year. The minimum wage of cane-cutters and field-workers is $1.92 per day and found. Cane-cutters, working under contract, earn as much as $4.80 per day per man.

Some of the farm workers turn to shearing. But shearing is a business in itself, and a man could scarcely expect to be entrusted with the shearing of valuable sheep until he had acquired the skill that can come only from long training in the work.

In a climate where a heavy downpour of rain is the only cause of discomfort to any one sleeping out of doors, it is only natural that less attention is paid to farm homesteads than is the case in countries where provision has to be made for a rigorous winter. The newcomer to Australia need, therefore, have no misgivings if at the outset he finds himself in quarters less substantial than those to which he has been accustomed. He will find that it is extremely easy to get into the ways of the country, and that if he is ambitious to save he will be able

to have plenty of healthy and interesting recreation without drawing upon his savings. The country folk in Australia are very keen on sports, and cricket and football are played wherever a “side” can be mustered. There are no drastic game laws in Australia beyond those designed to protect certain birds at nesting time, and to save some

interesting and harmless indigenous animals from extinction. Most people in the country indulge in shooting. In many districts there is excellent fishing as well.

For the hard-working, steady farm worker, who aims at becoming an independent farmer, the farms in the more remote districts, where the only expenditure is on the few clothes and little luxuries like tobacco, offer him splendid chances. A thrifty and industrious man who gets $4.80 or $6.00 a week, with occasional additions for harvesting, etc., should, before the end of many years, have gained sufficient experience and have saved sufficient to make a very fair start on his own account. The practical experience such men acquire is one of their most important assets.

In many cases, to take a farm “ on the shares” (p. 39) for a year or two will prove the most profitable course for the labourer who has acquired Australian experience, and has saved a little capital which he wishes to supplement with a view to purchasing a farm of his own. In many parts the owners of large estates, which have been hitherto given over solely to sheep-raising, are recognising that greater profits are to be made from agriculture, and are cutting up their properties and making blocks available as “share farms.”

In Victoria, under the Closer Settlement Act the agricultural labourer is specially catered for. He can obtain an allotment of land on easy terms of purchase, and, with the financial assistance the Board is empowered to give him, he should soon become a farmer himself—only in a small way at first perhaps, but with the prospect of easily becoming the owner of a moderately-sized farm on which to spend the rest of his days.

Allotments for the agricultural labourer are provided on Closer Settlement estates, and, with a large number of farmers surrounding him, employment should be readily obtainable close to his holding.

The experienced agricultural labourer may rely on finding employment readily, there being a steady demand for reliable men. The proximity of market towns and railways to the various estates enables him to readily dispose of the produce grown on his allotment.

The State schools provide free education for his children, while scholarships and bursaries—open to every scholar—entitle such of them as may prove successful candidates to higher education in technical schools, colleges, and universities (see p. hi).

Now that the fencing of pastoral holdings is general except in a few isolated cases in Northern Australia, shepherds are no longer employed.

Employment on Sheep On sheep stations a great deal of employment and Cattle Stations, is afforded to both permanent and casual workers. The permanent employees are usually engaged in boundary riding, mustering, and other routine work of the station, while the casual hands are employed at fencing, ring-barking, scrubbing, destroying weeds, tank excavating and other work which may last a few weeks or run into several months at a stretch.

At the annual shearing, extra hands are usually taken on to help in the mustering, and about the sheds. The shearers as a rule are

regular hands from year to year. In some cases a fair number of teams are kept by the station owners for hauling the wool to the railroad or rivers, and this work provides for a fairly large number of 'nen, some of whom are engaged permanently throughout the year.

According to the recent award of the Commonwealth Arbitration and Conciliation Court, the following rates of wages were fixed for shed and station hands:—Shearers (adults), $5.76 per 100 for flock sheep, $7.20 per 100 for stud ewes, $11.52 per 100 for stud rams ; shed hands (adults), $9.00 per week and found; youths, 18 and under 21 years, $7.20 and found; youths under 18 years, $6.00 and found: cooks, $0.96 per week per man, with a minimum wage of $12 00 per week and found; wool pressers, $15.60 per week for piece-work (minimum), or $12.00 and found.

On some stations young men desirous of acquiring practical experience of sheep-breeding are received, but the openings in this respect are not sufficiently numerous to be regarded as of much importance to newcomers who have not personal introductions.

O11 cattle stations experienced horsemen are almost solely required. The work is principally boundary riding and general stock work. Men who have been accustomed to stock work in Great Britain would not find their previous experience of much service to them in station work, although there are always a limited number of openings for adaptable young men with special knowledge of the management of stud stock.


Information Concerning AUSTRALIA

may be obtained on application to—





Trade and Immigration Commissioner for New South Wales, 419 Market Street, San Francisco.

F. T. A. FRICKE, Esq.,

Land and Immigration Agent for Victoria,

687 Market Street, San Francisco.


The High Commissioner for


72 Victoria Street, Westminster.


The Secretary


Collins and Spring Streets, Melbourne.


Index to Contents

Advances to Settlers



Artesian Water ..

.. 94

Assisted passages—

New South Wales

.. 112

Victoria ..

.. 113

Queensland . .

.. 115

South Australia

.. 116

Western Australia

.. 117

Tasmania . .

.. 117

Bananas . . ..

.. 77

Barley .. ..

.. 47

Bee-farming ..

.. 75

Broom millet ..

.. 55

Building materials . .

.. 91

Capital required—

Dairy farming . .

.. 57

Mixed farming

.. 40

Wheat farming

.. 38

Cattle-breeding . .

.. 49

Clearing land . .

.. 88

Climate .. ..

.. 7

New South Wales

.. 10

Victoria ..

.. 12

Queensland . .

. . 15

South Australia

.. 17

Western Australia

.. 18

Tasmania . .

.. 21

Coconuts . . . .

.. 76


Sowing and harvesting seasons 24

Customs duties ..

.. 118

Dairying .. ..

.. 56

Butter Factories

59, 62-63

Capital required

.. 57

Dairying on shares

.. 62

Fodder . . ..


Herds .. ..


Shedding . .

.. 61

Departments of Agriculture

. . 109


Children ..

.. Ill

Technical ..

109, 112

Fencing materials ..

.. 91

Cost .. ..

.. 38

Fibres .. ..

.. 87

Fodder plants . .

. .

.. 23

Franchise .. ..

.. 110


Freights .. .. ..

.. 103

Fruit-growing .. ..


Under irrigation ..


Grasses .. .. ..

.. 23

Hay-making .. ..

.. 23

Hops .. .. ..

.. 74

Horse-breeding .. ..

.. 51

How to got to Australia ..

.. 112

Implements ana machinery, range of

prices .. ..

.. 95

Instruction in agriculture

.. 109

Justice, Courts of .. ..

.. Ill


Assistance in procuring ;


tions of settlement

.. 121

New South Wales ..

.. 121

Victoria .. ..

.. 125

Queensland .. ..

.. 127

South Australia ..

.. 131

Western Australia ..

.. 132

Tasmania .. ..

.. 145

Localities in which land is available—

New South Wales ..


Victoria .. ..


Queensland .. ..

.. 142

South Australia ..

.. 143

Western Australia . .

. . 144

Tasmania .. ..

.. 145

Laws .. .. ..

.. Ill

Lucerne .. .. ..

.. 54

Maize .. .. ..

.. 53

Markets .. .. ..

. . 96

Communication with world’s 100

Market gardening . . . .

.. 71

Mixed farming .. ..

. . 40

Returns .. ..


Northern Territory ..


Oats .. .. .. ..

. . 44

Old-age pensions .. ..

.. 110

Papua .. .. ..

.. 83

Pests and diseases . . ..

.. 107

Phvsical features .. ..

.. 5


Station work .. ..

PAGE .. 160

Steamship communication

.. 104

Sugar-cane .. .. ..

.. 84

Taxation ... .. ..

.. Ill

Tobacco .. .. ..

.. 74

Transportation of produce

.. 98

Tropical agriculture ..

.. 76

Vegetable-growing .. ..

.. 71

Vineyards .. .. ..

.. 70

Water supply .. ..

.. 93

Wheat .. .. ..

.. 25

Cultivation .. ..

.. 27

Harvesting .. ..

.. 27

Cost of production— New South Wales ..

.. 30

Victoria . . ..

.. 34

Queensland .. ..

.. 28

South Australia ..

.. 32

Western Australia ..

.. 36

Tasmania .. ..

.. 37

Work and wages—

New South Wales . .

.. 149

Victoria .. ..

.. 151

Queensland .. ..

. . 151

South Australia ..

.. 153

Western Australia ..

.. 154

Tasmania . . ..

. . 155

Conditions of farm work

.. 155

Pig-farming ..    ..    ..    ..    64

Pineapples ..    ..    ..    ..    77

Population ..    ..    ..    ..110

Posts, telegraphs, and telephones 106 Potato-growing    ..    ..    ..    51

Poultry-farming    ..    ..    ..    75

Prices of implements and machinery    95

Produce depots, State    . .    ..    97

Prosperity of the    people    ..    ..110


Now South Wales . .    ..    98

Victoria    ..    ..    ..    99

Queensland    ..    ..    ..    99

South Australia    . .    ..    100

Western Australia    ..    ..101

Tasmania    ..    ..    ..102

Railway concessions    . .    .    .    120

Freights    ..    ..    ..103

Rainfall    ..    ..    ..    ..    9

Range of farming . .    ..    ..    22

Reception of immigrants on arrival 118 Religious liberty    ..    ..    ..112

Roots    ..    ..    ..    ..    47


Dairy ..    ..    ..    ..    62


Sheep-farming    ..    ..    ..    45

Social conditions    ..    ..    ..110


Sorghum    ..    ..    ..    ..    59

By A uthority:

McCarron, Bird & Co., Melbourne, 479 Collins Street.

Ne. WEJT AUSTRALIA I. Lett Kim*arley l Hut KiiRMUty

3.    North-Mtat

4.    fiueoyne s. sontn-woet I. Eutia

7. E»t»m

ft*. RCW SOUTH WALES 77. Weelern    I

21. Aorih-Weet Plata M. ftarth-Wnl Hope an. Northor* T«M*(a«<

31. Nerth


». Central Tableland IS*. Metrapelltaa 34. Central Weetem Slope X. C«r trmJ Wtetarn Plata

1 Far Kerth m North-Weel 13. Weet II. Upper Month lit. North-Laet

13.    Lower Nertft

14.    Central

15.    Murray Valley II. S*utft-Eae!

41. ftert.-Laet 47. Central 43. North Central


Commonwealth MeteorologV

Revisad Averagi Annual Rainfall Map, Australia and Tasmania.

QUEENSLAND 17. Pentaetaa IS. Ml It Far Wen 20 Central 21. Nerth-Leot Oeakt 0. Cwlral Ceaet 2J South-Eaet Cooot

24.    Oarliei Down*

25.    Maranea M. leuth-Weet

44. Mai lee 4#. Wlraiuera 47. Weehra


41. Northern

« W. Coael Maunlata K«a«e«

N. f ut Coaat




20 te 30ms

508 te 7K2*.

30 to 40m

40 to 60ms


Over 60 ms


Tho tsohyrts art stow* by continaovi tuts for complata. tab dottad lion for ianmptat* data, and fats thmogh districts having ttaal rtitfail. and ara of a volar shown at tha axtrawitin of tack Una. Only stations wkost rtcords cooar t P triad of not lass than 16 yaars have boat toad in this compilation.



Ana Ire tian


By authority, McCarkgn, Bird & Co., Printers, Melbourne.



Information Concerning AUSTRALIA

may be obtained on application to—





Trade and Immigration Commissioner for New South Wales,

419 Market Street, San Francisco.

F. T. A. FRICKE, Esq.,

Land and Immigration Agent for Victoria,

687 Market Street, San Francisco.



72 Victoria Street, Westminster.


The Secretary


Collins and Spring Streets, Melbourne.