THE HOME NURSE
Home Nursing in all cases of Sickness, Childbirth, and Accidents
V. A. WAWN, M.P.S.A.
Discoverer of Wawn’s Wonder Wool and other Famous Remedies Publisher and Editor of The Home Doctor
V. A. WAWN, M.P.S.A.
283 ELIZABETH STREET, SYDNEY 1937
Set up, printed, and bound in Australia by Halstead Press Pty Limited, 9-19 Niekson Street. Sydney 19.17
The Home Nurse is written for the ordinary reader, and does not aim to give the detailed instruction which a professional nurse should have.
However, there is a definite need for a book such as this, for the frequency of accidents of all kinds and the need of taking care of the sick which arises in every home, requires that sufficient knowledge of nursing, or caring for the sick and injured, should be available, so as to enable the proper means of speedy relief to be promptly employed.
A book of this nature is invaluable and should be in the possession of every family. It will be found to contain extensive, and useful, information with general instruction on First Aid and the Care of the Sick.
It is to the interests of every person to understand and to know what to do in cases of emergency and the measures which should be employed for the preservation of health. To impart such practical knowledge is the object of this work. It is not suggested that this knowledge should supersede the services of a well-equipped and well-educated nurse, but it is intended that it should give instruction where the engagement of a nurse is not practicable.
The information in this book is not obscured by any effort to mystify the reader with high-sounding, scientific phrases. It is written so that everyone can understand it. Everything will be found in plain, easily comprehended language and condensed to convey the essential facts in the least ambiguous terms. It thus makes no demand for hard study but informs its readers of the outstanding symptoms of disease and permits them, if they have ordinary intelligence and common sense, to take such precautions as will enable them to safeguard the welfare of the patient.
The rationale of treatment in all cases is given in such a brief but thorough manner that everyone will be able to utilize the necessary measures intelligently and successfully in the quickest possible time.
The Home Nurse is complete in itself and also contains chapters on—Emergencies, First Aid, Advice to Expectant Mothers, The Care of Infants, Feminine Hygiene, the Value of Vitamins and Invalid Cookery.
With its companion book The Home Doctor (by the same author) it provides the means both for the recognition of different diseases and the knowledge of the means for the preservation of health, what to do in case of emergency and what remedies to employ for the alleviation of the common ailments of life.
The author hopes that the volume may find a welcome in many households and that it will serve as a guide, counsellor, and friend to those who may consult it
V. A. WAWN, M.P.S.A.
THE QUALITIES OF A GOOD NURSE
Knowledge—Patience—Cheerfulness—Accuracy—Need of Rest
The nurse is an important factor in the successful treatment of diseases and she should possess a combination of many qualities. It is desirable, for instance, that she should be healthy, cleanly, strong, tactful, obedient to the medical man’s instructions, cheerful, and devoted to the work in hand.
She needs sufficient knowledge to follow the doctor’s instructions intelligently, and also should be able to meet any emergencies which may arise when the doctor is not present and cannot be reached. She should have a knowledge of the symptoms of disease and the course the disease, from which the patient is suffering, is likely to take.
Success in the treatment of the sick requires two essentials: first, Medical Skill; secondly, Good Nursing. The former is usually mainly provided by the doctor in attendance. The latter is essential in order that all influences, favouring the production and development of the disease, may be removed, the tendencies to recovery be aided by every possible means, and the directions of the doctor faithfully carried out, for without good nursing, the most skilful physician may fail to effect a cure. On the other hand, with it, even the most unqualified may succeed.
Certain hygienic principles are necessary to the maintenance of health and these are much more essential in the case of sickness. If certain conditions of environment and living create disease, how great the necessity becomes in ill health to see that such conditions are avoided and replaced by hygienic ones!
A nurse should be attentive to the requirements of physician and patient, for she sustains an important relationship to both. She should observe all the directions of the physician and faithfully perform them. She should note all the symptoms of the patient and do everything in her power to promote comfort and recovery. She should anticipate the wishes and not cause the patient to ask for everything which is desired—so far as is in keeping with the welfare of the patient, these wishes should be gratified. The sensibilities of the sick often become abnormally acute, and things which in health would pass unnoticed, in sickness are so magnified as to cause the patient annoyance. Further, sick persons are not all alike and the peculiarities of each must be studied individually and attention given accordingly.
The nurse must be kind but firm where necessary, and should not yield to such whims of the patient where acceding to a request might prove to be detrimental to recovery; neither must she arouse dislike, or anger, by opposition, but should tactfully endeavour to lead the patient’s mind from all delusions. Remember the feelings of the patient should never be trifled with, for things imagined often are felt as realities by the sick.
Patience is certainly a virtue in nursing, for the sick are often querulous, fretful and unreasonable, and such manifestations should be treated with kindness, forbearance and sympathy.
The nurse should always be cheerful and bright—inspiring the patient to look on the bright side of every circumstance. In this way she can do much to animate him with encouragement and inspire him with hope.
Hope is one of the best of tonics—it stimulates the flagging energies and revives the weak and exhausted forces to renew their activities. On the contrary, gloom, sadness and despondency, when communicated by word or action to the patient, depress the vital forces and retard recovery—they may even lead to death.
Unfortunately, many still retain the old belief that when one is ill and miserable, his associates must commiserate and express sympathy by a show of depression and seriousness, not to mention sorrowfulness. Such an attitude is absolutely wrong, and visitors who bring such a demeanour into the sick room should be definitely discouraged. Their visit can do no good and will, almost certainly, have harmful consequences.
I believe one of the sayings of Solomon was that “a merry heart doeth good like a medicine” and it is indeed a wise remark to bear in mind.
The good nurse and the real friends of the patient are those who do not for an instant allow themselves to express low spirits and sadness, but do that which tends to arouse his interest, to cheer him, in order to make him forget, for a time at least, his pain and misery. The nurse particularly, as the close associate of the patient, should have bright, cheerful things to say and should encourage others to do the same.
Gloom is a foe to health when well, and retards recovery when ailing. When a patient “gives up” the chances of recovery are less than in the case of one who in the same circumstances looks on the bright side and “believes” he will get well. His fighting spirit is then ranged on the right side and it really adds greatly to the possibility of a quick recovery.
I have known of patients rapidly sinking, who had lost all hope and were resignedly awaiting the coming of death, snatched, so to speak, from its grasp and restored to health, by words of cheer and comfort.
Guard against anything, therefore, which may irritate. Avoid making undue noise or fuss. Move about smoothly and quietly, lifting things firmly and putting them down gently.
In speaking do not either speak too loudly, or too low, as both are usually irritating to the patient. The voice should be quiet, but every word must be distinctly formed.
Everything which needs to be done should be rapidly and thoroughly executed, especially should medicine be given promptly at the correct time, as well as any other essential treatment. Food should be given very regularly, because as the patient’s diet is nearly always restricted, a feeling of weakness quickly arises if food is not given at the right time.
The patient should be inspired by the nurse to have confidence in his doctor. Never, in the presence of the patient, allow his methods, or treatment, to be adversely criticized, as belief in the physician is arlmost as important as the medicine administered.
Carry out faithfully the doctor’s instructions to the minutest detail, for what may seem of little consequence may really be of the utmost value. A good atmosphere is invariably created when nurse and doctor are working together for the patient’s good, and he will respond more readily to the prescribed treatment.
Accuracy is one of the essentials of anyone in charge of the sick —accuracy in observation, in describing to the medical attendant what has passed since his last visit, and, accuracy in carrying out the doctor’s orders in every detail.
There are several details the efficient nurse will note as of consequence. These are the general appearance and condition, such as whether the face is pale or flushed, if there is an expression either of ease or a drawn, pained appearance; whether the skin is moist and clammy or hot and dry; the colour of the lips and the condition of the tongue; state of appetite; and the character of sleep as well as its duration, whether it be restless and uneasy, light and fitful, or heavy sleep with loud breathing.
Notice also the urine and excretions. The urine should be noted for quantity and frequency and if any discomfort or difficulty is experienced in voiding it. The excretions should be watched for their frequency and appearance—if any haemorrhage, and whether it be dark coloured and mixed with the motion or in clots.
If vomiting occurs notice what the ejected matter is like and if there is any blood; note if it is bright red or dark in colour.
Where coughing is a symptom take notice if it is constant, deep or shallow, or hard and painful. If there is any expectoration, the nature of it, and whether it causes pain and exhaustion.
Anything unusual in these various conditions should be promptly brought to the doctor’s attention and the knowledge gained will enable you to immediately answer any questions he may ask.
The position of the patient should always be observed, particularly when asleep, as the body usually assumes the position which gives the greatest ease and the knowledge will provide the means of making him most comfortable. The exceptions to this rule, are those cases where a certain position must be enforced, but such restrictions usually apply to those entailing fractures and surgical operations.
In justice to the nurse, a word should be said on her behalf. She too is a human being subject to disease and loss of health and unless hygienic conditions be observed, she also may be stricken down. She must be relieved in order to get ample rest and recreation or she cannot long withstand the combined influence of fatigue and contact with disease.
Her office is an arduous one at the best, and where long, weary hours of night watching are necessary these should be compensated for by exercise in the open air as well as by sleep during the day. Unless this is done, the system will become exhausted, and sleep will possibly intrude itself on her at a time when the greatest diligence is required for the welfare of the patient.
She should have plenty of suitable food of a sustaining nature to keep up her strength and as a safeguard against contracting the disease, especially if it is of an infectious nature.
Further, the arduousness of her office requires that she should be treated with consideration at all times, for on her well-being depends the welfare of the patient.
DONTS FOR YOUNG NURSES
Don’t forget to have everything ready when you begin.
Don’t fail to see that the patient is warm enough and draughts excluded when you take the patient out of bed.
Don’t lean on a bed and jolt it as it may cause the patient much pain.
Don’t forget that in lifting, raising or turning a patient, skill, care and time are required.
Don’t work alone in lifting a feeble patient if help is available.
Don’t be careless or rough in handling a patient even though he may be heavy and irritable—be gentle and use your brains as well as your hands.
Don’t fail to be sympathetic, at the same time cultivating a quiet and dignified manner.
Don’t under-estimate the value of suggestion. A nurse can do much towards the patient’s recovery by suggestion, which modern wisdom now recognizes as an invaluable adjunct to surgery and medicine.
A WOMAN IS ONLY AS OLD AS SHE FEELS TAKE FEMATON—A WOMAN'S TONIC—AND YOU WILL LOOK YOUNG AND FEEL YOUNG
FEMATON is a scientifically compounded tonic containing the finest vegetable extracts in a highly concentrated form. Its success is unparalleled. Suffering women owe it to themselves to give FEMATON a trial.
IT IS A VALUABLE TONIC AND SEDATIVE
Worn out, run down, nervous women will find its wonderful, strength-giving powers just what they require. It gives help where help is most needed. It makes weak women strong, and sick women well. This preparation has helped many women to retain their youth, and it will do the same for you. If you have let your system get run down and worn out by overwork and neglect, you will find it will put you
right. If you are ill, do not give up and be discouraged. A course of Fematon will give you a new lease of life.
FEMATON IMPARTS STRENGTH TO THE SYSTEM
For many women the path to health has been through FEMATON. It is a genuine women’s tonic, and is especially recommended for:
Lassitude Neuralgia Insomnia Nervous Debility Loss of Appetite Giddiness
FEMALAX is the Laxative we recommend to be taken with Fematon. FEMATON costs 5/6 a bottle. FEMALAX 5/-.
Course Treatments are strongly recommended to be taken, as in nearly every case we have found it necessary. These are packed in special cases ready for post, and consist of six bottles of FEMATON and two of FEMALAX, sent post free for the sum of £2.
THE HYGIENE OF THE SICK ROOM
The Sick Room—Equipment—Pure Air—Light—Warmth—Preventing Spread of Infection—Care to be taken in Contagious Diseases— Dishes and Utensils—Bed Linen, Towels—Urine and Faeces—Spitting Cups—Contagious Disease Chart.
The Sick Room.—In this chapter will be considered certain essentials that are necessary for the welfare of the patient. The choice of a room is the first consideration. It should be conveniently located, having regard to its reasonable proximity to the kitchen, bathroom and lavatory, so as to save unnecessary exertion on the nurse’s part —but if the complaint is of a contagious nature the room selected for the patient should be so located as to minimize any possibility of the food becoming infected.
Often the choice of a room is limited, but the foregoing requirements must be observed as closely as possible. Before the patient goes into it, the ceiling, walls, windows and floor must all be perfectly clean. Carpets have no place in a sick room—the bare boards with a mat or two or a linoleum covering are suitable.
The furniture should be removed to reduce it to the necessary minimum. A bedside table, one or two chairs, including an easy chair, are really all that are necessary, in addition to the bed, for remember that furniture occupies air space as well as floor space.
The nurse should see that the bed is so placed that the patient is not facing the strong light from a window, nor where it will be in a draught, and, in regard to the latter, it is better if a screen can be provided to protect the patient from direct draughts when making changes of clothes or bedding. Neither side nor the head of the bed should be close up against the wall, but far enough from it to allow the nurse to move around it. Curtains or valances should be removed. If a choice can be made, select an iron bedstead rather than a wooden one, as the former is easier to clean and disinfect and does not harbour insects.
Outside the door a small table should be placed for holding milk, beef-tea and other food not immediately being used, as food should never be kept in the sick room.
Such things as bed pans and other toilet needs should be removed immediately they are finished with-—and all instruments, medicine glasses and food utensils should be taken out and cleansed as soon as possible after they are finished with.
Equipment.—Certain articles of equipment are necessary for the sick room. A clinical thermometer for taking the patient’s temperature (see p. 189), and an ordinary thermometer, to be hung on the wall of the room to register the temperature of the atmosphere, which should be kept as nearly as possible between 55 and 65 degrees for the patient’s comfort.
Other useful articles which may be needed are an enema or douche, a rubber hot water bag, graduated medicine glass, feeding cup or glass, a sputum cup, urinal, and bed pan. In some cases the local chemist will be prepared to hire these latter if the expense of purchasing them is too great to be borne.
There should also be a jug and basin, soap, towels, nail brush and an antiseptic solution (see Broadleaf-Sol, p. 190) for the doctor’s use on his visits.
As the surroundings beget either contentment or gloom, the sick room should be as comfortable, cheerful and pleasant as circumstances will permit. A tidy attendant, a few flowers and books or magazines will wonderfully enhance the cheerfulness of the room, but flowers should always be removed at night.
Permit no unnecessary accumulation of bottles or of anything that can in any way render the room unpleasant. Medicine, food or drink should never be left uncovered in the sick room, since they quickly absorb the gaseous emanations from the patient and become unfit for the purpose which they were intended to serve. Their presence, moreover, gives the room an untidy appearance, suggestive of filth and slovenliness, and imparts to the patient a feeling of loathing and disgust for articles of diet.
Pure Air.—The .air in the room should be kept as pure as possible, for that which is so necessary in health is indispensable in sickness. The importance, therefore, of perfect and free ventilation of the sick room cannot be too thoroughly impressed, and yet to properly secure this end, may call forth a considerable amount of ingenuity on the part of the nurse.
One window at least should be open, but the current of air must not be allowed to blow directly upon the patient. One window may be raised from the bottom and the other lowered from the top. This will permit the entrance of pure air and the exit of vitiated air from the room.
The patient, if sufficiently covered, is not liable to take cold from the proper ventilation of the room. This is especially true when the bodily temperature is raised by fever or inflammatory affections. The mistake should not be made of considering that the temperature of the room is an indication of the purity of the air—it is not, although it is a widely held belief, that when a room is cold, the air must be pure.
Cold air is just as readily contaminated with impurities as warm air, therefore, it is of definite importance that the air should be constantly changed by effective ventilation. Further, air which is admitted into the sick room should not be polluted by passing over foul drains or other sources of contagion, since, instead of invigorating, it depresses the patient and may form a source from which the disease is further complicated by additional infection.
Light is as necessary to health as pure air. Serious results follow if the patient be deprived of either for any continuous period of time. Even a strong, robust man would soon degenerate into a feeble, sickly individual, and finally die, if he had not frequent access to light
A room, for this reason, should be so situated that the sun shines on it for part of the day. A room facing east or north for this reason, is usually preferable. Then the early morning sun will greet the patient with its cheerful influence and bring renewed hope and courage after a weary night.
The effect of sunshine is wonderful on the nervous system, and it has also been found, as a result of scientific investigations, that absence of sunlight, together with the presence of moisture, not only favours the development of consumption, but acts as an exciting cause of this disease. It is also well known, that persons forced to live in shaded dwellings often suffer from ailments which resist treatment until they can change their domicile for a more sunny one. As an instance of the value of a well-lighted room, a physician has stated that as a result of careful observations, he found that patients treated in well-lighted wards were four times as liable to recover as were those in poorly-lighted ones.
However, patients sometimes desire to have their rooms darkened because their eyes have become sensitive to strong light. In such cases, it is better to shade the eyes with a screen and admit the sunlight into the room, since its rays produce chemical changes which favour the return of health.
Patients who are convalescing should have the benefit of the light in the open for several hours each day, taking care, however, that they are not exposed too long to the direct rays when the sun is hot, while it will usually be better to protect the eyes against glare with an eye-shade.
Warmth is so necessary to the comfort and well-being of the patient, that a proper degree of temperature should be maintained in the room in which he is confined. Except in summer, a small fire or electric radiator should be kept going in the room, while at the same time, fresh air should be admitted from without. With care, a uniform temperature can be preserved, a matter which is very important during spells of changeable weather or in localities where great variations in temperature are experienced during the day and night.
The temperature of the body ranges from 98 to 99 degrees. It is usually lower from 7 to 9 a.m. and higher from 5 to 7 p.m. (For method of taking temperature see p. 24.) A deviation of a few degrees from this standard indicates an abnormal condition and the greater the difference, the more serious is the condition.
In the early stages of acute diseases, the heat of the body usually increases and should be relieved by sponging and giving of cooling and acidulated drinks.
During the latter stages, the temperature diminishes and the condition of the system is favourable to congestions which are most liable to occur between the hours of 1 to 4 a.m. when the vital forces are at their lowest ebb. The patient then becomes feeble, the circulation slows down and the extremities grow cold. He has what is termed a “sinking spell” and death is more probable at such periods. It is during these hours that increased vigilance on the part of the nurse is so essential. Then additional bed coverings must be provided, hot water bottles applied to the feet and body. The body may need to be massaged to restore more active circulation. Stimulating drinks should be given.
The nurse needs to have great reserve energy at these times for it is upon her personal, unflagging ministrations that the patient’s life depends. Unless, however, she secures sufficient rest during the day, it is unfortunately just at these vital times that she may become drowsy and the needs of the patient pass unheeded.
Let me again repeat for the benefit of both the sufferer and nurse that the nurse must be sure to get ample rest when the opportunity offers—in fact she must make the opportunity.
Preventing the Spread of Infection.—Sterilization is such an important matter in modern hygiene that it should be thoroughly understood and the various methods by which substances, the body and utensils can be rendered entirely free from bacteria should be known.
The modern hospital provides equipment by means of which sterilization is made easy, but in private homes the nurse must resort to more simple methods of carrying out the process.
The most practical way is to immerse all instruments, dishes, glass, metal—anything which will not be injured—in boiling water deep enough to cover, and boil them for from fifteen to twenty minutes. This should be done in an enamelled or aluminium vessel provided with a lid. This rule, however, does not apply to rubber goods or sharp instruments, which should only have from three to five minutes’ boiling.
The usual source of bacterial infection in wounds or surgical cases is through the micrococcus group, known as the “pus-producing bacteria” of which there are several kinds, more or less virulent.
Dirt and dust in dwellings, especially in the thickly populated parts of cities where many families live in close proximity, are a fertile field for pus-producing germs, and should not be allowed to accumulate.
In cases of wounds these bacteria invade the body through the injured surface of the skin or mucous membranes. They are also carried in water which may be used for washing wounds, or an unclean article touching an open wound which may be creating toxins may through carelessness carry infection to some other part with which it comes in contact. Such germs may also be carried on the hands of persons who do not suspect their existence there.
It can readily be seen, therefore, that the necessity of cleanliness in all things is of the greatest importance.
The nurse herself should take precautions for her own sake, as well as that of the patient, to keep the hands scrupulously clean. Many efficient antiseptics, both in liquid form and embodied in soap, which are very effective for the extermination of bacilli, should be regularly used. (See Broadleaf-Sol, p. 190.)
Care to be taken in Contagious Disease.—A contagious disease is one which can be contracted by coming into contact with the patient, his clothing, food, dishes, etc. Examples are scarlet fever, measles and diphtheria. A11 infectious disease is one communicated by the entrance of a disease-bearing organism. Typhoid is a good example.
In infectious and contagious diseases the faeces, urine and sputum should always be received in vessels in which disinfecting material has been placed. Linen and utensils used by patient and nurse should be disinfected. Articles taken from the bed should be placed in a disinfecting solution at once.
The nurse should never leave the room without washing her face and hands in a solution of Broadleaf-Sol (see p. 190), and should put on a clean disinfected gown and hood.
When in attendance on the patient she should carefully guard against any of the discharges coming in contact with her hands or face, or getting in her mouth, nostrils, eyes or any part of the person. Particular care should be taken when a patient’s illness creates the frequent desire to cough.
When brushing a patient’s throat, glasses should be worn to protect the eyes and gauze fastened over the mouth. The nurse should never put her hands to mouth, face or eyes, until they are washed in an antiseptic solution. Any other instructions given by the doctor should be faithfully carried out.
Anyone having a contagious disease in the house, if there is not a doctor in attendance, is required to notify the Department of Public Health, in order to comply with the law.
Isolation in Infectious Diseases.—As soon as anyone in a family has a contagious disease, when not removed to a public hospital, that person should at once be put in a pleasant sunny room with all clothing, rugs, carpets, hangings, upholstered chairs, and any such things which would harbour infection removed, retaining only such furniture and bedding for immediate requirements. Even if the disease is only suspected as contagious it will be as well to do this until medical opinion pronounces otherwise. The nurse should not mingle with the family without disinfecting measures being taken, nor should anyone unnecessarily be allowed into the room. Nothing whatever must be removed from the patient’s room without sterilizing or disinfecting it.
Dishes and Utensils used by the patient should be placed in a disinfecting solution contained in a metallic or enamel vessel, which should be covered with a sheet wrung out of disinfecting water and placed outside the door of the isolated room. This vessel should be removed by another outside party, once in twenty-four hours, to the kitchen stove and its contents boiled for thirty minutes in the same vessel. Unused food should be put in a covered pail and burned. All this should be done by a person outside the sick room.
Bed Linen, Towels, Etc. should be placed in disinfecting water immediately after use, or they should be placed in a sheet wet with disinfecting water and carried to the laundry and boiled for thirty minutes.
Urine and Faeces should be received in a vessel containing a disinfectant such as Broadleaf-Sol, I part to 20 parts of water. After the vessel has been used, add a quantity of the disinfecting fluid equal to the discharges, mix the two thoroughly and allow to stand for thirty minutes and then empty. After cleansing the urinal or bed pan as directed on p. 15, place some Broadleaf-Sol solution in it, rinse in hot water before using, and then put in necessary solution as above.
Spitting Cups and Handkerchiefs.—In all contagious diseases spitting cups should be used, in the bottom of which is Broadleaf-Sol solution (see p. 190). Nasal discharges should be caught in gauze instead of a handkerchief and immediately burned, if possible; otherwise they should be thrown into a covered vessel containing liquid Broadleaf-Sol or some powerful disinfectant and burned at the first opportunity.
Name of Disease
Period of Incubation
Duration of Infection
12 to 14 days.
2nd or 3rd day on face.
4 to 8 weeks, or until scabs disappear.
7 to 14 days
1st to 4th day.
3 to 4 weeks, or until scabs disappear.
10 to 14 days. Average, 14 days.
On face 4 th day of fever.
From 3 days before eruption until scurviness is gone.
7 to 15 days.
On face 4th day of fever.
Same as measles.
1 to 7 days.
On body 2nd day of fever.
Until scurf is gone and throat well.
2 to 10 days. Average, 2 to 5 days.
From beginning until after throat is well.
2 to 10 days. Average, 2 to 5 days.
Until “whoop” is gone.
ENTERIC or TYPHOID FEVER
1 to 2? days. Average 12 days.
If any, spots on abdomen, 5th to 8th day of fever.
24 hours before the swelling until 30 days after.
From beginning of disease until fever disappears and diarrhoea stops.
1 to 28 days.
5th to 8th day of fever.
From beginning until fever ends.
4 to 7 days Average, 4 days.
From beginning of redness until skin is clear.
The “period of incubation” is the time from exposure to infection until the appearance of the symptoms.
The “duration of infection” is the time during which the disease is liable to be communicated to others. During this period, no contacts of persons in good health should be made with the sick individual.
Symptoms and Treatment for these and other diseases will be found in The Home Doctor by the same author. This is a companion book to The Home Nurse and should be in every home.
“The money I paid for your Catarrh treatment was the best I have ever spent, as I have had the trouble for years and have spent a considerable sum of money with doctors and specialists, but without results. With your treatment, I got immediate ease, and by persevering and regularly using same I have obtained complete relief.”—A. H. W., Ryde, N.S.W. (See Catarrh, p. 123.)
MAKING THE PATIENT COMFORTABLE
Changing Clothing—Moving Patient—Lifting Patient—Bed Sores— Bed Pan—Care of Mouth and Teeth and Hair—Giving Medicine— The Patient’s Bed—Bathing—Sun-bathing.
The clothing as well as bedding of the patient should be changed frequently. As soon as removed, all garments should be taken from the room and replaced by others which have been well aired and warmed.
The hands and face of the patient should be bathed frequently, the hair combed, the teeth brushed, the nails cleaned, and everything about him kept clean and tidy.
These practices, although seemingly trifling, promote comfort and cheerfulness, and contribute largely to the recovery of the sick.
Changing Nightgown or Pyjamas.—A nightgown which is closed or opened at the front is changed by having the patient lie on the back, with the knees bent and raised, and the gown is then drawn up over the knees. She should then raise the thighs, or the nurse should raise them if the patient is weak or helpless, by placing one of the hands under the buttocks, at the same time drawing up both the soiled and clean gown with the other hand. Slip one arm under the shoulders and support and raise the upper part of the body while drawing the gown well up around the neck. Slip one hand through the upper armhole of one sleeve, grasp the arm above the elbow and bend it while you draw the sleeve off with the other hand. Do the same with the other hand and remove soiled garment.
The arms are then placed in the fresh gown by the nurse inserting her arm through the sleeve from the lower end, grasping the patient’s hand and drawing it down, each being done in turn.
In changing pyjamas, first the trousers are removed by raising the knees and buttocks as in the first position in changing a gown. The patient is then raised by supporting the shoulders, one sleeve is withdrawn and immediately the same sleeve of the clean pyjama coat is put on, both garments are drawn across the back, the arm from second sleeve withdrawn and the other replaced by the insertion of the nurse’s arm as with the nightgown.
Moving Patient From One Bed to Another.—Both beds should be placed together and if of the same height, roll the sheet on which he is lying up to the patient to assure getting a firm grip and draw the patient on to the other bed.
Should the bed, to which it is necessary to remove the patient be in another room it will be necessary to carry the patient. This is done by rolling him in the upper sheet and blanket, usually two persons being required to do so. One then puts the hands under the patient’s shoulders and buttocks, the other under his thighs and back, both standing on the same side of the bed. Draw him carefully to the edge of the bed, lift and carry to the other bed which has already been prepared.
Moving The Patient Up In Bed.—The patient’s knees should be bent with the feet resting firmly on the bed. Grasp him under his
far arm with your arm bent to support his head in the hollow of the elbow. Place your other arm under his thighs. Bend your knees slightly to avoid bending the back while doing these things. Then firmly and carefully move the patient up.
Should the nurse not be strong enough to do this, and two persons are available, one should grasp the patient under the arm as before but place the other arm under the small of the back. The second person also places one arm under the small of the back and the other under the thighs, when the patient can be easily moved.
Helping the Patient Sit in Bed.—A firm support is advisable and, if a proper back rest is not available, a good substitute can be made with an ordinary kitchen chair turned bottom down to the mattress so that the back lies at an angle, with the legs against the top of the bed. Then place pillows between patient and chair until he is comfortably arranged.
Placing Patient in a Chair.—Arrange the chair with the front facing the bed, make it soft on the seat and back with pillows with open end of pillow case down. Place one arm around the patient’s shoulder with the hand under the opposite arm, and the other arm under the thighs and lift gently. If too heavy for one, the first person should put the arms around shoulder and under the buttocks, while the second puts one arm around the small of the back and beneath the thighs close to the knees.
To Lift and Carry the Patient When Sitting.—One arm should be placed around shoulders with the hand grasping the opposite arm. Have the patient grasp your far shoulder, then place your free arm under his knees and lift.
Bed Sores.—The preventive treatment to avoid bed sores from arising is by keeping the bed-clothes smooth, cleanliness and frequent changing of the patient’s position. See that no moisture from the bowels, urine, or from bathing of the patient contaminates the bedclothes. Care should be taken to see that no bread crumbs or other irritating substances collect.
However, often where the confinement to bed is over a long period, despite the most painstaking efforts on the part of the nurse, bed sores will form. The active treatment then is to bathe the aifected parts with alcohol, followed by dusting with Wawn’s Antiseptic Dusting Powder (see p. 191). If the skin seems in danger of breaking, wash gently with warm alcohol every six hours and rub with alcohol every three hours and powder. Should sores form, sponge regularly with a weak warm solution of Broadleaf-Sol (1 to 40) (see p. 190), and apply Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 193).
The Bed Pan.—A bed pan is an essential where the patient cannot rise as the old fashioned chamber necessitates the patient sitting up. The “slipper” type of pan is the most convenient and comfortable and is used by having the patient raise the knees with his feet resting firmly on the bed. Then pass the hand under the lower part of the back and raise him gently while slipping the bed pan beneath. Raise patient the same while removing pan.
Unless required urgently, warm the pan by holding it before the fire, or radiator, before using, and cover it immediately. Then at once clean the soiled parts of the patient very thoroughly.
The bed pan should be kept scrupulously clean and sweet, by washing with hot water and suds and then scalding. A good disinfectant for both bed pans and urinals is Broadleaf-Sol (see p. 190).
Care of Mouth and Teeth.—This is essential in all ailments but especially in typhoid and such contagious diseases. Sterilize your hands by washing in a hot solution of Broadleaf-Sol—1 to 40—(see p. 190), wrap a piece of gauze or absorbent wool around the first finger, or around a piece of sterilized whalebone or stick (the handle of a brush would answer the purpose). Wet this in the mouth wash, which is made with Broadleaf-Sol and hot water—1 to 40—(see p.
190), and clean every part thoroughly, including the tongue. If the tongue is coated and dirty, finish by repeating the process with the gauze or wool dipped in pure medicinal glycerine.
When the patient is able he should brush his own teeth night and morning.
Care of The Hair.—Men’s hair calls for little attention. In the case of a woman patient, however, if the hair is not carefully brushed, and combed daily, it becomes matted, uncomfortable, and difficult to manage. If possible to do so, without incommoding the patient, it should also be washed at regular intervals.
Sleep is nature’s great restorer. It is necessary in health and doubly so in illness. During sleep the vital energies recuperate, the forces are less rapidly expended and the strength increases. It is a great source of rest and bodily refreshment. Often, in fact, a day’s rest in bed, free from the cares and anxieties of active life, is sufficient to ward off the advance of an ailment.
As quiet and rest are essential to recuperation in health their necessity in sickness is apparent. Life frequently depends on tranquillity and repose, and the least noise or confusion is extremely apt to disturb the sufferer and diminish the chances of recovery.
If conversation be necessary let the tones of the voice be clear, but modulated, as nothing annoys a sick person more than whispering —in a serious case the latter may even give cause for alarm in the patient’s mind. The more natural rest and sleep the patient secures the greater the prospect of recovery. As a rule the patient should never be awakened when sleeping peacefully, not even in extreme cases, even to take medicine, unless the doctor orders otherwise, as may be so in extreme cases.
If the patient does not sleep the cause should be ascertained and remedies applied. Usually the doctor will advise if notified, and he may advise a sleeping draught, but if his advice is not available endeavour to trace the cause. If it should arise from a rush of blood to the head denoted by a flushed face, cooling lotions should be applied, while a hot water bottle should be placed to the feet; if from restlessness or irritability a sponge bath followed by gentle massage with a towel may induce sleep. If wakefulness is due to noise and confusion, quiet is the remedy. The eyes may need to be shaded if the light is too powerful. Lying on the side instead of the back may be the remedy if the patient can comfortably assume this position.
Little Attentions go a long way in comforting patients especially those who are feverish or enduring pain. Changing the pillow is often a great relief; even turning it so that the head rests on the cool side is a comfort. A drink of water frequently given is appreciated in many cases. All the surroundings should be pleasant and the food daintily served.
Giving Medicine.—A nurse should not only attend to all the foregoing duties but should be exceedingly careful in giving medicine, always reading attentively the label on the bottle or box when she takes it up and again after the dose is measured.
Another thing to keep in mind is that the respiration and pulse must be looked after before taking a patient’s temperature. Observing these things is most essential—pulse, respiration and temperature —and should never be omitted. (See pp. 9 and 27).
The Patient’s Bed.—There is a great art in making and keeping a patient’s bed healthy, comfortable and tidy. If choice is possible, select a firm mattress rather than a soft one, as the former is cooler and really more comfortable where the patient is required to remain in the bed a lengthy period.
Pillows.—A number of pillows both soft and hard should be available. The harder ones give greater support when desired, and are frequently preferable to the soft ones alone which flatten down and otherwise become uncomfortable.
The Bed-clothes are the same as those regularly used. Except that the bed-spread should be of white dimity or linen which can be washed easily. Blankets should be of light, soft wool.
The sheets are the same as those commonly used, with the addition of draw sheets, a most valuable adjunct and almost a real necessity, as it keeps the under sheet clean and can be easily changed. It is a narrow sheet folded across the lower half of the bed, and by drawing gently to one side of the bed, the cooler and smoother half can be conveniently brought under the patient. If soiled it can be quickly replaced. These draw sheets should be made of linen or cotton material of fine quality.
A rubber sheet is usually placed over the mattress directly under the regular sheet. It should be remembered that rubber when in near contact with the body is apt to be heating. The draw sheet affords the essential protection against discomfort.
The ordinary sheets must be long, and wide enough to tuck in smoothly on both sides, top and bottom, in order to render the patient comfortable.
Making The Bed.—To make a bed properly, fold the upper clothes except the sheet and place them over a chair. Then put on the patient’s robe and slippers, keeping the sheet over him, and help him into an easy chair (this applies only to persons who can be removed from bed). The draw sheet, under sheet and rubber sheet, if being used, are then removed, and the mattress turned and brushed, making sure it is absolutely clean. The rubber sheet is placed over the mattress, carefully smoothed and the sides tucked under the mattress, then tuck in the under sheet with the draw sheet over it, and replace the pillows, which have previously been well beaten.
The top sheet should be put on to come six inches above the top of the mattress so that it can be folded back nicely. Put on the blankets and bed-spread tucking both in at the bottom and leaving the sides to hang, fold back half the bed-clothes cornerwise, and the bed is ready to receive the patient, who should then be helped back into it, and the gown and slippers removed.
In the case of a patient unable to help himself, the top bed-clothes should be taken off as before, except that the upper blanket and sheet are untucked and the blanket held over the patient who is gently raised while the sheet is slipped out from beneath him. One, or
both pillows, as is convenient, are removed, the under sheets loosened and the person turned to one side, the nurse supporting him (two people are desirable in doing this if the patient is entirely helpless). Now roll the draw sheet and under sheet from the outer side to the centre of the bed, brush the mattress and smooth out the rubber sheet; then lay on the clean sheet and draw sheet rolled to the centre, the rolled portion against the patient, tucking the outside edges in. Now turn the patient back on to the clean sheets, remove the soiled ones, smooth out the substituted clean ones and tuck in the side and bottom under the mattress.
The patient is now placed on his back and the clean upper sheet drawn over the covering blanket, the latter can then be slipped off from beneath the sheet, and the bed making proceeded with as usual.
In surgical cases, which are mainly those in which the patients have undergone operations and must be kept in one position, the changing of the bed-clothes is done in the same way, except that it is changed from top to bottom, while from either side the nurses raise the patient just enough to remove the soiled linen and replace it with clean.
This is done by each nurse placing the hand near the bed, under the shoulders of the patient first, and raising the upper part of the body and replacing the sheet under upper part of body. The pelvis is then raised and the lower part of the sheet adjusted. In
such cases draw sheets are particularly valuable as they save the frequent changing of under sheets and avoid the frequent necessity of disturbing the patient.
Turning the Mattress of a Helpless Invalid.—Feverish and irritable patients are often much eased and soothed by the simple act of turning the mattress. Two persons are required for this purpose.
The top bed clothing, except the covering blanket, is first removed. The patient is then moved to one side of the bed and the nurses, standing side by side, grasp the edge of the mattress and draw it across until the wire mattress is half exposed.
This latter is covered with three pillows and the patient is moved on to them with the bed-clothes under him. The mattress is turned, brushed and made up with fresh under sheets and placed on the vacant half of the bed. The patient is then moved on to it, the pillows removed and the mattress pulled over with the patient on it.
Bathing the Patient.—
One of the daily duties of the nurse is bathing the patient. In bathing the patient while in bed all the things necessary should be within reach. A wash-basin, toilet jug of hot water, coverings to protect the patient, two wash cloths, a slop-bucket, a face and bath towel, a hand brush, alcohol, unscented soap and Wawn’s Antiseptic Dusting Powder (see p. 191).
The coverings used, under and over the patient, are usually old woollen sheets or blankets, but a large bath towel will answer for the under one with a rubber sheet placed beneath and one of the bed blankets for the covering. Remove clothing from patient as p. 13, only keeping a blanket over him.
When all is ready, first wash the face, ears, and neck with a soft cloth, well soaped; rinse with clean water, and dry. Then wash each arm in turn, keeping the hand in the water while the exposed arm is being washed, the nurse soaping her own hand and rubbing the patient’s hand and arm; rinse and dry. Repeat with other hand and arm. The nails need special attention and a soft brush should be used to cleanse them.
Now, keeping the patient covered, wash the chest and abdomen with a fresh cloth, while keeping the blanket away from the body with the other hand. The hollows of the navel, thigh, and armpits should receive special care. Patients who are able are glad to wash the genitals themselves, but when a man is very weak and helpless, the nurse should put aside all notions of false modesty, and do this.
The water in the basin should now be replaced with fresh, and with the knees drawn up, the feet should be placed in the basin which is rested in the bed, and the feet and legs washed and dried. Finally the patient is turned over on his side, or stomach if the latter can be done, and the back washed and dried.
An alcohol rub to prevent bed sores should follow, completing the toilet by applying Wawn’s Antiseptic Dusting Powder (see p. 191).
Bathing as a remedial agent is
very valuable, for it is not only a cleansing process, but local applications of water in such a manner influence the functions of health, particularly those of a nervous, secretory, or excretory character.
The cold bath is powerfully sedative and is employed for its tonic properties. It is eminently suitable where a comfortable reaction
follows, but if the vital forces are low, or the individual remains in it too long (two or three minutes should be the limit of immersion), and the reaction is slow, its effects are injurious.
For these reasons the cold bath is very invigorating for robust individuals, but should be taken with caution, especially in cooler weather, by those who are run down or have a weak degree of vitality.
In the latter cases a cool bath (that is a bath in which the chill has been removed by the addition of hot water) is preferable.
The tepid bath, in which the water is slightly warmed is generally used for cleansing the body, and is sometimes prescribed in fevers and inflammatory affections for its cooling effects. The temperature should be regulated in accordance with the vitality of the patient and the bath repeated two or three times a day on the doctor’s advice. It removes superfluous heat and keeps the skin in a condition favourable for excretion.
The warm bath at a temperature of from 92 to 98 degrees Fahr. is agreeable and refreshing. It equalizes the circulation and softens the skin by removing all impurities. It moderates pain and soothes the whole system, while it does not weaken or debilitate, but is in every way beneficial.
It is an effective remedial agent in many chronic diseases, convulsions, spasmodic affections of the bowels, rupture, rheumatism and derangement of the genital organs. It should be taken immediately before retiring unless urgent reasons demand it at other times. It may be medicated or not as required.
The hot bath at a temperature of from 98 to no degrees Fahr. is a powerful stimulant. It excites the nerves and through them the entire system. It causes a sense of heat and a constriction of the secretory organs at first, which, however, is soon followed by perspiration, together with feelings of languor and sleepiness.
The Russian bath consists in the application of hot vapour at a temperature varying from 112 to 200 degrees Fahr. The patient is first subjected to a moderately warm temperature which is gradually increased as he becomes accustomed to it. While this is being done the head is covered with cloths wet with cold water. Upon emerging from it, the bather is plunged into cold water or placed under a cold shower. In rheumatic and skin diseases, chronic inflammations and nervous disorders, the Russian bath often proves an effective remedy.
The Turkish bath is a dry, hot air bath. The bather passes from one apartment to another, each of a higher temperature than the preceding one. His body then receives a thorough shampoo which removes an astonishing amount of effete matter. The bather then returns through the various compartments, emerging from the coolest one, and experiences a delightful sensation of vigour and suppleness
The judicious use of the Turkish bath is very beneficial to most individuals. It serves to increase glandular activity, elasticity and power is given to the muscles, and a permanent, stimulating and tonic influence imparted to the system.
Sea-bathing is an excellent remedial agent in chronic disorders such as nervous prostration, dyspepsia and general debility. However, people who emerge from the water shivering, “blue,” or feeling any form of exhaustion should discontinue this form of bathing. Some people find it unsuitable to bathe before breakfast, and no one should enter the water for at least two hours after a heavy meal.
If one is not accustomed to sea-bathing but is only beginning, one should at first only stay in the water for from three to five minutes, but the period may gradually be prolonged to fifteen or twenty minutes.
If the person is feeble, or convalescing, two or three baths a week are sufficient and should be taken in the earlier part of the day.
The surf especially is the great giver of health. For those who can swim and shoot the breakers it is a wonderfully exhilarating exercise which develops the muscles and breathing capacity of the lungs. For those who cannot be so active there are still great benefits, the cold contact of the water drives the blood inwards to the vital organs and stimulates them to greater activity, in this respect acting better than any tonic can do.
Then the rushing, foaming water gives an exhilarating massaging action which is most invigorating. This foaming, aerated water is splendid for eyes and nasal ailments. I particularly recommend patients who are using my 3-in-i Oxygen Catarrh Treatment to surf as frequently as possible. Although the success of my treatment does not depend on this, I find it helps to achieve a quicker recovery—so when in the surf, whether a catarrh sufferer or not, take an occasional handful of the foaming water, which is free from sand, and sniff it up the nostrils. It will work wonders in cleaning the blocked passages and undoubtedly has unique healing properties.
Sun-bathing.—The benefits to be derived from sun-bathing are so important that I include it here. Few people are aware that the sun’s rays acting on innumerable glands in the skin create an internal secretion which is analagous to Vitamin D.
Vitamin D is essential to life, yet it can be obtained in only small quantities from foods—and only from a few foods.
The only natural substance readily available from which to obtain a large supply of Vitamin D is cod-liver oil, and I believe you will agree that sun-bathing is a much pleasanter way of obtaining this essential life principle—the way which nature has provided us with.
There is not the least doubt that the marked disappearance of consumption in Australia is largely due to the national habit of surfing and sun-baking, and many other diseases are being eliminated by the
glorious sunshine which is our great heritage—but like most other good things obtained free, it is not perhaps as fully appreciated as it should be.
While advocating sun-baking, I want to warn you of the danger of overdoing it. Until the skin becomes accustomed to the sun’s rays, and a protective coating of pigment has been formed, the body should not be exposed for more than ten minutes. This period of time can then gradually be increased until the body can stand some hours of exposure.
THE TERRIBLE PAIN FROM
BURNS AND SCALDS
Treat your household bums with the same surgical dressing that hospitals use.
Pain stopped almost magically . . . and clean, beautiful healing begun as soon as Wawn’s Wonder Balm is applied. To-day you can keep this famous surgical dressing in your own home, ready to use on all burns and cuts.
All over the country thousands of homes are depending on Wawn’s Wonder Balm, not only to prevent suffering, but to establish the best possible conditions for healing.
This remarkable dressing keeps the burn or wound disinfected throughout the healing process—without smarting or irritation of any kind.
Its quick use has saved thousands from blood poisoning, prevented untold cases of hideous scarring.
Your own physician will tell you Wonder Balm is your protection against the effects of burns and cuts of every kind. When an accident occurs, apply it instantly. Just spread it on thick over the burn or cut. Bandage lightly if necessary.
Obtainable from your Chemist or Store, or direct from Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney. Price 2/6.
Taking Temperature—Taking Pulse—Table of Symptoms—Stool Indications—Urine Indications.
The Temperature, to take.—The use of the Clinical Thermometer is an important addition to the means of making an examination of the patient’s condition. The heat of the patient’s body forms a guide to the progress being made and the purpose of this instrument is to measure it.
A Clinical Thermometer consists of a glass tube, four or five inches long, with its lower end expanded to form a bulb containing mercury, a thread of which ascends the perforated space as the temperature is recorded. A scale at the side of the tube, usually graded from 95 to no degrees Fahr., records the temperature. A lens front on the thermometer magnifies the thread of mercury and facilitates recording it.
A Clinical Thermometer must be sensitive and accurate and only one which has been tested and will register quickly should be purchased. It must also be absolutely clean and before being used it is a good plan to dip the bulb end in a solution of boracic acid and wipe it carefully.
When the thermometer is applied the tip must be upward, not downward, for an accurate record, and it may be placed in the mouth under the tongue, in the armpit, or within the rectum, and the thermometer should be left in place from one half to 3 or 4 minutes, according to the type, and read at once. The mercury should then be shaken down, and the instrument must always be disinfected and dried before being put away.
The danger of breaking the thin bulb should be considered when introducing the instrument, especially in the rectum, and it should not be inserted forcibly—an antiseptic lubricant on the bulb will facilitate its introduction.
The temperature of the body wanes, and rises throughout the day, and in the normal individual is lowest from 7 to 9 a.m. and highest from 5 to 7 p.m. It is increased by exercise, digestion, prolonged heat, excitement, etc., and diminished by pain, haemorrhage, fright, hysteria, and various emotions. Children have sudden changes in temperature after sweating, convulsions, or the influence of infectious germs. For details of bodily temperature see p. 9.
I Neuritis (p. 167).
2. Tonsllitis (p. 32).
3. Mumps (p. 155).
4. Heart Disease (angina pectoris).
5. Pleurisy (p. 159).
6. Bronchitis, or inflammation of bronchial tubes (p. 41).
7. Heart Disease.
8. Neuralgia (p. 245).
8. Inflammation of Liver (Hepatitis).
9. Pneumonia or inflammation of the lungs (p. 159).
10. Disease of Stomach.
10. Gastritis or Stomach Trouble.
11. Inflammation of Lining of Abdomen or Tympanites.
12. Inflammation of the Bladder (p. 149).
13. Appendicitis (p. S3).
14. Creaking of Knee.
14. Rheumatism (p. 165).
15. Spanish Influenza.
1. Spinal Meningitis.
3. Disease of Spinal Column.
4. Bronchitis (p. 41).
5. Disease of Liver and Gall Bladder.
6. Disease of Spleen.
7. Disease of Kidneys (p. 149).
7. Stone In the Bladder (p. 149).
8. Constipation and Disease of Colon (p
9. Falling of Womb in Woman or Pros-tatis in Man (p. 153).
11. Hip Disease.
12. Sciatic Rheumatism (p. 167).
13. Falling of Womb.
15. Ovarian Disease.
Pulse, to take.—The normal rate of the pulse is 76 beats to the minute for the male and 80 for the female. At birth it is from 120 to 130. In observing the pulse, the middle and first fingers should be placed upon the artery under observation, which is usually on the underside of the wrist. It is impossible to test the pulse with the thumb, since a pulse exists in the thumb itself.
TABLE OF PULSE INDICATIONS
(1) Strong, pulse resisting compression by the finger.
(2) Weak pulse, easily pressed down.
(3) Full pulse, as if the artery were increased in size.
(4) Small pulse opposite of full.
(5) Hard, sharp, contracted pulse—vibrating like cord under finger.
(6) Soft pulse, yielding readily to pressure.
Inflammatory affections, especially of the substance of the large organs.
Prostration from disease. Nervous and chronic affections. Fear.
Congestion of brain. Apoplexy.
Inflammation of stomach or bowels.
Inflammation of membrane.
Affections characterized by debility.
TABLE OF SYMPTOMS Colour of Skin
Yellow—Generally means jaundice.
Waxy Pale Skin—With swelling under eyes indicates Bright’s disease.
Paleness—Is caused by shock or loss of blood.
Whiteness—Means anaemia. Small quantities of blood and of poor quality.
Greenish White—Shows chlorosis, which is commonly called “green sickness.”
Single Red Cheek—When in association with fan-like motion of sides of nostrils when breathing, indicates pneumonia.
Strawberry Tongue—Scarlet fever. First, looks like an unripe, and later, like a ripe strawberry.
Yellowish Brown—Liver trouble.
Whitish with thick coating—Usually some stomach trouble.
Dry, Red, Dark and Cracked and Teeth Covered with Coating— Generally means typhoid fever.
Coated on Back Part—Dyspepsia and constipation.
Cracked and Red—Last stages of peritonitis.
Scarlet Colour—Scarlet fever.
Blotchy and Muddy—Measles.
Scattered Raised Spots with Whitish Pimples—Chicken-pox.
Thick “ropy” Mucous—Catarrh.
Dark Blood, Spitting or Vomiting—Haemorrhage or bleeding from stomach.
Frothy, Red Blood, Spitting or Vomiting—Haemorrhage or bleeding from lungs or lower bronchial tubes.
Yellow or Green Material—Usually shows bile.
Coffee Grounds—Malignant growth; probably cancer of stomach. Dark Blood—Bleeding from stomach.
Red, Frothy Blood—Bleeding from lungs.
Faeces (with odour)—Shows vomiting of contents of upper bowel. Probably due to obstruction of bowel.
Projectile (vomiting with force)—Usually means meningitis. Dark Acid Brown—Peritonitis.
Of Stomach—Indigestion. Dilated stomach.
Under Eyes—Kidney trouble.
Of Face—Kidney trouble. Heart trouble. Poor conditions generally.
Of Abdomen—Cirrhosis or hardening of liver. Tumours of ovaries, etc.
Of Legs and Feet—Kidney trouble. Often from pressure on veins.
Red in Back Part of Throat—Pharyngitis.
“Whitish-yellowish-brown” or Greyish Spots on Membrane or Tonsils—Tonsilitis or diphtheria. If membrane is removed in diphtheria, surface is left raw and bleeding, but not in tonsilitis.
Fever—Reveals rise in temperature. Found in inflammatory diseases such as tonsilitis, gastritis, appendicitis, etc. Also in infectious diseases such a diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, etc. Also in acute rheumatism, pleurisy,’ pneumonia, nephritis, etc.
Chill—Indicates lower external temperature. Found in malaria, grippe, pneumonia, nervousness, etc.
Coughing—Is often due to irritation from dust or smoking; also to nervousness and indigestion.
Dry, Hacking Cough—May mean consumption.
Coarse, Barking Cough—Whooping cough.
Spasmodic Coughing—Whooping cough or laryngitis.
Loose Cough—Due to mucous in air passages.
Cry of Child
Crying—Usually indicates pain or anger.
Boisterous, Temporary Cry—Anger.
Catchy, Jerky Cry—Pain.
Moaning, Wailing Cry—Disease.
Greenish—Improper feeding, usually in children.
Bloody and Slimy—Dysentery, piles or ulcers of bowels.
Watery—Generally in cholera infantum.
Bloody—Haemorrhage or bleeding from kidneys.
Pale—Generally nervousness. May be diabetes insipidus. White—Generally from deposits of white gravel.
Brick Dust—Indicates uric acid deposits.
Under Jaw—Enlarged glands.
Side of Jaw in Front of Ear—Mumps.
Front of Neck—Goitre.
At Joints—Enlarged bursa (joint oil). Particularly at wrist.
Red and Inflamed—Inflammation of eyes.
Rolling of Eyes—Generally caused by brain irritation. Turned Sideways in Disease—Meningitis.
Movement of Nostrils in Breathing—Frequently seen in pneumonia.
Picking Nose—Often means worms and especially if there is scratching of rectum.
Front Part, Dull Aching—Caused by constipation or dyspepsia.
Aching in Eyes—Generally glasses are needed.
Top and Back of Head—In women this frequently indicates womb disease.
Back Part—Nervous headache, sick headache or spinal trouble.
In Temples (neuralgia)—May be due to bad teeth.
Frothing at Mouth
Frothing at Mouth—Convulsions, paralysis or apoplexy.
Hands and Feet
Cold Hands and Feet—Poor circulation and low condition. Also seen in the last stages of disease before death.
From Nose—Congestion. May be from diphtheria, whooping cough or tumours. Beginning of typhoid fever.
From Mouth—Comes from stomach, lungs, throat or teeth. If frothy red, from lungs. If dark red, from stomach.
From Rectum—Due to piles, ulcers or intestinal haemorrhage.
Steady Flow of Dark Blood—From veins. Bandage on side of wound farthest from heart.
Bright Red and in Spurts—From arteries. Bandage between wound and heart.
From Nose or Eyes—Means inflammation and catarrh, and needs attention.
TABLE OF PAINS AND ACHES Head
Forehead—Often due to stomach or to constipation.
Over Eyebrows—Catarrh or grippe.
Top Part—In women frequently due to womb trouble.
Temples—Generally neuralgia and may be from ear or teeth. Neck (nape of)—Spinal troubles and nervousness.
Neck, Continued Stiffness of Nape—One of the first symptoms of typhoid fever.
Pain in Lungs—Pleurisy, pneumonia, consumption.
Muscles of Chest—Rheumatism or neuritis.
Pain Under Edge of Ribs—Intercostal neuralgia (neuritis).
Band of Pain Around Chest on Heart Line—Heart Disease.
Pain in Breathing—Generally pleurisy or pneumonia.
Pain Around Heart—May be heart trouble, muscular rheumatism or heartburn. Heartburn is due to pressure from gas in stomach or bowels.
Pain Streaking from Heart Region to Shoulder and down inner side of Arm—Frequently indicates valvular heart disease.
Pain in Stomach—Probably due to indigestion. May be dilation or flatulency.
Pain in Stomach and Radiating to Backbone—Ulcer of stomach.
Pain in Stomach—May be due to cancer.
Pain between Navel and Point of Hip Bone on Right Side— Likely to be appendicitis. Especially if muscles are tense and hard.
Right Side under Ribs and Liver and Higher than in Appendicitis —Gall stones.
Pain running from Kidney to Bladder and into Groin or Scrotum —Usually due to gravel.
Band of Pain around and below the Waist—Disease of spinal cord.
Pain under Ribs near Backbone—Kidney trouble. Kidneys are higher up than most people think.
Pain in Deep Muscles of Back—Lumbago.
Pain very Low in Back—Piles or injured backbone. (Coccyx.)
Pain under Right Shoulder Blade—Liver trouble.
Pain in Back Part of Thigh and Leg to Foot—Sciatica.
Pain in Knee—Rheumatism, white swelling or hip joint disease.
Pain or Aching in Joints—Generally due to rheumatism.
Pain in Urinating
Pain in Passing Urine—Local inflammation of urethra or bladder, or due to acid or alkaline urine.
COMPARISON OF DISEASES Diphtheria, Tonsilitis and Quinsy
Diphtheria—First there is a spot or spots on the tonsils or perhaps on the soft palate or uvula, then the membrane quickly forms and perhaps extends to the other parts.
Membrane when forcibly removed leaves a red, raw surface and speedily returns. Membrane is of a whitish-yellowish-brown or greyish colour. Bad tongue somewhat the colour of the membrane. Very bad breath.
Tonsilitis—Spot or spots on the tonsils; membrane forms on the tonsils only. Membrane when it comes off leaves a glistening surface. Membrane of a whitish-yellow-brown or greyish colour. Bad tongue somewhat the colour of the membrane. Very bad breath.
Note—It is sometimes impossible to distinguish between diphtheria and tonsilitis without the regular medical test. Especially is this true when the spots or membrane are confined to the tonsils.
Quinsy—No spots or membrane. The disease is in the body of the tonsil and surrounding soft parts back of it. Jaw is generally quite stiff and the patient is sometimes unable to open the mouth.
Measles, German Measles, Chicken-pox and Smallpox
Measles—Sneezing, water running from nose, watery eyes and generally a bad cough. A great deal of fever. The eruption is generally thick and in blotches or spots. Eruption appears first in the mouth and on the face. .
German Measles—Milder than measles and not so much catarrh, often none. Not much fever. The eruption is more scattered than in measles and of a lighter colour. There is a greater tendency to affect the glands of the neck than in true measles.
Chicken-pox—Generally mild. Eruption consists of rose-coloured spots. Eruption first appears on the neck and trunk of body. Eruption changes within a few hours into pimples with a white top. The spots may number from a dozen to hundreds.
Smallpox—There is first a sense of uneasiness, weariness and soreness. Severe pain in the head as if it would fly to pieces. An indescribable pain in the back. Very bad breath. Eruption is first seen upon the face and exposed parts of the body in the form of small red points. These enlarge greatly and finally fill with pus. Another symptom is a feeling as though there were shot under the skin when the hand is passed over the forehead.
Scarlet Fever and Roseola
Scarlet Fever—Eruption consists of very minute red points not raised, and so crowded that the skin appears of a uniform bright red over the whole body. Eruption appears first on the chest and roof of the mouth. There is generally the peculiar strawberry tongue, looking first like an unripe and later like a ripe strawberry. Generally there is sore throat either mild or severe.
Roseola—Eruption is a deep scarlet flush. Eruption shows in patches and is not uniform over the body. Eruption first appears on limbs and body. Tongue may be covered with a thick whitish yellow coating. There is not generally a sore throat.
Renal or Kidney Colic, Gall-stone Colic, and Appendicitis
Renal or Kidney Colic—The pain is very severe, and runs from the back, under the ribs, and especially when there is much uric acid in the urine and the pain runs down intd the bladder and scrotum. There is a history of kidney stones or red sand in the urine.
Gall-stone Colic—The pain is generally excruciating. The pain is generally under the ribs and in the stomach. There is a history of gall-stones. Generally a bilious complexion.
Appendicitis—The pain may be severe but is generally a severe aching. The pain is located midway between the navel and the point of the hip bone and does not extend down into the scrotum. The muscles of the abdomen are tense and hard.
TABLE OF STOOL INDICATIONS
Mucous stool, like white of egg.
Hard and lumpy stools.
Yellow or dark brown stools.
Dark green stools.
Stools reddish, streaked with blood and slimy.
Pitchy black stools.
Stools very bloody, with no colic. Blackish stools.
Shreds of false membrane in stools. Fat with stools.
Chronic inflammation of colon. Constipation. Colic. Cancer of stomach. Deficiency of bile.
Too much bile.
Bile from children after taking calomel. Dysentery.
Resulting from iron in medicines. Dysentery, Diarrhoea, Worms. Diabetes, Consumption.
TABLE OF URINE INDICATIONS
Diminished secretion of urine.
Retention of urine in the bladder. Urine increased in quantity.
Red or yellow deposits in urine (uric acid).
Blood in urine.
White sediment in urine (earthy phosphates).
Albumen in urine.
Mucus in urine.
Sugar in urine.
Odour of ammonia.
Dropsy. Inflammatory and febrile diseases.
Paralysis. Typhoid Fever. Hysteria.
Diabetes. Cold stage of fever. Hysteria. Strong emotions.
Fevers. Acute Rheumatism. Consumption. Dyspepsia. Over-indulgence in meat-eating.
Bleeding of kidneys.
Depressed condition of nervous system.
Inflamed mucous membrane of urethra or bladder.
Too rich a diet.
EXTERNAL APPLICATIONS AND ENEMATA
Hot water Bag—Hot and Cold Compresses—Body Packs—Poultices —Iodine—Wonder Wool—Liniments—Plasters—Enemas
Pain is always an indication of inflammation or congestion and may be well interpreted as “nature’s call for relief.” It is often a danger signal, so the nurse should never neglect its warning.
Inflammation usually has several unmistakable symptoms such as heat, redness, swelling or pain, which may be the result of internal congestion, an injury to the tissues caused by fracture, a burn, an abscess, or a boil, etc.
The Hot Water Bag.—The commonest method of relieving pain is by the application of heat. In our grandfather’s day this was achieved by heating bricks, flat irons, etc., and wrapping them in blankets and applying to the patient’s feet or body. The same result is now much more easily secured with a rubber hot water bag. Although this is quite easy to handle it has been the cause of scalding and burning, the first by leaking and the second by prolonged contact at too high a temperature, with a helpless patient. The correct rules for its use are simple and only require a little care, (i) It should never be more than two-thirds full—half-full is better. (2) And the water should not be hot enough to scald the patient should a leak occur.
Special care should be taken in applying the hot water bag to unconscious patients, and the nurse should be sure that the bag is provided with a cover so that it cannot burn the flesh. After filling the bag, all the air should be pressed out before screwing in the stopper, in order that it may lie flat. Should stoneware or glass hot water bottles be used at any time they should never be more than two-thirds full or they may burst.
Besides relieving pain, the hot water bottle is used in conditions of lowered vitality and for distress caused by the retention of urine.
Hot Compresses, also called fomentations, are another means of relieving pain and are made by wringing out folds of flannel after immersion in very hot water. The proper method of preparing is to place the folded flannel in the centre of a towel over the basin, pour hot water over it, and wring by twisting the ends of the towel. A compress can be made hotter this way than if it has to be handled direct. The compress is then unrolled from the towel, folded to the size required, and the heat tested by the nurse placing the back of her hand on it. The compress should be applied to the exposed part as hot as can be borne by the patient, then it is carefully covered with some waterproof material and further covered with a bath towel over the latter to prevent dripping. It may be kept hot for as long as two to three hours if a half-filled hot water bag is placed over it. The nurse must be the judge as to the sensitiveness of the patient’s skin, and of the length of time it can be allowed to remain. Some individual’s skin being more sensitive than that of others blisters much easier.
Fomentations should not be applied, unless under a doctor’s orders, to patients who are very weak, unconscious, or paralysed. For good results in applying hot compresses rapidity of change is essential as soon as they begin to cool off. Do not remove the one on the patient until the next one is ready to replace it. In using the compresses remove only enough bed-clothes to permit free access to the part to wrhich they are being applied and avoid the possibility of draughts which might easily cause a chill to be contracted.
Cold Compresses are used to relieve fever, delirium and pain, and are also applied to the forehead when sweat baths are being taken. The general rule is that when heat is applied to the feet and body, cold is applied to the Tiead, so preventing a rush of blood to this region.
A cold compress is made by wringing out an absorbent cloth in very cold, or iced water and binding it in place around the head, after which it is well covered. They should not be changed until they have absorbed sufficient body heat to take the chill out of the cloth.
Where prolonged application of cold to the head is desired an ice-bag is a great convenience, is more comfortable and less disturbing to the patient, and saves the nurse’s time.
Body Packs are beneficial in certain cases and may be ordered for the patient. Their purpose is to induce perspiration, and on giving a sweat bath of any kind the nurse must not forget to see that the head of the patient is kept cool and drinks are given frequently.
To give the hot pack the patient’s attire must be removed and he is laid between two blankets with a rubber sheet beneath, all being first well warmed. Then he is wrapped in another light-weight blanket that has been wrung almost dry after being taken from scalding water, and which is arranged so that air is excluded from all parts of the body. The whole of the body should be covered, only leaving the arms, neck, and head free. He is covered with the bed-clothes and left for from twenty minutes to an hour, the lesser period being usual where the patient is weak, so the nurse should watch the patient carefully for symptoms of exhaustion—frequently taking the pulse beat, preferably at the temple.
The wrappings being removed, the patient is placed between hot blankets, and if the sweating is over, he is quickly dried with warm towels, his attire adjusted and covered with the ordinary bed-clothes, a hot water bag being placed at his feet for a while to avoid any danger of chill.
The Linseed Poultice has been used for generations, and has great heat retaining properties, but should be watched and changed often, because if allowed to get cold it may do harm. In making this poultice, have sufficient water boiling in a saucepan and stir in slowly the linseed meal, being careful that no lumps form. Sufficient meal should be used to make a very thick mixture. When it is well cooked, spread about two inches thick on a large piece of muslin, or two thicknesses of gauze and apply the meal side direct to the patient, covering with a folded towel. It should be applied as hot as can be borne, but care should be taken to test the heat so that the patient will not be blistered.
Mustard Poultice.—In preparing this poultice, use about three parts of flour to one part of mustard. Add cold water (not hot) stirring all the time until a smooth paste is made. Then spread on two layers of gauze and place another layer of one thickness over the paste. Apply the poultice with the single gauze side in contact with the patient and leave on until the skin is red, being careful not to allow it to remain long enough to cause blistering. After removing, rub the reddened part gently with Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 193), or olive oil, after sponging with warm (not hot) water and drying.
Bread Poultice is often used to draw splinters from a finger and is an old-fashioned application for boils, but for this purpose is rather dangerous, as when they break the poison is liable to spread the infection and cause another boil to start. To make, pour some boiling water over the bread, squeeze out surplus water, and apply in a cloth which is then bandaged on the part.
Iodine.—As a counter-irritant tincture of iodine is useful, and is painted on the skin with a small brush or with a little absorbent cotton twisted on a wooden toothpick or match.
Application of Dry Medical Heat.—Since its most successful use in the great pneumonic influenza outbreak in 1918-19 the application of continuous dry medicated heat is frequently used by the doctor ordering Wawn’s Wonder Wool.
WAWN’S WONDER WOOL
THE MAGIC WRAP
The 20 years that have elapsed since Wawn’s Wonder Wool was originated by Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., of Sydney, N.S.W., have been a record of continuous success in a most beneficent service to the public. Its proven efficacy and reliability in relieving pain, reducing congestion and combating inflammation, have firmly established Wawn’s Wonder Wool as the mainstay of Home Treatment in many thousands of households. Wawn’s Wonder Wool proved itself an invaluable ally to the Medical Profession in the dreadful Influenza Epidemics. Nowadays, every doctor and nurse in Australia recommends it, from personal experience, and it is an indispensable article of constant use in every hospital ward, all over the Commonwealth and New Zealand.
WHAT WAWN’S WONDER WOOL IS
Wawn’s Wonder Wool is a scientifically medicated cotton wool, the fibres of which are thoroughly impregnated with a unique combination of medical, pain-relieving essences (formula originated by Mr V. A. Wawn, M. P. S. A.) which, when applied to the skin, set up a soothing, tingling, warming sensation— circulation is stimulated, blood congestion relieved and PAIN STOPS. The medicinal essences contained in Wawn's Wonder Wool are combined in such exquisitely balanced proportions that immediately the skin comes in contact with the Wonder Wool the heat of the body releases the curative properties of these remarkable essences, and they are absorbed by the pores of the skin. As they “sink in,” they become active at once on the affected parts, by creating inner heat, which dispels humours, compels the blood to resume normal activity, bringing prompt relief in all cases of Influenza (preventing the Influenzal stage from developing into the Pneumonic one). Bronchitis, Pleurisy, Laryngitis, Coughs and Colds, Sore Throats, Quinsy, Asthma, etc.; Rheumatism,
Lumbago, Sciatica, Gout, Stiff and Swollen Joints, Strained and Tired Muscles, Backache, Sideache, etc., Neuritis in all forms. Neuralgia Headache, Toothache, etc.; Indigestion, Abdominal Pains, etc.
Influenza, Coughs, Colds, Bronchitis, Asthma, and all Chest Complaints.— For Chest Colds, Bronchitis, etc., apply Wawn’s Wonder Wool direct to the chest and cover with a flannel cloth. A sensitive skin should be first well rubbed with olive oil or Wawn’s Wonder Balm.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF 87 DIFFERENT ACHES AND PAINS RELIEVED BY
WAWN’S WONDER WOOL
A. —Abdominal Pains; Abscess; Ankle (Swollen—Inflamed—Sprained or
Strained; Aphonia (see Voice, Loss of); Appendicitis.
B. —Bronchitis; Backache; Baby’s Stomach Pains; Breasts (Inflamed); Boils
C. —Chills; Colds; Coughs; Consumption; Circulation (Stagnant); Colic; Chil
dren’s Colic; Croup; Chilblains; Carbuncles; Corns (Soft).
F. —Fractures; Frost Bite; Feet (Cold).
G. —Glands (Swollen); Goitre; Gout; Gravel; Growing Pains; Gumboil.
H. —Heart Trouble*; Headache; Hoarseness; Hiccough; Hernia—Rupture;
I. —Indigestion; Inflammation; Influenza.
J. —Joints (Stiff and Sore, Swollen and Inflamed).
K. —Kidney Pains; Knee (Housemaid, Stiff and Sore, Swollen and Inflamed).
L. —Laryngitis; Liver (Cold in the); Lumbago; Lung Troubles.
M. —Measles; Mumps; Menstruation (Painful).
N. —Neuritis; Neuralgia; Neurasthenia; Numbness; Neck (Stiff and Sore, Swol
len and Inflamed).
O. —Orchitis; Ovarian Pains.
P. —Pneumonia; Pleurisy; Pain; Pharyngitis; Piles (Blind).
R. —Rheumatoid Arthritis; Rheumatism; Rupture.
S. —Sciatica; Side Pains; Sprains; Strains; Swellings; Spine Trouble; Synovitis;
T. —Throat, Sore (see Pharyngitis, also Laryngitis, Aphonia); Tonsilitis; Tooth
ache; Testicles (Swollen).
U. —Urethral Colic.
V. —Voice, Loss of.
W. —Windy Spasms.
Always keep “WONDER WOOL” in the Home—it is essential
AND NERVE PAINS
To the sufferer from neuritis or nerve trouble of any kind, Wawn’s Wonder Wool is a distinct boon. Immediately the effects of the trouble are felt, the parts should be well wrapped in Wonder Wool. The action of the blood is excited by the tingling warmth of the magic wrap, and the congestion which is the cause of the pain is speedily removed.
SCIATICA, LUMBAGO AND GOUT
The terrible racking, unbearable pains of rheumatism and sciatica are speedily relieved when Wawn’s Wonder Wool is applied. This fine, downy wool, carefully prepared by skilful chemists, is impregnated with medicinal pain-relieving essences which generate an intense though harmless heat. It is of very special value in chronic cases, and affords relief when the trouble is of long standing
WAWN’S WONDER WOOL
THE MAGIC WRAP
Impregnated in every fibre with medicinal pain-relieving essences, the soothing and beneficial effect of which is experienced practically the moment of application. Immediately the skin comes in contact with Wonder Wool, the heat of the body releases the curative properties of these remarkable essences. They are absorbed by the pores of the skin and the pain is relieved instantly.
Wawn’s Wonder Wool should be applied in the form of a large pad right over the affected part, and kept in position by a bandage. This fine downy wool carefully prepared by skilled chemists is impregnated with medicinal pain-relieving essences which generate an intense though harmless heat.
Make a pad of Wawn’s Wonder Wool, and if the skin is tender, place it inside muslin or cheese cloth. Apply to the face and cover all with a bandage.
Should the tooth be hollow and easily reached, plug it with a small piece of Wonder Wool.
On swollen joints, sprains and strains, Wonder Wool acts like a charm. The natural warmth of the wool, together with its gentle, pleasing stimulating action, gives immediate comfort and relief. In all painful cases, where the inflammation is severe, it is necessary that Wonder Wool be applied at first dry, then gradually moisten and re-moisten until its fullest effect can be had.
MUMPS, LARYNGITIS, Etc.
Apart from the danger of further progress there are few things more irritating or depressing to the sufferer than a sore throat or chest, frequently the result of a chill. Immediately the first symptoms are noticed, Wawn’s Wonder Wool should be applied. This, by generating a soothing heat, reduces the congestion—the direct cause of the pain which will rapidly vanish.
Coughs and chest colds in children are best treated with Wawn’s Wonder Wool. In the case of young children the wool should be covered with muslin or cheese cloth. It will not harm the tenderest skin, but will give quick relief. For children between the ages of four and ten, apply the wool direct to the skin as it comes from the packet.
WAWN’S WONDER WOOL
Wawn’s Wonder Wool can be applied dry or moistened, according to the texture of the skin or the severity of the complaint. It is very economical to use, as when the curative action of one side is absorbed, apply the other, then split into two pieces and apply these new surfaces in the same way.
The warm, tingling sensation of Wonder Wool may not always be felt, although the curative action is still going on. Skin conditions vary so much that whereas some complain of the slight effect, others find it sufficiently strong. Should the application of Wonder Wool become uncomfortable, apply between muslin.
For chronic cases patience is necessary, and the use of Wonder Wool in its dry state should be persevered with.
How to Moisten Wonder Wool.— Sprinkle the wool with any spirituous liquid, such as whisky, brandy, eau-decologne, methylated spirits, or warm salt water, re-damping from time to time as occasion requires. Household vinegar, diluted acetic acid or eucalyptus oil also may be used.
Four strengths may be obtained by applying in the following manner:—
(1) Dry, with a thin cloth (such as muslin), between Wonder Wool and the skin.
(2) Dry, right against the skin.
(3) Moistened by sprinkling with spirit (eau-de-cologne, whisky, or methylated spirits), vinegar, or with tepid salt water, and wear next to the skin.
(4) By first fomenting the affected part with hot foments, then apply the moistened wool to the skin and cover with oiled silk.
N.B.—Never apply Wonder Wool direct to a baby or anyone with a delicate, tender skin. Always protect with a piece of muslin until the skin becomes accustomed to its action— then remove muslin and carefully moisten Wonder Wool, re-moistening as it becomes dry. The more Wonder Wool is moistened, the quicker and stronger is its action.
Do not apply Wonder Wool to open wounds or places where the skin is broken.
WAWN’S WONDER WOOL
, Wawn’s Wonder Wool Pneumonia Jackets will be found most economical in use as they are so made that when the curative action of one side has been fully absorbed by the skin, the stitching holding the Wonder Wool in position can be undone and the wool reversed, so that a fresh surface can be applied to the skin. As the action of Wonder Wool depends on the absorption by the skin of the medicinal properties of Wonder Wool, it will be necessary to regulate this according to the variations of skin conditions. Should the application of a Wonder Wool Pneumonia Jacket become uncomfortable, apply it over a plain muslin singlet cut to size. (See next page.)
1. —For Chronic Bronchitis, Consumption, Asthma, Chest Colds, and all complaints through weak chests, or weak hearts, Wonder Wool is advised to be worn regularly—stitched right inside the singlet.
2. —Used moistened, the object is to cause the wool to give up its medicinal essences rapidly. As soon as it becomes dry, it should be removed and the reverse side moistened and applied. An outer covering of the oiled silk retards evaporation, rendering it unnecessary to re-moisten so frequently, and gives stronger action.
3. —Use dry in all cases where active treatment is not demanded, such as continuous dull pain and chronic disorders.
4. —Wonder Wool should always be gradually removed, stripping it off layer by layer.
N.B.—When the whole contents of the box are not required for immediate use the unrequired portion should be carefully wrapped in the parchment paper, replaced in the carton, and stored in a dry place.
Hospital Size Wonder Wool.—The demand for Wonder Wool in a sheet sufficiently large to envelop both the ^hest and back has become so insistent that we have decided to make it available to the general public in the size which was originally intended for hospital use only. This large size, now known as “Hospital Size,” costs 6/-, and contains three times as much as
the ordinary 2/6 size. Hence it is much more economical to purchase. Moreover, one never knows when the urgent necessity may arise for completely wrapping both chest and back. For family use this size will be found more economical.
WONDER WOOL ........... 2/6
Hospital Size (three times as
much), per packet ........... 6/-
Wonder Wool Pneumonia Jackets are now obtainable from all leading chemists. They are made in five distinct sizes:—
EXTRA SMALL—suitable for babies.
SMALL—suitable for children.
MEDIUM—suitable for girls and boys.
LARGE—suitable for adults.
EXTRA LARGE—suitable for oversize—and in strict accordance with the requirements of the medical profession, so that the whole of the chest, sides and back are completely covered. Pneumonia patients, sufferers from chronic bronchitis, asthma, and other chest troubles will find these Wonder Wool Pneumonia Jackets indispensable. They are made to fasten at one side so that no inconvenience will be caused the patient for regular heart or lung examinations. (See next page.)
How long Wonder Wool lasts
When used dry and each fresh surface applied, a sheet will be effective for seven to ten days; when moistened, the medicinal essences are absorbed more quickly, and two applications of each freshly moistened surface are usually sufficient.
EMERGENCY PNEUMONIA JACKET
If the Special Wawn Pneumonia Jacket is not readily available in the sudden emergency, an effective substitute may be made from a singlet by sewing in a lining of Wawn’s Wonder Wool, one Hospital size packet which contains three times the quantity of the ordinary packet being sufficient for this purpose.
In all cases of coughs and colds, pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis and quinsy, Wonder Wool gives immediate benefit, and increases resistance to both ward off attack, and, if this has been incurred, to prevent complications.
GUARANTEE.—We guarantee unreservedly and emphatically, that WONDER WOOL contains no harmful ingredients and, properly applied, will not hurt even the most tender skin.
STRIKING TESTIMONIALS FROM GRATEFUL USERS
(i A leading hospital in Sydney, N.S.W.
“I can speak of the excellent results obtained in our hospital with Wawn’s Wonder Wool. It is now in general use in nearly every ward. Both doctors and nurses are high in their praise of its virtues. For Bronchitis, Pleurisy, Chest Complaints, Sort Throats, Rheumatism, Backache and Neuritis we find it invaluable.”
Signed by the Principal.
Rose Bay, Sydney.
“I was attacked with Pneumonic Influenza and suffered excruciating pain over my entire body. I obtained two packets of Wawn’s Wonder Wool, made one into a jacket, and applied the other to my aching limbs. I was astonished at the quick relief obtained.”
(Signed) H. FRANKLIN.
_ Darlinghurst, N.S.W.
“During the influenza epidemic at Euchareena (N.S.W.), no nurse being available, I undertook to assist to combat it. Knowing by experience the great value of Wawn’s Wonder Wool for Influenza, I immediately applied it in every case. I am pleased to say that no pneumonic symptoms developed, and that all my patients quickly recovered.”
(Signed) H. J. WIBURD.
Bondi Beach, Sydney.
“I was greatly troubled by Neuritis in the shoulder and Rheumatism in the great toe. The pain was agonizing. The ingredients of Wawn's Wonder Wool appealing to me, I tried it. The pain was instantly relieved, and soon went altogether.”
(Signed) J. H. EAMES, J.P., Pharmaceutical Chemist.
_ _ _ _ Elsternwick, Victoria.
“I took very ill with Bronchitis and Dry Pleurisy. My doctor advised Wawn’s Wonder Wool, and I wore it as a jacket. It gave me wonderful relief.”
(Signed) Mrs A. J. HAYES.
. North Sydney.
I am in business as a greengrocer and fruiterer. I had been suffering from Lumbago for four months. Sufficient to say that a couple of layers of Wawn’s Wonder Wool, placed where I suffered the torture, changed my suffering into joy and astonishment.”
(Signed) JAMES MURPHY.
. Caltonie, South Australia.
One °f my girls had Toothache for a week—one application of Wawn’s Wonder Wool cured her. My youngest daughter had Croup and we were afraid to go to sleep lest she should choke. Wawn’s Wonder Wool gave instant relief. I, myself, had an attack of Rheumatic Fever. Wawn’s Wonder Wool relieved me immediately.”
(Signed) WM HAWKER.
Blair Athol, Western Australia.
My nerves became deranged through two severe operations. I get back pains and a strong nervous tension, which is almost unbearable. When I apply Wawn’s Wonder Wool it acts like magic.”
Obtainable at all Chemists or direct from
WAWN’S LABORATORIES LTD., 283 ELIZABETH STREET, SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES
Liniments.—A good liniment is often efficacious in relieving sore joints. Rubbing should be with a long, upward stroke, applying the pressure, as far as possible, with the palm of the hand. Suggestion aids and the magnetism of the person making the application, combined with the belief that the rubbing is strengthening and relieving, increases its efficacy.
Plasters are often applied and instructions for their application are usually supplied with the purchase. Removing a plaster, however, is often a painful process. If it adheres too firmly it can be removed by dissolving the adhesive substance with turpentine or ether. Sweet oil is better to remove capsicum and mustard plasters, as turpentine in such cases may blister. The use of Wawn’s Wonder Wool in place of the latter is, therefore, advised (see preceding pages commencing on page 37).
Enemata.—In hospitals enemas are usually given to men by an orderly, but in home nursing, if a male attendant is not available, the nurse must attend to it. The purpose of an enema is to unload the lower bowel. It takes the form of a liquid preparation which is injected into the rectum and causes an emptying of the bowel contents in a few minutes. In sickness it is usually only administered on the doctor’s advice, but is often preferable to the use of drastic purgatives, which in some ailments may be particularly dangerous.
When using any form of enema a small rubber sheet should be placed under the thighs to prevent wetting the bed, or a large Turkish towel may be used to absorb the moisture. In giving the enema, in order to prevent air from entering the bowel, which often causes pain and distension, the tube should first be filled with fluid, which must not be allowed to escape while the tube is being inserted, an operation which is done by turning the patient on the left side, with the knees bent in order to relax the muscles of the abdomen. When the patient is in position, the tube is greased and inserted into the rectum—the nurse should not push the tube too hard but insert it gently.
There are three forms of enema, the bulb enema, the fountain enema and the douche can.
The Bulb Enema is simply filled right to the nozzle tip, making sure no air is left in it by first filling, then turning nozzle upwards and squeezing the bulb until water emerges, then, while still keeping the pressure on the bulb, again place the nozzle in the solution and release pressure. If correctly done, the enema will be found to be completely filled.
The Fountain Enema is used by inserting the valve end in the solution and squeezing the bulb until water flows free from air bubbles.
The Douche Can is filled and hung in position above the patient, the height at which it is placed regulating the pressure desired. The
solution is then allowed to flow down the tube into the bed pan until it comes through sufficiently warm. The nozzle is inserted in the rectum and the supply shut off as soon as sufficient liquid has entered the bowel, care being taken that it does not flow so rapidly as to cause discomfort to the patient.
Preparing Enema Solution.—Pure castile soap should always be used in preparing solution for use in the enema as common soaps contain impurities which may irritate the mucous membrane. It usually only consists of soap suds in warm water and is the most frequently used application.
Salt solution (a tablespoonful to a pint of water) is sometimes given to cleanse the lower bowel, and in certain cases to raise the blood pressure. It is given warm at a temperature of 120 degrees
Nutritive Enemas are a method of feeding, used when the patient cannot retain even liquid food in the stomach, in cases of ulcers or cancers, and in stricture of oesophagus. As the large intestine absorbs but does not digest, the liquid food is peptonized already for absorption. Milk is largely used, often combined with white of egg, beef extract and salt. If necessary the doctor will advise how these are to be prepared for use.
Glycerine and Oil Enemas are beneficial in some cases, and Gelatine Enemas have been resorted to to stop certain types of internal haemorrhages. The doctor occasionally orders sedatives to be given in the form of enemas.
Starch Enemas are sometimes given to check diarrhoea.
Obtainable from all chemists and stores. Price 2/6. Hospital size (three times the quantity), 6/- a packet.
Sterilizing—Various Requirements for Surgical Dressing
Well-equipped hospitals always have on hand the most approved materials for dressing wounds, but this is not often so in private homes, although provision certainly should be made for at least the common emergencies which arise.
In any case involving surgical treatment absorbent cotton wool, soft sponges, gauze dressings, bandages, safety-pins, and dressing scissors will usually be needed, and these should be carefully protected from dust, or other contaminating influences.
The nurse, in addition to the above, must provide a bowl to use in washing the wound, or moistening the dressing when it adheres when being removed, and another for washing the hands, both containing Broadleaf-Sol—I to 40 (see p. 190).
Facilities for sterilizing any instruments used, by boiling for twenty minutes, must be provided. A receptacle should be placed for the reception of the soiled dressings.
If a cut or incision has to be made, there should also be at hand a surgical needle, two artery forceps, sharp scissors, a scalpel, catgut ligature and a suture of silk or silk gut, and if it is necessary to open an abscess, also a packet of gauze packing and drainage tubing. These, however, will be provided usually by the doctor, who will state if it is necessary for the nurse to procure anything.
The first essential of modern surgery is absolute cleanliness. The dressings and instruments must be sterilized to assure their being free from germs, and no dust or dirt can be tolerated.
In a private home all the conveniences that are found in a well-equipped hospital cannot be expected, but if an operation is to be performed it must be carried out in a well-lighted and well-ventilated room. If possible only minor cases are treated privately as almost everyone goes to a hospital for surgical treatment.
In surgical work, one of the first requisites is for the nurse to have the hands absolutely clean. Before applying a surgical dressing or assisting the medical man, the hands should be scrubbed with a nail brush with hot water and an antiseptic soap such as Broadleaf-Sol Soap (see p. 190) and rinsed in fresh hot water. The finger nails, which should be kept short, should be thoroughly cleaned. Then the hands should be immersed in an antiseptic solution made with Broad-leaf-Sol and hot water, i to 40 (see page 190).
The nurse should note the methods of the surgeon when he is putting on any dressings and then if required to change them she will be certain of the procedure to be followed. In this, as in everything connected with nursing, intelligent and quick, gentle handling are essential. Remember, it is important that no detail should be neglected, and strict attention to the hygienic technique just explained should be given. Further, surgical technique demands that unsterilized objects must be handled only by a person who does not come in contact with the open wound and that the clothes of the person applying the dressings and the assistants should be sterile— that is, absolutely clean from a medical standpoint.
For surgical dressings the material generally used is bleached gauze, and there are sterilized gauze sponges and gauze dressings in various sizes that are ready for use, as well as packets of gauze medicated with various antiseptic preparations. The one most commonly used is iodoform gauze. When none of these can be obtained, any thin, smooth white absorbent cloth—old linen is suitable—may be used after it has been boiled for ten minutes to render it sterile.
To keep dressings in places which cannot be bandaged successfully, narrow strips of adhesive plaster are used to pull the edges of the wound together (see illustration, p. 61) and the dressing may also be kept in place with similar strips of plaster. In removing, less pain will be experienced by the patient if it is done quickly, beginning at both ends and pulling towards the centre.
Oiled silk is a useful protection placed over a gauze dressing especially where there is much discharge or when a wet dressing is applied.
Coughs and Colds now Overcome by the Inhalation of Medicinal Vapours
To end Coughs and Colds It is not now necessary to take nauseating Cough Mix-fective that every year the demand is palatable, and have proved to be so ef-These Wonder Cough Drops are most each year.
purpose tons and tons are manufactured Wawn’s Wonder Cough Drops, for which Medicinal Confectionery known as Vapours,” contained in a special form of sary is to inhale certain “Medicinal tures into the stomach—all that is neces-growing larger and larger. Place one of the Wonder Cough Drops on the tongue
and allow to dissolve slowly, inhaling regular, deep breaths while doing so. You will be surprised at the result.
The medicinal virtues contained in each Wonder Cough Drop are inhaled right on to the sore and inflamed parts, exerting a soothing, antiseptic, healing action and quickly banishing all troubles. Wonder Cough Drops are packed in special screw-top bottles.
Obtainable at all Chemists and Stores. Price, 2/6, or direct from Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
SUMMARY OF EMERGENCY FIRST-AID HINTS
What to Do in Sudden Emergency or Accident Until Medical Help Arrives.
Whenever possible any but slight cases of injury or disease should receive skilled professional treatment, but there unfortunately arise occasions when prompt temporary measures must be taken to alleviate suffering or to avoid loss of life. The principles of First Aid, therefore, should be known by everyone, and this knowledge is here given in condensed form.
The extent of the emergency treatment administered will naturally depend on the circumstances and on how soon medical aid is available, but sufficient help must be given to provide for the patient’s comfort and welfare until skilled attention can arrive.
The question may further arise as to whether it is best to summon a doctor to come to the patient, or to transport him to the medical practitioner. What is decided, of course, depends on circumstances. If broken bones are suspected, it will be better to render measures to protect life only, and otherwise leave the sufferer as little disturbed as possible until the doctor arrives. If a doctor cannot be summoned to the spot, then, of course, the patient must be transported on an improvised stretcher, on which he is made as comfortable as possible. In the case of sudden sickness, particulars of what to do will be found in other sections of this book under the name of the particular disease.
Animal Bite.—Wash wound with warm antiseptic solution made from Broadleaf-Sol and hot water, i to 40 (see p. 190), or if these are not available bathe very liberally with warm water, apply Wawn’s Wonder Balm, and bandage.
If the wound is from a wild animal encourage bleeding in order that any poisons or foreign matter from the teeth may be removed. Then apply treatment to restore respiration (see p. 61).
When breathing is restored, but not before, give coffee or weak spirits as a stimulant. Massage the limbs and apply hot water bottles.
Bleeding—External.—Apply pressure immediately with finger or thumb until a firm pad of Healo Wool (see p. 194) can be applied, then bandage firmly. If bleeding is very profuse press an artery supplying the part, either with the finger or a tourniquet. If bleeding from limb, keep limb raised. Summon medical aid as quickly as possible. ‘
Bleeding from Nose.—Lay patient down and apply cold compress to the forehead. Profuse, persistent bleeding may require the nostrils to be plugged with antiseptic gauze, clean rag, or preferably, Healo Wool (see p. 196).
Spitting or Vomiting Blood.—Lay patient on back with shoulders raised, fan face vigorously and apply warmth to feet.
Improvised Tourniquet.—Place a stone about two inches in diameter, or some hard object, in centre of handkerchief folded corner-wise. Place pad immediately over main artery, tying ends loosely around limb. Insert stick through loop thus formed and twist until the resulting pressure stops the bleeding.
Bruise.—Apply a cold pack of muslin moistened with water, changing frequently. Rest injured part, the arm can be supported in a sling.
Burns—(Skin is not Broken).—Apply Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 193), Boracic Powder, or a thick paste of Bicarbonate of Soda.
Broken Skin.—Bathe with a solution of Broadleaf-Sol 1 to 40 (see p. 190). Keep covered and lightly bandaged with Healo Wool (see p. 194) to protect from air.
Severe Burn of Child.—Place in warm bath and undress carefully, cutting away clothing if necessary. Apply remedies as above.
Person’s Clothes on Fire.—Wrap in blanket or coat and roll on floor to extinguish flames. Never pull away clothing forcibly. First remove surrounding cloth with scissors and then soak off.
Choking.—Pass finger or handle of spoon along inside of cheek to back of throat and endeavour to hook and draw the obstruction forward. If teeth are clenched together insert handle of spoon flat between teeth and turn edgeways to lever jaws apart, at same time slap smartly between shoulders.
After obstruction is removed, if breathing has ceased, apply artificial respiration (see p. 61).
Cramp.—If in legs apply cold object to soles of feet and massage muscles. If in stomach apply hot water bottle or hot fomentations. Give regular dose of Wawn’s Pain Drops (see p. 191) in hot water.
Cuts.—Apply Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 195) and bandage. Stop bleeding if necessary. (See Bleeding).
Ear.—A foreign object in the ear should not be extracted with hairpin or other instrument, as it may cause serious injury. Pour in a few drops of warm olive oil, and see doctor at once.
Electric Shock.—Switch off current if possible, if not stand on pile of DRY clothing and with hands gloved, or covered, remove victim from contact.
Eye.—To remove foreign body, bathe freely with warm water, or better, dip face under warm water and open and shut eye frequently while doing so. Another method is to draw lower lid or raise upper one according to location of foreign body and remove with corner of a handkerchief. If this fails turn upper lid over match while patient looks down at the ground. The object then may be seen and can be removed as above. If eye is irritated after removal a drop of castor oil will soothe it.
Fainting.—Lay patient flat on floor, loosen tight clothing from neck and chest. Apply smelling salts to nose. When able to swallow give sips of cold water or weak spirits or sal volatile in water. If unable to lay patient down, and if in sitting position bend head forward and down between knees.
Fits.—Summon doctor at once. If a child, place in warm bath and apply cold cloths to head. An adult should be kept lying down with the head raised. Restrain violent movements only. Insert stick between teeth to prevent biting of the tongue. Loosen tight clothing from neck and chest. When recovered allow to sleep from two to three hours.
Fracture.—The patient should not be removed before the broken bone is fixed by splints. Arrest bleeding. Secure a doctor’s advice as quickly as possible.
Splints may be improvised in an emergency from umbrellas, broom handles, boards, tightly rolled newspapers, cardboard, etc. If leg is fractured splints should be tied above and below fracture. Pad splints with any clothing available.
Frost Bite.—Rub with snow or cold water until circulation is restored. Do not place patient near fire.
Gas Poisoning.—Do not enter room with naked light or strike a match. Cover nose and mouth with wet cloth, holding the breath. Turn off gas and open the windows. Remove patient to fresh air. If his breathing is weak or stopped apply artificial respiration.
Nose.—A foreign body in the nose should be removed by blowing or sneezing. Do not use an instrument or injury may be done.
Poisoning.—Send for doctor at once stating it is an urgent case of poisoning.
If the lips and mouth are stained DO NOT give an emetic.
If strong acid has been swallowed such as sulphuric acid give chalk, whiting or magnesia in water.
If from an alkali such as caustic soda give weak vinegar or lemon juice.
If Carbolic Acid or Creosote give a dessertspoonful of Epsom salts in water and repeat in half-an-hour. Give water freely in all above cases also white of egg, gruel, milk, thin arrowroot or cornflour.
Patient Unconscious.—Inject into bowels by means of an enema one pint of warm (not hot) coffee.
Breathing Difficult.—Apply cloth wrung out of hot water to throat. Moisten with steam from kettle. When able give ice to suck. If breathing has ceased, apply artificial respiration.
Abdominal Pain.—Apply hot fomentations or poultices and give Wawn’s Pain Drops in hot water internally.
Faintness or Collapse.—Give weak spirits. Retain all the vomited matter for doctor’s inspection.
Scratch.—Apply Wonder Balm (see p. 193).
Snake Bite.—See p. 54.
Spider Bite.—See Snake Bite.
Stings.—Remove sting with tweezers and apply Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 195), or weak solution of ammonia, soda bicarbonate or permanganate of potash dissolved in water. If any severe inflammation or illness arises see doctor at once.
POISONS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES
Acetic Acid. Citric Acid. Muriatic Acid. Tartaric Acid.
Alkalis—carbonate of soda and potash—also lime and magnesia are antidotes to these poisons. As soon as the acid is neutralized, mucilaginous teas, such as flax-seed, gum arabic, or slippery-elm may be given.
Sulphuric Acid (Vitriol)
Soap, in solution, or magnesia will counteract its influence. Water should not be given, as it causes great heat when mixed with this acid.
Nitric Acid (Aqua Fortis). Oxalic Acid.
Lime-water, carbonates of lime and magnesia in solution, are the only antidotes. Give mucilaginous drinks.
There is no special antidote, except alcohol. Oil, glycerine, milk, flour and water, whites of eggs, magnesia, and flax-seed tea may be used.
Oil of Bitter Almonds.
These agents are speedily fatal.
Ammonia, by inhalation or in solution, may be used. Apply a cold douche to the head.
Liquor of Ammonia. Water of Ammonia. Muriate of Ammonia.
Vegetable acids, such as vinegar, lemon juice, citric and tartaric acids, neutralize this poison.
Liquor of Potassa.
Nitrate of Potassa (Saltpetre). Carbonate of Potassa (Pearl-ash). Salts of Tartar.
All the fixed oils, such as linseed, castor and sweet oil, also almonds and melted lard destroy the caustic effects of these poisons. Mucilaginous drinks may be given.
In its different forms.
Starch, wheat flour mixed with water, whites of eggs, milk, and mucilaginous drinks are excellent antidotes.
Volatile Oils and Agents
Creosote (Oil of Smoke).
Oil of Tar.
Oil of Turpentine.
The same antidotes as in case of poisoning with iodine may be used in this, or the stomach may be evacuated with an emetic or a stomach-pump.
A powerful emetic of mustard should be given at once, cold should be applied to the head, and the extremities vigorously rubbed.
Antimony and Its Compounds
Butter of Antimony.
Oxide of Antimony.
If vomiting has not occurred, induce it by tickling the throat and giving large draughts of warm water, after which administer astringents, such as infusions of galls, oak-bark, Peruvian bark or strong green tea.
Arsenic and Its Compounds
Yellow Sulphuret of Arsenic.
Red Sulphuret of Arsenic.
Oils, or fats, lard, melted butter, or milk should be given; then induce vomiting with sulphate of zinc, sulphate of copper or mustard. Fine powdered iron rust or magnesia may be given every five or ten minutes. Mucilaginous drinks should be given as soon as the stomach is evacuated.
Copper and Its Compounds
Avoid the use of vinegar. Give albuminous substances such as milk, whites of eggs, wheat flour in water, or magnesia in water.
Lead and Its Compounds
Acetate of Lead (Sugar of Lead). White Lead.
In lead, or painter’s colic, purgatives and anodynes may be given together with large doses of iodide of potassium. Give a strong cathartic, as there is always marked constipation.
Mercury and Its Compounds
Albumen in some form should be given; if poison is not absorbed, follow with a mustard or tartar emetic.
Veratrum Viride( American Hellebore) Aconite.
The general treatment indicated for this class of poison, is to evacuate the stomach with a stomach-pump or an emetic composed of fifteen or twenty grains of sulphate of zinc or copper, or large doses of mustard, repeated every quarter of an hour until the full effect is produced.
Belladonna. Stramonium. .
Morphine, sassafras, iodine and stimulants.
Nux Vomica. Strychnia.
Large doses of camphor, chloroform, and tobacco, may all be beneficial.
Poison Oak. Poison Vine.
Muriate of ammonia, in solution, may be applied externally, and from ten to fifteen grains given internally. Soda is also useful.
Sassafras may be used as an antidote for henbane. Belladonna is an antidote for opium; cold water should also be applied to the head of the patient, and the extremities should be well rubbed. Patient should drink a large quantity of strong, black coffee.
Excite vomiting by drinking sweet oil. Sugar and water, milk, or linseed tea in large quantities, and emollient injections are valuable.
Don’t use lukewarm water to stop bleeding-—it only increases it. Use either ice, ice cold water, or water as hot as can be borne.
Don’t apply cobwebs, tobacco or mud to stop bleeding.
Don’t give stimulants to bleeding patients.
Don’t put bare fingers or finger nails into a bleeding wound.
Don’t keep tight bandages or tourniquet applied for longer than necessary.
Don’t apply any dressing or bandage except surgically clean ones.
THE TREATMENT OF SNAKE-BITE IN AUSTRALIA
(Reprinted from the Medical Journal of Australia, 17 October, 1933.)
Success in the treatment of bites by venomous snakes depends in large measure upon the immediate application of first aid. It is important to be able to recognize at the outset whether the bite is by a venomous or a non-venomous species. The bite of a non-venomous snake need not cause any concern, apart from the development of septic infection in the wound. This may be guarded against by thorough cleansing with soap and water, followed by the free use of an antiseptic—U-Sol (see p. 195), carbolic acid, or permanganate of potash crystals—and the application of an antiseptic dressing.
Character of Puncture Marks from Teeth.—The bites of nonvenomous snakes usually show many puncture marks, four rows being made by the numerous and well-developed maxillary and palatine teeth.
In bites by venomous snakes the puncture marks may vary from one to four; one if only one fang has entered, two if no reserve fangs are present, and three or four if there is a reserve fang on one or both sides.
In a bite by a venomous snake, the distance of the single punctures apart (if there are no reserve fangs) or the distance of the pairs of puncture marks (if reserve fangs are present) afford some indication of the size of the snake and of the probable quantity of venom injected.
Bites by the rarer venomous snakes of small size (about one foot or eighteen inches long, and not exceeding the thickness of a finger) are, for the most part, not dangerous to man. In regard to the young of the common venomous species, bites from reptiles of this size may prove fatal, especially in children. Energetic treatment should therefore be adopted in cases of bites by these snakes.
It is important to be able to recognize at least the common venomous snakes. These in order of their danger to man, are: (1) the death adder; (2) the tiger snake; (3) the copperhead; (4) the common brown snake; (5) the red-bellied black snake.
The mortality following the bites of these species is about 50 per cent for the death adder, 40 per cent for the tiger snake, and less than 10 per cent for the brown snake. It is doubtful if the bite of the black snake is ever fatal for an adult, and the very few recorded deaths have possibly resulted from copperhead bites. Bites by the copperhead are rare, although this snake is a very common one.
The death adder is a snake with a short, stout body. It is brown, red or grey in colour, with darker cross bands; it has a broad, rough-scaled head and a yellow spine at the tip of the tail, which tapers off very sharply. It is nocturnal in habit, buries itself in sand or
amongst leaves in the day time, and generally does not strike till touched. Its length is from eight or nine inches to two feet six inches. It occurs in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia.
The tiger snake is a much larger,species. It is broad-headed, and average specimens are from three to five feet in length; it shows great variation in colour and, except certain black and dark-brown forms occurring in the islands of Bass Straits and Tasmania, is transversely banded. The colour varies from light grey to dark green or orange with dark transverse bands. This species is almost unmistakable. It occurs in every state in Australia.
The copperhead is a sluggish snake met with principally in swampy country. It is shorter and stouter than the brown snake, but is likely to be confused with the red-bellied black snake, for it shows great variation in colour. Specimens may be yellow, brown, or black, the belly is usually yellowish. In many specimens orange or red lateral scales give the appearance of a longitudinal band of that colour down each side of the reptile. The average length is from three to four feet. It occurs plentifully in New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, and near the Victorian border in South Australia.
The common brown snake is a longer and more slender reptile, whose length ranges up to five feet. It has a narrower head and is brown or grey in colour. Apart from its general build and great speed in the field, it may readily be distinguished from the copperhead being higher from the ground than the other Australian species. It is widely distributed throughout Australia.
The red-bellied black snake is a large, solid snake of a black colour with a metallic sheen. The lateral scales of the body and the belly and ventral scales are red. It is found in swamps and on hillsides, near river flats or swampy ground. Like the last-mentioned snake and unlike the copperhead, the anal scale is divided and some of the subcaudals are paired. It occurs in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia.
First-aid Treatment.—First-aid treatment varies with the site of the bite. If the bitten part be a limb, a ligature or ligatures should be applied within a few seconds after the bite. If the bite be upon a part where ligature is impossible excision of a small area surrounding the fang punctures should be carried out without delay.
Ligature.—A ligature is of value only in retarding, while it is applied, the entry of venom into the circulating blood. In the instance of bites by brown snakes the venom of which contains a powerful and diffusable coagulant, the ligature may prevent death by checking thrombosis.
The ligature should be sufficiently firmly applied to obstruct the arterial flow into the ligated part. It should be placed round a part of the limb containing only a single bone. Ligatures round the wrist, forearm, ankle, and calf are valueless, since deeply seated vessels lying between two bones cannot be obstructed. Under these circumstances the ligated part becomes very swollen and the venom leaks steadily into circulation while the ligature is still in position. In every case of a bite upon a limb a ligature must be applied upon either the thigh or the arm above the elbow joint.
The properly applied ligature gives time for local treatment to be carried out and slows down the entry of venom during the time which elapses before medical treatment can be administered.
The ligature may be left in position for half an hour, after which time it should be lifted for at least a minute or until the ligated part becomes pink with the entry of blood, then the ligature is reapplied at once. This proceduYe should be carried out every quarter of an hour to avoid serious damage to the tissues by prolonged local anoxaemia. Under these conditions a ligature may be safely used for one to two hours, when it is probably wise to discard it altogether.
In bites by tiger snakes the ligature should be removed as soon as the treatment has been injected, but if this is not available early, it should be given as soon as possible after the ligature has been removed.
Excision.—Excision should be carried out immediately after a bite upon an area where a ligature cannot be applied. N. Hamilton Fairley advises excision of the skin and subcutaneous tissue over an area, including the punctures, a little greater than a square inch. The excision should be extensive enough to include the deepest point reached by the fangs.
Excision is of no value whatever unless carried out at once and is therefore seldom made. The surface should, if possible, be washed or licked to remove venom on the surface of the skin before excision. It is of value to apply suction either by the mouth or by a dry cup immediately afterwards. The surface of the excision and the surrounding skin may with advantage be washed with weak potassium permanganate solution.
If the bite be upon an area above which ligatures can be applied, excision of the area including the fang marks is still the best treatment if applied immediately.
Incision.—Incision is not a very satisfactory method. Theoretically the incisions should be made along the tracks of the fang punctures, starting from the punctures and being roughly at right angles to a line joining them. As the tracks are directed somewhat obliquely backwards and inwards, and it is often uncertain exactly how the snake gripped the part, it is better to make two nearly parallel incisions through the region of each puncture, starting in front of the line joining the marks and extending behind it. Blood should be squeezed through the incisions out of the ligated part by bandaging it firmly from the ligature downwards. Persons applying first aid to themselves will frequently use this method, as it requires great physical courage to perform excision.
Local Venesection.—Local venesection may be carried out in snake-bites on the limbs if the patient is seen by a medical man within the first hour or two and the ligature has not yet been removed. In principle it depends upon washing out the part with the patient’s awn blood. A second ligature, theoretically tight enough to obstruct the venous return, but not the arterial flow into the limb, is placed in position immediately distal to the arterial ligature. An incision is made into one of the veins draining the area in which the bite is situated, and a succession of small blood lettings from this vein is carried out by lifting the arterial ligature for a minute or two and leaving the venous ligature in position. Some venom (in animal experiments about a third to a half of the amount injected) can be removed in this way, and the treatment is useful. In a child the blood can be replaced by transfusion from a suitable donor. In an adult a pint or a pint and a half of blood can be removed in flushing the bitten part in this way.
General Treatment.—The patient should be made to rest. He should not walk about, for the increased circulatory rate induced by exercise will speed up absorption of the poison. Furthermore, rest is desirable on general grounds, and no additional stress should be inflicted on the nervous system.
Alcohol is undesirable except for those accustomed to its use, and even then should be given only in small amounts. The best beverage as a stimulant is hot black coffee. Strychnine is of doubtful utility and in large and repeated doses may be dangerous to the patient.
Circulatory shock should be combated by keeping the patient warm and giving plenty of fluid.
The supreme danger is that of respiratory failure, and the use of morphine is, therefore, contra-indicated.
Finally, it is of the first importance that the patient should not be allowed to become the victim of his own fears.
The great majority of snake-bitten persons should recover if adequate treatment is adopted. In cases of bites by the tiger snake the mortality if Antivenene (a special vaccine prepared for this purpose) is used, should be negligible. Otherwise the death adder is the only snake the bite of which is still likely to be attended by a substantial mortality. Treatment of bites by this snake should be energetic. If the patient be seen immediately after the bite, excision of the bitten area should be performed. If the first few minutes have passed, but the patient be seen within two hours of the bite, treatment by local venesection should, if possible, be performed, provided that a ligature has been previously applied.
Authors.— C. H. Kellaway, M.D. (Melbourne), F.R.C.P. (London).
F. G. Morgan, M.B., Ch.B. (Melbourne).
FIRST AID AND BANDAGING
Emergencies—Severe Bleeding—Tourniquet—Cuts and Wounds— Suffocation—Artificial Respiration—Bandaging—Triangle Bandage —Fractures—Burns and Scalds—Electric Shocks—Heat Exhaustion —Freezing—Unconsciousness.
A physician should be called upon in all cases of injury or serious emergency or disease where possible.
These suggestions are intended to be helpful in emergency or where skilled service cannot be promptly secured.
Often lives are lost or in danger when a doctor cannot be had promptly.
Every person should be familiar with the simple methods that are herein described, as it may save one's self or a dear one much pain, or even life.
Keep cool, control yourself and others, so as to give most effective help.
Shock, Collapse, Fainting
The patient may be unconscious or the mind may wander—body cold. Face white, pinched, anxious, eyes dull, pupils dilated. The heart acts rapidly, a weak pulse, shivering, faintness.
Severe bleeding is one of the common results of shock and should be first controlled; if from the womb, pack the vagina with a tampon or gauze bandage roll pressed well up against the mouth of the womb.
If from a wound, apply a tourniquet, which consists of a pad to go on the artery with a handkerchief, towel or strip of firm cloth to hold it in place. This is put loosely around the limb, and a stick inserted and used to twist the cloth until it is tight and the bleeding stops. See illustration on next page.
Until this can be applied, the bleeding should be stopped by firm pressure with the thumbs or fingers.
Bleeding from an artery is bright red, comes in spurts, and is most dangerous. That from a vein is steady and of a dark red colour, while capillary haemorrhage is a brick-red oozing not easily controlled by pressure.
A clot of fibrin will usually form in a blood-vessel and naturally stop a haemorrhage in about twenty minutes, if aided by pressure.
Cuts and Wounds
If there is a spurt of blood, apply pressure with the finger, thumb or palm, as the size of the wound may make it necessary.
Look at the diagram on page 60, showing the location of the arteries and apply pressure to them, or a tourniquet, and then properly dress the wound.
Dirt and foreign bodies should be removed with hot water, and if it can be had, Iodine may be applied in a strength of about fifteen drops to two tablespoonfuls of water, or a like amount of alcohol, or twice as much whisky or brandy.
Dress with a clean pad of cloth, and surround with a suitable bandage as described on the pages that follow.
If there is shock or faintness, follow the directions given under that heading.
Treatment.—Place patient on back, with head low, so that the blood can easily enter the brain. Loosen the clothing.
Warm the body with hot bricks, or hot water bottles, with flannels wrung out of hot water to chest and stomach, and stimulate the circulation by brisk rubbing under blankets, or other covering—rub toward the heart.
Give plenty of good fresh air by fanning—ammonia water on the fan will help.
Stimulants may be given.
Swallowing is difficult, and patient may struggle. Give only a few drops at first.
If patient can swallow, stimulants may be given, such as (a) hot coffee or tea, (b) a table-e spoonful of brandy in hot water, or (c) twenty drops of sal volatile in hot water.
These may be given by injection into the lower bowel if the
When the sufferer is a child, strangled by whooping cough or a foreign body, clear the throat with a cloth by pulling the tongue forward and wiping anything out; then the sufferer may be held up by the feet, head downwards. This tends to favour the expul-
sion of a foreign body or fluid, and to open the glottis.
Pressure is applied to the short ribs, relax the pressure, so that the air may enter the lungs, count four slowly, thus giving four seconds’ interval; repeat steadily.
Sometimes a smart slap on the back will dislodge a foreign body.
If natural breathing does not soon recur, resort to the Schaefer method of artificial respiration as follows:
For suffocation due to drowning or other causes, such as breathing of poisonous gases.
Lay the patient flat, slightly on one side, back uppermost, pull the arm underneath upward and bend it so that it will lie under the forehead.
The face must be placed to one side so that the air will not be blocked from entering the nose and mouth, sometimes it is wise to pull the tongue forward to let any water or mucus drain out.
Kneel at one side or astride the body, but do not rest any weight upon the subject.
Place the hands on each side of the chest low down across the short ribs, the thumb tips about a finger’s length apart, the palms and fingers extending around the ribs.
Press down with sufficient weight to expel the air from the lungs.
Release the pressure and the air will rush into the lungs—count four seconds, slowly, and repeat the process regularly.
Persons have been thus revived even when it has been necessary to keep up this artificial respiration for an hour and a half. Patience and perseverance are required.
The Triangular Bandage is one of the most valuable. Two can be made from a piece of cloth about a yard square, cut diagonally across from the most distant corners.
If a larger size is needed a sheet may be cut likewise.
Method of applying triangular bandage for dressing of a wound or burn of the hand follows.
The Triangular Bandage folded of such a width as may be necessary makes a cravat.
For the Neck.
Applied to hold compress upon the Eye.
Method of Application for injury of the Eye, Forehead, or side of the Face.
Method of applying the triangular bandage in cravat roll for a wound of the Palm or the back of the Hand.
Triangular Bandage applied as a sling or as a supporting dressing for the forearm will be found illustrated on the following page.
A Broken Forearm
The appearance usually shows by the deformity where the bones are fractured.
Sometimes the broken bones have cut through the skin.
Straighten the broken bones by gently drawing them into place and apply a splint well padded with cotton or clean cloths.
The usual method is to cleanse the surface with hot water and apply a temporary dressing until a physician’s care can be had.
A Triangular Bandage may then be applied as illustrated, or if not
to be had the sleeve may be pinned to the shirt or waist front as shown in these diagrams.
A Broken Upper Arm
Where this is present the arm should be supported with a well-padded splint applied between the shoulder and elbow, then apply a triangular bandage (illustrated on next page) as a sling to hold the weight of the lower arm and hand from dragging upon the broken bones. This dressing will give support and reasonable comfort until a competent surgeon can be had. In all fractures to prevent deformity skilful care should be speedily obtained.
A Broken Collar Bone
Where this is present a depression on the bone can be felt with the fingers. Unable to raise arm. Treat shock and dress as follows until surgeon can be had:
Place a soft pad a little over a half-inch in thickness in the armpit, bend the elbows so that the forearm and hand will rest across the upper part of waist and hold in place with a sling as illustrated.
A Broken Leg
Roll up a blanket so as to make a trough in which the leg can be gently placed. Applying one palm above and the other below the break —underneath the leg, lift gently and have support drawn under the fracture. A pillow may be used.
The toes and foot should be held in the same general position as on the uninjured leg—not turned outward nor inward.
If patient must be moved get two splints, one for each side of the leg. They must reach from above the knee to the heel.
Light boards will answer.
They must be applied outside the pillow or blanket-roll and held in place by several bandages or straps.
None of these supporting straps should pass over the point of fracture or pain will be severe. In case of emergency a cane or an umbrella may be used for the outer splint and the other leg used for the inner splint, all held comfortably in place by bandages and padding.
The patient cannot stand, but usually the thick muscles prevent detection of the fracture.
A long splint or thin board must be used for the emergency treat
ment of this dangerous fracture. It must reach from the armpit to the heel; fix in place with not less than seven encircling strips that should be applied to the chest as well as to the well-padded limb.
An inner strip from the crotch to the foot is helpful, but if not to be had tie the thighs and legs together. Pneumonia is a common aftercomplication. Keep patient warm and speedily secure expert attendance.
Burns and Scalds
Never drag the clothing off a burn or a scalded part of the body. Cut off all the cloth you can with scissors and soak what remains stuck to the wound with olive or castor oil, vaseline, fresh lard or cream. Remove only when it comes off readily.
Wawn's Wonder Balm (see p. 193) should be smeared over the surface to keep it from the air.
Treat shock or faintness with hot drinks, fresh air, and rest in bed. Bums from Acids.—Treatment: Wash off quickly with water, baking soda and water, or apply soap-suds.
Alkali burns, as ammonia, caustic soda, etc., wash off with water and apply weak vinegar, cider, or lemon juice; again wash off, and dress as advised for other burns.
Electric Shock—Rescue From Live Wire
Quick action is necessary. Protect yourself with rubber gloves or a mackintosh, rubber sheeting, several thicknesses of silk or even dry cloth. If possible stand on a dry board, or paper, or a dry coat.
Pull the sufferer quickly from the wire or electric rail, but grasp only his clothing, and this must not be wet.
A live wire may be safely cut with a hatchet, or axe with a dry wooden handle, or the wire may be short-circuited by dropping an iron bar upon it between the patient and the source power. Be sure and let go the bar before it touches the wire.
When an individual becomes faint, or is overcome by heat, there is usually great weakness, but seldom unconsciousness.
Symptoms.—The face is usually pale and covered with clammy sweat, a weak and rapid action of the heart, and shallow breathing.
Treatment.—The patient should lie down in a cool, well-ventilated place.
Let him sip cold tea, iced coffee or a little wine, or Chateau Tanunda Brandy freely diluted.
For some time afterward give one or two Elixir Vitae Tonic Tablets (see p. 192) as a heart tonic.
Remove patient at once to a cool, well-ventilated place. Loosen or take off as much clothing as possible.
Apply ice or cold water to face, neck, chest and armpits.
A cold bath may be given, or wrap the patient in a cold, wet sheet pack, rubbing briskly to prevent shock.
As consciousness returns let the patient drink freely of cold water. If the skin becomes hot, the cold pack should be again applied.
No stimulants should be given, but for several days one or two Elixer Vitae Tablets (see p. 192) should be given after meals.
Gradually restore the warmth to the body by rubbing the limbs toward the body. As soon as conscious give hot tea or coffee in small quantities, or a little hot whisky or brandy in frequently repeated small doses.
When the pulse becomes of good strength and the skin warm, patient may be given a warm bath and put to bed.
To avoid pneumonia, move the bowels with one or two doses of Super Laxative Tablets (see p. 192) and give five or ten grains of quinine. One or two Elixer Vitae Tablets (see p. 192) should be given after meals for several days.
Unconsciousness or Insensibility
Alcoholic poisoning is the most common. Patient may usually be partially aroused, pupils are natural size, or enlarged, and the eyeballs are sensitive to touch.
Apoplexy is caused by the bursting of a blood-vessel causing pressure on the brain; this usually causes an unequal size of the pupils and the eye-balls are not sensitive to the touch; pulse is dull and unnaturally slow. There is usually paralysis on one side of the body.
Treatment.—Rest the patient with the head elevated. Apply ice or cold cloths to the head; heat should be applied to the limbs.
Give no stimulants.
For drunkenness, give an emetic of mustard and lukewarm water, followed with strong coffee, or a half-teaspoonful of aromatic spirits or ammonia in water. Keep patient warm and follow the advice given for Shock and Collapse. Afterward strengthen the heart by using a suitable tonic, and absolutely prevent the further use of alcohol.
THE EXPECTANT MOTHER
Pregnancy—Morning Sickness—Quickening—What To Eat—Exercise and Rest—Clothing—Mental Attitude—Value of a Tonic.
Advice to the Expectant Mother
The main reason for the establishment of marriage was for the bearing and rearing of children, and the man and woman who enter the marriage state with the intention of having no family have a mistaken idea of its intent and usually find that the home without children ends by being an unhappy one. Healthy, properly trained children bring happiness to the parents, cement their interests together, and are a solace in old age.
Therefore, to beget healthy children parents must be in a healthy and happy condition, especially during the period of pregnancy.
Signs of Pregnancy.—None of the early signs of pregnancy taken alone is positive proof that conception has occurred, as any one of them may be caused by something else. The more of them present at the same time, the more certain is the probability that the person experiencing them is pregnant.
The stoppage of menstruation is usually the first and most certain. As a rule it is complete, but occasionally the flow occurs once after the conception, but in such cases is usually diminished in quantity and lasts for a short time. Very rarely, but occasionally, menstruation may continue, slightly changed in character, at the usual menstrual periods, throughout pregnancy.
Morning sickness, or the nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may come on within a few days following conception, but usually it does not occur until the fifth or sixth week. It is experienced early in the morning and is aggravated by rising and moving about.
It varies in severity from mere nausea, or the raising of a mucus, to the ejection of part of the breakfast, and, even in occasional cases, to the rejection of all food at no matter what time it is eaten. It is seldom that it prevails throughout the entire duration of pregnancy and usually ceases near the end of the fourth or beginning of the fifth month.
Regular hours of eating will do much to prevent this sickness. Therefore do not eat between meals, or at least until digestion of what has already been partaken of is completed. During the continuance of the morning sickness, hot milk, or cocoa, will often prove beneficial, though occasionally in some cases, ice cold milk seems best, not only in partly allaying the trouble, but in causing a portion of the nourishment to be absorbed, even if all of that given seems to be ejected. Solid food, however, should not be omitted entirely, if it is possible to take it. Later, when this symptom subsides, or completely ceases, the problem of nutrition is not so difficult of solution, for the digestive powers increase and the flesh lost in the early months is recovered.
Enlargement of the Abdomen does not begin at once. In fact, for the greater part of the first two months, this part of the body is actually flatter than normally, but at the end of this time it begins to assume a prominence. This, with the increase of the girth of the waist, rapidly becomes greater until about two weeks before confinement, when it appears to have diminished.
The enlargement of the abdomen is accompanied with a corresponding enlargement of the breasts. They develop a firmer, more knotted character, and are fuller, while a prickling, stinging sensation is felt throughout their bulk, but especially in the neighbourhood of the nipples, which become sensitive to the touch as well as more prominent by increase in size. The coloured discs, of which they form the centre, spread out farther over the surrounding skin and, by the end of pregnancy, cover two or three times their original area. At this period also, faintly tinted, bluish, reddish, or silvery lines in the skin have developed, which radiate over the breasts, and enlarged veins, forming a coloured network beneath the surface are much in evidence.
If for any reason the nipples should become shrunken and undersized, they should be given special attention, especially during the two months preceding delivery. The treatment should consist of drawing them out gently and massaging them daily, between the thumb and fingers, with a light, rolling motion. If, in addition, cold water is applied to the breasts generally, and the whole organ is briskly, but not roughly, rubbed, it will assist materially.
Irritable Bladder.—Anywhere from about the termination of the first to the end of the second month some little irritability of the bladder may develop and persist with increasing discomfort, compelling more and more frequent urination, until the fourth month, after which it usually subsides together with its attendant troubles.
Quickening is the name given to the first unmistakable movement of the child in the abdomen felt by the mother. The time of its occurrence varies considerably, but it is usually from the sixteenth to the twentieth week. At one time it was popularly believed that it was the endowment of the embryo with life, but actually life commences with conception.
After the fifth or sixth month, the movements are often so marked that they may be felt by the hand placed over the abdomen, and sometimes they are so strenuous as to cause pain. However, the absence of any discernible motion from pregnancy to delivery does not necessarily denote that the child is not alive, nor that matters are not progressing as they should.
As soon as pregnancy is supposed or known to be established, by the evidence of one or more of these symptoms, the prospective mother must bestow more thought upon her diet, bathing, amount of exercise or work, her rest, mental activity, emotions and the performance of the various bodily functions, especially those of elimination, so that, by greater caution and care she will minimize the chance of any untoward happening. She must also wear clothing adapted to the requirements of the new conditions.
What to Eat.—General instructions only regarding diet can be given, for what agrees perfectly with one person may disagree with another, but each individual should realize that she must provide for the physical demands of two beings—both herself and child—and to accomplish this she must eat generously of the foods which are most nourishing and most easily digested, personal preferences and dislikes being duly considered. It will invariably be found that the simpler foods best meet these requirements.
While meat contains strengthening and supporting elements of great value, any excessive use of it tends to increase the size of the child and make its bones less supple—two factors which increase the difficulty of labour. Do not omit it altogether but use it in moderation and it is preferable prepared in any form other than fried.
Vegetables, fruits, eggs, butter, milk, and chocolate and cocoa, should be regarded as the mainstays of nourishment. There is no objection to tea or coffee in moderation, but rich puddings and pastries, also undue quantities of sweets, pickles and condiments should be avoided.
Often quite a longing for unusual or special foods and dishes develops. If it is for things which agree well with digestion, it may be yielded to—to some extent at least; but if the craving is for unsuitable things, especially those which cause distress or disturbance of the action of the stomach or bowels, it must be denied.
A few trials will show the woman who is in doubt what agrees and what disagrees with her, and by continuing the former and discarding the latter, she will soon have the knowledge of what is best suited to her own needs.
Exercise and Rest.—The amount of work and physical exercise which is advisable depends very largely on the previous habits of the woman concerned. Those who are accustomed to a life of physical activity and to the care of the household in its many departments should continue the lighter and non-exhausting tasks only. While those who have led a more or less sedentary existence should prepare p for confinement by exercise consisting mainly of short walks and light household duties. In every case fresh air and sunshine should be courted assiduously.
Although exercise is a requisite which cannot be omitted the pregnant woman should never fail to secure ample rest, and a period taken for recuperation after even the least wearying work is imperative. Nothing should ever be started when feeling tired, nor should anything be continued after this condition develops. Simply ceasing from activity is not enough, one should lie down in some quiet, comfortable place until feeling quite rested.
The need for sleep should be equally obvious. Early retiring, d long sleep, and also a good long nap after the midday meal is the routine to be observed.
Clothing.—The clothing should be in weight such as is best suited to the season of the year and it need differ in no respect from that usually worn, except that it should exert no pressure upon the breasts, so as not to interfere with their natural development during pregnancy. Neither should the abdomen or waist be closely confined, for the activities of these parts of the body should not be hampered in any way. Corsets and tight waist-bands interfere directly with the constantly enlarging womb and have an evil influence on the development and growth of the child. They also favour the development of kidney trouble and inflammatory disorders of other abdominal organs, and so must be done away with absolutely. This can easily be accomplished by having all garments supported from the shoulders.
The Importance of Mental Attitude.—If she, upon whom motherhood is shortly to be conferred, will but recollect that child-bearing is a purely natural function, as normal as eating and sleeping, and that, with proper care, the chances are she will pass through it without much trouble, it will be of material benefit to herself and the child.
Pregnancy being a period when the emotions are more easily aroused, the expectant mother should avoid everything that is unpleasant, disturbing, worrying, temper-trying, or saddening. In this she should have the co-operation of her husband and family. She should occupy herself pleasantly, keep her mind on the brighter thing? of life and choose, for her associates, those of a happy disposition, and not those who delight in doleful stories.
Further, she should keep herself well in hand, maintain an even temper, be cheerful at all times and endeavour not to yield, under any circumstances, to fits of melancholy, peevishness, bad temper, or general depression.
It is beyond question that the correct mental attitude of the prospective mother has a definite effect on the disposition and mental qualities of the child, as well as increasing the probabilities of an easy confinement.
The Value of a Tonic.—To make assurance doubly sure that all will go well with both mother and child, before delivery and after, much can be done by the aid of good medical treatment.
Regular action of the bowels is of paramount importance, and at least a daily action of the bowels should be assured.
The kidneys and bladder being liable to be upset, any disorder should be guarded against, and a tonic which will build up the general constitution will be of the greatest value.
For this purpose, Fematon can be highly recommended. (See p. 191.)
Men and Women Over Thirty Should Take
WAWN’S BUCHU BITTERS
The correct functioning of the Kidneys is absolutely essential to the well-being and general health of every person—male and female. The Kidneys relieve the blood of surplus liquid and poisonous wastes —enough of which are created in the system every few hours to cause certain death unless drained away through natural avenues.
These wonderful internal filters—the Kidneys—work unceasingly day and night, and unless they are in fit condition to carry away the dangerous Uric Acid, this poison is quickly absorbed through the system.
The resulting symptoms are associated with aches and pains, giddiness and indigestion, fits of depression and a general drowsy and irritable feeling. This quickly leads to distressful bladder disorders and the more serious complaints of Lumbago, Gout, Sciatica, and Rheumatism quickly appear.
Irritated and inflamed conditions of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder readily yield to treatment by Buchu Bitters. This medicine has a direct and specific action on the Kidneys, correcting weak or defective action of the blood-filtering mechanism. It promotes activity of the urinary system, preventing the urine being retained too long in the bladder, and it overcomes the tendency of the urine to deposit its solids (as happens in Gravel, Stone, etc.). When the bladder is irritated or inflamed by Uric Acid, keeping the patient in constant discomfort and disturbance at night, Buchu Bitters clear the offending deposits and soothe the mucous membrane of the bladder.
Take it just before retiring—a double dose—in plain or soda water. It cleanses the Kidneys—asepticizes the Bladder and Urinary Organs—and ensures a sweet repose.
While you sleep, it does its work—you wake refreshed, invigorated, freed from worry, and ready for a hard day’s work.
Obtainable from Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, 4/6 bottle. Postage fid. extra. For Chronic Cases Course Treatments consisting of 6 bottles of Buchu Bitters, sent post free for 25/-.
LABOUR AND AFTER-CARE OF THE MOTHER
First Stage of Labour—Second Stage—Dressings—The Newly-Born Baby—After-Care of Mother—Nursing Baby—Premature and StillBorn Infants—Diet for Mothers.
Two hundred and eighty days from the first day of the last menstruation is the usual period of child-bearing. This may easily be calculated by adding eight days to the first day of the last menstruation, and then counting ahead nine months.
Supposing the beginning of the last menstruation was ist January, add eight days, which would be 9th January, plus nine months, which would be 9th October. At about this time labour is to be expected and would occur in the majority of cases.
Labour may be regarded as a magnified menstruation. It is not an abnormality but is a normal manifestation of a woman’s life, and as a rule is not associated with any particular trouble.
Millions are born throughout the world every year and but a small proportion have physicians to care for them. Skilled help is a great advantage and should always be had if possible, but is not absolutely essential unless there is some accident or an imperfection in a woman’s make-up, when a physician’s help is invaluable.
Sometimes labour starts before a physician, nurse, or midwife can be secured, in which case the knowledge in the following pages will be invaluable to the person who acts as a home nurse.
If there is a choice of bedrooms in the house, the expectant mother should take the biggest and airiest of them for her confinement, and it should be sunny and bright, with the bathroom and nurse’s room as convenient as possible. The room should be thoroughly cleaned a week before the expected confinement and then kept in order as is usual in the average home.
The bed should have a firm spring-mattress without any sag in the middle—tighten it if necessary. The right-hand side of the bed should be well situated in regard to both natural and artificial light. Over the mattress should be laid a rubber sheeting four feet square, then a blanket, over this a sheet, and on top of this another piece of waterproof sheeting covered by a draw sheet. If a rubber sheet is not available several thicknesses of brown paper will do in an emergency.
Th^ following items, which should be obtained well in advance of the anticipated time, will be needed.
Three dozen large-size sanitary towels, two pounds of absorbent cotton wool, three binders, safety-pins, nail-brush, Castile soap, a bed pan. an enamel douche, quart size, with six feet of rubber tubing complete with vaginal and rectal nozzles, a pair of strong, sharp, clean scissors, two enamel bowls twelve inches in diameter, two hot water bags, one roller towel, stout linen thread, cut in twelve-inch lengths and the ends knotted together to form strands of three; a bottle of Broadleaf-Sol, four ounces of pure vaseline, half a pint of methylated spirits, boracic powder, Wawn’s Antiseptic Dusting Powder, and an enamel slop-bucket.
The dressings, such a diapers and linen thread, should be sterilized by baking in the oven for an hour, taking care the heat is not sufficient to scorch them.
THE FIRST STAGE OF LABOUR
Labour pains occur usually about a week before labour. The womb appears to settle down into the pelvis and some discomfort begins to be felt (as a result of the pressure) in the bladder and the lower bowel, but the breathing, on the other hand, becomes easier.
There is, it would appear, a sort of “tuning up” of the womb for a few hours to a few days before labour begins. Even false labour pains may be experienced for an hour or two and then pass off.
The regular pains usually begin with pressure felt in the back, or backache, and pressure on the bladder and lower bowel, and in the first stage are not very evident but increase in intensity as labour proceeds. They occur for a minute or so at intervals of from
OUTLINE OF THE FEMALE URINARY AND GENERATIVE ORGANS
7'he above diagram is introduced here to assist in conveying a correct idea of the Urinary and Generative Organs of Woman, their form and relative positions, together with the bones muscles and other tissues forming the cavity of the pelvis in which the organs rest, and by which they are protected. By dividing that portion of the body directly through the middle from before backward, we first cut through the cushion of fat (mons veneris) covering the pubic bone, then in succession the bone, bladder, womb, vagina, rectum, front half of spine, spinal marrow, rear half of spine, and lastly the muscles and skin. Just underneath the bone in front is revealed that sensitive organ the clitoris, a facsimile of the male organ in miniature, the head of which protrudes, while the body is covered with tissue, but is readily traced with the finger. Farther back is the urethra, or water passage, which is one and a half inches long. Next is the vagina. When closed, its mucous lining is folded in upon itself, and requires dilating in order to be cleansed and to apply remedies. On the vagina rests the hollow, pear-shaped womb, the small end of which protrudes into the vagina, and in which is a small opening, leading through the neck into the cavity of the organ. On either side of the womb, near its top, are the Fallopian tubes leading to the ovaries, situated between the womb and hip bones. At every menstruation these organs throw off a germ-cell which passes through the Fallopian tubes info the uterine cavity.
a quarter to half an hour, gradually lasting longer as well as becoming more frequent, until a little stain of bloody, watery mucus is noted. This is termed “the show’’ and is a definite evidence of labour. (Once labour is known to have started no time should be lost in summoning the doctor, especially if a sudden rush of water should occur.)
Dribbling of the water which surrounds the child occurs as the head is forced down and the cervix or neck of the womb fully dilates. This usually takes from six to twelve hours and is called the “first stage of labour.” During this time, the patient may stand up, sit or kneel, all of which favour the dilation of the mouth of the womb, but every effort to bear down at this time is of little value.
Pains when severe are best borne by the patient lying down until the membranes rupture of their own accord.
Treatment.—A full bowel or bladder greatly prolongs labour so that water should be passed whenever there is the slightest desire and an enema of soap and water should be administered in the early stages.
The patient may have a bath, following which the nurse should thoroughly cleanse the external parts with Castile soap and water containing one teaspoonful of Broadleaf-Sol to the pint, the direction of the cleansing process being from the vagina towards the bowel to prevent infection from the latter region.
THE SECOND STAGE OF LABOUR
The pains increase in frequency and intensity, spreading to the genital passage, where they become most acute. Then the membranes rupture, to be followed by a rush of water, and the second stage of labour has begun.
The patient should now be in bed (prepared as before directed), lying on the left side, with the knees drawn up and the buttocks well towards the right-hand side of the bed. When the pains appear, she should endeavour to hold her breath and to bear down, and to aid her in doing so, it is a good plan to fix an upright board across the foot of the bed to press her feet against and then she can get counter pressure by grasping and pulling on a roller towel tied to the foot of the bed. The patient will experience comfort if the nurse rubs the small of her back during the spasms of pain, which become very intense at intervals of every few minutes.
At last the time comes when the baby is about to be born and the nurse perceives the baby’s head peeping out and bulging the peritoneum. It is of the gravest importance that any of the cleansing of the external parts at this stage should be carried out with a swab of sterile cotton wool soaked in a solution of one teaspoonful of Broadleaf-Sol to a pint of water, the piece of wool being stroked away from the vagina once only when it should be discarded and a fresh piece taken.
Usually the doctor will take over the case now, but in his absence, the nurse must assist in the delivery. The head, if it is a normal presentation, comes down with each pain during which the patient should be instructed to stop bearing down and asked to cfy out, while the head of the baby is being delivered. As the pressure on the rectum may cause the ejection of stool a cloth should be placed to collect any that may be forced out.
As the head begins to push, the perineum bulges out, and a moist sterile towel should be pressed against the fundament or perineum to slow down the too rapid pushfng out of the head of the child. This, with the crying out of the patient, will prevent a tearing of the vaginal outlet, for if the stretch is gradual, this is not likely to occur.
At about this stage the physician may give the patient five drops of chloroform to inhale.
During each pain, the head comes out and afterwards seems to go back a little. After a pain has passed, the physician, midwife or nurse should introduce the forefinger (of course it is understood that the hands have previously been sterilized and kept so) to find out if the cord surrounds the child’s neck. It can be readily felt and should be gently brought out over the child’s head to prevent strangulation.
The pressure of the sterile towel against the perineum is kept up during the pains and the back of the child’s head gradually comes out and is usually extracted between pains; first the back of the head, then the forehead, eyes, nose and chin, all directed in a general way upwards toward the ceiling.
The mouth of the child is now cleared of mucus with the finger wrapped in sterilized gauze. After the head is out a brief rest is allowed, when, with one hand on the abdomen clasping the region of the womb and aiding it with the other, gently and gradually pull upon the child so as to draw out the lower shoulder over the perineum. Then the upper shoulder is drawn out, from under the pubic bone in front.
The perineum must be protected during this procedure by pressure of an assistant’s hand covered with a moist sterile towel.
The remainder of the child’s body is born readily and with it comes the rest of the “waters” usually retained until this time.
The assistant should continue to keep the pressure of the hand upon the abdomen and uterus, which feels like a large ball in the pelvis. This is to prevent haemorrhage. Usually physicians administer a hypodermic injection or give fluid extract of ergot to stimulate the tired uterus to contraction and aid delivery.
Just before the child is delivered, a large sterile sheet is carried up under the patient’s feet close to her buttocks and when the baby is born it is placed upon it, and the cord tied when the baby has cried.
If the baby does not cry, hold it up by the feet, with head down, and gently slap its buttocks. If this fails, as soon as the umbilical cord stops pulsating, or does so feebly, when felt between the fingers, quickly tie the umbilical cord tightly an inch from the baby’s belly with the prepared thread and tie another ligature about two inches farther away, and the umbilical cord is cut between these two ligatures, the cut end on the baby being immediately covered with a piece of sterilized linen.
A hot bath should have been previously prepared, in which the body of the child can be immersed. For this purpose a small enamel dish should be used with the water at 115 degrees. Its face should be supported above the level of the water and its body curved forward like a half moon; then lift the child out of the water and let its head hang down. This will inflate the lungs. This may be repeated several times. Sprinkling cold water on to the chest will sometimes cause it to breathe. This dipping in warm water and sprinkling with cold, should be repeated until the child cries vigorously, after which it can be rolled up in a warm blanket or flannel and put in a crib with a warm hot water bag near.
The After-Birth.—During all this procedure someone has kept a firm but gentle grasp on the uterus with the hand on the abdomen. Now the patient should turn on her back, while the pressure is still kept on the uterus, which can be felt through the abdominal wall to reach to the level of the navel.
The uterus will be felt to become alternately hard and soft. During the periods of softness, it may be gently rubbed to stimulate contraction. Usually within about twenty minutes the after-birth will separate from the womb and come away. Its expulsion can be aided by gentle pressure on the womb from above. A sterile diaper is then placed over the external parts and the patient is wrapped in several blankets and kept warm, if necessary, by the application of a hot water bottle. She will then probably fall into a sound sleep and awake refreshed.
Bleeding only occurs when the womb does not contract thoroughly, the grasping of the uterus and the administration of ergot that has been taken prevent this. If flow recurs another dose of ergot may be given, or the use of an injection by means of the douche, of one half-pint of boiled vinegar in a quart of water also boiled and allowed to cool to a temperature of 115 degrees Fahr.
When the patient awakens, an antiseptic douche of Broadleaf-Sol Solution (see p. 190) is given. Then wash the outside parts also with this solution, dry them with a sterile cloth and remove the bed pan and uppermost soiled sheet.
The mother’s chill or shiver should be prevented, after the child is born, by giving her a hot drink of tea or milk.
Tears in the perineum should be stitched at once before the benumbed parts become sensitive.
Surgical Dressings.—A folded, sterilized piece of gauze is placed against the vaginal opening and a binder is applied around the abdomen and hips, so as to hold the parts in their natural position and to support the womb.
THE CARE OF THE NEWLY-BORN BABY The Eyes.—When the child is born, its eyelids should be wiped from the nose outwards with a piece of cotton-wool soaked in boracic solution.
The navel cord should be dressed. Tie it a second time, half an inch from the body and touch the raw end with tincture of iodine. Cut a square of sterile gauze with a hole in centre through which lay the stump of the cord; sprinkle well with boracic acid, place over it two or three thicknesses of sterilized lint and apply the binder around the belly. Every day more boracic power is applied and the binder reapplied. Some time about the tenth day or before, the cord dries up and drops off, leaving the navel as a little raw spot. To this, each day when the bath is given, a drop or two of tincture of iodine diluted with the same quantity of water, should be applied and a dry sterile pad put on.
AFTER-CARE OF THE MOTHER
The doctor will usually order medicine with the object of causing the uterus to contract and to expel the natural discharges, and this should be given faithfully.
After a day or two, the head and shoulders of the patient should be elevated more and more, on pillows or a head rest. This prevents backache and helps the action of the kidneys as well as draining the womb.
The Bladder.—The urine is secreted rapidly after confinement and the mother should be encouraged to pass it regularly, at least every four to six hours. At first this may be difficult, but the application of hot packs or the pouring of water into a bowl when the patient is on the bed pan, may, by the power of suggestion, start the flow. ^
If there is any persistent obstruction a glass catheter may have to be introduced. When the patient urinates, the external parts should be washed and dried and dusted with Wawn’s Antiseptic Dusting Powder (see p. 191.)
The bowels are partially paralysed, so two days after labour a large dose of castor oil should be given. This cleanses the bowels without the bad effects of salts and other laxatives which withdraw fluid from the system, so retarding the activity of the breasts.
Bowel Injections.—It is also necessary to use injections daily for the bowels, because they have been so compressed that they have lost their tone or power. If it is necessary to give them renewed strength this can be done by injecting a solution of Broadleaf-Sol soap.
Nursing the Baby.—The milk usually appears about the third day. As soon as the mother has had three to four hours’ rest the baby should be put to the breast and this should be done every four hours during the day-time, but not at night until the secretion of milk is established.
Five minutes at a time is about as long as the child should be let suckle for the first three days or the nipples will become tender. Nursing the child is beneficial because it causes contraction of the uterus and thus naturally expels the blood-stained mucous discharges that may cause a feverish condition. Further, the child gets a laxative from the breast that empties the bowels of a chocolate-coloured thick fluid that is replaced or followed a few days afterwards with the golden-yellow digested mother’s milk. Suckling the child is, also, the best means of increasing the flow of milk.
Caked breasts are best cared for by frequently suckling the child, and, if required, the application of hot cloths wrung with alutn water and the wearing of a breast binder, not too tightly applied.
Breast Binder.—For the first few days it is advisable to bind up the breasts to keep them from hanging uncomfortably. Massage of the breasts usually does no real good, while it often makes them sore.
When Should the Mother Get Up.—About the sixth day the commode may be used at the side of the bed. The patient should have assistance at first, so as to avoid faintness. After the tenth day, those who do well can sit in a chair or walk a few steps. Gradually increase this freedom daily until strong.
Return of Menstruation.—As a rule, from four to eight months will pass before the changes recur in the mother. It returns much earlier in mothers who do not nurse their children, and the first or second unwell period is often profuse.
Premature infants are those babies born before the normal period of pregnancy, and who in consequence commence life with their organs not completely developed, the degree of under-development depending upon how long before full term they were born.
Because of the immature condition of their organs they require special care and attention (i) to keep them warm, (2) to supply them with correct nourishment, (3) to safeguard them from infection.
As a prematurely-born infant becomes chilled much more rapidy than one delivered at the complete period, it should be rubbed with warm oil immediately after birth, wrapped in warm flannel, placed in a warm crib and kept warm by the use of hot water bottles, but care must be taken to see that it is not burned or becomes too hot.
The feeding of the premature infant is a problem peculiar to each individual case, and one on which skilled advice is needed from the physician. Owing to the fact that the initial loss of weight, experienced by all babies, is relatively greater in the case of the premature infant, and because of the extreme need of sustaining the strength of the latter, feeding should usually commence earlier—within twelve hours after birth. A supply of mother’s milk is the most suitable food, and if the services of a “wet nurse” are available, they should be secured. The amount and frequency of the feedings depend upon the strength and digestive capacity of the infant, and the results should be carefully watched and acted upon in accordance with the indications. It is usual, however, to feed such infants every two hours during the day and every three hours during the night. It is also important to give the premature infant water (boiled and cooled) to which is added sugar in the proportions of a tablespoonful to seven ounces of water.
Premature infants having a low resistance to cold and infection, should be handled and exposed as little as possible. Hand-feeding should be effected with baby lying in the crib, and the diapers changed without removing him and the least exposure to the air that can be contrived.
Still-Born Infants.—Children are sometimes born apparently dead, and, if proper treatment is not quickly administered, the condition may pass into real death. In such cases, so long as the heart continues to beat, even but feebly, there is hope that properly directed efforts will stimulate breathing and the infant will live.
Causes.—Constitutional weakness, so that the effort to commence breathing is not made or it may be due to obstructed circulation arising from pressure or twisting of the navel cord; too long continued compression of the head during labour; or tenacious mucus in the mouth may be preventing the ingress of air.
Treatment.—The first thing is to clear the throat and nostrils of mucus, which can be best done by placing the baby in a prone position and applying pressure along the back, seizing the mucus as it appears with a piece of sterilized gauze.
Secondly, excite respiration by applying hot and cold douches alternately to the skin. The continuous warm bath, as distinguished from the sudden alternate hot and cold baths, is to be carefully avoided, as causing the loss of time in the application of more important measures.
Thirdly, and a most important measure, is to imitate the process of breathing which may be accomplished by rotation and pronation with pressure.
Additional Treatment.—The first efforts to promote breathing should be made before the navel string is tied and severed if pulsations are felt in it. Obstructive mucus should be carefully wiped awray from the mouth and throat, and the general surface exposed to cold air. An attempt should then be made to excite the function of breathing by blowing in the infant’s face, sprinkling cold water with some force on the infant’s chest, or alternately with cold and hot, and by administering several smart blows with the hand on the buttocks, hips, back and chest. The back and limbs should be well rubbed while the face is freely exposed to the air.
Another good method of exciting breathing is to close the infant’s nostrils with the finger and thumb, press the windpipe gently backwards, and then blow into the mouth in order to drive air into the lungs. The ribs should then be pressed, so that the lungs are forced to expel the air in them. This process should be repeated about fifteen times in one minute and, if persevered in, is likely to be successful. During the operation, the body should rest on a flat surface and be well rubbed with warm flannels, while the head during these efforts should not be allowed to fall upon the chest.
If these means are not successful, and pulsation in the navel cord ceases, tie and divide the latter (as directed on p. 82) and plunge the infant into a warm bath at 98 degrees Fahr., or which is comfortable to the back of the hand. If the sudden plunge does not excite breathing, it will be no use to keep the infant in the bath beyond a minute or two but to try the following method:
Place the infant on its face, turn the body gently but completely on the side, and a little beyond, and then back on the face; alternately repeating these movements deliberately, efficiently and perseveringly as nearly as possible to the exact rate of fifteen times in the minute.
Diet for Nursing Mothers.—The diet for a nursing mother should be appetizing, nutritious, and laxative. As a rule, she may follow her inclinations so long as foods which upset the digestive processes are avoided, as baby will be disturbed as a result.
If the milk flow is scanty, a more generous diet is needed and should be supplied by more fresh milk, eggs, fresh vegetables, ripe fruit, nourishing liquid foods, and plenty of water.
Constipation should be guarded against and, in this respect, it should be remembered that ripe fruit and bran bread are laxative, and the addition of Vege-lax (p. 193) to the diet is very valuable. Particularly drink plenty of water, and a glass of hot water on rising in the morning has a beneficial effect on the bowels. If it is necessary to take medicine, System Corrective (p. 192) is advised.
The following diet is recommended to mothers:
All kinds of soups.
All kinds of fresh fish, steamed or boiled.
Meats once a day—beef, mutton, lamb, veal, ham, bacon, rabbit or poultry.
Eggs freely, especially raw or very lightly cooked.
All cooked breakfast foods with milk and cream and sugar.
Brown, bran or wholemeal bread is preferable to white and not freshly baked.
All green vegetables—peas, French beans, asparagus, cauliflower, spinach, white and sweet potatoes, celery, lettuce and other plain salads, with olive oil if it can be eaten.
Desserts should consist of plain custard, baked or boiled, stewed fresh fruits or prunes.
Pastry should be avoided.
Fruits should be partaken of freely.
Drinks—milk, cocoa and plenty of water are good. Tea and coffee should be used in great moderation.
Remember, if the diet seems irksome, that it is for the welfare of both yourself and baby. If you are well, then baby will thrive also.
CONFIDENCE INSPIRING LETTERS
“I have taken your treatment (“Nova-Vita”), and am looking and feeling a new man.”—F. W. L., Tamworth, N.S.W. (see “Nova-Vita,” p. 162).
“I am now feeling splendid after two weeks of your (“Catarrh”) Treatment. The dropping of the mucus stopped, the nostrils became quite free. I sleep like a top and enjoy my meals and am in perfect health thanks to your treatment.”—S. J., Kogarah, N.S.W. (see P- 123).
“For fifteen years I suffered with Muscular Rheumatism and after consulting several doctors, was told there was no remedy for this complaint. A few months ago I was recommended to take your wonderful medicine and I am pleased to say it is now completely overcome, after taking two Course Treatments of same.”—Mrs E. G., Hawkwood, Q’ld (see Rheumatism, p. 164).
"I have derived great benefit from your treatment for Bad Legs. The ulcer is beginning to heal up. I have had the ulcer for over nine years and had quite given up hope of ever getting it healed and was in a very low state of health, but I am pleased to say that I am ever so much improved. Your treatment acted like a charm.”— Mrs E. C. R., Rose Hill, N.S.W. (see Bad Legs, p. 118).
“You are at liberty to do as you like with this testimonial. I have suffered for four years with a heavy stricture and gravel in the bladder. I have tried doctors and medicines and they did me no good. I was advised to take your treatment, and after taking it my trouble was completely overcome and I would advise anyone with the same complaint not to hesitate in taking same."—E. J. D., Camboon, Q'ld (see Kidney, Bladder and Urinary Disease, p. 148). .
“Thanks for forwarding me the Treatment. I was suffering at the time from a disordered condition of the Kidneys and Bladder—the after effects of Gastric Influenza. Your remedy effectually relieved the pain and inconvenience from which I was suffering and soon restored the affected organs to a normal condition again.”—Mr W. D., Waverley, N.S.W. (see Kidney, Bladder and Urinary Diseases, p. 148).
“I am writing to tell you of great benefits I derived. I had been in hospital for twelve months and bed-ridden for over twelve months, and I can honestly say that I am completely freed by your remedies. I recommend it to anyone who complains of Sciatica and I can guarantee it to give great relief.”—Mr C. L., Ohakune Junct., N.Z. (see Rheumatism, p. 164, and Sciatica, p. 166).
FIRST YEAR OF BABY’S LIFE
Clothing—Feeding—Bathing—Care of Eyes, Mouth, and Skin— Training—Fresh Air—Growth—Weight—Teething—The Bowels— Weaning.
The progress of a baby during the first year of its life is dependent on three factors: (i) That the baby is healthy and well nourished when born; (2) that the baby’s mother is healthy and strong; and (3) that the baby receives care regarding proper feeding and general hygiene, and is made to form regular habits.
The baby that is born healthy and robust usually gives little cause for anxiety, and so long as plenty of fresh air is combined with correct food and sleep at regular times, he will be happy and contented.
Clothing Baby.—Every expectant mother finds great delight in planning for the arrival of the first baby and the preparing of its clothes is a source of pleasure. These may be dainty and attractive, but they should also be serviceable. The materials used shotxld be light, warm and non-irritating to the skin, and they should be fashioned in such a manner that the free movement of the infant’s little limbs is possible so that he is able to exercise his arms and legs without being hampered by tight or heavy clothes. No tight constricting bands which would restrict the movements of the chest or abdomen are permissible, for it is absolutely essential that baby should be able to breathe and fully expand the lungs with the greatest of freedom. Baby should be clothed in three layers.
The First Layer should comprise a vest composed of softest flannel, which will not irritate the skin. This garment should be long in the body, fit high up around the neck and have long sleeves. It should be made to open down the front and to wrap over and tie at the neck and waist. Binders are sometimes used, but usually they are unnecessary and restrict the abdomen too much. A napkin is also worn and fastened with a safety-pin.
The Second Layer consists of a back flannel which also ties in the front. Its edges should be bound with tape or ribbon, while the texture of the flannel chosen should be light yet warm. The top of it around the chest should be made double in order to give support to baby’s neck. The lower end should be tucked up over the baby’s feet and fastened with a safety-pin, but plenty of room should be left in order that baby can stretch and move the legs, while care should be taken to see that the vest beneath is pulled down, as otherwise it will rumple up away from the napkin and cause discomfort.
The Third Layer consists of a frock made of finest woollen fabric for the winter, and of silk for the summer months. It should be about twenty-four inches long. In cold weather a matinee coat should also be worn. A shawl will also be needed and will serve to protect the head, neck and arms. A bonnet, except in cold weather, is not desirable, as it impedes the beneficial action of the sunlight and fresh air on the scalp and hair, and if the head is not accustomed to a bonnet the cold will not be felt any more on the head than on the face. Woollen boots are not essential either, as the flannel, properly folded around the feet, affords them ample protection, and it is better not to constrict the feet. Tight woollen boots often form an obstruction to the circulation, and sometimes cause a deformity of the feet.
Clothing at Night.—A soft downy flannel vest and a long nightdress, which should tie in front, should be the night attire of baby. The cot clothes should provide sufficient warmth, and will vary according to the weather, but they should always be light in weight. No pillow is necessary.
All baby’s clothes should be made so that they open down the front. This facilitates easy dressing, as he can be laid on his stomach across the knees and the layers of clothes put on in order with his arms through the sleeves. Then, when all the clothes are on, he can be turned over on the back and the clothes conveniently fastened. In this way the baby is dressed rapidly and without any unnecessary turning and handling.
Feeding.'—The best of all foods is that provided by nature—the milk from the mother’s breast—except in those cases where, on account of the bad health of the mother, or for any reason the milk is of deficient quality, breast feeding is not considered advisable. (See Feeding Premature Infants, p. 84).
On the first day the baby should be given each breast for two minutes. While no milk is secreted at this period, there is a small secretion of a fluid which acts as a laxative and helps to clear the bowels of the baby. On the second day repeat this for three minutes, and lengthen the period each day, until the milk flow appears, which normally is on the third day.
It is important that the nipples should have been prepared beforehand and hardened, as otherwise, at first, the suckling will make them tender—as does also prolonged suckling in the beginning. During the first two days, before the mother’s milk is available, if the baby appears to be restless and thirsty, then a few teaspoonsful of water which has been boiled and cooled to ioo degrees Fahr. may be given.
When the milk flow appears a regular feeding at four-hour intervals should be firmly adhered to unless otherwise ordered by the doctor. Each feeding should be from fifteen to twenty minutes, though no hard and fast rule can be laid down. The baby should not be kept at the breast longer than necessary, in order not to induce the habit of feeble suckling. Care should also be taken to see that all the nipple is taken into the mouth, and both breasts should be used at each time of feeding. The order in which the breasts are presented should alternate at each feeding—that is, if the left breast was the one presented at the preceding time, the right breast should be given at the next. This assures that each breast is equally emptied at the alternate nursings, for the baby suckles stronger at the beginning of feeding than towards the end.
It is important that the breasts should be completely emptied, and in those cases where the milk supply is more than the baby needs, the excess should be drawn off by a breast pump, or this may even be done with the hand. If there is not enough milk the deficiency can be made up with one of the specially prepared milk foods. These are of similar composition to human milk and will not upset the baby in any way.
Table of Times for Feeding
Four Hourly. 6 a.m.
6 p.m. io p.m.
Three Hourly. 6 a.m.
12 noon 3 p.m.
The usual practice that is to be recommended is to feed the baby every four hours in the day-time and not to give it the habit of feeding at night. The four-hour intervals allow the stomach time to digest, and to pass on into the intestine the food which has not been absorbed, and also a brief rest of the stomach is assured before the next meal. Babies fed at this interval usually sleep more soundly, have a better appetite, and suckle more vigorously. Should the baby wake at night, do not give anything but a little warm boiled water on a spoon, and it will not form the bad habit of waking. The mother will then get the full eight hours’ sleep which is so essential to her wellbeing. A baby is very easily trained to form good habits in the first place, but it is very difficult to break a bad habit that has once formed. While the four hours feeding is usually the best, in cases where the baby is weakly and very small, weighing under six pounds at birth, it is advisable that it be fed at three hourly intervals, for a time at least.
A practice should be made of feeding regularly at the same hours each day, even waking the baby to do so, in order that good habits regarding the correct times of eating and sleeping may be instituted. A healthy baby will sleep for nine-tenths of the day, so it is important that it should awake, feed, and go to sleep again. If he does this he will be happy and contented and progress well. The care of the breasts at this time is of extreme importance. Baby should not be allowed to fall asleep while feeding, and when he has finished, the breasts should be washed with Castile soap and warm water. Night and morning the breasts should be bathed for twenty minutes with alternate changes of hot and cold water. If the nipples become sore some Friar’s Balsam should be applied.
When nursing the mother should assume a comfortabe posture, and a footstool on which to place the feet will aid her in doing so. A soft cushion placed on the knees may also conduce to greater comfort.
Baby should not be prematurely weaned from the breast just because the milk seems to disagree with him. In such cases consult a doctor rather than take the advice of possibly well-meaning friends. Also to provide the constant flow of milk the mother should drink more fluid than she usually would—at least a pint and a half more daily.
Bottle Feeding.—Where the breast milk is not sufficient it should be supplemented by artificial feeding with a bottle. This feeding-bottle should be of a type that is easily cleaned, with no awkward angles, and with a wide neck to facilitate cleansing and scouring, which should be immediately done after it is finished with. One of the best bottles is the boat-shaped one with a rubber teat on one end and a rubber air-valve on the other. Both teat and valve should also be removed and sterilized with boiling water, while the bottle after being scalded can be placed with one opening to the tap and the water forced through it. Then it should be again scalded and left in a basin of cold water which has previously been boiled and left covered with a piece of clean muslin. The teats should be dried and placed under muslin to protect them. Everything is then ready for the next feeding.
If this care is taken with the valves, teats and bottle, there is no danger of the baby developing any mouth disease, gastric or intestinal troubles, which are usually due to unhygienic methods of caring for the feeding appliances. The air-valve should be of the “nonreturn” type, which allows air to enter but not escape; this prevents the teat from collapsing and obviates baby swallowing air with the food. A reserve supply of teats should be kept, and when the hole in one becomes too large and the milk passes too quickly it should be discarded and replaced with a new one. It is important that the milk should not flow more freely than will allow the food to pass
under fifteen minutes. To test the rate of supply turn the bottle upside down, and if more than one drop per second comes from the teat the hole is too large.
Baby should be watched when taking food from the bottle to see that liquid is being sucked and not air.
The Correct Food.—The most vital period of a baby’s life is the first six months, as during this time the foundations of his physical »nd mental development are laid. Many after-weaknesses and ailments are due to wrong or inadequate feeding in the first months. Therefore, if artificial food has to be given, it must be a food which closely resembles the composition of human milk. There are prepared milks in powder form which very closely approximate these requirements, and only such should be used. Condensed milk and fresh cow’s milk are not suitable for the young infant. In the latter there is the further danger of it being contaminated by germs. A food containing starch is not suited to baby’s digestive processes either.
The humanized milk foods obtainable from the chemist are practically identical with human milk, and on them baby will thrive and form strong bone and muscle without any danger of disease arising as might be the case with other foods.
Over-feeding is the cause of many minor ailments. It does not follow that because a baby cries he needs more food. In the majority of cases the crying is the result of indigestion from over-feeding, or, if artificial feeding is being used, because the food is not suitable.
Baby’s stomach is very small, and, in the first few days of life, will hold little more than three tablespoonsful of liquid, so it is very easily over-loaded, and injudicious feeding may cause it to be painfully distended.
Over-feeding is not confined to bottle-fed babies, as those fed from the breast are often permitted to take too much, and in consequence will vomit. It should not be a difficult matter to regulate baby’s meals so that both over-feeding and under-feeding are avoided. It is symptomatic that the under-fed baby is often drowsy, quiet, and appears contented, while the over-fed one is restless, discontented, and appears ravenous. If care is not taken the mother may be misled by these appearances.
The Care of the Newly-born Baby.—After birth the baby should be wrapped in a blanket and kept warm. After the eyes have been cleansed as directed in the previous chapter a few drops of silver nitrate solution should be dropped into each eye. A warm bath should now be given in a warm room, followed, after drying, with a gentle rubbing over all the body with olive oil. Then baby should be again washed in warm water. The baby on no account should be immersed in water until the cord has separated, but should be sponged until this has occurred.
When desired the baby should be placed in the cot and covered with blankets.
Baby’s Cot.—The baby should not sleep with the mother, but in a separate cot, and the blankets should be fastened with safety-pins so that he cannot become uncovered.
Bathing should be carried out in a warm room, and should be performed quickly. When finished he should be rapidly dried. The water should be warm, at a temperature of 98 degrees, which is that of the normal human body. The temperature is best tested with a thermometer, but in its absence, it should be comfortably warm to the back of the hand.
Eyes, Mouth and Skin.—The eyes should be cleansed daily with a piece of cotton wool, dipped in a weak solution of boracic acid, and gently applied. The doctor should be consulted at once if there is any discharge, as it may indicate a disease, from which blindness might arise.
As baby’s eyes are very sensitive to light, the room where he is placed should be in semi-darkness at first, which can gradually be lightened day by day. Baby should never be placed in sunlight or very strong light in his early life.
The mouth will need a daily cleansing, and as it is very tender, careful, gentle methods must be employed. It is satisfactorily done by wrapping the forefinger in gauze and dipping it in warm water which has been boiled and allowed to cool. Throw the gauze away after use.
Baby’s skin being very sensitive should be kept clean and handled gently. Broadleaf-Sol soap should always be used in washing and the skin dusted with Wawn’s Antiseptic Dusting Powder (see p. 191), especially under the armpits and between the legs. Napkins should be changed as soon as they are soiled, while the process of laundering should be such that they are kept smooth and soft.
Training Baby into Good Habits is easy, and depends on the early treatment. Regularity of feeding and sleeping has previously been mentioned. Particular notice should be taken of the advice regarding the rule of no feeding at night. At three months the habit of regularly emptying the bowels, when placed on a small chamber can be formed. At the end of the first year, the child can be trained to convey to the mother his inclination to empty the bladder. Then napkins can be dispensed with.
Exercise is assured if the free movement of the legs and arms is allowed, and so long as there is nothing to restrict the natural healhy movements of rolling and kicking this will be quite sufficient.
Fresh Air is essential to building a healthy baby’s body and brain. Plenty of fresh air is, therefore, the rule, but a direct draught on baby
should be avoided. He must be kept comfortably warm also and, when possible, taken out in the open air. In warm weather after the first week he should be taken outdoors daily, for about fifteen minutes at first which time can be gradually increased.
The Growth of Baby.—Baby should be weighed weekly as it is a good indication of his healthy progress. During the first week there is usually a loss of from four to eight ounces in weight, but from then on he should gain from four to eight ounces every week.
Table of Average Weight for Babies
6 lb. 12 oz
2 weeks ....
...... 7 „
...... 8 „
...... 8 „
...... 9 „
10 „ ____
...... 10 „
12 „ ----
...... 11 „
...... 12 „
...... 14 ..
...... 15 ..
...... 16 „
32 „ . . . .
...... 18 „
36 „ ....
...... 19 „
40 „ —
...... 20 „
...... 21 „
48 „ ....
...... 21 „
A baby that is heavy at birth usually gains weight more slowly during the first couple of months, and a small baby more rapidly. If a steady advance in weight is evident, there is very little, if anything the matter.
If, however, after the first week there is not a steady gain of weight medical advice should be sought.
Height.—A growth of about eight inches is usual during the first year, the second year about three and a half inches, and then about three inches yearly.
Walking.—Bow-legs are usually the result of too early encouragement of baby to walk. If baby is left to himself he will normally attempt to raise himself on his legs about the ninth or tenth month. At about twelve months he will try to walk—do not hurry him or encourage him to undue efforts before he is strong enough to endure them.
Speech.—The first effort to speak is usually made towards the end of the first year, but girls will be found to endeavour to talk before this time. By the time two years have passed sentences of a few words will be spoken. If no attempt is made to speak by this time some defect should be suspected and medical advice sought.
Teething.—The first teeth—two lower central incisors—appear be-
tween the ages of six to nine months, and the four canine upper incisors between the eighth and twelfth months; and if baby is healthy, not constipated, and fed correctly, there should not be much pain or disturbance of the system.
The signs of teething are (i) dribbling, (2) the cheeks are slightly red and swollen, (3) the gums are red and tender, (4) the infant forms the habit of putting his hand to the mouth, (5) sleep is disturbed and restlessness is manifested during the day, (6) poor appetite, (7) a tendency to constipation and sometimes diarrhoea, (8) a slight rise of temperature, (9) a slight rash may appear on the body. Generally these symptoms will disappear after a few days, but if the rash persists it may be wise to see a doctor regarding it in case it is due to some disease.
During teething keep the baby warm and away from draughts. Keep the bowels regular. Do not rub the gums. If the appetite is poor do not force the feeding. Wawn’s Wonder Teething Powders (see p. 193) will be found very helpful, and will be found perfectly harmless if given according to directions.
The Bowels.—There are generally two or three motions during the first few days, and there should always be at least one motion in every twenty-four hours. Train the child into regular habits from the earliest time. The best way of doing so is to place a chamber between the knees and, while supporting baby’s back, place him upon it-Do this at the same time morning and evening after feeding.
The normal motions should be a pale buff to orange colour. If they should be greenish, it is due to some derangement of the intestines caused by the food, or the result of a chill. Slime or mucus in the motions is evidence of an inflammation in the bowel. This may be due to threadworms, or if the bowels are unusually free, to “summer diarrhoea.” If threadworms, these can be detected if the stool is examined, and a cure can be effected by an enema of salt and water. If diarrhoea is present, stop all feeding, and give boiled water for a day or so. Persistent diarrhoea demands the attention of a doctor.
Curdly motions are evidence of over-feeding, which causes indigestion owing to the food being beyond that which the delicate organism can properly assimilate.
Weaning.—Weaning should be done gradually to enable the baby’s system to adapt itself to the changed nature of the diet. However, if the foundation has been well laid in the first months of baby’s life, not much difficulty should be experienced.
Weaning should usually be commenced at the age of nine months, when the 12 noon breast food should be replaced by groats, bread and milk, or plain gravy or milk, and a week later a similar meal may be given at 10 a.m.
Drinking from a cup should be encouraged at this age, and a five-ounce feed of half milk and half water with the yolk of an egg beaten up in it forms a valuable 6 o’clock meal. Later the early morning and last feeds should be replaced by eight ounces of milk and water, given from the feeding-bottle.
As tolerance to cow’s milk and solid food is acquired, the milk may gradually be strengthened until undiluted milk is taken at the age of twelve months.
Breast feeding should be continued beyond the period of'nine months when baby is ill or much troubled by his teeth, or if the normal weaning time falls during December, January, or February.
If any undue disturbances arise during weaning make the process more gradual. In some cases, where weaning has been sudden, an engorgement of the breasts accompanied with pain may arise. This condition is best relieved by gently rubbing with the palm of the hand, the taking of a suitable laxative such as Wawn’s Super-laxative Tablets (see p. 192) twice a day, and the reduction in the use of liquids. _
AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF INFORMATION Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., the author of The Home Nurse and the discoverer of Wawn’s Wonder Wool and other famous remedies, has written a companion book, The Home Doctor—a guide to the modern treatment of, and home remedies for accidents and ailments of men, women and children.
When baby gets sick — when sonny or girlie is ailing — when you or any member of the family are ill or meet with an accident—this book of authoritative knowledge will prove a priceless possession. It will save you suffering, worry and expense.
The published price of The Home Doctor is one guinea, but it is available on the same terms by which you obtained The Home Nurse.
THE CHANGE OF LIFE
Indications of its approach—Treatment—Disorders arising—Bathing —Exercise—Diet—Precautions to assure Health.
The menopause, or, as it is popularly termed, “The Change of Life,” usually occurs between the ages of forty-five and fifty, and is manifested by the cessation of the menses, or “monthly periods.” The time for cessation depends to some extent upon the period of life at which menstruation commenced, which, in turn, varies in different constitutions and upon the climate prevailing where the individual lives. In temperate zones menstruation commences about the fifteenth year and terminates at the forty-fifty year. In warmer climates it commences and terminates at an earlier age.
As women approach this critical period of middle life, if the general habits of living and previous health have been good, the discharge may gradually diminish, and, at length, totally cease, without any particular ill symptoms being manifested, but this is seldom the case.
More frequently it happens at first that the discharge ceases for six or seven weeks and then returns more copiously than before. In some cases the flow is not only too profuse, but occurs too frequently. In other cases again many months may elapse before the menses return, and then they are apt to be pale in colour and small in quantity.
These irregularities of the functioning cause disturbances of the general health, for the flow of blood being withdrawn from the uterus, it is liable to be diverted to the head or some other part of the body. In fact, there generally arise constitutional agitation and disorders of all the organs.
There seems good reason for regarding this period as a critical one in a woman’s life because the morbid tendency which so often makes its appearance gives a disposition to the development of tumours of the breast and womb, and these are liable to make rapid progress at this time on account of their not being relieved by the customary exudation of blood. It is really a most favourable time for the awakening of latent disorder and morbid growths, for with the decline of the menstrual function the uterus is not so capable of resisting vitiating influences. There is also a greater liability to irritation of the bladder and rectum, and the menstrual flow may be superseded by a white, acrid discharge caused by inflammation of the mucous membranes of the vagina. Even if the system is not enfeebled by excessive losses of blood, debility may result from a continued irritation of the uterine organs and cause the discharge.
The nervous system sympathetically responds, becoming exceedingly irritable, and thus implicating every bodily organ in this derangement.
Treatment.—There should be regularity in all the habits of life before the approach of the “change.” Women, unfortunately, are too apt to disregard this important period without giving it due care and consideration. When the physical system is about to suspend a function it is folly to endeavour to perform the labour or assume the responsibilities which were permissible when the constitution was more robust.
Unconsciously perhaps, but none the less certainly in the majority of cases, do women enter upon this period regardless of the care they should bestow upon themselves. Without sufficient forethought, or an understanding of the functional changes taking place, they over-tax their strength, until, by continuous exertion, they break down under the strain of those labours, which to women of their age and condition, are excessive and injurious. It is not strange that, under such unnatural circumstances, when a woman has exhausted her energies, when her body is enfeebled with fatigue and her mind agitated with responsibilities, the menses capriciously return, or that the uterus is unable to withstand congestion and haemorrhage becomes excessive. If the constitution had not thus been exhausted and strained, it would have exercised its powers for the conservation of health and strength.
Is it not better and wiser to realize the ills which we are liable to incur, and fortify ourselves against them, rather than squander the strength intended for personal preservation? Then let every woman, especially every mother, consider her well-being and properly prepare for that grand climacteric which so materially influences her health and strength.
The general health should be carefully preserved by exercises of a light nature to regulate the circulation of the blood and the regular action of the bowels should be promoted by dietary habits which contribute to this end. A careful regulation of the habits, strict attention to the requirements of the system and the regular restoration of the system with Fematon (see p. 191), which is a woman’s tonic, especially valuable at this period, will enable this phase of life to be passed with the least discomfort or possibility of contracting life-long ailments.
Disorders Arising at Change of Life
Flushes.—Among the most prevalent symptoms of the change of life are flushes affecting the head and neck, and, to some extent, the whole or various parts of the body, and closely allied to these may be what are best termed heat flushes. Both symptoms are caused by irritation of the heart and congestion which occur at this period.
These flushes come on suddenly, and the face and body grow hot and red for a period of a few seconds to several minutes or longer. Perspiration arises at the same time or follows, and later there may be a sense of chilliness.
Menstrual Irregularity.—Variations in the menstrual function may be an early and lasting symptom of the change of life. The irregularity may be in respect of the duration of the periods or of the intervals in which they appear, or both. The quantity of the discharge may also vary.
If only slight changes are experienced, such as the missing of a period or two and soon finding the menopause established, the woman is fortunately spared from the annoyances of long drawn out menstrual irregularities, which in some cases last for months, while even the change of life involving a term of several years, is not infrequent.
Obesity is not an unusual characteristic of the change of life, and the years following it. The slower functioning of the ductless glands, and especially that of the thyroid, which frequently occurs, causes a slowing up of the bodily mechanism and a consequent accumulation of fatty tissue. This condition can usually be corrected, and the author will be very pleased to give special advice to such sufferers who write to him. The address is Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
Heart Disorders.—Palpitation is quite a common symptom during the menopause, and while distressing, is not serious. It is usually accompanied with a feeling of anxiety and a sense of pressure on the chest, there may also arise a feeling of a rush of blood to the head and severe headache.
Digestive Disturbances.—Disorders in the alimentary tract are another evidence of the congestion which is a manifestation of the disorders of the menopause. Chronic diarrhoea and constipation are common troubles. Both troubles may be considered as arising from a common cause, as the accumulation of the faecal masses irritates the intestinal mucous membranes and gives rise to profuse, watery secretions which eventually create diarrhoea.
Stomach disturbances and dyspeptic disorders are also frequent with variations in appetite, gastric pains, nausea, belching, and sometimes even vomiting of watery or bilious fluid.
Rumbling in the stomach and intestines and even severe abdominal pains may be experienced.
The Skin is generally affected to some extent and is apt to become red in larger or smaller patches, especially in the front of the chest, the sides of the neck and the face.
Another common disorder at this time is an eruption, which arises towards the end of the change of life, and is known as climacteric eczema. Closely allied to the skin disorders is itching, especially of the external genital parts.
Nervous and Mental Disorders, as might be expected, are quite common during the menopause, but the belief that insanity is likely to ensue is quite false, and a normal woman has nothing to fear on this account. The most serious nervous trouble likely to occur, and that by no means in all cases, is a feeling of vertigo or dizziness.
Treatment.—The successful negotiation of the change of life calls for a twofold regimen. The first, is the mental attitude that the change of life is a perfectly normal one and that there is nothing to be anxious about concerning it. The second, is the proper care of the bodily needs at this time. It concerns diet, exercise, rest and sleep, bathing and other helpful measures that are available to counteract the changes in the circulation of the blood and the disturbances of the nervous system. A tonic will be advisable, and one specially prepared for women, such as Fematon (see p. 191), will tone up the system and help maintain a happy condition of health and well-being.
Bathing has a valuable, beneficial effect upon the skin, but the bath should be warm, unless cold baths are specially ordered, which is occasionally done by the medical practitioner.
When a more stimulating effect than that given by a warm bath is required, a hot bath, well above blood heat (98 deg.) is recommended to promote perspiration, stimulate tissue changes, to soothe the nerves, and to induce sleep.
Another important function of the hot bath, sometimes called for, is that it tends to restore the functional activities of the ovaries when these have ceased functioning.
Cleanliness of the genital organ should always be observed, and if there is a tendency to either excessive secretions or for the skin to dry or crack, a reliable powder in the case of the former and an ointment in the latter, should be used. (See also chapter on Feminine Hygiene, page 102).
Exercise.—Nothing is healthier than suitable exercise. Regular daily walks in the open air, combined with deep breathing of the fresh open' air is invaluable. Any other exercise that does not call for heavy exertion will also prove beneficial.
Diet.—When the system is undergoing pronounced changes, as is the case at this period, the diet should be one that will not throw any undue work on the digestive system and, at the same time, it should be extra nutritious in order to sustain the changes which are taking place in the constitution.
Meat should be eaten sparingly, as it tends to overtax the organs of elimination, especially the kidneys. An excess of uric acid is liable to be formed as a consequence, with an ensuing tendency to rheumatism, and it is also liable to create high blood pressure.
Eggs in moderation may be used, preferably soft-boiled, poached or raw with milk. Fresh fish is also excellent.
Above all, the diet should regularly consist of fresh fruits and fresh green vegetables, either cooked or eaten raw as salads. Sweets should be taken in moderation, as should also tea and coffee, which moreover should never be strong.
Pastries, fried dishes, hot or richly seasoned dishes, condiments and pickles should be avoided.
Brown, bran or wholemeal bread will be found better than white.
Other Precautions for Health.—During the change of life, an extra strain is thrown upon the kidneys in eliminating the greater quantity of waste products from the system. The use of Fematon (p. 191) will obviate the troubles likely to'arise from this source. For the same reason the copious drinking of water is also advised—at least three pints taken daily will help to keep them flushed and promote their healthy functioning.
At this period, the climacteric woman should occupy herself as pleasantly as possible. She should have diversion and amusement, and not allow herself to become morbid and introspective, nor should she allow herself to dwell on worrying thoughts.
The normal woman who takes care of her health as suggested in the foregoing pages, will go through this period contentedly and without trouble, and emerge to pursue her future life in happiness and with good health.
MEDICINAL WARMTH MELTS PAIN
The great value of medicinal warmth in the treatment of pain and blood congestion, as well as in the various inflammatory conditions of the nerves, has been affirmed by scientific research, and established by medical practice.
This application of concentrated heat is\effected by using a specially medicated Cotton Wool, known as Wawn’s Wonder Wool, the fibres of which are impregnated with unique, medicinal pain-relieving essences. The natural warmth of the Wool, reinforced by these medicaments, creates a pleasant, tingling, warming sensation, and by relieving blood congestion and stimulating circulation, banishes all pain and inflammation. Sore Throat, Croup, Headache, as well as Toothache, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Sciatica, Lumbago, Gout, etc., melt away like heat melts ice, under its stimulating, warming influences.
Wawn’s Wonder Wool is approved of and prescribed by the medical profession, and is in constant use by nurses in the leading Hospitals and Homes everywhere. From all chemists and stores, 2/6 packet. “Keep it in the Home—it is essential.”
Hospital size containing 3 times the quantity, 6/6 packet.
Correct Principles of the New Feminine Hygiene
The subject of personal cleanliness is one which has long held the attention of meticulous women. It has been regarded as essential to good looks and general health. Yet there is another sphere of inner cleanliness which from every standpoint is even more important about which knowledge is not nearly so widespread, and which is usually spoken of among the initiated as “Feminine Hygiene.”
The word feminine needs no explanation, while the dictionary defines hygiene as “a system of principles designed for the promotion of health.” Feminine hygiene is, therefore, the means of the protection of health through the proper care of the vaginal tract through scientific methods of cleanliness.
The assurance of a sound body through the knowledge of personal hygiene was, until the last quarter of a century or so ago, one of which the majority of women were in ignorance. What information there was to be had on the subject could be obtained only through consultation with a physician—a privilege of which the majority of women did not avail themselves, the result being that many unhygienic practices were followed.
Minor ailments were allowed, to go untreated, or the use of poisonous or caustic properties were resorted to which frequently caused unnecessary physical discomforts even where they did not actually injure the delicate membranegf they were used to protect.
The New Feminine Hygiene.—It was not until generation after generation was brought face to face with the folly of such practices, through the realization that serious ailments often were the result, that any definite scientific instruction regarding correct hygienic practice was made available.
The, fundamental rules of healthful living are now no longer confined to the professional realm. A new tolerance and frankness has led to the dissemination of the knowledge necessary to develop intimate health habits, it being recognized that it is such an important matter that the possibility of it being used for ulterior purposes should not stand in the way.
The modern woman is far too sensible not to appreciate the value of this knowledge. To-day feminine, hygiene is as much a part of keeping fit as is the care of the teeth, and is, in the last analysis, an equally, if not more important health precaution than the latter.
Happiness and Good Heatlh.—A woman’s happiness depends on her health, and this in turn is based on the care she takes of her more intimate self. Fortunately, the many prejudices and the false modesty of the past, which proved so detrimental to women’s welfare have been swept away. No longer is douching considered merely as a means of birth control, its effectiveness has been extended as, an effectual means of assuring the essential inner cleanliness which is so important to good health and for maintaining the true happiness which only the healthy enjoy.
It is now realized that the birth canal accumulates waste matter which stagnates and becomes a menace to health. This should be washed away regularly and it is a fallacy to think that Nature does this properly—at least under civilized conditions—so help is needed.
The many, often serious derangements and infections, which arise from these waste accumulations remaining, might have been avoided if the correct method of douching had been used in time. Even where such ailments have already developed they may be readily and rapidly relieved if the practice of daily douching is immediately adopted.
Malignant Influence of Germ Life.—With the discovery of germs came a widespread knowledge of their menace to human health, and the danger of harbouring them within the body called for a means of successfully combating them. Various experiments in making effective germicides revealed the necessity of developing a solution which was not only non-poisonous at\d non-caustic, but one which could safely be recommended for use by the woman, in the privacy of her own home.
Just such a preparation is now available for general use, in a, convenient and inexpensive form, which is mild in its action on the delicate membranes, yet so positive in its protectiveness that it may be used regularly and as often as necessary without the slightest hesitancy. This easily-used, harmless medicament is being welcomed by fastidious girls and women who naturally desire to maintain their well-beingt and peace of mind.
Perfect Freedom from Body Odour.—It is quite reasonable to expect that this germ-destroying solution is also a perfect deodorant and what every woman desires above everything else is to be free from body odours (remember I am not referring to perspiration now). Warm baths, showers, perfumes and bath salts, while they obviate perspiration unpleasantness, cannot overcome the body odour, which arises where correct Feminine Hygiene is not a regular practice. With all the ordinary cleanliness in the world for the promotion of personal daintiness and attractiveness, many women suffer agonies of mental embarrassment from this cause, yet hesitate to seek advice because they feel it is not a fit subject for polite discussion.
There is only one way to end these unfortunate embarrassments and that is to actually destroy the bacterial life and remove the waste accumulations which cause the offensive odour, and this can only be achieved by douching regularly and especially after the menstrual period. This will assure the scrupulously perfect inward cleanliness which is so important.
The Regular Douche Protects Against Vaginal Disturbances.—
It is strange in these enlightened times, that women, who apparently know about everything else which concerns their sex, should be so unaware of the facts which so vitally concern their intimate health. This ignorance is directly responsible for the many illnesses from which they suffer, and I have no hesitation in stating that if every woman had acquired the habit of using an effective douche the great majority would never have had cause to suffer in the least and would seldom have had need to consult a physician.
Instead of enduring all kinds of misery they would be healthy and vigorous, full of vim and happiness.
The Douche After Marriage.—Vaginal douching is important at all times to maintain personal cleanliness, but the married state calls for it most, as the secretions arising are then more profuse and the possibilities of infection are naturally increased—calling for the greatest care.
The need of vigilance regarding the vaginal tract should be apparent. Yet it is strange that so many women have thought so little about it and comparatively few are instructed in the proper measures to take. One can only blame the false modesty of the past era that the importance of the necessity of inner cleanliness at this time has not been stressed, and indeed taught, as being a fundamental need which should not be neglected. I have been surprised to learn that otherwise most fastidious women did not realize the imperative necessity of the daily douche, or if they did have such knowledge, the nature of the douche did not allow of proper cleansing.
The anatomical construction of the vagina with the many folds lining it, requires that these folds be lifted, or dilated, in order that the crevices formed by them can be readily reached and cleansed. The ordinary douche, with its poorly directed flow, cannot do this and it requires a scientifically designed syringe to “flatten out” the folds in order that the antiseptic fluid shall reach the otherwise inaccessible parts.
From Forty Onwards.—After forty is a critical period, when women need to take particular care of themselves. Serious feminine disorders are then liable to arise, and, it is the opinion of prominent medical men that these are often caused by prolonged or neglected irritation.
Douching offers a convenient and effectual means of removing the cause of such irritations as soon as they are felt. And the correctly selected antiseptic solution used at this time will allay the inflammation and soothe and heal the sensitive membranes.
At the Menstrual Period.—The value of the antiseptic douche before the menstrual period is always beneficial and will generally relieve the pains of difficult or obstructed menstruation. The distressing symptoms, particularly headache and backache, which are so common during this period are usually avoided when the congestion has been relieved with a hot douche.
After the menstrual flow has stopped, a warm medicated douche is also essential to thoroughly cleanse the vaginal passage and assure completely antiseptic conditions, and for this reason douching after the periods should never be neglected.
During the period of the flow douching should be definitely avoided.
The Use of Suppositories should be followed by Douching.—
Women who wear pessaries', upon the advice of their physician, or use suppositories, should always use the douche regularly.
While such things are necessary the greatest care is essential to see that the resulting excessive vaginal mucus and irritating substances, which are liable to collect around a foreign body, are removed by means of an effective douching at daily intervals.
Leucorrhoea (“Whites”).—This is the name given to any abnormal discharge, other than the blood, issuing from the vagina. It is often white or a yellowish tint, and is a symptom of some uterine or vaginal disorder, and there are few women who are not affected by it at some period of life.
The nature of Leucorrhoea is similar to that of nasal catarrh. In a healthy state, the lining membrane of the genital organs secretes sufficient mucus to moisten them; but, if the mucous membrane is temporarily congested or inflamed, the secretion becomes profuse, irritating and offensive.
The discharge may be profuse and distressing, often soiling the under-linen and causing considerable soreness and irritation.
One to four teaspoonfuls of Broadleaf-Sol (see p. 190) in a quart of hot water and used as a vaginal douche once or twice daily will be found most beneficial. Where the condition is accentuated by a state of nerves, Elixir Vitae Tonic Tablets (see p. 192) will be found necessary to be taken for a period of time.
Regular douching is an effectual safeguard for the prevention of Leucorrhoea, and such an unpleasant affliction will seldom ensue when the vaginal passage is kept hygienically clean.
Efficient Feminine Hygiene Takes Little Time.—You would not for a moment neglect to bathe your body, to clean your teeth, or to give daily care to your complexion, yet many women hesitate to use a douche regularly because of the bother involved. Such women surely only know of the old-fashioned appliances for such a purpose.
The new “Ever Safe” Whirling Spray (see p. 188) is no bother and is a most worth-while practice in regard to the needs of feminine hygiene and is as simple as any other form of bathing. Its use with Broadleaf-Sol (see p. 190) every second day is sufficient in most normal cases.
The only efficient type of Douche.—The entire vaginal tract is lined on its surface with several layers of membrane, fold after fold of which overlap each other, and these form creases or crevices where waste material and germs find lodgment. It is, therefore, quite evident that an ordinary flow of solution over them cannot possibly reach their innermost crevices. In order that the antiseptic fluid may reach and flush out these remote lurking places for waste and germs the folds must be lifted so that a complete flushing of these parts is assured and the most minute stagnant matter washed away.
It can readily be understood then, why a1 straight stream or streams of fluids ineffectual. The spray must be of such a nature that it will dilate the vaginal walls and lift the folds gently and allow the stream to flow under them. A whirling spray does this to the best advantage.
The “Ever Safe” Whirling Spray acts in this scientific manner by rotating the spray at a pressure and speed sufficient to flatten out the folds and ensure perfect antiseptic cleanliness, yet with the gentle action which is so essential.
It further has the advantage of always being ready for use without any tedious preparation and can in consequence be used when in a hurry or during times of travelling or a week-end visit.
For all these reasons, as well as for their greater value in creating correct hygienic conditions, the “Ever Safe” Whirling Spray and Broadleaf-Sol are most highly recommended (see p. 190).
THE “WONDER PILL” FOR WOMEN
Has a unique stimulating and cleansing action on the Liver, Kidneys, Bladder and Urinary Organs. Just as effective for young girls as adults. Strongly recommended to be taken at those periods when the help obtained will be found most valuable.
5/- packet. Posted everywhere.
FOODS FOR THE SICK
The Preparation of Appetizing and Nutritious Foods and Drinks For Invalids.
Special attention to diet is of considerable importance in the modern treatment of disease and there is, possibly, no sphere of her work where the nurse can be of more service to the patient than in her ability to prepare suitable, easily assimilated and nourishing food. In order to be of the greatest service, she should understand what the system needs to maintain it during acute illness and to quickly rebuild the tissues during convalescence.
The actual cooking does not involve any difficulty and only requires the application of common sense in following a reliable recipe accurately.
There are, however, other considerations connected with invalid cookery, which cannot be learned from books, a sense of feeling and sympathy with the patient’s requirements, his likes and dislikes, which can only be gained by intuition and experience.
Many patients get weak from lack of sufficient nourishment, and, because they usually have little appetite, what they do eat and drink should be of the utmost nutritive value. In order to tempt the palate, all dishes for invalids should be served in the daintiest china and only a small quantity served at a time.
In all serious cases the choice of food is dependent on the doctor’s instructions and his wishes in this respect must be faithfully followed, for it should be remembered, that in certain diseases, some foods are positively injurious, and it is not infrequent that these unfortunately are the ones craved by the patient. Where this happens remember it would be a misplaced kindness to gratify his wishes. If you are in any doubt always ask the doctor if it is permissible to give any dishes the patient would like, for the patient’s tastd should be studied as far as is consistent with his well-being.
Then again, seek to give variety to the patient’s diet, and, even if approval of certain dishes is expressed, do not give them often enough for them to become distasteful. For this reason invalid cookery should be done in small quantities and when a chicken and such-like, for instance, has to be bought, it is better to divide it into several parts and cook each in a differeht manner.
Serve all dishes hot, for anything lukewarm is usually unpalatable, and serve them punctually at the time expected, as long delay may allow the appetite to fail or the patient may feel exhausted for lack of nourishment. When serving liquids do not completely fill the cup or glass, and see that none is spilt on the saucer. When once the meal is served allow the patient to enjoy it in peace and comfort without hurry of any kind, and when finished, remove the dishes at once.
Space will not permit of many recipes being given but it is hoped that the following will prove useful both on account of their nutritiousness and to einable a variety of dishes to be available.
Soups and broths when correctly prepared are valuable for their restorative properties. Clear soups are usually preferable because they are more easily digested, but soups containing milk, cream and eggs are useful on account of the additional nourishment they contain.
Invalid meat soups should only be made from fresh meat and it is usually better to make them so that they have time to completely cool in order that the fat may have! time to rise and be removed. Beef tea, however, is an exception to this rule.
Beef Tea.—Take i pound of good juicy beef and cut into thin slices, then shred it down finely with a knife, removing all fat. Place in a saucepan with I pint of cold water and a pinch of salt, and if time allows, allow to soak for half an hour. Then heat slowly, pressing the meat well with the back of a wooden spoon to extract the juice. Simmer very gently until the liquid turns a rich brown colour, on no account must it be allowed to boil. When ready strain through a coarse strainer, unless clear beeif tea is wanted, in which case it should be put through muslin. Taste if sufficiently seasoned and serve.
Beef Tea by Cold Process.—Take a pound of finely chopped round steak, a teacupful of cold water and a pinch of salt. Place in a covered jar and set in a cool place for 5 or 6 hours—if possible shake occasionally. Strain and squeeze out all the juice by placing the meat on a coarse muslin cloth and squeezing very hard. This beef juice is very nutritious and better than the beef extracts sold in the stores.
Beef Juice from Grilled Steak.—Take a pound of round steak with no fat on it, grill slightly and press the juice out with a meat press. Usually two to four ounces of juice is obtained from a pound of steak. This seasoned with salt may be given cold, or it may be warmed by placing the cup which holds it into warm water.
A Variation of Beef Tea.—Make beef tea, using the same quantities of beef and water, but adding various vegetables and simmering for from 2 to hours. Sago or rice may also be added.
Mutton Broth.—Take 1 pound of finely chopped lean mutton, including some of the bone, 1 pint of. water and a pinch of salt and cook for three hours over a slow fire, adding water if necessary to make half a pint of liquid. Strain through a muslin cloth, cool, and remove the fat.
Sago, rice or barley can be also added when commencing to make, if desired, or after it is cooked, strained and the fat removed.
A very delicious and nutritious broth is made by adding sufficient flour or arrowroot to thicken, cooking for ten minutes, and then adding half a cupful of milk to each half-pint of broth.
Chicken and Veal Broths are made in the same manner as mutton broth.
Fish Soup.—Take 1 pound of fish, wash carefully and place in a saucepan with 1 pint of cold water and add a pinch of salt. Bring slowly to the boil. Remove all scum and, as soon as the fish appears to be cooked, lift out a few pieces from skin and bone and set them aside. Continue simmering remainder for one hour and strain. Then melt 1 dessertspoonful of butter in a clean saucepan, add 1 teaspoonful of flour to it and mix smoothly together, pour in the fish liquor, stirring constantly while doing so, and boil for ten minutes, then add i pint of milk. Add a few pieces of the fish which were previously set aside, a little chopped parsley and seasoning to taste. Cook a minute or two longer and serve.
Fish is one of the lightest forms of solid food and a valuable article of diet for invalids. Oysters also are considered very nutritious, especially in their raw state, but are not liked by everyone. Any fish used must be of undoubted freshness which may be judged by the brightness of the eyes and firmness of the flesh to the touch. Although it is not easy to detect without experience, the skin of fresh fish is somewhat brighter than that which has been caught for some time. Whiting, sole, bream, and small flathead are especially good and should for preference be filleted.
To Steam Fish.—Take and wipe the fish, and cut in neat pieces. Place these on a greased plate and season with salt and lemon juice; cover with greased paper and another plate or saucepan lid over this. Place over a saucepan containing boiling water and boil steadily until the fish has quite lost its transparent appearance, which should be within twenty to thirty minutes. Serve the fish on a clean plate with a little of the liquid which has run from it.
Fish Souffle.—Shred fish as finely as possible. Then place 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, seasoning and a small lump of butter in a saucepan and heat over the fire. Add 1 tablespoonful of breadcrumbs and cook a few minutes until these swell and absorb the milk. Then add this to the fish and pass through a sieve. Put the mixture in a basin, flavour with pepper, salt and lemon juice, stir in the beaten yolk of an 6gg, whip the white and mix it in lightly ati the last. Pour the mixture into a well-greased cup or dish, filling it not more than three parts, cover with greased paper and steam for fifteen minutes or until the souffle is firm to the touch. Turn out on a cleian plate, garnish with parsley and serve with brown bread and butter or dry toast.
A Fish Cream may be made in the same way by adding 2 tablespoonfuls of whipped cream to the fish and breadcrumbs mixture instead of the egg.
Fish and Bread Sauce.—Cut fillet fish in small pieces and place them in a saucepan with half a cupful of milk, a dessertspoonful of butter, salt and pepper to taste and cook slowly until tender. Lift out the fish, arrange on a plate and keep hot. Add one tablespoonful of breadcrumbs to the liquid in the saucepan and stir over a slow fire until they soften and thicken. A little more milk may be added if necessary. Sprinkle in a little chopped parsley, cook a moment and pour over fish.
Baked Fillets of Fish.—Cut a small filleted fish in neat pieces and season with pepper, salt, and a little lemon juice. Grease a small baking dish and sprinkle it with fine breadcrumbs. Lay the pieces of fish on top of these and cover with more breadcrumbs. Pour i to 2 tablespoonfuls of milk around and place some small pieces of butter on top. Bake in a moderate oven about fifteen minutes.
Meat is not usually given to invalids except possibly an exception may be made in favour of white meats such as chicken or rabbit and as most women know how to prepare these, recipes are unnecessary, or may be found in any cookery book.
Puddings and other sweets for the invalid must be as light and as delicate in flavour as possible. In many illnesses they should not be given and in this respect the doctor’s instructions should be carefully followed. If they are made from a farinaceous substance such as rice, barley, sago, etc., it is most important that this be well cooked and the mixture must on no account be solid in texture. If an egg is added the white should be beaten separately as this introduces air into the pudding and makes it lighter and easier to digest.
Jellies are always refreshing, are nourishing and usually acceptable to invalids. They should never be stiff, but should melt in the mouth, without any mastication.
Cup Custard.—Beat up two eggs with 2 teaspoonfuls of sugar and a little grated lemon peel, vanilla or any preferred flavour. Add a teacupful of milk and strain into a basin. Cover with greased paper and steam until set.
Custard may be varied by adding to it a few biscuits or sponge cake crumbs or by adding a little stewed apple; or again a little strong coffee may be added to give it flavour.
Junket.—Take a pint of fresh milk and make it lukewarm, add a pinch of salt and a teaspoonful of sugar (omit this if sweets are not allowed) and add i junket tablet dissolved, in a little warm, water. Stir for a moment and allow to stand at the temperature of the room until firmly set. It may be served with grated nutmeg if this is preferred.
Cream Blancmange.—Take £ pint of milk and dissolve i ounce of isinglass in it by gentle heat, preferably in a double saucepan. Add vanilla or lemon flavouring and % pint of cream and sweeten to taste. Stir mixture occasionally until quite cool and turn into basin to set.
Semolina Souffle.—Place I dessertspoonful of semolina and i cupful of milk in a saucepan, add i teaspoonful of sugar, a little flavouring, and bring to the boil while stirring constantly. Then cook slowly for ten minutes. Remove from fire and stir in the beaten yolk of an egg and lastly the white of the egg beaten stiff. Turn into a dish and bake in a moderate oven until nicely browned.
Barley Jelly.—Soak three tablespoonfuls of barley overnight. Place in a saucepan with a pinch of salt and boil in a double saucepan for four hours, or until it is reduced to onej pint. If it evaporates too much, add a little water from time to time; strain through muslin and add sugar and, any desired flavouring. When cold it makes a rather thick jelly.
Oat, Wheat or Rice Jelly can be made in the same way as barley jeHy.
Coddled Egg.—A fresh egg is placed in boiling water which is immediately afterwards removed from the fire. The egg should cook slowly in the water for seven or eight minutes, keeping the water hot only (it should never boil), when the white should be about the consistency of jelly. Add salt and for a delicate stomach give the white only.
Invalid’s Jelly.—Soak twelve shanks of mutton in plenty of water for some hours, clean well, put them in a saucepan with one pound of lean beef, a bunch of sweet herbs, pepper and salt to taste, one onion and crust of bread toasted brown; add three quarts of water and let them simmer gently for five hours; strain the broth; when cold take off all the fat.
Tapioca Jelly.—The tapioca should be soaked in cold water for several hours and then cooked until perfectly clear, adding more water if necessary; when done sweeten to taste, and flavour with vanilla, lemon or wine. When cold serve plain or with cream.
Chicken Jelly.—Half a raw chicken pounded with a mallet, bones and all together; cold water to cover it well; heat slowly in a covered
vessel and let it simmer until the meat is in white rags and the liquid reduced one-half; strain and press through a coarse cloth; season to taste, return to the fire and simmer five minutes longer; skim when cold. Give to patient cold, with plain toast.
The person who is sick and cannot eat much solid food will usually crave for frequent drinks, and advantage can be taken of this to supply nourishment at the same time in quite a number of suitable beverages. The knowledge of how to prepare them is, therefore, very important to the home nurse.
Barley Water.—Wash I tablespoonful of barley and cover with water; boil for a few minutes, strain off and rinse barley. Again place in saucepan and add I pint of water. It is then simmered slowly for ij to 2 hours, taking care that it does not burn. Strain off the liquid and sweeten to taste and if liked add juice of lemon to flavour. Serve either hot or cold.
.Rice Water is made in the same way as barley water.
Egg Drinks.—There are many different ways of preparing these, the following being a few examples. In all cases the eggs used must be perfectly fresh and the thread or speck must be removed, which is easily done by straining after the drink is prepared.
(1) Beat up an egg, add a cupful of milk and sweeten with a teaspoonful of sugar. Add one tablespoonful of sherry or a teaspoonful of brandy. The white of the egg may be omitted.
(2) Beat up the white of an egg to a froth but not too stiff. Put into a tumbler and gradually pour a cupful of hot milk on it, stirring all the time. A little sugar or a pinch of salt may be added if preferred.
(3) Beat up the white of an egg to a stiff froth and put into a tumbler. Add 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls of cream and a tablespoonful of brandy or wine. Sweeten if desired.
(4) Beat up the yolk of an egg with a teaspoonful of sugar, add two tablespoonfuls of milk or cream, and fill glass with soda water.
Whey Drinks.—Make a junket and strain off the liquid whey, which is then ready to serve. Flavouring or cream may be added.
Albumen Water.—Put the white of one egg into half a glass of water, stir slowly for about five minutes without getting it frothy and strain through a piece of muslin. Sweeten if necessary.
Gluten Water is made from any grain, preferably barley or rice, by boiling from four to six ounces of the whole grain in a quart of water for an hour. It should then be strained and measure one pint. This is very easily digested and very strengthening.
Arrowroot Water.—Mix a teaspoonful of arrowroot with a little water to form a paste, add a pint of boiling water while stirring, then boil for ten minutes. This is good for a child recovering from sickness and is added to milk mixtures to break the rolled curd from forming in the child’s stomach.
Linseed Tea.—Pour a pint of boiling water over a tablespoonful of linseed, and simmer for one hour. Strain, sweeten and flavour with lemon juice.
Oatmeal Water.—Boil a tablespoonful of rolled oats in a quart of water for three hours, strain and, if necessary, add water to make one pint. For feeding to infants this should be added to the milk.
Lime Water.—Take a heaping teaspoonful of slaked lime and a quart of drinking water; place in a corked bottle, and shake two or three times during the first hour. Allow the lime to settle for twentyV-four hours and then draw off the clear liquid for use. From a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful may be given in milk.
Vitamins are foods necessary to proper nutrition. Growth and resistance to disease are also aided by their use. Much ill-health and many diseases have been proved to be due to their lack in the diet. They are found only in small quantities in various fresh foods, and the quantities being so minute their exact chemical composition has not been determined.
Vitamins are designated by the letters A.B.C.D.E., each one being different in its nature and effect on nutrition and bodily health.
Vitamin A produces growth. Absence of it causes diarrhoea, lack of appetite and vigour. Frequent catarrhal colds, tendency to tuberculosis, sneezing, coughs, and wheezing on exertion, and skin disorders also arise from a deficiency of Vitamin A. Further, the teeth do not develop or they decay. However, it is usually found that the average person is amply supplied with this need which enables the system to meet unusual demands.
Vitamin A is found abundantly in raw milk, cream, butter, green vegetables (boiling or pasteurizing seems to destroy the vitamin), and it is also found in tomatoes, sweet potatoes, squash, raw cabbage, lettuce, spinach, watercress, carrots and growing shoots of various seeds and plants.
Apparently the sun’s rays cause it to be stored up in certain of these, as eggs and milk contain more in summer than in winter.
It is not found in vegetable oils such as olive, cotton-seed oil nor in margarine made from vegetable fats.
From infancy to old age it is never wise to avoid the regular use of fresh food.
Vitamin B is essential to healthy nutrition, lack of it in the diet causes polyneuritis, a disease in which the nerve is swollen, soft and pinkish; beriberi, a disease characterized by muscular weakness, general muscle pains, dropsy and heart failure. Absence of it also causes constipation, poor assimilation of food, deficiency of digestive juices and a lack of vital resistance to infection.
This vitamin is found in yeast, egg yoke, potato juice, wheat and oats, spinach, tomato juice, liver, bran, kidney and heart.
Vitamin C.—A deficiency of this substance is a cause of scurvy, in which the symptoms at first are great fatigue not relieved by sleep; exercise is unpleasant and the complexion becomes pale. Small red spots appear around the hairs of the legs and patches like bruises appear on the skin.
Vitamin C may be secured by soaking dried peas, beans, lentils barley, wheat and rye in water for twenty-four hours, then keeping them moist and warm from one to three or more days. As soon as they have sprouted they may be cooked for a brief time, not longer than twenty minutes, and eaten with milk, cream or any addition to make them palatable. Fresh lemon, orange or grape-fruit juice and tomato and cider also contain it.
Vitamin D has some effect in promoting growth and is necessary for the proper calcification of bone. It can be produced artificially and is found chiefly in cod-liver oil. ..
Vitamin E is the so-called reproductive vitamin and is found in liver, cabbage, lettuce, cod-liver oil and wheat sperm oil.
In the apparently healthy female, it has been observed that following a healthy pregnancy there have been successive pregnancies where the child died before the full term, and in the next pregnancy, giving Vitamin E, a normal healthy child was born. This suggests a new viewpoint in cases of sterility due to faulty nutrition.
Knowledge of vitamins is valuable because it is important to know the sources of supply of the various vitamins. A great fault that lies in our dietary habits is that due to over-cooking and over-refining our modern foodstuffs, and also that through captious tastes and appetites these vitalizing food accessories are excluded from the diet. Certain raw foods, notably vegetables in thet form of salads should be eaten regularly. Cabbage is a notable vitamin carrier, yet boiled it loses 70 per cent of its special value. Vegetables for this reason are better steamed than boiled. Vitamins are also destroyed by alkalis, and for this reason soda should not be used in cooking green vegetables.
Having pasteurized our milk supply (wisely, probably, because it is the better of two evils) demineralized our grain foods and taken the fat-bearing germ out of them in most cases, it behoves us to keep an eye on the vitamin supply, especially for the children, or we lose a food combination necessary to health and vigour.
Nature has scattered the vitamin supply generously through all our leading foods but her care has been eluded by over-civilization and luxurious eating for pleasure rather than health.
Sore and Blistered Feet—Water as a Medicine—Ten Health
Sore feet.—The occupation of the nurse being very arduous, often foot troubles will arise and it will not therefore be out of the scope of this book to give some information regarding their care.
Should the feet become swollen or blistered, or the ankles ache a warm foot bath to which a teaspoonful of Broadleaf-Sol (see p. 190) has been added, may be used to give relief which is often immediate and lasting. Dust freely with Wawn’s Antiseptic Dusting Powder (see p. 191) into the socks or stockings then massage with Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 193).
In muscular fatigue, from long or continued exertion affecting the hips, a hip bath of the same nature is an excellent remedy, then massage with Wawn’s Wonder Balm.
Blistered Feet.—Frequent application of warm water is excellent and for medicinal application there is perhaps nothing better than bathing in hot water to which Broadleaf-Sol (see p. 190) has been added, then massage with Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 193).
Water as a Medicine
We are very prone to forget the simpler remedies that are available and from the hygienic point of view water is an invaluable medicine.
Indigestion.—When heated, water may be used as medicine for this complaint. It should be very warm, not lukewarm, which is often found to be nauseous. It should be sipped slowly, a glassful being taken three times a day an hour before meals.
Kidneys and liver are benefited by hot water which besides allaying the thirst more readily than cold water, washes out these organs if its use is continued for any length of time. Ond will be all the better for drinking at least one glass of hot water at least once a day, preferably immediately on rising.
Inflammation.—Applied as a fomentation, hot water is often invaluable for sores and inflammation. The flannel, or whatever has been dipped in hot water, can readily be wrung out in a towel.
Sore Eyes.—For weak or sore eyes water is very healing. Bathe the eyes in water as hot as can be borne, and then in water as cold as can be obtained.
Tonic for the Skin.—Bathing alternately with hot and then with cold water is an excellent treatment for the skin and complexion.
Sore Throat.—A handkerchief, saturated with cold water and tied around the neck and covered with a dry cloth, if left on overnight is usually remarkably effective in relieving a sore throat. (See Wawn’s Wonder Wool, pp. 37 and 40).
Nervousness.—An eminent English nerve specialist has made the statement “that all neurasthenics have nothing more than nerves which are dry, and suffer from an insufficiency of fluid in the body.” He advises that the best time for drinking water is at nighttime and early in the morning, and it is well to form the habit of slowly sipping, during the bath and while dressing, two or three glasses of cold—though not ice-cold—water, and then to sip two or three more glasses an hour before lunch and before retiring.
It should be remembered that too much water at meal time, just before or soon after, dilutes the gastric juice, and if persisted in, will eventually cause stomach disorder. It is better to drink an hour before or an hour after meals.
Ten Health Commandments
1. Keep your mouth closed when breathing.
2. Drink water plentifully between meals.
3. Bathe daily, a shower if possible.
4. Eat slowly and masticate the food thoroughly.
5. Exercise daily and breathe deeply while so doing, but avoid over-exertion and never eat when fatigued.
6. Never read or transact business while eating.
7. Work eight hours, sleep eight and use the balance for recreation. Rest Sundays.
8. Keep a contented mind by looking on the bright side of things.
9. Neglect no portion of the body.
10. Be moderate in all things.
“I am now enjoying wonderful health. I go every morning for a seven miles walk and have a fine appetite since taking “Nova-Vita.” I can enjoy life now like a young man and I am seventy-five years old.”— W. McL., Herberton, Q’ld. (See Rejuvenation, p. 159).
Their Symptoms and Treatment
Only a brief note of the most common ailments can be given in the space allowable within this book. The following diseases and many others will be found described at greater length both as regards the symptoms and method of treatment in the companion book The Home Doctor by V. A. VVawn. to which the reader is referred. It is the opinion of the author, however, that it is desirable that some little space should be devoted to a short description of those most frequently met with, so that a ready reference may be available within the pages of The Home Nurse.
Abscess.—This is a “gathering” or accumulation of pus, resulting from inflammation, in which the part is hot, red, swollen and hard. Shortly the centre turns blue, and the skin over it thinner so that beneath it yellowish pus can be seen. Treatment.—Apply hot
boracic foments and continue until healed. Keep bowels active with an occasional dose of System Corrective (see p. 192).
Acne is a chronic skin disease affecting forehead, nose, chin, chest, back of shoulders and outer thighs and usually reveals itself in pimples and blackheads which can be squeezed out. Treatment.—Regular exercise. Wash affected parts with hot water and Broadleaf-Sol Soap, dry and apply Calex Oxide Skin Lotion (see p. 191).
Acne Rosacea is a chronic inflammation of the face, especially of the nose, associated with enlargement of the tiny blood-vessels which give a lumpiness and red or dusky copper colour. Treatment.—-Correct any digestive disorder by taking Digestive Nutrone (see p.
191), and if constipation is present use System Corrective (p. 192). Apply Calex Oxide Skin Lotion (see p. 191).
Amenorrhoea is the absence of the menstrual flow during the time it should occur and is due to general and local causes. Anaemia, deficient diet, overwork, are amongst the commonest causes, but it may also arise as a result of serious disease or causes which act through the nervous system. In a young woman failure of the menses to appear at all may be due to some obstruction. Treatment.—See Fematon (p. 191).
Anaemia is a deficiency of quantity or quality of the blood. The usual symptoms are paleness and if the condition is acute there may be giddiness, faintness, weakness of the pulse and fainting. Treatment should be directed to rebuilding the system with fresh air and exercise, keeping the bowels regular with System Corrective (see p. 191) and iron tonics such as Vitallic Quinatal Tonic Tablets are particularly valuable.
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix. The chief symptom is first severe pains all over the abdomen, later locating in the region of the navel and transferring itself to the lower right side of the abdomen. Treatment. —Absolute rest in bed is imperative and the medical attendant will determine whether the case is one for operation. If not he will advise the treatment to be followed. A light diet consisting orincipally of milk foods should always be given.
Asthma is frequently associated with diseases of the nose, particularly catarrh (see p. 123) and if so this should first be treated when it will
frequently disappear. The symptoms are typical. The patient awakes with intense difficulty in getting his breath and experiences a smothering sensation. The breath has a whistling, wheezy sound. Its origin is held to be largely a nervous one. Treatment.—A change of climate is usually beneficial. A Wonder Wool Jacket should be worn and renewed from time to time (see p. 42). Constipation should be avoided by taking a dose of System Corrective (p. 192) when necessary. Care should be taken with the diet which should be very nutritious and avoid any foods which aggravate the complaint. As this complaint necessitates special treatment sufferers should write direct to
our chief consultant for treatment (see p. 176).
Backache.—Women are the chief sufferers due to disorders of the internal organs oeculiar to their sex, and the backache in such cases is usually more prevalent at the monthly periods, and is usually associated with some disturbance of the monthly flow, which is excessive or accompanied by continued pain. In such cases Fema-ton is the treatment recommended (see p. 191).
Backache may also be a symptom or some organic disease. For further particulars see Kidney, Bladder, and Urinary Ailments (p. 148).
Varicose Ulcers, Varicose Veins,
and Associated Complaints
An effect always has a cause—nothing happens without a reason for its occurrence. A bad leg is a symptom or effect of unnatural conditions which are the causes. Generally these conditions are to be traced to an unnatural state of the blood—and though local treatment of the ulcerous part is desirable and essential, it is to the blood we must finally turn in order to assure complete alleviation of the trouble.
If the blood is in bad condition and the circulation becomes restricted or obstructed, the blood “piles up” under pressure at this point, becomes unduly forced into the tiny capillaries beneath the skin, which are distended to almost bursting point.
A very slight injury, or even continuous irritation, such as might be caused by the rubbing of a stocking, is then sufficient to cause them to burst, and a small clot of congealed blood then forms under the skin. Sometimes, where the blood is not in a healthy condition, the clot may form without any previous injury. Here it remains, just under the skin, and as it is now “dead” useless matter, it must be got rid of, as waste matter has no healthy place in the system.
Like all organic matter, it soon begins to be attacked by microbes or germs which set up a putrefying condition (in plain language, it rots). They feed on the material of the clot and are not or1- a malign influence themselves, but their “excretions” form an increasing amount of poisons.
Now, this dual pollution of disease germs and poisons must be got rid of or the person affected would succumb from general blood poisoning, and this is accomplished by the formation of pus, or, as it is more commonly spoken of, it festers and forms “matter,” which forces its way to the surface and forms an ulcer or a running sore.
It is when the sufferer’s blood is not pure and is in an unhealthy condition that the ulcerous and allied conditions keep open and fail to heal. Give the right help to the blood and
create favourable healing conditions by external applications and they will disappear. In other words, overcome the cause and the effects will vanish.
Old Sores (Chronic Ulcers).—Under this head we may properly consider that class of affection known as fever sores, running sores, ulcers, etc. These sores have common characteristics, yet each possesses certain differences which have their division into Irritable, Indolent, and Varicose Ulcers.
Chronic Ulcers usually appear upon the lower extremities and the depth and appearance of the ulcer depend upon its character and the thickness of the tissues where it is situated.
The Irritable Ulcer is painful and tender, the slightest injury causing it to bleed. It is of a dark-purplish colour and filled with spongy, sensitive granulations. It discharges a thin, bloody matter, which is at times fetid and acrid and excoriates the tissues if it comes in contact with them. The edges of this species of ulcer are shelflike and ragged and turn inward. The adjacent structures are red and swol-' len. Very often they are attended by severe constitutional disturbances, such as chills, fever, and great nervous prostration and irritability.
In the Indolent Ulcer the edges are not undermined, but are turned outward, and are rounded, thick, glossy, and regular. The granulations are broad, flat, pale, insensible and cov-119
ered with greyish tenacious matter. The surrounding parts are not very sensitive, but the limb on which it is located is apt to be swollen. This is the commonest form of ulcer and usually remains for years.
Varicose Ulcer.—This type of ulcer creates an enlarged or swollen condition of the surrounding veins, which are, in consequence, very weakened. It almost invariably appears below the knee and may either be indolent or irritable. It is usually sensitive to the touch and sometimes excessively painful. Knots of superficial veins may often be seen beneath the skin.
Varicose Veins.—There are many causes of Varicose Veins. Strains, over-stretching of the leg, fatigue, injuries to the limb, standing for long periods, tight garters or corsets, or, in fact, any constant pressure around the body and limbs, which retards the circulation of the blood, may be responsible for varicose vein suffering. Frequently, varicose veins are an aftermath of fever, or of ill health which lowers the vitality to such an extent that the blood pressure is counteracted, or the disease germs in the blood are not destroyed. For this reason also, old age is a period when varicose conditions are very prone to be manifested.
Another common cause in women is the pressure and strain during the period of pregnancy.
Varicose veins are easily recognized by their swollen condition, with large bluish knots or twisted cords just beneath the surface of the skin, and they arise anywhere on the lower limbs from the top of the thighs down to the toes. They often cause cramp and fatigue after long standing or walking, or the symptoms experienced may take the form of prickiness, a burning feeling with a pulsing sensation and sense of down-bearing weight.
Neglect of them may lead to serious trouble. A dropsical condition, Varicose Ulcer or Eczema, for instance, may arise from this condition, just as the varicose state may be brought on or aggravated by an ulcer.
Diseases associated with Ulcers and Varicose Veins.—Owing to the bad
blood conditions which are always an accompaniment of the serious forms of bad legs previously mentioned, there generally arise complications in the form of one or more skin diseases which should also be benefited when the blood is enriched and purified again.
The most common of these complaints is Eczema.
Other skin diseases which may be found associated with bad legs are: Psoriasis (Scaly Tetler), Scabies (the Itch), Pruritis (Itching), Acne (Blackheads), Erythemas (Skin Blotch), Herpes Zoster (Shingles), Sycosis (Barber’s Itch), Urticaria (Nettle Rash), and other skin affections which are aggravated or brought into being by bad blood conditions.
Treatment of Bad Pegs.—The ideal treatment of bad legs and their associated complications, it will now be understood, depends upon a special combination of remedies according to the requirements of the case. Exactly what is needed cannot be determined until a study is made of the symptoms in each case.
Speaking in general terms, however, it may be stated that treatment must consist of:
(i) Local healing treatment to overcome the external ulcerous conditions, and
(2) Constitutional treatment to clean the blood from poison toxins and stimulate the organs of excretion to expel them and enrich it so that any disease organisms may be destroyed and eliminated from the system.
Treatment of Varicose Veins.—
Every vein is possessed of valves which enable the current of blood to flow freely in one direction only. When a vein is dilated its valves cease to be efficient—it has become varicose. The vessels are seen under the skin; they are dilated, tortuous, knotted, and the limb is discoloured and swollen.
Excessive standing, tight garters or corsets, pregnancy, constipation, and disorders of the circulation are the most usual starting points.
The constant danger of a vein breaking must not be lost sight of. Haemorrhage following this may have fatal results. Support to the dilated blood-vessels during the day by means of the Wawn Web Elastic Bandage, with palliative constitutional treatment, properly applied, affords the best treatment. Still, in spite of this fact, borne out by the world’s leading specialists, many of the more fastidious will insist on the elastic stocking for public appearances. For this purpose we supply the Wawn Silk Elastic Stocking—invisible under the finest silk hosiery.
Free Book Given to Readers of The Home Nurse
Really there is no excuse for anyone to remain ignorant of the dangers of bad leg conditions. The essential knowledge is available without cost to all readers of The Home Nurse.
A remarkable book on bad legs, varicose ulcers and all leg complaints has been written specially by Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A. It comprehensively deals with the subject in a detailed manner much more completely than can be done in the scope of these pages. In clear detail he fully sets out the causes of the various forms of leg complaints, including varicose veins, explains their cause, symptoms, and the correct method of home treatment, and by means of illustrations, gives a most enlightening and comprehensive explanation which you will easily understand.
This book should certainly be in the hands of every sufferer from any form of leg trouble, and it will be sent FREE, in plain cover, on receipt of your request. Write for it to-day to Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., Dept. H.N., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, enclosing fourpence in stamps for postage.
Barber’s Itch is caused by a microbe entering through the hair follicles and setting up inflammation with, resulting pimples containing pus. The disease is a refractory one and may persist for years. Special treatment is usually required, but for those of a mild nature apply Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 193).
Biliousness is so well known that a complete description of its symptoms is unnecessary. The most prominent are awaking in the morning with a dull headache which increases during the day. There is an intense feeling of nausea which may end in vomiting which relieves the sufferer. The symptoms may last for days, but will disappear more rapidly if the patient refrains from food. Wawn’s System Corrective (see p. 192) is recommended to be taken first thing in the morning. For chronic or severe cases one or two Wawn’s Wonder Pills should be taken at bedtime (see p. 193).
Birth Control.—Health, happiness,
and contentment are the greatest things in life. They cannot exist in the family if the wife is in a worried state of mind. Every married couple should fee! confident that they hold the future in their own hands and be sure that their home life will not be upset by an unanticipated accident to mar its harmony.
Economic conditions, indeed, have rendered the old-fashioned large family an almost impossible problem. Parents to-day recognize correctly that fewer and better children, well cared for and better educated, is a much more desirable plan.
The woman whose health is endangered by an excessive and too rapid succession of child-bearing, with its attendant responsibilities, is to be pitied. The love which she has for her husband, and would naturally draw her close to him, is suppressed because she fears the result of the intimate contact both should enjoy.
Frequently this is the cause of much misunderstanding on the part of the husband, and results in avoidable unhappiness and misery. The wise husband will recognize this possibility and, with the true instinct for the welfare of his wife in mind, will know that if this fear is removed life will retain its charm for both. Few unbiased people will deny the right of a woman to have the best means of birth control available, when it is remembered that lack of the essential knowledge results in destroying health and vitality.
Further, experience has decidedly shown that the dread of results is the cause of much marital discord. The woman, particularly one who has experienced much trouble during childbirth, so fears the matrimonial advances of her husband that she becomes a source of distress and discomfort to him and of physical detriment to herself.
Opinions of Prominent Personages.
—Birth control as a term possesses merely a negative meaning to many people. This has been unfortunate, because, as a matter of fact, it is concerned with the principle of regulating conception and controlling birth so that children shall come into being by choice rather than by chance. In its generic sense, the birth control movement stresses the public acceptance of contraception as an existent fact in our social life. The advocates of birth control, furthermore, believe that contraceptive information should be at the service of the poor as well as the rich, the ignorant as well as the learned, and the unskilled as well as the professional groups in the community. They regard the individual as a social unit, having social functions over and above those inherently biologic and procreative. They view birth control as a social concept and its practice as a form of social servir» to the degree that it heightens personality values, increases individual effectiveness and happiness, and raises the standards of social living.—Ira S. Wilde.
. Lord Dawson (the King’s physician), said before the Commission on Birth Rate:
“The methods of birth control should be set forth to those people whom they properly concern.”
The Dean of Chichester, supported by the Bishop of Kingston and the Bishop of Malmsbury, said at the convocation of Canterbury (Svdnev Sun, 31/5/32):—
“Limitation of the family is now assumed as the normal procedure in all educated circles. ... It cannot be assumed that the use of artificial methods is immoral in itself.”
Dr Crawford says:
“Birth control will continue until no baby is born without its mother’s love and wish.”
Moral Evolution.—Ettie Rout, in “The Morality of Birth Control,” says:
"The people will not consent to having their standard of life lowered in order that there might be more of them. They believe now that the raising of the standard of life is a worthy object—an object worth striving for by high-minded idealists; and they are convinced that lessening the number of persons in overcrowded areas, and regulating the increase of population, is the way to ensure a higher and higher mode of life; that, in fact, moral evolution cannot proceed whilst humanity is being submerged by an' ever-increasing flood of new arrivals.”
The question, then, obviously is not whether family limitation should be practised, but should it be achieved by safe, normal, effective methods, or women forced to the use of abnormal methods such as the quack’s nostrum or the abortionist’s table? We have seen that family limitation has been practised for ages, it is being practised still—it will always be practised. Do we want the millions of abortions that are performed annually to be multiplied? Do we want the very precious, tender qualities of womanhood to be murdered in these sordid, abominable experiences? Or shall we permit woman, by safe, unobjectionable, scientific means, to preserve her health and life and freedom, to space the births of her children at suitable intervals— to feel that each child has been desired and welcomed and not forced upon her as a very regrettable, unwelcome accident? Upon our attitude to these questions depends in an overwhelming degree the character, capabilities and health of the future race.
Spacing Births.—As it is generally considered advisable that there should always be a period of at least two years, or preferably two and a half years, between the birth of each child, it is necessary to regulate the time between pregnancies. Obviously, _ at any rate while the mother is nursing her baby, she should make sure that she does not become pregnant, and it is preferable that she should have a few months’ rest after the child is weaned.
There are some cases where it is absolutely necessary to use means to ensure that pregnancy will not take place. For example, where there has been some debilitating illness, or where the mother has heart, kidney, or lung disease. There are also cases where it would be very wrong to have children if they were likely to be hereditarily affected by insanity or epilepsy.
From the Ethical Standpoint.—There are many arguments that can be advanced to show that birth control is socially desirable, and that contraceptive knowledge, if made available to all married persons who desire it, would be a great and permanent benefit to society. Surely, birth control, if it aimed at nothing more than preventing the diseased and mentally defective people | from perpetuating their kind, and thus saved the next and succeeding generations from bearing the burden of the maintenance of a large percentage of degenerates, would be justifiable. It must not be forgotten that the maintenance and consideration extended to the degenerate costs large sums of money, and that this is expended at the expense of the more worthy citizens.
It is a favourable sign of enlightenment that the old universal prejudice against discussing birth control should be disappearing. It is a subject which, handled modestly and earnestly, can be discussed freely between persons about to enter the most intimate relationships of life. More and more, wise parents guide nature and take advantage of the help science can now give in this vital matter.
Unfortunately, however, there are many who are not well informed. Their knowledge has been gained from well-intentioned sources, but the methods which they have been told to practise are frequently ineffective,
and worse, in many instances positively injurious to health.
But there are harmless and positive methods of controlling the time and the number of births. Of those in common use, some are simple and others elaborate, but nearly always they have objectionable features, for either the wife or the husband. The perfectly satisfactory method of birth control should be absolutely certain, perfectly harmless, and interfere as little as possible with the natural reactions.
Everyone who is interested in having fuller information should read the new book, Birth Control, by V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., 283 Elizabeth St., Sydney. Price 2/-, post free.
Our consultant specialists will be pleased to give advice. Special arrangements have been made so that all matters of a personal or intimate nature can be referred to our consulting specialist. Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., the well-known pharmaceutical chemist, will give personal attention to all inquiries. All communications of a personal character should be marked “Personal” on the top left-hand corner of the envelope.
If there is anything about which you have any doubt or something you would like to ask advice on, your letter will receive prompt and courteous attention.
Bites and Stings (see First Aid, p. 48).
Bladder, Diseases of (see Kidney, Bladder and Urinary Ailments (p. 148).
Blood Pressure is the name given to the pressure that must be applied to an artery, say, in the arm, to stop the pulse in the vessel, beyond the point of pressure. Blood pressure may be a symptom of kidney disease, or hardening of the arteries, some disorders of the ductless glands and other causes. Treatment of a special nature is usually needed after a careful study of the symptoms. Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., will gladly give this if you will write to him, giving details of your symptoms. Mild cases may be treated by regular doses of System Corrective (see p. 192) taken in the morning, a low diet, and the regular taking of Nitroids (see p. 193).
Bronchitis.—See p. 41.
Bruises, Bums and Scalds.—See First Aid, p. 49.
of the Nose. Throat and Ear
The symptoms of catarrh are recognized almost universally because of the widespread prevalence of the disorder. Its first attack is usually in the nostrils, and from thence, it spreads backward and downward into the entire respiratory tract. In the nasopharynx, which is the junction between the nose and throat, it usually finds a lodgment and causes a choking sensation which leads to “hawking” or difficulty in clearing the throat. The perverted mucous secretions lodge and harden there, and hence, all who have the malady in this form manifest the same objectionable features which make a catarrh sufferer one of the most disagreeable neighbours one could have.
A simple cold becomes a stubborn and protracted one. This is the first symptom of catarrh which you usually notice, and because you did not realize its inherent danger you neglected it. In this form it is known as Rhinitis, or nasal catarrh.
The first local irritation becomes more intense, and a severe, chronic inflammation results. Soon there are sores in the mucous linings, throwing off matter blocking the air passages and preventing the natural supply of health-giving oxygen from reaching the lungs. In the effort to clear the
nasal passage, severe nose-blowing invariably ruptures the lining, so enabling the disease to penetrate deeper into the tissue, and an ulcerated condition supervenes.
The excretions, being dislodged by blowing the nose and “hawking,'' are not wholly expelled from the system. A lot of them drop into the throat. In logical sequence, then, we find the usually attacks the vocal organs, resulting in severe laryngitis.
As catarrh extends, the discharges become vile, acrid and poisonous, painful inflammation ensues, and further complications are developed by ulceration and irritation of all the air passages of the head. The discharges become more profuse, and fiequently give off the most objection-, blc odours.
The Pathways of the Mucous Membranes lead throughout the body and are all liable to Catarrhal Infection. See also illustrations of the ear and lungs on pages 38 and 146. A, Frontal Cavity. B, Sphenoidal Cavity. C, Nasal Cavities. E, Uvula. F, Mouth. G, Throat. H, Tongue. I, Septum.
J, Base of Tongue. K, Root of Tongue, L, Hyoid Bone. M, Larynx. N. and O, Gullet. P, Stomach. Duodenum. R, Transverse Colon. S, Intestines. T, Ascending Colon. U, Descending Colon. V, Rectum.
sufferer has catarrh of the throat, or pharyngitis, the mucous linings of the throat being affected in the same manner as those of the nose, and being manifest in continual sore throat, dryness, ulcers, and an irritating cough. When attended by an acute cold it
Meanwhile, the disease is probably eating its way up to the ear through the eustachian tube, a passage which leads from the inner ear to the back of the nasal passage (see diagram on p. 126). Maddening head noises become evident, and partial or even total
deafness finally results. The accumulations, finding no ready outlet, press on the nerve centres of the eyes, and pressure elsewhere results in agonizing headaches. .
The infection does not confine itself to the head, the droppings from the nose and throat daily fall into the stomach, and digestive disorders, particularly that known as gastritis, set in. Carried from the stomach to the intestines the inflammation is named enteritis, and when it infects the urinary bladder it is termed cystitis.
Having followed this explanation, you will realize that the acute catarrh located in one or more centres not only sets up its own inflammation in this part, but that it exudes secretions which are carried to other centres, there to set up fresh infection.
With the extension of the infected area to the breathing tracts the bronchial tubes in turn are attacked, the resistance of the lungs is reduced, and favourable breeding-grounds for the germs, which are constantly being breathed in, are formed.
If it is not overcome in time, the droppings from the nose and throat will surely be carried to the internal organs. Any day, in fact, catarrh of the stomach, bowels, liver, kidneys, bladder, or other organs, may start, leading to bodily and mental deterioration. It causes, in turn, headaches, nausea, indigestion, head noises, eye troubles, and predisposes the system to the attacks of consumption.
The Functions of the Mucous Membranes.—Because of their proximity to external influences, the respiratory mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and throat are usually the first source of catarrhal infection.
But these are also connected with the corridors through the stomach, into the intestines, colon, and bladder, poisoning each part as they go, and further, these poisons gain entry into the blood-stream, and are again carried right through the system, debilitating every part of the body, deadening the nerve centres, congesting the activity of the organs until the debris again finds lodgment in the already inflamed catarrhal regions, adding to the diseased condition and causing intense misery and painful suffering.
Thus the internal organs—the blood, bones, nerves, and tissues on which health depends—are all ultimately affected, the evil carried and extended throughout the body.
These mucous membranes arc the workers who labour for our well-being. They are composed of three linings— the innermost, protecting the veins and glands—the importance of which is now universally recognized by the medical profession.
These glands must be kept in perfect normal condition, for from them flow the saliva and other secretions which perform the reaction of digestion and other functions of health.
What happens when they are attacked by the virus of catarrh? They become inflamed, sluggish in their action, and partially clogged, and the life-sustaining secretions are not formed as freely as they should be, and even this smaller supply is full of acid and poisons, which, instead of aiding the rapid assimilation of food, contaminate it, and in consequence it reaches the stomach with a load of infected matter to add to the catarrhal disorder which that organ already has to combat. Another link has been forged in the endless chain of this destroying disease.
In its turn the activity of the mucous membrane of the stomach slows up, and the flow of its gastric juices is retarded. Acute belching of wind, indigestion, and gastritis follow, and then the food, further loaded with still more poisons, goes on its way to the intestines, and is absorbed into the blood, kidneys, and bladder.
But this is only one of the systems of mucous-lined corridors which lead from the nose and mouth; other channels lead to the eyes and ears. Here the mucous membranes become inflamed and thickened. Discharges collect and press on the nerves, causing an acute eye trouble termed conjunctivitis, while in the ears they cause distressing head noises, and partial or even total deafness.
Catarrh in both these centres is responsible for severe headaches, the real cause of which is not suspected.
Again, the infection is conveyed to the lungs, and severe local irritation of the bronchial tubes is set up. This catarrhal infection of the pulmonary tract is one which is most dreaded— and rightly so! Its contamination of the mucous membranes of the lungs is a distressing complaint in itself, but worse, the clogging effect of the inflamed and poison-covered surface shuts off the health-giving oxygen, which should be extracted from the air and prevents them absorbing a sufficient supply to purify and enrich the blood-stream of life.
Not only is the effective supply of oxygen reduced, but the clogging which cuts down the absorption of it also prevents the proper elimination of the waste poisonous products of the body which are given out normally in the breath in the form of carbonic acid gas, and the surfaces become inflamed.
In consequence, we have the twofold effect that, instead of the worn-out tissues of the body being replaced as they normally should be, the self-manufactured poisons are carried to the already depleted nerves and muscles, so damaging the tissues instead of repairing them. Weakening mental and bodily resistance instead of rebuilding them. And, wherever the accumulations become acute, causing miserable debilitating disorders.
The condition of the lungs becomes an ideal breeding-place for other germs, and frequently the bacilli of other diseases are enabled to commence their ravages as a result.
The endless chain of catarrhal disease indicates that the purpose of treatment must be such that the disease germs are destroyed and the inflammation soothed and healed. Most important is that the deep-seated root causes must also be thoroughly eliminated and the weakened organs and functions restored to healthy activity.
The Danger of Mouth-breathing.— Catarrh is truly blamed as the parent of all disease. Not only is it a strangling affliction, but it opens the way for the free entry of many dangerous germs into the system, by making the sufferer a mouth-breather.
The nose is the organ of the sense of smell, and the natural breathing orifice. It is also an important part of the organs of speech. Internally it is divided into two cavities—the nasal fossae, which are separated by a vertical partition, termed the septum.
Into the air passages are drawn many cubic feet of air each minute—if the air supply is cut down by Catarrh there is definite oxygen starvation. The purpose of S-in-1 Oxygen Catarrh Treatment is to assure an increased supply of life-sustaining oxygen and to kill the germs which are breathed In with the air.
These nasal fossae again are subdivided by many spongy cells or sinuses, into a very delicate and sensitive formation. Connecting with these arc the larger nasal cavities, which are lofty, and run back into the head, terminating directly over the throat, but connected with it, and separated from the mouth by the hard and soft palate and uvula. Connected with these, and above, is another opening, the sphenoidal cavity.
Joining the nasal cavities at the anterior region are two passages known as the eustachian tubes, which lead direct to the inner ears or tympanic cavities, situated just inside the eardrums.
All these passages and cavities have a delicately constructed mucous lining, that in the main passage, the one through which the air passes in the act of breathing, containing within its convolutions both arteries and veins in very intricate formation.
Just inside the nostrils are numerous short hairs, closely crossing each other to form a sieve.
In breathing, the air first of all passes through the sieve of hairs which filters out any foreign matter, such as soot, dust, or grit. Then, partly purified, it travels through the intricate convolutions of the nasal cavities. Here the folds of mucous membranes extract finer particles of foreign matter, including many germs, and in the healthy individual destroy them. Moreover, the complex system of blood-vessels gives off a constant supply of heat, so that the air reaches the lungs free of contagion and warmed to a gently soothing degree of heat.
The mucous membranes, inflamed and clogged up with debris from the blood-stream, and their own discharge, block the free, easy flow of air through the passage. Natural breathing through the nose becomes increasingly difficult, and instead air is taken direct through the mouth into the lungs, with disastrous risks.
The dust and impurities are not filtered out, the disease germs which lurk everywhere have free entry, and the air, especially in the cold days of winter, instead of being gently warmed, brings a chill to the bronchial tubes to inflame them with bronchitis, pneumonia, and kindred ailments.
Not only does the mouth-breather run the risk of his lungs becoming the breeding-ground for disease germs because they have easy entry; not only does the sudden entry of cold air directly result in bronchio-pneumonic disorders, but it emphasizes the catarrhal conditions, debilitates or weakens the functions of the lungs, and restricts their activity so that they fail to extract sufficient oxygen—the sustainer of life—to purify and enrich the blood. And, in turn, the carbonic acid, moisture, and similar waste products of the body are not discarded as they should be, but these health-destroying toxins remain in the circulation to further break down every part of the body to which the blood reaches. Particularly it increases the severity of the catarrhal infection and causes fresh outbreaks wherever a weakness manifests itself in a mucous membrane.
Moreover, if the lungs and throat have already been infected with the catarrhal condition, they rapidly become worse. The mucous membranes, instead of secreting and assuring the natural flow of lubricating fluids, exude sickly, fetid, evil-smelling substances, and the discharge of poisonous matter into the system is hastened.
Many catarrh sufferers do not realize that they have developed this dangerous habit of mouth-breathing. I have known many who denied that they breathed frequently through the mouth. They simply did not realize that they did so. You will invariably find that no matter how determined they may be to guard against mouthbreathing during the day, it begins immediately on falling asleep, and is evidenced by deep snoring, as anyone who has shared the same bedroom as a catarrh sufferer can testify.
Mouth-breathers seem, without exception, to become perverse, and irritable. Many an uncontrollable child is so only because of this catarrhal condition, and really, instead of being punished, should be treated for catarrh when,_ in ninety-nine cases in a hundred, its nature will improve. In this connexion, it is interesting to note that the majority of criminals are catarrhal and mouth-breathers, and may it not be that their impulses to do wrong should be laid at the door of this disease also?
Conjunctivitis or Catarrhal Eye-trouble.—Already we have informed you of a pair of passages which lead from the nasal cavities to the region at the back of the eyes. The mucous membrane lining these is continuous with that of the nose.
Naturally, the inflammation spreads up this pathway also, and this is hastened by the pressure exerted in the action of violent nose-blowing.
The effect on the sensitive eyes can be imagined. An acute, distressing trouble manifests itself, known as conjunctivitis, and is the cause of much suffering if catarrh is not at once banished from the system.
Deafness and Head Noises.—The eustachian tubes, or passages leading from the nasal cavities to the inner ears, are particularly liable to catarrh. When the infection spreads to them the most distressing and nerve-racking experiences are manifest. There are terrible noises in the head. You cannot hear well sometimes—a partial deafness which becomes worse and often permanent.
There is frequently a throbbing, rumbling at the temples—a clicking sound as if some part had broken loose. According to the intenseness of these symptoms you know that catarrh has definitely attacked the inner ear.
If you have only the merest indication of them, to that extent you are fortunate, for you have received and recognized the warning in time, and immediate treatment will save you untold misery and suffering, and you can avoid being robbed of one of the most valuable of the senses, that of hearing.
Quite apart from the suffering which catarrh causes when it reaches the inner ear, anvone would consider it a frightful calamity to become totally deaf, and that is the risk which daily is being taken by catarrh sufferers.
Catarrh the Cause of Many Ills.— Probably you have known many sufferers from indigestion, gastritis, neuralgia, and nervous disorders, lumbago, and rheumatism and other conditions, but have never thought of these maladies as having their origin, or at least aggravation, in catarrh. Often catarrh must be blamed.
These disorders are not due to germs, but to unhealthy functioning of the vital organs of the body. First, catarrh, with its strangling effect on the breathing system, prevents a healthy flow of oxygen to the lungs, and what does enter is prevented by the clogged condition of the bronchial tubes, from enriching and purifying the blood; and secondly, the waste products of the body which should be expelled from the body in the breath are not thrown out.
Can you wonder, then, that the immediate effect is a feeling of lassitude and a general loss of energy? The liver is upset, and biliousness ensues. The kidneys’ action slows down, and uric acid enters the blood, to be deposited in the muscles and joints and set up the severe local pains of rheumatism and lumbago. Neuralgia often arises from the same cause, or by pressure of the catarrhal accumulations on the nerve centres. In fact, the whole system, physical and nervous, is deranged and debilitated.
Self-poisoning the Cause of Catarrh. Disease is not an accident. It follows, as does everything else, the laws of cause and effect. The effect I have already described in the foregoing pages.
Self-poisoning is the primary cause of catarrh, and every derangement of the organs is a step deeper into its hold, and continuance and effects. But these effects manifesting in local inflammations give off poisons of their own manufacture to again enter and increase their hold over their victims, so that the effect becomes a cause also, and so on, in an endless chain of self-poisoning that finally grips one in despair of ever loosening its links.
No matter where catarrh first originates, its progress is the same. It is impossible to have chronic indigestion and not eventually suffer from catarrh. When the food decomposes and putrefies it forms vile poisons in great quantities, to be carried everywhere. The retention of these poisons is aided and abetted by the imperfect performance of the excretory functions, and the load is thrown into the system.
The weakened parts of the body, especially the nose and throat, are compelled to act as an emergency exit for this human sewerage. Any excess of impure matter which the lungs, skin, kidneys, and bowels are unable to handle is thrown out through their mucous linings—or else the rottenness is deposited unseen in some other organ—and so catarrh progresses from one stage to another, continuously multiplying its ravages.
The direct cause of catarrh, then, is definitely self-poisoning. The excess of impurities created is beyond the capacity of weakened organs to carry away, is retained, and is added to and added to.
While it is important and necessary to remedy the local manifestations of catarrh wherever they may appear in your case, their eradication will only be temporary unless the deep-seated constitutional infection—the roots of catarrh—is also vanquished.
The man or woman whose internal system is working properly never has catarrh. It is when the system becomes over-burdened with accumulated wastes and pollution, and when these self-poisons are not naturally expelled, that trouble ensues.
These self-poisons, as I have shown you, clog the intestines and bowels with poisonous, fetid matter, fill the blood-stream with destroying toxins, which lodge in the organs and tissues, break out in sores, ulcers, and inflamed membranes, and create favourable breeding-grounds which form congenial homes for germs and enable them to breed in millions, and so cause all the results and symptoms I have described to you in this book.
Treatment of Catarrh.—If you want to make certain the tree will not grow again you will “grub” out the roots. For the same reason, because you want complete freedom from catarrh, and to be sure there will be no renewal of its anguish, you will desire to eradicate the roots—the deep-seated, innermost cause, which is in the blood.
Local treatments, while they sometimes relieve, are useless in the long run, as they still allow the self-made poisons to be manufactured, and to accumulate and so make the condition worse. Treatment must be constitutional.
FREE BOOK GIVEN TO READERS OF THE HOME NURSE
Readers of The Home Nurse are entitled to a remarkable book which has been published by Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A.
It is full of vital information, and no sufferer from catarrh, throat and chest troubles can afford to be without it. In easily understood language it describes how the self-poisons, manufactured within the body, break out in the nose and elsewhere, causing acute suffering wherever they lodge. It explains the only way in which these poisons can be broken up and expelled and the blood and entire system cleansed and revitalized by the wholesome restoration of oxygen.
This book explains just what you must do to cast out catarrh, by a simple, easy treatment to be carried out in your own home, and which is based on the scientific fact that oxygen has a definite therapeutic value and it is essential to restore it to the system before catarrh can finally be routed from the body.
You owe it to yourself to quickly regain your good health and to be as free from catarrh as the many other sufferers who have used this treatment are to-day. When so many have used it so successfully, it logically follows that it must do the same for you. The first day you will notice benefit. Amazing progress in a week. Then, quickly, the last trace of catarrh will vanish.
You can prove it without cost. The valuable explanato^ book of many pages and illustrations, The Conquest of Catarrh, will cost you nothing. It is free, but is worth pounds for the good health it will bring to you. It will be sent to you without cost or obligation, under plain cover, immediately on receipt of your request. Simply write your name and address clearly _ on the coupon, enclose four-pence in stamps, and post it to-day, now, to V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
Colic.—The term as ordinarily used means a severe pain in the abdominal region due to violent spasms of the muscular tissues of the intestines, usually resulting from irritation caused by unsuitable or tainted food. This simple form is easily treated by taking a tablespoonful of castor oil with 20 drops of Pain Drops (see p. 192). If the pains are persistent something more than intestinal colic is the cause of the suffering, and the doctor must be called in at once.
Man’s worst enemy is constipation, and when it strikes it strikes hard, and throws the entire internal mechanism completely out of gear.
It levies a tax upon man-power by choking the passages of the intestines as you would choke up the outlet of a sewer. It clogs up the bowels and intestines with poisonous faecal matter and allows the formation of vigoursapping toxins in the blood and tissues, which manifest themselves as troubles in all parts of the human system—-destroying efficiency and paving the way for the dreaded appendicitis operation. _ _
Constipation arises through the inability of the bowel muscles to relax and contract to the extent necessary to move the faecal matter through its natural passage, and as a consequence, this poisonous matter remains and becomes clogged in the passages and likens the body to a stagnant pool wherein are bred innumerable manner of diseases. Cause this pool to be drained, by clearing the channels of ingress and egress, and you have formed a natural passageway whereby a perfectly healthy flow is again assured. The average person should have from two to three natural stools daily, and having these, the toxins in the blood and tissues are speedily eliminated by nature’s processes.
Constipation is thus seen to be a state of intestinal congestion, and is caused almost wholly by errors in eating. When the peristaltic muscles of the intestines are overtaxed and weakened by poisons they fail to act with sufficient vigour and the intestines become blocked, decomposition sets in and toxaemia naturally follows.
Constipation is not a disease but a condition from which many diseases originate. It is the failure to eliminate from the body the waste matter of digestion. Many ailments usually regarded as distinct diseases are really aggravated symptoms of constipation.
Half Sick—Half Well.—Nine-tenths of human ills can be traced to constipation with its increasing discharges of toxic poisons into the system. As long as this condition is neglected ailments accrue and the vital organs grow weaker. Such conditions are especially noticeable among men and women in sedentary occupations which do not permit normal activity and consequently a half sick, half well condition is ever present. Such people know they are out of condition, but do not suspect the cause, and, therefore, falsely place their faith in headache powders and tablets, strong purgatives and similar makeshift remedies, which at best give temporary relief, but, in some cases, work positive injury instead of benefiting.
Heart Trouble.—Constipation is a deadly enemy of good heart action. Poisonous gases accumulate in the stomach and intestines, thereby enlarging the ascending, transverse and descending colons to twice and thrice their normal size, and thus crowd their sphere of action. This condition brings on the nervous irregular, or palpitating heart, which so retards one’s progress in all lines of endeavour.
The remedy is to get rid of the cause by correcting the constipated condition, and so reduce the swelling which allows the heart to resume its natural periodical, causing temporary prostration. In other cases the disorder is perpetual, making life a misery.
For those who only suffer occasionally, there is always the prospect of greater suffering later on. So nearly
position in the body without being impeded by the bloated condition of the intestinal tract.
Weaknesses of Women.—Probably the most common of the weaknesses from which women suffer are those peculiar to their sex and which are often greatly aggravated by constipation. Sometimes the trouble is only universal is this experience among women that a condition of frailty, pain and suffering has in the past been regarded as inevitable for women—the accepted cross of womanhood.
These disorders are not inevitable— they are entirely unnecessary; they are brought about by constipation and can be overcome by the very simple method of helping nature to perform her functions of eliminating the waste products of the body regularly.
I have found that many troubles have been relieved and entirely overcome when the constipated condition is relieved and the bowels are induced to act properly.
has recently become so fashionable, is simply a new term for an old familiar trouble called inflammation of the bowels.
The vermiform appendix is a small pouch-like organ attached to the lower part of the large intestine or ascending colon. It often becomes inflamed and then the large intestine is crowded up with decaying faecal matter. Far more often constipation is the cause, rather than the more often blamed irritating foreign substances, which are popularly thought to cause this agonizing complaint.
In fact, Sir Arbuthnot Lane, the world’s greatest authority on medicine, has stated that nearly all cases of appendicitis can be traced directly to constipation. Anyone, therefore, who permits such a condition to continue has a possible case of appendicitis always hanging over their head.
The Colon—The White Man's Burden.—The overloaded colon is actually the white man's burden. This large intestine begins in the lower right region of the belly in a sac-like end, into which the smaller intestine coming from the duodenum empties itself. Just near here, too, the vermiform appendix is found, which, as everyone knows, is subject to serious inflammation or appendicitis, a disease most frequently caused by constipation, according to the greatest medical authorities.
From its starting point the colon passes upwards, bends at right angles under the liver, crosses the abdomen to the left lower side of the abdomen and drops into the pelvis, altering its shape as it becomes the rectum. It is not a simple round tube like the small intestine, but is about 4 inches across and in its length is gathered up into a series of Sulgings, so that it can be seen that the waste matter from the stomach and small intestine cannot pass through it as rapidly as though it were a smooth tube. The doubling up of its walls creates a number of pockets or recesses, and the divisions between them retard the flow from pocket to pocket and the consequent slowing down allows the fluid part of the waste to become absorbed, while the colon contents become finally, as they reach the rectum, a soft mass.
Now, we perceive here, how the whole process of self-poisoning arises from a colon overloaded with filth, because:
(1) The more fluid parts are absorbed into the blood and if any pernicious substances are contained in the solution, they are absorbed with them.
(2) As the waste material becomes firmer it has a tendency to stagnate in the bowel and finally lodge there.
(3) This may continue until the bowel is everlastingly coated with a layer of filthy, half-dried faeces, although a track may remain through this which allows the intestinal products to pass— misleading the individual to believe his bowel action is normal, when really he is walking about with a putrefying mass in the colon and his blood is everlastingly being poisoned as a result.
The untaught savage has better bowel morals than his civilized brothers. He empties his bowels regularly, and frequently, and so the character of the evacuations is soft and easily passed.
The ideal condition to be aimed for is to empty the gut at intervals, regulated according to the meals, so that the next food taken has a stomach prepared to receive it—with a passage cleared to the rectum.
The average process of digestion in the stomach requires from two to four hours; the small intestinal digestion takes up to twelve hours, and the large up to twenty-four hours, so that you can understand there are always the remains of several meals under the most normal circumstances. How imperative then, that there should not be a bigger accumulation of food products than is natural.
In fact, we may compare the alimentary tract—that is the complete passages through the system—to a single line railway track, where the meals represent the trains following each other at stated intervals. When the time-table is upset, collisions or blocks occur and the smooth working of the system is thrown out of order.
Constipation and Cancer.—Cancer is believed to be caused in very many cases by the continuous absorption of the poisons generated in the system. It is frequently developed in the large bowel and particularly in the parts near the exit, where stools are hardest and where lacerations are most frequent.
The fact that cancer is so frequent in this region has led to the belief that certain foods cause this terrible disease, but evidence surely points to the more logical idea that constipation may be the predisposing cause in such cases.
Sir Arbuthnot Lane, the eminent medical authority, states: “I am convinced that Cancer invariably arises only in tissues where vitality has been sufficiently depreciated by intestinal self-poisoning or syphilis. In other words, cancer never attacks a healthy organ.”
There is no known cure for Cancer, but anything which may be the cause of it should not be neglected.
Injury done by Purgatives.—Unnaturally forced action is exerted in the ejection of the hardened matter than would occur in normal cases and damage is done.
In other cases where enfeeblement is present and the bowels instead of being strong and muscular are flaccid and dilated, the constipation is increased by the inability of the weak muscular action to push the contents forward. In such patients all the internal organs are inclined to drop downwards, which condition is called Enteroptosis, or dropping _pf the intestines.
With the intestine unable to empty itself, the sufferer is unable to eliminate the fermenting mass and has to have recourse to continuous use of drugging purgatives and cathartics to relieve the desperate condition. His digestion becomes a curse, with gurgling and groaning sounds of hopeless lament.
If only there were nerves in the stomach or bowels to indicate the damage we would be guarded against much suffering. As it is, lesions, small wounds and ulcers may be present yet unsuspected.
People relieve constipation with drastic purgatives and the hardened masses are suddenly driven forward and their rapid motion may bring about further lacerations.
SEND FOR FREE BOOK
and Information on Special Treatment for Constipation
Constipation is unfortunately thought of complacently as a minor ailment instead of the deadly enemy it really is. It begins with the food at the moment of eating—wrong selection and worse, improper mastication, so in very truth if you are constipated you are in the gravest danger of shortening your life.
When _ constipation stagnates the bowels, imagine the disgusting vile matter which lies putrefying from one day to another. One cannot live over a cesspit and remain healthy; how much worse is the condition when the cesspit is inside us—and unpleasantly full. No wonder it has serious results for its owner.
All the time it is allowed to remain unemptied this poison factory is in full swing—its poisonous toxins gathering up and being forced to enter the highways and byways of the body, and to set up an endless chain of suffering and disease.
Constipation is the wrecker of lives! Neglected, as we have seen, it leads to serious illness, each a step nearer to the end of life. It attacks both sexes at any age, though women are the greatest sufferers.
There is an easy way to overcome constipation—to end the evil harmlessly In the extensive practice of Mr Wawn he has successfully treated many thousands of cases. Although the methods used are simple, they are amazingly effective because they combine Nature’s principles for keeping the body in gooj working order.
For your information and guidance, as a reader of The Home Nurse, he has prepared a most informative and illustrated treatise on “Constipation and How to End It,” which tells you in detail the things you can do to eliminate the wastes of the body regularly, and to guard against the enemy of self-poisoning. Safeguard your health by sending for this treatise today. It is FREE and will be sent without obligation. Send only 4d. in stamps for postage with your request, writing your name and address plainly, to V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., Dept. H.N., Manning Chambers, 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
Croup is a disease of the windpipe, with noisy breathing and peculiar loud cough and occurs chiefly in childhood. Hot poultipes to the throat and chest must be applied immediately and renewed as they become cool. Vomiting should be induced by Ipecacuanha Wine—a teaspoonful everv five minutes until it acts. After poulticing, wrap chest in Wawn’s Wonder Wool (see p. 37).
Diabetes, a disease characterized by excessive discharge of the urine in which sugar is present and revealed by urinary analysis (see p. 151). In the treatment strict diet, avoiding starchy foods and su^’r. is imperative. Medical treatment should be sought immediately.
Diarrhoea is a symptom of some other disorder or disease, but here it will be considered only as a distinct disorder. It is frequently accompanied by vomiting and usually more or less severe pain. Diet is important, and if the diarrhoea is severe should be limited to light diet and milk foods. The first thing to do is to take a tablespoonful of castor oil to clear the bowels. Then regular doses of Digestive Nutrone (see p. 191) will prove beneficial in correcting the stools.
Drunkenness is practically a disease, or at least, can be regarded as a drug habit, and as such much help can be given to overcome it. The fullest information and advice will be gladly given to readers by Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, to anyone who will call or write. Communications will be regarded as confidential.
Dysentery is a form of diarrhoea characterized by slimy and bloody stools with an offensive odour. It is treated similarly to diarrhoea with a restricted diet and a dose of a tablespoonful of castor oil, to which is added a few drops of Pain Drops (see p. 192), followed by regular doses of Digestive Nutrone (see p. 191).
Dysmenorrhoea.—When the monthly periods are attended by actual pain, as distinct from mere discomfort, the condition is termed dysmenorrhoea. It may be obstructive dysmenorrhoea caused by the contraction of the blood passages; membranous dysmenorrhoea in which the lining membrane of the womb is discharged with the flow in large flakes. Congestive, spasmodic neuralgia and ovarian forms are also common. Treatment should first be directed to keeping the bowels active, which can be done with System Corrective (see p. 192). Warmth applied with a hot water bag is comforting, as is also a bath as hot as can be borne. Further details of treatment will be found in The Home Doctor.
Ear.—See Catarrh (p. 123).
Eczema.—A chronic sk" affection which assumes a variety of torms but essentially is an inflammation of the skin in which there is an oozing out of the watery part of the blood, which begins with the formation of red patches followed by tiny blisters— which later burst and crusts or scales become conspicuous. The first thing to be done is to remove the crusts and scales, which may be done by softening them with a warm weak solution of bicarbonate of soda. In acute cases involving a large area of skin the pain may be relieved by the use of warm lotions on lint or linen covered with oiled silk. For this purpose, Calex Oxide Skin Lotion (see p. 191) or thin starch is suitable. The affected parts may be then covered with Wawn’s Wonder Balm on lint. If the bowels do not act regularly they should be stimulated with System Corrective (see p. 192).
Fainting Spells are liable to occur in anaemic women who will greatly benefit by taking a suitable women’s tonic such as Fematon (see p. 191).
Fevers may be defined as a condition of the body in which there is distinct increase in its temperature. A medical man should be consulted where any serious disease is suspected. A good nurse can do much by correct feeding of the patient, by bathing him and keeping the bed in comfortable condition. Full details of symptoms and treatment will be found in The Home Doctor.
Flatulence is a symptom of indigestion characterized by eructations of “wind.” The distension of the stomach may through pressure on the heart cause palpitation. Palliative treatment is effected with Digestive Nutrone (see p. I9i)._ For complete treatment see Indigestion (p. 142).
Gall-stones.—These are formed of solid material deposited from the bile or from the lining of the gall-bladder. The pain from them is usually found in the pit of the stomach. A full description of the symptoms and method of treatment will be found in The Home Doctor.
Gastritis (Acute).—Gastric catarrh is in the majority of cases an inflammation of the stomach caused by unsuitable food or the excessive use of strong spirits, or of condiments. There are sour eructations from the stomach, and usually abdominal pains and tenderness and sometimes vomiting. Vomiting should not be checked too early. For adults a 3-grain dose of Calomel should be given, followed the next morning with a dose of System Corrective (see p. 192). For children 10 to 20 grains of Conjpound Rhubarb Powder should be given. No food should be eaten from twelve to eighteen hours, but if thirst is prevalent it can be eased by sucking a small piece of ice. When food is allowed, it should be in small quantities and light in nature.
Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers (see P- 172).
The Science of the Newly Control All Life1
The whole world has been amazed by the recent discoveries by scientists that certain glands in the body are the sources of life—our energy, vitality, our health and well-being derive their origin from the precious fluids poured out by the ductless glands.
These ductless glands (called the glands of internal secretion) which were for ages a mystery and regarded as useless, are now known to be the absolute controllers of human life— every phase of it from the moment of birth onwards.
The maintenance of normal life depends upon the healthy functioning of these glands. It is their business to create and supply precious, vital, lifegiving fluids which are absolutely es-
Discovered Organs Which s Vital Functions
sential for energizing the organs of the body. Should these glands become defective their output of these vital fluids is reduced, and sometimes fails entirely, with the result that the organs they should sustain become starved and slow down, or even break down in their essential work and the health of the individual deteriorates and a period of ill-health results.
The glands and the products of the glands, it is now definitel" established, have a supreme influence on the conditions of health in which we live. In the last forty years amazing advances have been made in the science of the glands, in the precise knowledge that has been made available by painstaking laboratory research by eminent
scientists—and in the application of this carefully won knowledge to the lessening of human suffering.
Diseases formerly regarded as hopeless are now overcome, or entirely prevented from developing, hy the administration of gland substances. Abnormalities, both mental and physical, which are due to gland failure, are now treated successfully, and the patient restored to a normal individual, with healthy body and alert mentality.
Dangerous tendencies have been averted, and those unfortunate persons who were formerly regarded as mentally deficient have been given a higher standard of intelligence by Gland Treatment.
In fact, scientists can now say with assurance that the life of every individual, normal or abnormal, his physical appearance, even his character and personality, are dominated by his glands.
The Discovery of the Ductless Glands.—The existence of certain glands has been known to man from early times—the earliest anatomists found them but had no real conception of their function. Those which had tubes or ducts leading from them had an evident purpose, such as the secreting of saliva in the mouth, the digestive juices in the stomach and intestines, etc., and there was no doubt about their value.
Some of the other glands, however, had no tubes or ducts leading from them. They were, therefore, called “ductless” glands, and, as they seemed to have no outlet, they remained a puzzle to the early investigators and for centuries remained a mystery.
In the year 1776, Dr Borden, a distinguished French physician, published the result of his researches and proclaimed that each gland and organ produced its own particular fluid which was delivered into the blood-stream in its passage through the gland. And he declared that these glandular fluids (secretions) were essential to the human organism. That this was an epoch-making discovery we will find as we proceed, and to Dr Borden must be given the honour of opening up a new field of knowledge, that is now proving of the greatest benefit to humanity. However, credit should also be given to Dr Berthold, of Gottingen, who as early as 1840, proved the existence of a gland with a true internal secretion and showed the power this internal secretion had on the human body through the blood.
It is not within the scope of these pages to describe in detail the famous names associated with increasing the knowledge of the functions of the glands, but we must content ourselves with the statement of one of the foremost authorities on this subject at the present time, who writes: “The most precious bit of knowledge we possess to-day about man is that he is a creature of his glands of internal secretion. Every bit of evidence points towards the internal secretions as the holders of the secrets of our inmost being.”
The Ductless Glands and Their Purpose.—A careful study of the diagram on this page will give you in a quickly understood form the part the various glands play in the functioning of the vital organs, and how the failure of any of them must result in deterioration of the organs they “feed” with consequent ill health, loss of energy, failing vitality and the loss of mental activity.
The Thyroid Gland—“The Energy Producer.”—The thyroid gland lies across the front of the neck over the windpipe. It is the enlargement of this gland which causes the swelling in goitre.
The internal secretion of the thyroid has been proved to have a definite influence on the skin, the hair, the bones (particularly the bones of the hands, feet and skull) and the folds or convolutions of the brain. If the thyroid is injured in infancy it is shown that growth is retarded and sometimes entirely suspended.
It should be understood that one gland is not more important than another—it is their all being normal and working harmoniously together that is essential to our w'ell-being. But the intensive research and study of the glands in recent years has revealed that the thyroid gland controls the speed of living.
The thyroid controls the rate at ■which the energy is produced to be used for heating the body, movement, etc., so when the thyroid secretion is deficient the individual becomes dull and listless, sluggish in actions, and the mentality wanes. Scientists have satisfied themselves, therefore, that while the thyroid secretion is not absolutely essential for the continuance of life, it is quite certain that without it there would be no power to think and no growth.
One of the greatest authorities says: “When it (thyroid) is sufficiently active, life is worth while; when it is defective, life is difficult, threatening blackness. Without thyroid there can be no processes of thought, no learning, no education, no habit formation, no responsive energy, no physical unfolding of faculty and function, and no reproduction of any kind—with no sign of adolescence at the expected age and no exhibition of sex tendencies thereafter.”
If, then, there is a deficiency of thyroid fluid, there is a consequent reduction of life-giving energy, or to use a simile, “instead of the spark of life burning brightly, it merely smoulders and smokes.” If, on the other hand, there is an excess of secretion the individual experiences a condition of over-activity, over-excitability of the nerves; the temperature is above normal and one is s_ubject to flushes, liable to insomnia, very emotional, perspires freely, has abnormal sexual susceptibility, and, though the appetite is good, is always thin. This is the type spoken of as neurotic or highly strung.
Deficiency of thyroid can affect every phase of life from the youngest infant to the oldest adult. In the case of an infant it is abnormally sleepy, it develops extremely slowly in physique and mentality. After the first few months the gums thicken, the tongue protrudes and interferes with breathing. More repulsive characteristics appear month by month, the skin becomes dry and bloated, of a waxy pallor, the forehead wrinkled and swollen, the nose squat and shapeless with wide thick nostrils; eyes watery, and eyelids puffed up; hair thin and lifeless and teeth much decayed.
Thirty years ago such a child was regarded as condemned to hopeless idiocy. To-day, so great has been the advance in our knowledge of the glands of internal secretion, that a vast improvement in the child’s condition can be effected quickly, and there is every possibility that under the proper skilled treatment of glandology it can be brought to normal and grow up into the man or woman Nature intended it to be. It can actually be transformed into a healthy, happy being.
As to adults, all the mal-conditions previously mentioned can be rectified with the greatest certainty.
The Pituitary Gland—“The Gland of Continued Effort.”—This little organ, no bigger than a pea, situated at the base of the brain, is essential to life. Without it no human being could live for any length of time. It consists of two parts joined side by side, one being known as the prepituitary (or antepituitary) and the other the postpituitary.
The prepituitary manufactures two secretions, one which has been proved to be the controller of growth and the other is the internal secretion which influences the sex organs and sexual activity.
A remarkable fact revealed by the research into the effects of the prepituitary was that if from injury or other cause, it fails to function normally, there results serious interference with the development of two other glands—the thyroid and adrenal—as well as the sex glands. So the two internal secretions of the prepituitary play a most important part in both the bodily and mental health of the individual.
Experiments have demonstrated that small pieces of the prepituitary grafted on to very young animals, will bring about mature sexuality, with all the mating and reproducing instincts. On the other hand, removal of only part of the prepituitary from an animal will bring about rapid degeneration, cause sleepiness, development of fat, and a tendency to reversion of sex. The fact that several human dwarfs were shown to have undeveloped or inadequate prepituitary glands confirms the view that the development of the bone structure or skeleton is also controlled by this wonderful, yet tiny, gland.
The posterior lobe or postpituitary produces an internal secretion called pituitrin, which performs an amazing number of functions. It controls the “tone” of the tissues, regulates the elasticity of the blood-vessels, and the organs which function by contraction and expansion, such as the bladder, intestines, etc. When postpituitary secretion is injected, the blood pressure rises slowly, the action of the kidneys is increased and also, in women, that of the breasts, while the bladder and uterus remain contracted. It is also believed to control the proportion of the salts in the blood, in which direction it apparently cooperates with the thyroid in maintaining correct balance.
It can be realized then that the combined functions of the two lobes or parts of the pituitary gland are extremely important. It has much to do with the individual’s habits, sleeping or waking. In fact, it affects the whole conduct, health and personal appearance. He is recognized generally in the obese type with heavy accumulations of fat, especially in the lower parts of the body and legs, and is inactive, slow of movement, dull of expression, often of an epileptic tendency, and usually, if not always, impotent. Such cases respond to treatment by the administration of extract from pituitary gland and, in a case coming under treatment early enough, “a complete mental, moral and physical awakening may be effected.”
Turning now to conditions arising from an excess of the pituitary secretion, we find the most striking result is in the elongation of the bones (if the over-action commenced in childhood). Thus the child develops into a giant. Should, however, the overactivity of the pituitary develop during adult age there is a distressing change in physical appearance, hands and feet become enlarged, the head alters in shape, the nose, ears, lips and eyes become larger and coarser, painful headaches are frequent, and there is a distinct diminution of sexual life.
The Adrenals—“The Glands of Domination.”—There are two separate adrenal glands, situated above the kidneys, and these were formerly regarded as part of the fatty tissues which envelop the kidneys.
Each adrenal consists of two parts —the cortex or outer secretion and the medulla or inner. Each part intertwines to some extent with the other, but the two secretions they produce are entirely different in their influence. The volume of blood passing through the adrenals is enormous compared to their size, but the reason for this is revealed in the great importance of their functions in the whole organism.
The internal secretion of the cortex controls the growth of the brain cells, and it is closely concerned in the process of sex development. In known cases where the adrenal cortex in a child has been diseased, extraordinary changes have followed in a few weeks or months—all the attributes of an adult appearing—due to an excess of the secretion having “speeded up” the processes of maturity. This internal secretion of the cortex also acts upon the pigment cells of the skin, inducing some degree of protection to the sun's rays.
In experiments on animals it was found that when the adrenal cortex is entirely removed, the animal quickly develops the symptoms of severe poisoning, it refuses food, becomes listless and thin and soon dies. It is clear, then, that if there is a deficiency of this substance in the human system, the natural changes are upset and an accumulation of poisons results, with serious inroads on the state of health.
It is known that in normal healthy bodily condition, chemical changes take place by which the food eaten is converted into the necessities required by the body, and in this process there is also the production of an amount of acid which would endanger life were it not removed or neutralized. It is the internal secretion of the cortex which performs this neutralizing function.
Mention has already been made of the inter-relationship or co-operation which exists between the different glands. An example is provided by the relationship of the thyroid and the adrenal cortex—the thyroid is continually adding heat and acid whilst the adrenal cortex decreases them—hence the one acts as a counter-balance to the other.
Human beings suffering from a deficiency of adrenal are always tired, they feel the cold, often the hands and feet are a mottled bluish colour. They lack decision, are very “touchy,” weep readily, and are always worrying. They suffer from nerves and are prone to nervous breakdowns. They have periods of despondency, inability to concentrate, are hysteric, and exhibit the general symptoms of neurasthenia. All these signs possibly indicate a breakdown in the supplies of the adrenal secretions.
The Gonads—“The Glands of Reproduction.”—The gonads are the glands of sex, and the term is applied to all the reproductive or generative organs. In the male these are the testes; in the female the ovaries. As they have canals or ducts for the conveyance of some of their products they are actually glands of external secretion. But it has been found that they have a dual function, concerned with manufacture of an internal secretion. The cells which do this form the interstitial gland and the fluid it secretes has a remarkable influence and enormous importance.
It is concerned with the oncoming of adolescence; with what is termed the secondary sexual characteristics (instances are the growth of the beard in a man, whilst women develop the breasts), and they also have something to do with sex impulses and sex excitements. Their absence is the explanation of the effeminate man and also of the masculine woman. In fact, the womanly woman and the manly man are described as “the masterpieces of these interstitial cells when in perfection.”
The most amazing effects have resulted from experiments in transplanting these glands. Female animals have been caused to develop masculine characteristics and tendencies, whilst males have acquired positive characteristics of the female, the voice has been altered and the shape or physical contours have been changed, added to or reduced.
These interstitial cells of the sex glands or gonads are extremely sensitive to the influence of the other organs of internal secretion. Sex variations in infinite mutations are recognized as arising from disturbances in this interassociation of the ductless glands. Research has been particularly valuable in enablin'* the profession to deal with the critical period in a woman’s life known as the climacteric or “change of life,” and they have also cleared up a good deal of the mystery surrounding the period known as puberty, the change from the child to the adult.
Remarkable psychological changes have been noted in cases where injury or disease has interfered with these interstitial glands, and, on the other hand, there are many instances on record where the administration of extracts from these glands has not only brought about the restoration of lost power, but has given the individual a new and buoyant personality. Brown-Sequard in his own person provided the classical example. At 72 years of age, by injecting glandular extracts, he was able to give himself the vigour and outlook of a man of forty. Since then there have been many hundreds
of similar experiences all over the world. _
The most advanced psychologists to-day link the sex impulse with the windings and twistings of all human activity. So the gonads or sex glands should be studied for their effect or functions at every stage of life, from infancy to old age.
The Thymus Gland—“The Childish Gland.”—Science knows less about the thymus than it does of any of the other glands. Rut at least it has established that the thymus regulates childhood. It is directly and closely connected with nutriment and growth, yet experiments have demonstrated conclusively that it also acts as a brake upon the other glands of internal secretion which, if unchecked, would hasten development and lead to precocity. So the thymus keeps children childish, regulating to noxrnal their physical and mental growth, controlling the chemistry of bone and muscle formation during childhood.
It appears to act as a storage or reserve to protect the child against limitation of growth which would result from lack of food material, and it certain'-- has an influence in regulating the other glands, the adrenal cortex, the pineal, the thyroid, the sex' glands, in the processes which bring about the changes from childhood to puberty.
The thymus gland is situated in the chest, behind the breast bone, and the size and condition of the thymus gives an indication of the state of nutrition of the whole of the body.
The Pineal Gland—Regulates Development.—Because of its position, the pineal was regarded by the ancients as the habitation of the soul. Later it was thought that it was formerly the seat of the third eye—the eye at the top of the head. It is a very tiny bit of tissue at the base of the brain, near to but behind and above the pituitary.
Only in recent years has its importance or even its function been understood, and then it came to the notice of scientists through a very remarkable incident. An Austrian nerve specialist had a child patient, a boy aged five years, who had suddenly begun to grow at an extraordinary rate. Not only in physique, but also in sexuality and mentality he had become an adult. He died, and examination revealed a tumour on the pineal gland. Similar cases were reported from other parts of the world and research was carried on for a couple of years which brought the interesting knowledge that infant animals when fed with the pineal gland rapidly outgrew others of the same age in size, intelligence, activity, and resistance to disease.
It is now believed, therefore, that the pineal gland is one of the regulators of development. It has an influence on sex and on the brain, and it also has some influence like the adrenal cortex, on the susceptibility of the skin to effects of light. In normal children the pineal commences to fade away at about seven years. Scientists are still investigating it but we know very little more regarding its functions or composition than has been noted above.
The Parathyroids.—There are in the
neck, very close to the thyroid gland, four little bodies like grains of wheat, so insignificant that until recent times they had escaped the notice of scientists. Yet, so important are they that, if they are removed, their loss will create an excitability of the nerves that amounts to convulsions.
The effect is the same as if a strong dose of strychnine had been administered. So intensely^ sensitive will be the condition of the nerves that the turning up of a light will make the subject violently jump.
Observation also showed that with the removal of these four tiny parathyroids, there was a decrease of lime in the blood and cells. The hair falls out, nails become brittle, the bones soften, the body wastes away and death occurs.
If, however, before allowing this extremity to happen a supply of lime is injected into the blood, these conditions can be corrected.
Prior to these discoveries in regard to the parathyroids, it was already well known that lime was essential to the growth and well-being of human beings. The deduction therefore was made that the parathyroid glands were concerned with the control of the amount of lime necessary for the blood and cells.
It is now accepted by the medical profession that a person suffering from extreme restlessness, irritability, trembling, inability to sleep, is deficient in parathyroids, and in consequence the calcium content of the blood is below requirements. The efficient functioning of the parathyroid is essential to a steadiness of muscle and nerve.
Then followed a Ion'* series of experiments to provide means whereby the necessary calcium could be restored to the cells and the hyper-sensitiveness or electrical irritability of the nerves brought back to normal.
Nowadays doctors are able to administer Hand extracts to relieve cases of over-excitability of the nerves, convulsions in children and in certain types of epilepsy. It is also used where there is need for coagulating the blood as in haemorrhages arising from tuberculosis, from ulcers, from operations or from accidents. The iniection of this extract is also given in cases where it is desired to build up the resistance to infection, as in pyorrhoea and chronic arthritis.
The Pancreas.—The pancreas is an organ of both external and internal secretions. Its external secretion, which is produced by the larger portion of the pancreas, is passed into the small intestine and is an important agent in digestion. The internal secretion is the product of what are really small islands, of cells distributed throughout the pancreas, amongst the larger collection or groups.
When there is deficiency of this internal secretion or Hormone, the disease well known as Diabetes is the result. The chief function of the pancreas is to hold and hoard the necessary amount of sugar in the body for the creation of heat and energy—to see that the liver is well stored with sugar, for the liver has been aptly described as the great sugar warehouse. In Diabetes an excess of sugar gets into the blood and into the urine.
Deficiency of the internal secretion makes the liver unable to retain sugar as it should, and the body is unable to burn up the sugar for energy production, so it is lost to the body and carried away to waste by the urine.
Diabetes has always been one of the greatest problems for physicians until very recent years. It was only in 1921 that Dr Banting, a Canadian practitioner, discovered Insulin and since that time its use has restored immense numbers of diabetic patients to good health who had previously only been chronic invalids. Insulin, therefore, may be regarded as one of the most beneficent discoveries ever made in the application of extracts from glands of internal secretion.
Goitre.—This affection consists in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, which is situated at the front of the windpipe, close to “Adam’s apple.” It may take the form of a localized tumour, known as an adenoma; but more often it is a diffuse enlargement the result of drinking water that has been infected with a germ which has not yet been identified. In this latter form it occurs chiefly in the higher valleys of mountainous regions. From its prevalence in the valleys of Derbyshire it is sometimes termed “Derbyshire neck.” It is not, however, more frequent in Derbyshire valleys than in valleys in other districts or countries, nor is it confined to valleys. The symptoms are mostly caused by pressure of the enlarged gland on the gullet, the windpipe, and other surrounding parts, with the result that there may be difficulty in swallowing, or in breathing. The affection is amenable to treatment. When it takes the adenomatous form the growth should be removed. When it occurs in goitrous regions the patient should migrate elsewhere, or, if this is impossible, should abstain from water which has not been boiled; the X-rays may be tried, or a vaccine administered; if such measures as these fail, an oneration may have to be performed. Goitre is often associated with the form of idiocy known as cretinism (q.v.). The serious form of thyroid-gland enlargement known as exophthalmic goitre, or Graves’s disease, is described under the latter heading, in The Home Doctor.
For information regarding the correct treatment for goitre it will be necessary to write direct to V. A. Wawn,
M.P.S.A., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney. Full particulars as to treatment, etc., will be sent you by return mail.
Hay Fever.—An affection distinguished by profuse, watery discharges from the nostrils. The eyes may also be affected. Details of treatment can be obtained from Mr Wawn (see above).
Headaches are symptoms which arise from some constitutional disorder and may be nervous, neuralgic, anaemic, congestive or organic. Full particulars of the symptoms and method of treating each type named will be found in The Home Doctor. Nervettes (see p. 191) will be found to be the most helpful and satisfactory relief for all forms of headaches and can be taken with every confidence.
Heart.—There are many disorders and diseases of the heart all of which are fully described with symptoms and treatment in The Home Doctor. In some cases pains in the heart may arise from Indigestion.
Heart Burn is a condition which is due to an excess of acid in the stomach —a sensation of heat is felt in the stomach and spreads up the gullet. A scalding acid may rise to the mouth. Take half a teaspoonful of Digestive Nutrone (see p. 191) in half a cup of hot water a few minutes before meals
Hernia.—See Rupture, p. 168.
Hiccup is a spasmodic indrawing of air to the lungs, ending with a click, due to the sudden closure of the vocal cords. The cause is some irritation of the nerves. If the condition is due to dyspepsia it can often be relieved by a copious drink of cold water. A few doses of Digestive Nutrone (see p.
191) will remove the dyspepsia from which it arises.
AND STOMACH DISORDERS “The Dyspeptic’s Burden ’
No one can have good health unless the digestive organs are in perfect condition and the body supplied with wholesome and nutritious food, for “Man is physically what he eats.’’
A defective digestion that converts food into poisonous carbon-dioxide gases in the intestines will make inferior flesh and blood and must lead to weakness and emaciation. Everyone knows what failure of the digestive processes means. The feeling of fulness, pain and discomfort after eating, with eructations of gas, an acid taste in the mouth, irregular appetite and sluggish bowels, which characterize the upset condition.
You will find if your condition is neglected that these will lead to the nervous manifestations of dyspepsia, peevishness, irritable temper and moodiness, so that life no longer holds any real pleasure. Your thoughts are forever filled with apprehension that whenever you eat the arch-enemy will overtake you and despoil you of your enjoyment.
Do you realize that not only are your health and outlook on life affected, but that indigestion and dyspepsia may arouse conditions that threaten your well-beine and may even be a menace to the continuance of life itself?
This is especially so in people who have reached or passed middle age. Their constitutions cannot stand severe attacks of indigestion and every physician knows of sudden deaths in cases where the heart has become weakened.
Result of the “Hurry Habit”.—The modern habit of doing everything in a hurry is undoubtedly the chief cause of the amazing percentage of digestive disorders which prevail in this country.
Thousands of men and women break up, fail in business or lose employment because their disordered digestions have unfitted them for their life’s work.
Homes are broken up and lives ruined, simply because the irritable and oft-times uncontrollable temper, which sooner or later accompanies the affliction, renders human companionship impossible.
Beware of indigestion. Disorders of digestion affect the entire system. The close relation of the stomach to that great nerve centre called the solar plexus, in which meet the nerves that control the most important of your bodily functions, means that when the stomach is deranged or diseased, the rest of the body is certain to be more or less seriously involved.
Even a slight attack of indigestion is usually accompanied by such symptoms as headache, feverishness, biliousness, constipation, disorders of vision, flashes before the eyes, etc., palpitation of the heart, besides a feeling of depression, lack of strength and general “grouchiness.”
Dyspepsia is, after all, nothing more or less than chronic indigestion and the dyspepsia victim cannot be blamed if he finally concludes that life for him is not worth living unless he can obtain lasting relief from the tortures from which he suffers. He tries everything, usually in vain, for it is a curious fact that the remedies which are mostly given for the relief of certain symptoms are almost sure to have their usefulness counterbalanced, because while they relieve in one particular direction, they upset the system in some other and possibly worse way.
I have made a special study of digestive disorders and know from my own professional experience that this is so, and, as a result, I know the treatment must be devised to avoid this common mistake, so that it can only work the utmost benefit.
Digestion, How Food is Prepared for Assimilation by the Body.—Digestion is the process of change which food undergoes, which reduces it to simple substances in a fluid form that can be easily absorbed for the nourishment of the body. The insoluble residues or left-over wastes are consolidated during their progress through the terminal portion of the intestines, until finally they are expelled from the body in the form of the faeces. The nourishing constituents, after their absorption in simple form, are carried on to the many organs of the body where they are built into the complicated substances of which our bodies are composed. Growth is thus rendered possible and the repair of tissue waste made good.
The three main processes affecting food after it has been eaten are therefore (1) digestion, (2) absorption and (3) assimilation.
Digestion begins in the Mouth.—Before food can be assimilated, its nourishing constituents must be converted into a fluid form in order that it may be taken up into the blood, and it must be changed chemically so that it is rendered capable of being absorbed by the tissues when it is brought to them by the blood stream after absorption.
These changes are started in the mouth. The food is ground up by the teeth and at the same time the salivary glands pour saliva into it, until a pulpy mass is produced, which can be readily swallowed. Efficient, careful and deliberate mastication of food is, therefore, of the utmost importance in digestion.
The saliva, the product of the salivary glands, not only moistens the food, but it contains a ferment or diastase which converts starchy portions of food into sugar—so before the food is swallowed both a mechanical and chemical change has been brought about.
The saliva is poured out into the mouth, not only as a result of the contact with food, but also at the anticipation of it, producing the well-known effect of “my mouth waters.” Stimulation is also effected by the sense of taste, which causes a further salivary outflow.
The Stomach’s Part in Digestion.—
Important digestive changes occur in the stomach, but very little absorption occurs except of small quantities of alcohol and sugar. Water is probably not absorbed at all, and if any of the chemical salts are taken up it is only in very minute quantities.
The stomach is the source of the gastric juice—an acid fluid ferment called pepsin, which acts on proteins, and another digestive fluid, rennet, wlvch causes milk to curd. There are also small quantities of fat-digesting ferments.
These stomach secretions cause great changes to occur. The acid fluid produces a liquefaction, the proteins are broken up into simple bodies called
proteoses; a small degree of digestion of fat takes place with the production of fatty acids which are liquefied by bodily warmth. Starch is not digested any further here if it has not been completed in the mouth, and no absorption of such food takes place other than what has previously been stated.
Food begins to pass from the stomach shortly after it has been swallowed and it is usually empty 2J to 4 hours after a normal meal. Something is drastically wrong if any food remains longer than six hours.
Further Digestive Processes.—Next the food enters the duodenum and here the secretions of two of the principal digestive glands are poured on to it from the pancreas and liver.
The pancreatic juice is alkaline and acts upon all three kinds of foodstuffs. The liver pours out another fluid called bile. The chief function of bile is to convert the fat into a form for assimilation by splitting it into small globules. Bile also increases the digestive powers of the pancreatic juices in their action on the proteins and carbohydrates.
A further step carries the food on to the small intestine, which itself secretes a digestive ferment known as erepsin, which principally reacts upon the protein decomposition products and also has some action upon the remaining starchy products.
A complete mixing of all the digestive juices and food, previously described, is insured by the churning movements of the small intestine. Further, the intestinal contents are brought into intimate contact with the absorbing surface of the •walls of the intestine and during the passage of the food through the 33 feet of small intestine, the most essential process of absorption occurs. The watery fluid is also taken out at this stage, but the chyme does not become solid as the fluid is replaced by the intestinal secretion.
Finally the food passes into the large intestine or colon when the fluid contents are mainly dried out in the first part of it. The waste matter which is now all that is left of the food eaten, becomes firmer, is passed along to the rectum and finally gives rise to the desire to go to stool.
The evacuations are composed of the indigestible residue of the food materials, and are greater in the case of a vegetable diet than of an animal one.
Stomach Trouble.—Generally the first symptoms of stomach trouble are
a burning sensation, nausea, a feeling of fullness and belching. As the trouble increases there is a sense of heaviness after meals, dizziness, headache, vertigo, mental depression, disturbed sleep, and later, irregular heart action, while complications of liver trouble and constipation usually follow.
Formation of Intestinal Gas.—The formation of gas in the stomach or bowels is an unpleasant and in many cases a dangerous symptom. It inti-cates that the food is fermenting instead of digesting, which is exactly contrary to the normal process, and consumes or destroys energy instead of producing it. Foods that should nourish and strengthen the body are thus converted into poisons which are absorbed by the blood and produce numerous diseases which for centuries have been charged to other disorders.
When the system is restored by proper methods, the food digests within Nature’s time limit and cannot ferment and cause harmful results.
Nerve Troubles Caused by Indigestion.—The nerves are living wires that transmit to the brain the news from every part of the body. When there is a constant violation of the laws of nutrition, upset by indigestion, especially where it is accompanied by loss of sleep, the body cells send little impulses to the central office (the brain) saying constantly that something is wrong.
This results in a chronic state of continuous nervous excitement. The nerves are literally worn out, the whole constitution becomes weakened, debilitated, anaemic and run down. Headache, insomnia and utter exhaustion occur while the ultimate result is sometimes nervous prostration. Don’t you now realize the serious disorders which follow in the train of what is believed to be a simple ailment, often dismissed in such an off-hand phrase as, “Oh, I’ve just an attack of indigestion.”
Emaciation or Excessive Thinness.—
Emaciation, or lack of weight, is caused by imperfect or unnatural nutrition. Indigestion with its hyperacidity, mal-assimilation, stomach and intestinal corruption, is the most common cause.
The excessively thin and weak condition is the result of the production of acids and poisons, due to arrested digestion. When digestion, assimilation and excretion of waste are restored to normal the body naturally gains in muscular and fatty tissue up to its
proper weight and proportions.
Heart Trouble?—A great majority of alleged heart trouble is in reality stomach trouble. The stomach is located directly below the heart. When, therefore, fermentation takes place and gas is formed in the stomach and duodenum, it causes undue pressure on the heart. This causes pains, palpitation and irregular heart action and in extreme cases total cessation of heart action and consequent death.
Nearly all sudden deaths from this cause are called “heart failure.” The only way to die that I know of is for the heart to fail.
The principal object of treatment should be to organize, restore, and to perfect the digestion again and to so energize the bodily functions that the human machine will be filled with natural energy, so that the heart will continue to pump the twenty tons of blood which pass through it daily without failing in its appointed work.
The Tragedy of Gastritis.—If you are a victim of this malady, even occasionally and in a mild form, the proper treatment can achieve wonders for you, as it completely eradicates the trouble at its source by assisting nature. The distressing pain of the inflamed stomach, the belching of gases, the hiccupping, vomiting, quickened pulse, feverishness and general mental uneasiness which attend its presence in your system, are a constant menace and when not treated promptly you are laid low with weakness.
Gastritis is a deadly enemy of the heart, and as the gases gather up in the stomach, intestines and colon these organs become greatly distended and make their action difficult and sluggish.
This condition brings on the nervous, irregular and palpitating heart which is such a disturbing factor, and the only remedy to free the heart is to get rid of the enemy—Gastritis.
Avoid the Vicious Circle.—There is no more vicious and injurious habit than the constant dosing and drugging with cathartics and laxatives and medicines for liver and stomach troubles. These in many cases inflame and injure the delicately balanced organs, and at the best they give only temporary relief.
The only successful w'ay to overcome digestive disorders is to restore the stomach and its appendages to a normal, natural, healthy action.
The most common cause of Indigestion, Gastritis and its other companions is that the gastric juices have gone wrong and do not perform their proper work of preparing the food for assimilation. In other cases there is an inflamed condition of the delicate mucous membranes of the alimentary tract.
Attempting to overcome Indigestion is often merely repair work, oftentimes only clumsy tinkering. The work of the afflicted organ may for a time be speeded up, but the cause, the failure of the natural organism remains, and needs more and increasingly more help. The digestive processes must then be goaded on by stronger and still stronger methods. Habit-forming drugs are the most dangerous of all.
The constant strain under which we work—the rush, the hurry, the pressure on our present-day lives—forces us to look for short cuts. We try to get well in a hurry, as we do everything else. Do not be misled.
People who want immediate rtsults pay heavily in the long run. A habitforming or deadening drug is an unnatural thing—you may take a remedy that will blunt the symptoms. That does not change the abnormal conditions that are the most frequent cause of the trouble.
To overcome digestive disorders the functional system must be awakened and its natural activities accelerated— then you reach the real cause and the Indigestion, Gastritis, Intestinal Gas Belching and Dyspepsia will vanish as if by magic, which makes any form of stomach trouble impossible.
The remedy for Indigestion, Gastritis. Dyspepsia, and other disorders of this kind depends not so much upon changes of diet (although one must guard against wrong food combinations) as upon strengthening the stomach and allied organs themselves. Each case requires modifications of the treatment.
Indigestion is generally not the fault of the food eaten—it is the fault of hurried mastication and the weakness which prevails in the internal organs, which is definitely proved from the fact that some people are upset by eating the same things which others consume without any trouble. A stomach that is as strong and healthy as it should be will digest anything.
The treatment, to successfully combat Indigestion, must act in making the digestive system so active that when the food enters it, the gastric glands will be able to supply sufficient abundance of the digestive juices, and the muscular coat of the stQmach and intestines will be vigorous enough to keep up the churning motion which thoroughly mixes the food with these gastric juices, and assures perfect assimilation.
Building up is the keynote of the successful methods! It enables you to eat what you like within reason and is far and away above all diet fads.
I do not condemn diets and fasting in some cases. But in many instances such practices bring about unnecessary weakness. Immediately banishing the discomforts is desirable but it is necessary to strengthen up the whole digestive tract along with the entire body.
SEND FOR THIS FREE BOOK
Don’t risk further suffering or endure misery—life is too short. Eat practically what you like and enjoy it without fear of indigestion or its worse evil companions—without heartburn, palpitation, sour stomach or belching of gas, acidity or eructations of undigested food, without dizziness, bloating, foul breath and headaches.
Most remedies will give relief sometimes, but as the causes of indigestion are many and complicated they fail to overcome the condition. Special treatment is essential in every case and your case must be treated after careful diagnosis. Mr V. A. Wawn,
Influenza is a form of fever caused by a germ. The symptoms of the average case are severe aching pains in the head, eyes and back, with a rapid rise in temperature. The disease may especially attack either the breathing organs, or the stomach and intestines, or the nervous system. If influenza is not correctly treated there may be serious after-effects. Treatment—The patient should retire to bed at once. Then (i) protect the lungs by wrapping with Wonder Wool (see p. 37), preferably as a jacket, (2) insert a small quantity of Wawn's Wonder Balm (see p. 193) in each nostril two or three times a day, (3) give patient a large dose of castor oil_. Further particulars of treatment will be found in The Home Doctor.
Itch, a popular name for Scabies, a skin disease caused by a minute para-
M.P.S.A., has offered to help all readers of The Home Nurse.
All you have to do is to send for his Free Symptoms Chart and it will be sent together with his special Treatise “Indigestion-—its Cause, Symptoms and Treatment” without obligation. When he knows your symptoms he will advise you what special treatment is necessary for you to regain permanent freedom from all digestive disorders. Simply send your name and address with your request and include 4d. in stamps for postage to Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., Dept. H.N., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
site, causing great itchiness and heat especially after going to bed. The spaces between the fingers, the backs of the hands, and front of the wrists are red and inflamed; scabs may appear through scratching. Treatment— Apply an ointment made of one part of sulphur ointment, one of lanoline, and one of vaseline rubbed into the part night and morning. The skin should be well scrubbed with soap and dried before the ointment is applied.
Itching is due to various conditions some of which are local and easily removed. Some are general, while the condition may become chronic and incurable. Treatment—Warm baths containing soda or bran are soothing. In addition sponging with Calex Oxide Skin Lotion (see p. 191) is soothing. Tf the itching is not speedily relieved a medical man should be consulted.
DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS, BLADDER, AND URINARY ORGANS
There is a chain of comparatively common diseases which are caused by a derangement of the kidneys, bladder and urinary system. Often these are simply termed, “kidney troubles”—a very misleading term, which often leads to the taking of useless medicines, so allowing the specific malady to gain a firmer and deeper hold on the system as a result of the wrong treatment.
In the early stages of ailments of the kidneys, bladder and urinary organs, the symptoms of many of them are so similar that it is easily understood how they come to be wrongly diagnosed, especially by the uninitiated.
Unfortunately, this diagnosis is a mere guess and by no personal examination of the patient can the internal condition be correctly discovered. Fortunately, however, science has devised a method by which the cause of the disease and its nature can be exactly determined and the constitutional upset going on in the system can be known with the utmost exactitude and then correct treatment given before the progress of the disease has gone too far.
Later it will be explained just how this is done but first it will be as well to give you a brief outline of the functions of these organs and the many complaints to which they are liable together with the common symptoms.
The Urinary Organs.—The kidneys, ureters, bladder, and some of the adjacent structures are, taken as a whole, known as the urinary system. The kidneys are really filters. Through them the blood passes and they extract from it the impurities or waste matter, which are constantly being formed. As the urine is collected it travels through the ureters to the bladder, which is a sac or bag, designed for the storage of urine until it can be emptied at convenient intervals. The urethra is the channel through which the urine flows after leaving the bladder, its form and position being governed by the sex of the individual, and through
The Urinary System consists of A— arteries and veins carrying blood to and from the kidneys. B-C—kidneys, one shown in section. D—the ureters, con
veying impurities in the form of urine. E—the bladder, where the urine is stored.
it the bladder is finally emptied of the urine.
The urine in health, when freshly voided, is clear, limpid and sparkling, light amber in colour, and of an acid character and about three pints is passed daily. It consists mostly of water in which is dissolved the waste products filtered from the blood by the kidneys. Diseased conditions, however, make changes in its constituents, sometimes but not always accompanied by a change in its colour which may then be lighter or darker.
Kidneys and Bladder must be healthy.—Upon the kidneys and bladder greatly depends the health of every human being. If they are weak, deranged, or diseased very serious complaints result, and so the condition should never, under any circumstances, be neglected, or the trouble will rapidly become worse.
The diseases to which these organs are liable are manifold, each with a different originating cause, so it can be understood that a special treatment for each form is essential, and that to depend on a general remedy for “kidney troubles” is to court disaster.
Diseases of Kidneys and Bladder.— As previously stated, there are many diseases of the kidneys, bladder and urinary system, each arising from a different cause. In the early stages of them, however, they mostly cause symptoms which are very similar, such as a general feeling of lassitude, weary, tired muscles, dull bearing-down pains in the back, and mental dullness. Generally the sleep is disturbed and restless, sleepless nights are frequent. The eyes are heavy, sight affected in some: manner, and puffy pouches form just beneath the eyes.
Men are liable to suffer from weak back, and in such cases the reproductive powers may wane. Any stimulating treatment containing alcohol or drugs, the purpose of which is to “buck you up,” may seem to benefit for a while, but you finally pay a heavy toll for the temporary benefit. Such medicines are as dangerous as delays.
In women the inflammation frequently spreads to the reproductive organs often causing not only weak back but female trouble, or Leucor-rhoea.
The constitutional peculiarities of diseases of the kidneys, bladder and urinary system vary according to each individual case and its complications, a disordered condition of these organs, however, will be probably indicated by some of the following symptoms.
These include weakness in the small of the back, pains in the regions of the loins and groins, numbness on the side where the kidney is affected. The urine is sometimes highly coloured and scalds in passing. Sometimes it is white or milky, or even deep tinted with blood. After standing it may deposit a creamy or brick-coloured sediment. On the other hand, the urine may show nothing abnormal in its appearance to the eye. A frequent desire to pass urine is sometimes evidenced, or it may be that the desire does not arise often enough. A partial suppression or inability to freely pass urine may be another symptom.
These are the frequent symptoms which people so often neglect and, unfortunately, the penalty they pay is sickness and distress in worse breakdown of the functions.
Congestion of the kidneys.—Acute congestion may at any time arise in kidneys previously normal, as well as in those already subject to the inroads of disease. When such congestion is experienced the urine is generally less in quantity, suppressed and contains blood, albumin and casts, most of which are not visible to the naked eye.
With the condition there are a number of morbid complications which sometimes interfere with the circulation of the blood, which gathers up with pressure in the veins and is less in the arteries and is commonly accompanied by derangement of the valves of the heart.
Cystitis or Inflammation of the Bladder arises from the urine, abnormally retained in the bladder, fermenting, and the urine becomes putrid, ammoniacal, and is then powerfully irritant in its nature. This causes the formation of pus which is liable to block the urinary exit, and, in consequence, severe pain is endured.
The cystitis is often intense, lead-
ing to a diphtheric infiltration, and wasting away of extensive tracts of the mucous membranes—the inflammation often spreading up the ureters until it reaches the kidneys.
Cystitis is a common affliction and rarely appears without some other derangement of the urinary system. Sometimes the acute form is traceable to injuries involving the pelvis and bladder, to the introduction of foreign or septic germs setting up the primary irritation. Sometimes there is a super-pubic pain and tenderness, or there may be a running with general peritonitis and the process of expelling the scanty highly coloured urine— sometimes resembling thin prune juice caused by blood and mucus intimately mixed with it, is extremely distressing.
In cystitis the urine left in a vessel deposits pus on the bottom, adhering so closely that not until the top thinner layer of urine is almost poured out does it glide away in a ropy mass.
Poison pockets in the Bladder is a form of bladder trouble which distresses sufferers by the constant desire to pass urine at disturbingly short intervals. The reason of these frequent “calls” is the formation of little pockets called sacculae in the walls of the bladder in which urine lodges and remains after the bladder is emptied^ and, in consequence, another “desire” follows quickly afterwards._ _
Night Rising, Bed-wetting and incontinence of Urine are not only annoying, but disturbing to essential rest. Any disorder of the kidneys or bladder which creates a putrid or irritating condition of the urine will cause a desire to urinate frequently owing to it irritating the neck of the bladder, creating muscular weakness of this part, from which follows the inability to hold the urine.
Calculus, Gravel or Stone.—These are hard bodies formed from the excess of substances contained in abnormal urine. They may be formed of urates, phosphates or oxalates, which the urine contains in such quantities that they cannot be held longer in solution and thev solidify and harden into small crystals. When these crystals gather together, as they usually do, they form hard stone-like bodies from the size of a grain of sand to that of a small pea, and the sufferer has what is usually termed “gravel.”
The longer they remain in the bladder the larger they grow by attaching more and more of the crystals to themselves.
Sometimes these stones, or calculus, form in the pelvis of the kidney, and if they pass out they do so through the ureters to the bladder; therefore, they may be found in any of these three places, giving rise to a different train of symptoms in each, but in every instance it will be found that the urine is dark coloured from the presence of blood, and when passed the pains which accompany the process are most agonizing. Much blood indicates the presence of a kidney-stone, greater pain its location in the bladder.
In the case of a kidney-stone, the patient mav not suspect its presence —the dull, aching pain being often attributed to a chill, especially as this pain can be relieved by pressure, such as thrusting the fist against the afflicted region.
On the other hand, if the stone is deposited at the junction of the kidney and ureter, the bleeding may be considerable, the pain intense, with tenderness in the loin.
If the stone becomes imprisoned in the ureter the patient is racked with agony. Occasionally the stone remains in the ureter with disastrous results, but it usually passes down into the bladder.
The presence of stone in the bladder usually manifests itself ultimately in the form of cystitis and the end of the passing of urine is followed by bleeding. The cystitis causes the formation of pus in the urine and the alkaline condition of the urine creates a deposit which enlarges the stone.
Stone in the bladder is a commoner affection in men than in women, and it may “grow” to a considerable size before causing urgent symptoms. Sometimes it acts like a valve, stopping the stream of urine suddenly, and a change of position is necessary before the bladder can be emptied. Quite commonly there is a sensation of rawness or soreness at the base of the bladder. The urine, which may be clear when first passed, clouds up when exposed to the air. A gritty, sandy coloured sediment generally settles and adheres to the bottom of the vessel into which the urine is voided and there may be minute but distinctly formed stones.
In all cases the passing of the larger stones is fraught with intense agony and physical prostration.
Albuminuria or Bright’s Disease.—
The presence of albumin in the urine always denotes a seriously diseased condition of the kidneys and is associated with Bright’s Disease. This complaint arises gradually and may have existed for months and may have reached a dangerous stage before it is discovered. In some cases a slight swelling of the feet is the first symptom, in others a general health breakdown. The skin assumes a waxy paleness, and is bloodless. There is shortness of breath, failing eyesight, and puffiness under the eyes. Either the urine diminishes or there is an excessive abundance of it, and it contains a quantity of sediment, pus, or albumin which later is transparent and cannot be seen. There are widespread pains and aches, loss of appetite and digestive disorders.
Acute Bright’s Disease makes a sudden onslaught and prostrates its victim with chills, headaches and backaches. There may be vomiting and puffiness, particularly of the eyelids and ankles. In these acute cases the urine may become of a dark, smoky hue, and contains a large amount of albumin and blood. It is a condition for which treatment should always be sought from a trained physician.
Diabetes is not a kidney disease, but is mentioned here because its presence can be definitely determined by the same means as is employed for the tracing of kidney and bladder ailments. Once its presence is established it is necessary to have the personal attention of a doctor immediately. There are two varieties, Diabetes Insipidis and Diabetes Mellitus, both accompanied by an excessive amount of urine and an everlasting thirst. The urine is pale, sugar is found dissolved in it, and it often froths persistently when shaken. The odour of the urine is usually normal, but may, when left to stand, ferment, and a distinctly foul, acid smell be given off. Often the appetite increases enormously, the mouth is dry and sticky and the breath has a yeasty smell.
The skin sometimes becomes harsh and little perspiration is exuded, while itching and eczemous conditions may manifest themselves.
The bowels act irregularly, sometimes the patient is constipated, which condition suddenly changes to diarrhoea and vice versa. Headaches, giddiness, mental dullness, depression and melancholia are common symptoms. The sufferer is prone to boils and carbuncles and susceptible to serious complications, which may develop into tuberculosis, jaundice, gastrointestinal troubles, skin affections, heart and nervous disorders and kidney disease.
Prostate Gland Disorders.—Situated at the junction of the bladder with the urethra (water passage) is a small, valve-like organ called the prostate gland. Its special function is to keep all parts moist and soft through the secretion of a “lubricating fluid.” At any time after a man reaches forty this gland is very liable to derangement, when it becomes enlarged, sometimes to the size of a duck egg.
Kidney, bladder and urinary diseases frequently cause this enlargement, and as it increases in size it presses more and more on the urine passage and constricts it. The free flow of urine is then retarded and the urine retained abnormally in the bladder, causing painful distension and in extreme cases, preventing the flow altogether and, unless artificial relief is sought, death ensues.
The early symptoms are, diminished flow of urine, and possibly this is only passed by straining, with the ejected stream having a twisted or rotary motion, probably with more or less pain. The bladder not being emptied, there is almost a continual desire to urinate, which each time gives only short relief. With the bladder seriously distended and its contents stagnant, the urine decomposes and becomes foul, with an evil smell. It is also extremely irritating and sets up inflammation which usually spreads to the connected organs.
An instrument called a catheter, which is a thin, flexible tube, is usually pushed up into the bladder to relieve the congested condition by drawing Qff the water, but, of course, the ailment is not overcome by this means and medical treatment should be sought.
Skin Diseases caused by Kidney Disorders.—A common result of the disorganization of the kidneys and bladder is that the impure conditions of the blood which result afflict the skin. The most frequent of these is known as eczema, when the. skin becomes harsh and dry, scaly, pimply and itchy, or sometimes, instead of being dry, it is moist with a watery discharge. Treatment.—In the beginning of this section I said that the origin of these diseases of the kidneys, bladder, and urinary systems could not be precisely determined by ordinary means. In other words, that even the visible symptoms might apply to any
one ailment or complications of that ailment. And so the best that could be achieved after observation of the patient was really a “guess” as to the nature of the complaint and the possibilities of the guess being wrong are very great and would naturally be followed by wrong treatment and, possibly, a harmful one.
However, by scientific means, the definite cause of the complaint which is affecting the kidneys, bladder or urinary system can be determined beyond possibility of doubt.
In the urine expelled by the ailing sufferer are various constituents, products of the disease which infallibly indicate the nature of the ailment. These are always present, although some are quite transparent and invisible, but can be detected by chemical tests in the scientific laboratory. Others are solid and can be seen in the mass when they deposit, but they may be of many kinds and each particle is so small that they cannot be separated and viewed by the naked eye. When placed under a powerful microscope, however, they are enlarged thousands of times, and can be seen quite clearly and their character recognized.
A complete series of tests made in this way will do one of two things: (x) It may indicate a perfectly healthy condition of the bodily organs; or
(2) It will indicate the exact nature of your complaint.
Such a health test is the first step to be taken, thus finding out, without any doubt, the exact nature of your complaint. With the knowledge then available, the correct remedy can be secured and the benefits that come from such treatment assure that the recovery of wholesome health and well-being are assured. In no other way should the obscure diseases of the kidney, bladder and urinary organs be treated.
To Readers of The Home Nurse
Everyone should have a health test made at regular intervals in order that prompt treatment can be taken at the very commencement of the disease. So important do I consider this that I have decided to extend the privilege to you, as a reader of this book, of a health test which you may obtain free of cost.
Hundreds will find the way to better health by accepting my generous offer of which I will be glad to send you full particulars on request. Write at once in the strictest confidence and I will send particulars of my Free Health Test offer and also my new 24-page book, The Unseen Cquses of Disease, which gives much more complete information on kidney, bladder, and urinary ailments than can be found in this book. Address your letter to V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., Dept. H.N., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, and enclose 4d. in stamps for postage.
Leucorrhoea.—A complaint commonly known as the “whites.” See Feminine Hygiene (p. 105).
Lockjaw or Tetanus (to give this disease its medical name) is due to the entry into the system of a microbe and occurs through the infection of a wound. Prevention is the most important treatment and iodine should be at once applied even to the slightest scratch. The microbe of tetanus is so commonly present in cultivated soil that antitoxin should be injected in all cases of crushed wounds, especially those contaminated by dirt and foreign matter.
Lumbago takes the form of a sharp pain in the muscles of the loins and usually comes suddenly. A person in stooping, for instance, when attempting to rise feels a pain as acute as if stabbed with a knife. Treatment.—Except in slight cases the patient should retire to bed. Warmth should be applied to the back and the application of Wawn’s Wonder Wool (see p. 37) is most beneficial. One, two, or three Nervettes (see p. 191) every three or four hours will relieve the pain. Elixir Vitae Tablets (see p. 192) are recommended to be tgken until perfect health is regained.
Measles is a highly infectious fever, mostly attacking children. The symp-
toms in the first stage are similar to a catarrhal cold with running from the nose and eyes, cough, etc. On the fourth day the eruption appears beginning on the face and extending over all the body and continues for three or four days. Treatment.—The patient
must be kept in bed in a room darkened sufficiently to protect the eyes and remain in bed until all symptoms have abated. While the rash is coming on give small doses of Wawn’s Buchu Bitters (see p. 192). When convalescent he may be allowed out of the sick room which should then be thoroughly disinfected.
or Superfluous Fat
Obesity is the deposit of superfluous fat in various parts of the body—particularly the face, neck and abdomen, while in the case of women the breasts and hips are subject also to excessive fatty deposits.
Deposition of fat is a sign that it is being stored up unnaturally faster than the body can use it. There may be many reasons for this; excessive quantities of fat-forming foods may be being eaten, but this is less important than it may appear.
Obesity may be an affliction of any age or sex and in adult life it is frequently met with; and often its development is rapid, the figure becomes gross and may be accompanied by excessive fattening.
Overloading the body with fat is an encumbrance to men and a tragedy to modern women. The external deposits, while they are not a serious menace to health or life, are a distinct disfigurement. However, while they are not actually harmful they are always the evidence that unseen deposits are forming in the internal system which seriously interfere with the working of important organs and a breakdown of their functioning is always imminent.
Two conditions from which over-fat
Menopause.—See “Change of Life,” P- 97- .
Mumps.—A contagious disease marked by swelling of the large salivary glands and sometimes of other glands too, notably the testes, ovaries and breasts. It is extremely painful while this condition lasts. It is very infectious and children and young adults especially should keep away from the patient. Treatment.—Wawn’s Buchu
Bitters (see p. 192) is the remedy, taken every three or four hours, together with an occasional dose of Nervettes (see p. 191) to relieve the pain.
Nasal Catarrh.—See Catarrh page.
people are prone to suffer call for special mention. The heart of the obese individual is overlaid with a deposit of fat that may result in symptoms of great distress. In addition fat may collect between the muscular layers of the heart and greatly interfere with its vital action of pumping the blood-stream through the system.
In extreme cases fat may accumulate in the cells themselves and result in a true state of fatty degeneration of the heart. Hence arise the common and often alarming symptoms of breathlessness after slight exertion— palpitation and fluttering sensations about the heart and discomfort or pain in the left breast or under the left shoulder blade. Raised blood pressure is also quite a usual feature of obesity. In advanced cases there is frequently some evidence of kidney derangement.
The liver in obesity usually also becomes burdened with fat and often there is an accumulation of fat droplets in the cells of the liver, with some enlargement of the organ itself. Digestion is upset—the elimination of the poisonous materials by the liver is reduced and a mild degree of toxaemia develops.
TABLE OF IDEAL MEASUREMENTS FOR WOMEN
Height in feet and inches, weight in pounds (14 lb. = one stone), girth in inches and fractions of inches.
St. lb. 7.11
TABLE OF IDEAL MEASUREMENTS FOR MEN
Height in feet and inches, weight in stones and pounds (14 lb. = one stone), girth in inches and fractions of inches.
The Ca,use of Obesity.—The three principal causes of obesity are excessive or unsuitable food, lack of exercise, and some interferences with the activity of the glands of secretion.
The accumulation of superfluous fat is both detrimental to health and a disadvantage in appearance, as the attainment of the ideal figure is impossible while the obese condition is allowed to persist.
Controlling Influence of the Glands.
—The ductless glands and the products of the glands are now known to have a very important bearing on every phase of human life. In the past forty years, amazing advances have been made in the Science of the Glands, in the actual knowledge regarding them and the application of that knowledge to control the well-being of the human body. Abnormalities in the individual are now treated successfully because this new knowledge has revealed their cause. Many of tb 'se unfortunate people who, diet and exercise as they may, have failed to reduce their obese conditions to normal, are now helped unfailingly to achieve a figure of pleasing proportions, to lose weight by this safe harmless method and regain a healthy weight.
Advice and Help Given Free to Home Nurse Readers.—If you are excessively burdened with fat and desire to achieve a more slender figure, I will be glad, in fact I will consider it a privilege, to give you advice as to the best means to adopt in order to acquire a slender figure and pleasing proportions. The neglect of fatty conditions is quite inexcusable both from the standpoint of personal appearance and health and I will be glad to do my utmost to help you attain your desires in this respect. Write giving me full information at once and address your communication to V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., Dept. H.N., Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., 283 Elizabeth St., Sydney.
Piles, or as they are medically termed, haemorrhoids, are a varicose condition of the veins surrounding the anus and lower part of the bowel. An “attack of piles” denotes an inflammation of these veins creating tumour-like swellings within the rectum and about the anus, as a consequence of the dilation of the veins and the thickening of their walls. Sometimes there is also a thickening of the adjacent cellular and mucous tissues.
The commonest symptoms which first lead one to suspect the presence of piles is an intense itchiness, and bleeding and pain when the bowels move.
There are two general forms of piles, external and internal. External, or olind piles, as they are often called, are those in which the distension is in veins outside the anus. Internal or bleeding piles are those in which the tumours are formed inside the orifice of the rectum, although after their formation they may protrude.
The external piles are commonly made up of thick tissues, upon one side the skin and on the inside the mucous membranes forming the covering.
External piles give rise to little discomfort beyond a feeling of fullness and irritation before and after the bowels move, except when they become inflamed, when they assume a tense, bluish colour, rounded form, and are then exceedingly tender and painful, preventing the sufferer from sitting or walking in comfort. Usually the swelling subsides within a few days, but unless the condition is properly treated further painful attacks may occur at any time.
Internal piles comprise round, oval or cylindrical tumours, situated from half an inch to one and a half inches above the opening of the anus, on its inner walls. The swellings may be any size from the size of a currant to that of a large marble, and there is usually more than one present. Usually several piles are present, and they may be either scattered over the surface or close together in a cluster—sometimes they completely encircle the bowel.
The symptoms first arising from internal piles are not very marked until bleeding occurs, although from their protrusion the victim has a sensation as if a foreign body were present within the bowel. Pain of a severe nature is not often experienced until some complication ensues.
Causes.—Whatever tends to favour an undue accumulation of blood in the haemorrhal veins predisposes to piles. For this reason the affection is frequently a result of diseases of the heart and liver, which cause an obstruction in the circulation of the blood through the portal vein. Mechanical pressure from tumours in the abdomen, pregnancy, or an enlarged or displaced uterus, are not an infrequent cause of the complaint as a consequence of the haemorrhal veins being kept in an over-distended condition. Also, diseases which provoke much straining, as stricture, inflammation or enlargement of the prostate gland, or stone in the bladder, are exciting causes. The most common cause, however, is constipation, and where the attempt is made to correct the faulty elimination with drastic purgatives, attacks of piles are more likely to ensue.
Apart from the serious discomfort and pain which are experienced with most forms of piles, there is a tendency to fistula and to cancer in the rectal region. It is important, therefore, that the disease should not be allowed to continue, but proper treatment should be applied for its eradication.
Symptoms—The most common evidence that piles have arisen are, at first, a little soreness or itching at the edges_ of the anus, with, at times, sharp pains. These sensations are usually more severe if the bowels are constipated. If the piles are external they frequently become inflamed, swollen and painful, and in some cases they suppurate, and then some relief is afforded.
When the internal piles have developed to any extent, or have become inflamed, they produce not only itching at the extremity of the bowel, but a feeling of fullness in the bowels, which, after evacuation of the bowels, remains, leaving a sensation as though some portion of the contents had not been expelled. When internal piles become large, they frequently come down during the evacuation of the contents of the bowel and protrude. This protrusion or prolapsus, to give it the correct term, becomes a more and more marked feature with the progress of the complaint, until, in many cases, the tumours are forced down with every movement of the bowels and cause excruciating pain until they are properly replaced. In the earlier stages, they recede spontaneously, but ultimately there comes a time when it is necessary for the sufferer to press them back, and sometimes it is found impossible to do so.
When the piles protrude and are prevented from returning by a strong external sphincter muscle they swell up, become very painful, and are said to be strangulated. Unless the condition is relieved, clotting of the blood in the strangled veins may occur, leading to a condition of thrombosed haemorrhoids. When such a thrombosis happens, the piles remain very swollen and frequently part of the pile sloughs off. Frequently, during the protrusion, one of the haemorrhoidal veins bursts, and this is followed by a free escape of blood, and ulceration may ensue.
In consequence of the loss of blood, lack of proper rest and continual pain, the sufferer from piles frequently loses strength and weight, while the face may assume a waxy pallor and be puffy. There may be nausea and giddiness. In consequence of the relaxation, in some cases, the bowel mav descend while standing or when some extra muscular effort is made, especially if tlm is done while in a stooping position. These symptoms may not all be evident in one person, and some of them are indeed often obscure, and if proper treatment of piles is administered in the early stages there is no reason why the worst ones should ever be experienced.
Treatment.—As a palliative treatment for piles—both external and internal-^ we recommend the use of Wawn’s Antiseptic Lotion Tablets (see p. 191) to be used as an antiseptic, soothing wash, followed by the application of Wawn’s Wonder Balm (see p. 193).
The complications usually associated with piles necessitate, however, a special treatment being prepared for each individual case, and in view of this fact we have published a special treatise, “The Correct Treatment of Piles,” which will be forwarded to any address on receipt of 4d. in stamps. Inquiries should be addressed to V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., Dept. H.N., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
Pleurisy is an inflammation of the membranes forming the pleural cavity between the lungs and chest walls. It manifests itself in a pain of a sharp stabbing character, often described as a “stitch” in the side, which is felt whenever a deep breath is taken. Full details of symptoms and method of treatment will be found in The Home Doctor, but in all cases the chest should be protected with a wrap of Wawn’s Wonder Wool (see p. 37).
Pneumonia, or Inflammation of the Lungs, is fully described in The Home Doctor (see also Wawn’s Wonder Wool, pp. 37 and 42).
Prostate Gland.—See Kidney, Bladder and Urinary Diseases (p. 152).
Quinsy is an acute inflammation of the tonsils with the formation of pus. It starts as an ordinary sore throat, with rapid enlargement of the tonsil, making swallowing difficult and painful. It is accompanied by fever and a rapid pulse. The patient suffers greatly. In a few days there is evidence of pus as the gland begins to come to a head; it may break before being lanced, after which the symptoms rapidly subside. Treatment.—A gargle of Wonder Fluid (see p. 191) may be used throughout the course of the disease both before and after the gland has ruptured, and Wonder Wool should be wrapped around the throat. Not much general treatment will be required, but if there is considerable fever one or two Nervettes (see p. 191) may be taken every three hours until normal. The bowels should be regulated with System Corrective (see p.
192) and the diet restricted to light foods.
Save Your Son From Life’s Pitfalls
To forewarn our boys is to forearm them. The truth properly told can never harm, but will save them from suffering and disaster. Silence, false shame and mystery have corrupted the souls and bodies of millions, and have caused untold misery and despair.
It depends on you to give them the bright light of knowledge, Instead of allowing them to remain in the dangerous darkness of ignorance.
As a father and professional man I realized the importance of proper instruction for my sons. Like you, I recollect my own youthful trials, my doubts and fears, my hopeless unassisted groping for guidance. In a little book, written as a professional man, a father of wide experience and worldly knowledge, the subject is delicately and tactfully dealt with. The moral and physical aspects are revealed in a manner which cannot offend and cannot fail to help. It tells the facts of life in a manner in which they should be told to the young mind, and will save him from the dangers of ignorance. Convince his growing intelligence of the value of leading a moral life. Lead to him becoming a better man.
Secure this book, What Every Youth Should Know. Read It yourself. You will surely find it contains just the information and guidance you want to give your son.
The cost of the book is 3/6, or, if you prefer the book posted direct to your boy, accompanied by a suitable letter of well thought out guidance, which will have an even greater beneficial effect on your son’s mind, I will be glad to write him, in easily understood and proper language-—the two for 7/-.
Address all communications, marking the envelope ’’Personal,” to V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., Manning Chambers, 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, accompanied by postal note or money order.
PROLONGING LIFE’S PRIME
The Symptoms of old age deferred
The struggle for existence is fiercer than ever before. A firm and stable position can scarcely be acquired even by the time one is forty-five or even sixty years old. Seldom can we succeed by then in emerging victorious over all the obstacles which we encounter.
At this period the mind is enriched by long experience, and at last ripe for great labours in science, art, politics, commerce and industry. And it is precisely at this period that we must prepare to face the weaknesses that come with the years, mostly before their natural time. What a fearful condition!
The fullness of vigour is the universal desire. Everyone would like a youthful, vigorous body—a body that can stand up under the strain of modern life, with its wear and tear and abuse. There are few who can keep up this hectic life, with the result that the average man and woman at forty-five is a spent force.
At this critical moment of our lives those who wish not to succumb in the unequal struggle, have but one way of succeeding. It consists of aiding the worn-out glands, and by so doing impart a new impulse to the cells of all the organs, causing them to create new, young cells, and thus to revive the entire organism. Such is the way of extending the energetic life-period and of renewing the waning physical powers and mental capacity. The new gland therapy means that our ideals and aims may be attained living in a young and vigorous condition. I believe that when men have at their disposal such a powerful means of bettering their lives, it is absurd to neglect it.
Prolonging Life's Powers.—How to build up the human body’s capacity to resist these devastating influences, was the problem facing science. The old-fashioned notions about tonics were proved to be unsatisfactory—the quickacting drug stimulants were more dangerous still—these only treated symptoms, they did not reach down to the cause of the trouble. They might give temporary relief—they did not effect the desired results.
Then came the wonderful discoveries resulting from the earlier work of Metchnikoff, Claude Bernard, Brown-Sequard, followed by Stcinach, Voro-noff and their disciples. They definitely proved that for the maintenance of normal life we depend upon the healthy functioning of our glands; that the business of the glands is to create and supply vital fluids which are essential for energizing the organs of the body; and that, should the glands become defective, their output of these vital fluids is reduced and sometimes fails, with the result that the organs they should sustain become starved, the health of the human body fails, and a period of illness results.^
This group of brilliant scientists went further—they established the fact that with the passage of the years, in every human life, there comes a time when the glands “tire out.” Then they proved that the gland secretions can he augmented—added to—life-giving fluids produced, which carry streams of energy to the different organs. The person who has been ailing then finds that health is built up, better metabolism re-established, and the person who had dreaded this oncoming of the vears, practically receives a new condition of life, due to the proper balancing and adjustment of the glandular secretions.
This, then, is the true meaning of Rejuvenation. It has been a much misused, much misunderstood term. Irresponsible newspaper writers have made it a peg on which to hang their coarse jokes about fantastic operations, chiefly associated with sex. whereas in the very broad sense, rejuvenation really means helping the most important glands of internal secretion; so that a properly balanced metabolism is obtained, premature old age is deferred, many conditions of obesity or overweight are prevented, the nerve condition is strengthened, physical and mental activities brightened. In fact, a new era is opened in which the former “wreck" of humanity is once more enabled to take a more effective place in the world, side by side w-ith his fellow men—full of pep and desire for achievement, which, after all, is the real zest of life.
The knowledge given to the world by this group of wonderful geniuses who were the pioneers of gland therapy is the greatest boon ever given to mankind, and the scientific world acknowledges the indisputable evidence that revitalizing the system with precious gland substances provides the remedy for many common and hitherto chronic illnesses—it has investigated and endorsed hundreds of cases where gland treatment has brought back not only health and usefulness again, but the full vigour of the prime of life.
What Determines Old Age.—Let us see, then, what can be done to assist human life in its years of middle age and after, under the conditions of existence in our time—in the period in which we live, leaving future generations to find better ways if they can. In order to achieve the object thus placed before us, we must first understand what determines the degenerative processes of old age, the wearing out of the body and the causes and effects which occasion death.
Everyone knows that the human body is composed of billions of cells which form the organs, the muscles, the nerves and all of the structure. These cells do not remain quiescent and immobile during existence. After a short time each cell produces another and young cell, which replaces the older one. During the youthful and adult periods all the cells are renewed about every seven years. Good functioning of all the organs is thus assured by the fresh young cells. With the advance of age, however, this renewal becomes more and more retarded, old cells remain to encumber and embarrass our bodies, the younger and more active cells become less numerous, the work of every organ slackens, and it yields a lesser return, the organism becomes feeble, and resistance diminishes.
The capacity of the body to retain its youthful vigour and strength depends in a large degree upon the glands of internal secretion. The ability to extend the activity and usefulness of life is largely either a matter of strengthening and stimulating the activities of the various glands, or of adding to their secretions.
Renewing Our Powers.—In order to succeed in this endeavour, the only method is to secure such a condition that our cells continue to produce other young, robust and active cells, which assure perfect functioning to every organ when its work begins to wane, and not only during our youth and adult period. Our cells must not be allowed to cease their creative work. They must continue to renew themselves, and so assure the vigour of the body and the harmony of the functions of our organs.
This we now have the means of obtaining. We know, in fact, that this recreative work, and this renewal of the cells depend upon the stimulating action of our glands, which maintain the vitality of all the cells of the body. Gland therapy assists by making up the diminishing quantity of their secretions—-the essentials of active life and well-being.
You are as old as the glands in your body. Get your sufficient supply of glajad products and you can feel younger at sixty or seventy and enjoy many of the pleasures of youth. Yours can be a wonderful lifel You can have a youthful sparkle in the eye, an energetic spring in the step and renewed enthusiasm and drive in everything you do.
As long as these glands are themselves young, as long as they discharge into the blood a sufficient quantity of their precious life-giving secretions, all the cells retain their vigour and reproduce themselves— constantly creating new cells. If you are now suffering because they are not producing the vital essences in sufficient quantities they want help— give them the help and revitalize your body and mental faculties.
This fact has been proved by the labours of Claude Bernard, Brown-Sequard, Voronoff, and by scientific studies and research conducted by many investigators.
Why not Rejuvenation?—Steinach Voronoff, Lichtenstern, Schmidt, Lor-and, and many other world-famed specialists, in a more enlightened day, have been ridiculed, but unconcernedly forge ahead.
And “Why should not the human mind eventually succeed in attaining supremacy over its own life? It has learned to harness the heaven's lightning and to conquer floods—it has made steam and electricity its obedient slave, it ‘looks through’ the human body by means of X-rays—flies through the air in machines of tons weight—converses from one end of the world to the other by means of wireless—and by television enables men to see with whom they converse. Why should not the inventive human mind, which has found any number of ways and means to fight death in its various forms, eventually succeed in combating the process of ageing to such a degree that useful life will be prolonged far beyond its present length of years?”
Gland Therapy for Anaemia.—Gland therapy has been shown to benefit anaemias which have failed to respond to iron. It immediately and progressively increases the quality of the blood, rapidly restores the number of red cells to the full healthy count, and increases their haemoglobin content. It has none of the unpleasant after-effects of iron preparations and tonics, cannot affect the teeth, causes no gastric disturbance, does not discolour the faeces.
Treatment for Blood Pressure.—
Some people are puzzled to understand why gland treatment should be effective for both Blood Pressure and Anaemia. This is due to a misunderstanding of the true nature of blood pressure. Blood pressure is a term which is somewhat misleading. It is not, as is often thought, caused through “too much blood’’ or “blood that is too rich.” In fact, the actual quantity of blood has little to do with the "pressure.”
To define the term “blood pressure” clearly, it is necessary to explain that under normal conditions the heart pumps blood into the arteries in a series of spurts; and the arteries, in turn, by expanding and contracting, cause the blood to circulate throughout the body.
The top graph on page 159 shows the irregularity of the heart-beat common to cases of heart weakness— anaemia—high blood pressure—general debility—arteriosclerosis.
The bottom graph shows the same cases after treatment with “Nova-Vita”—heart strengthened, arteries normal, anaemia corrected, blood pressure reduced, vital forces increased.
In the early forties, the arteries begin to harden and to lose their elasticity, and a gradual reduction of their capacity sets in. It is now that blood pressure occurs, because the blood has to be forced or pressed through the narrowed, hardened arteries, instead of being propelled by them in a normal easy manner.
The grave danger of the pressure lies in the extra excessive work which is thrown upon the heart, causing heart weakness and often heart failure.
It will, from this, be clearly seen thfit hardened arteries rapidly affect the whole organism, as the important work of nutrition is seriously interfered with and the vital organs are prevented from receiving a proper supply of blood and vitality.
Gland therapy is so efficacious in blood pressure because it _helps the arteries, restoring their elasticity and clearing them of lime and salt deposits, thereby rendering the arteries more normal, so the pressure is reduced and prevented.
Neurasthenia, Nervous Prostration, Nervous Weakness, Nervous Exhaustion or Nervous Debility.—Neurasthenia is probably the worst outcome of modern conditions—it is an affliction that has only come upon mankind with the advance of civilization. The stress and strain of life to-day makes excessive and insistent demands on human endurance, with the result that every year we find a greater number of people “break down”—they become neurasthenic.
The eminent Dr Wood says: “Neurasthenia may, in the beginning, affect the whole nervous system, or it may be at the first purely local and coexist with lack of general nervous strength.”
Medical science nowadays regards neurasthenia as a chronic fatigue and loss of tone of the nervous system— a general disturbance of the body and mind, not properly classifiable as a disease, yet sufficiently serious to disable the sufferer. .
He lacks the energy for any serious effort, mental or physical, yet is continually restless in mind and body. He is obsessed with doubts and fears about everything and everybody. He cannot concentrate, yet is in a constant state of anxiety about his life, his business, his income, his friends, even those dearest to him. The slightest irritation sends him into a great state of perturbation. He cannot sleep when he lies down, yet he cannot put out any effort when he is up. His hands and feet are always clammy and perspiring, his face is either very flushed or sickly pallid.
He wears a hunted, worried look, broods over the horrid possibilities that his morbid imagination suggests, even suicide. Often the blood pressure is too low, the circulation inadequate. Palpitation is a frequent complaint, with the result that heart trouble is suspected, and though this may be quite false, it only ad_ds to his lamentable broodings.
A distinguished American medical authority says: “The number of deaths frorn^ neurasthenia is already appalling and is steadily and rapidly increasing. In some of the busy centres the tables of mortality show that the proportion of nerve deaths has multiplied more than twenty times in the last forty years, and that now the nerve deaths number more than one-fourth of all the deaths recorded.”
“Metabolism,” or “Correct Balance.” controlled by the Ductless Glands.—
Metabolism is the process by which foodstuffs, after digestion, are actually absorbed and built up into the body while the waste products are changed chemically and made ready for
excretion—all this complicated process is controlled chiefly by the secretions from the ductless glands which are carried by the blood system; any injury, defect or weakness in structure of any of these glands has far-reaching results—every vital organ depends upon a balanced secretion or the functional processes are impaired—they fail to do their work. Strength, growth, digestion, circulation, elimination and reproduction all depend upon the glands.
Medical authorities to-day agree that all the functioning of every vital organ in the human body is influenced and controlled by the ductless glands. This includes the marvellous nervous system, which branches and goes to every part of the body. In other words, every vital organ and all the functional processes depend upon maintenance of the efficiency of the glandular system and the quantity of its products.
The Basic Substance of all Vital Energy.—It has long been the aim of scientists to discover the "life principle” of vegetables and plants, with its health-giving virtues.
The University of Berne, Switzerland, devoted fifteen years to this research and succeeded in discovering a unique process for isolating this precious substance. The achievement has been pronounced by all medical authorities as one of the greatest advances of the age, the value of which has been convincingly confirmed the world over.
This splendid success not only brings a new and most wonderful health-giving product to the aid of humanity, but also demonstrates one of the greatest chemical similarities between nature and man. Briefly, this discovery proves that the vital principle of all vegetable and plant life is similar to the life principle of human blood pigments.
This remarkable herbal base, containing the essential substance of vital energy, together with improved glandular extracts, which are now available, provides humanity with a new weapon with which to ward off and repair the ravages of disease and decay.
Preventing Premature Old Age.— Scientifically observed tests have proved conclusively that gland treatment has a profoundly revitalizing and rejuvenating effect upon the whole organism in later life. Notably, it has a directly rejuvenating effect upon the arteries and the heart, gives greater energy to all those physiological processes by which the daily wear and tear of existence is repaired, and revives all the physical and vital forces of the body.
The Glands Must be Aided.—I do not believe in marketing any preparation or treatment until its value has been proved by tests. In this way the public is protected against harmful exploitation and disappointment.
Experiments have clearly proved that the “Nova-Vita” Improved Gland Treatment will measure up to requirements. It consists, as I have already set forth, chiefly of glandular extracts, together with suitable physical and nerve stimulants, which when administered internally, produce most gratifying results, through aiding and helping the entire glandular system without the risk or expense of operation.
I find that practically every man or woman over forty, who is beginning to feel the aches, pains and disappointments of approaching decay of the body, has read of gland treatments through newspaper and magazine articles. They are eager to learn more of this modern wonder. Here is a subject that is vital, essential, and personal. It means a fuller and more capable life—the opportunity to live life to its utmost in energy, happiness and achievement.
Not a Sexual Stimulant.—The general impression of a gland tonic is that it is a sexual stimulant only— sensational and continuous newspaper publicity adds to this impression. So far as I am concerned the "Nova-Vita” (New Life) Improved Gland Treatment is a general tonic for the whole system—containing extracts of vital glands that need assistance as well as certain recognized herbal tonic ingredients that help to “pep” up the whole body, and enrich the bloodstream.
The New Gland Treatment will help you to gain control of your health. “Nova-Vita” will assist your glands— give them the necessary aid by which their functions can be fulfilled. It will amply furnish the amount of gland substances you need for your body’s efficient well-being and restoration of its active functioning. It will supply vital energizing fluids and you will quickly feel the result in renewed power, greater energy, activity, and mental alertness.
The skin will become clearer, the eyes bright and sparkling, the flesh firmer, and you will experience the vibrant glow of health again.
BOOK OF FULL INFORMATION FREE
If you desire to learn more of the wonders of gland therapy and of the remarkable gland treatment—“Nova-Vita”—you should certainly send today for the wonderful book written in clear, easily understood language by Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A. It will tell you how you can regenerate lost gland force, build up sound, strong nerves and asjure abiding good health and mental brightness. This book of full information on “Rejuvenation” will be sent free to all readers of The Home Nurse. Enclose 4d. stamps for postage and address your request to Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., Dept. H.N., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
The rheumatism family of ailments is one of the most prolific sources of pain and agonizing distress from which humanity can suffer. Under modern living conditions of civilized life, it is a malady which is becoming increasingly prevalent. Hospitals are being crowded with patients crippled with rheumatism and its allied disorders. It afflicts not only the aged and infirm. but even young people and men and women who should be enjoying the prime of life are stricken with its penalties.
Acute Rheumatism or Inflammatory Rheumatism.—The onslaught of this form of rheumatism is usually rather gradual and is primarily due to a germ. For a day or two you may feel uncomfortable and have a slight soreness in the throat or pains in the limbs. Next, one of the joints, generally a large one, such as the knee, shoulder or ankle, is found to be painful. A high temperature, a bounding pulse, and all the evidences of acute systematic disturbance nearly always accompany these inflammatory outbreaks.
The gentlest touch is dreaded, so sensitive do the nerves become. Excruciating pains arise in the various parts of the body. Often the pains quickly shift from one place to another.
The disorder rarely terminates in less than six weeks, during the greater time of which feverish conditions remain, with a temperature of 101 to 103 degrees. The skin, usually extremely hot, may be covered with profuse perspiration, and it usually has a sour odour.
At night mental wandering and delirium are experienced. The patient nearly always lies on his back, since that is the position in which most ease is secured.
^ Rheumatoid Arthritis Tortures.—
This chronic crippling disease attacks the joints and tissues surrounding them and does fearful damage if not checked and eradicated promptly. Its presence is marked by swelling, excruciating pain, and ugly deformity.
The majority of cases occur from the age of thirty onwards, but the evil attentions of rheumatoid arthritis do not
consider age, and it is not uncommon for quite young people to be afflicted. There is also a special form of the disease found only in children, starting with a slight stiffness in the joints, a moderate degree of fever and enlargement of the lymphatic glands.
The first attack is usually quite sudden, although sometimes soreness and tenderness in the joints precedes its violent disclosure.
The upset may start with a centre of infection in the teeth, in the tonsils, the gastric internal tract, or elsewhere—some defect of metabolism (or the natural building up of active tissue matter) may have contributed —but wherever and however it started, it is due to an unbalanced working of the inner organs.
The gradually swelling joints may not be painful at first, and there is no disturbance of the general health, but as the swelling increases, it feels pulpy—soon the joints become extremely sensitive to pressure or on moving.
Soon the feet become affected as well as the hands. The wrists, knees, elbows and shoulders are generally the next places to fall under the malign influer-**.
The joints of the vertebrae or backbone are very often caused to unite, resulting in the bent back and stiff neck so often observed in sufferers. The hands become deformed, gnarled and knobby with ugly swellings. In its extreme stages crippled and deformed bodies bear distressing testimony to the fearful ravages which have wrought such havoc
Other Varieties of Rheumatoid Arthritis:—Osteo Arthritis.—In some cases the rheumatoid infection concentrates its whole force upon a single joint, usually the hip, shoulder or knee, and the rest of the body is spared. This form is known as Osteo
Arthritis and often occurs after some definite injury to the part affected.
Poker Back.—When the spine is principally affected it is known as
Poker Back, which sometimes is an inherited complaint. The bent, stiff back is quite characteristic and, owing to pressure on the nerves coming from the spinal cord, neuralgic pains usually manifest themselves. The disease destroys the disks between the joints of the vertebrae, or backbone, causing the patient to grow shorter.
Herbenden’s Nodes.—Lastly, there is the form associated with Herben-den's Nodes, in which the joints of both hands become swollen, tender, and, unless checked, tend to complete deformity. Many become absolutely crippled, unable to dress or undress, to carry food to the mouth, or even to hold a newspaper in the hand. The outlook, however, is much better for those who seek release in the earlier stages before any of the vital organs are irreparably weakened.
Sciatica and Neuritis.—The great sciatic nerve running from the hip down the back of the leg to the heel and forming the main trunk of all the main nerves of the thigh, legs and feet, is very subject to the deposits of uric acid poisons, ana is the seat of frequent painful disturbances. It is probably more often attacked by these specific poisons, which are also probably more responsible for rheumatism and neuralgia than any other nerve.
The sheaths of many nerves may also be the seat of this rheumatic neuralgia or neuritis, in which numbness, tingling, extreme tenderness and inflammation along their course is distressingly manifested—the painful affliction which results being known as neuritis—an ever present companion which racks one with agony, day and night.
Chronic or Muscular Rheumatism.—
Chronic rheumatism, or muscular rheumatism, often ensues after repeated attacks of the acute type. More frequently, however, it develops slowly and is a troublesome disease and an extremely painful one which is not seen so much in the young as in those of more advanced years.
This form of rheumatism arises from a persistent irritation of the uric acid poisons._ These are in the fibrous connective tissues. They may be located only in one part, or there may be several widely distributed areas. These poisoned patches or pockets of uric acid crystals are swollen and tender and pressure causes extreme pain. Frequently they contract into a hard fibre, sometimes resembling a cord or
thick tape lying along the infected muscle or tendon.
These little swellings can often be felt as painful small lumps where the uric acid collects and forms nodules up to the size of a split pea, one of which alone, when it presses on a nerve, being sufficient to cause the acutest pain over a wide area.
Chronic rheumatism may affect any part of the body and a few varieties have acquired distinct names. Thus stiff neck, a form of rheumatism most frequently met with in young people, affects the muscles of the right or left side only, so that the head is held stiffly in a fixed position on one side. Lumbapo is another prevalent form and one of the most painful.
When the chest wall is affected the complaint is known as pleurodynia and usually arises after an attack of bronchitis. The pain is confined to one side and is usually very severe, breathing being made very painful.
The shoulder is another commonly attacked part, but, as I said before, any part of the body may be the seat of a painful attack.
Auto-intoxication or Self-poisoning the Root Cause of Rheumatism.— Rheumatism is not the disease itself, but the evidence of a deep-seated organic disorder. It is the effect which results from the cause, and the cause is auto-intoxication, or in other words, self-poisoning, caused by acid substances manufactured within you.
All the symptoms and dreadful agonies which are described are one and all the effects of these acids which are manufactured in the digestive processes, in the building up and constant breaking down of the bodily tissues— the result of internal fermentation which creates them—when they are not expelled by the organs of excretion they are imprisoned in the blood, polluting it with their vileness and endeavouring to escape wherever they can.
Now everyone’s system—yours— manufactures a certain amount of these acid poisons daily, and so long as your organs are acting naturally and as efficiently as they should, they pass out of the system in liquid form, being separated from the blood principally by the kidneys and the liver which deliver them to the urine.
So long as your purifying organs did this all was well. But in consequence of these vital workers refusing to do their job, the impurities are left and daily piled up and increased until the blood is full of them and flowing with them to every nook and cranny of the body.
In the course of time the accumulation of self-made poisons becomes too great for the blood to carry, and it must get rid of its burden.
There are so many places where these self-made acid crystals may settle. They may be in the muscles or muscular tissues and give evidence of their presence as muscular rheumatism, or they may gather in the nerves and
give rise to neuralgic pains, such as sciatica and neuritis, but the favourite resting places are the various joints where the rough, sharp pointed crystals cut and stab and jab with excruciating effect, cause swelling and intense stiffness, crippling their victims and causing the most distressing contortions of the limbs.
Self-poisoning, you can understand, is definitely the cause of rheumatism. It is absolutely a self-made disease with its source within your body, deeply located within the internal constitution.
The terrible racking pains of Rheu- wool, carefully prepared by skilled
matism, Sciatica and Lumbago are chemists, is impregnated with medi-speedily relieved when Wawn’s Won- cinal pain-relieving essences, which
der Wool is applied. This fine downy generate an intense, though harmless
heat, and afford relief even when the trouble is of long standing.
However, as has been previously explained, Rheumatism in its various forms is caused by the blood becoming contaminated with self-made poisons, and these must be eliminated-—the internal system must be cleared of its impurities and the acid irritants driven out so that the organism is made to function in a natural healthy manner.
A special form of treatment is essential to achieve this desirable result, and a book of many pages has been written by Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., dealing fully with the subject of Rheumatism in its manifold complications.
If you are suffering from any of the symptoms of Rheumatism, you owe it to yourself to get this book and learn the facts which are much more fully explained than is possible in these pages of The Home Nurse.
This fully illustrated book entitled The Ravages of Rheumatism not only gives complete details of the cause of Rheumatism, but a remarkable method of home treatment which has been used with the greatest success, is given. This book is free to readers of The Home Nurse, on request.
Simply send your name and address and 4d. in stamps for postage to Wawn's Laboratories Ltd., 283 Elizabeth Street. Sydney.
A Dangerous Condition to Neglect
Rupture is the term used for the obtrusion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening in the cavity which normally contains it. The term is most commonly applied to the protrusion of organs in the abdominal cavity through the weakened spots in the wall. In medical parlance this is more scientifically known as Hernia.
Such an escape of the abdominal contents takes place most frequently down the inguinal canal, and is show-n by a swelling which appears in the groin, and in the male this may extend down into the scrotum. It is usually easy to put back, but sometimes this cannot be done, and the difficulty may occur suddenly, and the patient suffer great pain. From constriction at the neck of the hernial sac the blood-vessels become congested and enlarged, and the increasing size of the hernial mass makes reduction difficult—hence the importance of providing artificial support.
These visceral injuries are extremely serious, and when combined with internal bleeding are sometimes fatal unless prompt surgical operation is undergone.
The most common varieties are umbilical, inguinal and femoral hernia._
Causes.—These are generally predisposing or exciting. Anything which occasions general or local debility, such as dropsy, pregnancy, wounds, obstructions to natural evacuations, etc., is a predisposing cause of hernia. The exciting cause is due to pressure applied to the contents of the abdomen, as straining at stool or emptying the bladder, lifting heavy weights or the strain of violent physical exertion.
Symptoms.—The characteristic evidence of the development of rupture is the appearance of an elastic or pulpy swelling similar to a tumour of variable size, which may come either gradually or very suddenly. Associated with it is usually flatulence, uneasiness, and at times pains in the region of the abdomen.
Sharp and dull pains, frequently recurring and which are confined to the regions where ruptures appear, should receive attention at once. Examination will nqt infrequently reveal a small enlargement. If a hernia, this will usually disappear after a night’s rest and may not be again noticed until some time next day, or possibly not for several days. On coughing, with the finger held against the enlargement, a sensation of an impulse (succession) or slight additional protrusion will be felt.
ally a mass of intestine which falls into the scrotum and has an evil influence through pressing upon the testicle. The protrusion extends in time along the spermatic vessels and hence
The trouble appears at any time of life, and medical experience indicates that it is more common in debilitated (run down) persons, and that there is a constant decrease in the frequency of the affliction from the first to the thirteenth year, after which rupture is more and more frequently met with as age advances.
Inguinal Hernia is more frequently met with than any other form of rupture. It occurs most frequently in men, and when severe, there is usu-it usually appears low down in the abdomen and on one side or both sides of the pubic boue.
Femoral Hernia, which is most common in women of mature Ijfe, is felt as a lump below the strong ligament in the groin, which forms the line of separation between the thigh and the abdomen. On its outer side and close to it can be felt the beating or pulsation of the large artery of the thigh.
Umbilical Hernia appears at or near the navel, and is most common in children. It may be present from birth or it may result from fretting or crying at any period of childhood.
Sufferers from any form of rupture are constantly subject to the danger of intestinal strangulation, if from any cause the free return of the contents of the protruded part of the intestine is prevented. This is a condition of a very serious nature, and the cause of many deaths when it is not carefully operated upon.
Treatment.—When the rupture has become strangulated and cannot be replaced by manipulation, a surgical operation is necessary, and a surgeon should be consulted immediately, for the greater the delay the greater the liability to fatal results.
The treatment of rupture before it has reached the strangulation stage is by reduction and retention. Reduction consists in returning the protruding intestine to its proper place through the opening by which it escaped. This is accomplished by manipulation. Retention is effected by wearing a mechanical appliance.
As soon as the rupture protrudes, the patient should assume the recumbent posture with shoulders and feet elevated. The hernia should then be taken with the fingers and with gentle, but gradually increasing pressure upon the protuberance attempt to replace it. At the same time the bowels should be kneaded upwards by pressing upon the integument, so that the intestine may, as far as possible, be pushed away from the point of protrusion. Sometimes the contraction of the muscular fibres at the point where a hernia makes its exit is so great that it cannot be replaced, and a doctor should be called in at once.
After the reduction of the rupture, the part should be supported, and this is often done with a truss. Mostly, however, the use of these appliances is harmful, for unless proper support be given to the walls of the abdomen, and that without constant pressure, a truss may do much harm. Then, too, the shape of the pad must be such as to avoid pressure where it is not required, otherwise there is a gradual loss of strength and a depression formed in the healthy tissue, which can be plainly seen and felt. In this way trusses do harm, and such evil consequences may even follow the improper application of a good truss.
However, a great amount of thought has recently been given to this matter, and a special device has been invented which undoubtedly will entirely supersede the old “antiquated harness” everywhere. This is the “Hemex” Rupture Appliance, which is a much more natural method of supporting a hernia. It tends to hold together the breached opening instead of pressing directly into it with harsh steel springs, which quite prevent any healing from taking place.
The “Hernex” Rupture Appliance was invented to comply with Nature’s laws and to assist her by giving proper support. It is worn with satisfaction in its perfection and comfort, because it holds the rupture more naturally without discomfort. That it has succeeded is proved by the thousands who are wearing it to-day.
WRITE FOR FREE BOOK AT ONCE
It tells you all about rupture and how to greatly avoid its risks. It tells you how this simple, inexpensive method —the “Hernex” Rupture Appliance— instantly and automatically guards you against every strain. How it protects the weakness and allays the fear of operation. How it succeeds in retaining the rupture in place without discomfort or harmful pressure—convincingly demonstrates how you can leave off wearing such misery-causing makeshifts as common trusses.
I want to send you as a reader of The Home Nurse, free of charge, and without any obligation, a sixteen-page book, “Rupture, What causes it, and Treatment.” You are entitled to all the information it contains. Simply enclose 4d. in stamps for postage, and address your request to Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., 283 Elizabeth St., Sydney.
Stone in Kidneys or Bladder.—See
Kidney, Bladder and Urinary Diseases (p. 148).
Urine, Incontinence of.—See Kidney Bladder and Urinary Diseases (p. 148).
Varicose Veins are a distended and tortuous condition of the blood-vessels of the legs. They may cause no trouble, but usually some pain is present (see Bad Legs, p. 118).
Whooping Cough.—An acute infectious disease of the respiratory tract with paroxysms of cough that end in a prolonged high-pitched inspiration or “whoop." Quite commonly the act of coughing makes the patient vomit. The complications of whooping cough may be serious and the attention of readers is directed to the full details and treatment given in The Home Doctor. Sufferers should be warmly clothed and a light diet given. Wawn’s Inhalant (see p. 193) is a valuable remedy and helps to relieve the paroxysms—add a teaspoonful to a pint of boiling water and let the patient inhale the vapour—repeat frequently. Wawn's Wonder Wool should be applied to the chest and back (see p. 37).
A SPLENDID REMEDY FOR
“Urosal,” the great Uric Acid Solvent and Blood Purifier, is specially prepared for Rheumatism, and such diseases, due to excessive Uric Acid and other poisons in the blood.
“Urosal’’ is prepared under the direct supervision of V. A. Wawn, of “Wonder Wool” fame, and can be absolutely relied on. It is nonmetallic, and composed of those remedies which many years of experience have proved to be the most successful in the treatment of all diseases due to a poisonous condition of the blood.
“Urosal” does more than overcome Rheumatism; it completely dissolves the poisons from the blood, and a better feeling is experienced throughout the whole system. Thousands have testified that after a course of “Urosal” not only were they freed from Rheumatic pains, but they were able to sleep better, think and work better, having more life, spirit and energy—in short, “their whole body was toned up, and life was worth living.”
In all cases we recommend an occasional dose of “Uro-Tabs,” as “Uro-Tabs” considerably assist “Urosal” in its work of elimination. Whereas “Urosal” dissolves the Uric Acid, “Uro-Tabs” eliminate it from the system. For chronic sufferers, course treatments, comprising eight bottles of “Urosal” and two bottles of “Uro-Tabs” are recommended to be taken. “Urosal” costs 5/6 bottle; “Uro-Tabs” 5/6 bottle, from your Chemist or Store, Course Treatments cost £2 10s., post free, direct from the Manufacturers—Wawn’s Laboratories, Limited, 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
When Rheumatism has been chronic we would advise you to obtain our Special Treatise as mentioned under Rheumatism on page 164.
GASTRIC AND DUODENAL ULCERS
An ulcer means a break on the surface of the body, such as a leg ulcer (see p. 118) or on the lining of any cavity within the body which does not tend to heal quickly. The process by which an ulcer spreads and which involves the destruction of the tissue cells around its edge is known as “ulceration.”
When such a condition forms in the stomach it is known as a gastric ulcer, when on the walls of the duodenum it is a duodenal ulcer. Apart from the location, both these ulcers arise from the same cause, and for this reason, we can discuss them as being of the same nature with similar characteristics, and will in this discussion simply first speak of them in general terms.
Only within the last few years has this disease been carefully studied and, in consequence, treatment has been by what might be termed “hit or miss” methods, which have been mostly unsuccessful.
The disease occurs more frequently in the duodenum than in the stomach, and while both are the cause of extreme suffering it is the latter which is liable to become cancerous.
The disease is very apt to occur in people who have a sour stomach or acid indigestion, and because it always attacks the stomach or the first portion of the duodenum, where the food contents are acid with the gastric secretions, and does not arise after the point where these contents are converted to an alkaline condition, it seems certain that the disease is associated with the acidity of the gastric juice in combination with septic infection.
From very early times observers have speculated about the reason why the secretions poured into the stomach can so powerfully digest the flesh in the form of food, yet they do not digest fleshy walls of this organ. Following this line of reasoning, the formation of ulcers has naturally been attributed to digestive erosion, or, stated in another way, these ulcers are the result of the eating away of the stomach walls by the digestive fluids.
Recent researches have served to confirm this opinion. Experiments have strikingly demonstrated that if the vitality of the mucous membrane is impaired the gastric juice is capable of digesting or eroding it. And as the acid gastric juices are not only in contact with the walls of the stomach, but also bathe the part of the duodenum above the entrance of the bile and pancreatic dues, the origin of both gastric and duodenal ulcers is due to this same cause. This evidence is further borne out by the fact that this type of ulcer does not occur in the latter part of the duodenum where the acid contents have become alkaline.
The part that septic infection takes in the creation of the disease is that of rendering the mucous membrane liable to digestive corrosion. The infection may reach the alimentary tract in two ways. The germs may be swallowed or they may reach the stomach or duodenum by way of the blood or lymph streams.
Underlying the mucous membrane are masses of lymph tissue which filter out any germs circulating in the blood, and it seems that these lymph tissues break down through having excessive quantities of septic infection to deal with and result in the formation of small abscesses, which, bursting the wall of the stomach or duodenum, leave the raw, debilitated surface exposed to the erosive action of the gastric juice, which then contrives to eat it away, and continues to eat it away.
So far as the origin of both gastric and duodenal ulcers is the same, the explanation made has been of a general nature, and we can now go on to consider each form of ulcer individually.
Duodenal ulcer occurs more frequently than that of the stomach, and it has often been mistaken for gall-stones and appendicitis. It is usually regarded as a strong man’s disease, yet, although it occurs frequently enough in young, vital men, women and men of frail physique are by no means immune. In fact the ulcers come most frequently between thirty and fifty, and not infrequently in poorly nourished and anaemic persons.
The characteristic symptom is periodical pain, often on the right side of the pit of the stomach, which sometimes extends through to the back. The pain follows two or three hours after partaking of food, but a peculiar feature is that it is often relieved by eating, possibly because some of the gastric juices are diverted from their attacks on the mucous membrane to the food.
Pain may be the only symptom. This may be only a hunger pain or gnawing sensation occurring usually from two to four hours after eating, but it may be almost immediately after. There may, however, be acute pain, a sense of distension and oppression in the abdomen, jaundice, chilliness, belching, vomiting and sometimes vomiting of blood.
Sufferers from duodenal ulcers are generally irritable and bad tempered, inclined to lose weight and have restless, broken sleep.
Duodenal ulcers occur in two forms, acute and chronic. The former is a clean cut sharply defined cavity in the mucous membrane. The latter has a thickened, rounded edge and is usually much deeper. Every chronic duodenal ulcer begins acutely, and why some ulcers should heal rapidly and others persist and spread until they place the sufferer’s life in jeopardy is by no means clear.
A gastric ulcer or ulceration of the stomach may also occur as acute or chronic, both kinds giving rise to forms of dyspepsia, which, to skilled observation, have definite characteristics of this disease.
Acute ulcers sometimes occur without the condition being suspected, and in such cases the first indication may be an alarming vomiting of blood from the stomach. More commonly, however, the existence of the ulcer is manifested by the dyspepsia already mentioned.
Acute gastric ulcers usually attack anaemic young women of poor appetite, who in consequence suffer pain after eating, and have symptoms of listlessness and constipation. While rare, perforation of the stomach walls, whereby the contents of the stomach escape into the abdominal cavity, is a possibility. The outstanding symptoms of the advanced stage of acute gastric ulcers, are pain after eating, and haemorrhage from the stomach, the blood from which is either vomited or passed in the stool.
The acute ulcer is quite small and may not exceed a third of an inch across, and the edges are clear cut as if the depression had been made with a sharp knife.
Chronic gastric ulcers, while afflicting women, are more prevalent in men. They result in pain beginning a few minutes or perhaps some hours after eating, the interval varying with the ulcer’s location. If near the gullet, the period is short. If near the exit of the stomach, it is longer. Tenderness over the stomach is usual owing to the inflammation of the sensitive peritoneum overlying the stomach.
The chronic ulcer is more extensive than the acute, and may develop into several inches in size, but commonly it is about an inch across, with rounded edges, and it may extend right through the thickness of the stomach.
Apart from the dangers of bleeding and perforation, the chronic ulcer has the effect of seriously deforming the stomach, which may become incapable of properly emptying itself, becoming dilated in consequence. But the most serious result of chronic gastric ulcer is Cancer.
The treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers has in the past not been very successful, because the nature of the disease has not been properly understood—in fact, the knowledge of how to treat this disease seems to be known to few.
A description of the successful treatment does not come within the scope of these pages, but it may be stated that it is simple and does not involve any operation.
Readers of The Home Nurse who suffer from this complaint will be sent the fullest advice and information if they will write to Mr V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., Manning Chambers, 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, and enclose 4d. in stamps for a reply. If it is possible to call, Mr Wawn will be pleased to see sufferers personally.
TREATING PATIENTS IN THEIR HOMES
Many diseases can be treated most successfully without the sufferer leaving home. With the written symptoms before him the competent professional man can study them leisurely and make an accurate diagnosis of the disease. The evidences of most diseases are so definite that they can be determined beyond possibility of any doubt.
After all this is quite reasonable, and there is nothing very wonderful about it, when it is considered what marvels science has made possible. Take, for example, the telegraphic cables crossing the great oceans for thousands of miles. With a marvellous degree of accuracy an operator, on any one of them, can locate exactly the position of a fracture in the cable which may be over three thousand miles long.
A meteorologist sitting in Sydney can foretell what the weather will be across the continent to Adelaide and Perth as efficiently as if hundreds of miles did not intervene between him and the places named. And so in all departments of modern science, all that is required to know what is happening is certain signs.
A few fossils sent to a scientific geologist will enable him to accurately determine the rock formation from which they were taken. These he can describe as accurately as if he were standing before them. So also the chemist can determine the constituents of which the sun is composed as though that planet was not ninety-five million miles from his laboratory. The sun sends certain signs over the infinitude of space, which the chemist classifies by passing them through an instrument called a spectroscope. Only the presence of certain substances could produce these signs from the sun.
In medical science, the same principle applies, disease has certain unmistakable signs, called symptoms. By reason of this fact, we have been enabled to originate and perfect a system of accurately determining the nature of chronic diseases without seeing and personally examining the patient. It requires no miraculous
powers to do this—only special training is needed.
We obtain our knowledge of the patient’s disease by the practical application of well-established principles of modern science to the practice of medicine. And it is to the accuracy with which this system has endowed us that we owe our reputation for successful treatment of all lingering or chronic affections. This system of practice, with the splendid success which has been attained through it, demonstrates the fact that every disease displays certain characteristics, which, by being subjected to scientific medical analysis, provide abundant and unmistakable evidence to guide the judgment of the skilled practitioner correctly in diagnosing the nature of the disease conditions.
So successful has been this method of treating patients at a distance in their own homes that the Wawn Laboratories treat thousands of cases yearly, and their reputation is growing rapidly. In all kinds of chronic cases successful results have been attained, and it is only in very rare cases that we cannot do as well for the patient who lives at a distance as if he, or she, could visit us personally. Immediately a letter is received it is given the personal attention of Mr V. A. }Vawn, M.P.S.A., who carefully studies the particulars supplied and advises the treatment that is necessary according to his scientific diagnosis.
Readers of The Home Nurse are
privileged to secure advice on all questions of health, which will be given personally or by letter as is most convenient to them. This will enable those who desire full knowledge regarding their ailments and advice thereon to obtain all the information required with the greatest convenience—and this service is free of charge.
All correspondence is treated with the strictest confidence, and in thousands of cases great benefits have resulted from the special advice given and the remedies prescribed.
Formerly, a very extensive list of questions to be answered by those writing to us was published, but experience has convinced us that we require answers to a few leading questions only, which are still retained (see below), and the patient, if necessary, can further describe the malady in his or her own way and language. After receiving and considering such a history, if Mr Wawn does not fully understand the patient’s malady, he will ask such further questions as may be necessary.
No charge is made for this service, whether given personally or by letter,
and, therefore, as we are desirous of making these facilities for treatment known to invalids far and near, we request that all persons writing for advice send also the names of other sufferers they know who are in any way in need of treatment for chronic diseases. If convenient, send the list on a separate sheet of paper.
Those coming for personal advice can do so from Monday to Friday between the hours of to a.m. and 5 p.m. daily. All treatments are prepared in our own laboratory by skilled chemists and pharmacists, and the greatest care is exercis_ed to have them manufactured from the freshest and purest ingredients.
We aim to be unprejudiced and independent in the selection of remedies, adopting at all times a rational system of therapeutics. This liberal course of action has, in a vast experience, proved most successful.
If, therefore, you are suffering from any ailment, send particulars of your symptoms and, in the quickest possible time, Mr Wawn will give you the fullest personal information.
These questions have been prepared with the definite purpose of finding out all those important and trifling symptoms which, when taken together and carefully studied, enable me to determine the cause and the nature of your trouble, and to decide whether or not your case is a suitable one for treatment.
It is my desire that you read these questions carefully and that you answer correctly each that applies to your case. To do so, take a sheet of note-paper, write your name and address very clearly at the top. Then put down the question and write your answer alongside.
No charge whatever will be made for studying your case, and when I have carefully and thoroughly studied your symptoms I will immediately advise you on the matter free of cost and obligation.
When you have finished answering the questions, post them to V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A., Dept. H.N., Wawn’s Laboratories Ltd., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
1. Date .................................................................
2. Married or single, widow or widower ...................................
3. What is your age? ....................................................
4. What is your weight? .................................................
5. Describe vour symptoms fully .........................................
6. How long have you been suffering? ....................................
7. Have you suffered from any specific blood disease? Have you suffered
from an ulcerated throat? Has your hair ever fallen out?................
8. • Have you any mucous discharge? Describe fully, colour, odour, etc.......
9. Are your bowels habitually costive or free? ............................
10. Have you had previous treatment? If so, describe same ................
11. What is your occupation? .............................................
12. Are you easily upset or inclined to worry unnecessarily? ................
13. Is your appetite good? ................................................
14. Do you digest your food? .............................................
15. Do you suffer from piles? .............................................
16. Are you a good sleeper? ...............................................
17. Are you a heavy smoker? ..............................................
18. Are you a heavy drinker? ..............................................
19. Have you been getting worse lately? ...................................
20. How many children have you? .........................................
21. Are they all healthy? ..................................................
22. Is your blood out of order? ...........................................
23. Any further symptoms? Describe them fully ..........................
24. Do you easily get fatigued? ...........................................
23. Does any change of weather affect your complaint? ....................
26. Please give the names and addresses of any persons in your district or elsewhere, whom you think would be interested in our treatments. This information will be treated as strictly confidential and exclusively private. Your name will not be mentioned.
N.B.—Write out the questions and your answers on a separate piece of paper and also give any facts relating to your case or condition that have not been indicated by the above questions. Describe your case fully in your own words and all you have suffered and gone through: in short, give me a general history of your own case.
V. A. WAWN, M.P.S.A.
WAWN’S LABORATORIES LTD.
(Box 548B, G.P.O.)
Manning Chambers, 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney
Below we give the definitions of technical words. In case a word will not permit of a short definition, reference is made to the page in The Home Nurse (H.N.) or The Home Doctor (H.D.) where a full description of its meaning may be found.
Abdomen.—The part of the body between the diaphragm and pelvis, containing the stomach, intestines, etc.
Abdominal.—Belonging to the abdomen.
Abortion.—Expulsion of the foetus before the seventh month of pregnancy.
Absorbent.—Taking up by suction. Imbibing.
Absorption.—The function of taking up substances from within or without the body.
Acne.—Pimples upon the face, more common at the age of puberty.
Adipose Tissue.—A thin membrane composed of cells which contain fat.
Afferent.—Conducting inward toward the centre or to some part or organ.
Afferent Nerves.—Sensory nerves, which transmit motor impulses.
Affusion.—A pouring upon, as water on the body.
Albumin in Urine.—In chemical composition resembles the white of an egg, and is detected by the application of heat, nitric acid, etc.
Alkali.—An electropositive substance combining with an acid to form a neutral salt.
Amorphous.—Formless — non-erystal-Uzed.
Anaemia.—Privation of blood. Lack of red corpuscles in the blood.
Anatomy.—The science of organic structure.
Angina Pectoris.—(See H.D. p. 3.)
Anodyne.—A medicine relieving pain.
Antidote.—An agent counteracting the action of poison.
Antiseptic.—Preventing or destroying
Anus.—The circular opening at the end of the bowel, through which the excrement leaves the body.
Bacteria.—Micro-organisms, microbes. Bacteriology.—The science of microorganisms.
Basement Membrane.—A thin layer of flattened, almost indistinguishable, con-
Aphasia.—Loss of speech.
Apoplexy.—The effects of a sudden rush of blood to an organ, as the brain, lungs, etc. Brain pressure, from rupture of a blood-vessel.
Appendicitis.—Inflammation of the appendix vermiformis.
Aqueous Humour.—Clear fluid contained in the front chamber of the eye.
Artery.—A vessel carrying blood from the heart to the various parts of the body; usually red in colour.
Articulation.—A joint or an arthrosis. Distinct, clear. The articulation of words.
Artificial Respiration.—Method used to restore natural breathing.
Arterial.—Pertaining to the arteries. Arterial blood.
Arteriosclerosis.—The hardening of the arterial walls.
Arthrosis.—An articulation or a Jointing; a suture.
Asphyxia.—A condition of apparent death owing to the supply of air being cut oft; as in drowning, inhalation of gases, sunstroke, etc.
Assimilation.—Appropriating and transforming into its own substance, matters foreign to the body.
Asthma.—Difficulty of breathing.
Astigmatism.—A condition of the eye in which rays of light from a point do not converge to a point on the retina.
Astringents.—Medicines which contract the flesh.
Auditory Nerves.—The nerves connecting the brain with the ears and employed in exercising the sense of hearing.
Auscultation.—A method of determining the condition of an organ by listening to the sounds produced by it. Auscultation Tube—a stethoscope.
nective tissue ceils that serves as a basis for the epithelium in mucous membranes. (See epithelium.)
Bile.—A yellow, bitter fluid secreted by the liver.
Bilious.—Disordered In respect to bile. Relating to bile.
Biology.—The science of life or living organisms.
Bi-valve.—Having two valves.
Bladder (Urinary).—The organ, situated behind the pubic bone, which holds the urine until its expulsion.
Blood.—The fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries.
Boil.—An abscess which comes to a head and discharges matter and a core.
Bone.—The hard tissue forming the framework of the body.
Calcium.—A metal—the basis of lime. Calcium deposits.
Calculus, Calculi.—fftones or similar concretions formed by the deposit of solid matter; of lime, soda, uric acid, urates, oxalates, etc.
Calibre.—The internal diameter of a tube, as of an artery.
Calisthenics.—Healthful exercise of the body and limbs, for purpose of strength and agility.
Cancer.—A malignant tumour.
Canker.—Ulcers in the mouth.
Capacity.—Ability, cubic extent; vital, the volume of air that can be expelled after a full inspiration.
Carbonic Acid.—A heavy, poisonous gas. Choke damp.
Cardiac.—Pertaining to the heart. Near or towards the heart.
Carminatives.—Medicines which allay pain in the stomach and intestines by expelling the gas.
Carotids.—The great arteries at the sides of the neck.
Cartilage.—A solid part of the body found In the Joints, ends of the ribs, etc. It Is softer than bone but harder than ligament.
Catalytics.—Medicines which destroy morbid agencies in the blood. Alternatives.
Catamenia.—Monthly flow of the female.
Cataract.—Opacity of the lens of the eye, or its covering, or both.
Cathartics.—Medicines which cause evacuation of the bowels.
Catheter.—A hollow tube introduced into the bladder through the urethra for the purpose of drawing off the urine.
Caustics.—Substances which destroy animal tissue.
Cautery.—A substance or instrument for burning or disorganizing a part.
Cellular.—Pertaining to, or like a cell or cells. Cellular structure—cells communicating, forming a structure resembling “lattice work.”
Cephalic.—Pertaining to the head.
Cerebellum.—Little brain situated In the posterior chamber of the skull. Base brain.
Cerebral.—Relating to the brain.
Brain.—The contents of the cranium, especially the cerebrum.
Bright’s Disease.—A disease of the kidneys.
Broad Ligaments of the Uterus.—Folds of the peritoneum which support the womb and contain the Fallopian tubes
Bronchia.—Tubes formed by the division of the windpipe.
Bronchial Catarrh, or Bronchitis.—Inflammation of the lining membrane of the large bronchlai tubes. (See H.D., page 31).
Cerebro-splnal Axis.—The brain and spinal cord. It lies in the cavities of the skull and the spinal column.
Cerebrum.—The chief position of the
Ceruminous Glands.—Pertaining to or producing cerumen—ear-wax.
Cervical Endometritis.—Inflammation of lining of the womb.
Cervix.—The neck. Any neck-like part. Cervix uteri—neck of the uterus (womb). Cervix vesicae—neck of the bladder.
Chest.—The thorax. The upper portion of the body.
Chill.—>A shivering sensation.
Cholera.—A disease characterized by emesis, diarrhoea, cramps and prostration.
Chyle.—Food digested and ready for absorption.
Chyme.—The food that has gastric, but not intestinal digestion.
Ciliary.—Of, or pertaining to eyelashes. Ciliary muscle—an involuntary muscle situated in the globe of the eye near the junction of the iris with the choroid coat.
Circulation.—The passage of blood through the body.
Circulatory System.—The system in the animal economy, made up of the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins through which the blood circulates.
Clavicle.—The collar bone, joining the sternum and scapula.
Clinical Thermometer.—A self registering thermometer for taking the body temperature.
Colic or Cramps.—Gas in the intestines.
Collapse.—Failure of the vital powers.
Colon.—/The superior part of the large intestine.
Coma.—A condition of profound sleep
from which it is difficult to arouse the patient.
Comatose.—In a condition of coma.
Compress.—Folded cloths for local pressure.
Conception.—Impregnation of the ovum; the beginning of a new being.
Congestion.—An abnormal amount of blood in a part or organ.
Convalescence.—The recovery of health after sickness.
Cornea.—The anterior, transparent part
of the outer coat of the eyeball. Corpuscle.—A minute body, a cell. Counter-irritation.—The superficial Irritation of a part of the body to produce a good effect on another diseased part. Cranial Nerves.—Nerves of the head. Cranium.—The skull.—The bony case of the brain.
Croup.—Inflammation of the larvnx and trachea with dyspnoea and membranous
Defecation.—Voiding excrement from the body.
Degeneration.—Deterioration In structure of a tissue or an organ.
Degeneration. Fatty.—The deposit of. particles of fat instead of the proper muscular tissue.
Deglutition.—The act, process, or power of swallowing.
Delirium.—Mental aberration due to disease.
Dentition.—Cutting of the teeth in infancy.
Dermatitis.—Inflammation of the skin.
Dermatologist.—A specialist In the treatment of skin diseases.
Detergent.—A cleansing agent or drug.
Diabetes.—Sugar in the urine.
Diagnosis.—The recognition of a disease from the symptoms.
Diaphoretic.—Medicines which increase perspiration.
Diaphragm.—The muscular wall between the thorax and the abdomen.
Diarrhoea.—Morbidly frequent evacua-tioh of the bowels.
Digestion.—The function by which food passing along the alimentary canal is prepared for nutrition.
Ear, Internal.—Defined on page 126.
Eczema.—A skin disease.
Edema (Oedema).—Puffiness of the skin from the accumulation of fluid. General dropsy.
Efferent.—Carried outward, as influences from a nerve-centre to muscles, the cells of glands, etc.
Emaciation.—Leanness in flesh.
Embryo.—A fecundated germ in pregnancy.
Emetics.—Medicines which empty the stomach upwards.
Emollient.—An agent that softens tissues.
Empyema.—Pus in the pleural cavity.
Endocarditis.—Inflammation of the lining membrane of the heart.
Endometritis.—Diseases of the lining membrane of the womb.
Enema.—A rectal injection of medicine or food.
Culture.—Propagation of germs in suitable fluids or other media.
Cuspids.—Eye teeth. The four teeth that have conic crowns.
Cutaneous.—Belonging to, or affecting the skin.
Cutis Vera.—The true skin.
Cuticle.—The epidermis, outer layer of the skin.
Cyst.—A membranous sac containing fluid.
Cystitis.—Inflammation of the bladder. In chronic form, catarrh of the bladder.
Digit.—A Anger or toe.
Dilator.—An instrument for stretching a cavity or opening; also a dilating muscle.
Diluent.—Any fluid which thins the blood, or holds medicine in solution.
Diphtheria.—An infectious membranous throat disease.
Disinfectant.—An agent destroying
Douche.—A stream of water directed against a part.
Dressing.—Application of bandage or other substance to a wound.
Dropsy.—The accumulation of fluid in the cavities or cellular tissue of the body.
Duodenum.—The first portion of the intestines.
Dura Mater.—A thick, fibrous membrane lining the skull.
Dysentery.—A disease characterized by frequent, scanty and bloody stools.
Dysmenorrhoea.—Difficult or painful menstruation.
Dyspepsia.—Impaired or Imperfect
Enteritis.—Inflammation of the mucous lining of the small intestines.
Epidemics.—Diseases which attack a number of persons at the same time; as yellow fever, smallpox, etc.
Epidermis.—The outer layer of the skin.
Epiglottis.—A cap or shield over the windpipe allowing the admission of air; but preventing the admission of foreign bodies.
Epilepsy.—A nervous disease with loss of consciousness and convulsions.
Epithelium.—The thin covering upon the lips, nipple, mucous and serous membranes and lining of the ducts, bloodvessels and other canals.
Eruption.—A breaking out. A skin disease.
Esophagus.—Canal from the pharynx to the stomach.
Eustachian Tube.—The tube leading from the throat to the Inner ear.
Evacuate.—Defecation. Act of emptying.
E vacua nt.—Cathartic.
Excoriates.—Removes the skin in part.
Excoriation.—A wound which removes some of the skin.
Excrementitious.—Pertaining: to the matter evacuated from the body.
Excretion.—The process by which waste materials are removed from the blood performed particularly by the lungs, skin and kidneys.
Facial Nerves.—The motor nerves of the muscles of the face.
Fallopian Tube.—The canal through which the ovum passes from the ovary to the womb.
Fatty Degeneration.—The deposit of particles of fat instead of proper muscular tissue.
Febrifuge.—A medicine which abates or cures fevers.
Febrile.—Relating to fever.
Fever.—A rise of body temperature with associated symptoms.
Fibrin.—A nitrogenous protein coagulating in exposed blood.
Fibrous.—Consisting of fibres.
Fibroid.—Having a fibrous structure.
Film.—A pellicle of thin skin.
Filaments, Fibres.—Fibre, a slender thread.
First Intention, Healing By.—Healing without suppuration or the formation of
Gall-stones.—Calcareous concretions in the gall-bladder and its ducts.
Ganglia.—Nerve centres Which form and distribute nerve power.
Gaseous.—In form of gas. Gaseous emanations.
Gastralgia.—Neuralgia of the stomach.
Gastric.—Pertaining to the stomach.
Gastric Juice.—A thin acid fluid secreted by the glands of the stomach; the chief digestive fluid.
Generative Organs.—Organs of reproduction.
Genitals.—The sexual organs.
Germ.—A microbe or bacterium.
Gestation.—Carrying the embryo in the uterus.
Glycogen.—Animal starch found in blood and liver.
Granular and Cystic Degeneration.
Haemorrhage.—A flow of blood from the vessels.
Haemorrhoid.—A pile; a small blood tumour at the anal orifice.
Haemorrhoidal Veins.—The veins about the rectum which enlarge and form piles.
Hair Bulbs.—The expansion or root of the hair.
Hallucinations.—Perception or sensation of objects which do not exist; as in Tremens.
Hay Fever.—(See p. 142).
Excretory Ducts.—Minute vessels which transmit fluid from glands.
Exhalations.—That which is thrown off by the body, as vapour, gases, etc.
Exhaustion.—Great loss of vital power.
Expectorants.—Medicines which promote discharges from the lungs.
Expiration.—Expelling the breath.
Exude.—To discharge liquid. Perspiration.
Fits.—A convulsion; a sudden paroxysm.
Flatulence.—The presence of gas in the digestive canal.
Flatus.—Gas in the alimentary canal.
Flexion of the Womb.—A partial displacement in which the womb is bent upon itself.
Flexures.—Bending. Motion of a joint.
Foetus.—The unborn child.
Follicles (of hair).—Small depressions in the skin.
Fomentations.—Local application of cloths wrung out in hot water.
Forceps.—An instrument having a motion and use like the thumb and forefinger. Pincers. Obstetrical forceps embrace the head of the foetus.
Fracture.—Broken bone. In compound fracture the end of the bone projects through the skin.
Fumigation.—Exposure to disinfectant
Granular Casts.—Moulds of epithelium found by the microscope in chronic Bright’s Disease.
Gravel.—Substances precipitated in the urine resembling sand.
Groin.—The oblique depression between the trunk and thigh.
Goitre.—A disease of the Thyroid Gland.
Gout.—A disease associated with joint inflammation, swelling—uric acid in the
Grey Matter.—The part of the brain which is responsible for mental activity.
Grippe or Influenza.—A contagious epidemic catarrhal fever.
Gustatory Nerves.—The nerves of the special sense of taste.
Gynaecology.—The science of the diseases of women.
Heart.—The hollow muscular body, the centre of the circulatory system. Vital organ.
Hectic.—Constitutional; as hectic fever, in which all parts of the body become emaciated.
Hemiplegia.—Paralysis affecting only ono side of the body.
Hepatic.—Relating or belonging to the liver.
Herbivorous.—Animals that live on herbs. Vegetarians.
Hereditary.—A disease transmitted
from parent to child.
Hernia or Rupture.—A weak spot in
the muscular wall (see p. 168).
Hiccup.—A spasmodic inspiration suddenly arrested by an involuntary closure of the glottis.
Hip.—The upper part of the thigh. Hives. (Urticaria, or Nettle-Rash). Homogeneous.—Of the same nature. Hook Worm.—A parasite.
Hyaline Casts.—Glassy appearing substances found by the microscope in urine in chronic Bright’s Disease.
Hygiene.—The principles or rules for the promotion or preservation of health.
Hyperemia.—A condition of plethora.
Hypodermic.—Subcutaneous—applied to injections of medicine.
Hypodermic Syringe.—An instrument having a very fine tube and nee<lle-like point, by which medicines are lodged immediately under the skin.
Hypoglossal Nerves.—The motor nerves of the tongue.
ice-Bag.—A bag to contain ice for application to the body.
Ice-Cap.—Compress; an ice-bag for application to the head.
Ileum.—The lower half of the small intestine.
Imperforate.—Without a natural opening.
Impregnation.—Imparting the vital
principle of the sperm-cell to the germcell. by which a new being is created.
Incipient.—Commencement; first stage.
Incision.—The act of cutting into.
Incisors.—Front teeth. The four anterior teeth In each jaw.
Infantile Paralysis.—Spinal paralysis in children.
Infection.—The communication of disease germs.
Infiltration.—The passage of fluid Into the cellular tissues; as in General Dropsy.
Indolent.—Painless; a term applied to
Induration.—Hardening of a part or
Iris.—A thin coloured curtain stretched vertically across the aqueous chamber of the eye. The rainbow.
Irritant.—An agent producing irritation. Insomnia.—Sleeplessness.
Inspire.—To breathe into the lungs— inhale; as in breathing the air is alternately inspired, and expired.
Intercostal.—-Lying between the ribs. Intestine.—Digestive tube from the stomach to the anus.
Itch (Scabies).—A contagious parasitic skin disease.
Jaundice.—A yellow coloration of the skin.
Jaw.—Either of the two maxillary bones serving the purposes of seizing and masticating food.
Kidney.—The organ secreting urine.
Labour.—Parturition; a bringing forth
Labyrinth.—The cavities of the internal ear.
Laceration.—A wound made by tearing.
Lachrymal Glands.—Minute organs
about the eyes which secrete tears.
Lacteal.—One of the lymphatics of the small intestines that take up chyle. Pertaining to milk.
Laminae.—Thin bones, or the thin parts of a bone.
Lancinating.—Acute, shooting pains fancifully compared to the pierce of a lance.
Larynx.—That portion of the air passage indicated in the male by “Adam's Apple.”
Laxatives.—Medicines which move the bowels gently.
Jejunum.—The upper two-fifths of the small intestines.
Knee.—Joint between the foreleg and thigh.
Leech.—A blood-sucking aquatic worm.
Lesion.—Derangement. Tearing or other division of parts, previously continuous.
Leucorrhoea.—Described on page 105.
Ligament.—A white inelastic tendon, binding bones together.
Ligature.—A cord or catgut tied around a blood-vessel to arrest haemorrhage.
Llnum.—A genus of herbs, the seeds flaxseed or linseed, used as an emollient.
Lithic Deposits.—Sediment or stone formed in the urine by uric acid.
Liver.—The largest glandular organ of the body secreting bile.
Lobes.—Round projecting parts of an organ; as lobes of the lungs, of the liver, etc.
Localization.—The determining of the seat of disease.
Loin.—The side of the body between
the hip bone and ribs.
Lumbago.—Rheumatism in the small of the back and loins.
Lumbar Vertebrae.—That part of the backbone in the vicinity of the loins.
Malaria.—An infectious disease caused by Plasmodium Malariae in the blood.
Malformation.—Irregularity in structure.
Malignant.—Applied to the diseases
which threaten life.
Mammalia.—Animals that suckle their
Manipulations. — Examination and treatment by the hand.
Massage.—Kneading, rubbing and stroking the surface to improve circulation and nutrition and to remove effete material.
Mastoid.—Mastoid process. A conical prominence of the temporal bone situated behind the ear, serving for the attachment of muscles.
Media.—The middle coat of a vein, artery, or lymph \essel.
Mediastinum.—The part of the membrane which forms a partition between the lungs.
Medulla Oblongata.—Situated just above the spinal cord and is continuous with it below and the brain above. The vital knot.
Melancholia.—A mild form of insanity attended with great gloom and mental
Membrane.—A thin enveloping or lining substance.
Membranous.—Of the nature or construction of membrane.
Narcotic.—A substance which., relieves pain, produces sleep, and in large doses brings on stupor, coma, or even death.
Nerve.—One of the whitish fibrous threads or cords that ramify through the bodies of animals, and whose function is to convey sensation and originate motion.
Lungs.—The two organs of respiration. Lymph.—A transparent fluid resembling blood found in lymphatic vessels.
Lymphatics.—Capillary tubes pervading the body and conveying lymph.
Meninges.—Membranes covering the brain.
Menopause.—The end of the menstrual
Menorrhagia. — Immoderate monthly flow.
Menses.—Monthly flow of the female.
Menstruation.—Function of the female producing menstrual monthly flow.
Mental.—Pertaining to the mind.
Mesenteric Glands.—Glands about the peritoneum which secrete the lymph.
Mesentery.—The peritoneal attach
ment of the small intestines. A fold of the peritoneum that invests an intestine.
Mitral Valve.—Valve on the left side of the heart.
Muco-purulent.—Composed of mucus and pus.
Mucous Membrane.—The thin web-like lining to the canals and cavities which secretes a fluid by which it is constantly lubricated.
Mucus.—A mucilaginous fluid found on the surface of certain membranes which keeps them soft and pliable.
Muscle.—The structures of the body which execute movements.
Muscular Tissue.—The flesh forming the muscles of the body.
Mydriatic.—Relating to or causing dilation of the pupil. A drug that is efficacious in dilating the pupil, as belladonna.
Nervine.—An agent calming nervous excitement.
Neuralgia.—Pain in a nerve.
Neuritis.—Inflammation of a nerve.
Nutrition.—The process of assimilation of food.
Obstetrical.—Pertaining to childbirth. Olfactory Nerves.—The nerves of the
sense of smell.
Ophthalmia.—Inflammation of the eye. Optic Nerve.—The nerve connecting the brain and eye, and employed in the sense of sight.
Organic.—Pertaining to the structure of an organ.
Ovaries.—Two ovoid bodies situated either side of the womb.
Ovary.—The female organ in which the ovum, or germ-cell Is formed.
Ovulation.—The formation of the
germ-cell in the ovary and its release from that organ.
. Hastening parturition or
Palate.—The roof of the mouth and floor of the nose.
Pancreas.—A fleshy gland situated between the bottom of the stomach and the vertebrae.
Pancreatic Juice.—A colourless fluid resembling saliva secreted by the pancreas forming an important factor in digestion.
Papilla, Papillae.—Small, nipple-shaped prominences found on the tongue, the skin, etc.
Paraplegia.—Paralysis affecting the upper or lower extremities of the body.
Paresis.—Softening of the brain.
Parotid Glands.—These are situated under the ear. just at the angle of the lower jaw, and secrete saliva.
Paroxysms.—The periodical attack, fit or aggravation in the course of a disease.
Parturient.—Bringing forth or having recently brought forth.
Parturition.—Labour; the delivery of the foetus.
Pathogenic.—Causing disease. r»on-pathogenic—resisting disease.
Pathology.—That part of the Science of Medicine the object of which is the knowledge of disease.
Pelvic.—Belonging to and relating to the pelvis.
Pelvis.—The lower part of the abdomen or trunk, composed of bone, containing the genital and urinary organs; supports the backbone and is supported by the legs.
pen|8.—The male organ of generation.
Pepsin.—The digestive solvent secreted by the stomach.
Peptic.—Pertaining to the stomach.
Peptone.—An albuminoid produced by the action of pepsin.
Percussion.—Striking the surface and by the sound produced judging of the condition of the internal organs.
Pericarditis.—inflammation of the pericardium.
Pericardium.—The membranous sac enclosing the heart.
Perineum.—The space bounded by the end of the spine, sexual organs, and the bony prominences on which one sits.
Periostium.—The membranous covering to all bones.
Peristaltic Motion.—A wormlike movement of the bowels by which the food is moved forward.
Peritoneum.—The membrane (serous) which lines the abdominal cavities and surrounds the intestines.
Peritoneal.—‘External coat of the stomach.
Peritonitis.—Inflammation of serous membrane lining abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Perspiration.—Excretion of liquid from
Pessary.—An instrument for holding the womb in place.
Pharynx.—The cavity back of the mouth and palate through which the air passes when breathing and the food when swallowing.
Phosphates, Earthy.—The white deposit in urine composed of phosphoric acid and a base.
Phthisis.—Consumption. By some the word is used for asthma or difficulty in breathing.
Physiological Anatomy.—The branch of medicine that defines the organs of the body and their particular actions.
Pia Mater.—The internal vascular
membrane covering the brain.
Pin Worms.—Minute thread creatures in the bowel.
Plethora, Plethoric.—Full of blood; may be general or confined to a part.
Pleura.—Membrane enveloping the lungs.
Pleurisy.—Inflammation of the pleura.
Pleuro-pneumonia.—Inflammation of both the pleura and lungs.
Plexus.—A network of nerves or veins.
Pneumogastric Nerves.—Nerves that supply certain muscles of the neck, also gloso-pharyngeal nerves.
Pneumonia.—Inflammation of the lungs.
Poison.—A venomous or toxic agent.
Polypi.—More than one polypus.
Polypoid.—Like a polypus in shape or construction.
Polypus.—A pedunculated tumour found in the nose, ear, rectum, etc.
Polypus.—A tumour which grows from mucous membranes, commonly found in the nasal and vaginal cavities.
Pore.—A small opening, especially a minute perforation in a membrane or tissue for absorption or excretion, as the pores of the skin.
Portal Vessels.—The cluster of veins which join and enter the liver.
Pregnancy.—The condition of being with child.
Probe.—An instrument for examining wounds and cavities.
Procreation.—Production or generation of offspring.
Prolapsus.—A falling down of an organ through an orifice, as the womb, bowel, etc.
Prostate Gland.—A glandular body situated around the neck of the bladder in the male.
Proteins.—Foods composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen; as the white of an egg.
Protoplasm.—Primitive organic cell
matter; germinal matter.
Proud-flesh.—Abnormal growths which arise in wounds or ulcers.
Pruritus Vulvae.—A nervous disease attended with excessive itching of the external genital parts of the female.
Ptyalin.—Organic matter in the saliva which imparts its viscidity obtained from secretions of glands.
Puberty.—The age at which the subject is capable of procreation.
Pubic.—Relating to the pubes, a part above the genital organs, covered with hair at puberty.
Puerperal Fever.—Child-bed fever.
Pulmonary.—Relating to the lungs.
Pulse.—The expansile impulse of the arteries.
Pupil.—The round aperture In the iris of the eye.
Purgatives.—Medicines which cause evacuation of the bowels.
Purulent.—Discharging pus; as an ulcer.
Pus.—A yellowish, inodorous, creamy secretion from inflamed parts; contained in abscesses or discharging from ulcers.
Pustule.—A small elevation of the Pyaemia.—Blood poisoning from the
cuticle (or skin) containing pus—a absorption of decomposing pus or ‘'mat-
Quinsy.—An acute, severe inflammation of the tonsils, with fever.
Radical Cure.—A cure in which the disease is entirely removed, root and branch.
Rales.—Noises produced by air passing through mucus in the lungs.
Rash.—An eruption on the skin.
Rectal.—Pertaining to the rectum.
Rectum.—The lower portion of the intestines terminating in the anus.
Reflex Action.—Power of the spinal cord by which it is enabled to convert sensory into motor impulses.
Regurgitation.—The act by which blood is forced backwards in an unnatural manner.
Relaxation. — Diversion. Relax to slacken. Diminution of tension.
Remission.—A temporary diminution of the symptoms of fever.
Renal Calculus.—A stone formed in the kidney. ,,
Reproduction.—Producing living bodies similar to the parents.
Respiration.—Inspiration and expiration of air by the lungs.
Saccharine.—Like or containing sugar.
Saliva.—The secretion of the glands of
Salivary Glands.—Glands yielding
Sanitarium.—An institution for the treatment of the sick. A health retreat.
Sanitary.—Pertaining to health.
Scab.—A crust formed over a wound or ulcer.
Scales.—The epidermis or outer part of the skin consists of minute scales.
Scalp.—The skin covering the head.
Sciatic Nerve.—The great nerve of the thigh.
Scrofulous.—Suffering rrom a condition of the system characterized by enlargement of the glands, eruptions, etc., with great susceptibility to contagion.
Scrotum.—The bag of skin which covers the testicles.
Scurvy.—A disease due to Impaired nutrition.
Sebaceous Glands.—The oil tubes of the skin.
Secretion.—The process by which substances are separated from the blood
Sedatives.—Medicines which allay irritation or irritability of the nervous system.
Sedentary.—Requiring much sitting.
Sensory.—Conveying or producing sensation.
Serous.—Watery. Pertaining to the serous membrane.
Retention.—Holding back. Stoppage. Retention of urine.
Retina.—Internal membrane of the eye.
Retrocedent.—Moving from one part of the body to another; as gout.
Retrocession.—Change of an eruption from the surface to the inner parts.
Retroversion.—A change in the position of the womb in which the top falls back against the rectum.
Revulsion, Revulsive.—Calling the blood away from the diseased part.
Rheumatism.—A disease with fever, pain, inflammation and swelling of the joints. See p. 164.
Rib.—A thoracic bone.
Rickets.—A disease in children characterized by crookedness of the spine and long bones resulting from scrofula or poor and insufficient food.
Rigor.—Coldness, stiffness. Rigor mortis—the rigidity after death.
Rubefacients.—Medicines which produce redness of the skin.
Serous Tissue.—The membranes lining the closed cavities of the body, which secrete a watery, lubricating fluid.
Serum.—The fluid constituent of the blood.
Shock.—Sudden depression of vitality occasioned by injury.
Sitz Bath.—A bath In a sitting position.
Sling.—A swinging bandage for a limb.
Smallpox.—A specific Infectious disease.
Spasm.—Any sudden or convulsive action.
Spasmodic.—Relating to or characterized oy a spasm. Convulsive.
Specialization.—Determination or limitation. Specialist, a person devoted to one line of study, occupation or pro-iesslon.
Specific Gravity.—Comparative weight; as between urine and water.
Speculum.—An Instrument for examining cavities.
Spermatic Cord.—The mass of arteries, veins, nerves, absorbents, and their coverings, which passes along the groin and over pubic bone to the testicle.
Spermatozoa.—Male fertilizing element.
Sphincters.—Round muscles which close natural openings.
Spicula.—A small pointed piece of bone.
SDinal Column.—The twenty-four bones which, situated one above the other, form the backbone.
Spleen.—An oval viscus behind the outer end of the stomach.
Splint.—A support for the ends of a fractured bone.
Sprain.—A straining or rupture of the fibrous parts of a joint.
Spray.—Liquor vaporized by a strong air current.
Sterility.—Barrenness. Inability to bear
Sterilization.—The destruction of germs
Sternum.—The flat bone of the breast.
Stethometer.—An instrument to measure chest expansion.
Stethoscope.—An instrument for examining the heart and lungs.
Stimulants.—Medicines which increase the vital activity of the body.
Stool.—An evacuation of the bowels.
Streptococcus.—A germ causing the septic sore throat of tonsilitis.
Stricture.—A contracted condition of a canal or passage; of the food pipes, rectum, urethra, etc.
Structural.—Belonging to the arrangements of tissues or organs.
Styptic.—Having the property of checking haemorrhage.
Sub-acute.—Of moderate severity.
Subnormal.—Below the normal.
Sudoriferous Glands.—Glands which
secrete perspiration. Sweat glands.
Tactile.—Pertaining to the sense of
Tapping.—Removing collected fluid by introducing a hollow tube through the
Technic, or Technique.—The method of procedure of operation. Surgical technic —absolute carrying out of rules.
Temperament.—Peculiarities of the constitution manifested by traits which denominate character.
Temperature.—The degree of intensity of heat or molecular vibration.
Tendon.—One of the strong bands of connective tissue forming the termination or connexions of the fleshy portion of a muscle.
Thermometer.—An instrument for determining temperature.
Thermos Bottle.—A bottle in which heat or cold is retained.
Thermostat.—Automatic device for regulating the temperature.
Thigh.—The thick part of the leg.
Thoracic Duct.—A canal which carries the chyle from its repository in the abdomen to the large vein in the chest, near the heart.
Tinctures.—Medicines held in solution. An alcoholic solution of medicinal substance.
Tissue.—An aggregation of similar
cells and fibres forming a distinct structure.
Tongue.—The muscular organ of tasce and speech.
Suffocation.—A stoppage of respiration.
Sunburn.—Dermatitis from exposure to the sun.
Sunstroke.—See p. 71.
Suppuration.—The formation of pus, as in an abscess or ulcer.
Suppository.—A solid medicine for introduction into the rectum or the vagina.
Suppression.—Stoppage or obstruction of discharges; as urine, menses, etc.
Suture Pins.—Pins or needles, which are passed through the edges of wounds to bring them together. Thread is then wound around the pin to hold the edges in place.
Sutures.—-The ragged edges of bones by which they are joined to each other. Stitches of thread to bring the edges of a wound together for their union.
Symptom.—A change in the body or in its functions which indicates disease.
Syncope.—Swooning or fainting.
Synovial Membrane.—The lining of a joint, which from its oily secretion allows the bones to move freely upon each other.
Synovitis.—Inflammation of a synovial
Syringe.—An instrument for Injecting fluids.
Systemic Veins.—Systemic circulation. Pertaining to the body as a whole.
Tonsilitis.—Inflammation of the gland at the beginning of the throat.
Tourniquet.—An instrument to compress arteries.
Toxin.—An amorphous nitrogenous poison formed by bacteria in both living tissues and dead substances.
Trachea.—The windpipe. The cartilaginous tube extending from the larynx to the bronchia.
Tract.—A distinct, more or less defined region, longer than it is broad. Any one of the columns of white matter of the spinal cord.
Tricuspid Valve.—Valve on the right side of the heart.
Trunk.—The main stem or body of a
structure as of a nerve or a blood-vessel. The body as distinguished from its appendages—limbs, neck, head, etc.
Truss.—A mechanical appliance for preventing protrusion or strangulation. Hernial support.
Tuberculosis.—An infectious disease due to a specific bacillus characterized by the formation of tubercles.
Tumour.—An abnormal enlargement.
Turn of Life.—The change of life when menstruation ceases.
Twilight Sleep.—The morphine-scopol-amin treatment for painless childbirth.
Typhoid Fever.—A continued acute, infectious fever, with intestinal lesions, eruptions, etc.
Typhus.—An epidemic contagious fever, with eruption and great depression, but no lesion.
Ulcer.—An open sore.
Ulceration.—Pertaining to ulcers.
Umbilical.—Of the navel; as umbilical hernia.
Umbilical Cord.—A cord-like substance which conveys the blood to the foetus from the placenta or afterbirth.
Uraemic.—Pe-taining to blood poisoning from the presence of urea in the circulation.
Urates.—The pinkish deposit found in urine.
Urea.—A constituent of the urine.
Ureters.—The canals leading from the kidneys to the bladder.
Urethra.—The canal leading from the bladder outwards, by which the urine is
Uric Acid.—A constituent of the urine.
Urinary Fistula.—Abnormal communication between the urinary passages and the surface.
Urine.—The excretion of the kidneys.
Urino-genital organs.—Pertaining to
the urinary and sexual organs.
Uterine.—Belonging or relating to the womb.
Uterine Cavity or Canal.—From the mouth of the womb to a constriction called the internal orifice, is a cylindrical space called the canal. Above this, to the fundus or base, is a triangular and flat space called the cavity.
Uterus.—The womb—the hollow female organ of gestation.
Vagina.—A canal, five or six Inches long, situated between the vulva and womb.
Valve.—A fold across a canal obstructing passage in one direction.
Varicose.—Veins that are twisted or dilated.
Vascular.—Belonging or relating to
Vascular System.—The heart and bloodvessels.
Veins.—The vessels which return the blue blood to the heart.
Ventricles.—Chambers in the heart.
Version.—Displacement of the womb forwards or backwards.
Vertebrae.-—The twenty-four bones which, joined together, form the backbone.
White Matter.—In the brain, consist ing of nerve fibres.
Vesical Calculus.—A concretion in the
Vessels.—Tubes containing the fluids of the body.
Vibrations.—Oscillations, s wayin g
Virulent.—Noxious, malignant. Having the nature of a poison.
Virus.—Poison. The agent which transmits Infectious disease.
Vlscus.—Any organ inclosed within the cranium, thorax, abdominal cavity or pelvis.
Vision.—Sight; to see.
Vital.—Pertaining to life.
Vitreous.—Glass-like. Vitreous humour, a transparent jelly-like humour or body that fills the ball of the eye.
Vulva.—The external organs of generation in the female, or the opening between these projecting parts.
Wound.—Break in continuity of soft parts of the body, an injury.
X-Rays.—The peculiar ether rays or waves which penetrate through opaque matter by means of which photographs may be taken of bones, metallic substances, etc. situated in the tissues. **
An^el of Mercy
The Magic Wrap—
that makes pain stop
Until recently many women held the idea that douching immediately after cohabitation was a very safe preventive, but evidence has most conclusively demonstrated that it is not really reliable. Often, too, damage has been done to the delicate mucous lining of the female organism by the use of corrosive antiseptics. Ordinary douching, however, with warm water in which “Ever Safe” Antiseptic Douche Powder has been dissolved, upon arising in the morning has been proved perfectly beneficial, and is advocated from the point of view of hygienic cleanliness and widely differs from douching solely as a preventive, and for the former purpose is highly recommended.
“Ever Safe” Antiseptic Douche Powders
The active principles of “Ever Safe” Antiseptic Douche Powders have been proved by the Department of Public Health to have eleven times the germicidal value of carbolic acid—yet are non-poisonous and nonirritating. tt
It is antiseptic, non-poisonous, non-corrosive and an effective deodorant. These virtues must surely establish it as the WORLD’S GREATEST HYGIENIC ANTISEPTIC. For these reasons “Ever Safe” Antiseptic Douche Powders are ideally adapted for Feminine Hygiene, and they are also strongly recommended as a wash and dressing for sores, cuts, wounds, etc., especially as they are readily soluble in water for quick use. Price .. .. .. 5/6 box
“Ever Safe” Whirling Spray
The “Ever Safe” Whirling Spray has a very powerful flushing action without exerting excessive force. It gently raises the folds of the internal vaginal walls and by permitting the solution to come in direct contact with every portion it thoroughly cleanses the entire mucous track.
We are frequently asked for a spray which is reliable in its action, and we have no hesitation in recommending the "Ever Safe” Whirling Spray to meet the most exacting requirements.
FVi. “Ever Safe” Whirling Spray, best quality throughout .. FV2. Specially designed for those who cannot afford the more expensive model yet who desire the best obtainable within their means. Price .. .. .. .. ..
All parcels are sent under plain cover to assure privacy, Address communications to V. A. Wawn, M.P.S.A, Dept. H.N., 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney
“Ever Safe” Douche Can
Well made of best quality enamel that will give a lifetime of service. It provides sufficient supply of water to provide a constant current of solution for the required period and is always ready for instant use.
1 Quart size, complete with all fittings of
the best quality. Price........ 5/6 C>
2 Quart size, complete with all fittings of ^
the best quality. Price........ 6
With double httings, price, extra ..
“Ever Safe” Enema
These Enemas are specially manufactured to meet the demands of lasting service, and are made of the best quality rubber. Each “Ever Safe” Enema is specially examined before dispatch and can be recommended with the utmost confidence in its efficacy as an efficient cleanser and detergent.
“Ever Safe” Enema of best quality, complete in box with fittings, 10/6 Second Quality .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. 7/6
Third Quality .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5#5
The “Experator” Douche is a new type of whirling spray which has all the advantages of the ordinary whirling spray in that it assures a whirling flow of fluid which penetrates every crevice and fold in the vaginal tract, but has the additional advantage that it can be conveniently used without arising from bed as the outflowing water runs into a rubber receptacle in which it is held. Many people will welcome this convenience which obviates the necessity of arising and possibly catching a chill. Price .. .. .. .. .. 30/-
" Cottu- 7%cmv
Many, many healing miracles lie hidden in the Australian bush. Secrets known to the Aboriginals—but lost with vanished tribes. One, however, remains, in the knowledge imparted to the wife of a doughty pioneer who penetrated the early Victorian wilderness to carve out a home on the land. Here a boy was born and as he grew, so naturally he was subjected to the ills of childhood and the accidents of a life far removed from the amenities of city life.
Medical aid being far and distant, treatment in emergencies had to be whatever was at hand. It was in such primeval surroundings that the secret of the healing properties of the Broad-leaf Gum Leaves was given to these settlers by the blacks of the locality and which, when used by the mother of this boy, proved more efficacious than anything they could then buy.
The boy was V. A. Wawn, who grown to manhood, became a chemist, and is known to every Australian as the Discoverer of Wawn’s Wonder Wool. His early memories carried him back over the years to his mother succouring his hurts with the soothing, healing properties of the Broadleaf Gum Leaves as she was shown how to use them by the Aboriginals.
He again sought out those leaves and applied the methods of the modern che-
mist. With the aid of scientific laboratory apparatus he succeeded in extracting the healing essences from them, and incorporating them in modern healing preparations known as Broadleaf Eucalyptus specialities.
You will find each of these of the greatest benefit for the particular purposes for wrhich it is recommended as the healing essences of the Broadleaf Eucalyptus—a special type of eucalyptus—gives them great soothing and antiseptic potency.
WAWN’S SPECIAL MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS
FEMATON—A WOMAN’S TONIC
Fematon is a scientifically compounded tonic, containing the finest vegetable extracts in a highly concentrated form. Its success is unparalleled as a valuable tonic and sedative. Worn out, run down, nervous women will find its wonderful strength-giving powers just what they require. It gives help where help is most needed. It makes weak women stronger, and sick women feel well-—and for many women the path to health has been through Fematon.
Being a genuine Woman’s Tonic it is specially recommended for Nervousness, Irritability, Indigestion, Anaemia, Exhaustion, Headache, Backache, Lassitude, Neuralgia, Insomnia, Nervous Debility, Loss of Appetite and Giddiness. Fematon costs 5/6 a bottle. Postage 1/- extra.
WAWN’S WONDER COUGH DROPS “Heal while you breathe”
The soothing healing vapours released when one is allowed to dissolve slowly on the tongue, are inhaled direct to the sore and inflamed membranes of the nose, throat and lungs—exerting a rapid, soothing, healing action even on the innermost parts of the respiratory tract. They “heal while you breathe” faster than any nauseating medicines can. Price, 2/6 a bottle at chemists and stores.
WAWN’S NERVETTES For all Nerve Pains
“Nervettes” have a remarkable power of controlling nerve pains and are therefore of the greatest service in the relief of many distressing ailments. Neuralgia, Headache, all pains of nervous origin, and feverish conditions due to colds, etc., are quickly relieved. Sleeplessness is banished by their soothing effect. Price, 3/6 and 5/6.
WAWN’S WONDER FLUID
A cleasing, healing, soothing, deodorizing and non-poisonous antiseptic fluid. Can be used with the utmost confidence and safety for cuts, sores, abrasions, etc. It quickly relieves all irritation, inflammation and unpleasantness.
It is a most effective healing agent for infections of the mucous membranes. It removes the unhealthy secretions, washes away germs and objectionable matter that the mucus contains. Prevents colds and as an external lotion for Piles, it affords quick relief. Price, 3/6 a bottle.
WAWN’S DUSTING POWDER
A soothing antiseptic powder which quickly allays chafing and irritation of the skin. Being composed of the finest constituents, it assures prompt relief to the most sensitive skin and is especially recommended also for infants. Price, 1/6.
WAWN’S CALEX OXIDE SKIN LOTION A wonderful soothing and healing lotion for Eczema and all Skin Diseases. Quickly relieves all itchiness, irritation and inflammation. Price, 4/6 a packet.
DIGESTIVE NUTRONE—THE GREATEST DIGESTIVE KNOWN It depends largely for its digestive properties on the virtues of a dried milky extract obtained from the famous Paw-paw fruit, the marvellous digestive properties of which are legend—this is combined with Bismuth, Soda, Magnesia and Peppermint. It is an unfailing remedy for Indigestion, Flushed Face, Red Nose, Dyspepsia, Heartburn, Waterbrash, Colic, and Flatulence. In cases of Diarrhoea and Dysentery, with both adults and children, it will be found far superior to other remedies. And it is an excellent preparation for mothers to give baby for the instant relief of wind. Price, 5/6.
WAWN’S WONDER (LIVER) PILLS The best of all for the Liver. They assist it to perform its important functions without inconvenience, and in so far as a sluggish Liver disorganizes the entire system, serve to clear the blood, and through it to bring the skin back to its proper condition. Unless the Liver is doing its work regularly, thoroughly good health is impossible, and the consequence is a veritable train of ills which sap the energies and dull all interest in life. Price, 1/6.
WAWN’S SYSTEM CORRECTIVE
An invaluable cleanser of the system and for rapidly assisting the expelling of poisons from the blood, bringing about an internal condition of wholesome good health and well-being. Price, 5/6.
WAWN’S WONDER PAIN DROPS
A sterling remedy for the quick relief of stomach derangements such as Cramps, Colic Pains, Wind, Flatulence and Diarrhoea. It is entirely free from injurious drugs and is just as effective for children as adults. Price, 2/6 a bottle.
WAWN’S SUPER LAXATIVE TABLETS
A splendid remedy for all constipated conditions, and it also keeps the liver healthy and active, preventing bilious attacks, and also for clearing the blood of any accumulation of poisonous waste products by stimulating the organs of excretion to expel them. Price, 3/6 a packet.
ELIXIR VITAE TONIC TABLETS
An effective stimulant in all Nerve Troubles. It is the best and most reliable restorative of impaired vitality and virility, whether the impairment is the result of sickness, worry or mental and physical labour. It revives lost nerve power, invigorates the muscles, increases the appetite and assists the digestion, gives natural sleep and enriches the blood, the fountain from which all bone, muscle, tissue and secretions proceed. Price, 2/9 bottle.
The great Kidney, Bladder and Urinary antiseptic. Excellent for complaints of the Kidneys, Bladder and Urinary Organs—Gravel, Sediment in Urine, Stone in Bladder or Kidneys. Price, 4/6 bottle. Postage 1/- extra.
A valuable embrocation for all sprains and strains of the muscles and joints, for quickly relieving the pain, reducing the inflammation and healing the disrupted tissues. Splendid for alleviating the intense agonies of Rheumatism, Lumbago, Sciatica and allied ailments. Price, 4/6 bottle. Postage 1 /- extra.
WAWN’S “OLD FASHIONED” COUGH MIXTURE
One of the most effective remedies for Coughs, Colds, Bronchitis, and all Chest and Lung affections ever placed before the public. Prepared from the formula of an eminent Chest Specialist, and absolutely free from harmful and injurious drugs. Just as effective for children as adults. Sold in two sizes, 1/6 and 2/9 a bottle. Postage 1/- extra.
WAWN’S WONDER EYE LOTION POWDER
For all affections of the eyes. Recommended to be used in the eye bath two or three times a day. One teaspoonful of Lotion Powder and sufficient hot water to make a cup of Eye Lotion. Use with eye bath enclosed in each box. Price, 3/6 a box.
WAWN’S WONDER EYE OINTMENT
A most useful, soothing emollient for affections of the eyelids, such as Styes, Inflamed Lids, Sandy Blight, etc. Price, 2/6 a tube.
The 100 per cent Pure Eucalyptus Oil. Freed from all impurities by a special freezing process. Wonderful as an inhalant for Coughs and Head Colds. Price, 2/- bottle.
A most valuable remedy composed of valuable medicinal constituents recognized by the medical profession since the sixteenth century, but now combined with exact scientific knowledge to form a powerful remedv for reducing blood pressure. It is also an effective solvent of lithates. and so is also beneficial in alleviating Rheumatic Ailments. Nitroids reliable influence in reducing blood pressure is prolonged, owing probably to the fact that its principal constituent is absorbed practically unchanged into the blood-stream. Price, 6/6.
WAWN’S WONDER INHALANT
A powerful antiseptic composed of carefully selected medicinal essences, which when added to boiling water, and the vapours arising therefrom are inhaled, exerts a rapid, soothing and healing influence on the irritated and inflamed mucous membranes. It frees the clogged air passages of the accumulated mucus, makes the breathing easier, and so gives rapid relief and lasting benefit. Price, 3/6 a bottle.
WAWN’S WONDER TEETHING POWDERS
These powders being absolutely harmless, can be given with perfect confidence to the youngest child. They do not contain any injurious narcotics nor dangerous drugs. They make teething easy, and assure the well-being of the child. Price, 1/6 a box.
This is a natural, vegetable, laxative food, and, while having very definite nutritive values, it has also exceedingly efficacious laxative properties without in any way having a purgative action. It acts just in the way nature intended our foods should act. Half a teaspoonful of “Vege-lax" should be eaten once a day with the principal meal, and it can be sprinkled on soups, vegetables, fruit salads and puddings, or, if preferred, it can be eaten by itself if softened for a minute or so in a little milk. Being tasteless it does not affect the flavour of the food with which it is eaten. The price is 3/6.
WAWN’S WONDER BALM “The Magic Healer”
Keep this wonderful surgical dressing in your home ready for use on all burns, cuts, abrasions, chapped skin, sores, etc. Thousands depend on it to prevent suffering, as it stops pain almost magically. It keeps wounds in the best possible antiseptic condition throughout the healing process without smarting. Its quick use has saved thousands from blood poisoning—prevented hideous scarring. When an accident occurs, apply Wawn’s Wonder Balm instantly—and “Feel it heal.” Price 2/6.
. . WAWN’S IODISED CREAM
This is a specially prepared pain relieving massage cream which quickly penetrates to the sore, lacerated tissues, nerves and joints, soothing their agonizing sensitiveness, and relieving the pain. It is a splendid liniment and application for all painful afflictions such as rheumatism, lumbago, sciatica, stiff joints and neuritis. Price, 5/6.
. WAWN’S HEALO WOOL
A specially medicated, surgical cotton wool which has the unique property of quickly stopping bleeding in all cuts and wounds, creating antiseptic conditions, and promoting rapid healing. It is particularly valuable for use in the home and for all first aid applications. Price, 2/6 a packet.
From over two hundred varieties of Eucalyptus Trees come as many qualities of Oil. Broadleaf has been selected after careful test because of its superior medicinal value over all others.
Broadleaf Eucalyptus Extract is carefully distilled, and relies chiefly on its Piperitone contents for its highly antiseptic and healing properties.
For Colds, Coughs, Influenza. Bronchitis and all complaints of the Breathing Organs, Broadleaf Eucalyptus Extract instantly relieves the congested conditions and soothes the inflamed tissues. It should be used in such cases as an Inhalant made by adding twenty drops to a pint of boiling water and the vapour should he deeply inhaled. Adults should also frequently take two or three drops on a lump of sugar. Children may be given half the quantity.
Broadleaf Eucalyptus Extract should also be rubbed well into the chest night and morning for the same complaints.
As an embrocation for Sprains, Stiff and aching joints and muscles, it is splendid, and is an unrivalled training oil for athletes. Price, 2/- per bottle.
The lifelong researches of V. A. Waim, M.P.S.A., into the principles of the Broadleaf Eucalyptus have resulted in a new antiseptic■—most powerfully germicidal
—yet as safe and as harmless as pure zvater. It is fatal to all germ life, yet cannot injure the tenderest human tissue.
When submitted to a special secret process of fractioml distillation a medicinal product is obtained now recognised as the greatest Antiseptic and healer known to medical science. This special distillate is compounded and scientifically prepared into tzvo medicinal products, vis:—
Broadleaf-Sol—The Safe Antiseptic. Broadleaf Soap—The Antiseptic Soap. Broadleaf-Sol—-The Safe Antiseptic—is far stronger in its effectiveness to destroy germs than any dilution of carbolic acid that can be applied on the body. Broa,dIeaf-Sol is a safe, non-poisonous, effective infection destroyer at ALL times and for ALL purposes.
Regularly used as a Gargle and Mouth Wash, it destroys infectious germls before they can do any damage—ends Halitosis. In the bath it destroys objectionable Body Odours and is exhilarating and refreshing. As a Douche it affords safe Protection and healthy cleanliness. It is of outstanding value for Bathing Wounds and a little in Baby’s Bath is soothing and beneficial to the skin. In the Household, use it for every kind of disinfection—in sinks, drains, toilet (Utensils and for sterilizing cups, glasses, dishes, and appliances^ used in sickness.
Broadleaf-Sol—The Safe Antiseptic—is obtainable in 4, 8, and 16 ounce bottles. Prices, 2/-, 3/9, and 6/6 each.
BROADLEAF SOAP—THE ANTISEPTIC SOAP Thousands of fastidious women are finding Broadleaf Soap gives them perfect personal cleanliness. Their lovely clear complexions bespeak its efficiency. Its generous foaming lather releases the unique, powerfully antiseptic Broadleaf essences so that any germ infection from chance contact is killed, and soiling impurities are quickly loosened and flow away. The clogging secretions in pores and tiny crevices are dissolved and a soft, satin-like smoothness of the skin is left—Pimples, Rashes, Redness, and many Skin Blemishes disappear, and you are sure of immaculate cleanliness and fragrant daintiness. It is splendid also for the Shampoo, or any purpose where a germicidal antiseptic soap is needed. Price, 1/6 cake. _
Obtain Broadleaf Specialities from your Chemist or Store or direst from Wawn’s Eucalyptus Distilleries, 283 Elizabeth Street, Sydney.