LiAlSfD of SlINSHTOE
dAm- u /f ',,,r
^ /IX 1\J.
332110 >3^ IbklG
A Handbook of Information for Investors, Traders, Tourists and others
Issued by authority of The Government <»f Xew South Wales 1934
Bon in Beach. Sydney.
Dressing sheds and refreshment rooms on the left.
EW SOUTH WALES is a land of blue skies and golden sunshine. A fleeting glimpse gives the impression of vigorous manhood and womanhood; of a magnificent coastline with majestic headlands, and white beaches combed by the Pacific swell; of safe natural harbours in which are the passenger and freight ships of many nations; of lovely rivers bordered by wild bushland and flowered slopes; of the colourful life and charm of an ideally situated city; of mountains of rugged grandeur; and of a rolling western expanse of sheep and wheat lands. Attractions and Advantages.
This picturesque country offers to the people of other lands a wide field of attractions and advantages.
To the investor, trader, primary producer, and manufacturer, it gives wide and varied scope for enterprise. Its immense coal, silver, lead, and other mineral deposits, as well as its great expanse of rich pastoral and agricultural lands, assure scope for sound expansion for all manner of investments.
To the tourist, its wonderful diversity of pleasure resorts—embracing the incomparable Blue Mountains; the snow-capped splendour of Kosciusko, Australia’s highest peak; the entrancing beauty of Jcnolan limestone caverns; the golden sands of its ocean beaches; the peaceful charm of lakes, verdant valleys, and forests; and long stretches of river views as beautiful as those of the Rhine and the Danube—provides a round of delights equal to those of any other country.
To the scientist, its distinctive flora and fauna, and the fact that its boundaries encompass the oldest known surface of the globe make it a source of all-absorbing interest and study.
To people generally, its salubrious climate. with a range of only 17 degrees between the average summer and winter levels, and an average of only twenty-six days in the year without sunshine, means a high standard of health and freedom from serious disease epidemics.
Australia has frequently been spoken of as the prospective Greater Britain of the Southern Hemisphere. Whatever place in world affairs the future may have in store for it, in the economic growth of the continent New South Wales, as in the past, will play a leading part.
New South Wales is the Senior State of the Commonwealth of Australia. In the early stages of its history, from 1788 to 1S25, its boundaries encompassed the whole continent of Australia and Tasmania. The present Dominion of New Zealand was for many years a dependency.
The rapid spread of settlement to distant areas soon led to demands for decentralised government, resulting in the proclamation of Tasmania as a separate political unit, and the progressive division of the mainland territory into five self-governing colonics.
Since the federation of the States in 1901, and the creation of a central Commonwealth Government, an area, known as the Northern Territory, was transferred (in 1911) from the State of South Australia to the Commonwealth Government, by which it is now administered. A smaller area was also transferred from New South Wales to th'c Commonwealth for the establishment of Canberra, the Federal Capital City.
The State’s Productiveness.
This, briefly, outlines the conversion, in 146 years, of a vast wilderness into a progressive and highly organised nation whose statesmen now have a place in international councils. Australia to-day is one of the most productive units in the British Commonwealth of Nations. Of Australia’s rich endowment, New' South Wales has a substantial share, as comparative figures given on a later page will show.
The first small settlement of sturdy pioneers at Farm Cove, Sydney, under Governor Phillip, was the beginning of what is now the second largest “white” city in the Empire, with nearly one and a quarter million inhabitants. Simultaneously with the growth of this great capital city, there has been widespread primary and secondary industrial development throughout the State. The result is a well-balanced economic structure, as the resilience and underlying strength of the nation in meeting the depression of 1929-33 have shown. In the best year of normal times the value of production from the industries of New South Wales has reached over £167,000,000 —over £70 per head of population. There is still scope for great expansion, more especially in exploiting the mineral wealth that is known to exist, and utilising to the fullest extent the productivity of the immense areas suitable for rural pursuits.
The people of New South Wales have consistently adhered to British traditions. The State Constitution is modelled after English customs and sentiment. Ninety-nine per cent, of the people arc of European stock, and these are, almost exclusively, the descendants of British people. In thought and action New South Wales is essentially British.
This national heritage is translated into Governmental policy, the basis of which is full and harmonious co-operation with the Commonwealth Government, and the other State Governments, in making Australia a potent force in Empire development. As a guiding principle in all legislation and administration this objective has become firmly established in the minds and aspirations of the people. A striking example of this was the approval given in 1933 by popular vote, to an alteration of the Constitution which enabled the Government to set up additional safeguards against the possibility of legislative action subversive of the people's will. Consequent on this alteration, the Legislative Council has been so reconstituted as to place it beyond the pale of party manipulation for political advantage in defiance of the electorate.
Stability Maintained Through
Further proof of the underlying economic strength of the State, and the determination of the people of New South Wales strictly to adhere to a constructive policy, in accordance with British ideals, is found in their ready acceptance of measures involved in the plan agreed upon by all the Australian Premiers to cope with the local effects of the w'orld-w'ide economic depression. The result has been a steady and certain trend towards budgetary equilibrium. At the same time trade, commerce. and industry', assisted by substantial tax reductions, and cheapened Governmental charges, are regaining their former buoyancy, and the field of employment is daily extending.
New South Wales, therefore, offers for the future, even more so than in the past, a wide field for capital investment, business enterprise, and trade. Its great store of natural wealth; its sub-tropical situation ; the distribution, along its 907 miles of seaboard, of magnificent natural harbours. in addition to Port Jackson and Port Hunter; its salubrious climate; and its innumerable scenic beauties, will always be sources of attraction to people from other countries. Another important fact is that the establishment of the Commonwealth Parliament and the Commonwealth Administrative offices within the State makes New South Wales the official as well as the commercial and productive centre of Australia.
Decentralisation and country development are being encouraged by an active roads policy. In this way remote parts of the State are becoming more easily accessible, and more attractive to primary producers. Better roads have led to a rapid growth of motor transport which, as an adjunct to the railway system, is helping greatly to minimise the difficulties and discomforts of outback settlement.
HE system of government is based on a broad franchise which gives every adult citizen a vote. The King is represented in the State by a Governor, who is titular head of the Government and exercises the prerogatives of the Crown in local matters on the advice of the Executive Council. The Governor may. however, exercise discretionary power if he considers he has sufficient cause to dissent from the opinion of his Ministers. On such occasions he is required to report the matter without delay to His Majesty through the Secretary of State for the Dominions.
The members of the Executive Council are invariably members of the Ministry formed by the leader of the dominant party in the Legislative Assembly. The Ministry is answerable to Parliament for its administration. and, subject to the limitation of the life of each Assembly to three years, it continues in office so long as it commands the confidence of members.
The two Houses of Parliament are the Legislative Council (or Upper House) and the Legislative Assembly (or Lower House). As reconstituted in 1933. following on an amendment of the Constitution Act, the Council consists of sixty members, elected, on the principle of proportional representation, by the members of both Houses voting as the electorate. They arc elected (except in the case of the first election held in 1933) for twelve years, and in every case are to retire in rotation—one-fourth at the end of every three years. At the first election, in order to start the rotation. members were elected in four batches of fifteen each for twelve, nine, six, and three years respectively.
The Legislative Assembly is elected by the vote of the people, and consists of ninety members. The Constitution limits the duration of the Assembly to three years, but elections may be held oftener in the event of a deadlock caused by equality of party voting strength, or in the event of an adverse vote being recorded by members against a
Government. The Governor may also, in special circumstances, dissolve Parliament contrary to the advice of Ministers.
For the purpose of local government, the State is divided into 138 shires and 177 municipalities, including the City of Sydney. The affairs of each are administered by local Councils, whose members arc elected periodically by adult owners and occupiers of ratable property. The Council's powers include the provision of services such as water supplies, lighting, and roads, and protection of the public health. Power is also given for joint action by groups of councils in regard to undertakings of magnitude.
The services of local government councillors are gratuitous.
Water Supplies and Electricity.
Municipal councils, especially in the country. are encouraged, by monetary advances on easy terms, to undertake schemes of electricity supply and adequate water services. A large number of country municipalities now have their own electric
installations for lighting and industrial power purposes. On the North Coast a very extensive hydro-electric service is being successfully operated by a county council representative of a number of the local governing bodies in that area.
The security and expansion of settlement are also aided by the Government in the provision of water supplies, as national projects, for stock, domestic, and irrigation purposes. Many such works are being carried out. These include preparations for the utilisation of the State's share of the stored waters of the Murray when the construction of the Hume Dam is completed. This great water conservation scheme, in the carrying out of which the New South Wales Government has co-operated with the other State Governments and the Commonwealth Government, will serve very extensive areas in the southern part of New South Wales. Preliminary investigations are being made into several other irrigation proposals.
The activities in both the directions mentioned are greatly stimulating settlement and production.
-y j HIi area of New South Wales, nSJIlSjn including Lord Howe Island, which comes within the State's administration, but excluding GrW3»ySeiJ the Federal Capital Territory, is 309432 square miles—considerably more than twice the area of the British Isles. From Point Danger, in the north, to Cape Howe, in the south, the length of the State is 680 miles, and its greatest breadth is 760 miles.
The State is naturally divided into several well-defined geographical divisions or districts. Mountain ranges, consisting largely of elevated plateaux, extend along the coast line at a distance of from 30 to 150 miles from the sea, the intervening lands comprising the coastal district and embracing about 22,425,000 acres. The coastal strip includes some of the most fertile areas in the State. It enjoys the heaviest rainfall, is watered by many rivers and smaller streams, and spread over it are prosperous holdings on which thousands of people carry on a great dairying industry, besides cattle grazing and, in parts, extensive agricultural operations. The northern, central, and southern tableland districts, of which a considerable portion is rich agricultural land, are 26,659,000 acres in extent. From the plateaux great slopes descend gradually to the westward and merge into the central western plains, embracing in all 69,120,000 acres devoted chiefly to sheep and cattle grazing and the growing of wheat. The plains of the far west, which make up the Western Division of the State, exceed 80,320,000 acres, and arc devoted mainly to the raising of Merino sheep.
The population of the State on 30th June. 1933, was 2.601432.
Area .. .. ..
. . IO.4
Population .. ..
Sheep .. .. ..
Cattle .. .. /.
• • 24.4
Horses .. .. ..
• • 29.5
Wool .. ..
. . 49.6
Butter .. ..
. . 32 9
Cheese .. ..
Bacon and Ham
Wheat .. ..
. • 32 2
Maize .. ..
HE figures against each item in the following table show the proportion which the total for New South Wales bears to the total for the Commonwealth:—
Hay .. ..
Coal .. ..
Silver and Lead ..
Value of Output .. .. 40.6
Number of Employees—
Males ...... 38.1
All persons .. .. 37.5
Capital Invested in Land,
Building and Machinery .. .. .. 42-4
Bank Deposits (including
Savings Banks) .. 35-7
Imports (Oversea) .. 41.0
Exports (Oversea) .. 38.5
HE law* of New South Wales is substantially the common law' of England, supplemented by Acts of the British Parliament expressly or implicitly binding in the State as part of the British Empire; valid enactments of the Federal Parliament; and enactments of the State Parliament. In the courts all persons have equal status, including the right of appeal, and the right to contest the validity of law’s and regulations. In some cases Federal powers of legislation are exclusive; in others concurrent with those of the State. Legal procedure is based on the English system.
'1 he Supreme Court of New- South Wales has jurisdiction in all matters of law arising in the State, except certain matters of a Federal nature which are reserved for the High Court of Australia. It is presided over by a Chief Justice and a number of Puisne Judges, who. with members of other branches of the judiciary, hold office until they reach a prescribed retiring age. subject only to good behaviour as determined by Parliament. The Court’s jurisdiction embraces common law, criminal, equity, bankruptcy, probate, lunacy, matrimonial and admiralty cases. Original jurisdiction is exercised usually by one judge, while the Full Court, for special cases and purposes of appeal, consists of three judges.
The lower jurisdictions are exercised by District Court Judges, w’ho deal with civil cases in various centres of the State and preside in criminal jurisdiction over Courts of Quarter Sessions; and in minor civil and criminal cases by Magistrates in Courts of Petty Sessions.
Other courts have been established to deal with certain special matters, and comprise the Licensing Courts, Fair Rents Courts, Taxation Courts of Review. Wardens’ Courts (Mining), Courts of Marine Inquiry, Coroners’ Courts, and Children’s Courts.
HrflXDER the control of a Minister I C of the Crown the public health IJII services are highly organised. T5 Competent staffs are provided ssl to deal with the principal branches of public health work, including maternal and baby welfare, the purity of foods and drugs, industrial hygiene, and general sanitation. Well equipped public health laboratories also form part of the establishment.
The public hospitals of the State, which are mainly supported by voluntary public subscriptions, and subsidies by the Government. were described in 1925 by an eminent medical authority from the United States as being amongst the best in the world, and the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children as the best of its kind he had ever seen.
A number of hospitals, as well as sanatoria and homes for the aged, arc wholly
conducted and maintained by the State. The Government also controls a large number of baby health centres and day nurseries in the cities, suburbs, and country towns. These are under the supervision of a specially qualified medical officer.
An accident compensation law makes adequate provision for those who may be the victims of accident or disease associated with their employment.
Widows, with children under the age of 14 years, are provided with pensions, and allowed to earn up to a certain amount of income without forfeiting their pension rights.
Children who have been deprived of parental care through various causes are cared for and educated by the State. This work is carried out by the Child Welfare Department.
INCH 1901, a system of Industrial Arbitration and Conciliation has been in force in New South Wales. Under this system, in practically all industries, the conditions of employment. including wages and hours, are regulated by awards of industrial tribunals established by Parliament.
The Industrial Commission is the existing body appointed to carry out those duties, and it consists of three members, who have the status of Supreme Court Judges. In addition to wide powers of regulating the conditions of employment, the Commission is authorised to declare a standard of living and a living wage for adult male and female workers. This declaration is made at six monthly intervals to accord with the increased or decreased cost of maintaining the determined standard. No rate of wage for adult workers below the living wage is allowable in any award, or industrial agreement.
The Commission has also been empowered to fix the number of ordinary work hours applicable to industry generally to be worked daily, weekly, or fortnightly.
A Conciliation Commissioner, appointed under the amending Arbitration Act of 1932, has jurisdiction to deal, in a conciliatory manner, with industrial relations between employers and employees. Where an agreement upon the matters in dispute between the parties is reached, the terms of such agreement are made an award, and is binding upon the industry. Where no agreement is reached, the questions in dispute are referred to the Industrial Commission for determination.
Appeals from the determination of the Conciliation Commissioner may be made to the Industrial Commission, and the Crown is given the right to intervene in the proceedings before the Conciliation Commissioner.
Banking and Insurance.
jjSjIlE public debt of New South ~ Wales differs in character from fiJflJiWaiTl ^ial niost oversea countries in that it is almost wholly invested in works, most of which are revenue-producing. The amount of deadweight debt in proportion to population is very much less than in England, for example. As at 30th June. 1933, the net public debt of New South Wales was £312,023,961. Since 1928 this debt has been serviced by a sinking fund in terms of the Commonwealth Financial Agreement which also provides effective guarantees in respect of interest payments. In addition to loan works enumerated below, the State Government possesses extensive Crown lands, forests, and mineral
There are fourteen banking institutions transacting business in New South Wales. These include the Commonwealth Bank, which functions partly as a trailing bank and partly as a central bank, besides handling the business of the Federal Government, floating its local loans, and managing the note issue. It has 193 branches throughout the State. The branches of the rights valued in all at approximately £90,000,000, and yielding revenue exceeding £1,000,000 per annum.
How Loan Money is Spent.
Of the total expenditure of loan money in the State over 85 per cent, is invested in works of a reproductive character. These include the railways, £141,000,000; tramways and omnibus services, £8,410,230; metropolitan water supply and sewerage, £26.046.760; Sydney Harbour Trust.
£11,806,590; expenditure on land settlement and development, including lands sold to settlers under closer settlement and other schemes on terms of repayment.
£22,500.000; and lesser but equally sound undertakings.
private banks in city, suburbs, and country districts total 832.
The field of insurance is left chiefly to private organisations, of which a large number transact extensive business, in the aggregate, throughout the State. The Government established an insurance office in 1927, but its activities have now been restricted mainly to governmental business.
PfiifiTi'Sffl HE great majority of the vessels nSjIBtin engaged in the oversea and rSnlOy interstate trade of the Com-KiBiOMi niomveahh visit one or other 0f the ports of New South Wales. The bulk of the trade is directed to Sydney, where the facilities for loading and unloading, bunkering, and docking are extensive, ample and up-to-date.
The entrance to Sydney Harbour is nearly a mile wide, and is not less than So feet deep. Between the entrance, known as the Heads, and the Harbour proper, a distance of 4 miles, there are two separate channels, each with a depth of not less than 40 feet at low tide over widths of at least 700 feet. The total area of Port Jackson is 14.2S4 acres (about 22 square miles). The length of the foreshores is 188 miles, while the area which may be designated
the Harbour proper embraces 8,980 acres and 75 miles of foreshores. About 3,000 acres have a depth varying from 35 to 160 feet at low water, ordinary spring tide. Excluding the fainvay, and the bays in which most of the shipping is accommodated at present, there are approximately 2,500 acres available for mercantile shipping.
Wharfage and Other Facilities.
Exclusive of ferry wharves and jetties used for private purposes, there are 64,000 feet of wharfage controlled by the Harbour Trust, and 9,500 feet of commercial wharfage privately owned. There is ample shed accommodation, and the port is well equipped with railway wharfage for the handling of traffic which is required to pass direct from ship to rail and vice versa. For the wheat export trade, in both bulk and bags, ample wharfage accommodation and handling equipment of the most modern character are available. Facilities in all directions can be very considerably extended when required.
Relative Importance of Sydney’s Port.
In regard to tonnage of shipping and goods, Sydney ranks among the leading ports in the British Empire, and there are not many ports in other countries that show larger figures. The significance of the striking growth of the Port of Sydney will be better appreciated when it is remembered that each of the other Australian States is served by its own ports.
There has been much ill-informed criticism of the port charges levied upon shipping in Australian ports. The fact is that the Governmental charges compare favourably with those in other parts of the world when the services rendered are taken into consideration. They are much lower than the charges at the leading ports of the United Kingdom.
Direct comparisons of port charges are difficult, if not impossible, to make because of the differing port customs, and the absence of similarity in the nature and methods of applying them. It is considered that the most satisfactory method of comparison is to take the total collections by the port authorities, and arrive at the average rate per ton. This has been done in the case of the two leading ports in Aus-hralia and in the United Kingdom, and the figures arc as follow:—
Net t jtiuag. of vewls entered.
4v,-rag« Kate p«» ton ol Shipping
United Kingdom : London (1932/33)
1,270,000 >.404. >32
ilJ9d. is. 5<96d.
Newcastle, in regard to the volume of its shipping trade, ranks second in importance in New South Wales and third in importance in Australia. It is primarily a coal-loading port, but its activities cover the shipment of general commodities, which arc steadily growing in bulk.
Port Kembla, which shares to a minor extent in the shipping trade of the State, has an area of 330 acres, of which 239 acres have a minimum depth of 24 feet. Being adjacent to the southern coalfields and a rapidly developing secondary industrial centre, its trade is increasing.
Other Potential Ports.
Port Stephens, 21 miles north of Newcastle, and Jervis Bay, 82 miles south of Sydney, have areas of 25,110 acres and 29,377 acres respectively, with adequate depth for large vessels. Coff’s Harbour, which is being improved by the construction of breakwaters, will provide an area of 202 acres, 82 acres of which will give a minimum depth of 24 feet.
Two other commodious harbours with deep-sea shipping possibilities are Broken Bay and Twofold Bay.
EW South Wales has the unique distinction of having two capital cities within its boundaries, and they represent two distinct and important phases of Australian history—the beginning of settlement, and the realisation of national status.
Sydney, the State capital, situated in beautiful surroundings on the shores of Port Jackson, has been likened to “a bright central gem in a crown of jewels.” Viewed from an eminence, the city and its environments certainly present a charming picture of colour and sparkling effects. The waters of the harbour and its many arms and river stretches, stirred into scintillating splendour by busy craft; the variegated foliage on the heights, interspersed with red-tiled homes and bright green open spaces; the more sombre hues of the city buildings, golden tinted by the reflected sunlight; and the soft purple of the mountains in the western background—all combine to form a gemlike setting than which probably there is no more attractive on any part of the globe.
Sydney's Holiday Charm.
Founded, in 1788, by Captain Phillip with about 300 people, Sydney has grown into one of the leading cities of the world. Its public, residential, and commercial buildings, regulated by law to a maximum height of 150 feet, possess attractive and varied architectural features. The pride of its civic fathers and citizens is reflected in its well-kept streets and public gardens. Its traffic requirements are provided for by comprehensive systems of railways and tramways, as wTell as harbour and river ferries. Motor-omnibus services have also been established in recent years to meet the growing needs of transport. Its throbbing activity and ever-present holiday atmosphere have
prompted many visitors to comment on its similarity to Paris and New York. In one respect Sydney has far greater attractions than either of those two cities, and that is in the number and variety of open-air pleasure resorts which can be availed of by its people in all seasons of the year. Within easy journey of the city, north, south and west offer an infinite variety of delights to satisfy the most fastidious of pleasure-seekers. Bushlands, as nature formed them, placid river waters, a dozen sandy beaches, and the harbour with its many charming nooks right at the city's front door, are a few of the natural features. There arc also the Botanic Gardens, with their wealth of trees, tropical palms, ferns, shrubs, and choice flowers; the Zoological Gardens, famed for their unique situation and collection of animals and birds; as well as many parks and various grounds where sports of all descriptions arc held. Sydney is well served with first-class hotels, residential clubs, and theatres.
Canberra, the Federal Capital, fulfils the compact entered into when the States agreed to federate. The city has been designed on the most modern lines, advantage having been taken of the experience gained by the authorities of Washington and of other cities. Standing on a site that lends itself admirably to beautification, Canberra, even now, in its early stage of development, is a most attractive city. Here visitors may see the capital of a nation in the making. A radial system of roads connect the centre of the city with all the surrounding parts, and ornamental lakes and parks are being formed at various points. The public buildings are now occupied by the Government and departmental staffs. The first session of the Federal Parliament in its new home was held in 1927. Canberra is 204 miles from Sydney and 75 miles from Jervis Bay. to which a strip of capital territory extends. The city's altitude above sea-level is 1,900 feet, and the mean annual temperature 55 degrees.
Newcastle, the second largest city in the State, is 62 miles by sea, and 102 miles by railway, north of Sydney. Situated on the shores of Port Hunter and on the fringe of the largest coalfields in Australia, it is one of the busiest industrial centres in the Commonwealth. In addition to its mining activities, it has the largest iron and steel works in the Southern Hemisphere, many allied industries, and a floating dock. The Valley of the Hunter River is also one of the richest areas in the State, and agriculture, dairying, and fruit-growing are carried on extensively both north and south of the city. The import and export trade has grown to fairly large dimensions. The population of the city and district is over 100,000.
Broken Hill is the centre of the chief metalliferous mining district of the State. Immense wealth has already been extracted from the extensive silver-lead deposits of the district, and experts estimate that considerably more will be obtained before the mines are worked out. The town is situated near the western border of the State, the nearest sea outlet being Port Pirie, in South Australia. The population of the district is nearly 23,000.
Lithgow, also a mining town, with a population of 15,000. is on the Blue Mountains, 96 miles west of Sydney.
Maitland, 20 miles north of Newcastle, has about 12,000 people.
Katoomba. a mountain town, with a population of 10,000, is chiefly a tourist resort.
Goulbum. on the Southern Tablelands; Bathurst and Orange on the Central Tablelands ; Lisniore on the far North Coast; Wagga and Albury on the South-western Slopes; and Tamworth on the Northwestern Slopes, comprise the other chief inland centres. The population of these towns varies from 7,500 to 13,000.
There are extensive coal deposits along the coast south of Sydney and a large number of townships adjacent to them. Of the latter Wollongong, with a population of 10,800, is the most important.
T is possible only to deal in this handbook with the chief tourist attractions of the State—a complete description of them all would, in itself, fill a large volume.
From the sub-tropical regions of the Northern Rivers to the southern clime of Kosciusko and the Australian Alps, the eastern littoral presents to the traveller a vast and varied pleasure-ground, enhanced by blue skies and sunny days. Few countries, if any, have greater charm and diversity of scenic beauties and other interesting features.
The coastline—a magnificent chain of bold promontories and sweeping, beach-lined bays, broken here and there by a river estuary—is in itself a source of delight to travellers.
Parallel to the coast, and at an average distance of sixty miles from it. stretches the Great Dividing Range, with varying altitude of from 3,000 to 7,000 feet. These mountains form the western boundary of the coastal belt—a rich and verdant land, watered by many fast-flowing rivers. Westward of this range is a very extensive area, consisting largely of agricultural and grazing country, watered by the River Darling and its tributaries.
The Blue Mountains.
That portion of the Great Dividing Range opposite Sydney, and distant forty miles, is known as the Blue Mountains, deriving its name from the beautiful haze with which the region is always mantled. For more than sixty miles the Great Western Railway traverses magnificent mountain scenery. Grey-blue valleys and majestic mountain tops extend as far as the eye can see. Over the whole region there is a faint scent of the eucalypts and wild flowers. The many waterfalls, the rugged grandeur of great cliffs, and deep, fern-clad gorges, sylvan glens, and striking contrasts in colour effects, provide scenes of unsurpassed beauty and charm in this glorious, healthful region.
An adequate daily excursion train service from Sydney is provided by the Government. extra trains being available at week-ends. The fares are claimed to be the cheapest in the world. As the Blue Mountains resorts arc distant only two hours’ journey by express train, it is possible for city folk to surf on Sydney beaches in the morning, have lunch at a popular Mountain resort, play golf in the afternoon, and return to Sydney in the evening.
In the midst of the Blue Mountains, in the seclusion of virgin forest land, are the world-famed Jenolan Caves, renowned for the beauty of their limestone decorated caverns. There are eleven caves. They arc illuminated by electric lamps, cunningly concealed, whose soft beams reveal the iridescent beauty of innumerable crystal formations.
Jenolan Caves rank as one of the natural wonders of the world. Many thousands of Australians, as well as visitors from all parts of the world, visit them annually. A modem, Government-controlled guest house caters for the visitor’s every requirement. An area of six square miles in the vicinity of the Caves has been reserved for public recreation, and as a sanctuary for bird, animal and plant life. Numerous rock wallabies—one of the native mammals which is nearing the point of extinction in other parts of Australia—have their home in the reserve, and have become so tame that they accept bread or biscuit from the hands of visitors. These beautiful little animals are by no means the least attraction in this protected domain of wild life. Gorgeously-plumaged parrots, lyre birds, and satin birds abound, and children may frequently be seen feeding with biscuit a beautiful parrot on their shoulders or hands. In the evenings opossums venture forth from the trees for their share of favours, sometimes entering the guest-house in search of dainty morsels of food.
In addition to the caves, the Jenolan River, bordered by rugged bushland, interspersed with restful glades and shady nooks, and the great variety of birds, animals, and indigenous plants, give to this part of the Blue Mountains an alluring charm.
There are limestone caverns, open for public inspection, in other parts of the State, the most notable being at Yarrangobilly, YVombeyan, Abercrombie, and Wellington.
Mount Kosciusko, the highest peak in Australia, is the premier snow playground of the Commonwealth. The highest point of the Mountain is 7,305 feet above sea level. From May to September at this resort all the delights and thrills of skirunning. tobogganing, and ice skating may be enjoyed. The Government has provided a comfortable modem Hotel at an altitude of 5,000 feet, and an attractive Chalet at
6,000 feet. Thousands of tourists annually visit Kosciusko for the Winter sports at which keen interstate and international contests are becoming regular events.
During the remaining months of the year, when only drifts of snow remain on the mountainside, Kosciusko still offers many entertainments, such as trout fishing in many miles of snow-fed waters, mountain climbing, motoring, golf, tennis, and other pastimes to which the bracing climate lends additional zest.
For the botanist, ornithologist, geologist, entomologist, and photographer, Kosciusko offers a great field for pleasurable study. It is the oldest known land surface of the globe. The Alps and Appenincs of the Old World are now, according to geologists, going through the glacial period from which Kosciusko emerged aeons of years ago.
On the motor journey, from the Hotel to the Trigonometrical Cairo at the Summit, fascinating and varied scenes present themselves as the winding road is followed round mountain sides. Deep ravines, towering pinnacles, miles of snow daisies, heath, and wild flowers all contribute to the enchanting beauty of the ever-changing picture. On the return journey, visitors may travel on horseback along a trail which winds round the sides of sweeping gorges, and among rich-blue alpine lakes. Many delightful thrills are provided by this alternative route. Knring-gai Chase and National Park.
Within convenient distances of Sydney there are two great national parks, each exceeding 35,000 acres in extent. Both of these embrace great stretches of virgin forest scenery, and both are reserved as sanctuaries for bird, animal, and plant life. Kuring-gai Chase, north of Sydney, borders on the Hawkesbury River. National Park is the gateway to the Illawarra district, famous for both its scenic charm and breeds of dairy stock.
Frequent services of trains and motor cars arc provided for tourists visiting these two vast pleasure grounds.
The Hawkesbury River
The Hawkesbury River affords unlimited facilities to the visitor in search of health, sport, or picturesque environment. The scenery ranges from mountainous back country and cultivated river lands on the higher reaches to the wild bushland and peaceful lakelike effects of Cowan Creek and Pittwatcr. Excellent fishing, and adequate rail and launch transport, as well as hotel and guest house accommodation, await the tourist. Regular round trips which cover a glorious region of river estuary and sea coast arc available.
The upper Hawkesbury River may be traversed by launch for about 40 miles, and return may be made through the old, historic towns of Windsor and Richmond. Travel through the latter areas, in addition to providing extensive view's of peaceful countryside, brings the tourist into contact with quaint, old-world settlement. Both towns bear interesting evidences of the early days of Australian colonisation.
The North Coast
Extending from the Hunter River Valley to the northern border of the State, and bounded on the west by the Great Dividing Range, is the section known as the North Coast—one of the most fertile regions in Australia. It may be reached from Sydney by rail, coastal steamer, or aeroplane.
The Great Northern and North Coast railway lines pass through this region and connect with the railway system of the State of Queensland.
The far North Coast is sub-tropical, and from Grafton to the northern border tropical crops and fruits such as sugar-cane, bananas, and pineapples arc successfully grown. Dairying is also carried on extensively. This area is not subject to winter extremes, and its people carry on their surf-bathing from April to October, while thousands of people in the southern part of the State are indulging in snow sports. Adequate facilities in all the various centres for boating, fishing, riding, motoring, and shooting give the tourist wide scope for healthful entertainment. The North Coast is noted for its forests, giant trees, and variety of timbers which include cedar, nettle, fig, black bean, and red bean. As in other areas of the State's bushlands, bird and animal life and wild flowers are plentiful. Beautiful Illawarra.
The Illawarra district, south from National Park to Nowra, on the Shoalhaven
River, has been described as “The Garden of New South Wales.” This stretch of coastal scenery is superbly beautiful, and is comparable to the Mediterranean littoral through the French and Italian Riviera. Almost the whole of the 92 miles of railway which serves this area skirts the seashore and furnishes the train traveller with a changing picture of enchanting sea views and landscapes. The coast is studded with ideal holiday resorts, excellent train services bringing the furthest within a few hours’ journey of Sydney. The whole South Coast, embracing the Illawarra and the extensive districts further south, is rich, fertile, and extremely productive. Its annual output of butter, cheese, milk, maize, potatoes, and bacon is enormous. Like the North Coast, it, too, has large areas of magnificent forests. Splendid fishing is obtainable in many places, notably at Lake Illawarra. Shoalhaven, Jervis Bay, St. George's Basin, and Sussex Inlet. The Princes Highway, the main road from Sydney to Melbourne (capital of the State of Victoria) traverses this coastal area. On
Approach of a buzzard on Mt. Kosciusko, New South Wales.
some of the large dairying estates, such as Bodalla and Kameruka. which are world-renowned for their cheese products, modern hostels have been erected for the accommodation of tourists.
The Southern Highlands.
The Southern Highlands are within three hours' train journey of Sydney. Of slightly less altitude than the Blue Mountains, they have the same crisp and invigorating climate. Extensive panoramic views may be had from the tableland of the renowned Kangaroo and Burragorang Valleys. Travellers from Sydney to this district may return by way of the South Coast railway, transport connection being available at Moss Vale, on the Southern railway line.
Between the Hawlcesbury River and the Manning River there is a series of coastal lakes which attract many thousands of visitors annually. The lakes arc connected with the ocean by sandspits, over which the high tide flows. Lake Macquarie is the
largest, being jo miles in length and 6 miles in width. Tuggerah Lakes also are very extensive. In the bushland bordering these placid waters, palms, staghorns, elkhoms, and wild flowers grow in great profusion.
The City of Newcastle and district possess many diverse features of interest to the tourist. In addition to miles of beautiful drives, well-planned golf links, surfbathing facilities, and scenic attractions, there arc very extensive industries. The steelworks at Newcastle, and the extensive northern coalfield, are the largest in the Southern Hemisphere.
At West Pennant Hills, near Sydney, a sanctuary and biological research station have been established to propagate and permanently retain native bears in captive yet natural conditions. The reserve is known as Koala Park, and covers an area of 50 acres of bush country at an elevation of over 600 feet.
The growing scarcity in New South Wales of the native bear, notwithstanding that it is protected by law, has led to this special effort to increase its numbers and prevent the possibility of its ultimate extinction. Previous experiments have shown that it will not live under ordinary captive conditions. Its preservation has now become a national work.
This attractive, harmless, and friendly little creature, known to zoologists as the Koala, and popularly as the “teddy-bear,” has become an object of world-wide interest. Visitors to Sydney from all parts of the world now include in their itinerary a visit to Koala Park, or to the Zoological Gardens, where, also, a few are kept in natural conditions.
There arc over sixty bears in Koala Park. In addition, numerous kangaroos, wallaroos, wallabies, padcmelons, emus, opossums, and wild birds find sanctuary there.
The Dorrigo, Comboyne, and Bulga plateaux, overlooking the Hastings and
Manning Rivers, are noted for their beautiful waterfalls and forest areas, as well as productive richness.
New England, on the main Northern Tableland, has an elevation of 3,500 feet. Here the visitor can get splendid shooting, trout fishing, and motor tours over pastoral and agricultural country.
At Moree, a pastoral town on the western slopes of New England, are well-equipped thermal baths, fed from artesian bore water, possessing wonderful curative properties.
For the convenience of tourists and visitors to New South Wales, there is a Government-controlled Tourist Bureau in Sydney. Its offices are in Challis House, opposite the (ieneral Post Office. Experienced tourist officers meet all steamers, and their practical advice and assistance arc given freely to passengers. Transfer from ship to hotel, and the mapping out of subsequent tours are thus greatly facilitated.
URF-BATHING is one of the most popular pastimes of the people. At week-ends and on holidays the Sydney beaches are crowded with ardent devotees of the sport. The medical profession recommends it as a healthful relaxation, and it is indulged in by young and old people alike.
The safety of the public is guarded by well-organised clubs of life-savers, whose efficiency in the work of rescue and resuscitation is maintained by regular practice and inter-club competitions. The members arc athletic young men of splendid physique. They are subjected to a swimming test before membership, and to intensive training afterwards. All the clubs along the coast of New South Wales are affiliated in the Surf Life-saving Association of Australia. which is claimed to be the most highly-trained voluntary organisation in existence.
Several ladies’ life-saving clubs have been formed in recent years.
Members of a men's surf life-saving club, Sydney, <**••* * Co., Sydney.) ON PARADE.
The festivities are numerous and varied. They include a Venetian Carnival, for which Sydney Harbour is so admirably suited. A feature of this function is the illumination of the harbour by the searchlights on the warships, and an arrangement of floodlights
CITIZENS’ Committee, representative of all sections of the community, and presided over by the Lord Mayor, conducts an annual Festival Fortnight in Sydney.
The entertainments are organised on an elaborate scale, and attract visitors from all parts of Australia, as well as from other countries. All the municipalities of the metropolitan area, and many country bodies co-operate in order to give the Festival a at various points. The moving beams of light, combined with the gaily-bedecked craft and decorated foreshores, provide a wonderful spectacle of animation and colour.
The Grand Pageant of artistically decorated floats, representative of various phases of Australian life, is another outstanding attraction. Its stately progress through the streets is enlivened by the strains of many bands, and an occasional comic element.
The Surf Life-saving Clubs co-operate in organising surf sports and a display of lifesaving.
There are many additional entertainments, including aerial races, buck-jumping exhibitions, sculling contests, yachting and other sailing races, Police and Military display, a grand ball, and others.
Sydney Harbour Bridge illuminated by searchlights from ships or the Australian Naval SguAntox.
HE arch bridge which has been erected over Sydney Harbour, and connects the city with the northern suburbs, is the largest of its kind in the world. It has a span of 1,650 feet, is 160 feet wide, and contains 52,300 tons of steelwork. The provision for traffic comprises four lines of electric railway, a roadway for six lines of vehicles, and two footpaths each of 10 feet width. The maximum hourly traffic capacity is 128 electric trains, 6,000 vehicles in each direction, and 40,000 pedestrians. The highest point of the arch is 445 feet above water-level, and the traffic
level provides a clearance for shipping of 170 feet.
Inclusive of the approaches, the total length of the bridge is 2^4 miles.
The actual cost of construction was £6.250.000, but with resumptions and other incidental expenses, the total cost was approximately £10,000,000.
Overseas engineers have described the bridge as “the engineering wonder of the age.” During its construction, which occupied six years, and since the official opening in March. 1932. many experts from all parts of the world have visited Sydney to inspect it.
Locomotive, New South Wai.es Railways.
This type, and all other engines required on the railways, are built in Sydney.
HE transport facilities of the State are under the control of a Commission. This body consists of five members—a Commissioner and an Assistant Commissioner for Railways; a Commissioner for Road Transport and Tramways; and a Commissioner and an Assistant Commissioner for Main Roads. Under this Commission, which began to function in 1933, the whole of the governmental transport activities have been coordinated.
With the exception of about 200 miles of track belonging to colliery companies, the railways of New South Wales are owned and operated by the Government. The system, which was established in 1855- now totals 6.164 miles of standard-gauge lines, representing a capital expenditure of £141,000,000. This great transport enterprise is the largest industrial undertaking in Australia. The Commissioner and his Assistant Commissioner have an executive staff of nine in charge of the following branches:—Secretariat, legal, financial, traffic, mechanical, way and works, electrical, signal, and stores.
The population of New South Wales being engaged largely in primary production, the policy of successive Governments has been to locate the railway routes, operate the services, and fix the rates and fares so that the State transport system shall give the utmost encouragement to the development of natural resources, and at the same time provide the best facilities for personal travel. The principal industries could not have reached their present dimensions and importance without the assistance of an adequate and up-to-date railway system.
In a normal year, the merchandise handled includes nearly 5,000,000 tons of
coal, coke, and shale, 10.500,000 head of livestock, 60,000,000 bushels of wheat, and 125,000 bales (400,000,000 pounds) of wool. From 130,000,000 to 150,000,000 passenger journeys are made annually.
The vehicular equipment consists of 1.432 steam locomotives, 2,710 passenger and other coaching vehicles, and 23,705 trucks for merchandise. On many of the outback lines, rail-motors are used for passenger services. There are about 39,000 employees, of whom 6,000 are classed as “salaried” and the remainder as “wages” staff.
The main southern railway extends to the Victorian border, 399 miles from Sydney, where it joins with the Victorian system. Expresses are run daily between Sydney and Melbourne. Branches in all directions radiate from the southern line, the most important being those which serve the rich Rivcrina district, including the Murrum-bidgee Irrigation Area. Another branch traverses the famous Monaro district for nearly 200 miles, with a spur line connecting with Canberra, the Federal Capital City.
Westward, the line passes over the Blue Mountains, with stations at a score of world-famous health and pleasure resorts where many thousands of city and country dwellers, as well as visitors from other States and abroad, find recreation and enjoyment. Here, too, are the Jenolan Caves. After rising to 3,500 feet, the line descends to the western plateau through the Lithgow valley, where extensive deposits of coal and iron are being worked. This system, too, serves a great pastoral and agricultural area. The most distant terminal is at Broken Hill, 698 miles due west of Sydney. At the latter point, the railway links up with lines running through South Australia to Adelaide, the capital of that State, and connecting with the cast-west transcontinental railway.
The Northern Line.
The railway northward, soon after leaving Sydney, crosses the Hawkcsbury River, over which there is an imposing bridge
3,000 feet long. For many miles the railway runs along the river bank, affording magnificent views of one of the world’s most charming waterways. Newcastle, the centre of the principal coalfields, and the second city in the State, is on this railway, too miles from Sydney. Farther on (at West Maitland) the line branches into two arteries which continue to the northern border of the State. The main north railway passes along the Hunter River Valley, where some of the finest crops in Australia are grown. Thereafter, the line ascends the Range, reaching the summit at Ben Lomond, the highest point of the whole system. Many important towns, the centres of districts which produce large quantities of wheat, maize, potatoes, dairy products, sheep and cattle, and wool, lie along the route. The border is crossed at Wallan-garra, 493 miles from Sydney, and there is a connecting service writh Brisbane, the capital of Queensland.
The North Coast Line.
The North Coast railway is part of a shorter route between Sydney and Brisbane, on which the Interstate expresses run daily. It branches from the northern railway at West Maitland, and reaches the Queensland border 424 miles farther on. This line serves one of the most favoured parts of the Australian Commonwealth, a region where there is vast production of dairying and agricultural produce, sugarcane, tropical fruits, and timber. It passes through the huge area known as the Northern Rivers, a veritable garden of delight at any time of the year.
The South Coast Line.
The South Coast railway, although much shorter than the other main lines, is even more famous as a scenic route. It serves a great coalfields and a celebrated tourist area, where the towering peaks of the Range on the one hand and the Pacific Ocean on the other, border the farm lands of the far-famed Illawarra district.
All Scenic Routes.
Whilst the difficulties of construction added seriously to the initial expenditure on railways, and to the permanent cost of their operation, the variety and attractiveness of the scenery along every line gives to the whole system a special tourist value, apart from the commercial and developmental needs that it is meeting.
Metropolitan Electrical System.
In addition to the steam train services already described, there is an extensive electrical system serving the needs of travellers in the metropolitan area. Part of this system is underground, with four stations within the City of Sydney, and it connects with lines crossing the Sydney Harbour Bridge to the northern suburbs.
Central Station. Sydney, contains twenty-three platforms, where 1,200 steam and electric trains arc dealt with daily.
Sydney is provided with a splendid electric tram service, which comprises about 200 miles of track. Like the New South Wales railways, Sydney's trams have a safety record almost unique among the transport systems of the world. The system has been the subject of many complimentary references by visitors.
The tramcars of the older type arc now being replaced by modem cars, possessing additional speed, comfort, and safety devices. and in one suburb trackless electric cars arc in use.
The Government has a fleet of motor omnibuses operating in various suburbs and co-ordinating with the tram service.
Aerial transport has made steady progress in recent years. The centre of civil aviation, as distinct from the Commonwealth Air Force, is at Mascot, a near suburb of Sydney. Here there is an up-to-date ’drome, and a large number of expert pilots and machines are available for flights over the city and suburbs, or for tours of the State. A number of country centres have branches of the N.S.W. Aero Club.
i*v- . -
Bukwood Domestic Science School and pupils, Sydney.
• HE New South Wales State school system is administered l>y a Minister of the Crown and a permanent Director of Education.
All State education is centralised in the Department, there being no local controlling authorities, and practically all expenditure is met from Consolidated Revenue. The cost of State education ranges between £4.000,000 and £5,000,000 per annum. The system aims at protecting the educational interests of out-back children equally with those of children in the towns and cities. It is devised on the most modern lines, and embraces all aspects of primary, secondary and technical education. Only trained teachers are admitted to the State teaching service. The syllabus, and the instructional methods employed, are designed not only for the acquisition of general knowledge, but for the development of intelligence, of personal culture, personality, and character.
A liberal system of scholarships and bursaries enables gifted children of parents with limited means to advance, without any obligation as to fees, to colleges and educational institutions, such as the Teachers’ College, the Technical College, the University, and the Hawkesbury Agricultural College. Many of the most distinguished citizens of New South Wales have thus worked their way from the Primary School to the University.
Facilities for Remote Areas.
Facilities for primary education in the sparsely populated areas of the State include half-time schools where the teacher divides his time between two schools; subsidised schools where the payment of the teacher, who is engaged by the parents, is supplemented by the Education Department; and instruction by correspondence. Nearly
6,000 children in isolated parts of the State receive tuition by post.
Agricultural and Physical Training.
Practical agriculture and agricultural science are now being taught extensively, and this type of education forms an important section of the State system.
Full provision for physical education is made in the syllabus of instruction, and healthy sport is encouraged by inter-school and interstate competition in various sports. Instruction is also given in swimming.
Tuition by Wireless.
The value of broadcasting as an aid to teaching is recognised by the Departmental authorities. Many schools have receiving wireless sets installed, and educational "talks” and lectures in a wide range of subjects are now a feature of broadcasting activity.
Education in New South Wales, whether at State or non-State Schools, is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 14 years. All education at State schools is free and secular, although provision is made in the syllabus for instruction in the Scriptures. Ministers of the various churches may, for limited periods, give special religious instruction to pupils of their denominations.
Apart from the public, or State school system, there are many schools conducted by private and various denominational organisations. These schools are open to registration under the State Department of Education, and their instruction is based mainly on the syllabus used by the State schools. There arc approximately 360,000 pupils attending State schools, while the attendance at non-State institutions is in the vicinity of 87,000.
EW South Wales has been richly endowed by nature with the means for providing all the necessaries of life, and the building up of a strong, virile community. There is no essential in the form of food, and materials for clothing, that cannot be produced from its fertile lands. As a matter of fact, the food and clothing requirements of many countries are drawn largely from its supplies. It is one of the great food stores of the world upon which human needs will be increasingly dependent. The remarkable progress and prosperity that have so far been achieved are due to the land's productiveness, and there yet remains immeasurable scope for productive effort in all the rural industries.
Many millions of acres, in large privately-owned estates, within reasonable distance of existing railways, are suitable for cultivation and closer settlement. There are further immense areas that can be brought into more intensive occupation by rail and other transport facilities.
The Crown lands in the State suitable for settlement have steadily diminished, through processes of alienation, but from expiring leases and reserves no longer required, farms are from time to time made available. In view of the liberal terms under which they arc disposed of, the demand for first-class farms is very keen. Preference of applicants is determined by ballot.
The Government has found it necessary, owing to the diminution of Crown lands, to cause the subdivision of private estates by purchase from, and by other arrangements with the owners. The Closer Settlement Acts provide the necessary machinery for the acquisition of estates, either by agreement with the owners, or by compulsory resumption. On completion of the purchase, the properties are subdivided into home-maintenance farms, applications for which are publicly invited. Provision is also made whereby three or more intending settlers may enter into arrangements with the owmer for the subdivision of a private estate. Subject to the subdivision and purchase price being considered satisfactory, the land is acquired by the Crown and the subdivided portions granted to such intending settlers, who then become Crown tenants under a deferred payment system of purchase. Operations under the Closer Settlement Acts are necessarily limited to the extent of funds available for that purpose.
Settlers are generously treated in the matter of payments. During the early years of occupation—the most critical period for the settler in establishing himself—payments may be remitted or suspended if satisfactory improvements arc effected. In adverse seasons payments may be deferred from time to time to tide settlers over temporary difficulties, and payment of interest only may be permitted on purchases. On Closer Settlement lands, payments may be postponed until the end of the term of the purchase. In taking up closer settlement lands, settlers are allowed concessions in railway fares and freights when travelling to inspect, to appear before the Local Land Boards in connection with their application, and when ultimately proceeding to take possession of the holding.
Share farming—that is the sharing, on terms agreed upon between the landowner and share-farmer, of costs, labour and profits—is fairly extensively carried on in some districts. It affords excellent opportunities to the energetic and enterprising settler with limited means, as it enables him to increase his plant and the capital at his disposal, wrhile he is gaining experience, with a minimum of risk, of the local conditions— a desirable course to adopt before selecting land for himself.
HE interests and development of the rural industries of the State are centred in the Dei partment of Agriculture, which
is presided over by a Minister of the Crown and a Permanent Under Secretary as executive head.
Very considerable assistance is given to the primary producers, particularly in regard to improvement of production by scientific research, control of pests and diseases, and education in the efficient handling and transport of products.
At the central laboratories of the Department, investigations are conducted by a trained staff of chemists, biologists, bacteriologists, entomologists, and botanists in all matters affecting the agricultural, fruit, dairying, and live-stock industries. These research investigations augment the work of the field staffs of the crop, plant breeding, and live-stock sections of the Department. resulting in increased crop yields, and improved stock.
A Veterinary Research Station has also been established in which all matters relating to the health of stock are thoroughly investigated.
College and Experimental Farms.
The Department controls an Agricultural College near Sydney, and fourteen Experimental Farms in the main centres of production. At Hawkesbury Agricultural College a comprehensive course of education in all phases of agriculture and animal industry is provided. The course takes three years to complete.
At the experiment farms all problems connected with agriculture and stock are thoroughly investigated. In addition, improved varieties of crops are bred, and large stocks
of pure seed are raised for distribution amongst farmers. In this way the general Standards of the crops have been and are being still raised.
Training in practical agriculture is also given to local boys as well as to lads who migrate to Australia from other parts of the Empire.
In order to establish closer contact with farmers, a large field staff is employed. The duties of these officers arc to visit the farms, and, in co-operation with the farmers, carry out research and instructional work.
The Agricultural Bureau, controlled by the farmers, but financially assisted by the Government, is a valuable medium for maintaining cordial relations between the Department and producers, advancing educational work, and promoting organisation. The membership is approximately 12,000, and the active branches number over 300. Regular meetings are held by the branches, and at suitable times district conferences are held and a State conference is arranged annually. This organisation has been wonderfully effective in improving crops and stock-raising methods, and in facilitating the dissemination of educational propaganda.
Every important centre in the State has its agricultural society, which holds an annual competitive prize exhibition. The chief of these is the Royal Agricultural Society, whose annual Show in Sydney is one of the big features of the Easter season, and attracts visitors and exhibitors from all parts of the Commonwealth and New Zealand. Crop competitions in connection with wheal and maize arc held throughout the State by the societies. Their work in this and other directions has proved to be of great value both in regard to improving production and the quality of stock and produce.
HE approximate area of land suitable for wheat growing in New South Wales is 20.000.000 acres, of which it is estimated 18,000,000 acres are within 12 miles of existing railways. The developmental possibilities are shown by the fact that the area which has been under cultivation is only 7,750.000 acres, and that little more than half is sown with wheat each year. The balance is used for the production of oats, barley, and other crops, or kept under bare fallow or temporary pasture. Past experience has shown also that the breeding of different classes of seed specially suited to variations in soil and climate, and improvements in methods of farming, have enabled the area considered suitable for cultivation to be extended from time to time.
The results of practical departmental investigation and individual experience are embodied in pamphlets and distributed periodically. This enables the farmers, as a whole, to adopt the most advantageous methods of working and fertilising their lands.
Although a portion of the wheat crop is still marketed in bags, the system of bulk handling and storing is well established. Modem concrete and steel elevators have been erected by the Government at 119 country railway stations, their total storage capacity at one filling being 17,693,000 bushels. The terminal elevator in Sydney can hold 6,750,000 bushels, so that the total storage capacity of the system is 24,443,000 bushels. This storage can be filled and emptied three times during a season. There are ample facilities at the terminal elevator for receiving wheat, cleaning and drying it, if necessary, and delivering to vessels at the adjacent wharves. The maximum delivery capacity is 1,800 tons of grain per hour, and as many as four vessels may be loaded at the same time. The system, which is still being rapidly extended over a larger area of country, is operated as a public utility by the Government Grain Elevators Branch of the Department of Agriculture. Capital expenditure on the silos amounts to £4,250,000.
Wheat harvesting in New South Wales.
■ HE most prolific source of primary wealth is the wool industry. New South Wales is the great* est wool-producing State in Australia, both in regard to the numerical strength of its flocks and the quality of the wool taken from them. The fine Merino wools command the highest prices in the world’s markets, and are always keenly sought by woolbuyers from all the manufacturing countries.
There is a growing tendency towards the inclusion of sheep-raising in mixed farming, with the result that the number of flocks is increasing and the average size diminishing. The majority of holdings carry less than 1,000 sheep, but about 80 per cent, of the total stock are pastured on areas with larger flocks. The number of sheep in the State in 1932 totalled about 53,000,000, but there is room for the successful breeding of many millions more.
The development of fodder conservation and water supplies has reduced the risks from dry seasons to a minimum. Stockowners who take reasonable precautions in these directions suffer little loss compared with earlier experiences in stock-raising, and in many cases judicious fodder conservation in good seasons has prevented any loss in the severest droughts.
Sheep owners have devoted a great deal of thought to the production side of the industry, and have brought it to a high stage of perfection. They have organised Pastures Protection Boards, which levy on holdings for the purpose of controlling weeds, pests, and diseases, and generally control the movements of stock.
New South Wales sheep owners are notea for the attention which they have given to
the improvement of their flocks. This work has been conducted on very extensive lines, some individual Merino studs numbering thousands of sheep. Considerable variation exists in regard to the class of sheep, most breeds and crosses being represented, but the preponderating breed is the Merino. The work of improvement was first taken up by large flock-masters, but in recent years many small owners have engaged in the business. As the result of their efforts very great advancement has been made both in regard to quality and quantity of wool per sheep. Assistance in regard to the improvement of the smaller flocks is given by the Sheep and Wool Branch of the Department of Agriculture.
A feature of the wool industry is the care given to the preparation of the wool for marketing. The shearing of the sheep is a well organised business. It is principally carried out by large contracting firms who travel through the country with teams of expert shearers and woolclassers. The wool is carefully classed according to its various grades, and pressed into bales ready for transport by rail to the selling brokers.
Cattle-raising is also carried on extensively in the State, but outside the dairying districts is confined mostly to large holdings, on which the bulk of the beef stock is bred. The beef and mutton export trade of New South Wales has assumed large proportions.
Horse-breeding has been followed from the early days of settlement. The careful importation of stock, combined with the suitability of climate, has resulted in a type of animal that is unequalled for endurance and stamina. There are many studs devoted to the breeding of thoroughbreds scattered throughout the State.
■JROBABLY in few other coun-! tries are the conditions so favourable for dairying. The climate and rich productivity J of the soil obviate the necessity for housing and handfeeding, with the result that the industry can be carried on with a minimum of labour and expense. Dairying has made such steady progress that it now occupies a highly-important place in the primary activities of the State. The suitability of large areas of the State for this form of production, the high standards which have been reached in connection with the products, and the increasing demand for them on both local and overseas markets, suggest continued expansion on profitable lines for many years. The value of dairy and associated products in 1931-32 was £11,525,000.
Very careful attention has been given to the organisation of the industry, and the improvement of production methods. The result is that the bulk of the butter produced now is of choicest grade or table quality. The Department exercises strict supervision over the raw material, its treatment in the factories, and the conditions under which production and manufacture are carried on. For the purpose of affording instruction to dairy-farmers and supervising the factories, the State lias been divided into districts, each in charge of a Senior Dairy Instructor, who is provided with assistants where necessary.
The Department of Agriculture has established a number of stud herds, and these have been of considerable assistance in improving the quality of dairy stock. An extensive system of herd testing for farmers has been developed, sixty-eight officers being employed in this work. This is proving to be of great value in eliminating unproductive cows. On dairy farms hygienic conditions arc strictly supervised. Bails and milking sheds must conform to standards, and utensils and other equipment must be kept scrupulously clean.
Effective steps have been taken in recent years to improve factories and factory equipment, in order that the purity and quality of the products will be maintained throughout all operations. About sixty-nine factories have been rebuilt and re-equipped at a cost in the vicinity of £750,000. In the case of butter factories, the effect of this work has been most marked in two directions. Firstly, there has been a great uplift in quality, and, secondly, the cost of manufacture has been substantially reduced. In the majority of cases the annual interest on the money expended in rebuilding and other improvements has been more than met by the annual saving in wages and running costs.
Training of Experts.
Provision has been made for the training of factory managers, butter makers, cream graders, testers, and others employed in the factories. At the Hawkesbury College a dairy science course of two years is available for the training of young men who propose to enter the manufacturing side of the dairying industry. In addition, dairy science schools are held at suitable butter factories, where those employed in the industry are annually given a course of training in the practice and theory of milk and cream testing, elementary dairy bacteriology, dairy chemistry, and other phases of butter manufacture. This ensures that those engaged in the industry are kept in touch with modem developments. Operations at the factories are under continual supervision of the instructors of the Department of Agriculture, who check the work of the testers and graders, and generally supervise the hygienic conditions.
HE climate and soils of the State are admirably suited for the production of a large variety of the choicest fruits. Although the industry has made considerable progress, it is capable of very great expansion. I-argc areas of land are still available on which successful orcharding may be carried on. The choice of climatic conditions ranges from the comparative cold of the highlands to semi-tropical heat on the north coast. In the vicinity of Sydney, oranges, peaches, plums, and passion-fruit are most generally grown. On the tableland, apples, pears, apricots, and all the fruits from cool and temperate climates thrive well. In the west and south-west, tigs, almonds, raisins and grapes may be cultivated; and in the north coastal districts, bananas, pineapples, and other tropical fruits grow excellently. Citrus fruits are cultivated extensively, and form the largest element in production.
Dried and Canned Fruits.
The dried and canned fruit industries have already reached a position of considerable importance. In view of the very extensive irrigation schemes in process of development, and the proved suitability of these industries for those areas where irrigation will be applied, fruit-growing is bound to make steady progress. Valuable
assistance is being given to the industries through the Dried Fruits Export Control Board of the Commonwealth, on which the States have representation. This Board supervises the export of dried fruit, and a London agency has been established by the Board for the sale of fruit.
Since the establishment of the Irrigation Areas, and the settlement of returned soldiers after the War, the area under grape vines has considerably increased, being approximately 16,000 acres. Table grapes are grown mainly for the Sydney market. Of late years export to the East has taken place, and it appears as if this trade will develop still further. Drying grapes are also grown.
Wine varieties arc grown under various climatic and soil conditions, with the result that the State is able to produce wine vaiy-ing from excellent light dry to full bodied fruity types. The quality of the New South Wales wines has gained for them a high reputation not only throughout Australia but in various countries, and at the present time a fairly extensive export trade is being built up, especially in the United Kingdom. In world-wide competitive exhibitions, many high distinctions have been gained by these wines.
There arc other lucrative rural industries carried on in the State which constitute ever-growing sources of wealth and opportunity for enterprise. They include the production of maize, oats, lucerne, potatoes, hay, sugarcane, honey, vegetables, and poultry. Pig-raising is also a profitable undertaking, but is mostly associated with dairying. and, as in the case of most of the other forms of production mentioned, with mixed farming. In many cases, however, pigraising provides an exclusive means of live
lihood for a large number of people. There are many poultry farms and market gardens in the outer areas near Sydney, for the products of which there is always a steady demand in the metropolis.
The industrial importance of some of these industries may be gauged from the following figures showing tne value of annual output to the grower:—Poultry. £2,595,000; hay and straw, £1492,000; potatoes. £152,000; vegetables, £668,000; green fodder, £977,000.
Farms on the Mlrrumrwcei Irrigation Area, New South Wales.
■ I.THOUGH water conservation and irrigation have been fairly extensively developed in the State, there yet remain big possibilities for valuable work of a national character in this direction. In addition to the work of administering irrigation settlements already established, the Government is investigating a number of proposals for supplying large areas of comparatively dry land with water for domestic and stock purposes, and for irrigation. The irrigation settlements at present in existence comprise the Area on the Murrumbidgee River, a small settlement at Hay, and the Citrlwaa and Coome-alla Areas. The two lastnamed are on the Murray River, on the southern border of the State, where extensive closer settlement is possible.
The largest settlement is on the Murrumbidgee Area, on which there is a population of over 16,000. The water supply is obtained from the Murrumbidgee River, across which a large concrete dam has been constructed at Burrinjuck. This has a capacity of 33.612,671,000 cubic feet, or 771,641 acre-feet of water. From it the flow of water is regulated into the natural river channel. At a point 240 miles down stream it is then diverted into the main canal, and after covering a further distance of about 40 miles is distributed through the reticulation system of the settlement area. The land is eminently suited for the cultivation of a wide variety of products, including apricots, nectarines, peaches, prunes, pears, plums, melons, cantaloups, and citrus fruits; also wine and table grapes, currants, raisins, sultanas, figs, olives, and most varieties of vegetables and fodder crops. Dairying and pig-raising have been undertaken by a large number of settlers on the area, and the canning and drying of fruit and the production of wines are already industries of large dimensions. The district is also one of the largest fresh fruit producing centres in the State. Rice has been successfully cultivated since 1925, the area under crop this season being approximately 21,000 acres, which will supply the requirements of the Commonwealth.
The value of production for the year ended 30th June. 1933, was £1.116,040/
The Government encourages private irrigation enterprise, and lias made provision for the formation of trusts to supply water to occupiers of land on privately-owned irrigation areas.
In addition to the Irrigation Trusts, there arc nineteen Water Trusts obtaining water for domestic and stock purposes from rivers and lakes to supply a total area of over 4,000,000 acres. There are also eighty-onc Bore Water Trusts controlling a total area of over four and a half million acres, and twelve Artesian Wells Districts, comprising over 300,000 acres, in which water for stock purposes is obtained from artesian bores.
F the immense tracts oi bush lands in New South Wales, about 11,000,000 acres contain timbers of commercial value. Of this area over 5.000,000 acres are dedicated as State
Hardwoods, of which there are about twenty different kinds, predominate. Many of these, such as ironbark, tallowwood, and turpentine, are world-renowned for their remarkable strength and lasting qualities in connection with all classes of constructional work. There is always a steady demand for these timbers both locally and abroad.
The softwoods, such as beech, pine, and teak are of excellent quality, and are used extensively.
Altogether, there are about forty-five kinds of timbers to be found in the State, and many of them have specially attractive features for decorative and fancy woodwork.
The Government, in recent years, has brought the State Forests under more intensive management, and large areas have been regenerated for the growth of new timber. In addition, considerable areas have been planted with coniferous pines to ensure future supplies of softwoods.
EVV South Wales occupies pride of place in the Commonwealth as a mineral producer, and is richly endowed with vast mineral resources both in extent and in variety. Almost all the valuable metals and minerals occur in considerable quantities.
The extensive production of gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and tin, the large coal deposits, the presence of iron-ore and limestone in great quantity, and the variety of economic minerals found in appreciable quantities, assure a most promising future for the mining industry of the State.
Up to 1934 New' South Wales had produced minerals to the value of over £500,000,000.
The coal deposits of the State are the most important in the Commonwealth, both as regards extent and the quantity and quality of the coal produced.
Their value is greatly enhanced by their favourable location. The Coal Basin extends along the coast from the neighbourhood of Newcastle to the Shoalhaven River, 160 miles. It has a maximum width of 150 miles, and covers a total area of approximately 15,000 square miles. About 260,000,000 tons of coal have been won. and the actual and potential reserves aggregate thousands of millions more.
The State possesses many deposits of oil-shale from which oil may be obtained by destructive distillation. In some of these the material is the richest in the w'orld, yielding from 100 to 170 gallons of crude oil per ton. The Capertce-Wolgan (Ncwncs) deposit, recently investigated by the Commonwealth and State Governments, is the most extensive yet discovered. Oil-shale to the value of £2,695,021 has already been produced.
Silver-lead-zinc ores occur in many parts of the State, but by far the greatest output is obtained from the famous Broken Hill field, which has already produced ores to the value of over £160,000.000 and paid nearly £39,000,000 in dividends to the shareholders.
Gold to the value of over £64.000,000 has been produced in New South Wales. With the depletion of the readily accessible and easily-won rich alluvial deposits which formed a large proportion of the gold obtained in the past, there has been a decline in the production of the precious metal. A contribution of some proportion is still maintained, however, and large areas of
gold-bearing country still remain unprospected. The year 1932-33 witnessed a distinct revival, the output having a value of approximately £250,000.
The largest mass of gold yet found in any country was extracted in 1872 from a lode at Hill End, New South Wales. It weighed 7.560 ounces. A large nugget, weighing 1,286 ounces, was also found at Burrandong, near Orange, one of the western towns of the State. Many smaller nuggets have been found in other districts.
The gem industry of the State is quite an important one, opals ranking first with a production valued at over £ 1,600,000. Diamonds, sapphires, zircons, and other gemstones, precious and semi-precious, have been found.
Ornamental and building stones in great variety and excellent quality arc widespread in their occurrence throughout the State. Granite, porphyry, sandstone, limestone, marble, serpentine, and others suitable to meet every requirement as to colour, strength, and texture, occur.
Tin to the value of £14,700,000 has been raised, while appreciable quantities of copper, wolfram, molybdenite, bismuth, arsenic, antimony, ironstone, manganese, chrome, limestone, dolomite, magnesite, fluorspar, alunite, and silica have been produced.
Prospecting for minerals is encouraged by the Government, and financial aid is granted to miners for testing and proving select sites, a reward being also offered for the discovery of new fields.
HE manufacturing industries of the State, which have made marked progress since the Great War, now represent an important source of wealth production and employment. In the year 1931-32 the value of production, that is. the value added to the raw materials treated, was 46.4 of the total of all industries in the State. The products manufactured cover a very wide range, and several industries have reached very large proportions. All the locomotive engines and other rolling stock for the railways are built locally.
The industrial metals and allied industries constitute the largest group in point of value of production. There are extensive ironworks establishments at Newcastle, with subsidiary factories, and another large ironworks at Port Kembla. Latest additions to the group include a large works at Newcastle for the manufacture of steel pipes, and another for the production of tin plates.
The manufacture of plate glass has also been entered upon, and the industry is mak ing rapid progress.
A gratifying feature of the growth of the State's secondary activities lias been the growing tendency of British firms either to establish branches in the State, or to link up with Australian firms in new or the extension of existing enterprises. Notable examples of this in recent years have been the joining up of Dorman, Long & Co. Ltd. and Baldwin’s Ltd. with two Australian companies in the establishment of ironworks at Port Kembla ; the co-operation of Richard Thomas and Co. with the B.H. Proprietary Co. in the commencement of tin plate manu facture at Newcastle; and the association of Stewarts and Lloyds with the B.ll. Proprietary Co. in the manufacture of steel pipes.
The Government and the people of the State welcome the closer union, in such a practical way. of British and Australian developmental enterprise.
B SOURCE of wealth that has so far been only partly developed is the fishing industry. The average annual value of production in the years 1928-32 exceeded £700.000. and of that amount the average annual value of the trawled catch approximated to £300,000. The supply from local production does not, however, meet requirements, as will be evident from the fact that in the years 1928-30 the average annual value of the fish (principally canned) imported exceeded £730,000. In 1931 and 1932, however, owing to financial conditions, the value of imported fish dropped by more than half. The value of local fish exported is almost negligible. The ocean waters contain numerous
varieties of edible fishes, but only the bottom-dwelling fish have so far been captured commercially. Scope for the development of the fisheries of the State lies chiefly in the exploitation of the pelagic or surface fish. Investigational work in this direction is now contemplated by the Commonwealth Government. Canning operations are carried on by several concerns, but there is still great room for development in this branch of the industry. Oysters arc extensively cultivated in the coastal rivers and estuaries, and a fairly considerable quantity is shipped to the neighbouring States. In the past, whaling operations were conducted intermittently along the coast, but during the last few years there has been no activity in that direction.
A feature of the State's primary productive activities of paramount concern to people overseas is the healthful condition, combined with strict supervision, under which the various foodstuffs exported are produced. Scientists, in recent years, have been emphasising the special nutritive and health-giving c|ualities of foods produced and prepared in sunlight. In New South Wales, in winter no less than in summer, food production and manufacture are carried on in bright, sunny surroundings. In addition to this valuable climatic advantage, the State authority exercises the most rigid supervision over all products intended for human consumption. Gcanliness, purity, and quality are judged according to high standards that have been set by the law and arc strictly enforced. Foods for both local consumption and export come equally under review.
The State organisation for supervising food exports prevents impure and inferior
goods from being sent overseas. For instance, cattle and sheep killed for export are carefully examined at the Abattoirs, and, if kept in cold storage before shipment, the carcases arc re-examined immediately before being placed in the ship.
The butter exports arc subject to inspection by experts before shipment, and the high standards which have been set for the various grades have resulted in a product equal if not superior to the best that any other country can produce. The factories, under expert supervision and reorganisation, have attained such a degree of excellence in their finest grades of butter that the product can be placed on the overseas markets, after months of storage, in the best condition without the aid of preservatives.
All fresh fruits are graded and inspected by Government experts, who have absolute discretion in regard to classification and rejection. The dried and preserved fruits are similarly required to conform to standards which are based primarily on consideration <jf the consumer’s health.
HE Government encourages the development of art, science, music, and literature through institutions of its own and by monetary assistance to others. The National Art Gallery, in Sydney, contains many hundreds of oil-paintings, water-colours, black and white drawings and etchings, statuary, and other works of art. The collection embraces examples of almost every school of art. Students are permitted, under certain regulations, to copy any work on exhibition, and have access to a library of reference on art subjects. Two art bodies, the Royal An Society and the Society of Artists, hold annual exhibitions in Sydney.
There are many organisations which have been formed for the advancement of science and the encouragement of research. Notable among these arc the Royal Society of New South Wales, the Linnean Society of New South Wales, the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Geographical Society, the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, and branches of the British Medical Association and the British Astronomical Association. The Australian Museum, supported by
State endowment, the State Technological Museum, the State Mining and Geological Museum, the State Agricultural and Forestry Museum, and other similar institutions, also help very materially in the promotion of scientific study.
In the State Conservatorium of Music, pupils receive tuition in every branch of music, from the elementary to the advanced stages. Certificates are granted for various degrees of efficiency, the highest entitling the holders to a diploma course. There are also many societies which render valuable help in stimulating public interest in musical and dramatic art.
The Government has founded and maintains public libraries for the intellectual benefit of the people, and assists local institutions, such as progress associations and schools of arts, by subsidies and the loan of books, to provide similar facilities in all parts of the country. The State libraries consist of the General Reference Library, containing over 260,000 volumes; the Mitchell Library, holding the richest collection in existence of Australian and New Zealand books and manuscripts; and the Country' Circulating Library. All classes of literature are provided, and the service is free.
Bathing Fool at Manly, Sydney.
The Ocean Beach is Iwyond the buildings on the extreme left
■vggjOTANISTS and zoologists find New South Wales an intensely 9 interesting field for study.
3$ Among the flora there arc many forms of plant life which do not exist in any other part of the world. The coastal belt furnishes the most luxurious vegetation, but numerous varieties of beautiful wild flowers are also to be found in the mountain regions and on the tablelands. The most distinctive of the native flowering trees are the waratah, which produces large rosette-shaped flowers of gorgeous red; the wattle, which makes many parts of the bush golden with its profusion of glowing yellow sprays; and the Christmas bush, a shrub with small flowers of a delicate shade varying from rich to pale pink. On many areas of the State, preserved in their natural conditions for the public pleasure, the native shrubs and flowers grow in abundance, and their destruction is made a punishable offence.
The native animals have unusual characteristics. The pouched mammals, such as the kangaroo, belong to a type that has reached its greatest variety in Australia. The platypus, a small egg-laying acquatic mammal, with furred skin, has attracted world-wide attention. It has webbed feet and bill like that of a duck, and its natural haunts are creeks and rivers, in the soft banks of which it makes its burrowed nest. The platypus and the spiny ant-eater, which is also indigenous to Australia, arc the most primitive forms of egg-laying mammals in the world. Other unique and strange forms of fauna are to be found in the State.
Of native birds there arc numerous varieties, many of them gorgeously plumaged. while others have wonderful powers of mimicry and song. The most distinctive is the kookaburra or laughing jackass, which is noted for the striking similarity of its long-sustained call to the hearty laugh of a human being.
From lop, left to right: Lyre Bird; Platypus; Kookaburra; Kangaroo (with young one in pouch); Koala Bear; Emu; and Opossum.
Further general information concerning the State may he obtained from the Official Representative of the Government of New South Wales, Wellington House, 125 The Strand, London; the Under Secretary, Premier’s Department. Sydney, New South Wales; and from the Director, Government Tourist Bureau. Martin-place, Sydney. New South Wales.
Alpreo Jambs Kent, I.B.O., Government Printer.
AGRICULTURAL. PASTORAL S, MINING MAP OF
NEW SOOTH WALES.