Admission.

The Museum ts open every day :

From November ist. to January 31st. : from 10 a m. to 12 a. m. and from 2 to 4 p. m.

From Febru ry ist. to May 31st. : from 10 a. m. to 12 a. m. and from 2 to 5 p. m.

From June ist. to October 31 st. : from 10 to 12 a. m. and from 2 to 5 p. m.

Admission fee : 1 franc.

Regulations for Photographers.

Visitors are strictly forbidden to take photographs inside the Museum unless they have first obtained permission f.om the authorities.

Permits, price 1 franc, may be bought from the Porter, and are applicable to hand-cameras only. Visitors who avail themselves of these photographic permits must bind themselves r.ot to publish any of the photographs without special leave.

Visitors unprovided with permits must leave their cameras in the cloak-room.

The Aquarium

Feedings Tickets. — Bv obtaining a ticket, price 50 centimes, from the Porter, or in the Aquarium itself, visitors have the right to offer food to the animals in any two tanks they m..y choose.


2ia.no/35nS3i>.

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Notice

The parts of the Museum open to the Public are : the Ground Floor, the First Floor, and the Aquarium in the Basement.

On the Ground Floor are :

In the centre of the building : the Great Hall, containing the statue of the Prince ;

On the right (west) : the Lecture Room ;

On the left (cast) : the Hall of Marine Zoology, the greater part of which is occupied by the collection of deep-sea creatures captured by the Prince of Monaco.

On the First Floor are :

The Large Central Hall ;

On the right (west) : the Hall of Applied Oceanography (marine industries, pearls, coral, tortoise-shell, fisheries, artistic treatment of sea-products, etc.) :

On the left (east) : the Hall of Physical and Instrumental Oceanography. (Appliances for analysing water, for determining the penetration of light, for studying temperature, depth, currents and tides ; nets for scientific research in the sea).

In the Basement is to be seen :

The Aquarium, containing a number of interesting sea-creatures.

In this Guide it is taken for granted that the visitor wishes to examine everything methodically ; the preceding paragraphs will help him to make his choice, and the corresponding pages of the Guide will be easily found by means of the headings.

This pamphlet is not a Catalogue, but a Guide which merely draws attention to the objects which the visitor ought particularly to notice.

Several of the most interesting exhibits arc furnished with explanatory labels in French, English, Italian and German. Many are illustrated by drawings.

The visitor is recommended to begin his inspection by studying the contents of the glass cases against the walls, starting on the right of the entrance. He should then examine the objects exhibited in the middle of the room.

THE MONACO

OCEANOGRAPHICAL MUSEUM

BY

Dr J. RICHARD, Director.

The Oceanographical Institute, devoted to the Science of the Sea, and founded in 1906 by H. S. H. Prince Albert I of Monaco, is an independent institution, recognised by the French Government as being of public utility, (Presidential Decree, 16 th. May, 1906 (1). A Board of Governors (Conseil d’Administration) is responsible for the business management of the foundation, and an « Improvements Comittee » (Conseil de Pcrfectionnemcnt) for the scientific direction.

The Oceanographical Institute possesses an establishment • (inaugurated on January 23 rd. 1911) situated in Paris, in the middle of the University district, where instruction is given by means of class* s and lecture s. It posse sse s in addition a Museum, situated by the sea-shore at Monaco, furnished with aquaria, rooms for private study, laboratories, and magnificent collections. The little steamer Eider, which the Prince has placed at the dispos 1 of the Museum, enable s students of oceanography or foreign scientists to make themselves familiar with methods of marine study, or to carry out special research work.

The present Guide is concerned exclusively with the Monaco Muse um, the first stone of which was laid on April 25 th. 1899, with great ceremony, the inauguration taking place on March 29 th. 1910.

It was difficult to find on the actual rock of Monaco a space sufficiently spacious for the erection of the contemplated structure, the Prince being very properly averse to any encroachment on the magnificent Gardens of Saint Martin, which occupy a considerable part of the southern side of the rock. The site finally chosen was the one then occupied by the powder-magazine and the old rudimentary Museum, that is, at the eastern edge of the Gardens of Saint Martin. Now at that point the rock, after a very steep incline, drops to the sea almost as a

(1) The Institute Is therefore entitled to receive legacies. The Museum has already received a number of more or less important gifts each of which is marked with the name of the donor, in many cases mention is made of these gifts in the guide.

sheer precipice ; so the setting of the foundations was a difficult problem. The greater part of the Museum itself is built almost entirely on piers, which support it above the incline slanting from the general lcve 1 of the rock to the vertical wall at the edge of the sea. Thus not only is the Museum constructed on ground never before utilised, but moreover the space enclosed between the ground floor of the building (which is flush with the general levc 1 of the rock), and the sloping part of the rock, is occupied by two basements placed one above the other, open on the sea-ward side and put to various usi s. It is evident that a considerable amount of ingeniously devised masonry was needed to bring about this n suit. Some of the piers spring almost from* sea level, and the side of the building facing the waves offers a remarkably imposing aspect. The Museum is constructed entirely of stone from La Turbie, which is an ex-trcmly hard kind of secondary calcareous rock, with a grain closely resembling that of lithographic stone ; a few parts of the building, such as the columns of the fa9ade and of the interior, come from Briscia, but they are hewn from rocks of the same kind. All the difficultu s of construction were overcome by M. Delefortrie, the distinguished architect to whom the Prince entrusted the execution of the building, and by the contractors, MM. Fontana and Gamba.

The general plan.

The Museum is a somewhat long building, pointing ap-^ proximately N.-E., S.-W. On the outside it measures roo metres (328 ft.), and consists of a central portion 20 metres (65 y2 ft.) square, prolonged on cither side by a wing 40 metres by 15 metres (131 ft. by 49 ft.) This plan and these dimensions are the same throughout the building, save as regards the two basements, which are of different width. The Main Entrance, facing the Avenue Saint Martin, is in a part projecting from the central portion. The plan adopted is one which affords the greatest possible advantages in the matter of lighting ; there is everywhere an abundance of hght which can be moderated as desired.    *

We need not describe in. detail the exterior appearance of the principal Facade, and will pause only to draw attention to certain interesting peculiarities : the monolithic columns 8 metres (26 1/3 ft.) high adorning the first story, each of which weighs 16000 ldlogrammes (16 tons), the ornamental devices representing deep-sea anim. ls (Geryon, Polycheles, Oropho-rhynchus. Fishes, etc.) which decorate various parts of the building, particulary the Main Entrances; on the pylons framing the Entrance is a remarkably effective representation of waves.

The Pediment is sculptured with the Prince’s armorial bearings, and is crowned by an Albatross and a Sea-Eagle or Osprey, both of gigantic size. It is supported by four huge columns, 12 metres 70 (41 2/3 ft.) high.


The names of various vessels belonging to nations which have taken an active part in oceanographical research are inscribed at the top of the principal Fa9ade of the Museum ; from left to right, they read :

Gazelle (German), Investigator (British), Novara (Austrian),

Vitiaz (Russian), Belgica (Bi 1-gian), Talisman (French), Washington (Italian), Vega (Swedish), Fram (Norvegian), Prin-cesse Alice and Hirondelle (Monegasque), Pola (Austrian)

Ait-— * -.e-Ty --


Blake (American), Challenger (British), Siboga (Dutch),

Buccaneer (British), Amelia (Portuguese), Ingolf (Danish) .


The names Hirondelle and Princesse Alice are inscribed on either side of the Pediment on the fore-part of the building, above the two allegorical groups chiselled by the sculptor M. Dussart.

These groups, each 8 metres (26 1/3 ft.) high, represent, on the right. Truth revealing to Science the Forces of the World, and on the left,

Progress coming to the Help of Humanity.

The building is completed by an attic rising to 79 metres 35 (260 ft.) above sea-level, and forming the edge of an immense terrace 15 metres wide by 100 metres long (49 ft. by 328 ft.) A smaller but still loftier terrace, 82 metres 30 (272 ft.) crowns the projecting part of the building, and the


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pediment of the fa9ade, highest of all, is 87 metres (287 y2 ft.) above the surface of the sea. This second terrace is the roof of a room behind the pediment, which is intended to house certain meteorological apparatusand other scicnti fic instruments.

The Ground Floor.

After having climbed the flight of 13 steps, the visitor finds himself on the ground floor, 55 m. 85 (184 y2 ft*.) above sea-level, and passing through a fine wrought-iron gate (designed by I\f. Delcfortrie and carried out by the firm of Bergeotte of Paris) enters a vestibule in the projecting part of the building. Here are to be noticed the mosaic pavement, with its representation, also in mosaic, of the yacht Princesse Alice, on board which vessel the Prince made his most important cruises, those which have chiefly contributed towards tire enrichment of the Museum with specimens of the greatest scientific value. All around the vestibule are other designs : fish, cuttle-fish, wave-effects. From the vestibule springs, to right and left, an imposing staircase leading to the first story. On either side of the central doorway is a marble tablet: one of these commemorates the laying of the foundation stone of the Museum, the other the inauguration of the building.

A door on the left gives access to the basements and to the aquarium, while the corresponding door on the right leads to the switch-board room, and to the service lift.

In the vestibule are also the cloak-rooms, and articles for sale, such as picture post-cards, books, etc., bearing on oceanography.

The Great Hall.

Having passed through a large glared door we enter a great hall, graced with four fine columns of Brescian limestone. This large square room measures 18 metres (59 ft.) each way.

From the centre of the ceiling, 7 metres (23 ft.) high, hangs an electric chandelier representing a medusa or jellyfish (Rhopilema frida Haeckel), and at each angle is a smaller chandelier, in the form of a sphere with long spines symmetrically arranged. These chandeliers, which one is inclined at first sight to take for sea-urchins, represent as a matter of fact certain microscopie marine organisms of the radiolarian group ; they and the jelly-fish were designed by M. Constant Roux, a winner of the « Grand Prix de Rome », and they were made by the firm of BaguSs. As one enters the Great Hall, one sees straight in front of one, standing well out from the dark background of the wall behind it, the statue of the Prince by M. D. Puech, a member of the Institute. The Prince is represen-

ted on the bridge of his yacht, scanning the horizon. This fine statue was presented by subscriptions from sovereigns and prominent persons of various countries, as will as from several Monegasquis, whose nanus are all inscribed on two richly-illuminated panils placed on either side of the wall behing the statue. On each side of the pedistal is a bronze bas-relief by M. Pucch, representing on one side a whaling scene, on the other a trawl being emptied on deck.

From each end of the Great H..11, through a wide archway decorated with mirrors, and framed in carved wood, there opens a room 38 metris long by 13 metres 70 wide (124 % ft. by 44 Y2 ft.) These large passug< s can be opened out widely in such a way that the three rooms can be thrown into one, for instance when a Congress is held, or in other special circumstances.

The Lecture Room.

The West Room is intended for lectures, congresses, and other meetings. Its walls are ornamented with carving ; the compartments of the ceiling, richly decorated by M. Cavaille-Coll, are further adorned by paintings from the brush of M. Hippolyte Lucas ; these are six in number, and delineate seafaring scenes, such as hauling up the trawl, whaling, ice in the Polar seas, etc. The little side-compartments are ornamented with designs suggested by certain sea-creatures whose shapes lend themselves readily to decorative treatment.

The end wall of the room is mainly covered by a canvas by M. Monchablon, showing the yacht Princesse Alice s tiling on an intensely blue and rather choppy sea. At the far end of the lecture room is a large raised platform approached by two stairways and intended for the use of Councils of Societies or Congresses. A smaller and lower platform placed in front of it, is reserved for the speaker. All the windows have double blinds (one black and one white), so that complete darkness can be assured in the room when lantern slides are shown ; for these exhibitions the Museum has every necessary appliance ; a special electric system conducts a continuous current to the spot from a transformer utilising the alternating current of the electric station and capable of giving up to 90 or 100 amperes at no to 120 volts.

Six bronze chandeliers of very original design, made by the firm of Baguds, shed a brilliant light through the Lecture Room.

Ground Floor. East Hall. Marine Zoology.

This room is more especially appropriated to the collections which the Prince of Monaco h..s brought back from his numerous scientific cruises. What gives the greatest value to these collections is their richness in specimens of deep sea fauna. The Prince’s nets have actually given successful results at a depth of over 6000 metres (3280 fathoms).

Before proceeding further it is well to note that these collections are not complete, for a large part of them is still in course of being studied in the hands of numerous collaborators.

The glass cases against the walls (start at the right as you go in) show the principal types of marine animals oceanographically classed as : littoral fauna, fauna of the Continental slopes, abyssal fauna, bathypelagic fauna, and pelagic fauna. (Read the general notice immediately on your right as you enter). These divisions are not sharply defined, and certain animals may be met with in the continental shelf zone as well as in the abyssal zone. Some creatures, bathypelagic by day, nevertheless come to the surface by night.

As the preserved animals have often lost their original shape, or arc at least discoloured, there have been placed by the side of the specimens, whenever possible, reproductions drawn in black or in colours which help the visitor to understand the animals better and to form in idea of their colouring as it appeared when they were first brought to the day-light. With this end in view the Prince employs an artist to take notes of the colour of the animals as soon as they arc taken out of the nets.

The glass cases are numbered ; the labels on the jars give first the animal’s scientific name, its popular name or names, when such exist, and then notes as to locality, date, depth, et.

a) Littoral Fauna (Show-cases 1-12)

This fauna inhabits the edge of the sea down to a depth where the movement of the waves is no longer felt (25 fathoms approximately). There we find the best known forms and a considerable number of edible animals (shrimps, crabs, fish).

1.    Sponges, Sea Anemones, Sea Urchins, Ophiurids, Holo-thurians.

2.    Various Shrimps ; Scyllaria.

3.    Various Crabs, among them Cancer Pa gurus, the Edible Crab. *

4.    « Squills» and various kinds of Crabs (Maia, the Spinous Spider Crab, etc.)

5.    1 st. shelf : Isopods and Amphipods (sand-hoppers), 2 nd. and 3 rd shelves : Nemcrtines (Worms) (Oxner coll.) Other worms (Annelids) occupy the remainder of the show-case.

6.    Sea-Slugs : Tethys, Aplysia (sea-hare) ; a Cephalopod, a fine cuttle-fish (Octopus vulgaris) ; a large ncmertine worm with its long proboscis (Cerebratulus marginatus).

7-12. Fishes.

7.    Torpedo oculata and marmorata (Torpedo-fishes, which give electric shocks). Nerophis, Siphonostoma, Hippocampus (Sea-Horse) ; Tetrodon lagocephalus, a curious fish which has the power of distending itself with air (one of the two specimens) and floating on the surface like a balloon.

Below are Galeus canis (Bog-fish, bordering on the shark tribe and Anarrhichas lupus (cat Fish or Sea Wolf.)

8.    Various Trigla (gurnards) ; Trachinus, Gobius (Gobies) ; Blennius (Blcnnies) ; Mullus (mullets ; Lophius (fishing-frog, angler-fish, or devil-fish).

9.    Various Serranus ; Labrax (Bass) ; Scorpaena ; Sargus ; Pagellus (Bream) ; Dactylopterus (kind of flying fish).

10.    Oblada; several rock-fish (Labridcs : Labrus, Creni-labrus, Ctenolabrus, etc. Coris julis; Scams ; Corvina; Box salpa.

11.    Cyclopterus lumpus (which attaches its< If by means of an abdominal sucker ; Gadus pollachius (pollack) ; Gadus aeglefmus (haddock); Gadus luscus (Bib or Pout); Centriscus scolopax (sea-snipe) ; Mugil, Fierasfer (curious fish dwelling in the inside of certain holothurians).

12.    Several flat fishes : Pleiironectes limanda (dab) ; PI. flesus (flounder) ; Solea (soks).

Conger vulgaris (conger-eel) ; Murcsna (Murry) ; Ophi-surus (sea-snake) ; Petromyzon (lamprey).

b) Fauna of the Continental Slopes.

(Show-Cases 13-28).


This fauna dwells beyond the preceding one,down to below the edge of the Continental Shelf, that is, to a depth of no to 160 fathoms. This is the‘zone which is principally exploited by fishermen, especially by trawlers, and it furnishes by far the greater number of fish used for food.

13.    Severa kinds of Sponges ; Actinoloba callosa (great sea anemone).

14.    Alcyonarians of various sorts, gorgonians, Coral-Hum rubrum (Coral), with its polyps spread out; Veretillum and Pteroeides, also well developed and spread out.

15.    A number of Hydroids microscopic polyps living in colonics. Various Sea urchins: the big Echinus actus, Echi-narachnius parma (a curious flat urchin) ; Dorocidaris papillata (long-spined urchin) ; Spatangus purpureus.

16. Stellerids or starfishes of various kinds : Hippasterias plana, the red colour of which is shown in the accompanying picture ; Palmipes membranaceus (Bird’s Foot Sea Star).


17.    Starfish (continuation of series) : the beautiful Solaster endecaCrossaster papposus ; He-xaster obscurus.

18.    Various Ophiurids and Holothurians ; notice beneath the curious gor-gonoccphali (Gorgonoce-phalus eucnemis, and G. A gassizi) with subdivided and intertwined tentacles.

19.    Several kinds of Pagurian crustaceans (Hermit crab) the typical specimen shown being a fine Eupagnrus arrosor ; Panda! us (shrimp); Palinurus vulgaris (sea - crayfish,

rock lobster) ; Homarus vulgaris, (lobster).

20.    Various crustaceans : Squilla mantis (spider-crab resembling a mantis) ; Inachus (with long legs) ; Nephrops nor-vegicus (the Norway lobster).

21.    Polycheat annelids or bristle-bearing worms. Note the iridescence of the bristles of Aphrodite aculeata and the delicacy of the white intertwined tubi s of Filograna implexa.

Below is Paromola Cuvieri, the largest crab found in European seas.

22.    Several specimens of Gephyrea and of Nemertine worms; sea-slugs ; crabs, and the curious « King Crabs», (Limulus polyphemus) which recall the trilobites of the Primary Era.

23.    Ascidians : Microcosmus sulcatus (the « vioulet # eaten in the south of France).

At the end of the 2 nd. shelf notice the celebrated Am-phioxus (lancelct), the most primitive of fishes, and consequently of all vertebrate animals.

Sundry Ccphalopods (Squids) : Sepia (the colour sepia is obtained from its receptacle filled with «ink»), Rossia, Se-piola, Eledone, Octopus (great cuttle-fish).

24.    SuncTry Selachians : Skates and Sharks. Scyllium stel-lare (spotted dog-fish), Mustelus asterias (smooth hound-fish).

25.    Various fishes.

26.    Zeus faber and Z. pungio (Dory, St. Peter’s fish) ; Capros aper (boar-fish) ; Lepidopus caudatus (scabbard-fish) ;

Mallotus villosus (capelan, a bait greedily taken by the cod ; it approach^ s the shore at spawning -time.)


Gyrophullum Hirandellei (case 31)


27.    Notice Lota molva (Ling); Merlucius merlu-ccius (hake) ; Gadus morrhua (cod).

28.    Various flat fishes : Solea (sole) ; Pleuronectes maximus (turbot) ; Hippoglossus (Halibut, flounder) ; Rhombus loevis (brill).

c) Abyssal Fauna. (Show-cases 29-52).

29.    Abyssal Sponges of different species: notice the Pheronema (Ph. Carpenteri and Grayi), shaped like a nest and constructed of filaments and flinty spicules.

30.    Tetilla longipilis, a curious sponge with long flinty spicules.

Beneath, a fine alyconarian (Ceratoisis palrnae).

31.    Several alcyonarians of graceful, decorative and very varied shapes ; principally Metallogorgia melanotrichos, from a depth of 809 fath. with a long stalk and harbouring an ophiurid ; Acanella ; Stachyo-des trilepis; Gyrophyllum, a curious from discovered by the Hirondelle.

32.    Branched corals (Lophohelia prolifera 46fathoms) and simple corals (Caryophyllia, Stephano-

K-l

M V

Flexible Sea-Urchin — Sperntnmn Grimaldii (case 33)

Irochus). Antipathids of various kinds resembling delicate alcyonarians.



33. Various Echinoderms. Notice particularly the flexible urchins, above all Sperosoma Grimaldii, from a depth of 743-657 fathoms. These urchins, instead of being rigid, are flexible ; the plates which form their covering are united by a membrane, as they arc in certain very ancient fossil urchins. The presence of this membrane enables the animal to change its form to some extent. This kind of urchin is to be found only at a great depth.

34.    Various star-fishes, mostly red. Brisinga etidecacnemos, Prognaster Grimaldii (1569 fathoms), Magdalenaster arcticus (218 fathoms) the arctic form corresponding to the antarctic Perknaster ; Mediaster stellatus, (693 fathoms).

35.    Various Ophiurids. Note the elegant Penlacrimts Wyville Thomsoni of a beautiful bluish-green colour.

36.    Sundry Holothurians : Benthodytes jan-thina (1569 fathoms), of a fine violet tint. !

Decapod macrura, large brilliantly-coloured shrimps, Nephropsis, Pandalus, Aristeus and a especially the large and splendidly-tinted Ple-siopenasus edwardsianus, 649 fathoms.

37. Here again are some beautiful shrimps : Heterocarpus Grimaldii (711 fathoms) and the curious Polycheles, recalling long-cxtinct forms.

The Cirripeds occupy the upper shelf with the Scalpellum (600 fathoms) and the Poecilasma which attach themselves to the spines of sea-urchins.


40. On the two top shelves are various annelids. Below arc the isopods and amphipods (hoppers) ; Cyclo-caris Guilelmi (600 fathoms) from the Lofoten Isles.    Cyclocarii Gailehni (vit. 40)


The Colossendeis are strange creatures with bodies so narrow that the stomach Inis to overflow into the legs in order to preserve its proper size.


41. Bryozoa ; Gcphyrea (Phascolion, Hamingia, Sipun-culus) ; Terebratulides, Molluscs, Cephalopods and others. (•Scaeurgus, Octopus levis, etc.). Below, a fine Geryon affinis from the Azores. (744 fathoms).

42-49. Abyssal Fishes.


42.    Sharks : Centro-phorus squatnosus, a fine specimen, 370 fathoms,

C. calceus.

43.    Centrophorus granulosus', Lycodes', Sebastes.

44.    Centroscymnus coelolepis, a very common shark found at a great depth.

Beryx splen-dens, brilliantly red.

45.    Seym-    ■

nils lichia, another shark. Chint ar a monstrosa (Chimaera) a strange fish. Sundry typ< s : Notacanthus, Ho-plostethus, Telragonurus.

46.    Various Lepidion lepidion (depth 738 & 1186 fathoms), with their bellies distended by the swimming-bladder,




which is dilated as a consequence of decompression. Notice a fine Aphanopus car bo (gift of H. M. King Carlos 1 of Portugal).

47. Several specimens in this case (An-timora viola and rostrata) give good instances of the effect of decompression on fishes raised from great depths. In their mouths can be seen the stomach, turned inside out and bulging because of the pressure exercised by the swimming bladder, which has pushed against it as aconsequencc of the dilation of its gases.

Uraleptus Maraldii and Physiculus Dal-wighi arc very rare species.

48.    This case is devoted chiefly to the genus Macrurus (and related genera), one of the commonest types in great depths. There are numerous species. Macrurus violaceus, 410 fathoms, M. trachyrhynchus (below) is distinguished by its hard pointed snout.

49.    Simenchelys parasiticus is very common on bottoms of 461 to 1093 fathoms. It probably feeds chiefly on dead animals.

Bathypterois dubius is a very remarkable fish ; a spine of each of its pectoral fins is tranformed into a tactile organ, a kind of filament almost as long as the body. The fila-ament can be moved in all directions by the animal and to a certain extent can compensate by touch for the rudimentary state of the eyes. The ventral and caudal fins also have spines modified into tactile organs.

50-52. These cases are devoted to animals from the greatest depths yet explored, (below i860 fathoms). The fauna becomes rarer in proportion to the depth attained.

50. The kinds most frequently met with are Echinoderms, Starfishes : Dytaster Agassizi (2406 fathoms), orange red ; Albatrossaster Ri-cliardi (3300 fathoms). Ophiurid : Ophiopglypha abdita (3300 fathoms). Holothurian : Psychropo-tes Crimaldii (2395 fathoms), remarkable for its violet colour and its caudal appendage.

51. Starfishes : Paragonaster, Hyphalaster gracilis and Antonii, 2960 fathoms.

Crustaceans : Willemcesia leptodactyla (related CnmMMm to Polycheles) 2374 fathoms, Munidopsis crassa, ero/mJisamia 2374 fathoms, and M. Antonii, 2138 fathoms, of

(case 52)

a dull white colour, with more or less atrophied eyes, living no doubt in the upper layer of the grey Globigerina ooze. Bathysaurus mollis, 2374 fathoms, may be recognised by its flattened head and eyes placed on the top.



52. Here we find the largest and most abyssal of amphipods (sand-hoppers), Alicella gigantea, 2890 fathoms,measuring five and a h.df inches Cvthocarii Richard (<** 53) whereas many amphipods are • only a small fraction of an inch long.

Coryphcenoides gigas, 2198 fathoms, is one of the largest fishes found in the greatest depths. Leucochlamys cryptoph-thalmus, 2734 fathoms, a blind fish, a very rare case in spite of popular bi lief on the subject ; and finally Grimaldichthys profundissimns, which is probably the most abyssal fish known.

It was drawn up from a depth of 3300 fathoms off the S. W. of Cape Verd Islands.

c) Bathypelagic or deep sea fauna

(Show-case 53-59).

This fauna inhabits the open sea, in the intermediate layers of water between the surface and the sea-bottom ; its members move freely between more or less distant points in a vertical direction. Thus many of them rise towards the surfaceduring the night and sink gradually down again as daylight increases. (Many specimens have been found floating dead on the surface, but their normal existence is carried on in the intermediate depths).

53. Dainty medusas or jelly-fishes, of various kinds Atolla, Periphylla, etc.

The greater number of shrimps inhabiting the intermediate water (such as Acanthephyra) arc of a beautiful red colour ; they live in dense swarms, and serve    ...

as food for numerous other animals. Cy-phocaris Richardi is an Amphipod, re-    '

markable for its sharp-pointed horn. The Grimaldttaitha Richardi intermediate-water Ccplialopods are nu-    (caw 53)




merous : Cirroteuthis Grimaldii ; Grimaldileuthis Richardi ; Histioteuthis Ruppelli, a squid which was extracted from the stomach of a Sperm Whale, and remarkable on account of the numerous light-organs whichappear as black spots under its skin. Each of these organs is a real little search-light, with a luminous source, a reflector, a convergent lens, and a layer of pigment.


54.    A variety of bathypcl. gic ceph dopods or squids ; notice the large-eyed Taonius pavo.

55.    The collection of bathypelagic fishes is considerable, and consists of extremely curious types. Many are darkcoloured, for instance : Melanonus,Melamphaes,Alepocephalus,Bathytroctes; others have bright skins and large eyes, like Diretmus ; others again have enormous teeth, such as Caulolepis longidens. Their shapes are very varied : PlcUyberyx, etc.

56.    Here arc certain fishes with light-organs :

Malacosteus niger has a red organ below its eye and a yellow one further back ; Stomias boa, besides many light-organs along its belly, has a barbie hanging from its lower jaw ; Nematostomias gladiator also possesses light-spots and a very long barbie, at the tip of which is a light-organ which serves as a lure for attracting little animals towards its savage mouth armed with enormous teeth.


57. Several fishes with light-organs : Gonostoma po-lyphos, a black fish with lanterns of various colours. Vinci guerria lucetia,

Argyropelecus,

Sternoptyx, Chau-liodus : all these arc bright fishes also provided with light-organs.


58.    The Scopelidas, well represented in this case by Scopelus,


Myctophum, are silvery fishes with beadlike light-organs. Myctophum Dofleini). They rise to within a short distance of the surface.

Halosauropsis tna-ctochir, on the contrary, would seem to dwell near the bottom.

It is a very remarkable fish.

Each of the 64 scales of its lateral line (a black band on either side of the fish), bears a light-organ enclosed in a black receptacle opening on the under side. The fish opens this receptacle when it desires to direct its light downwards.

When the whole lighting system is in action, a streak of light is formed all along each side of the body.

59.    Sundry types of bathypelagic fishes. The curious Cyetna atrum, entirely black ; Gastrostomus Dairdii, also quite black, and consisting mostly pf a huge mouth, with which it swallows

Nematostonias gladiator (<


Gastrostomus Bairdi (case 59)


victims larger than itself; its tiny eye is at the tip of its nose. Opisthoproc-tus Grimaldii is a queer fish with its flattened belly and projecting upwardgazing eyes (called «telescopic cyes»).

Leptocephalus. The eggs of the cel produce, instead of small eels, larva; of very different appearance, which live in the open sea at more or less considerable depths, and also quite near the surface. These larva;, known as leptocephali, develop into little eels. The other species of the same family (Congers, etc.) also have their special leptocephali.

d) Pelagic Fauna. (Show-cases 60-67).

The Pelagic Fauna is composed of animals dwelling near the surface of the sea. In this zone are found especially migratory fishes, such as tunny-fish, bonitos, mackerel, herrings, sardines, and the greater part of the plankton, both animal and vegetable.

60.    Pelagia nocliluca, a medusa or jelly-fish which sometimes forms luminous banks. Rhizostoma pulmo, one of the largest known medusae.

61.    Polybius, a swimming crab. Nantilogyapsus minutus, another kind of crab, which lives amongst the sargasso weeds, on wreckage, or on turtles. Lepas analifera, a cirripede crustacean, flourishes on wreckage. Xenobalanus is a very rare cirripede which is parasitic on certain Cetaceans.

62.    Various Cuttlefishes ; notice the magnificent Otnmas-trephes sagittatus and Stenoteuthis pleropus. These two cuttlefishes were captured by means of a fork, after having been been enticed towards the boat by the light of an electric lantern.

63.    Carinaria, a large transparent mollusc.

Sal pa vagina is a giant representative of the group of Salpae. Pyrosoma giganteum is a colony of innumerable microscopic phosphorescent animals. (Pyrosomidae).

Coryphaena is the great dorado of the high seas. Prionace glauca is the blue shark, and Sphyrna zygeena a young hammerheaded shark.

64.    Naucrales doctor (Pilot fish) : the young of this fish is found amongst the Sargasso weeds in company with Monacanthus and liahsles. Polyprium cernium (wreck-fish) chiefly haunts wreckage.

65.    A ntennarius histrio is a strange fish, greatly resembling both in shape and colour the Sargasso weeds (floating seaweeds amongst which it lurks, walking rather than swimming). Echeneis is the famous remora, which attaches itself to objects or to animals (chiefly sharks and sun-fish) by means of the specially-adapted suckers which it bears on the top of its head.

Scomber (mackerel) ; A axis, Pelamys (Bonitos) ; all swiftswimming fishes.

66.    Trachypterus taenia and iris. Fishes shaped like wide silvery ribbons.


67.    Clupea harengus (herring) ; Clupea pilchardus (sardine) ; Belone belone and It. acus (gar-pike, with green bones). Exoccetus (various kinds of flying fish).

Be hind the glass pane 1 enclosing this case, at the side, may be seen collections of plankton, with pictures representing portions of it as seen under the microscope. The plankton is the mass of tiny anim.ds and plants which are unable to withstand the currents, and serve as food for a number of creatures, especially for very young fish and even great cetaceans like the Right Whale.

Exhibits arranged above the show-cases.

Passing from right to left we come to some large alcyona-ria and some decorative specimi ns of Gorgonia flabellum from the Antilles (presented by M. Foccart), and from Cape Verd ;

deep-sea sharks, such as Centrophorus ; surface sharks, such as Isurus Spallanzanii, from the neighbourhood of Monaco.

Pseudotr'iacis microdon (above case 29) is one of the largest deep-sea sharks. A series of various mounted fishes (Polyprion cernium, wreck-fish).

Against the wall, above case 17, we notice Thalassochelys caretta, (common turtle) ; above case 21, Sqnatina angelus (angel-fish), an intermediate form between the sharks and the rays or skates ; above case 29, Macrocheira Kosmpferi, the great Japanese crab. Above cases 30 & 37 : Chelone imbricata, which produces the tortoise-shell of commerce. Above cases 33 and 34, Chelonia mydas, or Green Turtle. Above case 43, Ortha-goricus mola, a large sun-fish.

Above case 56, two sets of real whale-bone from the Right Whale, which has become very rare at the present day.

Centre of Room.

In the middle, nearest the entrance, is the skeleton of a Sperm Whale from the Azores (Physeter macrocephalus), (presented by Colonel Chaves).

Right and left: walrus heads, with immense tusks (compare with those of the neighbouring skeleton).

A magnificent white bear (Usrus maritimus), with a seal under its front paws.

The skeleton of a manatee or lamantin (Manatus senega-lensis), skeletons of a Seal (Phoca barbata from Spitzbergen), of a Sea-lion (Otaria jubata), and of a Sea-elephant (Macrorhinus leoninus).

Continuing along the right we find skeletons of various cetaceans harpooned by the Prince : the Killer Whale (Orca gladiator), which attacks other cetaceans and even the Right Whale ; (Pseudorca crassidens).

Next, the skeletons of Halicore dugong (or common dugong) and of the common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis).

A set of cases apart exhibit Weddell’s Seals (Leptonycho-tes Weddelli) (presented by Mr. Bruce, the Antarctic explorer) ; the curious Giant Crab of Japan (Macrocheria Kasmpferi) in a defensive attitude (presented by Professor Doflein) ; further on a Brazilian Manatee (Manatus), lies as if asleep on the floor of an aquarium. Then comes a complete set of whalebone lamellae from the right upper lip of a Fin-Whale, 75 x/2 feet long, which was cut up in Spitzbergcn. An examination of this remarkable object shows one how the felted bristles formed by the frayed-out margins of the « baleen» or whale-bone filter the water, and retain in the mouth the animals on which these great cetaceans feed.

The central line of the Room is occupied by a very fine and most interesting skeleton of Balenoptera musculus (or B. physalus) (European Fin-Whale), from the Mediterranean Sea, which is frequented to a certain extent by this species. This cetacean was cast on shore at Pietra Ligure (Liguria) on the 6 th. September 1896, and is doubtless the identical one har-

pooned by the Prince of Monaco on the 26 th. May in the same year. It measured 65 l/2 ft. long. The skeleton, presented by the Italian Government, weighs 2080 kilogrammes. (2’o8 tons). It is remarkable on account of the healed and knitted-up fractures of several of the ribs and of the processes of the vertebrae. These fractures, which all follow the 3amc line, are doubtless due to the impact of a boat against the animal’s body as it lay sleeping on the surface.

On the stand under this huge cetacean there are placed : a cast of Grampus griseus, a cetacean remarkable on account of the multitudinous grooves scoring its skin in haphazard fashion ; casts of sundry parts of cetaceans, to give an idea of their anatomy. Near the stand, in a receptacle filled with

liquid, is to be noticed the foetus of a1 cetacean (Globicephalns melas) Black Fish with its umbilical cord and membranes. Observe the 4 bristles which form a moustache on the upper lip ; curious to note, these bristles disappear after birth. Under the vertebral column of the Fin Whale is the cast of a newborn member of the same species, found at the mouth of the river Var.

On the other side should be noticed some fine casts of various kinds of sharks : Mustelus asterias (smooth houndfish), Prionace glauca (blue shark) : Heptanchus cinereus and Hexan-chus griseus, Sharks which, as their names indicate, have respectively seven and six gills, whereas all other sharks have only five.

Do not fail to look at the cast of a great « Pilgrim Sharks, with its curious snout (Cetorhinus maxitnus), which is sometimes over 39 feet long.

Next are to be seen arranged in four vessels, some fragments of very rare cephalopods (squids or cuttle-fishes), especially the body and fin of the famous Lepidoteuthis Grimaldii; its head and tentacles are missing. It was extracted from a


sperm whale's stomach, and

The model of an Antipodean Whale (Neobalcena antipodaram),under the right fin of the great Fin Whale, clearly demonstrates the position and use of the whalebone lamellae.

Notice also the seal killed in Spitzbergen by the Prince (Phoca barbata); a fine specimen of Weddell’s seal, (presented by Dr Charcot), and some skeletons of whales : globicephali (Globice-phalus melas) ; beluga or white whale (Delphinapterus cavirostris, from Beaulieu.

First Floor.

Two staircases of 51 steps lead to a vestibule on the first floor. This vestibule is 49 feet high, lighted from the north by an immense glass window, which opens on to a magnificent balcony ; east and west are two smaller windows on either side ; from the ceiling hang two large lanterns executed by Bagues. The handsome and effective design of the mosaic floor represents marine animals, luminous fishes, crabs, & sargasso weeds, with a gorgonocephalus as the central subject.

The large glass window, as well as the walls on the same side, is draped with a great blue-stained sardine-net. Notice above the entry a Californian Octopus (Octopus punctatus), measuring 29 % feet across.

On the right of the central entrance : a beam trawl; on the left: an otter trawl (trawl with boards attached), small scale models of tackle used in deep sea fisheries.

Central Hall.

The first, 212 feet above sea level, consists like the ground floor of a large central hall, entered from the vestibule, and two large lateral rooms. The dimensions of these rooms are the same as those of the corresponding rooms on the floor below, except as regards the height, which here is 36 feet. There are four columns of Brescian calcareous stone in this central hall, and five cut-glass chandeliers hang from the ceiling. Between the two columns on the side nearest the sea there is a little model of the yacht « Princesse Alice II» in a glass case ; and close by another model representing her predecessor, the « Princesse Alice I». In the middle is one of the Prince’s whaleboats, complete with all her fittings : a harpoon-shooting cannon, whale lines, lances, harpoons to be thrown by hand, and the whole tackle necessary for whale-fishing.

Here are also to be seen the tent and camping accessories which Captain Isachsen used while exploring the N. W. of Spitzbergen during the Prince’s cruises).

Six revolving stands, holding photographs recording facts of interest connected with the Prince’s cruises or otherwise illustrating oceanographical subjects, are placed against the walls for inspection by visitors, who can also refer to the maps and various pictures here put at their disposal.

In this hall, too, on the right and on the left of the entrance respectively, are an electric light distribution board, and a door which leads to a winding staircase with seventy-one steps giving access to the terrace.

The two rooms, one on either side, which open out from the hall through wide glazed doorways framed in carved woodwork, are identical in plan. Their walls, like those of the rooms on the lower story, are lined with iron-framed, glass-sided show-cases, both on the floor level, and also up in the galleries which go almost completely round the sides of each room, being interrupted only on the walls pierced by the entrance doors. Six rails are fastened across the ceiling of each room, and hanging from them are nets and other tackle for capturing sea-animals, etc.

The electric lighting arrangements in each room consist of eight arc-lamps along the walls, and six brackets of nine lamps each in the gallery.

East Room.

Physical and instrumental Oceanography.

The East Room is more especially appropriated to the Physics, Chemistry, and Mechanics of the sea, and above all to the exhibition of apparatus needed for marine research work from a scientific, physical and biological stand-point. This collection is doubtless the most complete and most important in existence.

These instruments arc necessary for gaining correct knowledge of the habits, ways of living, and development of many creatures, and for learning what steps should be taken in order to protect them and encourage their development, with a view to exploiting the rich resources of our sea industries in a rational manner.


Under the gallery, before we reach the glass cases, are to be seen, placed side by side on the same stand, three blue glass prisms of different sizes demonstrating the depth : i. of the North Sea, (on a 16 yfathom bottom) ; 2. of the Atlantic, at 2460 % fathoms;

3. of the deepest bottom known i.e. 5348 fathoms.

A model on the same scale of the Mauretania, which is over 754 ft. (125 fathoms) long, placed on each prism accentuates the differences.

Above the show-cases under the windows are framed plates from the Prince’s important treatise giving the results of his scientific expeditions.

Show-cases 1- 7 contain exhibits relating to marine optics.

»    8-13    »    »    »    » temperature in

sea.

»    14-28    »    instruments for obtaining samples

of water at various depths (water-bottles).

»    30-44    » sounding instruments, for measu

ring depth.

»    45-57    »    apparatus employed for studying

currents.

As these are all instruments of a special kind, and are moreover provided with detailed descriptions and drawings, we

shall do no more here than just briefly refer to the most interesting of the apparatus.

1. Bertel’s Spectrograph, used for the first time at Monaco in 1911. It registers on the photographic plate the light-rays which penetrate the water at various depths.

2. The Ewald-Grcin Photometer, with which in 1912, at Monaco, M. Grein was able to measure the penetration of different light-rays in sea-water. Blue-violet rays reach at least 820 fathoms. Grein’s Photometer.

4. Regnard’s Photometrograph, which registers the effect of light at various depths.

6.    Secchi’s discs, for measuring the degree of the transparency of water by noting the depth at which they cease to be visible.

7.    Instruments for studying the colour of sea-water (Fo-rel’s scale, different instruments invented by M. Thoulet).

8-13. Models of every description of thermometer for measuring the temperature of the sea at different depths. Many of these models are quite obsolete and have been reconstructed for the Museum, which is thus furnished with an incomparable collection, ranging from Cavendish’s thermometers (1757) to the latest and most accurate instruments made.

Nowadays the thermometers employed are very sensitive ones, graduated in 1/100, but constructed in the ordinary way ; or else «reversing thermometers», invented by Negrctti and Zambra ; the one in most general use being the Nanscn-Ekman instrument, known by the name of « Richter’s thermometer#, after its first maker. (Case 9).

10-11. Various frames with « messengers » (sliding weights) or with screw-fans for use with reversing thermometers.

14-29. A unique collection of «water-bottles», ranging

from the most ancient (case 29, Hooke’s Bottle) to the most recent ones.


At present two types of bottle are in use : in one, the sample of water is enclosed on the spot in an insulating bottle, so that the ordinary thermometer which is inside the bottle records the original temperature of the water until after its arrival on board. In the other type the thermometer is a reversing one ; the mechanism which closes the bottle (screw-fan or messenger) causes the thermometer to turn upside down , the mercury column thereupon breaks, and is no longer affected by later variations of temperature.


The insulating bottles chiefly used arc the Nansen-Ekman, and the Pettersson-Nansen patterns (case 17); of the other type, Richard’s bottle (cases 15-16) and the one from the Christiania Central Bureau (case 17) are most often employed.

18.    Knudsen’s Bottle, for use from a ship in motion, with a pressure-gauge indicating the depth from which the sample is taken.

19.    Richard’s mercury Bottle, by means of which, during one of the Prince’s cruises, it was demonstrated that the quantity of gases dissolved in sea-water is independent of the depth.

24. Wille’s Bottle is a monumental affair compared with the little instruments which have advantageously supplanted it at the present day.

30-40. On the opposite side of the room, in the cases numbered 30 to 43, are instruments for taking soundings, from the ordinary sounding-line with its greased lead (plummet) down to the most recent and most highly-perfected models. At the present

day, especially in oceanographical work, Richard’s water-bottle the kinds most in use are Leger's sounding-    (cases 15-16)

apparatus (case 32), Buchanan’s sounding-tube (case 38), and a few others.


Leger'a Sounding-apparatus, going down (case 32)


The collection also comprises models of the most ancient sounding-apparatus known, such as Alberti’s (end of the 16 th. century) and Hooke’s (1661), interesting from an historical point of view. The recording pressure-gauge invented by Schaeffer and Budcnbcrg (case 41) is used for tracing the outline of the sea-bottom, and for ascertaining the variable depth attained by any apparatus (e. g. a net) while it is being towed by a vessel.

fine ropes or cables

formerly of hemp, nowadays of steel, these lines are wound on the winches of sounding machines.

45-57. A fine collection of instruments for studying currents. Some are in the form of floats or drift-bottles, the speed and direction of which are recorded. Case 46, especially, con-


Sounding instruments are let down by means of according to their weight;


tains sundry models of «floats» or drift-bottles used by the Prince for the study of the Gulf-Stream. Each drift-bottle contains a paper drawn up in several languages to be sent back by the finder of the bottle. Since a record is thus obtained of the time and place of its finding, as well as of the time and place of its launching, it is possible to ascertain approximately its track and how long it has been on the way.

Current-meters properly so called are instruments which point in the direction of the current by means of a rudder or vane, a propeller which counts the revolutions gives the speed, and a compass gives the direction of the current. The meter chiefly used in oceanography is Ekman’s (case 55), a simple and ingenious pattern ; there are also those invented by Pilsbury (case 50),by Boccardo (case 52) ; by Nansen (case 53) ; by Pet-tersson, with a photographic system of registration (case 56) ,' and the same inventor’s universal apparatus (case 57).

In the Centre of the Room.

A model of a part of the yacht « Princcssc Alice » showing the arrangement of the derricks, the windlasses and winches with warps for working trawls and cage-traps at any depth.

Apparatus for the researches made at Monaco, in 1889 and 1890, by Dr. Regnard, on light-penetration in the sea.

Groin’s cage-trap, with electric lamp for attracting animals.


The Prince’s great trihedral cage-trap, which its inventor has lowered to a depth of over 3280 fathoms.

A great Siberian larch-tree, carried by the Polar current to Wijde Bay (Spit-zbergen).

A large general bathymetrical map of the Oceans.

This considerable work, the second edition of which is published in separate sheets, was compiled by the Prince.

Notice the lines showing soundings made by the submarine telegraphic cable Companies.

Next we come to a series of apparatus constructed under the direction of M. Stahlberg, demonstrating in a striking and graphic manner several oceanographical facts : such as the quantity of sea-salt in 1 cubic metre of sea-water , the quantity of silver contained in the sea, represented by a big silver pyramid beside the great Egyptian pyramid and the Museum, all represented on the same scale.

Fixed or movable globes show the land and the water hemispheres, the distribution of sea and land on the globe, etc.

At the end of this central part of the room is Sigsbee’s sounding-machine, placed here on account of its size.

Further on are Pettersson’s bifilar current-meter, and the Prince’s curtain fishing-nets, and Giesbrecht’s net for collecting bathypelagic plankton.

Flat Show-cases.

On either side of the central part there is a series of 11 flat glass cases (22 in all), containing a general collection of molluscs (formed by individual gifts from MM. C. Blanc, Dautzen-berg, R. Lacour, Sajot, de Sardi, Vayssiere, etc.) ; a collection of Japanese species ; another of Mediterranean species (presented by the Marquis de Monterosato). Above the cases are instructive pictures, maps, and diagrams refering to oceanographical subjects.

The Gallery.

Take the right-hand staircase to the gallery ; above the staircase are some lithological charts of the Mediterranean Sea by M. Thoulet; the highest one includes the region of Monaco, which up to the present time is the part most thoroughly explored.

1-4. Apparatus for extracting and measuring the amount of gases contained in sea-water.

5-6. Instruments and apparatus used for determining the amount of chlorine contained in sea-water. The salinity and density of sea-water can be calculated from the results of this measurement. Density may also be deduced from the refractive index measured, for instance, by means of Bcr-get’s refractometer (case 6) ; elements contained in sea-water, exhibited in the form of very fine specimens. Salts dissolved in sea-water.

8.    A comparison between the composition of the residues from sea-water on evaporation, and that from river-water.

Proportional quantities of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, carbonic acid) in sea-water at o° and at 300, represented in a striking manner.

9.    Areometers and pycnometers of various patterns, for measuring the density of sea-water.

10.    Piezometers for ascertaining the compressibility of water (Ekman’s model, used by its inventor on board the «Princesse Alice») (presented by the Christiana laboratory). Some piezometers which are now historic, made and employed on board the « Challenger » by Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, who presented them to the Museum.

One of Richard’s water-bottles, crushed ; a glass tube reduced to fragments, etc., showing the effect of the pressure at great depths.

11-14. Professor Thoulet’s apparatus for studying samples from the sea-bottom (sorting, sifting, ascertaining density, determination of carbonic acid, etc.)

In the lower part of these cases can be seen some huge lumps of rock dredged up by the Prince’s trawls, and in the neighbouring low cases F and G numerous and varied samples brought up by his sounding machines (volcanic ashes, pumice-stone, clay, manganese nodules, rolls of mud, and material dredged from a depth of 2737 fathoms,greatly resembling chalk). Magnetic apparatus for sorting minerals, invented by Verain and Chevalier.

17.    Several instruments and other relics of Aim6, one of the first French oceanographers.

18.    Various types of « messengers» or sliding weights; & sounding machines invented by Berget and Thoulet-

19-32. These cases are more especially appropriated to the instruments which are used for collecting and studying the plankton. They consist for the most part of nets or bottles.

19-20. Lohman’s Filtering Apparatus..

22. Richard’s method for rapid examination of plankton.

24. Bacteria box, invented by Portier and Richard, for securing samples of water in an aseptic manner, at any depth, for the study of sea-water bacteria.

Photographs obtained by means of the light produced by luminous bacteria (presented by Professor R. Dubois).

29-32. Several nets have been contrived for collecting the surface plankton without stopping the vessel (Buchet’s net, Hensen’s, Cori’s, etc... cases 29-32) ; the simplest is Richard’s (case 32), which has been in use on the Prince’s yachts for many years.

Nets and other tackle hanging from the ceiling.

A.    -—• Trawls and dredges which are dragged along the bottom : stirrup-trawl (middle of the fifth rail) ; wide-meshed net, invented by the Prince (middle of the second rail). During the Prince’s cruises the best results have been obtained with stirrup-trawl.

B.    ■— Nets and apparatus employed by various expeditions for securing the microscopic plankton from the surface, from the intermediate water, or from the depth of the sea, or for obtaining larger pelagic animals, such as the young fry of a considerable number of edible fishes.

Non-closing nets for capturing intermediate water animals or those inhabiting the surface water..

i°. Some of these are as a rule of small size ; they are often made of silk, and can be towed slowly, either vertically or horizontally. This is the oldest type : Schmidt’s nets (3 rd. and 4 th. rails) ; nets used by the «Michael Sars» (between rails N° 4 and N° 5) ; Chun’s net (6 th. rail) ; Fowler’s net, constructed on the principle of constant resistance, which partly closes as the speed of towing increases. (3 rd. rail, at the side).



Here also are the nets used to secure, with a view to measurement, the quantity of plantkon which is to be found in a given vertical column of water ; Hensen’s quantitative net (6 th. rail), & Apstein’s, both constructed of the finest silk.

2°. The other nets have a wide opening for securing the larger-sized plankton and even fair-sized fishes : Cori’s and Petersen's nets (beween rails 5 and 6) ; Richard’s net, the mouth of which, formed by a frame which can be taken to pieces, measures about 96 sq. feet ; it is often constructed of sacking, and gives excellent results (6 th. rail),



Bourse’s wide-meshed net can be towed rapidly ; its mouth measures about 161 square feet; it has given some fine hauls of deep-sea fish and cephalopods (1 st. rail).

C.    — Nets which are let down open and are hauled up again closed after having fished through a known vertical column of water. The best known and most generally used type is Nansen’s net (3 rd. rail, side) ; Heligoland small fry net (4 th. rail, side).

D.    — Nets which having been let down closed are opened at the desired depth, are left open during a given period, and then closed again before being hauled up. Thus one can be certain from what depth the contents of the net have been procured.

The nets mostly used arc those of Chun (1 st. rail, side), Fowler (4th. rail), and Apstcin (centre of 3rd. rail), which act vertically. Certain others are towed horizontally : Gies-brecht’s net, the Prince of Monaco’s curtain fishing-net; these nets are hung below the gallery at the end of the room.

E.    — The Prince of Monaco’s surface trawl or Pelagic


trawl works on the surface only, just as the otter trawl works along the bottom, (central line of the ceiling, between rails 2 and 3).

Near the ceiling, too, may be seen some kites and sounding balloons which the Prince has made use of, during his cruises, for research work connected with the upper atmosphere.

West Room on the First Floor.

Applied Oceanography.

The exhibits in this room consist chiefly of applications of Oceanography: marine industries, fisheries, artistic and biological applications.

First let us take in order, from right to left, the show cases along the walls.

2.    Notice : the eye of a 75 y2 feet fin-whale ; the brain and almost invisible auditory orifice of a globicephalus.

3.    Papillae from the oesophagus of a sea-turtle : hooks from the suckers of certain cephalopods (Cucioteuthis) which explain the scars on the skins of those cetaceans which feed on these animals.

4.    Cancer Pa gurus (Edible crab), which has just cast its old out-grown shell, the tips of the cl ws of the old shell were black, and the new ones will soon resemble them ; (presented by the Heligoland Station).

A deep-sea fish, (Macrurus trachyrhynchus), which has been sectioned (read its story written on the accompanying notice).

Several examples of renewal of injured members and of anomalies in certain animals.

5.    Several types of animals with luminous organs : notice especially the large luminous apparatus of Argyropelecus affmis, Halosauropsis macrochir, Histioteuthis.

Look also at the plates exhibited above the flat cases opposite cases 5, 6, and 7.

6-7. Spawn and eggs of various animals, especially a nest of Antennarius, a fish haunting the sargasso weed.

8. One of the smallest specimens known to exist of sperm-whale foetus, an extremely uncommon exhibit (presented by M. Vasconcellos).

Food of various animals.

9-10. Several typical instances of association, of commensalism, and of parasitism among marine animals. Wood attacked by teredo or ship-worms,rock perforated by boring molluscs etc.

11.    Various parasites found on marine animals.

12.    Parasitic copepods (fish-lice) : several rare kinds from great depths.

13-17. Sea-Birds (presented by H. S. H. Prince Louis of Monaco, M.Charles Benard, and M.Thams). Specimens from Monaco.

18-20. Specimens of Japanese fauna (some given by Professor Doflein).

21. Specimens of fauna from Japan, Tonkin, and Siam, etc., (obtained by exchange with the Paris Museum).

22-23. Specimens from the Indian Archipelago, from the oSibogan collections (obtained by exchange with the Amsterdam Museum).

Notice a peculiar fish in case 23.    (Photoblepharon palpe-

bratus) ; under each eye it has a luminous organ which even when detached is capable of shining for hours and is used by fishermen as bait for their hooks.

24-28. Corals from the reefs of the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, etc.

29-31. The Sponge industry; miscellaneous types of sponges in different states of preparation and of various origin.

32. Fish-oils (cod, herring, shark). Compare the transparency of the commercial oils with that of the oils prepared on the Prince's yacht.

33-36. Dried fish, with specimens of the fish in its natural state. Look also at the photographs on glass placed above cases 39 and 40 (Presented by MM. Thor and E. Tulinius).

37.    Different kinds of tinned and preserved fish, etc. tunny, shrimps, lobster, caviare, trepang (sea-slug) : (see the photographs on glass above cases 35-36).

38.    « Poutargue » (smoked eggs) of mullet and tunny. Sardine-preserving industry, etc. (See also in the middle of the room a model of one of Amieux’ factories, and the photographs on glass above cases 35-36).

39-40_43_44. Specimens of edible molluscs.

41.    Fish-manure, fish-guano, fish-meal. Salted roes, used as bait for fishing. Fish-leather.

42.    Seal-oils, articles made of seal fur (presented by MM. Cossart andWcdderbum) ; articles made of sea-birds’ plumage.


45.    Whalebone from various kinds of fin-whales (presented by M. Thorsen and C°) ; whalebone from the Right Whale.

46.    Whale - oils (presented by MM. Deck and Vana-ricn). Oils prepared from various cetaceans on board the Prince’s yacht.

Ambergris ; model of a lump weighing 24 3/4 oz., worth L. 120. Whale leather.

47.    Various products extracted by industrial methods from sea-weed, vegetable isinglass, varec or sea-wrack,


« maerl».

Antique Goblet, made ol nautilu* -ahell


48.    Tables drawn up by M.Marceletre-lative to the arsenic contai-ncd in seaweeds and marine vegetation. Products obtained from burnt sea-wrack,—ashes manure. Stalks of laminaria (oar-weed), fu-cus (bladder-weed), fucol.


ficial monster of Japanese fabrication. Drawings representing a sepia, made with the creature’s own «ink».

49.    Filtered sea-water (Quinton’s plasma) ; sterilised sea-wa-tcr, as used by Dr.Cailla ud at the Monaco Hospital. Baths of «mother liquorn, and products of sea-salt works.

50-57. Artistic treatment and other uses of sea-products.

50.    Japanese prints representing marine animals ; carved wood panels.

51.    An arti-



52.    A curious picture composed entirely of sea-shells.

53.    Pieces of furniture inlaid with mother-o’-pearl ; an antique engraved goblet formed of a nautilus shell; some bronzes ; a cuttle fish (presented by the artist, M. Fabre-Domergue).

54.    A beautiful case, containing artistic models of objects connected with the sea, manufactured and presented by the Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Factory, of world-wide fame.


55. Articles made of glass paste (presented by M. Despret). Decorated plates by M. Laugier.

An earthenware dish with designs of sea fishes, dating from the first century B. C.

56-57. Various specimens of glazed pottery, from the wellknown Portuguese factory of Caldas da Reinha.

The Flat Show-cases.


On either side of the central part there is a series of ii flat cases (22 in all), and above them are pictures representing a number of oceanographical subjects (luminous creatures, the development of edible fishes, etc.)

rated by sponges (Cliona), and by


The right-hand cases contain collections of rare sea-shells, brought home by the Prince from his cruises, and a large quantity of miscellaneous objects : rocks pcrfo-worms (Polydora) (presented by M. Topsent) ; and by molluscs (Saxicava, Pholas) (presented by M. Faideau, etc.)

In another case may be seen a fine series of sea-shells, sawn across in such a way as to lay bare their internal structure (presented by M. Charles Benard). Calcareous algae, or Corallines.

8. A remarkable collection of Leptocephali, containing specimens showing every stage in the development of the eel (presented by Dr. Schmidt).

12.    The coral industry : beginning with specimens of coral in its natural state, with its polypes and ending with miscellaneous finely-wrought articles made of coral.


13.    The pearl industry : pearl - oysters with « baroque » or misshapen pearls ; artificial pearls.

Above this case is a beautiful series of photographs and engravings representing the finest pearl ornaments in existence, adorning the persons of their,

— queens, great ladies,

Indian princes, etc.

14.    The manufacture of mother o’ pearl buttons.

15-16. The mother o’ pearl industry : miscellaneous objects,manyofthem highly artistic, made of, or decorated with mother o’ pearl.

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17.    Ornaments made of sea-shells. Cameos. Shells used as money in Africa (cowries), (presented by MM. Dautzenberg, Marcelet, and the Kassai Company).

18.    The great sea pinna (Pinna nobilis),the Mediterranean « knuckle of ham», with its pearls and byssus. Miscellaneous articles woven from the latter costly silky material.

19.    Examples of artistic treatment of sea-weeds, for the decoration of stuffs and porcelain.

20.    Hydroids (marine animals), of elegant and decorative shapes — coloured in various shades.

21.    Ivory produced by sea-animals. Teeth of the sperm whale (a Fiji Islander’s necklace, presented by Mr. J. Y. Buchanan) ; polished walrustusks (presented by M. Regnard and Mr. Wedderburn).

A killer-whale’s jaw, on which whale-hunters from the Azores have engraved a scene depicting a sperm whale hunt (presented by M. Richard).

22.    Yellow amber in the rough, and articles made of amber. Pieces of amber enclosing insects, (collection formed with the assistance of Dr. Briihl).

The tortoise-shell industry ; pieces of shell in their natural state and their transformation into miscellaneous delicately-wrought articles.

Centre of Room.

A magnificent sea-elephant (Macrorhinus leoninus) from South Georgia is a prominent object in the centre of the room, near the entrance.

A Greenlander’s kajak, complety equipped for seal-hunting (presented by Dr. Schmidt).

The end of this room is occupied by a large glass case containing a « rookery» of Antartic penguins. It is an exact reproduction of nature set up from the materials collected, the observations made, and the photographs taken by the donor, Mr. L. Gain, a member of the Charcot expedition.

A quantity of photographs and written descriptions explain in great detail the peculiar points of interest presented by the contents of this case, which was arranged by M. Elmers and is the most striking feature of the room.

Hung up above are several kinds of fishing-tackle collected from many lands, especially from Provence, Italy (Gallipoli), the Balearic Isles, Germany, Sweden, Japan, etc.

A life-sized model of a huge cuttlefish, so placed that it appears to be swimming in the water, hangs from the ceiling. It measures over 43 feet, including the tentacles, which alone measure nearly 33 feet each. (See the notice on the pillar opposite case 2i against the wall).

The Gallery.

If wc take the right-hand staircase up to the gallery, we shall sec in the show-cases specimens of fauna from : the Red Sea ; Australia ; Tasmania ; and the Antarctic Regions (presented by Mr. Bruce), etc.

The lower cases contain interesting collections of various objects of ethnographical value : fishing-tackle and weapons for hunting marine animals, in use amongst the most widely-differing races, as well as arms and other articles wholly or partly made of materials procured from sea-creatures.

For instance, there arc fish-hooks made of mother o’ pearl and tortoise-shell, arrows and harpoons contrived from the bones of cetaceans, models of fishing-boats from Pacific Isles as well as from ports in Brittany or from the Mediterranean Sea.

This collection includes gifts from M. Caraps ; from the Palma Laboratory, etc...

THE A0UARIUM.

A door opening on the left of the vestibule on the ground floor gives access to the basement rooms and so to the aquarium : The East Wing of the lower basement forms a large room given up entirely to the aquariums. These are of various dimensions, and constitute, in the first place, a row of 9 tanks from 3 ft. 3 1/3 in. to 16 ft. 4 2/3 in. long, and 2 ft. 5 % in- high, followed by 5 smaller ones. At the end of this first row of aquariums is one 19 ft. 8 in. by 4 ft. 1 1/6 in. ,by 6 ft. 6 in. (generally divided into two), capable of containing large fishes ; near by is a tank 19 ft. 8 in. by 9 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 4 2/5 in.

A large table, constructed of reinforced concrete with iron supports, about 70 feet long by 2 ft. 10 in. broad, runs parallel to the first row of aquariums, between this row and the windows. It is a sink as well as a table, and is calculated to support a large number of movable aquariums of different sizes ; all water overflowing from these -receptacles drips directly on to the table, and drains away down a slope into a central sluice. These aquariums arc intended to provide material for study, and are well lighted ; they facilitate physiological and biological research into numerous matters of oceanographical interest.

The little aquariums are more especially meant to serve for the observation of a number of small animals which would be lost in deep aquariums ; here, where they are isolated under conditions which suit them perfectly, they can be examined at close quarters and form the subject of interesting observations on their habits and many little-known peculiarities. One should not fall into the error of assuming that big animals, and especially big fishes, are the most interesting. On the contrary, among the smaller animals there are many species the habits of which are very little known (e. g. Gonania, Al-phcidse, etc) whi< h offer a highly interesting subject of study from the stand-point of marine biology.

Last comes a series of concrete tanks, 6 ft. io in. by 3 ft. 7 1/4 in. by nearly 1 % ft., arranged parallel with the table, near the windows. Sea-water is raised to a height of 211 feet by means of two pumps installed in a special room at the foot of the Museum, and worked by the electric power from the Tramway Station ; the water comes from beneath the Museum, at a rocky point where it is always clear and well-agrated by the surf which is pratically incessantly beating against the rock ; it is possible to reach the spot by going down a winding stairway with 89 steps,which starts from the lower basement; after the stairway one has to go down an iron ladder with 59 steps, and after that again there are 58 steps hewn in the rock itself (206 steps in all). The pumped up water is received in a cistern, whence it falls into the aquariums by drop of several yards ; this results in an. automatic aeration of the receptacles, by means of the mechanism of the wacuum pump worked by water, in the form of a constant injection of pulverised air.

ft should clearly understood that the aquarium is only an appendage to the Museum. There are moreover good reasons for supposing that it will ultimately be replaced by a much larger and better-arranged aquarium.

In the following pages descriptions are given only of those aquariums which are open to the public. These notes are not always exact or complete, because certain species live only a short time and it is not always easy to replace dead ones immediately.

As we enther the room we come first of all to 2 small flat tanks in which flourish several actiniae or sea-anemones (Heliac-tis bellis), from Trieste. Amongst these may often be seen wandering some Hermit Crabs, dwelling in shells decorated with anemones, (Pagurus striatus carrying big specimens of A damsia Rondeleti ; Eupagurus Prideauxi with a smaller actinia the cloak anemone (A damsia palliata). Through this association the crab is protected by the actinia, which drives off certain enemies, such as the cuttlefish, by means of its nematocysts, or tiny stinging darts. The actinia is rewarded by the remains of the crab’s meals.

Behind these tanks are three large cylindrical jars ; in them, according to the season or the chances of fishing, there live several sea-creatures ; Berogs, shaped like tiny barrels, easy to recognise by the movements of their swimming combs arranged in a row ; salpas; modus® (among these the enormous Rhizostoma pulmo). These animals are gelatinous and live near the surface.


In the neighbouring glass vessels are to be seen a quantity of little crustaceans, among which are mask-crabs and spider-crabs with long slender legs, and pointed rostra or beaks (Ste-norhynchus, Maia, Inachus, Pisa, etc.) These little crustaceans have a curious habit of attaching to their bodies sundry objects, such as scraps of seaweed, sponges, etc... which disguise them so successfully that it is sometimes difficult to detect their presence. This masquerade enables these slow-moving animals to stalk their prey without attracting the victims’ attention.

Next comes the middle row of tanks, which we will inspect in order.

1.    This tank is gay with beautiful, bright-hued rainbow wrasse (Coris julis). Under certain circumstances these fish will bury themselves in the sand. They share their home with the Ray’s Bream or Heliases chromis, which are small, wide, dark-coloured fish.

Long-spincd sea-urchins (Dorocidaris papillata) and dark-tinted, sausage-shaped Holothurians (sea-slugs, sea-cucumbcrs) (Holothuria), creep about on the bottom.

Some large squillae (Squilla mantis), a very voracious kind of crustacean, with two large spots at the end of the body, are often to be seen in this tank.

Here and there in this tank ,as well as in most of the others, there are several little red shapes, which, when contracted, look like tomatoes ; these are sea-anemones (Actinia equina). Others are of a greenish hue (Anemonia sulcata).

2.    The manoeuvres of the red mullet (Mullus barbatus) in this aquarium are worthy of notice ; the fish are incessantly exploring the bottom with their delicate mobile tentacles on the look-out for food. Here also are several red starfishes (Echinaster sepositus), and big greenish ones (A slerias glacialis) ; and from time to time may be seen the great Plutonaster subi-nermis, magnificently coloured orange-red ; and feather-stars (Antedon rosacea) ; and ophiurids, or brittle-stars (Ophioderma longicauda), discs with five long worm-like tentacles.

Above the glass may be seen not infrequently white asci-dians or sea-squirts (Ciona intestinalis) ; and along the glass sides, in corners difficult to cleanse, there flourish whole colonies of Botrylli and a quantity of tiny spiral-shaped tubes inhabited by Spirorbes or tube-worms.

3. Rock-fish of variegated colours, greenish shades predominating : wrasses (Labrus festivus, L. merula, Crenilabrus pavo, etc.) These creatures like to rest in crevices, or on the ground, or even among the gorgonids, like birds on trees.

4-4bis. This long aquarium is often separated into two parts by a movable glass screen. On the right are shown grey mullet (Mugil),with curious lips; « corbeaux », crows (Corvina nigra) : here also are some fine specimens of hermit-crabs,with their sea-anemones, and some sea-crikets (Scyllarus latus), looking like stunted crayfish, with short wide appendages instead of long, delicate antennae ; on the left are crayfish, lobsters, and various fishes, especially silvery, gold-streaked sea-bream (Box salpa), and Smaris vulgaris, easy to recognise because of the spot on each side of their bodies.


The King or Horse-shoe Crabs (Limulus polyphemus) which inhabit this aquarium are very extraordinary crustaceans, rarely seen in Europe, for they are indigenous only to America and to the Molucca Isles. The specimens in this aquarium were brought from New York (presented by Professor Townsend). The creatures back resembles a buckler end ing in a sword. King crabs are extremely voracious. They are the last representatives of the gigantostraca, fossils animals of the carboniferous and jurassic gras. Some little fishes are in the habit of taking tithe of the food supplied to the crabs.

6.    Here are several lesser and larger spotted Dogfish (Scyllium catulus and Sc. canicula) and often some Torpedo-fishes also. The latter arc a kind of ray or skate, and are capable of giivng electric shocks. Here and there may be noticed, fastened to the rocks, groups of peculiar-looking forms with tendrils like those of the vine. They are the eggs of the Spotted Dogfish.

Frequently this aquarium also contains some small cuttlefish (Octopus) ; Skates,

« Trigon », etc.

7.    The Serranidae (Scrranus cabrilla & S. scriba) are often hidden in ambush in cracks or hollows of the rock, ready to Kin* or Hone-Shoe Crab.

dash out like lightning upon the prey flung to them ; and in that case the seeminglycmpty aquariumbecomes for a few instants a scene of violent animation.

8.    Cuttlefish (Octopus vulgaris). Visitors find this creature beyond all question the most fascinating of the inhabitants of the aquarium, because of its uncanny shape, its suckers, and its strange movements. Its mouth is in the centre, whence spring all the tentacles, and it has a parrot-like beak. The tube which may be seen opening and closing beneath the head is the siphon, which expels the water the animal has breathed.

9.    This aquarium contains «rascassos» and «hog-fishes», which are indispensable ingredients of « bouillabaisse » the famous Mediterranean dish. They are members of the race of Scorpaenid® (Scorpaena porous and S. scrofa). They can assume with ease the colour of the sea-bottom, where they appear heavy and ugly. But at the mere sight of prey falling into their tank they rush towards it with extraordinary speed, and then return to their retreat and huddle themselves together. A few sea-bream (Pagellus erythrinus) enliven this tank, and some shell-fishes (Murex brandaris) flourish on the remains of the food supplied to their companions.

10.    This aquarium has a magnificent population of Spirographs (Spirographis Spallanzanii) ; these are large worms, dwelling in long tubes of their own fabrication, from the mouths of w'hich they protrude and spread out their superb, flower-like,

spiral plumes, which are hurriedly with-drawn into the tube at the least touch. These worms live on minute microscopic animals which swim in the water and constitute the plankton.

Here also are animals of various other kinds : gorgonids (Gorgonia) much like little trees with spread-out polypes for flowers ; among the branching skeletons of other gorgonids are some curious fishes, the sea-horse (Hippocampus guttulatus), the Siphonostoma Rondeletti and the syngnathi, (pipe-fishes & needle-fishes).

There are also some species of ascidians or sea-squirts, especially the lovely orange-red Cynthia papillosa; and some specimens of transparent and almost colourless Ciona intesti-nalis. Here, too, are reddish bryozoans, often mistaken for corals (Eschara, Myriozoum) ; and some worms living in calcareous tubes from the ends of which peep out their coloured plumes. (Protula, Serpula).

A beautiful rare anemone may be seen here now and then Alicia Costae).

11.    Here dwell several little fishes such as Gobies, Blennies, the green Coricus, etc. and also a variety of other creatures, among them sea-urchins (Sphaerechinus) etc.

wise. At other times it spreads out a bewildering mass of delicatcs tentacles by means of which it not only breathes, but also seizes the tiny animals of the plankton on which it feeds.


12.    The ccrianthi (Cerianthus membranaceus), which predominate in this aquarium are a kind of long actinia or sea-anemone. Their base is deeply buried in the sand, and the whole animal, under certain conditions, will conceal itself likc-

Often the same aquarium contains some Pennatulids, {Pennatula phosphorea) or sea-pens, and Alcyonarians (Alcyo-niutn palmatnm). These animal colonies are able to distend themselves with water and then the polypes, blossoming out like flowers, appear on the surface.

13.    Sepias and {heir spawn (sea-grapes).

14.    Various flat fishes : (turbot, sole, plaice) ; uranosco-pidse ; weevers ; all these are in the habit of burying themselves in the sand.

15.    Here we have a number of Muraenae (Muraena Helena), whose bite is poisonous. They share their tank with some Conger-eels (Conger vulgaris) and Eels (Anguilla vulgaris).

16.    Some beautiful fishes of various kinds : Epinephe-lus gigas, varieties of bream (Dentex vulgaris), (Sargus Ron~ deleti), the Dorado (Chrysophrys aurata), (Labrax lupus).

17.    A large flat tank, in which dwell some sea-turtles (Tha-lassochelys carelta), almost always sleepy, and especially so in winter. One of them, which was brought by the Prince from the Azores, weighed i lb. 8 oz. on july 23 rd. 1897 ; at present it weighs 1 cwt. 4 lbs. 14 oz.

The Scientific Staff of the Museum.

Director........................ Dr. Jules Richard.

Assistants...................... MM. L. Sirvent and

Dr. M. Oxner.

Preparators..................... (M. Brement

who gave his life for France, 21st. October 1914)

MM. G.Dahl and Giauffret

Various posli in connection with the Muieum are held by the following :


Librarian and Keeper of the Archives. M. E. Comet.

Museum engineer................ M. P. Riva.

Skipper of the « Eider».......... M. A. Caraps.

Engineer....................... M. C. Calleri.

The most grateful thanks of the Museum authoiities are due to the numerous persons who by their generous gifts have helped to enrich its collections ; their example is worthy of imitation.

We take this opportunity of expressing our appreciation of the zeal manifested by the whole staff of the Museum, and especially by the Assistants, MM. Sirvent and Oxner, whose intellectual activity and untiring labours during many years have contributed in no small measure towards the organisation and installation of the Museum.

The Monaco Museum is as unique in the bold and imposing nature of its structure, as it is on account of the special purpose for which it was built. Prince Albert I has created a great and enduring work, characteristic of its founder, and he has thereby merited the deep gratitude of all followers of science.

The english translation of the Guide and of the explanatory labels have been done by Miss Naish and revised from a technical point of view by the Prof. D. 1. Matthews. The italian translation of these labels is due to Dr. CeruttI. These collaborators are heartily tanked by the Museum for their kind assistance.