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Page 46, line 42.—For “A small order,'’ read “A small genus.”

Page 83, line 47.—Add Fluted Cape, South Arm.

Page 136, line 33.—Add Muddy Plains, near Sorell.

Page 249, lines 32 and 50.—For “G. FlTZGERAi.nl, Rod.," read“G. micro-stachya, Booth.”

Page 250, line 7.—Add Victoria and New South Wales.

Page 258, line 5.—Add Freycinet’s Peninsula.

Page 272, at the bottom of the page.—Add 3. B. arenarius, Lab. Brighton South Arm, &c. Introduced.

Page 285, line 7.—For “ Peris ” read “ Pteris.”

Page 287, after line 27.—Add 3. P. PENNIGEREM, Font. Duck River, also New Zealand.

Page 291, line 26.—For “ inches ” read “ lines.”

Page 291, line 27.—For ” } inch ” read “ $ line.”







Poly podium pennigerum Tliryptomene micrantha

Zieria cytisoides.....

Zieria smithii ......

Zieria veronieea ...


This work is mainly designed to enconrage junior students to take a general interest in the vegetable beings living in this State. In pursuit of this end technicalities have been reduced, descriptions and general information have been abbreviated, and economy has been studied in every part.

The system adopted is that of Hooker and Bentiiam, the one that is at present in use in most English-speaking communities. Many efforts have been made in recent years to improve on this. The late Baron von Mdei.ef.r designed a system that is at present nsed largely in Victoria, and partially in New South Wales and South Australia, but it is doubtful if any extensive change will be made until a scheme is presented containing such radical improvements that a prospect of reasonable permanence may be foreseen.

The main objection to Hooker and Bentham’s system is that it contains a section—the Monochlamydeas or Incomplete—that really is a sort of dumping-ground for all forms that have no relations elsewhere. This, of course, is not as it should be. Here we have primitive forms that have not yet acquired the typical Dicotyledonous form classified with plants of a reduced character that once possessed that form and have evolved away from it. But the state of affairs is not improved by distributing the Incompletes haphazard amongst the real. Students should always bear in mind that not only are the great groups of plants descended from types long since lost, bnt the smaller groups and Natural Orders are seldom related in direct descent, and therefore any system that undertakes to classify plants in linear succession mnst necessarily be arbitrary, and almost entirely erroneous. Mheeler’s arrangement, and a more recent system by Dr. Warming, of Copenhagen, will be found in the Appendix.

Plants, other than grasses, that have established themselves since Tasmania has been settled have only in few instances received the attention of natives, but are placed in an indented position. Had convenience permitted, their descriptions would have appeared in smaller type.

The Plates must not be looked upon as the work of the Printing Department; they are faithful copies of the author’s drawings. Had the departmental artists been permitted to idealise them some departure from a faithful copy of nature must have resulted, besides which increased cost would have necessitated a considerable decrease in number, which may have been the reverse of desirable.

The intersticial keys aie not uniform. Those necessarily arbitrary are dichotomously arranged ; where permissible more direct comparison has been adopted.

Flowering periods are more general than particular, and local distribution is, perhaps, all too meagre.

The synonyms included 'are only those required for reference to VON Moeller’s works, Bbntham’s “ Flora Australiensis,” and Hooker’s “ Flora Tasmania?.”

In the Appendix will be found a Dictionary that is something more than a Glossary. Names of genera and most of those constructed from [the names of individuals have not been included. Immediately before the body of the work, appears a Key to the Natural Orders and some other groups. This is constructed purely to help those who approach the study with little or no previous experience.

The author would take this opportunity of expressing his thanks to very numerous friends who have helped him. Chiefly amongst these W. V. Fitzgerald, who for years forwarded valuable material ; T. B. Moore, for many most interesting plants ; Aug. Simson, for the use of his fine collection ; Alex. Morton, whose persistence alone prevented disaster during the incubation of this work; and R. M. Johnston, for kindlv help whenever needed.

Hobart, 1903.


In the Flora of a country or district it is customary to include only the races of plants that have developed true flowers, the races that stand in an intermediate position with their floral elements defined, but still dispersed or collected in cones (as in the Lycopods and Conifers and the more elaborated branch of Cryptogams), the Ferns that bear no flowers in the true sense, but whose principal development bears spores only.

The term flower is sometimes applied to the gametic reproductive organs of Cryptogams. This is not an exact use of the term. The name flower was given to and is considered to denote any specialised aggregation of foliar members on or about some of which are developed the organs that produce the spores in which takes place the rudimentary development that is homologous with the whole gametophytic generation of the Cryptogams.

The following is the scheme and definitions of the plants described :—

ANGIOSPERMS ,—Plants in which the ovules are developed in more or less closed sacks. The spore-bearing members, the stamens and pistil, are in typical instances gathered into clusters surrounded by much-altered leaves, the whole specialised mass being termed a flower. In many primitive forms this type-condition has not been reached, in others various reductions from the perfect condition of the flower have taken place. But however much the flower may be simplified, there are no Angiosperms that stand on the border-land of this and any other division. The division is well-marked and circumscribed.

This division is composed of two very distinct and well marked classes.



Dicotyledons, generally termed the Higher Flowering Plants, from their tissues and members having attained a more complex structure. The leaves are often very varied in shape, with the smaller vascular bundles forming a more or less intricate net of meshes in the green substance of the leaf, though in some few plants, e.f. Epacridacew, the veins are all or mostly parallel. The elements of the flowers are almost always in cycles of 4 or 5, rarely of 3 or 6. The embryo, which is often sufficiently developed to completely exclude the albumen, has always two opposite seed-leaves or cotyledons, except in some parasitic plants, where even these members have been reduced out of existence. This class is here arranged as follows :—

Sub-Class 1.—Choripetnlm. Calyx and corolla normally present. Petals free from one another, except in few aberrant forms.

Series 1.—Thalamiflorce. Petals and stamens inserted into the torus below the pistil.

Series 2.—Uisciflorce. Petals and stamens inserted on or about a fleshy disk formed on the torus.

Series 3.— Calcifloree. Torus more or less developed into a tube that may be hardly apparent or grown to the full height of the pistil, and then often confluent with it. The petals and stamens inserted on this floral tube.

Sub-Class 2.—Gamopetaltn. Calyx and corolla normally present. Petals more or less united. Stamens usually inserted on the corolla-tube.

Series 1.—Epigynee. Sepals and petals inserted on the top of the ovary.

Series 2.—Hypogynce. Ovary free, above the insertion of the corolla.

Sub-Class 'S.—Mowiclialamydea!. Perianth normally consisting of a single envelope, or (where double) not conspicuously differentiated. Plants of a primitive type. Also including some reduced forms of doubtful affinity.

The following is a linear classified list of Dicotyledonous Orders grouped in Alliances


Alliance 8.—Celastrales.














































T remandrac ece. Pol ygalncece.


xx vii. xx viii.































H ypericaceee.





















U mbellifera.




Alliance 7.—Geranjales.

Order xviii. Linacece.

xix.    Zygophyllacece.

xx.    Geraniacecc.

xxi. Rutacece.


Alliance 15.—Rdbiales.

Order xxxviii. Caprifoliacece. xxxix. Rubiaceas.

, Alliance 16.—Asterales.

























Pin in baginacecz.
























22.—Person ales.



Srriiph ulariacea.





Alliance 23.—Lamiales.

Order lviii. Labiateee.

lix. Plantaginacecc.


Alliance 24.—Chenopodiales. Order    lx.    Phytolaccacece.

lxi. Chenopodiacne. lxii. Arnarantacece. lxiii. Scleranthacece. lxiv. Polygonacece.

Alliance 25.—Lacrales.

Order    Ixv.    Monimiacetz.

Ixvi. Lauracece.

Alliance 26.—Proteales.

Ordei'    Ixvii.    Proteacece.

lxviii. Thymeliacece.

Alliance 27.—Ecphorbiales.

Order    lxix.    E uphorbiacece.

Alliance 28.— Urticales.

Order    lxx    V rticacece.

Alliance 29.—Amentai.es.

Order    lxxi.    Cnsuarinaceee.

Ixxii. C'upuliferas.

Alliance 30.—8antalai.es.

lxxiii. Santalacece.

The Monocotyledons, which are looked upon as a lower class of flowering plants, are notablo chiefly for their leaves retaining a simple shape, parallel venation, and often sheathing bases. The cycles of the flowers are generally composed of 3 or 6 members. The structure of the embryo is distinct, in the first leaf being solitary.

The Monocotyledons do not stand as an intervening link between Dicotyledons and lower plants, but form a well-marked group of specially-developed types from a primordial centre, some of the forms, as Graminete, being very specialised. At the same time, in the geologic record they greatly antedate the other class. Monocotyledons have been traced back even to the Carboniferous era, while Dicotyledons only make their appearance just prior to the Cretaceous. No Tasmanian member of this division exceeds the condition of perennial herbs.

The following is the classification of the Monocotyledons here adopted: —

Sub-class—Petaloidea: epigyne. Order lxxiv. H ydrocharidea. lxxv. Orchidacece. lxxvi. Bwrmanmacece. lxxvii. Iridacece. lxxviii. Amaryllidacece.

Sub-class—Pf.taloidka: hypogyne.

Order lxxix. LUiaeece.

lxxx. Xyridacece. lxxxi. Juncacetz. lxxxii. Typhacece. lxxxiii. Lemnaeece.

Sub-class—Petaloidf.as hypogene.—


Order lxxxiv. Naiadece.

Ixxxv. A lismacece.

Sub-class—Glumif lor* . Order lxxxvi. O entrolepidece. lxxxvii. Restiacece. lxxxviii. Gyperacece. lxxxix. Graminece.

GYMNOSPERMS ,—Plants in which typical oynles are developed and the gametic generation, though still very rudimentary, is much more defined than in Angiosperms. The ovules are not developed in closed sacks or carpels, but upon the upper surfaces of scale-like bracts, or may appear naked and terminal, sometimes more or less enclosed in a fleshy aril, microspores still maintaining the character of pollen and formed in well-developed stamens. Stamens and pistils often massed into cones, but no specialisation of members to form true dowel’s.

The Gymnosperms, represented in the present day principally by Conifers, such as Pines, Cypresses, Yews, date back long before'the time of Angiosperms, foirns occurring as remotely as the Old Red Sandstone era. And whereas in the pi-esent flay the Angiosperms contain as varied forms as perhaps they ever did, the Gymnosperms have long passed their prime, which appears to have been in the Mesozoic era. Also, though we have no evidence yet unfolded to demonstrate the descent of the great sub-divisions of the Angiosperms, we have abundant evidence of the close relationship of the Gymnosperms to the ferns through the Heterosporous Lycopods

Representatives of only two orders occur in Tasmania:—

Cupressacea (Cypresses). Cover scales and ovuliferous scales entirely fused, forming somewhat solid cone scales that usually bear many ovules.

Taxaceee (Yew*). Ovuliferous scale wanting. Cones never woody, generally succulent. Ovule sometimes solitary and immersed in a fleshy aril.

PTERYDOPHYTA.—(Fern-tribe).—Plants which do not develop flowers, and whose spore-bearing sacks are either developed in clusters or singly, upon the backs or margins, or sometimes immersed in the tissues of, leaves or at the base or axils of leaves. The spore-bearing leaves similar to the barren leaves, or sometimes greatly specialised, but never assuming the character of cones. Spores in some orders of two kinds, small and large ; the small-spored sacks never assuming the specialised form of stamens, the microspores producing semi-enclosed gamophytic growth, in which -are developed antheridia that produce motile gametes; the large-spored sacks producing megaspores that develop semi-enclosed gamophytic growth, in which is produced archegonia that develop each an ovum. This development of the megaspore differs in little but degree from the development taking place in the Gymnosperms, only in the latter they remain attached to the parent plant, while in the former they are shed from the sporangia before, or soon after, commencing gamophytic development. In other orders the spores are all of one size; each spore grows into an independent being in the form of a flat, green, thalloid plant or prothallus, from a quarter to a few inches in size, with the essential organs of reproduction, the antheridia and archegonia, developed on the under surface.

The plants representing the Pterydophyta in our flora are few in number, and varied in structure. They are the remaining representatives of a vast and luxuriant flora that, dating back into early Palaeozoic times, reached a marvellously rich development in the later Palaeozoic ages, to dwindle down to a comparatively modest rank in the present day. We find accordingly that many present-day forms—little, retiring plants, with apparently no immediate relatives—are the sole surviving descendants of noble and important families.

The Pterydophyta, on the whole, form a well-detined group, closely connected on one side with Gynmosperms, but on the other no immediate relationship to lower plants can be traced. They may be classilied as follows :—

Class Filicinte (Perns in the broadest sense).

Sub-class Fiaces (True-ferns).

Sub-class Hydropteridee (Water-ferns).

Class Lycopodinee (Club-mosses).    ■

Sub-class Lycnpodiaceee (Homosporous).

Sub-class Selaginellucam (Heterosporus).

Sub-class Isueiaceee (Quill-worts).


2. Phanerogams.

i. 275.) Gymnosperms. 161. Cryptogams.

3. Dicotyledons.

147. Monocotyledons.

xl. Compositcc.









iv. Fumaria. ix. Polygalacece.











i. Ranunculacece. xxvi. Rosacece. iv. Papaveracece. xv. Malvaceae.


] Plants developing true flowers and multiplying by producing seeds..........................................

Reproductive organs not assuming the typical floral design, forming seeds upon scaly bracts, often in cones... Flowerless; reproducing by means of spores............

2.    Parts of flowers seldom in threes or multiples of that

number (except Elatine and Euphorbia), sometimes collected into cones; leaves usually with netted veins, and seldom with a sheathing base (except Epacridacece). Parts of flower usually 3 or 6, if fewer or obscure surrounded by more or less unequal scarious glumes, never in cones. Leaves generally with parallel veins and sheathing bases (except many Orchids) ..................

3.    Flowers small or minute, few or more often numerous, in

a dense head surrounded by bracts. Stamens (except in

Xonthium) united in a tube round the style ............

Flowers seldom in dense heads, and when so disposed the stamens are free from one another.....................

4.    Herbaceous, mostly annuals..............................

Trees, shrubs, undershrubs, or climbers, with at least a

woody axis, sometimes reduced to dwarf (almost herbaceous) forms.............................................

5.    Leaves, all or most, alternate, radical or none............

Leaves, all or most, opposite orwhorled ..................

6.    Flowers with a distinct calyx and corolla...............

Calyx and corolla, though present, obscurely distinct ... Flowers with only one floral envelope, which may be

coloured like a corolla or green and obscure, or without any floral envelope at all..............................

7.    Petals irregular, partially united; calyx reduced to 2

small scales....................................... ...

Calyx petaloid, irregular; petals smaller, reduced ......

8.    Petals quite free from one another.....................

Petals slightly or distinctly joined........................

9.    Corolla quite regular.................. ..................

Petals not all similar to one another in size and shape ...

10.    Petals inserted on the top of the flower-stalk, helow the

ovary, or on the calyx, near the base..................

Petals inserted above the ovary or on the floral-tube, at a considerable distance from the base ... ...............

11.    Stamens very numerous.................................

Stamens usually 5 to 10.................................

12.    Pistil formed of many distinct carpels; leaves divided

into distinct or nearly distinct leaflets or segments ... Pistil entire; leaves lobed or entire ..................

13.    Sepals usually soon falling; petals and stamens free from

the calyx.............................................

Sepals persistent; petals and stamens inserted on the calyx, close to its base.................................

14.    Stamens dark, free from one another; stigmas forming

a disk at the top of the ovary........................

Stamens pale, united in a central column, or in a tube round the style; style distinct........................

15.    Calyx of 5 free sepals; stamens and pistil in the same


Calyx of 5 united sepals: flowers very small; petals and







































stamens 5 ; stamens and pistil on separate flowers ..... lxix.

Calyx of 2 or 4 free sepals.................................

16.    Leaves orbicular, divided into 3 leaflets, or much divided ;

stamens 10............................................. xx.

Leaves linear; stamens 5.............................. xviii.

Leaves variously shaped, covered with long-stalked sticky glands; stamens 5.............................. xxix.

17.    Sepals 4; petals 4; stamens 6, but sometimes some im

perfect ................................................... v.

Sepals 2; petals 5; stamens 5 to 8..................... xii.

18.    Floral tube long and free round the ovary; petals in

serted at its mouth.................................... xxxii.

Calyx-lobes inserted above the ovary.....................

19.    Ovary distinctly formed of two 1-seeded carpels; sepals,

petals, and stamens 5................................. xxxvi.

Carpels indistinct, many-seeded; sepals and petals 5;

stamens 2; plant densely tufted;    moss-like............ xli.

Sepals and petals 4; stamens 8........................

20.    Flowers small, green, obscure; plant usually rough;

ovary short, with four 1-seeded    cells.................. xxx.

Flowers usually conspicuous; ovary linear; seeds very numerous, with a tuft of hairs at one end............ xxxiii.

21.    Corolla nearly regular, with 5 spreading petals.........

Corolla very irregular; petals partially enclosing the

stamens and pistil....................................

22.    Stamens 5; ovary in 2 parts; calyx-lobes and petals in

serted above the ovary................................. xxxvi.

Stamens 10; ovary in 5 parts; calyx and corolla distinctly irregular............................................. xx.

23.    Upper petal much larger than and outside the rest;

stamens 10; fruit 2-valved........................... xxv.

Upper pair of petals rather shorter than the rest, and recurved; stamens 5; fruit 3-valved .................. vi.

24.    Corolla regular..........................................

Corolla irregular, sometimes appearing regular, but split

on one side..............................................

26. Corolla inserted below or nearly below the ovary.........

Corolla arising above the ovary, or scarious, and closely enclosing it..........................................

26.    Pistil of 2 to 5 free or nearly free 1-ovnled parts.........

Pistil entire or lobed .................................

stamens not inserted on the corolla .................. xxii.

Flowers in a one-sided coiled raceme; stamens inserted

on the corolla ....................................... lii.

28. Stamens 2 or 4; corolla never quite regular, often

divided nearly to the base.............................. lv.

27.    Flowers in an erect spike, or solitary in the leaf axils;

Stamens 5; corolla quite regular, deeply or slightly divided ................................................

29. Petals united only at the extreme base; flowers white'

or pink...............................................

Petals with a distinct tubular base, often entirely united.

30.    Flowers numerous, in one-sided coiled spikes; styles 5 ... xlvi.

Flowers few, in erect racemes or cymes; 5 filiform processes alternate with the stamens; style single......... xlvii.

31.    Flowers yellow.......................................... li.

Flowers white, pink, or blue...........................

32.    Flowers few together, on lateral or terminal peduncles

that are never axillary; anthers erect round the style,

opening by terminal pores........................... liv.

Flowers axillary, usually solitary: stamens spreading ... liii.

33.    Stamens and pistil on separate flowers: flowers on

xxxiv. Cucurbitacece.


xliii. Campanulacece„ lix. Plantaginacece.



xli. Stylidiaceat. xliii. Campanulacece.

(p. 71.) Vipsacacrn.


lvi. Lentibulacece. lv. Scrophulariacece.

xlii. Ooodeniacece.



lxvi. Lauracece.

lxix. Euphorbiacece. Ixi. Clienopodiacece-i. Banuncuiacece.




v. Crucif eroe.

xxvi. Bosacece.

Ixiv. Polygoniacecb-


xxxvi. Umbelliferce.


lxviii. Thymeliacece.




lxix. Euphorbiacece.



v. Crucifer(e. lxii. Amarantaceoe-

xxx. Ealoragece.

Ixi. Chenopodiacece. lxx. Urticacece.



lxx. Urticacece. xxx. Ealoragece.

axillary peduncles....................................

Flowers terminal, perfect..............................

34.    Flowers solitary or few together; corolla herbaceous,

white or blue............_..............................

Flowers few or numerous, in dense heads or spikes, small and obscure; corolla scarious, 4-Iobed..................

35.    Stamens more or less combined with one another; ovary


Stamens perfectly free.................................

36.    Stamens intimately blended with the style, in a movable

trigger-like or irritable colunm .....................

Stamens 5, forming a tube round the style...............

37.    Flowers numerous, in dense cushion-like heads, as in

Compnsitce, only the stamens are free..................

Inflorescence loose.......................................

38.    Ovary superior; sepals 2; stamens 2, closely surrounding

the ovary: nearly leafless..............................

Ovary superior; calyx 4 or 5-lobed; stamens 2 or 4......

Ovary inferior or partially so; corolla split to the base on the upper side; stigma in a linear or curved process.

39.    Leafless, or, if leafy, the leaves small, and the stem

angled ........................;.......................

Leaves fairly numerous and conspicuous..................

40.    Leafless parasites, sometimes creeping on the ground;

anthers opening by valves...........................

Erect, with angled stems; leaves (if present) few and


Stems fleshy, swollen, and jointed .....................

41.    Flowers at least 4 in. diameter...........................

Flowers under 4 in., mostly obscure and minute.........

42.    Leaves much divided....................................

Leaves entire, toothed or lobed ........................

43.    Perianth distinctly inferior..............................

Perianth enclosing the ovary, often with long barbed


44.    Leaves with scarious sheathing stipules..................

Stipules absent or small.................................

45.    Flowers small, gathered into small, dense, flat, terminal

heads, surrounded by an involucre.....................

Flowers otherwise disposed, if in heads neither flat nor surrounded by an involucre..............................

46.    Plant prostrate, tufted; leaves 1 to 2 lines long.........

Plant erect or ascending; leaves exceeding 3 lines......

47.    Flowers generally numerous, in terminal or axillary

racemes, panicles, or spikes........._..................

Flowers axillary, solitary or few, sessile or nearly so ... Flowers very obscure, terminal or axillary, few together, surrounded by an involucre of leaves; ovary 3-loned ...

48.    Flower-clusters strictly terminal........................

Flower-clusters chiefly axillary ........................

49.    Flowers in loose racemes.................................

Flowers in dense hairy heads ............... ............

Flowers in dense heads or spikes, but not interspersed

with long hairs..........................................

60. Leaves glabrous, or with white scales......... ........._...

Leaves bearing few or many coarse, often stinging, hairs.

51.    Leaves broad and flat....................................

Leaves filiform or fleshy.................................

52.    Leaves exceeding 4 in- Land plants.....................

Leaves under 4 in. Water plants........................

53. Ovary in 4 parts; perianth superior or none ............ xxx. Haloragea.

Ovary globose; perianth green, obscure, inferior......... Ixi. Chcnopndiacece.

Perianth conspicuous, pink or scarious.................. lxii. Amarantacece.

64.    Flowers with a distinct calyx and corolla............... 55.

Flowers with but one floral envelope, often obscure......    71.

65.    Petals quite free from one another........................ 66.

Petals slightly or much united........................... 64.

66.    Corolla inserted beneath the ovary..................... 67.

Corolla inserted above the ovary, or on the calyx, at a

distance from the base................................. ■    61.

57. Stamens numerous....................................... xiv. Rypericacea.

Stamens 10 or fewer....................................... 58.

68.    Flowers minute or obscure; sepals, petals, stamens, and

carpels 3 or 4.......................................... 59.

Flowers often small, but easily defined.................. 60.

69.    Leaves flat; flowers sessile, solitary or in one axil only of

a pair of leaves; pistil entire........................... xiii. Elatinacece.

Leaves linear; flowers pedunculate; carpels free from one another.......................................... xxviii.    Crassulacece.

60.    Sepals, petals,    and    divisions    of    pistil    4;    stamens    8    ...    ...    xxi.    Kutacea.

Sepals, petals, stamens, and styles 5; petals entire; fruit

in 10 parts............................................. xviii.    Linacece.

Sepals and petals usually 5; stamens 10 or fewer; petals often notched; ovary with many seeds on a central

placenta ............................................. xi.    Canjnphyllacea.

61.    Flowers large;    petals numerous;    leaves thick    and    fleshy,    xxxv.    Ficoidecc.

Petals 5 or 4............................................. 62.

62.    Floral tube, like a tubular calyx, free from ovary...... xxxii. Lythracece.

Calyx-lobes and corolla arising above the ovary; lobes

and petals 4............................................. 63.

63.    Ovary short; calyx-lobes and petals short and

greenish...................................._............ xxx. RaloragccB.

Ovary long, linear; petals conspicuous, pink, rarely white or yellow....................................... ... xxxiii. Onagracece.

64.    Corolla regular or nearly    so.............................. 65.

Corolla irregular....................................... 70.

65.    Corolla arising from the calyx or floral tube below the

ovary................................................... 66.

Corolla and calyx-lobes arising above the ovary......... 69.

66.    Cjprolla 4-lobed; stamens    2    to 4........................ 67.

Corolla 5-lobed; stamens    5.............................. 68.

67.    Corolla usually blue, split nearly to the base; stamens 2. lv. Scrgpliulariacece.

Corolla white, lobes short; stamens 4............ :..... 1. Loganiacece.

68.    Flowers blue or pink, solitary in the leaf-axils......... xlvii. Primulacece.

Flowers white, small; calyx of 2 broad sepals............ xii. Portulacacece.

Flowers blue, white, or yellow, twisted when dry; calyx

5-lobed................................................... li.    Gentianacece.

69.    Flowers minute, solitary or clustered in the axils; rarely

terminal................................................ xxxix.    Rubiacece.

Flowers conspicuous, blue, terminal, solitary, on a long stalk................................................... xliii.    Campanulacece.

70.    Stem square; ovary    of    four 1-seeded parts............... lviii.    Labiatce.

Stem round; flowers pink, in an elongating spike; ovary

entire, 4-seeded.......................................(p. 146.) Verbenaeece.

Stem round; flowers blue or yellow; ovary entire, with    .

two many-seeded cells................................. lv.    Scrophulariacew.

71.    Leaves pale green; flowers obscure,mostly terminal, and

surrounded by an involucre of leaves; ovary in 3 parts. lxix. Euphorbiacece. Plant not so constructed................................. 72.

72.    Flowers sessile, generally solitary, or few together, in the

leaf-axils, and chiefly towards the ends of the branches.    73.

Flowers stalked, sometimes in branched clusters ..'....... 76.

73.    Leaves linear, hard, rough or dry..................... 74.

Leaves filiform to oblong, succulent, fleshy, smooth ...    75.

74.    Leaves in whorls of 4 or more; corolla distinct......... xxxix. Rubiaceai.

Leaves opposite, connected at the bases; flowers hard ...    lxiii.    Parnnychiacece.

75.    Perianth inferior; ovary entire, globular; leaves opposite.    Ixi.    Chenopodiaceoe.

Perianth superior or none; ovary ovoid, often in 4 parts;

leaves often in whorls.................................... xxx. Hatoragece.

76.    Perianth distinctly inferior .............................. 77.

Perianth superior or appearing so........................ 78.

77.    Each flower on a distinct stalk; leaves under i in. long...    xi.    Caryophyllacece.

Flowers numerous, in branched clusters; leaves 1-3 in.    lxx.    Urticacece.

78.    Leaves in whorls; flowers herbaceous, white or yellow ...    xxxix.    Bubiacece.

Leaves opposite, connected at their bases; flowers hard...    lxiii.    Paronychiacece.

79.    Leaves mostly alternate or none, in some instances in

clusters at intervals along the branches............... 80.

Leaves opposite or truly whorled ..................... 122.

80.    Flowers with a distinct calyx and corolla.................. 81.

Flowers with but one floral envelope..................... 109.

81.    Petals quite free from one another, though sometimes

partially adhering.................................... 82.

Petals more or less united.............................. 102.

82.    Stamens generally 5, rarely 6, sometimes fewer...... ...    83.

Stamens more than 5, often absent from flowers with

perfect ovaries.......................................... 90.

83.    Ovaries superior or nearly    so........................... 84.

Ovary inferior or appearing so........................ 87.

84.    Flowers bright yellow; ovary in 2 or 3 parts............ ii. DUleniaceai.

Flowers pink or white................................. 85.

85.    Leaves toothed or crenate on the margin ............... xxvii. Saxifragacece.

Leaves entire on the margin.............................. 86.

86.    Plant rigid; leaves in small clusters, at intervals; flowers

in numerous small (nearly sessile) clusters............... vi. Violacece.

Plant and leaves otherwise; flowers solitary, stalked ... vii. Pittosporaceie.

87.    Leaves entire or none................................. 88.

Leaves lobed or divided................................. 89.

88.    Petals reduced to small hoods, over-arching the stamens;

ovary immersed or appearing inferior.................. xxiii. Rhamnncece.

Petals spreading; ovary truly inferior.................. xxxi. Myrtacece.

89.    Leaves palmately divided; flowers in umbels; fruit suc

culent ............ xxxvii.    Araliacece.

Leaves pinnately divided; flowers usually few, in axillary clusters; fruit dry....................................... xxxvi. TJmbelltferce.

90.    Flowers very irregular................................. xxv.    Leguminosce.

Flowers nearly    or quite regular........................ 91.

91.    Leaves divided    into leaflets.............................. 92.

Leaves entire.......................................... 93.

92.    Leaves with few broad leaflets; petals conspicuous, pink

or white................................................ xxvi.    ltosacece.

Leaves with very numerous small leaflets; petals minute, yellow; stamens very conspicuous, much exceeding the corolla................................................ xxv.    Leguminosce.

93.    Stamens numerous, often in a central column, or hiding

the pistil where that organ is present, sometimes few

where the pistil is absent.............................. 94.

Stamens 10 or fewer, surrounding or at the side of the pistil................................................... 98.

94.    Stamens and perianth superior; pistil present............ xxxi. Myrtacece.

Stamens and perianth inferior, or pistil absent......... 95.

95.    Leaves toothed on the margin........................... 96.

Leaves entire on the margin ........................... 97.

96.    Stamens surrounding the ovary; fruit a berry ......... xvii.






































Cupulifera. Proteuci'ce.



Stamens on a separate flower; fruit dry............... xv.

97.    Leaves flat or linear, and pungent; flowers small, often

clustered, yellow; stamens very numerous, surrounding

the ovary; fruit a legume............................ xxv.

Leaves flat, thick; flowers few, in racemes, nearly wliite; stamens about 15-20, usually on flowers without

pistils; fruit a black berry ..._............... ......... iii.

Leaves flat; flowers solitary, with obscure perianths; or leaves linear, and flowers few (in clusters), conspicuous; petals white; stamens usually very numerous, on separate flowers to the pistils; fruit rather dry, 3-lobed. Ixix.

98.    Under-sides of the leaves densely clothed with stellate

hairs................................................... xvi.

Leaves hairless, or nearly so..............................

99.    Flowers yellow.......................................... ii.

Flowers pink or white....................................

100.    Perianth and stamens superior........................ xxxi.

Perianth and stamens inferior...........................

101.    Flowers mostly red; anthers linear, black; ovary entire. viii. Flowers white, or nearly so; anthers ovate, pale; ovary

4-lobed................................................... xxi.

102.    Stamens inserted below the ovary........................

Stamens inserted on the perianth........................

103.    Flowers very irregular................................. ix.

Flowers regular..........................................

104.    Leaves stalked, with netted veins; petals in. long,

only adhering to one another by    their    margins......... vii.

Leaves with broad sheathing bases, veins parallel; corolla gamopetalous, usually under J in., sometimes falling off in the form of a hood........................... xlv.

105.    Stamens 10; corolla J in. long, bell-shaped............... xliv.

Stamens 5 or fewer....................................

106.    Leaves with parallel veins, or at least without a distinct

midrib, entire, often narrow........................... xlv.

Leaves with a midrib and netted veins, entire or lobed...

107.    Leaves large, coarsely lobed; flowers about 1 in. long ... liv.

Leaves entire or slightly toothed........................

108.    Leaves about 1 in. long, hairy, at    least    underneath...... Iv.

Leaves about 2 in. long, hairless........................ Ivii.

109.    Leaves scale-like or none..............................

Leaves normal..........................................

110.    Stamens and pistil in same flower; flowers dispersed......

Staminate flowers numerous, in terminal spikes; pistillate flowers in oblong cones........................... lxxi.

111.    Branches segmented, fleshy, succulent; flowers buried in

the segments ....................................... lxi.

Plant wiry, parasitic; anthers valvular.................. lxvi.

Plant erect or procumbent, branches angled or striate ... lxxiii.

1J2. Leaves toothed on the margin...........................

Leaves with a plain margin..............................

113.    Leaves rough, 3-4 in. long, hairy beneath; flowers small,

numerous, in a compound    panicle..................... xxiii.

Leaves rough, 4 to 1 in. long, hairless; flowers obscure, in small axillary heads; stamens and pistil on separate

flowers ...    ... .............. lxxii.

Leaves smooth, shining; flowers in terminal or lateral inflorescences ............................................. lxvii.

114.    Scarious stipules at the base of the leaves, sheathing the

branches................................................ Ixiv.

Stipules none, or minute, never sheathing...............

115.    Perianth and stamens evidently inserted above the

ovary ..................................................

Perianth and stamens inserted below the ovary, but the

latter organ often absent or rudimentary............... 117.

116. Perianth lid-like, thrown off at maturity; stamens

numerous............................................. xxxi. Alyrtace®.

Perianth normal; stamens 4 or 5; flowers minute......... lxxiii. Santalacecb.

117. Perianth conspicuous, and usually petaloid............... 118.

Perianth rather obscure, with more the appearance of a calyx................................................... 120.

vii. Pittosporacece.































Rutace ce.
























118.    Small tree, with spines among the leaves; flowers white,

in loose panicles.......................................

Plant otherwise constructed; leaves sometimes acutely pointed...................................................

119. Stamens 2; perianth usually tubular, with 4 short

spreading lobes, regular......... ..............._......

Stamens 4, often inserted on the tips of the perianth, which is of 4 segments, usually linear, and recurved, or

very irregular..........................................

Stamens more than 4, usually numerous, and on separate flowers to the pistil; perianth obscure, usually of 6 segments ...................................................

120.    Leaves and flowers hairy, or covered with crystalline


Plant glabrous..........................................

121. Stamens 8; flowers in loose clusters; fruit broadly

winged............................................. ...

Stamens about 16; flowers solitary, and nearly sessile in

the leaf-axils; fruit in 2 parts...........................

Stamens 9 to very numerous; flowers conspicuously stalked or clustered; fruit 3-lobed or in 3 parts.........

122.    Flowers with a distinct calyx and corolla...............

Flowers with but one floral envelope.....................

123.    Petals quite free from one another.....................

Petals more or less united.................................

124.    Stamens 4-6, usually 5....................................

Stamens usually 8-12.......................................

Stamens very numerous....................................

125.    Ovary superior, but partially immersed, and often buried

in a flesny disk, so as to appear inferior; petals reduced

to little over-arching hoods..............................

Ovary superior; petals normal...........................

Ovary distinctly inferior.................................

126.    Flowers small, in loose panicles; fruit a coloured berry;

leaves 1-2 in., oblong; stamens 2.....................

Flowers fairly conspicuous; fruit 1-4 follicles or nuts; leaves usually trifoliate; petals 4; stamens 4............

127.    Leaves large, divided....................................

Leaves small, linear to oblong...........................

128.    Leaves divided into 2 simple leaflets on a common stalk ... Leaves entire, toothed or divided into 3 or more lobes or


129.    Leaves simple, with a toothed or crenated margin......

Leaves divided, or, if simple, with an entire margin......

130.    Flowers white, bell-shaped, solitary, on long slender

stalks; fruit a beny....................................

Flowers green, obscure, few together, on a short stalk in the leaf-axils.............................................

131.    Flowers very irregular....................................

Flowers regular..........................................

132.    Perianth and stamens inferior; ovary in 4 parts.........

Perianth and stamens superior...........................

133.    Perianth and stamens distinctly superior...............

Perianth and stamens inferior or nearly so...............

I'M. Leaves oblong; flowers white or pink, i-1 in. diameter... Leaves mostly linear, spiney; flowers small, yellow, often in dense beads..........................................

xxvii. Saxifragacece.

xxv. Leguminoxcc. Iviii. Labiata.


liii. Cnnvolvulaceu .

x. Frankeniacece.




lv. Scrophulariacnt. xxi. liutncea.

xlix. Apocynacew. xxxix. B"ubiacece.



Ixxi Caxuarinece.


135.    Flowers 1-1 in. long, showy, and very irregular ......

Flowers regular, or very nearly so........................

136.    Leaves 1-2 lines long, pale, silky, closely overlapping

in 2 opposite rows.......................................

Leaves 2-4 lines long, narrow, oblong, glabrous or

nearly so ; corolla conspicuous...........................

Leaves usually exceeding 4 lines, generally broad.........

137.    Stamens 2 or 8; corolla 4-lobed, conspicuous............

Stamens 4, 5, or 6; corolla 5-lobed, or if 4-loV*ed inconspicuous ................................................

138.    Corolla blue or white, spreading; petals united; stamens 2. Corolla green, white, or red; petals cohering to one

another; stamens 8.......................................

139.    Stamens and pistil in the same flower, the former short.

and enclosed in the corolla-tube, or forming a cone over

the pistil; ovary superior..............................

Stamens and pistil on separate flowers; the former long and pendulous; ovary inferior...........................

140.    Flowers small, obscure, solitary to many, sessile or nearly

so. axillary or terminal.................................

Flowers conspicuous, often showy........... ............

141.    Leaves reduced to scales; fruit in cones..................

Leaves normal..........................................

142.    Leaves flat, linear; flowers in small, white, sessile clusters

in the 'eaf-axils; the perianth and bracts rigid ... ...... Ixii. Amarnntacrn.

Leaves broad or cylindric, rarely flat and narrow; perianth succulent................................................ 143.

143.    Perianth white or yellow; stamens 2; leaves flat, linear to    .

ovate................................................... lxviii. Thymeliacice.

Perianth green ; stamens usually 5; leaves cylindric, or, if flat, angled........................ lxi.    Chenopodiaceiv.

144.    Stamens 2; flowers tmder 1 in., white or yellow, often    .

clustered into heads.................................... lxviii.    Thymeliacece.

Stamens numerous, or, where absent, the pistil formed of many carpels............................................. 145.

145.    Leaves entire: ovary inferior......_......... ............ xxxi. Myrtacea.

Leaves usually toothed or divided: pistil superior......... 146.

146.    Leaves shining, acutely toothed; anthers valvate: tree ... Ixv. Monimiaceas. Leaves dull, with a plain or obtusely-toothed margin.

often divided; creeper or short simple under-shrub ... i. Ranunculaceir.

147.    Plant 1-2 in. long, subterranean, the flower alone

coming to the surface, and about 4 in. long, oblong, _

crimson and yellow.................................... lxxvi.    Burmavniaccce.

Plant green, growing on soil    or in water.................. 148.

148.    Plant minute, scale-like, floating or submerged; roots

abortive................................................. lxxxiii. Lemnaceat.

Plant with distinct stem and leaves..................... 149.

149.    Flowers minute, very numerous, in dense velvety spikes,

several inches to a few feet long........................ 150.

Flowers otherwise disposed .............................. 151.

160. Leaves flat, 1-1 in. wide; flowers brown, obscure.

water plant ........................................... lxxxii. Typknc.ro’.

Leaves rush-like, angled, very numerous; flowers white

herbaceous; land plant............................... Ixxix.    Liliacetr.

151. Flower and fruit enclosed in overlapping searious bracts

perianth obscure, often absent....................... 152.

Perianth of 6 equal searious parts...................... Ixxxi. Juncaeecr.

Perianth wholly, or at least the inner whorl, herbaceous, usually conspicuous; if obscure or without a perianth, never surrounded by searious bracts.................. 155

152.    Leafless, except sheaths on the stems, which are split on    _

one side................................................Ixxxvii. Restiacece.

Leafy, or if leafless, the sheaths on the stems not split ...    153.

153.    Plant } to 3 or 4 in. high ; flowers in small terminal heads    _    _

enclosed in 2 bracts: leaves radical..................... lxxxvi. Genfrolepiden.

Plant otherwise constructed.............................. 154.

154.    Plant leafy, the sheaths split throughout their length :    _

fruit a grain.......................................;... Ixxxix. Gramincce.

Plant leafless or leafy, and then the leaf-sheaths entire, except in Oahnia; fruit a small nut, often shining......lxxxviii. t'yperacrcr.



155.    Water or mud plants (except Trigloehln cenfrncarpal:

flowers small and numerous, or few and green.........

Land plants: flowers conspicuous........................

156.    Leaves opposite or whorled, i in. long, and very

lxxiv. Hydrocharidece.

numerous: flower solitary, axillary, never terminal: or the leaves long and flat, and the pistillate flower solitary, on long spiral peduncles, and the ovary in.

long...................................._...... .........

leaves, if opposite, distant, and exceeding J in., and flowers terminal: if the flowers are on a spiral peduncle, there are usually 4 together, and the ovaries minute ... lxxxiv. Naiadece.

157.    Plant densely tufted; leaves very narrow and hard:

flowers in small, dense, solitary, terminal heads, with

brown overlapping bracts; perianth yellow ............ lxxx. Xyridaceof.

Plant not so constructed................................. 158.

158.    Perianth inferior; if yellow, flowers numerous ......... Ixxix. Liliaeccp.

Perianth superior or partly so........................... 159.

Perianth inferior; fruit of 6 radiating carpels........ lxxxv. Alfcmacece.

159.    Flowers generally irregular; stamens com'lined with the

style, to form a central column..........._. .;............. Ixxv. Orchidnceo-.

Flowers regular or nearly so: stamens distinct......... 160.

160.    Flowers blue, white, or green, seldom solitary: leaves

flat................................................... Ixxvii. IridacrcE.

Flowers solitary and yellow, with flat leaves, or reddish and clustered, with cylindric leaves: stamens 6............lxxviii. AmaryUtdacecp.

161.    Plant bearing distinct green leaves, or, in some mosses,

brown, while in Schizan they are reduced to linear

stalks, often with comb-like appendages............... 162.

Plant not bearing leaves, or, if portions assume that character, they are not green, or are branches in whorl« at intervals, and are in both instances water-plants ...    166.

162.    Spore-sacks sessile in the axils of the leaves, or hidden

in the leaf-sheath ....................................(p. 279.) Lycopodiacetr.

Spore-sacks on the back or sides of leaves, or stalked: if sessile, on a creeping stem, and not enclosed in a leaf ...    163.

163.    Spore-sacks on the back or margin of leaves, or when on

an apparently special process (Schizfen. Ophinglossum);

the process is linear, comb-like or leaf-like............(p. 281.) Filicea.

Spore-sacks round or oblong, solitary and stalked, except in Pilularia, where they are sessile..................... 164.

164.    Leaves linear, 1-2 in.; spore-sacks nearly globular, sessile

on the creeping stem....................................(p. 291.) Rydropterida.

Leaves small or minute................................. 165.

165.    Leaves usually formed of small-celled tissue, and often

with a midrib; spore-sack generally opening at a terminal orifice, never splitting into 4 spreading rays......    Musri.

Leaves usually of coarse cells, never with a midrib ; spore-sacks splitting into 4 spreading rays..................... Repatictr.

166.    Plant flat, succulent, green, spreading on the ground or

on trees, often with erect plates or umbrella-like processes ................................................... Rcpaticcr.

Plants otherwise formed................................. 167.

167.    Water plant, or, if on land, forming greenish jelly-like

masses, or deep red or brown, velvety, thread-like covering to wood or stone....................................

Land plants................................................

168.    Plant leathery or fleshy, variously shaped, the spore

bearing portion usually in flat disks or spreading surfaces, or terminal round and bright-coloured heads, on

branched or simple leathery stalks.....................

Plants of most varied consistency and shape, never green, and, when the spore-bearing portion is in the form of a disk or cup, it is not placed on an expanded frond, and where the plant is in the form of clubs, stalks, Ac., they are usually fleshy, and the head is seldom distinct, and differently coloured....................................








Pistil of numerous free l-seeded carpels or few many-seeded carpels. Stamens numerous, free, and hypogynous. Perianth regular. Sometimes corolla absent

Climbing or erect. Leaves opposite ... Herbaceous. Leaves radical or alternate. Petals none. Sepals petaloid.

Stem with an epiealyx ...    ...

Stem bare ...    ...    ...    ...

Petals present, usually yellow ...    ...

1. Clematis.




A nemone.




Petals absent. Sepals petaloid, usually 4. Carpels numerous. Style plumose, persistent.

Stem long, climbing.

Anthers pointed ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. C. aristata.

Anthers oblong, blunt ...    ...    ...    ...    3. C. microphytla.

Stem with short erect branches ...    ...    ...    2. C. yentianoides.

1.    C. aristata, R. Hr. A tall climber. Leaves divided into 3 leaflets, sometimes variegated, rarely simple or more divided. Sepals narrow, about 1 inch long. Anthers prolonged into a point. Partially dioecious. C. coriacea and blanda, Hook.

Abundant; also extra-tropical Australia. PI. Oct.

2.    C. GENT1ANOIDE8, D. C. Prostrate or subtcixanean, sending up short leafy branches. Leaves oblong, entire or remotely toothed, rarely divided. Flowers as in C. aristata, but solitary and rather larger. C. aristata (partly), P. v. M.

Common. Endemic. FI. Nov.

3.    C. mtcrophylla, D. C. A tall climber. Leaves generally twice divided into threes, narrow, about |-1 inch long. Flowers rather smaller than in C, aristata, pubescent. Anthers small, oblong. C. linearifolia, Hook.

North Coast and throughout Australia. FI. Oct.


Petals absent. Sepals petaloid. Carpels numerous. Style persistent, curled at apex. An epiealyx close under or remote from the flower.

A. crassifolia, Hook. Small perennial. Leaves long-stalked, 3-5 lobed or divided, coarsely toothed, 1-2 inches diameter. Flower solitary, white, 1-1| inch diameter. Sepals oblong, about 6-8.

Black Bluff, Zeehan, La Perouse, and range west of Adamson’s Peak. FI. Dec.-Jan.



Petals present, usually 5, but often more. Sepals often deciduous, same number. Carpels numerous, 1-seeded. Style persistent, short, curved.

1.    R. aquatilis.

7. R. parviflorus.

2.    R. gunnianux.

5.    R. lappaceux.

6.    R. hirtus.

3.    R. rivularis.

4.    R. millani.

Flowers small, white, leaves w'ith liair-like lobes, water plant ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Flowers yellow or pink.

Achenes minute, rough    ...    ...    ...    ...

Achenes smooth.

Flower 1 inch across.    ...    ...    ...    ...

Flower under 1 inch.


Sepals erect. ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Sepals reflexed    ...    ...    ...    ...

Smooth, or nearly so, often stoloniferous. Leaves divided or broad ...    ...    ...

Leaves Aliform, or with one pair of filiform lobes ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

1.    R. AQCATILI8, Linn. Spreading in water or on mud. Leaves mostly divided into numerous branched capillary segments. Flowers axillary-stalked. Petals small, white. Achenes transversely wrinkled. Style very short.

Lake River, South Esk, Jordan, &c., principally in North and East. Victoria, South Australia, Northern Temperate Zone. FI. Oct.-Dec.

2.    R. GUNNIANUS, H. Tufted perennial. Leaves often long-stalked, laminae divided into numerous deeply-cut broad lobes, or entirely divided, and the lobes again divided into linear segments, gland-tipped. Peduncle short or long, normally 1-flowered and leafless. Flower 1 inch diameter, yellow or pinkish. Sepals and petals very similar, often numerous. Style of the achene straight.

On many mountain-tops ; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Dec.

3.    R. rivularis, Banks et Sol. Very variable, glabrous, or nearly so, creeping and tufted at the nodes. Leaves stalked, divided in 3-7 lobed or simple segments that vary from linear to cuneate, gland-tipped. Peduncle long or short, usually single-flowered and leafless. Petals bright yellow, variable in size and number, with a nectary in the centre. Achenes flask-shaped. The style but slightly curved in the flower, veiy curved in fruit. R. glubrifolius, H.

Abundant in damp places; also in Australia and New Zealand. FI. spring and summer.

Var. inundatux. Leaves very divided, filiform in water.    R. inundatus, H

Var. inconspicuous. Minute, hairy, leaves divided into 3 rather narrow segments. Flowers very small, buried amongst the leaves. R. inconspicuous, H. Sub-alpine.

Var. nanus. Minute, hairy, leaves as in var. inconspicuous. Flowers large, 1 inch across. Petals narrow, the gland below the middle. R. nanus, H. Generally referred to 11. lappaceux, but it has the achenes and gland-tipped leaves of R. rivularis. Sub-alpine. 1

5.    R. la spacers, 8m. Tufted, silky, very variable. Leaf stalk long, lamina lobed, or divided into 3-5 toothed lobes or segments. Peduncle usually long, leafy, and few or one flowered. Sepals erect or spreading. Petals bright yellow, obovate, about £ inch long. Achene with coiled style when in flower, and becoming somewhat rhomboid and compressed when in fruit.

Abundant; also throughout Australia and New Zealand. FI. spring and summer.

Var. xcapigerux. Small, tufted, very haiiy. Leaves usually divided into 3-5 pairs of more or less deeply segmented lobes. Peduncles erect or curved, bare or leafy. Flower single, yellow, sometimes inch across, at others minute. Approaching R. hirtus, Banks et Sol.; R. srapi-gerus, H.; R. pimpineuifoliux, H. Sub-alpine.

Var. subsericeus. Tufted. Leaves on long stalks; laminae broad, thin, entire 3-5 dentate or lobed. Flowers usnally small, but variable, and on short, simple, or longer leafy stalks. R. cudea tux, H. Sub-alpine.

6.    R. hirtus, Banks et Sol. Tufted. Leaves numerous, on long stalks, very hairy, divided into 3-5 toothed lobes. Peduncle long, leafless, 1-flowercd. Flower rather small. Sepals reflexed. Petals oblong, j inch long. Achenes as in R. lappaceus, Sm. Closely allied to and often included with R. lappa cents, Sm.

Very common on hills and sub-alpine situations; also New Zealand. FI. Dec.-Jan.

7.    R. parviflorus, Linn. Small, tufted, procumbent. Leaves orbicular, lobed, or segmented. Flowers minute, on short lateral stalks, or nearly sessile. Sepals 1-2 lines long. Petals same length, narrow. Achenes about | line long, with rough spines on the surface. R. xessiliflorm, R. Br.; R. pumilio, R. Br.

Very common. Throughout Australia and New Zealand. Slightly differing from the common form of the Northern Hemisphere. FI. spring and summer.

R. muricatus, Linn. Spreading. Leaves broad. Achenes large, spiney. South Europe.

R. repens, Linn. Spreading. Leaves dark green, often with a dark centre. Achenes smooth. Europe.

R. philonotis, Ehr. Erect, branched, slender. Torus globose. Achenes with one row of minute tubercles. Europe.

R. sceleratus, Linn. Erect, branched. Torus oblong. Achenes minute, numerous. Europe.


Petals none. Sepals petaloid, 3-8. Carpels few, containing more than one ovule.

C. nov.e-zulandi/E, Hook. Small tufted perennial. Leaves radical, spreading, stalk short; lamina 1-2 inches long, broadly and bluntly oblong, the lower margin with a pair of upturned appressed lobes. Flower solitary, stalk usually nearly obsolete, sometimes lengthening. Sepals pale straw-coloured, narrow, oblong, inch long. Carpels about 5-8. C. introloba, F. v. M.

Western mountains, Ironstone ML, Cuming’s Head, Mt. Humboldt, and La Perouse. FI. Dec.


Pistil of few or many tree or slightly cohering carpels, usually 2 or more seeded. Stamens few, free hypogynous. Perianth divisions, 5.


Pistil of 2 or 3 free carpels, 2-6 seeded. Stamens about 12, on one side (Pleurandra), or surrounding the ovary. Under-shrubs, leaves simple, flowers yellow.

5.    H. acicularis.

4. H. billardieri.

3. U. stricta.

2. U. hirsuta.

1. H. densiflora.

6.    H. serpiUifolia. 9. U. virgata.

8. H. fasciculata.

7.    H. anguxtifolia.

Stamens on one side. Leaf margins recurved. Penduncles elongated.

Leaves linear, pungent ...    ...

Leaves broad ...    ...    ...    ...

Penduncles short or none.

Minutely scabrous or glabrous    ...

Hirsute. Petals narrow ...    ...

Softly villous. Petals broad    ...

Stamens surrounding the pistil.

Leaf margin recurved ...    ...    ...

Leaf margin flat or incurved.

Glabrous, erect, or diffuse ...    ...

Depressed, spreading, or erect.

Leaves fine terete, hairy ...    ...

Glabrous, procumbent ...    ...

1.    H. DENSIFLORA, F. v. M. Procumbent or diffuse, copiously silky hairy. Leaves narrow, oblong, j-J inch long. Flowers sessile clustered. Carpels 2. H. sericeu, B.; Pleurandra sericea, H.

North Coast. South-Eastern Australia. FI. spring and summer.

2.    H. hirsuta, B. Small and procumbent, shortly hairy. Leaves linear, 2-3 lines long. Flowers sessile. Petals narrow, 3-4 lines long. Carpels 2, densely hairy. Pleurandra hirsuta, H.

Very common. South Australia. FI. spring.

3.    H. stricta, It. Br. Very variable in size of foliage. Branches erect. Leaves 2-8 lines, glabrous or minutely scabrous. Flowers nearly sessile. Petals 5 inch long, obcordate. Carpels 2, villous to smooth. Pleurandra ericcefolia, H. Abundant. Extra-tropical Australia. FI. all the year.

4.    H. billardieri, F. v. M. Erect, often climbing 8 or 10 feet. Leaves oval or obovate, flat, rough, with recurved margins. Flower-stalks slender, |-1 inch long. Petals broadly obcordate, inch long. Carpels 2, villous. Pleurandra ovata, H.

Very common. South and East Australia. FI. spring and summer.

Var. monadelpha• More robust, erect, leaves and flowers rather larger. Bass Straits. 2 3 4


8.    H. fasciculata, R. Br. Procumbent or erect, hairy. Leaves in bunches, very narrow, often) margins turned up, 2-4 lines long. Flowers as in H. angvs-tifolia, only smaller. Carpels usually 3.

Very common. South and East Australia. FI. spring and snmmer.

9.    H. virgata, R. Br. Diffuse or erect, glabrous, branches wiry. Leaves linear, flat, obtuse, j-l inch long. Flowers sessile, lateral, much smaller than in H. angustifolia. Petals ^ inch, scarcely indented. Carpels 3.

North. South-East Australia. FI. Sept.


Carpels several or single, cohering or free, usually 2-many-seeded. Perianth-whorls 2, but not very distinct.


Carpels usually solitary. Fruit a berry. Sepals 2 or 3, united in the bud. Petals few.

D. abomatica, F.v. M. Glabrous shrub. Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate. Flowers small, unisexual, stalked, clustered, terminal. Fruit black, | inch, strongly aromatic. Taxmannia aromatica, R. Br.

On mountains. South-East Australia. FI. Oct.-Nov.


Pistil of few united carpels, rarely of a single one. Placentas parietal. Ovules numerous. Stigmas sessile, connate, discoid. Stamens hypogynous.


Sepals 2 or 3. Petals 4 or 6. Stamens numerous.

P. ACULEATUM, Thun. Erect, bristly, annual. Lower leaves stalked, oblong, irregularly divided ; upper ones sessile, lanceolate, toothed. Flowers small for the genus, red. Petals | inch long. P. horridum, D. C.

Avoca, George’s Bay, Bass Straits. Extra-tropical Australia, Africa. FI. Nov.-Dee.

Fumaria officinalis, Linn. Pale-green, glabrous. Leaves irregular.

Flowers pink, irregular. Fruit small, 1-seeded, succulent. European.


Pistil of 2 united carpels, except in Cakile, with a common ovarian cavity that is divided by a septum or replum. Ovules 1 to many, parietal. Sepals 4. Petals 4. rarely absent. Stamens normally 6.

Pods 2-valved, equal. ,

2.    Barbarea.

3.    Cardamine.

1. Nasturtium.

4.    Stenopetalum.

5.    Capsella.

6- Lepidium.

7. Cakile.

Pods exceeding § inch.

Flower yellow ...    ..    ...    ...

Flower white or purplish ...    ...

Pods j inch or under.

Pods flattened in plane of septnm.

Leaves divided, flowers yellow ... Leaves lanceolate, flowers minute Pods flattened at right angles to septum. Carpels 2 or more seeded ...    ...

Carpels 1-seeded ...    ...

Pods of 2 unequal superposed parts ...


Pods cylindrical, short or elongated. Seeds distinctly in 2 rows.

N. palustre, D. C. Trailing to erect, few inches to 2 feet. Lower leaves divided into toothed lobes, upper ones simpler. Flowers yellow. Pods about 3 lines long, curved. N. terrestre, R. Br.

Occasionally in damp places. Temperate climates throughout the world. FI. spring and summer.

N. officinale, Linn. Coarser than V. palustre. Flowers white. Pods longer. Europe.


Pods elongated, the valves having a prominent midrib. Seeds apparently in 1 row.

B. vulgaris, R. Br. Erect, often 2 feet high, annual. Leaves with 6 or more toothed lobes and a larger terminal one. Flowers yellow, about j inch diameter. Pods linear, 1-1| inch long.

Common throughout temperate parts. FI. spring and summer.

3. CARD AMINE.    .

Pod elongated, linear, compressed. Seeds apparently in a single row.

Plant coarse. Pods 1 inch or more.

1.    C. stylosa.

2.    C. dictyosperma.

3.    G. radicata.

4.    C. hirmta.

Leaves entire or toothed ...    ...

Leaves lobed or divided ......

Plant short or slender. Pods under 1 inch Leaves at ends of branches only ... Leaves radical or scattered ...    ...

1. C. stylosa, D. C. Tall, ascending and erect herb, often 2-3 feet. Leaves mostly toothed and broadly lanceolate, sometimes lobed, sessile, stem-clasping, 3-5 inches long. Flowers small, white, in elongating racemes. Pods rather flat, l-lj inch long. Seed pitted.

Not very common, but widely distributed. South-East Australia and New Zealand. FI. Dec.-Feb.

2.    C. dictyosperma, Hook. Coarse but not as tall as C. stylosa. Leaves mostly deeply segmented into numerous obtuse lobes. Pods longer and more slender, otherwise flowers and fruit similar.

Very common. South-East Australia. FI. Nov.-Apr.

3.    C. RADICATA, Hook. Stems procumbent, thick, spreading, ascending at the tips. Leaves at ends of branches, stalked, obovate, toothed or lobed. Flowers rather large, in an elongating raceme. Pods f inch long and 2 lines wide. Seeds compressed.

Mt. Humboldt, Mt. Olympus, and near La ^Perouse, in crevices of basalt. FI. Dec.

4. C. hirsuta, Linn. A tufted or ascending herb, about 2-8 inches. Leaves with few small, paired lobes and a larger broad terminal one, sometimes reduced to the latter. Flowers small and white. Stamens often 4. Pod |-| inch long, very slender. Seeds smooth, orbicular.

Abundant. Throughout temperate climates. FI. Nov.-Mar.

Var. tenuifolia. Ascending, slender. Flowers white and purple, larger than the type. C. pratensis, H.; C. tenuifolia, B.

Var. parmflora. Very small and slender. Leaves with few distant lobes. Flowers minute.


Pods oblong, flattened, valves flattened, many seeds in 2 rows.

S. lineare, R. Hr. Slender, erect, annual, often 8-12 inches. Leaves mostly linear. Racemes elongating. Flowers very small. Petals small, tapering. Pod 2 lines long, lines broad.

Sonth Esk R., Bellerive. Extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

Draba muralis, Linn. Small, tufted. Leaves radical, oblong, toothed. Flowers racemed, minute, white. Pod oblong, many-seeded, valves flattened. Europe.

Seneriera coronopus, Poir. Spreading, pale green. Leaves much divided. Flowers in compact heads. Pods small, valves doubled, 1-seeded, corky and rough. Europe.

Senebiera didyma, Pers. Similar but slighter. Leaves more divided. Flowers smaller, and fruit less corky. Europe.


Pods compressed at right angles to the septum so that their sides approximate. Seeds several in 2 rows.

Pods ovate. Plant glabrous    ...    ...    ...    ...    1.    C. elliptica.

Pods ovate. Plant villous    ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    C. antipoda.

Pods veiy flat. Valves heeled    ...    ...    ...    ...    3.    C.tasmanica.

1.    C. elliptica, Met/. Decumbent, spreading annual, lower leaves ovate, segmented, upper ones linear and entire, about 1 inch long. Flowers very small, racemed. Pod ovate, valves very convex, seeds about 10 in each cell.

C. procumbens, B.; Hutckinsia procumbms, H.

Blackman’s R. Common to Australia and Northern Hemisphere. FI. Nov.-Feb.

2.    C. antipoda, F. v. M. Very similar but smaller, minutely villous and pod less compressed. Seeds few in each cell. C. australis, B.; Hutckinsia australis, H.

Common on dry hills in the north. Victoria. FI. Nov.-Feb.

3. C. tasmanica, F. v. M.    Small, slender, erect, annual, 1-3 inches high, sprinkled wdth stellate hairs. Radical leaves stalked, ovate, entire, 2-3 lines long; stem-leaves narrower, longer, and sessile. Flowers small, white, racemed. Pod obovate, very flat, valves strongly keeled, 3 or 4 seeds in each cell. Thlaspi taxmanicum, H.

Arthur Lake. FI. Dec.

C. bursa-pastoris, D. C. Leaves radical, tufted, obovate, lobed. Pods very flat, inversely triangular. Europe. 5

2. L. ruderale, Linn. Erect, branched, wiry, annual, 6 inches to 2 feet, leaves linear, lower ones divided, upper ones entire. Racemes greatly elongating. Flowers very small, no petals, and 2 stamens. Pods small, flat, ovate, slightly winged.

Very common throughout Australia and Europe. FI. Nov.-Dee.

L. campestre, R. Br. Erect, simple. Pods with a broad wing-like expansion above. Europe.

L. draba, Linn. Pale green. Flowers white in a flat raceme, elongating. Pod not winged. Europe.

Sisymbrium officinale, Scop. Leaves rough, lobed. Flowers small, yellow. Pods broadly linear, pressed against the stem. Europe.

Brassica sinapistrum, Bois. Similar to the last, but flowers large, and the pods spreading. Europe.


Pod oblong, of 2 superposed articles, the upper one mitre-shaped, and containing 1 seed, the lower one smaller and barren.

C. maritima, Scop. Robust and spreading, annual, 1-2 feet. Leaves pale, flesby, spatliulate. Flowers lilac, in an elongating raceme. Pods nearly 1 inch long.

Sea-coast. South and East Australia, England, and Mediterranean. FI. Nov.-Jan.

RESEDA CEJE (alien).

Reseda luteola, Linn. Tall, stiff, seldom branched, herb about 2 feet. Leaves lanceolate, 2-3 inches. Flowers in a long dense spike, yellow-green.

R. alba, Linn. Smaller than R. luteola. Leaves with linear lobes. Flowers white. Europe.


Pistil of 3 blended carpels. Placentas parietal. Stamens 5, hypogynous, Anthers appressed. Corolla often irregular.

Herbs.    Corolla irregular    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. Viola.

Shrub.    Corolla regular...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. Dyrnenanthera.


Sepals 5. Petals 5, unequal, lower one spurred.

Leaves tapering at the base.

Flowers small, leaves reniform or rhomboid Flowers large, leaves longer than broad ...

Leaves abrnpt or cordate.    •

Flowers pale violet. Stipules adnate ...

Flowers white. Stipules free ...    ...

1. V- hederacea. Lab. Small, tufted, and creeping,

Flowers white to blue, spur very slight.

Abundant. Extra-tropical Australia. FI. spring and summer.

Var. sieberi. Leaves rhomboid. Petals minute.

Fruit a 3-valved capsule.





V. hederacea.

V. beloniccefolia.

V. cunninghami. V. ca ley ana.

Leaves stalked, reniform.

3.    Y. cunning ha mi, H. Tufted and creeping. Leaves stalked, about 5-inch diameter, reniform to orbicular. Stipules short, aduate, pointed. Flowers pale violet, spur short.

Western mountains, Cuming’s Head. New Zealand. FI. Dec.

4.    Y. caleyana, Don. Stem weak, decumbent. Leaves stalked, broadly cordate, about 1 inch long. Flowers small, white; spur short and thick.

Deloraine and East Coast. South-East Australia. FI. Nov.-Jan.


Sepals 5. Petals 5, nearly equal, short. Anthers nearly sessile. Placentas usually 2 only, and each l-seeded. Fruit small, baccate.

H. banksii, F. v. M. A rigid, branched, often spiney shrub. Leaves about 1 inch, linear, oblong, obtuse. Flowers small, nearly sessile, often unisexual, solitary, or few together. II. dentata, R. Br.; H. ungustifolia, R. Br,

Common; also South-East Australia and New Zealand. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Pistil of 2, rarely more, carpels. Placentas parietal. Stamens 5, hypogynous. Petals 5, often cohering. Sepals 5, often shed very early.

1.    Pittosporum.

2.    Bursaria.

3.    Marianthns.

4.    BiUardiera.

Tall shrub. Fruit broad. Seeds viscid Spiney shrub. Fruit flat ...    ...

Very small under-shrub. Fruit succulent Climber. Fruit a large berry ...    ... 6 7 8


Petals long and cohering to one another. Sepals persistent. Fruit a berry.

Style long.    Berry coloured and swollen ...    ...    ... 1. 13. long [flora.

Style short*. Berry green, oblong ...    ...    ...    ... 2. R. scandeni.

1.    B. longiflora, Lab. A twining climber. Leaves narrowly to broadly elliptical, rarely lobed, about f-1 inch, rarely linear. Flowers solitary, stalked, usually pendulous, dull yellow or blue. Sepals very acute, about 2 lines long. Petals about 1 inch, cohering into a tubular corolla. Style as long as the corolla. Berry swollen about f inch, blue, white, or red. 13. macrantha, H.

Very common in woods ; alBO South-East Australia. FI. Oct.-Jan.

Var. alpina. Stunted. Leaves obovate, lanceolate, 2-5 lines. Sepals 1 line, obtuse. Petals, 3 lines, not cohering, bine. Berry 3-4 lines. Style very short.

2.    B. scandens, Sm. Similar to 13. longiflora. Leaves sometimes 2 inches. Petals usnally not cohering. Berry oblong, usually green or yellow, sometimes red. 13. mutcibilis, H.

Distributed in the north ; also in Eastern Australia. FI. Oct.


Carpels 2, united. Ovaries distinct. Fruit a flattened capsule. Petals and sepals equal, 4 or 5. Stamens 8 or 10, discharging through a terminal bore.


Petals 4. Stamens 8. Seeds l or 2 in each ovary. Small under-shrubs.

Leaves broad, wborled ...    ...    ...    •••    ...    1.71. ciliata.

Leaves broad, rough ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. T. glandulosa.

Leaves linear, involute, smooth or hispid ...    ...    3. T. pilosa.

1.    T. ciliata, Lind. Erect, 2-3 feet. Leaves broad, flat, | inch, mostly in whorls. Flowers solitary, axillary, shortly stalked, fairly numerous. Sepals small and broad. Petals red-purple, spreading, broad, | inch long.

North Coast. Southern Australia. FI. Sept.-Dec.

2. T. glandulosa, Lab. Erect, 1-2 feet, glandular, hispid. Leaves oblong, toothed, shortly stalked, ^ inch.    Flowers white, pink to purple, rather smaller, but similar to T. ciliata. T. ericifolia, Sm. (partly).

Abundant. South-East Australia. FI. spring and summer.

3.    T. pilosa, Lab. Erect, 1-2 feet, glabrous, or sometimes hispid. Leaves j-f inch, linear, margins revolute, glabrous, rarely coarsely hispid. Flowers similar to but smaller than T. glandulosa. T. erinfolia, Sm. (partly).

Very common. South and East Australia. FI. spring and summer.

Var. calva. Slender, usually glabrous. Leaves about 2 lines. Flowers very small, mostly white. T. procumbent and T. gunnii, H.


Carpels 2, united. Ovaries distinct. Style single. Perianth irregular.


Sepals 5, unequal, 2 are broad and petaloid. Petals 3, unequal, lower one folded as a keel. Stamens 8, filaments combined* Fruit capsular, narrowed at the base. Seeds numerous, hairy.

Twining climber... ...    ...    •••    •••    •••    1* C. volubile.

Stem erect.

2.    G. retusum.

3.    C. ericinum.

4.    C. calymega.

5.    C. defoliatum.

Tall shrub. Leaves obtuse ...    ...    ...

Shrub. Leaves with a recurved point .. Short, twiggy. Leaves with straight point Short, slender. Leaves few, or none ..

1.    C. volubile, Lab. A small twining climber. Leaves few, oblong to linear. Flowers numerous, blue, white, or red, about \ inch.

Very common. Extra-tropical Australia. FI. Oct.-Feb.

2.    C. retusum, Lab. An erect or spreading shrub. Leaves oblong to linear, flat, obtuse, | inch. Flowers terminal, numerous, red or pink, about | inch. Common. Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

3.    C. ericinum. D. C. Branches simple, erect, or spreading from a woody base, 2-3 feet. Leaves linear, margins revolute, apex recurved, \ inch. Flowers terminal, numerous, blue, pink, or white, similar to C. retusum.

Florentine Valley, many parts in north. Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

4.    C. calymega, Lab. Base woody, branches erect, twiggy, a few inches high. Leaves oblong, linear, ^ inch, pointed. Flowers rather small, in a lengthening raceme, usually pale blue.

Widely distributed, but not common. Temperate Australia. FI. Dec.-Jan.

5.    C. defoliatum, F. v. M. Base woody, branches slender, twiggy, a few inches high, appearing leafless. Leaves linear, small or minute. Flowers small, blue, in a lengthening raceme.

Common in heaths. Eastern Australia. FI. Dec.-Feb.


Carpels 2-4, united, with a common ovarian chamber. Placentas parietal. Seeds numerous. Calyx tubular, toothed. Corolla regular. Petals 4 or 5, clawed. Stamens mostly 4 or 5, hypogynous. Fruit capsular.


Character that of the order.

^ F. pauciflora, D. C. Small, procumbent, spreading, perennial. Leaves linear, 1-3 lines long, opposite, clustered. Flowers solitary, sessile, terminal, white or pink. Corolla 2 lines diameter.

Circular Head, Bass Straits. Throughout Australia. Probably not distinct from F. leech, Linn. FI. Nov.-Jan.


Differing from Frankeniacete only in the placenta being fine and central, also the sepals being sometimes free, and rarely in the corolla being suppressed. Leaves opposite.

Sub-order Sileneee. Sepals united.

Saponaria tubulosa, F. v. M. A small erect annual, 2-4 inches. Leaves small, linear. Flowers small solitary, pink or white, stalked. George’s Bay. Probably introduced by migratory birds.

Selene gallica, Linn. Erect, sparely-branched, 6 inches to l foot, viscid, hairy. Leaves ovate to linear. Flowers axillary, solitary, purple to white, not conspicuous. Introduced and widely spread.

Githago segetum, Desf. Erect, usually simple, softly hairy. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers few, terminal or axillary on very long peduncles.

Sepals much exceeding the petals. Petals red, |-1 inch long, broad. Introduced and found occasionally in or near fields.

Sub-order Alsinece. Sepals free, or nearly so.

Petals deeply notched.

Capsule protruding ... ••• •••

... Cerastium.

Capsule included in calyx ... ... ...

.. 1. Stellaria.

Petals entire or none.

Sepals 4 ... ... ... ... ...

... 2. Sagina.

Sepals 5.

Petals absent.

Plant spreading ... ... ... ...

... 1. Stellaria.

Plant densely tufted ... ... ...

... 3. Colobanthus.

Petals present. Stipulate.

Leaves filiform, clustered. Petals white...

... Spergula.

Leaves linear. Petals mostly pink ...

... 5. Spergularia.

Leaves oblong. Flowers very numerous '

... 4. Polycarpon.


Sepals 5. Petals 5, deeply bifid, rarely suppressed. Capsule opening in 6 or 10 valves.

Petals none ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    .

Petals conspicuous.

Leaves stalked, broad.

Petals shorter than calyx, slightly pubescent Petals exceeding calyx. Plant quite glabrous Leaves sessile.

Leaves pungent, narrow ovate    ...    ...

Leaves linear to lanceolate ...    ...    ...

Styles 3, rarely 5. . 4. S. multiflora.

..    5. S. media.

. 3. S. flaccida.

...    ...    ... 1. S. pungens.

...    ...    ... 2. S. glauca.

1.    S. pungens, Brong. Decumbent, compact or somewhat spreading. Leaves ^ inch, recurved, pungent, usually overlapping. Flowers long-stalked, solitary, axillary. Petals ^ inch long.

Common. Temperate Australia. FI. Dec.

2.    S. glauca, D. C. Generally erect, 2 inches to 2 feet. Leaves linear, acute, 1,-1 inch. Flowers long-stalked in the terminal axils. Petals j inch long. S. palustris, Retz.

Found occasionally, chiefly in central and northern parts ; also throughout the world. FI. Nov.-Dee.

3.    S. flaccida, Hook. A very spreading, deeumben perennial. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, acute, narrowed at the base, about ^ inch long, and usually more or less stalked. Flowers solitary, stalked in the axils of the leaves. Sepals under j inch, broadly lanceolate, acute. Petals rather longer, deeply cleft. S. media, Hook.

Common in damp, shaded places. Found also in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. spring and summer.

4. S. multiflora, Hook. A small annual, with a decumbent to erect habit. Leaves narrow, mostly sessile, about j inch long. Flowers axillary, on stalks of varied length. Sepals narrow, acute, under | inch long. Petals absent.

Common. Distributed in Southern Australia FI. spring and summer. 9

An introduced weed that has spread with cultivation to nearly all parts of the world. FI. all summer.


Small tufted herbs. Petals small or absent. Stamens usually as many as the petals, 4 or 5. Capsule opening with as many valves as there are styles.

S. procumbens, D. C. A small matted herb. Leaves linear, pointed. Flowers solitary, on long fine stalks arising from the leaf axils. Sepals about 1 line long, oval. Petals either very small or absent. Sepals, petals, stamens, and styles usually 4. Capsule rather longer than the sepals, splitting deeply into as many valves as there are styles. S. apetala, Ard.

Abundant. World-wide. FI. from spring till autumn.


Small tufted herbs, almost moss-like. Sepals 4 or 5. Petals absent. Stamens and styles of the same number as the sepals. Capsule opening by the same number of valves.

C. billardif.ri, Fenzl. A small, densely-tufted perennial. Leaves crowded, linear, pointed, 1-1 inch long. Flowers solitary, terminal, on stalks usually longer than the leaves. Sepals 5, 2 lines long, finely pointed. Capsule ovoid, about the length of the calyx.

Common in sandy coasts. Victoria. FI. Nov.


Leaves often nearly whorled. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens 3-5. Style very short, trifid.

P. tetraphylmjm, D. C. Small, prostrate, clustered, annual. Leaves obovate, about 2 lines. Flowers very numerous, small, terminal. Sepals 1 line. Petals shorter. Capsule opening in 3 valves.

Very common. Temperate regions throughout the world. FI. Oct.


Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens mostly 10. Styles 3, rarely more.

Spergttlaria rubra, Peru. Small, decumbent, tufted. Leaves linear, \ inch, with scarious stipules. Flowers few, stalked, axillary, pink or white. Petals oval, 1-3 lines long.

Common. Most parts of the world.

Var. marina. Larger and fleshy, leaves often 1-2 inches. Sea-coasts.

FI. spring and summer.

Spf.roula arvensis, D. C. Slender. Leaves filiform, clustered, 1 inch. Flowers white on recurved stalks. Introduced. Common.

Cerastium glomeratum, Thu. Leaves broad, hairy. Flowers numerous, terminal. Capsule protruding. Introduced.


Pistil of 3 blended carpels with a common ovarian cavity, in a few cases not entirely free from the floral tube. Placenta centre. Ovules few. Sepals 2. Petals 5 or more.

Petals free.

Stamens 5. Petals spreading ...    ...    ...    1. Claytonia.

Stamens seldom 5. Petals usually remaining erect 2. Calandrinia.

Petals united ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    3. Montia.


Petals 5. Stamens 5, opposite and somewhat adhering to the petals. Pistil quite superior. Fruit capsnlar. .

A common genus of the Northern Hemisphere, but one species in the Southern.

C. AUSTKALA8ICA, H. A small creeping and tufted perennial. Leaves alternate, linear to spathulate, often fleshy in alpine swamps, 1-3 inches long, insertion broadened, scarious, and sheathing. Flowers solitary or few, pink or white, long stalked. Petals 2-4 lines long, spreading.

Very common marsh plant; also extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. FI. spring and summer.


Petals usually 5. Stamens usnally exceeding the petals in number, and when they agree they do so inconsistently.

A large genus of the warmer parts of both Hemispheres. Artificially distinct from Claytonia, with which von Mueller unites it.

Flowers on comparatively long stalks. Sepals broad,

but pointed ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. C. calyptrata.

Flowers short-stalked. Sepals blunt... ...    ...    2. C. pygmcea.

1.    C. CALTPTRATA, H. A small annual, decumbent or ascending, 2-8 inches. Leaves succulent, linear to spathulate, alternate, s-2 inches long, base not sheathing. Flowers long-stalked, not numerous, in long irregular racemes. Sepals broad, pointed. Petals 1-2 lines long, erect, persistent, often 5, but not consistently so. Stamens variable in number, often 5. Claytonia calyptrala, F. v. M.

Common in dry but somewhat shaded places, apparently preferring basaltic rocks ; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. Fl. spring and summer.

2.    C. pygm<ea, F. v. M. A small decumbent or ascending annual, seldom exceeding 1 inch. Leaves very fleshy, oblong, 2-4 lines long. Flowers few, short-stalked, appearing terminal. Sepals fleshy, obtuse, enlarging round the fruit, Petals 1-2 lines long, erect, usually 5-7. Stamens. varying in number, usually more numerous than the petals. Claytonia pygmcea, F. v. M.

Pleasant-Boat Harbour, near George’s Bay; also Victoria, South and West Australia. Fl. Oct.-Nov.


Petals 5, united at the base, except at one place. Stamens usually 3, inserted on the corolla.

M. fontana, Linn. A small succulent, spreading annual, 1-4 inches. Leaves mostly opposite, oblong to spathulate, 2-6 lines long, narrowed, and semi-stem-clasping. Flowers axillary, stalked. Sepals very obtuse, under 1 line. Corolla slightly longer.

Common in damp situations in many parts of the Island, but overlooked ; also occurs in Victoria, New South Wales, New Zealand, and most temperate localities in both Hemispheres. Fl. Oct.-Feb.


Pistil of three blended carpels, but each ovarian cavity closed. Ovules many, on axillary placentas. Flowers regular, the members hypogynous. Sepals 2-5. Petals similar. Stamens the same, or twice as many. Fruit capsular.




epals, petals, and stamens usually 3.    .

E. Americana, Am. Small, creeping, usually densely tufted, annual. Leaves opposite, broad, mostly oblong, obtuse, about 2 lines long. Flowers minute, sessile, solitary, axillary. Sepals very small. Transparent petals still smaller, and lost early in Tasmanian plants. K. minima, Fisch.

This, the common Australian form, differs somewhat from the type, and is sometimes treated as distinct, but the plant tends to vary wherever found.

Marshes in the north, central, and eastern parts. Throughout Australia, except the extreme north, New Zealand, Fiji, and North America. FI. Oct.-Dec.


Pistil of 3-5 more or less united carpels. Ovarian cavities in some genera distinct, others common. Placentas axillary to parietal accordingly. Ovules many. Fruit capsular. Sepals and petals 5, rarely 4, free. Stamens very numerous, united into 3-5 bundles, liypogynous.


Sepals 5. Petals 5. Carpels 3-5. Ovary common, but the dissepiments deeply dividing it. Leaves opposite.

Erect. Leaves subcordate    ...    ...    ... 1. H. gram ineum.

Decumbent. Leaves long    ...    ...    ... 2. H. japonicum.

1.    H. gramineum, Forxt. Erect, slightly branching, perennial, 6-12 inches high. Leaves sessile, opposite, ovate-cordate, mostly acute, Uf inch long. Flowers few, stalked, cymose or solitary, terminal. Sepals fairly broad, acute, about 3 lines long. Petals exceeding the sepals, spreading, orange-yellow. Capsule 3-valved.

Common in pastures; also throughout Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia. FI. spring and summer.

2.    H. .iaponicum, Thunb. Much smaller than the last, prostrate, branched, with ascending ends. Leaves smaller, more obtuse, without cordate base. All parts smaller than the last, otherwise not differing.

Very common in damp situations. Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales. From Japan to New Zealand. FI. spring and summer.


Pistil of a single carpel, where more the carpels are arranged round a columnar prolongation of the torus, each 1-seeded and falling away as an indehiscent article. Flowers regular. Petals free, usually 5, hypogenous. Stamens numerous, hypogynous, united at the base round the pistil, or in a central column where that member is absent. Anthers 1-eelled.

A large and well-defined order, of wide distribution, but poorly represented in Tasmania.    •

Flowers under J inch. Carpels few ...    •••    •••    1. -Plagianthus.

Flowers much exceeding j inch.

Involucre 3-lobed    ...    ...    ...    •••    •••    2. Lavatera.

Involucre 3-leaved    . .    ...    ...    •••    •••    3. Malva.


Carpels 2-5, rarely less or more. Rracteoles none, or distant from the calyx. A genus confined to Australia and New Zealand.

Erect, strict herb, many feet high. Flowers numerous,

in a leafy spike ...    ...    •••    •••    •••    1- P- spicatus.

Branched shrub or tree.

Leaf narrowed towards base    ...    ...    ...    2. P. sidoides.

Leaf broadest’at base    ...    ...    ...    ... 3. P. pulrhellus.

1.    P. spicatos, Ji. Branches herbaceous, erect, strict from a hard perennial base, 2-5 feet high. Leaves from oblong to cuneate, stalked, about 1 inch long, becoming smaller and nearly sossile up the branches. Flowers very numerous, solitary, or few, in the axils of the leaves, forming a long, rather dense, leafy spike. Calyx 5-angled. Petals yellowish-white, oblong, about 3 lines long. Stamens about 15. Anthers crescent-shaped. Styles filiform. Lawreneia spicata, Hook.

North-eastern parts. Bass Straits, Southern Australia, and New South Wales. FI. Feb.

2.    P. sidoides, H. A tall shrub or small tree, more or less clothed with stellate tomentum. Leaves from very broadly ovate-acuminate to narrow lanceolate, generally narrowed towards the stalk, 2-6 inches long, margin serrate or toothed. Flowers numerous in axillary racemes in the upper leaf axils. Functionally unisexual. Staminate Howers with a campanulate calyx and white spreading petals, 3 lines long. Stamens about 15. Pistillate flowers with a tubular calyx, about 1 j line long, inconspicuous petals, abortive stamens, and 2-carpelled pistil.

Common in damp woods in Southern Tasmania. FI. May-June.

3.    P. pulchellus, Gray. A tall shrub, or small tree, usually nearly glabrous. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, with a subcordate base, acuminate, coarsely obtusely toothed, on slender stalks. Flowers in rather loose clusters or racemes in the upper axils, functionally unisexual, being similar to those of P. .sidoides, only the stamens much more numerous, and in the flowers with perfect pistils the calyx is globular at the base, with rather long lobes, and the pistil is 5-carpelled.

Common in northern parts of the Island; also in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. Oct.-Nov.

Var. tomento.sa. Much more tomentose, and with somewhat longer styles. P. taxmanieux, Gray.


Carpels many. Column usually expanded at the apex. Bracteoles 3, united into an involucre close beneath the calyx.

A common genus in the Northern Hemisphere.

L. plebeia, Sims. An erect perennial, often many feet high. Leaves orbicular, palmately veined, 5-lobed, margin toothed, on rather long stalks ; lower ones often many inches diameter, upper ones 1 inch. Flowers solitary, or few together in the upper axils. Petals pink or pale purple, oblong, about 1 inch long. Rare.

Woolnortli, Bass Straits, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, West Australia, and South Queensland. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Similar in structure and habit, only the three bracteoles are free and inserted towards the base of the calyx.

M. ROTDNDIFOLIA, Linn. Decumbent, leaves nearly round, irregularly and shallowly notched. Flower about | inch. European.

M. sylvestris, Linn. Ascending. Leaves angular, more deeply notched. Flowers 1 inch. European.


Pistil of few to many carpels, more or less united. The ovarian cavities distinct. Styles divided at the apex into as many branches as there are carpels, or

JC'^1 VktL Cow P/fiftTH Tash/WA

PLAC11ANTHUS S1D0IDES. H. (Male Plant.)

entire. Stamens usually 10, united in a tube (five perfect, five incomplete), sometimes five only. Calyx persistent, usually gamosepalous. Corolla seldom conspicuous, sometimes absent.    _

A large order, with an extensive distribution in all warn climates. In Tasmania represented by only one genus.


Sepals 5, united at the base. Petals small or none. Stamens 5, opposite the petals, free or nearly so. Pistil of few carpels. The style common, undivided, 1 seed in each cell.

Leaves ovate or oblong.

Sepals, 3-4 lines, white    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. L. discolor.

Sepals, 3 lines, brown    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. L. dasypkyllum.

Leaves narrow. Sepals brown, 2 lines ...    ...    3. L. micranthum,

1.    L. discolor, 77. Erect, branched shrub. Leaves ovate-cordate, alternate, 1-2 inches long, the under surface densely covered with pale stellate tomentum, stalked. Flowers in small-stalked, rather dense axillary clusters. Bracteoles and sepals rather long and pale. Petals small.

North-West Coast. South and West Australia, FI. Nov.-Jan.

2.    L. DASYPHTLUIM, Sieb. Very similar in general habit to L. discolor, only leaves sometimes narrow, oblong. Bracteoles and sepals dark brown. L. gunnii, Steetz.

Sehouten Island, Rocky Cape. Bass Straits, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Dec.

3.    L. micranthum, Hooh. Similar to the last two, only the leaves smaller, about 1 inch long, and almost linear, with revolute margins. Bracteoles broad. Sepals narrow, l|-2 lines long, brown.

Near Swanport to St. Paul’s River. FI. Dec.


Pistil of few blended carpels. Ovarian cavities distinct. Style simple, divided at the apex into as many lobes as there are carpels. Stamens usually numerous, free, inserted into a disk-like development of the torus. Sepals 3 to 5, free or slightly cohering. Petals usually as many as the sepals, sometimes absent, free or cohoring.

A large order, distributed to all warm climates. Sparsely represented in Tasmania.

Flowers solitary, shrub    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. Aristotelia.

Flowers racemed, tree    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. Elceocarpus. 10

linear, and shortly pointed. Berry heart-shaped, about inch long, varying in colour from white to deep brown purple.

Common in many parts, in shady places on mountains. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Sepals 4 or 5. Petals same number, fringed, lobed, or entire, inserted at the base of the enlarged torus. Stamens numerous, surrounded at the base by a glandular ring. Anthers linear. Ovary 2-5 celled, with 2 or more ovules in each. Style slender. Fruit a drupe, with a hard stone, only one seed maturing in each cell.

A large genus, principally tropical. The only Tasmanian representative is confined to the Australian region.

E. cyanecs, Ait. A tree of moderate growth. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, mostly alternate, about 3 inches long, serrate, pointed, reticulated on the upper surface. Racemes loose, shorter than the leaves. Sepals £ inch long, pointed. Petals rather longer, divided into many acute lobes. Stamens numerous. Anthers linear, shortly pointed. Ovary 2-celled, with 8-10 ovules in each cell. Drupe usually 1-seeded, globular, blue, the stone inch long, rugose on the surface.

King Island. Throughout Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.


Pistils of 3 to 5 blended carples. Ovarian cavities distinct. Styles distinct or nearly so. Stamens usually 10 or 5, united in a ring round the pistil, hypogynous. Sepals 5 or 4, free or united. Petals same number, free.


Fruit capsular. Carpels easily separating when ripe, 2-seeded, and each seed isolated by a more or less complete spurious dissepiment.

L. marginale, A. Cutin. Small, twiggy, slightly branched perennial, 1-2 feet. Leaves alternate, linear acute, £-1 inch long. Flowers, pale blue, about 5 inch in diameter, few or many, long-stalked, in a terminal corymb or raceme.

Very common ; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. spring and summer.

L. catharcticum, Linn. Erect, branched. Leaves broadly linear, inch, opposite. Flowers small, white. Pastures. Introduced European.


Pistils of few, usually 5, carpels, united only on their inner margins. Ovarian cavities distinct- Style simple. Stamens generally of the same number as the carpels, free. Sepals same number, free or nearly so. Petals the same, free. Disk usually well developed, on which the petals and stamens are inserted.

The order is small, but widely distributed in warm countries. No representatives have yet been found on the mainland of Tasmania, but two species have been gathered on islands of Bass Straits.


Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Stamens twice as many. Capsule 4 or 5 angled, narrow at the base, flat above, each carpel being wedge-shaped. Leaves divided into one pair of equal leaflets.

Leaflets broadly ovate...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. Z. apiculatum.

Leaflets linear ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. Z. billardieri.

h -S!avnnoNna3d vnaxoxsiav

1.    Z. apiculatom, F. v. M. Spreading undershrub. Leaflets broadly oblong, 1-lA inch long. Roepera latifolia, Hook.

Islands of Bass Straits. Extra-tropical Australia. FI. Oct.-Dec.

2.    Z. billardieri, D.C. Spreading undershrub. Leaflets linear, rarely somewhat broader, |-f inch long. Flowers yellow. Roepera billardieri, Hook.

Urder XX. GER t N1A CE/E.

Pistil of 3 to 5 blended carpels. Ovarian cavities distinct, attached to a central prolongation of the torus. Stamens usually 10. Filaments free or slightly united at the base, inserted into a glandular enlargement. Sepals and petals usually 5, free. Corolla rarely irregular.

Fruit with a pointed beak.

Flowers regular, leaves much divided    ...    ...    1.    Geranium.

Flowers irregular, leaves entire ...    ...    ...    2.    Pelargonium.

Fruit oblong-capsule, leaves trifoliate    ...    ...    3.    Oxalis.


Sepals and petals 5, regular. Stamens 10. Pistil with along beak, each carpel l-seeded, coiling up towards the apex when ripe.

Flowers on long stalks ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. G. dissect urn.

Flowers nearly sessile ...    ..    ...    ...    ...    2. G. sessiliflorum.

1.    G. dissectum, L. A spreading, loosely-branched perennial, 6-12 inches long. Leaves long, stalked, orbicular, but divided nearly to the stalk into 3 or 5 segments, that are again more or less divided into usually 3 lobes, |-1 inch in diameter. Flowers mostly solitary, axillary, on long stalks. Sepals 2-3 lines long. Petals rather longer, pink or white.

This form common in Australia differs from the type in being of more procumbent habit, seeds smoother, and leaves less divided. G. dissectum, var. australe, B. : G. pilosum, Sol.; G. potentiUoides, L’Her.

Very common. Throughout extra-tropical Australia. All or most temperate climates. FI. spring and summer.

2.    G. sessiliflorum, Cav. Similar in all parts to the above, only a generally dwarfed habit. Flower-stalks very short. Sepals very acute. G. brevicaule, H. Probably only a variety of G. dissectum, L.

Found in most alpine situations ; also in Victoria, New South Wales, and New Zealand. FI. spring and summer.

Erodium cicutariuw, L' Her. Leaves oblong, pinnate, and dissected into very numerous lobes. Flowers small, pink, few or many, on common stalks. Fruit with a very long beak. Introduced and widely distributed in pastures. Throughout Northern temperate parts. 11


Sepals and petals 5, regular. Stamens 10. Pistil without a protruding beak. Carpels usually including many seeds, not leaving the torus when seeds are-discharged. Leaves trifoliate.

Flowers white    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. O. magellanica.

Flowers yellow    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. O. comiculuta.

1.    O. magellanica, Forst. A small creeping perennial. Leaflets broadly obcordate, about 3 lines long. Flowers solitary, on long stalks. Sepals 1^-2 lines long. Petals 6 lines long, broadly obovate, white.

In damp places in many parts at a high altitude ; also in Victoria, New Zealand, and South America. FI. Oct.-Feb.

2.    O. cornicclata, L. Very similar to the last, but less creeping. Leaflets usually more deeply divided at the apex. Flowers often 2 or more on the stalk. Sepals 2-3 lines long. Petals about 4 lines long, oblong, pale yellow.

In all pastures and waste places. Common to all temperate localities from an early date. Probably originating from North America. FI. all the year.


Pistil of few, mostly 4 or 5, carpels, that are variously blended, sometimes nearly free. Ovarian cavities distinct. Styles often blended. Stamens usually twice as many as the members of a perianth whorl, inserted on the outer part of the thickened glandular disk. Sepals and petals 4 or 5.

A very large order, of world-wide distribution and varied forms.

Leaves mostly opposite.

Stamens 8. Petals 4.

Calyx-lobes obsolete. Corolla usually tubular    ... 1. Correa.

Calyx-lobes well developed. Corolla spreading    ... 3. Boronia.

Stamens 4 or 10. Leaves trifoliate, rarely simple.

Petals 4. Stamens 4 ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    Zieria.

Petals 5. Stamens 10    ...    ...    ...    ...    4.    Acradenia.

Leaves alternate, simple ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    o.    Kriostemov. 12 13

beneath. Flowers terminal, pendulous on short stalks, varying in colour from red, through white to yellowish-green, solitary or two or three together. Calyx cup-shaped, with 4 minute teeth. Petals from f-1 inch long, united into a tubular corolla with 4 spreading lobes. The filaments of the foul' stamens that are opposite the petals are dilated towards the base ; the other four not so.

Very common. Distributed also throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. spring and summer.

Amongst the many varieties of this plant that have been raised by some botanists to specific rank, the following is found in Tasmania on the North Coast:—

Var. backhousiana. Leaves ovate or oblong, flat, not raised in convex dilations Flowers nearly cylindrical, above 1 inch long. C. backhousiana, Hook.

3. LAWRENCIANA, Hook. A shrub of somewhat similar growth to C. speciosa. Leaves stalked, from ovate to oblong, blunt, flat, smooth above, closely woolly beneath, from |-2 inches long. Flowers L to 3 together, terminal or axillary, pendulous on short stalks. Calyx cup-shaped, with 4 small teeth. Petals |-l inch long, united into a cylindrical corolla with 4 lobes that are shorter and olunter than those of C. speciosa. Filaments of the stamens all of a uniform shape.

Very common in hilly districts. Found also in Victoria. FI. spring and summer.

The following is also found in Tasmania:—

Var. glabra. sides.

Leaves narrow, oblong to almost linear, smooth on both

2. Z1ERIA.

Calyx deeply 4-lobed. Petals 4, spreading. Stamens 4. Pistil composed of 4 distinct, or nearly distinct, carpels. Styles nearly terminal, short, and united at least at the top. Stigma capitate, 4-furrowed or shortly 4-lobed. Essentially an Australian genus. Closely allied to Boronia.

Leaves, simple ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. Z. veronicea.

Leaves of 3 leaflets.

Leaflets about £ inch, margins revolute    ...    ... 2. Z. cytisoides.

Leaflets 1 to 2 inches, margins flat, or nearly so    ... 3. Z. smitkii.

1.    Z. veronicea, F. v. M. A low shrub, clothed with velvety hairs. Leaves all simple, opposite or alternate, sessile or nearly so, ovate or oblong, blunt, from j-j inch long, the margins revolnte. Flowers shortly stalked, solitary, or 2 or 3 together. Petals about twice as long as the calyx. Filaments hairy. Ovary, style, and fruit delicately hairy.

Near George’s Bay ; also in Victoria and South Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

2.    Z. cytisoides, D. C. A much-branched shrub, covered with delicate velvety hairs. Leaves opposite, composed of 3 leaflets on a short stalk; leaflets obovate-oblong, blunt or pointed, the margins revolnte, about | inch long. Flowers few, on a common stalk. Calyx short, with broad acute segments. Petals not quite twice as long.

Swanport and Bicheno ; also in New South Wales. FI. Nov.

3.    Z. smithii, Andr. A tall shrub or small tree. Leaves opposite, formed of 3 leaflets on a common stalk; leaflets lanceolate to oblong, usually pointed, from 1 to 3 inches long, flat, or occasionally with the margins slightly recurved. Flowers about j inch across, white, many together in a branched cyme Calyx-lobes broad and short. Petals 3 times as long, and delicately hairy on the outer side. Z. lanceolata, Hook.

Common in many parts. Found also in Queensland, New Sonth Wales, and Victoria. FI. Sept.-Nov.


Calyx deeply 4-lobed. Petals 4, spreading. Stamens 8. Anthers either all similar and perfect, or 4 imperfect. Pistil composed of 4 distinct, or nearly distinct, carpels. Ovules 2 in each carpel, but usually only one attaining maturity. Style terminal, united. Stigma entire or 4-lobed. Leaves opposite.

Essentially an Australian genus.

Leaves with many linear lobes.

2.    B. pilosa.

1. B. pinnata.

3.    B. polygalifolia.

4.    B. anemonifolia.

5.    B. rhomboidea.

6.    B. parviflora. few feet in height.

Lowest pair of leaflets close to stem. Filaments ciliate ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Lowest pair of leaflets distant from stem. Filaments woolly    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Leaves simple, or divided once or twice in threes.

Flowers axillary Filaments hairy.

Leaves seldom divided, if so with 3 small acute leaflets ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Leaves of 3-toothed leaflets, often a second time divided    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Flowers terminal. Filaments not, or slightly hairy.

Leaves as broad as long. Petals large ...    ...

Leaves longer than broad. Petals hardly exceeding sepals... ...    ...    ...    ...

1. B. pinnata, 8m. A small diffuse or erect shrub of Leaves usually with 5 to 9 linear leaflets arranged in pairs, the pairs rather distant from one another, and the lowest pair some distance from the stem. Flowers pink or white, rather large, numerous in the terminal axils. Sepals small, acute. Petals j-f inch long, pointed Filaments woolly, hairy, especially towards the thickened summit.

Common in parts. Found also in New South Wales and Victoria. A very valuable plant. FI. Nov.-Jan.

Var. f/unnii. Leaflets more crowded. Flowers smaller. Filaments less hairy. Anthers all similar Stigma very small. B. gunnii, Hook.

Var. citriodora. An alpine plant of small growth, and the leaflets often reduced to 3. The plant has a strong scent of lemons. B. citriodora, Hook.

2.    B. pilosa, Lab. Very similar to B. pinnata, and possibly a variety only. The branches are much more extensively clothed with fine hairs. Leaves similar to B. pinnata, but the pairs of leaflets more crowded, and the lowest pair close to the stem. Flowers smaller and fewer in the terminal axils. Filaments ciliate. rather than woolly.

Very common ; also found in Victoria. FI. Sept.-Nov.

3.    B. polygalifolia, 8m. A spreading decumbent plant, of small dimensions, growing from a thickened stock, but in some instances a small shrub attaining

1    or even 2 feet height. Leaves variable in length, but seldom exceeding | inch, simple, lanceolate and acnte, but sometimes deeply 3-lobed, or even composed of 3 small leaflets. Flowers axillary stalked and solitary. Sepals small. Petals

2    or three times as long, pink or white. Filaments hairy and glandular towards the top. B. hystsopifolia, Hook.

Very common; spreading also from Queensland along Eastern Australia to South Australia. FI. Oct.-Dec.

4. B. anemonifolia, A. Cunn.'Z A shrub of 2 or 5 feet. Leaves composed either of three 3-toothed leaflets, or one or all of the leaflets again divided, and all more or less linear. Flowers axillary, usually 3 or 5, or even more, together on a common stalk, rarely solitaiy. Flower and fruit similar to B. polygalifolia.


Principally found on the coast in the north of the Island. The Australian distribution similar to the preceding species. FI. spring and summer.

Amongst the varieties of this species the two following are found in Tasmania:—

Var. dentigera. Leaflets usually 3, linear-cuneate, thick, 3-toothed at the top. Flowers 1 to 3 together.

Var. variabilis. Leaves irregularly compound, more or less twice divided. Leaflets oblong or linear-cuneate, blunt. Flowers rather small, 3 or more together. B, variabilfc, Hook.

5.    B. rhomboidea, Hook. A much-branched, rigid shrub, of about 3 feet. Leaves simple, sessile, rhomboid to reniform, about | inch broad. Flowers pink or white, terminal, sessile, solitary or few together. Sepals ovate, pointed, about 2 lines long. Petals broad, about |-inch long. Filaments tuberculate, thickened at the upper end. Ovary smooth. Style rather long.

Longley, the Western Mountains, Cradle Mt. FI. spring and summer.

6.    B. parviflora, Sm. A small decumbent shrub, seldom exceeding a few inches, the numerous branches arising from a thickened stock. Leaves all simple, oblong to linear pointed, and mostly \ inch. Flowers small, terminal or nearly so, solitary or few together. Sepals pointed, 1^ to 2 lines long. Petals white, scarcely exceeding them. Filaments smooth or slightly hairy, and glandular towards the top. Ovary smooth. B. pilonema, Hook.

Common in heath and sandy places; also found in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. spring and summer.


Calyx 5 cleft, or rarely the divisions are 6 or 7. Petals similar in number. Stamens twice the number of the petals. Anthers all similar and perfect. Carpels usually 5, united almost to the top. Styles terminal, uniting, filiform. Stigma small. Ovules 2 in each carpel. The genus is closely allied to Bonmia and Zieria, and is confined to a single species endemic in Tasmania.

A. franklini®, Kipp. An erect shrub of 8 to 12 feet. Leaves opposite, formed of 3 leaflets on a common stalk. Leaflets 1 to 2 inches long, lanceolate, crenated on the margin. Flowers white, in terminal, loosely-trichotomous cymeB. Sepals distinct, short. Petals \ inch long, pubescent inside. Filaments nearly as long as the petals, thin and smooth. Ovary hairy. Frnit divisions hard, blunt, transversely wrinkled.

On the banks of the Franklin, Gordon, and Pieman. FI. Nov.-Dee. 14

Leaves linear.

Leaves cylindrical ...    ...    ...    ...    .*    3. E. montonus.

Leaves shortly bifid... ...    ...    ...    6. E. daviesii.

1.    E. virgatus, Hook. An erect, twiggy shrub of a few feet growth. Leaves numerous, oblong to lanceolate, narrow at the base, broad at the end, with a short point, the margin often slightly recurved, almost shining above and the glands small, pale beneath. Flowers in 4 parts, solitary, stalked, in the axils of the leaves. Sepals round, blunt, 1 line long. Petals white or pink, oblong, blunt, about j inch long. Filaments ciliate, flattened and narrowed towards the anther.

Rocky Cape, George’s Bay, Swanport, Three Hut Point, Macquarie Harbour, <fcc. The species is endemic. FI. Dec.

2.    E. obovalis, Cunn. A decumbent or sub-erect shnib of few feet growth. Leaves obcordate to oblong, usually about j inch long, fleshy, usually concave above, and marked with coarse prominent glands. Flowers in 5 parts, solitary in the axils of the leaves, stalked. Sepals very short and round Petals often i inch long, pink or white, oblong. Filaments ciliate, flattened, narrowed above.

Common in dry parts, especially on hills. Found also in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. spring and summer.

3.    E. montanus, F. v. M. A small decumbent or ascending shrub. Leaves

nearly cylindric, blunt, crowded on ends of branches, inch. Flowers few in the terminal axils, pink-white.    Petals 2-3 lines long, filaments longer,

filiform glabrous. Phlebalium montanum.

Ben Lomond, Ironstone, and other western mountains. FI. Nov.-Jan.

4.    E. hillebrandi, F. v. M. An erect, branched shrub. Leaves flat, narrow, oblong, ^-11 inch, margins minutely serrate, end mostly truncate. Flowers mostly in small terminal umbels, white. Petals lines long. Filaments same length, filiform. Phlebalium bilobum, Lind.

Islands of Bass Straits, Schouten Island, Apsley River, Mt. Gog; also in Victoria anil South Australia. FI. Nov.-Dec.

5.    E. OLDFlELliu, F. v. M. Very similar to E. virgatus, but more branched in habit, and the leaves without the terminating point. Flowers few in the terminal axils, pink-white, 5-7 parts. Petals 2k lines. Filaments filiform glabrous. Phlebalium oldjieldii, F. v. M.

On ranges adjoining Adamson’s Peak and La Perouse. FI. Dec.-Jan.

6.    E. daviesii, H. Close to and probably a variety only of E. lepidotus, Spreng. Leaves narrow linear with recurved margins, end rather broader and shortly bifid, 1-2 inches long. Flowers in small terminal umbels, yellowish. Petals 2 lines. Filaments longer, filiform glabrous. Phlebalium glamlulosum,, H.; E. sediflorus, F. v. M.

Near George’s Bay. FI. Sept.-Dee.

7.    E. squamkos, Lab. An erect shrub, often 10-15 feet. Leaves lanceolate, mostly 1-3 inches long, shortly stalked, narrowed at both ends, sometimes the ends very blunt, white beneath. Flowers generally numerous in small axillary

5anicles, white. Petals 2-3 lines long. Filaments somewhat flattened at the base. 1hlebalium billardieri, A. Juss.

Abundant; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Nov.


Pistil of 2-5 nearly free carpels, each containing one ovule. Disk thin, adherent to the calyx-tube. Petals and stamens inserted on the margin of the disk.

A small order with but one genus; confined to Australia. Philippine Islands, and New Zealand.

...    7. E. squameus.

... I. E. virgatw.

...    5.    E.    oldjieldii.

...    2.    E.    oboralis.

...    4.    E.    hillebrandi.



Sepals 5, nnited at the base. Petals 5, more or less cohering on their margins,

often forming tubular corollas. Stamens 5.

Flowers few in upper axils ... ... ... .

.. 1. S. pulvinaris.

Flowers in an elongating spike. Leaves obtuse .

.. 2. S. spathulata.

Leaves mostly acute.

Flowers white, spike long ... ... ... .

.. 3. S. linarifolia.

Flowers yellow, spike dense... ... ... .

... 4. S. flava.

1.    S. PULViNAKis, F. v. M. Small, dense, prostrate herb. Leaves narrow, oblong, obtuse, crowded, £■ inch. Flowers few in upper axils. Corolla } inch long, white.

Western mountains; also Victoria and New South Wales. Doubtfully distinct from S. minima of New Zealand. FI. Nov.-Dee.

2.    S. spathulata, Sieb. A herb much branched at the base, the branches decumbent or ascending, rather stout, and from 6 inches to 1 foot or more. Leaves ovate to oblong, blunt, thick, mostly from ^ to 1 inch long. Corolla-tube £ inch long, lobes much shorter, oblong, blunt. Divisions of the fruit fully 2 lines long, with 3 prominent vertical acute angles or narrow wings. S. maculata, Hook.

Recherche Bay, Trial Harbour (West Coast), Bass Straits; also Eastern and Southern Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

3.    S. linarifolia, A. Cunn. A herb with a perennial base and numerous simple or sightly branched erect stems of about 1 to 1| feet. Leaves linear or lanceolate, mostly on the lower portions of the stem, from 4 to 2 inches long. Inflorescence at first dense, but considerably elongating as the fruit attains maturity. Calyx-lobes narrow. Corolla-tube inch long, lobes much shorter, oblong, obtuse. Fruit divisions obovoid, prominently reticulated, but not angled. S. gunnii, Hook., is a form of this very variable species, S. monogyna, Lab.

Very abundant throughout the Island ; also in Eastern and Southern Australia, from Queensland to South Australia. FI. Sept.-Dee.

4.    S. flava, Hook. A herb much branching at the base, branches decumbent or ascending, from 6 inches to 1 foot. Leaves linear, flat, rather thick, but in parts broader and thinner, seldom exceeding ^ inch. Flowers yellow, much smaller than in the last two species, the dense inflorescence not lengthening out. Calyx small, with ovate lobes. Corolla-tube about 2 lines long, the lobes oblong and pointed.

Woolnorth, in pool’ sandy soil, Gunn. Found also in West Australia, South Australia, and Victoria. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Pistil of 2 to 4 blended carpels. Ovarian cavities distinct, usually more or less blended with the calyx-tube. Disk well developed, and half enclosing the pistil when that is free. Calyx-lobes 4 or 5. Petals minute or none, inserted at the top of the calyx-tube, same number as sepals. Stamens similar in number, opposite to and inserted with the petals.

A large order, of world-wide distribution.

Calyx-tube adnate or nearly so.

Inflorescence loose    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1.    Pomaderris.

Inflorescence dense    ...    ..    ...    ...    •••    2.    Spyridium.

Calyx-tube exceeding the ovary.

Inflorescence dense ..... ......... 3. Stenanthemum.

Inflorescence loose    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    4.    Cryptandra.

Coarsely spiney...    ...    ...    ...    ..    ...    5-    Discaria.

Flowers solitary    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    Spyridium.


Calyx-tube adnate to the pistil, lobes 5. Petals often absent. Stamens with rather long filaments, not enclosed in the petals. Ovary half superior. Fruit capsular, and protruding from the persistent calyx.

Confined to Australia and New Zealand.

Leaves exceeding 2 inches, broad, flat.

Leaves smooth above. Flowers light yellow. Petals

present ...    ...............1. P. eUiptica.

Leaves wrinkled above. Flowers greenish. Petals

absent... ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. P. apetela.

Leaves seldom exceeding j inch. Petals absent.

Leaves ^ to 1    inch, flat. Calyx 1 to 1| line long ...    3.    P.    racemosa.

Leaves about    j inch, flat. Calyx about £ line long...    4.    P.    elarophylla.

Leaves about    f inch, linear, margins revolute ...    5.    P.    phylicifolia.

1.    P. f.lliptica. Lab. A. tall shrub or small tree, the youug branches and the veins of the leaves covered with rusty stellate hairs, intermixed with simple white ones. Leaves 2 to 3 inches long, 1 to 1| inches broad, ovate, smooth above, and densely covered below with white hairs, the margins wavy. Flowers light yellow, in terminal corymbose panicles. Calyx about 1| inch long, white externally, with minute stellate hairs, smooth within, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, about twice as long as the tube. Petals nearly orbicular, concave, on slender claws in typical specimens, but variable and sometimes abortive.

Common in many parts ; also in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. Oct.-No /.

Var. ferruginea. Leaves rather longer in proportion to their breadth, and the down on the under side much more velvety, and usually ferruginous. P. ferruginea, Hook.; P. lanigera, Sims.

2.    P. apetela, Lab. A shrub or small tree, attaining in favourable situations 20 feet or more, the young branches and the under side of the leaves covered with closely matted stellate hairs. Leaves shortly stalked, broadly oblong, 2-4 inches long, rough and wrinkled on the upper side, the rib and veins prominent beneath, the margins irregularly crenulate Flowers small and very numerous, in loose, thyrsoid panicles. Calyx 1£ line long, with stellate hairs on the outside, the lobes much longer than the tube. Petals none.

Very common; also in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. FI. Oct.-Nov.

3.    P. racemosa, Hook. A small, much-branched shrub, the stems and under sides of the leaves covered with stellate hairs. Leaves small, ovate, but variable, about £ inch long. Flowers seldom numerous, in a panicle, or reduced almost to a simple cyme. Calyx l-lf line long, with stellate hairs on the outer surface. Petals none. Styles cleft to the middie, with club-shaped stigmas.

The species is very variable. North Coast, about the mouth of the Tamar, Fingal; also in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

A specimen gathered at Fingal by Aug. Simson was identified in error by von Mueller as P. subrepanda, F. v. M.

4.    P. elachophylla, F. v. M. A small shrub of erect habit, but much branched, covered with brown, stellate hairs that are not as densely matted as in most species. Leaves broadly obovate, rarely £ inch long, smooth above, and covered with stellate hairs beneath. Flowers in loose thyrsoid panicles. Calyx about £ line long, covered on the outside with stellate hairs, the tube very short. Petals none Styles short, club-shaped. Young capsule hairy, the free part much longer than the part enclosed in the permanent calyx-tube.

Near Longley. Found also in Victoria. FI. early summer.



Jo** V*u Ctrvr***£*r Pmurrtt. 7a$m»*<*



5. P. phymcjfolia, Lodd. A heatli-like shrub, with numerous erect branches, densely hairy, the hairs sometimes being stellate. Leaves linear, or nearly so, rarely broader, and nearly flat, almost sessile, seldom exceeding f inch, the margins usually much revolute, the upper surface usually more or less roughened with simple or stellate hairs, the under surface white with dense white hairs. Flowers small and few, in little loose cymes in the upper axils, scarcely longer than the leaves, but very abundant along the smaller branches, the upper ones forming panicles. Calyx scarcely 1 line long, densely hairy. Petals none. P. ericcBfolia, Hook.

Mersey River, St. Paul’s River; also in Victoria and Hew Zealand. FI. Nov,


Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, only extending beyond in 8. ulicinum, lobes 5. Petals 5, hood-shaped, and enclosing the stamens. Ovary wholly inferior, 3-celled. Fruit a capsule, crowned by the persistent calyx-lobes.

The genus is extra-tropical Australian.

Leaves proportionately broad.

1. jS. serpiUaceum. 4. £. lawrencii.

Leaves under j inch, smooth above.

Slender. Leaves white beneath...    ...    ...

Wiry. Leaf margins recurved    ...    ...    ...

8. parvifolium. 8. obovutum.

Leaves usually exceeding J inch.

Leaves hairy above, veins much impressed ...

Seldom hairy above, veins but slightly impressed Leaves narrow, margins recurved.

Flowers in dense terminal heads.

5.    (8. vexilliferum.

6.    S. eriorephalum.

7.    S. ulicinum.

Floral leaves bread, white    ...    ...    ...

Floral leaves normal    ...    ...    ...

Flowers mostly solitary ...    ...    .    ...

1.    S. serhllacf.um, F. v. M. A small, slender, twiggy, ascending undershrub, seldom more than a few inches high. Leaves obovate, white beneath, mostly about j inch long. Flowers in small very compact heads, with persistent brown scarious bracts intermixed. Calyx about 1 line long, densely hairy on the outer surface. Disk slightly raised above the ovary, lining the short tube and forming a ring under the lobes. Cryptandra obcordata, Hook.

Tamar River, Swansea, Spring Bay ; also found in Victoria. FI. Nov.-Dee.

2.    S. PARVIFOUIJM, F. v. M. Erect, with numerous slender branches, covered with soft hairs. Leaves obovate or orbicular, very blunt or abruptly terminating, from inch long, the margins usually recurved, the veins much impressed on the upper and prominent on the lower surface. Flowers closely sessile, in little heads, ntermixed with short brown bracts. Calyx about 1 line long, very hairy. Disk > vry prominent over the ovary, and almost concealing it. Capsule completely sunk. Cryptandra parvifolia, Hook. ; C. hookeri, F. v. M.

Tamar River and Bass Straits ; also in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. FI. Dec.

Var. molle.


Softly hairy all over. Cryptandra mollis, Hook. Bass 15

Var. velutinum. Generally more robust in all details. Leaves about f inch long, softly hairy on the upper surface. Flowers in compact heads, about 4 inch diameter. Mt. Abrupt, near Hobart.

Var. gunnii. Still more robust. Leaves about 1 inch long. Flower-heads i-1 ineh in diameter. Disk less prominent Cryytandra gunnii, H.

4.    S. LAWRENCU, B. Small, depressed shrub, with numerous rigid, wiry branches. Leaves about 2 lines long, thick, obvate, with recurved margins. Flowers in numerous small dense terminal heads. Calyx hardly 1 line long. Cryytandra lanrrencii, H.

St. Paul’s River, Great Swanport. FI. Nov.-Dee.

5.    S. VEXXLLIFERUM, Remeh. A small heath-like shrub, the young shoots often glutinous. Leaves linear to lanceolate, blunt, about | inch long, the margins revolute, and, excepting the floral ones, smooth above and densely hairy beneath. Flower-heads very compact, the flowers matted together by the dense development of stellate hairs, about \ inch in diameter, and containing 1 or 2 ovate, stalked floral leaves that are very white with stellate hairs on both sides, and numerous brown bracts. Calyx hairy, scarcely 1 line long. Fruiting-calyx 2 lines long. Cryytandra vexillifera, Hook.

In the north and west. Throughout Southern Australia. FI. Dec.

6.    S. EK100EPHALUM, Fenzl. An erect, heath-like shrub. Leaves linear, rigid, pointed, often pungent., from inch long, the margins closely revolute, and concealing the under surface, the upper surface smooth. Flower-heads dense, about j inch across ; the flowers matted together, and containing brown bracts, and or 2 floral leaves similar to, but broader than, the stem leaves. Calyx scarcely 1 line long, hairy. Cryytandra eriocepkala, Hook.

Woolnorth, South Esk River, Schouten Island, Risdon, Bass Straits ; New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. FI. Oct.-Dec.

7.    S. ULiciNtTM, Benth. A tall, much-branched shrub, of 6 or more feet. Leaves linear, acute, blunt, or shortly bifid, about | inch long, the margins revolute, smooth above, hairy beneath. Flowers few together, closely sessile amongst the last leaves of short lateral branches. Calyx about 2j lines long, silky hairy, the free part of the tube short. Cryytandra ulicina, Hook.

Derwent River above New Norfolk, Hamilton, Mount Wellington, near Watchorn’s Hill, Mount Dromedary, Ac. FI. Sept.-Dee. 16 17 18


Calyx-tube adherent at the base, the free portion persistent above the ovary and disk, 5-lobed. Petals 5, hood-shaped, enclosing the anthers, and inserted with the stamens at the top of the calyx-tube. Ovary wholly buried, or slightly prominent in the calyx-tube, 3-celled. Style entire or minutely 3-toothed. Capsule enclosed in the base of the persistent calyx-tube.

The genus is purely Australian, and closely allied to neighbouring genera. It differs from Spyridium chiefly in the calyx-tube being produced above the disk; and from Stenanthemum, in the structure of the inflorescence, the flowers never being arranged ill cymes, or collected into dense heads.

Habit sub-erect. Flowers usually several together ...    1. C. amara.

Habit prostrate. Flowers mostly solitary ...    ...    2. C. alpina.

1.    C. AMARA, 8m. Small, decumbent or sub-erect, much-branched, the branches wiry and often ending in a tine thorn. Leaves linear, 1-3 lines long, usually smooth, and the margins recurved. Flowers almost sessile, solitary within the bracts, but usually several together, forming short leafy spikes or racemes on the smaller branches. Calyx 2 lines long, campanulate, covered on the outer surface with minute down, the adnate portion of the tube very short, the lobes rather shorter than the tube. Ovary downy, partially free, but included in the calyx-tube. Disk not distinct. Fruiting-cnlyx about { inch long, enclosing the capsule. C. sieberi, Hook.

North Esk River and Swanport. Distributed also in Eastern Australia from Queensland to South Australia. FI. Dec.-Jan.

2.    C. alpina, Hook. Small, prostrate, with numerous slender branches. Leaves linear, seldom more than 1 line long. Flowers mostly solitary at the ends of the brandies, and surrounded by brown imbricate bracts, the inner ones often as long as the calyx-tube. Calyx broadly campanulate, downy outside, 2 lines long, with ovate-lanceolate lobes that are rather shorter than the tube. Disk undulate, downy, scarcely distinct from the summit of the ovary.

On the summit of the western mountains, about 3800 feet elevation, Great Lake, <fec. FI. Dec.-Feb.


Calyx campanulate or tubular above the ovary, shortly 4 or 5 lobed. Petals hood-shaped, inserted with the stamens at the base of the calyx-lobes, or absent. Stamens similar in number to the lobes of the calyx, and included in the petals when they are present. Disk annular in the base of the calyx-tube, the margins shortly free. Ovary more or less buried in the disk, 3-lobed, 3-celled. Style slender, with a shortly 3-lobed stigma. Fruit a drupe or capsule, 3-lobed.

The genus is chiefly South American. There is one Australian endemic species, and another in New Zealand.

D. australis, Hook. A small, branched shrub, the branches green and shining, the small ones reduced to spines of 1-1| inch in length. Leaves clustered on short shoots, oblong-cuneate, usually under | inch. Flowers white, usually many together, pendulous, on stalks almost inch long, solitary or clustered in the axils of the leaves, which soon fall off, leaving the flowers densely clustered under the spines. Calyx broadly campanulate, spreading to about 2 lines diameter. Petals narrow', hood-shaped. Fruit 2 to 3 lines diameter. Colletia pubescent, Brog.

South Esk River, Brighton, Kingston, Hamilton, &c.; also Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.


Pistil of few, generally 3, blended carpels. The ovarian cavities generally, but not always, distinct. Stamens usually 8, inserted within the disk. Calyx of 4 or 5 united or free sepals. Corolla sometimes absent, when present similar in number of petals to the calyx, sometimes irregular. Fruit various. Often unisexual.

A large and tolerably well marked order, but with no very clearly definable characters. A wide distribution in all warm climates. Poorly represented in Tasmania.


Flowers (in Tasmanian species) often unisexual. Staminate flowers with normally 8 stamens in a 5-partite calyx. Pistillate flowers with a 3-6 celled, 3-6 winged ovary, and a simple style. Petals absent. Fruit capsular, with a. broad wing to each carpel.

Leaves oblong-spathulate ...    ...    •••    •••    1. D. vi.icosa.

Leaves linear ...    ...    ...    •••    •••    •••    2. D. ericifolia.

1.    D. viscosa, L. A tall shrub. Leaves alternate narrow, oblong, or spathu-late, 2-3 inches long. Flowers in small, mostly terminal clusters, inconspicuous. Capsules broadly winged, |-f inch.

Very abundant. Throughout Australia, New Zealand, and coastal places in both Hemispheres. FI. Nov.-Dee.

2.    D. ericifolia, Don. Small erect shrub, a few feet high. Leaves alternate, filiform, viscid, about l inch. Flowers in small terminal and axillary groups, apparently always unisexual. Capsules as in the last. D. saholifolia. H.

River-banks in numerous situations. FI. Dec.


Pistil of a single carpel. Fruit a pod, usually opening in 2 valves. Calyx of 5 more or less united sepals. Corolla of 5, often unequal, petals, inserted on the calyx-tube. Stamens 10, or very numerous, inserted with the petals.

Sub-order Papilionaceee. Flowers irregular, the upper petal in the median section the largest. Stamens 10.

i.    Leafless, or leaves entire ...    ...    ...    ...    ii.

Leaves divided    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    xi.

ii.    Stamens all free    ...    ...    ...    ...    •••    in.

Stamens united in a tube...    ...    ...    ...    viii.

Sphmrolobium. Oxy labium. Daviesia.


iii.    Leafless, stems slender, cylindrical ...    ...    3.

Leafy ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    iv.

iv.    Leaves in whorl-like clusters ...    ...    ...    1.

Leaves dispersed    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    v.

v.    Flowers small in axillary racemes    ...    ...    4.

Flowers solitary, or in terminal clusters ... vi.

vi.    Flowers with very broad standards, leaves

filiform ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    7.

Standards not unusually broad ...    ...    ...    vii.

Aotm. Pultentea. ix.


8.    Plalylobium.

9.    Bossusd.

10.    Hovea.

12. Hardenbergia.



vii.    Bracteoles and stipules absent ...    ...    ...    5.

Bracteoles present, stipules nsnally so ...    ...    6.

viii.    Flowers yellow    ...    ...    ...

Flowers blue    ...    ...    ...

ix. Leaves opposite, veins prominent

Leaves seldom opposite, and veins not prominent

x.    Flowers few in the axils ...    ...

Flowers numerous in axillary racemes

xi.    Leaflets more than three ...    ...

Leaflets three    ...    ...

xii.    Slirub. Flowers pink ......

Herbs ...    ...    •••    •••

xiii.    Leaflets five    ...    ...    ...

Leaflets many    ...    ...    ...

xiv. Flowers mostly single    ...    ...

Flowers in loose racemes ...    ...

Flowers in dense or loose beads ...

xv. Flowers pale yellow    ...    ...

Flowers crimson    . .    ...    ...

xvi.    Flowers bluisb in terminal racemes

Bluish in axillary racemes ... Flowers yellow ...    ...

xvii. Head dense, pod small, one-seeded

Snb-order Mimoseee. Corolla regular, Stamens indefinite    ..    ...    ...

..... 16.

..    .    xiii.

..... 19.

..... 14.

..    ...    xv.

..    ...    xvi.

..    .    xvii.

..... 2.

.....    13.

..... 11.

..... 14.

..... 15.

..... 18.


..... 20.










A cacia.


Pod short, broad, swollen, 4 to many seeded. Keel as long as the wings. Stamens all free. Sepals united half their length.

Limited to Australia.

O. elliptichm, II. Br. Bush, 3-6 feet, erect. Leaves narrow, elliptical, simple, J-l inch long, margins recurved, under surface silky, alternate, but gathered in false whorls of 3 or 4. Flowers bright yellow, in rather dense terminal clusters.

Abundant ; also in Victoria, New South Wales, aud Queensland. FI. Oct. Var. angustifolium. Generally larger, with leaves 2 inches long. O. arborescent, H.


Pod short, broad, swollen, 4 to many seeded. Keel usually exceeding the wings. Stamens all free. Sepals united at the base only.

Limited to Australia.

G. huegelii, B. A small, branched, depressed shrub. Leaves glaucouB, trifoliate ; the leaflets linear, ^-inch long. Flowers solitary or few, long-stalked, in the terminal axils. Corollas pale yellow, f inch diameter. G. pedunculare, Lodd.

Common in heathy country; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Nov.


Pod small, globular, with 1 or 2 seeds. Keel about the length of the wings. Stamens free. The sepals very unequal, the upper pair much larger than the rest, and united.

Limited to Australia,

S. vimineum, Sm. A small under-shrub, of few or many erect cylindrical branches, 6-18 inches high. Leaves obsolete. Flowers numerous, in terminal spike-like raceme ; flowers small, yellow. <S. minus, Lab.

Very common ; also throughout Southern and Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.

Viminakia DKNUDATA, Sm. Readily distinguished by the sepals, all being equal. Common throughout most parts of Australia. Is included in Mueller’s “ Census ” as Tasmanian ; but it is doubtful.


Pod flat, triangular, with acute angles, 2 or 1 seeded. Keel somewhat shorter than the wings, incurved. Stamens free. Sepals united for the greater part of their length, the upper pair generally enlarged.

Limited to Australia.

Leaves broad, flowers numerous ...    ...    ...    1. D. lati/olia.

Leaves usually spiney, pungent, flowers seldom many

together ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. D. ulicina.

1.    D. latifolia, li. Br. A small, erect shrub, 2-5 feet. Leaves alternate* elliptic, simple, acute, veins strongly marked, margin wavy, about 2 inches. Flowers small, numerous, yellow and dark, in axillary racemes.

Very common; also Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Nov.

2.    D. ulicina, Sm. A small, erect, much-branched shrub, usually 2-3 feet. Leaves mostly all reduced to sharp spines, 2 lines to 1 inch long, sometimes broad, oblong, with a terminal spine. Flowers small, pale yellow, few' together in the axils of the lateral branches. D. umbellulata, H.

Very common; also from South Australia to Queensland.

Many varieties have been recorded on the character of the leaf, but in Tasmania at least the variation appears merely due to local influence. FI. Oct.-Nov.


Pod small, round, somewhat flattened. 2-secded. Keel incurved. Stamens all free. Sepals united half their length, about equal, the two upper ones combined to near their ends. Neither bracteoles nor stipules.

Limited to Australia. Closely allied to Pultencea and Billmgnnia.

A. vtllOsa, Sm. An erect shrub, from .3-6 feet. Leaves alternate, linear, usually obtuse, the margins sharply recurved, 2 lines to 1 inch long. Flowers light yellow, solitary or few together, in many axils towards the ends of the branches.

Very common; also throughout Eastern Australia. FI. Oct.-Nov.


Pod ovate, slightly flattened, 2-seeded. Keel incurved. Stamens all free. Sepals united to half their length, upper more combined and sometimes lengthened. Bracteoles present, usually on the calyx-tube. Stipules generally present.

Limited to Australia. Very close to neighbouring genera, and ill-defined. Differs from Aotux ir the presence of bracteoles, and from Dillwgnnia chiefly in habit. All are shrubs.

Leaves broad.

1.    P. daphnoidex.

2.    P. xtricta.

3.    P. gunnii.

11. P. selaginoidex.

3.    P. gunnii.

5. P. diffusa.

4.    P. pedunculata.

Leaves exceeding y inch.

Leaves cuneate-obcordate... ... Leaves oblong    ...    ..    ...

Leaves under j inch.

Leaves convex    ...    ...    ...

Leaves concave    ...    ...    ...

Leaves narrow.

Leaves convex or margins recurved. Flowers clustered, stipules present Flowers clustered, stipules absent Flowers few’, scattered, stalked ...

Leaves flat or concave.

Leaves blunt.

Flower-heads dense    ...    ...    •••

Heads loose or dispersed    ...    ...    ...

Leaves pointed.

Leaves prickly ...    ...    •••    •••

Leaves soft...    ...    ...    •••    •••

Leaves terete or with closely incurved margins. Flowers in dense terminal heads.

Leaves smooth, stipules small ...    ...

Leaves hairy, stipules long    ...    ...

Flowers few.

Leaves blunt    ...    ...    ...    ...

Leaves acute.

6. P. stihum.bellata. 11. P. selayinoides.

9. P.juniperina.

10. P. humilix.

7.    P. dentata.

8.    P. hibbertioides.

12. P. prostrata.

Flowers axillary, solitary ...    ...    •••    13. P. fasciculata.

Flowers terminating short lateral branches ...    14. P. tenuifolia.

1. P. dafhnoidks, Wend. Erect, 2 to many feet, leaves obcordate or obcuneate with a minute point, J-l inch long. Flowers bright yellow, the keel black, about inch long, numerons, in a dense terminal head

Very common; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales.


FI. Oct.-Dec.

2. P. stricta, Sims. Very similar in general habit and details to the last, only all parts are smaller, and the leaves are oblong, rarely approaching an obcuneate form.    _

Common in numerous situations throughout the Island; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Dec

3 P. GTTNNII, Ti. A small, sub-erect, much-branched shrub. Leaves variable in shape, mostly ovate narrow-oblong to lanceolate, convex, 2-3 lines long. Flowers few together, in the terminal axils or forming a terminal head, yellow and purple, about j inch in diameter.

Common in heathy country; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. spring and' summer.

Var. beeckeoides. Leaves orbicular, convex, about 1 line long. On dry


4.    P. fed UN cut. at a, II. Prostrate, spreading 2 or 3 feet. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, the margins slightly recurved, 2-4 lines long. Flowers mostly solitary, on rather long slender stalks, about \ inch in diameter, yellow, with a dark keel.

Common throughout the Island ; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. spring and summer.

5.    P. diffusa, II. A small decumbent and ascending shrub. Leaves linear, the sharply recurved margins closely adnate, about 3 lines long. Stipules none. Flowers pale yellow, solitary in many of the terminal axils The bracteoles rathei' large. Pod about 2 lines long, oblong, hardly flattened. PhyUota diffusa, F. v. M.

George’s Kay ; and said to occur in other parts in sandy situations. This plant is intermediate between Pulteneea and PhyUota, and perhaps nearer the latter. FI. Sept.

6.    P. 8UBUMBEL1.ATA, H. A small, erect, slightly-branched shrub. Leaves spathulate or narrow, oblong, blunt, flat or concave, semi-erect, j-rr inch long. Stipules minute. Flowers yellow, with purple-black keels, many together, in dense terminal heads.

Very common in heaths at all altitudes; also in Victoria and New South Wales'. FI. Oct.-Dec.


7.    P. dentata, Lab A small, erect, rigid shrub. Leaves concave or involute, linear, or nearly filiform, j-f inch. Flowers rather small, yellow, with darker keels ; rather numerous, in small, dense heads, terminal and terminating numerous small lateral branches. Bracts numerous, conspicuous, brown, 2-lobed. P. ■pimeleoides, H.

Found in most parts, often in rather dry situations; also Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Oct.

8.    P. hibbertioides, II. A small, much-branched, spreading shrub. Leaves filiform, margins incurved, ^-1 inch long, mostly curved upwards. Flowers fairly large, yellow, with rather dark keels, numerous, in dense heads, terminating the numerous branches. Bracts numerous, brown, and bifid.

Near Launceston, Lefroy, George Town also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Nov.

9.    P. juniperina, Lab. An erect, spreading, much-branched shrub, usually 3-5 feet. Leaves linear to narrow-ovate, concave, acutely pointed, mostly J-inch. Flowers about £ inch diameter, yellow, with dark keels, few in the upper axils.

Abundant; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Jan.

Var. latifolia, leaves broader than in type, with cordate bases. P. cordata, Grab.

10.    P. humilis, 13. A small, decumbent ascending shrub, of few inches to 1 ^ foot. Leaves numerous, softly villous, linear, acute, slightly concave, about f inch long. Flowers orange-yellow, usually numerous in the upper axils, but often the axis well extended beyond the flowers. Petals do not appear to spread, as in other members of the genus.

Epping Forest; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Dec.

11.    P. SELAOINOIDES, H. In habit andjfoliage similar to P. nuburnbellata, only smaller. Flowers similar in detail, but less condensed into a head.

Avoca, St. Paul’s River. FI.

The specimens in Gunn’s collection, and also specimens identified by von Mueller, depart in no reasonable amount from common forms of P. xubumbellata, H., and I have only maintained the species because it is possible I have not been fortunate enough to yet meet with the typical plant.

12.    P. prostrata, 13. A small, decumbent, spreading shrub, 1-2 feet. Leaves filiform, but channelled above, obtuse, 2-4 lines long. Stipules rather small and broad, acuminate. Flowers small, solitary, terminating short lateral branches. Bracts brown, numerous, obtuse or nearly so, some are bifid. P. poh/ota, F. v. M.

Ross, Avoca, near Brighton; also Sonth Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Nov.

13.    P. fascicclata, 13. A small, decumbent, straggling shrub, often only a few inches long. Leaves filiform, channelled above with acute points, 2-4 lines long. Stipules rather long, filiform, acute. Flowers few, solitary in the axils towards the ends of the branches. Bracts small, not clothing the calyx. Bracteoles subulate.

Western Mountains, Mt. Pelion West Arthur's Lake, Great Lake; also Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Dec

14.    P. tencifoma, R. Br. A small decumbent, spreading shrub, 1-2 feet. Leaves narrow, linear, concave, acute, (>■• nearly so, about 3 lines long. Stipules large, lanceolate, acuminate. Flower; usually solitary, and terminating short

lateral branches. Bracts usually numerous, and enclosing the calyx. Bracteoles oblong.

George’s Bay, East and North Coast; also Southern Australian Coast, hi. Oct.-Jan.


Pod small, nearly spherical, 2-seeded. Standard very broad. Stamens all free. Sepals united about half their length, upper pair longest. Bracteoles inserted below the calyx. Stipules absent or rudimentary. Small shrubs, with filiform alternate leaves, channelled on the upper surface.

Limited to Australia. Closely allied to Pukenaa, Aotus, and Phyllota.

Flowers numerous, axillary, nearly sessile ...    ...    1. B. floribunda.

Flowers many in the upper axils, shortly stalked ...    '2. D. cinerascens.

Flowers few at ends of branches, stalks fairly long ...    3. D. ericifolia.

1.    D. floribcnba, Sm. 1-2 feet high, blanched at the base only. Leaves 1,-1 inch long, not very slender. Flowers red to yellow-orange, very numerous in the axils of the greater part of the branch. Calyx-lobes rather short, nearly obtuse

Very common; also South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Oct.-Dec.

2.    D. cinerascens, R. Br. Very similar to D. floribunda in all details, but

more slender, the leaves excessively so. Flowers less numerous, and gathered more towards the ends of the branches. Calyx described as less turbinate at the base, but this is not always apparent in Tasmanian specimens. Plant somewhat ashey-grey.    _

Very common in dry places; also throughout Southern Australia. FI. Oct.-Dec.

3.    D. ericifolia, Sm. Very similar to the last, only taller, more branched, and not grey, {lowers few in the upper axils, on comparatively long stalks. Minute stipules usually present, but this and all the other characters somewhat variable. D. glaberrima, H.

Common in heaths; also South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Oct.-Dec.


Pod very flat, the dorsal suture extended as a wing, valves coiled back after separating, but not parting at the suture. 4-8 seeded. Stamens united in a sheath round the style. Two upper sepals greatly exceeding the lower ones.

Limited to Australia. Closely allied to Bossicea.

Leaves triangular.

Bracts small............... ...    1. P. triangulare.

Bracts enclosing stalk and base of calyx ...    ...    2. P. obtusangulum.

Leaves ovate ...    ...    ...    ...    • ••    ...    3. P. formosum.

1.    P. trtangulark, R. Br. A small, wiry, procumbent shrub, 1-2 feet. Leaves opposite, sessile or nearly so, triangular, with usually pungent points, |-1 inch long. Flowers few in the terminal axils, stalks about 5 inch long. Bracts small, at the base only. Pod about l inch long, nearly j inch broad. P. munayanum, H.

Eagleliawk Neck, North-East and North Coast, Islands of Bass Straits ; also in South Australia and Victoria. FI. Oct.-Dec.

2.    P. obtusangulum, H. Very similar to the last, with usually the same acute corners to the leaves. Flower-stalks short, and clothed with rather large brown bracts. P. triangulare, Sims.

Cambridge, and said to be common in many parts, but overlooked ; also South Australia and Victoria FI. Oct.-Dec.

3. P. formosum, Sm. An erect, much-branched, spreading shrub, 3-6 feet. Leaves opposite, mostly ovate, 1-2 inches long, strongly vein-marked. Flowers few together in the upper axils, shortly-stalked. Pod about li inch long.

Launceston, North and East Coast to Swanport; also Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.

9. BOSSIrfiA.

Pod flat, seeds 4 to 8, valves revolute, and separating when old. Stamens uniting in a tube round the style. Upper pair of sepals usually greatly exceeding the others.

Limited to Australia.

Leaves opposite    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1.    B. rordigera.

Branches flat, nearly leafless    ...    ...    ...    ...    4.    B. riparia.

Leaves acute    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    B. cinerea.

Leaves blunt    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    3.    B. prostrata.

1.    B. CORDIUERA, B. A small, wiry, procumbent shrub, 1-2 feet. Leaves nearly sessile, ovate to neai’ly orbicular, about 2 lines long, in numerous pairs along the short lateral branches. Flowers usually 1-3 in the terminal axils, on long slender stalks. Pods § inch long.

Common in many parts in the North; also in Victoria. FI. Oct.-Jan.

2.    B. CINEREA, R. Br. An erect, branched, rather rigid shrub, mostly 1-4 feet high. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, tapering into a sharp point, |-1 inch long. Flowers numerous in the upper axils, stalk slender, f inch long. Corolla pale yellow and purple-black, about 5 inch diameter. Pod |-| inch long.

Very common in heaths ; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Sept.-Nov.

Var. rigida. Smaller, branches spinous. Leaves 2 lines long, broadly oblong, with a short recurved point. Flowers with a greenish tinge. Very close to B. ininrophylla, Sm. The Bocks, near New Norfolk.

3.    B. prostrata, R. Br. A very small decumbent shrub, usually of few inches. Leaves broadly oblong, blunt, j-5 inch long. Flowers few in the upper axils, on long slender stalks, yellow. Pod about J inch long.

Very common in dry places; also Southern and Eastern Australia. FI. Oct.-Nov.

4. B. riparia, Cunn. A small, rigid, erect, shrub, 1-3 feet. Branches flattened. Leaves none, or obsolete. Flowers rather numerous at the nodes, shortly-stalked, yellow with a purple-black keel. Pod |-f inch. B. ensata, H.

Common in numerous situations; also South Australia, Victoria, and New Sonth Wales. FI. Sept.

10. HOVEA.

Pod nearly spherical, but slightly flattened, with usually 2 seeds. Stamens united, except above and sometimes also below, round the style. Upper pair of sepals much larger and longer than the lower ones.

Limited to Australia.

Leaves about 5 inch, green beneath ...    ...    ... 1. H. heterophylla.

Leaves 2- inches, pale beneath ...    ...    ...    ... 2. H. longifolia.

1.    H. heterophtlla, Cunn. Branches decumbent from a woody base, a few inches long, sometimes sub-erect, heaves from narrow to broadly-oblong, f-f inch loug. Flowers blue, rather small, solitary or few in the upper axils.

Very common in dry heathy places; also South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Sept.

2.    H. longifolia, R. Br. An erect, branched shrub, often many feet big'll. Leaves narrow, oblong, obtuse, or with a short mucronate point, mostly 1-2 inches long, pale or rusty beneath. Flowers blue or nearly white, solitary, few, or in short racemes in many axils towards the ends of the branches. H. purpurea, Lodd., included.

In numerous situations, mostly on dry hills ; also throughout Australia, except in western districts. FI. Sept.


Pod flattened, mostly 3-6-seeded, constricted between the seeds, and generally each part falling away when mature with its contained seed. Stamens all, or the lower 9, combined in a tube round the style. Sepals united in the lower part, upper paii1 exceeding the others.

A large tropical and sub-tropical genus.

D. varians, Endl. Branches few from a woody base, decumbent, about 1 foot long. Leaflets 3, from linear to nearly orbicular, 1 inch. Stipules membranous, small. Flowers in slender terminal racemes, pale blue or white. D. tjunnii, 11.

North-West Coast; also Victoria to Queensland, Islands of Pacific. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Pod linear, many-seeded, upper stamen free, the rest united in a tube. Sepals united nearly their entire length. Keel comparatively short.

Limited to Australia.

H. monophvlla, li. A twining shrub, the branches often many feet long. Leaves ovate, blunt, 2-3 inches long. Flowers blue, numerous, in numerous axillary racemes. Pod rather flattened, 1-1| inch long. H. ovata, B.; Kennedya munophylla, Bent.

Frogmore, near Richmond; also South Australia to Queensland. FI. Sept.-Nov.


Pod linear, many-seeded. Upper stamen free, the rest united. Sepals united for half their length, nearly equal. Keel exceeding the standard.

Limited to Australia. Closely allied to Ilardenberyia and Glycine.

K. prostrata, It. Br. A small, procumbent, creeping shrub, mostly 1-2 feet. Leaves trifoliate; leaflets mostly orbicular, inch long. Flowers pink or crimson, l inch long, solitary or two together, on a slender axillaiy stalk. Pod cylindrical, the valves twisting after bursting.

Very common in dry and sandy situations; also extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov.


Pod linear, somewhat flattened, many-seeded. Stamens united in a tube round the style, or the upper one free. Sepals united to about half their length, the upper pair longer and united nearly to their ends.

A tropical and sub-tropical genus, differing from neighbouring genera in little but habit.

G. clandkstina, Wendl. A small, twining, herb-like underslirub, of few inches to H foot. Leaves trifoliate, long-stalked; leaflets of low'er leaves broadly obovate, inch, upper ones narrower to linear, 1-11 inch long. Flowers usually many, in loose, long-stalked, axillary racemes, blue or white. Pod f-1 inch long. Leptocyamus clandestinm, B.

Common in central and northern grassy bush; also throughout Australia. FI. Dec.

Var. latrobeana. Flowers rather larger and more crowded. L. tasmanieux,



Pod broad, flat, few-seeded. Stamens united in a tube, except at the upper surface. Sepals united to about half their length, the upper pair exceeding the rest.

Limited to Australia.

G. lotifolia, Sal. An erect, much-branched shrub, 3-6 feet. Leaves trifoliate, leaflets broadly to narrowly obovate. Flowers numerous, yellow, in erect, loose racemes. Pod stalked, f-1 inch long, } inch wide. G. pubescens, Sims (included).

Found in numerous places throughout Tasmania ; also throughout Australia, except the extreme north. FI. Oct.


Pod (in the Tasmanian plant) cylindrical, many-seeded. Stamens united round the style, the upper one free. Sepals about equal, united nearly to their ends.

A large tropical and sub-tropical genus.

I. australis, 1Villd. A sub-erect, spreading shrub, from 1-4 feet. Leaves with many pairs of oblong leaflets, each f-1 inch long. Flowers numerous, pink, in loose, erect, axillary racemes.

Common throughout Tasmania ; also throughout Australia, except the extreme north. FI. Nov.

17.    PSORALEA.

Pod small, ovate, l-seeded. Stamens united, or the upper one nearly free. Sepals united to half their length, equal, or the lower one longest.

A large genus, chiefly distributed in the warmer temperate climates of both Hemispheres.

P. adscendens, F. v. M. A creeping, ascending perennial, 1-2 feet. Leaves trifoliate, long-stalked ; leaflets narrow or rather broadly oblong acute. Flowers pink or white, in a more or less dense ovate head of about 1 inch in length on a very long stalk. P. r/unnii, H.

Woolnorth, St. Marys; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Nov.


Pod (in the Tasmanian species) oblong, inflated, many-seeded. Sepals equal, united rather more than half their length. Stamens united, but the upper one free.

A large genus of Australian plants with one representative in New Zealand.

S. lassertjfolia, D.C. A sub-erect perennial, about 1 foot high. Leaves about 4 inches long, with many pairs of oblong or ovate leaflets about f inch long. Flowers pale purple, usually many in long-stalked axillary racemes. Pod nearly 1 inch long.

Woolnorth, Islands of Bass Straits; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Nov.

19. LOTUS.

Pod narrow, cylindrical, many-seeded. Stamens united, the upper one free. Sepals united for half their length, equal.

A genus of very wide distribution in the Eastern Hemisphere, chiefly characterised by its habit.

Flowers yellow    ..    ...    ...    ...    ..    1. L. comiculatu*.

Flowers pink ...    ..    ...    ...    ...    ..    2. L. australis.

1.    L. corniculatds, Linn. A small variable perennial, decumbent to erect, a few inches to 1 foot, glabrous to rather profusely hairy. Leaves of 5 leaflets, the lower pair close to the stem ; leaflets acute, ovate to linear, mostly J inch long. Flowers in small, terminal, long-stalked umbels, yellow. Pod 1-11 inch long

Very common: also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales, and in temperate climates of northern parts of the Eastern Hemisphere. FI. spring and summer.

2.    L. australis, And. Similar- to L. comiculatus in general habit. Leaflets narrow, obovate to spathulate, |-1 inch long, blunt. Flowers pink or white.

North Coast to George’s Bay ; also throughout Australia and the Islands of South Pacific. FI. Dec.-Feb.

The following Papilionaceat have been introduced chiefly as weeds of cultivation and fodder plants from Europe:—

Ulex europeus, Linn. Erect, much-branched, very spiney shrub, with numerous bright yellow flowers.

Ononis arvensis, Linn. Procumbent spreading shrub. Leaves trifoliate. Flowers pink.

Vicia. A genus closely allied to the Pea. Pod oblong, flat, many-seeded. Leaves with numerous opposite pairs of leaflets, usually terminating in a tendril.

V. saliva, Linn. Flowers rather large, nearly sessile, axillary, pinkish-purple.

V. hirmta, Koch. Peduncles elongated. Plant hairy. Pod 2-seeded. V. tetrasperma, Moeneh. Peduncle elongated. Plant hairless or nearly so. Pod 4-6-seeded.

Tuifolium. Herbs with trifoliate leaves and dense, usually spherical flower-heads. Pods usually 1-seeded, enclosed in the calyx.

T. pratense, Linn. Head i-lj inch in diameter. Flowers pinkish-purple. Calyx-teeth all equal.

T. medium, Linn. Stalk alternately curved. Lower calyx-teeth longest.

T. arvense, Linn. Erect, small. Flower-heads oblong. Calyx-lobes long, feathery.

T. repens, Linn. Creeping, flowers white.

T. resupinatum, Linn. Flowers small. Heads shortly stalked. Calyces inflated, white. Leaflets obovate.

T. fragiferum, Liun. Heads long-stalked. Calyces inflated, often pink. Leaflets oblong.

T. glomeratum, Linn. Heads small, sessile, axillary. Flowers pink. T. agrarium, Linn. Heads small, shortly stalked. Flowers yellow, persistent, the standard longitudinally furrowed.

T. procumbens, Linn- Similar to the last, only flower-heads smaller, and standard scarcely furrowed.

Melilotus. A genus very similar to Trifolium, but the flowers are arranged in more or less elongated spike-like racemes.

M. officinalis, Linn. Flowers yellow. Usually 2-4 feet high. Pod irregularly veined.

M. arvensis, Willd. Very similar, usnally smaller. Pod transversely wrinkled.    •

.1/. paroiflora, Desf. Seldom a foot high. Leaflets narrow, truncate, otherwise similar to the last.

M. alba, Linn. Flowers white. Tall, sometimes 9 feet high.

Medicago. A genius differing from the smaller TrifoUums in the pod being.coiled, or, even if 1-seeded, more or less curved.

M. satira, Linn. Erect. Flowers blue, pink, or white. Pod many-seeded, coiled.

M. denticulata., Willd. Flowers yellow, few. Pod coiled, many-seeded, toothed or smooth. Stipules toothed.

M. maculata, Willd. Similar to the last, only leaflets each with a dark spot in the centre.

M. minima, Linn. Similar to M. denticulata, only smaller, the stipules not toothed.

M. lupulina, Linn. Similar to M. denticulata, only softly hairy. Pods 1-seeded. dark, curved.


Pod various, many-seeded. Stamens very numerous. Sepals very small, united at the base. Petals free in all Tasmanian species, all equal and minute. In numerous species the leaves only attain perfection in the seedlings, after which the secondary petioles and pinnules are lost, and the petiole becomes spinescent, or flattened, and leaflike, and it is technically known as aphyllode. A reversion to the primitive type often tends to occur after injury, most particularly in A. melanorylon.

A large genus of all tropical and sub-tropical situations.

i. Leaves undivided, pungent ... ... ...


Leaves undivided, blunt ... ... ... ...


Leaves divided ... ... ... ... ...


ii. Flowers in simple globose heads ... ... ...


Flowers in ovoid or elongated spikes ... ...


iii. Leaves linear or broadest in the middle... ...


Leaves broadest towards the base ' ... ...


iv. Pod flat, blunt, about 1 inch long ... ...


A. siculiformis.

Pod not flat, narrow, l|-3 inches long ... ...


A. dijfusa.

v. Leaves narrow, pod not often constricted ...


A. juniper ina.

Leaves rather broad towards the base. Pod con

stricted between seeds ... ... ... ...


A. vomeriformis

vi. Spike dense, elongated, rarely small and ovoid ...


A. vertici'llata.

Spike loose, rarely short and closely axillary ...


A. riceana.

vii. Flowers in simple dense spherical heads, 1-3

together in the axils ... ... ... ...


Flowers seldom so disposed ... ... ...


viii. Leaves with two midribs ... ... ... ...


4. ver niciflua.

Leaves with 1 midrib ... ... ... ...


A. stricta.

ix. Flower-heads mostly racemed or panicled ...


Flowers in spikes ... ... ... ... ...


x. Branches angled ... ... ... ... ...


Branches cylindrical ... ... ... ...


xi. Leaves straight, acute ... ... ... ...


A. suaveolens.

Leaves curved, blunt ... ... ... ...


A. crasxiuscula.

xii. Flowers small, in dense spherical heads ...


A. melanoxylon

Flowers 2-4 in heads ... ... ... ..


A. myrtifolia.

xiii. Leaves oblong ... ... ... ... ...


A. sopltorai.

Leaves nearly linear ... ... ... ...


A. mucronata.

xiv. Leaflets narrow,oblong ... ... ... ...


A. discolor.

Leaflets nearly filiform ... ... .. ..


xv. Pods constricted between the seeds ... ...


A. decurrens.

Pods hardly constricted ... ... ... ...


A. dealbata.


JotmVAJL CovemttH r PaurrtR iasmhha.

H -snNviNNno snana

1.    A. siculiformis, Cunn. Erect, rigid, usually 3-4 feet. Leaves alternate, thick, linear or lanceolate, sharply pointed, inch long. Heads globular, 2-3 lines diameter, solitary, shortly-stalked in the upper axils. Sepals free, nari-ow, ciliate. Pod oblong, flat, not constricted, J-l inch long. A. stuartiana, Hook., and var. bomeeoides, B., included.

Western mountains, Bass Straits; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI.


2.    A. diffusa, Lindl. Habit and foliage very similar to A. siculiformis, but

usually less erect. Leaves variable, in breadth from i-1 inch. Inflorescence also as in that species, but often three or four heads are borne in the same axil. Sepals united, lobes short and broad Pod 2-3 inches, rather narrow, not flattened.    *    .

Abundant; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Oct.

3.    A. juniperina, Willd. Rigid, erect, few feet high. Leaves alternate, linear, thick, and rigid, the base broadest, tapering to the acute point, inch long. Flowers in small, globular, stalked, axillary heads. Pod flat, curved, about H inch long, narrow, and often constricted between the seeds.

Swanport, George’s Bay, George Town ; also Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Sept

4.    A. vomeriformis, Cunn. A diffuse, usually prostrate shrub, often not exceeding 1 foot. Leaves narrowly triangular, tapering into an acute point, inch long. Heads globular, axillary-stalked, usually solitary. Pod flat, 1 inch long, 2 lines broad, constricted between the seeds. A. gunnii, B.

Very common ; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Sept.

5.    A. veKTicillata, Willd. Erect, much-branched, often many feet high. Leaves gathered in whorl-like clusters, variable in breadth, from filiform to broadly lanceolate, f inch long. Flowers numerous, in dense or loose axillary spikes. Pod linear, slightly flattened, 2-3 inches long.

Abundant; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI Sept.-Nov.

Var. latifolia. Leaves nearly oblong, and hardly verticillate. Near to and often referred to A. oxycedrus, Sieb. Remine, West Coast.

Var. ovoidea. Small and decumbent. Leaves j inch, very nari-ow. Spikes short, small, ovoid-stalked. A. ovoidea, B. George’s Bay and North Coast; also in South Australia and Victoria.

6.    A. riceana, Hens. Erect, much-branched, spreading and drooping, 6-10 feet. Leaves variable, from filiform and tapering to the acute point to broadly lanceolate and mucronate, o-lj inch long. Flowers in comparatively long loose interrupted axillary spikes. Pod very narrow, 2-3 inches long.

Moist places, chiefly in the south. FI. Sept.-Nov.

Var. axillaris. Leaves filiform acute, spikes very short. A. axillaris. B.

North-East Coast.

7.    A. vernicifi.ua, Cunn. An erect, branched shrub or small tree. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, obtuse, with 2 main ribs, 2-4 inches long. Flowers in small, spherical, pedunculate axillary heads. Pods narrow, slightly flattened, lj-2 inches

lonF-    ^    . T.

Very common; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Sept.-Oct.

8.    A. stricta, Willd. Very similar in all details to the last, only seldom exceeding 4-5 feet, much branched at the base, leaves with a single midrib. Pods very slender, often 3 inches long.

Very common in pasture land ; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Sept.-Oct.

9.    A. SUAVEOLKNS, WiUd. An erect, slightly branched shrub, with angled branches, 5-6 feet. Leaves alternate, linear, flat, 1-ribbed, acutely pointed, 3-6 inches long. Flowers in spherical heads, gathered in small loose axillary racemes. Pod broad and flat, about 1 inch long.

Common in heathy country; also in South Australia, Victoria, New Sonth Wales, and Queensland. FI. Aug.-Sept.

10.    A. ckassiuscttla, Wendl. Very similar to the last, only leaves rather curved, and not acutely pointed. Pod long, linear, and contracted between the seeds.

Islands of Bass Straits; also New South Wales and Queensland. FI. Oct.

11.    A. melanoxylon, JR. Br. A small or large much-branched tree, with dark rough bark. Leaves broadly or narrowly oblong, usually very obtuse, narrowing into a stalk at the base, no distinct mid-rib, usually 2 or 3 main veins equally prominent, 3-6 inches long. Flowers in dense spherical heads, solitary, or more often in axillary racemes. Pod rather narrow, blunt, curved, 2-4 inches long.

Very common ; also in South Australia. Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Nov.

12.    A. myrtifolia, WiUd. A small branched shrub, often only 2-3 feet high. Leaves oblong or narrow, obovate, mucronate, mid-rib prominent, margin veinlike, about 1 inch long. Flowers relatively large, few together, in stalked axillary heads or racemes. Pod linear, curved, acute, about 2 inches long.

Very common in dry situations ; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. Aug.-Dee.

13.    A. soPHORiE, It. Br. A small tree, much-branched, spreading, decumbent at the base. Leaves narrow oblong, mostly obtuse, 2-6 inches long. Flowers very numerous, in rather long loose axillary spikes. Pod narrow, curved, constricted between the seeds, 4-6 inches long. A. longifolia, WiUd. (partly).

Common on coasts ; also in South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Aug.-Sept.

14.    A. atucronata. Willd. An erect, much-branched shrub, 10-12 feet. Leaves linear, obtuse, main veins mostly equal, seldom one assuming the character of a mid-rib, 2-3 inches long. Flowers in long loose axillary spikes. Pod very narrow, straight or nearly so, not constricted between the seeds, 3-4 inches long. A. longifolia, Willd. (partly).

Common in the western, northern, and north-eastern divisions ; also in Victoria.

Var. linearis. Very similar to the type, but the leaves narrower, mostly with a mid-rib, and acute. Pod still more slender. A. linearis, Sims. Circular Head and George’s Bay; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Nov.

15.    A. discolor, WiUd. An erect, much-branched, spreading shrub, usually 5-7 feet high. Leaves twice divided, the ultimate leaflets not very numerous, narrow oblong, about j inch long. Flowers in small globular heads, many in loose axillary racemes. Pod very flat, 2 inches long, f inch wide.

Very common on coast lands; also Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Mar.-Apr.

16.    A. decurrens, WiUd. Usually a small tree. Leaves twice divided, ultimate leaflets very numerous, filiform, 1-2 lines long, dark green, smooth or very slightly hairy. Flowers in small globular heads, many in rather long loose axillary racemes. Pod 2-3 inches long, rather flat, ^ inch broad, constricted between the seeds.

The Tasmanian plant here described differs somewhat from the type, and is usually treated as var. mollis. Von Mueller considered it a form of A. mollistsima,


Very common ; also throughout South and Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

17. A. DEALBATA, Link. Differing but slightly from the above. Leaves more hairy, and the pod flat, | inch broad, and seldom constricted between the seeds. A. moUimma (partly), von Mueller.

FI. Aug.-Sept.


Carpels free in Tasmanian forms, many, few, or solitary, on an enlarged convex or concave torus. Sepals usually 5, inserted on a floral tube. Petals usually 5 or none. Stamens from 2 to very numerous, with the petals inserted into the flora] tube at the base of the sepals.

Sub-order Potentillem. Carpels few or numerous, inserted on a convex or conical torus.

Styles hooked at the tip, fruit dry .    ■ •    ■    1. Geum.

Styles straight or nearly so, fruit succulent...    ...    ...    2. Rubus.

Sub-order Poteriece. Carpel solitary at the base^of a concave

or tubular floral tube ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    3. ActBiia.

1.    GEUM.

Pistil of numerous 1-seeded carpels. Styles long, coiled at the ends. Fruit-carpels dry. Stamens numerous. Petals 5.

A common genus of both Hemispheres.

Leaves divided or deeplv-lobed ..    ..    .    ...    1. G.urbanum.

Leaves reniform ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. G. renifolium.

1.    G. L'RRANUM, Linn. Herbaceous, erect, 1-2 feet. Leaves deeply divided, the upper ones into free segments. Flowers yellow. Petals about 5 inch long.

Tn many places in the North; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales, Europe, and throughout Asia. FI. Nov.-Jan.

2.    G. renifolium, F. v. M. Herbaceous. Leaves from a creeping stock, long-stalked, reniform, 1-4 inches wide. Flowers white, 1-1| inch diameter.

Adamson’s Peak, Mount La Perouse. FI. Dec. 19

The following European plants have been introduced mostly as weeds of cultivation

Rubus fruticosus, Linn. Similar but larger than It. parvifolius. Leaves not pale beneath. Fruit black.

Rosa rubiginosa, L. Floral tube very concave, fonning a hollow cup nearly closed above. Petals pink. Fruit formed of the red floral tube containing the dry carpels.

Potentilla ansrrina, Linn. Spreading herb. Leaves much divided, white. Flowers white. Sepals 8-10, nnited at the base only. Torus convex. Fruit-carpels numerous, diy, 1 -seeded.

Potentilla reptans, Linn. Similar to the last, only leaves green, in 5 coarsely-toothed leaflets, arising from the end of a slender stalk. Flowers yellow.

3. ACHiNA.

Pistil of a single l-seeded carpel. Floral tube tubular around the pistil. Stamens 2-10, inserted at the top of the tube. Petals none.

The genus has a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere, and appears also in North America.

Flowers in small clusters along the upper part of the

stem ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    .    ...    ...    1. A. ovina.

Flowers in spherical terminal heads    ...    ...    2. A. sanguisorba.

1.    A. ovina, Cunn. A small decumbent ascending herb. Leaves 2-4 inches long, much divided into opposite leaflets, the largest near the end ; leaflets j-4 inch long, deeply lobed, pale beneath. Stem erect, with very few small leaves, 1-2 feet. Flowers clustered in the upper half, very small, green and brown. Sepals mostly 4-6. Stamens variable in number, usually 8-l0. Fruit of the persistent floral tube, on which are developed barbed spines.

Very common ; also throughout extra-tropical Australia, New Zealand, and South America. FI. Oct.-Nov.

2.    A. SANGUISORBJ3, Vahl. Very similar to the last, only of a more creeping habit. Leaflets larger and more toothed than lobed, not pale beneath except where silky hairy. Flowers in a spherical dense head, head on a long or short stalk. Calyx-lobes usually 4. Stamens 2 Spines of the fruit mostly 4 inch long, barbed one arising outside the base of each sepal.

Very common ; also throughout South and East Australia, New Zealand, and South America. FI. Oct.-Nov.

Var. montana. Leaves very silky beneath. Spines of fruit about 1 line long. A. montana. H.

The following have been introduced from Europe

Poterium SANGUISORBA, Linn. Similar in general habit to Arana santjui-■sorhte, but more erect. Sepals longer. Stamens numerous- Fruit not developing spines.

Alchemilla arvensis, Scop. A little decumbent annual, 1-2 inches long. Leaves small, deeply divided. Flowers minute, green, in little axillary clusters.


Pistil of 2-5 blended carpels. Ovarian cavities in typical plants half immersed, and connate with the floral tube. Stamens as many as the sepals to very numerous, inserted with the petals into the top of the floral tube. Sepals and petals 4 or 5.

A large order, of the widest distribution. Closely related to Rosacea and ill-


Leaves alternate.

Flowers j-1 inch in diameter ...

...... 1.


Flowers 2 lines diameter ... ...

...... 2.


Leaves opposite.

Petals minute ... ... ...

...... 3.


Petals large ... ... ... ...

...... 4.


Leaves in whorls ... .. ...

...... 5.



Pistil of 2 blended carpels, with a common cavity and parietal placentas, immersed at the base only. Sepals, petals, and stamens 6-9.

A genus of two Australian plants.

A. GLANDULOSUS, Lab. A tall shrub, with spreading branches. Leaves oblong, dentate, 4-6 inches long, clustered at the ends of the branches. Flowers white, | inch in diameter, in axillary racemes.

Common in forests, ascending to a considerable altitude. FI. Oct.


Pistil of 4 nearly free carpels, hardly immersed. Sepals 4, free. Petals 4. Stamens 8, hypogynous.

A genus consisting of one Tasmanian species.

T. tasmanica, H. A small, erect, often unhranched shrub, about 1 foot. Leaves oblong, obtuse, dentate, about 1 inch long. Flowers about 2 lines broad, many in terminal erect racemes.

Found in most mountainous districts. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Pistil of 2 blended carpels, with distinct cavities, superior, but surrounded by a concave fleshy floral tube. Sepals 4 or 5, nearly five. Petals same number, very small. Stamens twice as many.

Confined to the one Tasmanian plant.

A. biglandulosum, Cunn. A tree of an erect or often horizontal habit. Leaves opposite, oblong, obtusely toothed, shortly stalked, 1-2 inches. Flowers few, often solitary, shortly stalked, axillary, green. j inch diameter. Sepals lj line long. Petals very small, linear. Fruit fleshy, } inch long, i-seeded.

Common in forests in the south and west. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Pistil usually of 5 blended carpels, cavities distinct, not at all immersed Fruit capsular, the carpels each splitting in two valves, leaving the placentas as a central column. Sepals 4, free, but adhering, caducous. Petals 4. Stamens numerous.

A small order, extending to Australia and South America. Like Tetra-carpaa, not typically Saxifrayeom, but probably more nearly allied to this than any other order. It has also been referred to Rosacea, and even Hypericin*tat.

E. BiLLARDiEiu, Spach. From a small decumbent bush to a small tree. Leaves oblong to elliptical, obtuse, opposite, pale beneath, J-2 inches long. Petals white, |-| inch long, obovate. E. miUigani, H., included.

Common in the west and south-west. FI. Dec.


Pistil of 2 blended carpels with distinct cavities, only immersed at the very base. Stamens very numerous, inserted on a fleshy enlargement of the torus.

Genus is limited to a few Australian plants.

B. rubioides, Andr. A small shrub, with stringy, much-elongated branches, usually climbing over the undergrowth. Leaves trifoliate, opposite, very shortly stalked; the leaflets lanceolate, 2-6 lines long. Flowers solitary, on long stalks in the upper axils. Sepals usually 6-7, free to the base, lanceolate. Petals pink or white, the same number, obovate, 3-6 lines, sometimes double.

Very common; also Southern and Eastern Australia. FI. spring and summer.

A specimen, unfortunately barren, from Moore’s Look-out, West Coast, is erect, from 1-2 inches high, and leaflets 1 line long.

Order XXVIII.—Cll A SS T L A CEjE.

Pistil of few, nearly free, many-seeded carpels, the floral tube very short round the base. Sepals and petals usually few, free, and equal. Stamens usually twice as many, inserted with the petals into the top of the tube. Fruit of several free follicles.

A common order of both Hemispheres, distinct from SaxiJ'rutjacece only in habit.


Sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels normally 3 or 4, and all free.

A world-wide genus.

Flowersunder 1 line, axillary.

Flowers many together ...    ...    ...    „.    1.    T. oerticillaris.

Flowers solitary.

Leaves under 1 line ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    T.    purpurata.

Leaves exceeding 2 lines ...    ...    ...    ...    3.    T.    recurva.

Flowers] line, many in a panicle    ...    ...    ...    4.    T.    macrantha.

1.    T. verticil laris, D. C. A small succulent herb, of a dull pinkish or pale yellow-green colour, erect, and seldom exceeding 4 inches. Leaves in small clusters, fleshy, thick, linear, 1-2 lines long. Flowers in dense axillary clusters, each on a very short stalk. Sepals narrow, about i line long, usually 4. Petals still smaller, narrow. Carpels not exceeding the calyx, very blunt.

Very common in dry places. Distributed throughout Australia. It also occurs in New Zealand and South America. FI. all the year.

2.    T. purpurata, Hook. A very slender decumbent annual, of j-l inch. Leaves linear, connate at the base, 1-1| or rarely 2 lines long. Flowers minute, slender, solitary, each on a stalk somewhat longer than the leaves, but occasionally shorter. Petals about i line long. Sepals shorter. Carpels blunt, not exceeding the sepals.

Mt. Direction, Great Lake, Formosa, South Esk River. It occurs also in New South Wales Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia, and extends also to New Zealand. FI. Sept.-Nov.

3. T. macrantha, Hook. An erect, branched annual, 2-3 inches high. Leaves linear, 1-3 lines long, connate at the base. Flowers larger than in the other species, numerous, and forming a broad panicle. Sepals lanceolate, 11 line long. Petals aboutthe same length. Fruiting-carpels nearly as long as the sepals, rounded, but bearing the permanent base of the style.

Very common in places. George Town, Brighton, near Hobart. It occurs also in Victoria and South Australia. FI. Sept.-Nov.

4. T. recurva, Hook. A slender, densely-tufted plant of small growth, but often living in water, and then lengthening to a foot or more, heaves linear, slightly connate, often exceeding J- inch. Flowers few, solitary in the axils towards the ends of the stems, on slender stalks nearly as long as the leaves. Sepals about i line long. Petals about the same length. Fruiting-carpels about | line long. P. intricata, Nees.

Very common in wet places. It occurs throughout Australia. FI. Dec.


Pistil of few intimately blended carpels, with usually a common ovarian cavity, slightly, or not at all, sunk in the torus. Sepals arising from the torus, close to the pistil, usually 4 or 5. Petals and stamens usually of the same number, and inserted at their bases.    .    .    .

A small order of Saxifrageoux herbs, kept in a separate order for their similar and peculiar habit.

Found in most parts of the world.


Ovarian cavity common. Placentas parietal. Fruit a capsule. Leaves bearing numerous stalked glands that secrete a proteid digesting fluid. Distribution as wide as the order.

Leaf laminre longer than broad.

Leaf long, spathulate. Flowers 1-2 together    ...    1- D. arcturi,.

D. xpatkulata. I), binata.

D. pygrtuea. D. auriculata. D. peltata.

D. menziesii.






Leaf short, spathulate. Flowers numerous, in a raceme    ...    ..    ...    •••    •••    •••

Leaf forked ...    ...    ...    ...    •••

Leaf laminae peltate or nearly so.

Minute. Flowers under 1 line ...    • • •    • • ■

Erect. Sepals hairless... ...    ...    •••

Erect. Sepals hairy ...    ...    ...    ...

Twining or tangled. Flowers large. Sepals hairy...

1. I). arcturi, II. Small, erect, heaves radical, 2-4 inches long, spathulate. Flowers 1 or few, on a slender stalk 2-6 inches long, white, f-f inch diameter.

All southern and western mountains from La Perouse to Ironstone ; also Victoria, New Sonth Wales, and Xew Zealand. FI. Dec.

2.    D. spathui.ata, Lab. Leaves in a small, dense, radical tuft, obovate to spathulate, 4-f inch long. Flowers numerous, about 2 lines long, in a spike-like raceme, on a slender stalk 4-6 inches long.

Kingston, George's Bay, Rocky Cape, in wet heaths; also South and East Australia, Xew Zealand, and probably Eastern Asia. FI. Feb.

3. D. hinata, Lab. Leaves all radical, 4-8 inches long, the upper portion divided into two equal lineal- lobes. Flowers white, -j-f inch across, few or many in a small loose panicle, on a stalk 6 inches to 1| foot long.

Found in numerous situations in wet heaths; also South and East Australia and New Zealand. FI, Dec.

4. D. PYGMJflA, D. C. Very small. Leaves forming a radical rosette, red, orbicular, mostly under 1 line. Flowers single, under l line long, on a slender stalk |-1 inch long.    _    _

Very common in heaths ; also in South Australia, V ictoria, New South V ales, and New Zealand. FI. summer.

5. D. auriculata, Pack. 20 Erect, slender, unbranched, 6-12 inches high Leaves in a tuft at the base, and alternately disposed on the stem, stalk slender

lamina reniform or semi-lunate, 2-4 lines diameter. Flowers few, terminal, j inch diameter, pink or whitt. Sepals quite glabrous.

Very common ; also South and East Australia and New Zealand. FI. spring and summer.

6.    D. peltata, Sm. The ordinary form not differing in general details from I), auriculata, except that the sepals are copiously hairy and the stem leaves are sometimes attached by the lower surface.

Very common, chiefly in pasture land; also throughout South and East Australia. FI. spring and summer.

Var. gracilix. Slender, and climbing amongst nndergrowth. D. gracilis, H.

Var. foliiisa. Stem short, leaf laminae very broadly reniform. I), folium,


7.    D. MENZIES1I, R. Tir. Stems very long and slender, tangling in the undergrowth. Leaves all dispersed on the stems, at least in the mature plant, orbicular peltate, 2-3 lines diameter, on long slender stalks. Flowers f inch diameter, pink or white, few in a loose terminal panicle or raceme. D. planckoni, H. (included).

Clarence Plains, George’s Bav, North Coast; also extra-tropical Australia. FI. Oct.


Pistil quite inferior, of 2-4 1-seeded carpels, blended, but the ovarian chambers usually distinct. Sepals 2-4, sometimes absent. Petals the same. Stamens usually 2-8.

A world-wide order.

Plant terrestrial.

]. Ilaloragis.

4.    Gunnera.

5.    Callitrirhe.

2.    Meionectes.

3.    Myriophyllum.

Leaves dispersed along the stem, sessile or nearly so ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Leaves radical, long-stalked    ...    ...    ...

Plant aquatic or creeping in mud.

Leaves opposite, stalked, entire ...    ...    ...

Leaves alternate with many linear lobes    ...    ...

Leaves whorled or opposite and sessile, if alternate, entire    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ... 20

1.    II. heterophylla.

2.    11. mi cr ant ha. 5. H. deprexxa.


3,    II. teucrioidex.

4.    It. tetragyna

opposite, oi' some-prominent

times alternate, variable, but mostly linear, with few more or less



lobes, 1 inch long. Flowers in the upper axils, the leaves gradually reduced to bracts. Petals abont 1 line long. H. ceratophylla, Endl.; If. pinnatifida, H.

Glenorchy, Brighton, North Coast; probably widely dispersed, but overlooked ; also throughout all Australia, except the extreme west. FI. summer.

2.    H. micraxtha, K. Hr. Small, smooth, depressed, the ends of the branches ascending. Leaves opposite, nearly orbicular, and sessile, 1-4 lines. Flowers minute, in many loose spikes, ending the branches. Petals s line long. Frnit prominently 8-nerved, smooth, and shining.

Abundant at all altitudes; also Southern Australia, New Zealand, and Eastern Asia. FI. Nov.-Jan.

3.    H. tbucrioides, Gray. Erect, branched, rough, with scabrid emergences,

1-2 feet. Leaves opposite, ovate, toothed, with cordate base, |-1 inch long, upper ones bract-like containing the flowers. Flowers solitary in the axils, forming loose, terminal, leafy spikes, 1 j line long. Fruit tuberculate and obscurely 8-ribbed. It. gunnii, H.

Very common ; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. spring and summer.

4.    H. tetragyna, II. General habit and structure the same as the last, only generally smaller, 6-9 inches high. Leaves narrow, oblong, narrowed at the base.

Very common in dry situations ; also in Southern and Eastern Australia and New Zealand. FI. spring and summer.

5.    H. depressa, Walp. Depressed and ascending, smooth-polished to somewhat hispid, the general character and details of H. teucrioiaex, only the fruit prominently ribbed and polished.

Very common on mountains above 2000 feet; also Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, and New Zealand. In Southern Tasmania at and below 2000 feet this plant suspiciously approaches the typical foims of H. teucrioides. FI. Oct-Dee.


Pistil of 2 carpels, flattened. Sepals and petals 2. Stamens 4.

Confined to the one species.

M. brownii, U. Depressed, creeping, often submerged. Leaves alternate, divided into few linear lobes, |-1 inch long. Flowers very shortly stalked, few in the upper axils. Sepals minute. Petals 1 line long. Fruit 1 line, flattened, flask-shaped. Haluragis meionectm, F. v. M.

North-west, west, and south-west parts ; also extra-tropical Australia. In fresh-water pools. FI. Dec.


Petals 4. Aquatic

Flowers nearly always unisexual. Stamens 4-8. Sepals short, 4.

Pistil of 2 or 4 1-seeded carpels, indurating and separating when ripe herbs. Flower small, in the upper axils.

World-wide. Fresh-water plants.

Leaves in whorls.

M. elatinoides. M. variifolium.

Upper leaves broad, usually 4 in the whorl ...

Upper leaves narrow, usually 6 in the whorl ...

Leaves opposite, entire.

Leaves oblong    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    3. M. amphibium.

Leaves linear    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    4. M. pedunculatum.

Leaves alternate, linear, minute ...... ...    5. M. integrifolium.

1. M. ei.atinoides, Gaud. Often 1-2 feet. Leaves in whorls, usually of 4, submerged ones 11-2 inches long, divided into numerous capillary lobes. Aerial

leaves inch long, broadly ovate. Flowers, the staminate ones with scarcely-perceptible sepals, well-developed petals, and 8 stamens; pistillate ones withont any perianth.

Risdon and other rivulets running into the Derwent, Huon, George’s Bay, George Town, Ac.; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales, and New Zealand to South America. FI. Nov.

2.    M. variifolium, II. A few inches to 1-2 feet. Leaves in whorls, usually of 5 or 6, submerged ones 1 inch, divided into filiform lobes, aerial leaves linear, i inch long. In the staminate flowers the sepals are small but apparent. Petals well-developed. Stamens 8. Pistillate flowers as in the last.

Very common in fresh water ; also throughout Australia and New Zealand. FI. Nov.

3.    M. AMPHimiiM, Lab. Small, creeping, 3-4 inches. Leaves opposite, oblong, entire, 3 lines long. Staminate flowers with minute sepals. Petals narrow, 1 line long. Stamens 8. Pistillate flowers very small. Calyx obsolete. Petals none. Fruit smooth or nearly so.

Recherche, Sonthport, Ac., in mud ; also in South Australia and Victoria. FI. summer.

4.    M. peduncdlatum, H. Very similar to the last, only the leaves smaller, and narrow-linear. Flowers smaller, the staminate ones sometimes stalked. Fruit rough.

Very common, especially in muddy pools, at a considerable altitude ; also Southern Australia and New Zealand. Fl. Nov.

5.    M. intergrifomdm, H. Very small, depressed, and ascending. Leaves alternate, linear, 1-2 lines long. Staminate flowers minute. Sepals obsolete. Petals ^ line long. Stamens 4. Pistillate flowers without perianth, | line long.

Probably only towards the North Coast, possibly overlooked elsewhere ; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. Fl. spring.


Flowers mostly unisexual. Sepals 2-3, minute. Petals none. Stamens 2. Pistil of 1 1-seeded carpel. Styles filiform, 2. Fruit a minute drupe.

Widely distributed in cool southern climateB ; not appearing on the mainland of Australia.

G. coRDiFOtiA, H. Small, creeping by stolons. Leaves numerous, tufted, long-stalked, broadly cordate, dentate on the margin, 1 inch long. Staminate flowers arranged in clusters towards the end of a common erect stalk, minute. Pistillate flowers numerous, in a spherical head, on a very short common stalk. Fruit about 1 line long.

In alpine situations in northern and central districts. Fl. Nov. 21


Pistils of few, 1-10, blended carpels. Ovarian cavities distinct, sunk in, and connate with the floral tube. Sepals usually 5. Petals the same, sometimes much modified. Stamens usually very numerous. Trees or shrubs with gland-dotted leaves.

An order of both Hemispheres.



2.    Thryptomcne.

3.    Bceckia.



6.    Callistemon.

7.    Melalenca.

8.    Eucalyptus.


1. Calythrix.


4.    Leptospermum.

5.    Kunzea.

i.    Stamens 5 or 10    ...    ...    •••    ...    —

Stamens numerous    ...    ...    ...    •••    •••

ii.    Flowers 1 line diameter ...    ...    ...    •••

Flowers 2-4 lines diameter ...    ...    ...    •••

iii    Flowers sessile, in spikes. Capsules persistent on

the branches ...    ...    ...    •••    ...

Flowers otherwise disposed . .    ...    ...    •••

iv«    Stamens all free from one another    ...    ...    .••

Stamens united in 5 bundles...    ..    ...    •••

v.    Petals united in a hard deciduous operculum ...

Petals normal...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

vi.    Sepals ending in long hair-like points    ...    ...

Sepals normal...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

vii.    Stamens not exceeding the petals ...    ..    ...

Stamens twice as long as the petals    ...    ...


Ovary 1-celled. Sepals 5, united by a membranous expansion at the base, the apex prolonged and filiform. Petals o. Stamens indefinite. Fruit 1-seeded, not much changed after flowering.

A rather large, purely Australian genus, developed chiefly in Western Australia.

C. tktkagona, Lab. Erect, branched shrub, 2-4 feet. Leaves numerous, filiform, 3-angled, l inch long. Flowers numerous or few, stalked in the upper axils, pink or white. Calyx bristles .i inch long. Petals ^ inch long.

Common in damp heaths; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. Oct.-Dec.


Ovary 1-celled. Sepals 5, united at the base. Petals 5, persistent. Stamens 5 or 10. Fruit not much changed from the flowering state.

Limited to Australia, and chiefly West Australia.

T. micrantha, H. Small sub-erect shrub. Leaves oblong, blunt, j inch long. Flowers solitary or few in the axils, nearly sessile, about 1 line long. Petals minute. Stamens 5.

North-East Coast from Schouten Island, Bass Straits, Macquarie Harbour (F). Confined to Tasmania. FI. Nov.


Ovary 2-3-celled. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens 5 or 10. Fruit capsular, with 1 or 2 seeds in each cell.

Chiefly Australian, but also distributed from New Caledonia through Eastern Archipelago to Southern China.

Flower-stalks longer than leaves    ...    ...    ...    1.    B.    diffusa.

Erect. Leaves pungent    ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    B.    leptocaulis.

Decumbent. Leaves blunt ...    ...    ...    ....    3.    13.    gunniana.

1. B. diffusa, Sieb. Small, wiry, prostrate, ascending. Leaves opposite, narrow or broadly oblong, concave, blunt or nearly so, 2-3 lines long, nearly

sessile. Flowers solitary in the upper axils, usually rather numerous, stalks usually £ inch long, with a pair of bracteoles about the middle. Sepals very short and broad, continuous w ith the floral tube. Petals broad, pink or white, spreading, 2-3 lines long. Stamens 10. B. thymifolia, H., included.

Very common in heaths; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. spring and summer.

2.    B. leptocaulis, U. Wiry, erect, much-branched, 1-3 feet. Leaves broadly filiform, grooved above, pungent, j-i inch long. Flowers on short stalks in the upper axils, as in B. diffusa, but about half the size and only 5 stamens.

In western district from Macquarie Harbour to north of the Pieman River. FI. Oct.-Dec.

3.    B. gunniana, Schau. Much-branched, prostrate or sub-erect, 2-3 feet long. Leaves 1-2 lines long, cylindrical, flattened on the upper surface, blunt. Flowers shortly stalked, similar to B. leptocaulis, but the stamens varying from 7-10.

Common on mountain-tops; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Jan.-Feb.


Stamens numerous,. L. Icevigatum.

L. scoparium.

L. lanigerum.

L. Jlacescens.

L. myrtifolium.

L. rupestre.

Ovary usually 5, rarely 10-celled. Sepals 5. Petals 5.

in a single row, free, not exceeding the petals.

Ovary usually 10-celled ...    ...    ...    ...    1.

Ovary 5-celled.

Leaves pungent ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2.

Capsule woody, tomentose, convex above    ...    3.

Capsule fleshy, smooth, nearly    flat    ...    ...    4.

Capsule convex, woody, glabrous, procumbent 6.

Capsule flat, only the valves protruding ...    5. 22 23 24

4.    L. FLAVESCENS, Sm. Slender, 5-10 feet, often drooping. Leaves narrow or broadly oblong or nearly spatbnlate, 3-8 lines long, blunt or shortly pointed. Flowers mostly nearly sessile axillary, as in the last but much smaller. Capsule glabrous, red, fleshy till very old. flat, then somewhat convex.

Very common in wet heaths; also Eastern Australia. It also occurs in the Eastern Archipelago. FI. Nov.-Dec.

Var. nitidum. Similar to the type, only slender, and with a drooping tendency. Capsules somewhat silky hairy. L. nitidum, H. Usually referred to L. lanigerum,, with which it only agrees by being tomentose on the capsules.

5.    L. myrtifolium, Sieb. A small or tall shrub, 2-10 feet. Leaves obovate to linear-spathulate, |-| inch long. Flowers solitary, nearly' sessile, axillary. Sepals short and broad. Petals 2-4 lines long. Capsule 2-4 lines diameter, flat-topped, tbe valves alone protruding.

Recherche, North and West Coast, Bass Straits ; also Eastern Australia. FI. Oct.-Jan.

6.    L. bcpestre, II. A prostrate shrub, creeping over rocks, rarely erect. Leaves oblong, blunt or slightly pointed, 2-8 lines long. Flowers axillary, or terminating short lateral branches. Flowers and capsule as in L. scoparium.

Common on mountain-tops. FI. Jan.


Ovary wholly immersed in the floral tube which is continued above it,

2-5-celled. Sepals 5, continuous with the tube. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, Free, exceeding the petals in length. Fruit capsular, succulent.

Limited to Australia. Intermediate between Leptospermum and CaUistemon.

K. corifolia, Reich. An erect shrub, 6-12 feet. Leaves linear, obtuse, slightly concave, 3-4 lines long. Flowers numerous in terminal and axillary clusters, nearly sessile, about 3 lines long. Sepals very short, broad. Petals white, f-1 line long, orbicular. Stamens 3-4 lines long.

Schouten to George’s Bay, Bass Straits; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Dec.


Ovary wholly immersed in the floral tube, which is continued above it,

3-4-celled. Sepals 5, continuous with the tube. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, exceeding the petals, free or indefinitely' connected. Fruit a many-seeded woody capsule, adnate, persistent on the branches.

Limited to Australia. Distinct from Melaleuca in the stamens not being united in five defined bundles.

C. SALHiNTJS, D. C- An erect shrub or small tree. Leaves lanceolate, blunt or acute, l|-3 inches long. Flowers numerous in terminal spikes, but the shoot soon continuing above. Sepals short.. Petals green, about 2 lines long. Stamens yellow, 6 lines.

Very common on river-banks; also South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Dec.

Var. viridiflora. Leaves f-1 inch, rigid, acute, linear. Stamens f inch long. C. viridiflorvs, D. C. 25

the tube, and persistently adherent to the bark of the branches. Flowers in dense terminal spikes.

A large Australian genus, only one species (M. leueadendron, L„ common also to the Indian Archipelago) extending beyond the district.

Leaves opposite.

Leaves inch, broad, acute ...    ...    ...    1. M. squarrosa.

Leaves 1 line, blunt    ...    ...    ...    ..    2.    M. gibbosa.

Leaves alternate.

Leaves ovate to lanceolate    ...    ...    ...    ...    3.    M. squamea.

Leaves linear-, obtuse    ...    ...    ...    ...    4.    M. ericifolia.

Leaves lanceolate, obtuse    ...    ...    ...    ...    5.    M.    pustulata.

1. M. squarrosa, 8m. Erect, rather rigid shrub or small tree. Leaves in decussate pairs, broadly ovate or cordate, acute, j-% inch long. Flowers pale yellow, numerous, in an oblong spike.

Common in wet heaths; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Nov.-Dec.

2.    M. GIBBOSA, Lab. An erect, rather rigid, wiry shrub. Leaves oblong, blunt, usually longitudinally convex, 1-2 lines long, mostly opposite. Flowers pink-purple, in small dense terminal spikes.

Common in wet places ; also in South Australia and Victoria. FI. Feb.

3.    M. squamf.a, Lab. A tall, rather rigid shrub. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate to narrow lanceolate, acute, 3-6 lines long, mostly concave. Flowers pink-purple or yellow, rather numerous, in spherical terminal spikes.

Common in wet heaths ; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Feb.

4.    M. ericifolia, 8m. An erect, much-branched shrub or small tree, often 30 feet high. Leaves alternate, narrow, linear, blunt. Flowers pale yellow, numerous, dense, in short ovate terminal spikes.

Common in northern and north-eastern districts, Bass Straits; also South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Aug.-Dee.

5.    M. pustulata, H. A small shrub. Leaves alternate, linear to oblong or euneate, 2-3 lines. Flowers few, in small terminal spikes.

Near Swansea ; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. spring and early summer. 26

ii. Principal lateral veins not mnch smaller than and running almost in the direction of the

midrib ... ... ... ... ... ...


Lateral veins diverging or obscure ... ...


iii. Outer stamens normal...... ... ... ...


E. pauciflora.

Outer stamens without anthers ... ... ...


E. sieberiana.

iv. Leaves green, narrow, linear ... ... ...


Leaves glaucous, often broad ... ... ...


v. Bark fibrous. Leaves usually 2-6 lines in diameter


E. amggdalina.

Bark smooth, white. Leaves under 2 lines diameter


E. linearis.

vi. Leaves often opposite. Flowers many. Fruit


often constricted... ... ... ... ...


E. risdoni.

Leaves alternate. Flowers commonly 3 together. Fruit very broad at orifice ... ... ...


E. coccifera.

vii. Fruit 2 lines diameter ... ... ... ...


E. regnans.

Fruit 4 lines diameter ... ... ... ...


viii. Stamens all perfect... ... ... ... ...


E. obligua.

Outer stamens barren ... ... ... ...


E. keemastoma.

Parallelanthers. Anther cells parallel, and joined throughout their length. Flowers usually 3 together. Commonly solitary in E. globulus, sometimes

many in E. viminalis, and always so in E. acermla.

i. Flowers normally solitary ... ... ... ...


Flowers three together ... ... ... ...


Flowers many ... ... ... ... ...


ii. Leaves oblique, long ... ... ... ...

17. E. globulus.

Leaves equal, ^-1 inch ... ... ...


E. vernicosa.

iii. Leaves opposite ... ... ... ... ...


Leaves alternate ... ... ... ... ...


iv. Leaves connate at base ... ... ... ..


E. gunnii.

Leaves sessile ... ... ... ... ...


E. cordata.

Leaves shortly stalked ... ... ... ...


E. vernicosa.

v. Flower stalks long. Fruit um-shaped ... ..


E. umigera.

Flowers shortly stalked ... ... ... ..


Flowers sessile or nearly so ... ... .,


vi. Fruit hemispherical, valves protruding ... ..


E. viminalis.

Fruit oblong to hemispherical, valves enclosed ...


E. gunnii.

vii. Operculum my triform. Fruit hemispherical ...


E. vernicosa.

Operculum flat, umbonate. Fruit turbinate ...


E. muelleri.

viii. Leaves broad, equal. Fruit obconic ... ...


E. acervula.

Leaves falcate or narrow. Fruit hemispheric ...


E. viminalis.

1. E. pauciflora, Sieb. A medium-sized tree, spreading and somewhat drooping. Bark smooth and white, except at the extreme base. Leaves alternate, stalked, lanceolate, equal or falcate, 3-6 inches, the main veins parallel to and nearly equal to the midrib. Flowers many in the umbel. Operculum short, hemispheric, obtuse, or shortly pointed. Fruit turbinate, slightly or not at all constricted at the apex, about J inch diameter. Rim broad. E. coriacea, Cunn.

Common, except the extreme south and south-west; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. 27

only smaller, and the onter stamens without anthers and the fruit smaller, about t inch diameter. E. virgata, Sieb. (in error).

Falmouth to Gould’s Country ; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales.

3.    E. amygdalina, Lab. A tall tree, with rather thick, finely fibrous bark, but often flowering when only a few feet high. Leaves narrow, linear, 2-3 inches long, 2-6 lines wide, alternate, stalked, equal-sided, thick, the lateral veins few and hidden. Flowers small, many in the umbel. Operculum short, hemispherical. Fruit turbinate, but sometimes slightly constricted at the orifice. Capsule not sunk and rim broad in the ripe typical form, 2-3 lines diameter, unstable in details.

Very common ; also South and East Australia,

Var. radiata. Leaves broader than the type, with a tendency to become smooth-barked, and the fruit larger and often pear-shaped, with sunk capsules. This includes numerous forms between E. amygdalina and E. rixdoni, var. elata.

Var. hyper icifalia. Leaves rather broad, opposite, and sessile. Fruit rather large, often pear shaped. A very unstable form, approaching forms of E. rixdoni.

Var. nitida. Differing from small-statured individuals only in the leaves being broader and more rigid, running absolutely into the type.

4.    E. linearis, Dehn. A small to medium sized tree, hark smooth and white, or sometimes scaly on the lower portion of the stem. Leaves similar to the last, only still narrower, and the fruits smaller, slightly constricted, and the capsules usually' slightly sunk.

Very common, and though presenting a different appearance, hardly morphologically distinct from E. amygdalina, Lab. 28 29 30

hemispheric, but often nearly conical. Fruit nearly pear-shaped, about f inch diameter. Rim narrow. Capsule sunk.

Common, chiefly in mountainous country ; also in Victoria and New South Wales. The species, though closely allied to E. amygdalina, passes, on the other hand, insensibly into forms of E. obliqua.

8.    E. OBLIQUA, U Her. Tree often attaining very large size. Bark thick, fibrous, and persistent on the stem and main branches in the typical form, but in many localities, especially at an altitude, becoming more and more deciduous, sometimes persistent only at the base. Leaves alternate, stalked, broadly ovate to lanceolate. acute, conspicuously unequal. Veins few, somewhat diverging. Mowers many in the umbel. Operculum small, hemispheric, obtuse, or in trees with very deciduous bark, nearly conical. Fruit pear-shaped, 5 inch diameter. Capsule much sunk. Rim narrow, except in deciduons-barked trees, where it becomes broader and red-brown.

Very common; also in South Australia Victoria, and New South Wales.

9. E. HjEMASTOMA, Sm. Tall, erect tree. Bark coarsely fibrous at the base, smooth and mostly white above. Leaves broadly lanceolate, slightly to very oblique, 3-5 inches long, veins few, not very broadly diverging, very similar to E. obliqua. Flowers rather numerous, in axillary umbels. Peduncle flat. Pedicels rather long and flat in flower. Flowers as in E. obliqua, only all the outer stamens without anthers. Fruit also similar, only the capsule not much sunk, and the rim rather broad and red.

Common in North-Eastern Tasmania ; also Eastern Australia.

10.    E. acervula, II. (not of Sieber). Usually a small tree, but sometimes exceeding 100 feet. Bark scaly below, smooth above. Leaves broadly ovate to lanceolate, equal, dark green, and shining, usually undulate on the margin, 2-4 inches long, alternate, stalked. Flowers many in the umbel. Operculum half as long as the floral tube, or rather longer, conical or strongly umbonate. F ruit . obconie, very broad at the orifice. Rim broad. Capsule protruding, 5 to nearly

J inch diameter. E.gunnii, F. v. M. (not of Hooker), confused w ith E. stuartiana,

F. v. M., by Bentham, E. macarthuri, Deane and Maiden, included. Many Australian botanists still maintain this plant as not distinct from E. gunnii, H.

Common, except on West Coast; also Victoria and New South Wales.

11.    E. viminalis, Lab. A medium-sized or large, spreading, sometimes drooping, tree, variable. Bark usually smooth and w hite from the base, but sometimes the trunk coarsely scaly or scaly-fibrous even to the upper branches. Leaves very variable in size, alternate, stalked, lanceolate, 3-9 inches: varying from 2 inches long and 2 lines wide, to 6-9 inches and broadly lanceolate, falcate, with a red midrib. Flowers commonly 3, rarely more, in the umbel. Operculum as long as the floral tube, mytriform to umbonate. Fruit hemispheric, 3-4 lines diameter. Valves much protruding.

Very common; also throughout South and East Australia.

Var. macrocar pa. Somewhat more erect than the type, but bark and leaves similar. Flowers 3 in umbel. Operculum smooth, hemispheric. with a well-developed umbo, nearly as long as the floral tube. Fruit turbinate, smooth, but with 2 or 3 obscure ribs. Capsule protruding, about 5 lines in diameter. Considered by von Mueller to be a form of E. globulyx, Lab.; by J. H. Maiden to be a form of E. maideni, F. v. M.

I have raised many seedlings from Tasmanian trees. Nearly all diverge from the parent in the direction of E. globulus or E. viminalis, leading me to suspect hybridisation.

12.    E. lifNNll, II. A small, erect, glaucous tree, 10-20 feet, rarely much taller. Bark smooth, white. Leaves alternate, stalked, rather thick, veins spreading, ■oblong to broadly lanceolate, equal-sided, often obtuse, 1-3 inches long. Flowers

3 in the umbel, shortly stalked. Operculum shortly hemispheric to nearly conical. Fruit hemispheric to nearly oblong-truncate, 2-3 lines diameter. Rim rather thin. Capsule sunk.

Common in west-central districts; also South and East Australia.

Occasionally in luxuriant clumps the young trees will maintain opposite connate leaves until after the flowering age, but, at least in all recorded instances, when attaining a height of 15 feet the mature foliage is assumed. This form appears very close to, if distinct from, E. cinerea, F. v. M. Von Mueller once suggested for this form the name E. perriniana.

13.    E. cokdata, Lab. A small, erect tree, seldom exceeding 20 feet. Bark smooth. Leaves broadly ovate-cordate, opposite, sessile. Flowers 3 in the umbel. Operculum nearly flat, nmbonate. Fruit hemispheric, sometimes constricted at the orifice, ^ inch diameter. Rim narrow. Capsule much sunk.

Huon Road, Recherche, Brown Mt., Campania, Tasman Peninsula, Ac. ; also southern districts of New South Wales.

14.    E. vbhnicosa, H. Erect shrub, 4-li feet, rarely 12-20. Bark smooth. Leaves thick, shining, equal-sided, broadly oblong, stalked, opposite, rarely alternate, |-2 inches long. Flowers solitary or 3 in the umbel. Operculum conical, half as long as the capsule. Fruit hemispheric to semi-ovate, inch diameter, on very short stalk. Capsule sunk.

On mountain-tops, from La Perouse to Arrowsmith and to the West Coast.

15.    E. MUELLERI, T. 1i. Moore. A very tall, erect tree, though sometimes flowering when still small. Bark smooth, blotched with red-brown. Leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate-falcate, thick, shining, stalked, alternate, 1-3 inches long. Flowers 3 in the umbel, nearly sessile in the axils. Operculum nearly flat, umbonate. rough. Fruit turbinate, inch. Capsule sunk. Valves often protruding.

Common on mountains in South-West Tasmania at about 2000 feet altitude. Very probably a lowland form of E. vernicosa, H.

16.    E. DRNlGERA, II. Eroct, small to rather tall tree. Bark smooth, blotched with red-brown. Leaves alternate, stalked, shining, equal-sided, narrow-ovate to lanceolate, 2-4 inches long. Flowers 3 in the umbel, on a rather long peduncle, and also long pedicels. Operculum small, umbonate to flat. Fruit f-f inch long, urn-shaped, constricted below the end. Rim broad. Capsule very much sunk.

Common on mountains, especially in the south.

Var. elongata. A tall, spreading tree. Bark smooth, white. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 4-8 inches long. Peduncle not very long. Operculum conical, umbonate, half as long as the capsule. Fruit pyriform-globose, slightly constricted, J inch long. Capsule much sunk.

17.    E. globulus, Lab. Tall, erect tree. Bark smooth, peeling oft' in long ribands. Leaves broadly lanceolate, falcate, alternate, stalked, 4-12 inches long. Flowers solitary or 3, in an umbel, nearly sessile. Operculum flat, hemispheric, with a broad umbo much warted. Capsule broadly obconic, ribbed and warted, f-1 inch diameter. Rim broad. Valves level with the rim. Outer operculum present; shed early.

Common, except in the west; also Victoria and New South Wales.


Pistil of 2-5 blended carpels, the ovarian cavities distinct, or in some genera the cavity common to all the carpels, and the placentas parietal. Floral tube

well developed and tubular round the pistil, but free from it. Sepals and petals 4-6. Stamens usually as many, or twice as many, as the petals. Fruit many-seeded, capsular.

A world-wide order.


Sepals 4-6, with 4-6 sepaloid extensions of the floral tube intervening. Petals 4-6.

As widely distributed as the order.

Leaves opposite, lanceolate    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. L. salicaria.

Leaves alternate, linear    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. L. kyssopifolium.

1.    L. salicaria, Linn. Erect herb, 2-3 feet. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, stem-clasping, 1-1^ inch long. Flowers pink-purple, in a terminal leafy spike, 4-6 inches long. Stamens usually 12 (6 short and 6 long).

Jordan River and numerous other damp localities; also South Australia, Victoria, .few South Wales, and Queensland. Found in most of the temperate and sub-tropical parts of the world. FI. Jan.-Feb.

2.    L. uyssopifolium, Linn. A small, ascending herb, 6-8 inches. Leaves mostly alternate, linear, inch. Flowers very small, pink-purple, solitary, and nearly sessile in the upper axils. Petals 4-6. Stamens same number.

North Hobart Recreation Ground, and many parts in the north in damp places ; also similar in Australian and general distribution to the last. FI. Dec.


Pistil of usually 4 blended carpels. Ovarian cavities distinct or common, immersed in and connate with the floral tube, which is sometimes extended beyond it. Sepals usually 4. Petals same number. Stamens same or twice as many. Fruit various.

Of world-wide distribution.

Tube extending beyond the ovary. Seeds hairless ...    1. CEnotliera.

Tube not prolonged. Seeds with a tuft of long hairs 2. Epilobium.

1.    (ENOTHERA.

Floral tube extending beyond the ovary. Sepals 4. Petals 4. Stamens 8. Fruit an elongated capsule, the valves opening and curving outwards from above downwards. Seeds many, without hairs.

The genus is chiefly American, and is represented in Australian distribution by the Tasmanian plant only.

(E. tasmanica. H. A small, creeping or ascending herb, 1-3 inches long. Leaves opposite or alternate, narrow, oblong, obscurely toothed, 2-6 lines long. Flowers small, yellow, sessile, and solitary in the upper axils. Petals l-li line long. Capsule elongating to f-f inch.

Marshes at a high altitude in the western mountains. FI. Dec.


Tube not prolonged beyond the ovary, and the seeds vrith a tuft of long hairs at one end. Otherwise as in CEnotliera.

World-wide distribution.

Leaves narrow, mostly alternate ... .

.. ... 1. E.junceum.

Leaves mostly opposite.

Leaves stem-clasping ... ... .

.. ... 2. E. ijlabellum.

Leaf-bases narrow.

Petals about 2 lines ... ... .

.. ... 3. E. alpinum.

Petals 3-6 lines ... ... ... .

... 4. E. billardierianum.

1.    E. JCNCECM, Forst. Sub-erect herb, 6-12 inches, pale from minute pubescence. Leaves mostly alternate, sessile, linear, or nearly so, remotely toothed, |-1 inch. Flowers small, pink. Capsule linear, 1-2 inches.

Very eommon. Throughout extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. FI. Dec.-Feb.

2.    E. glabf.li.um, Forst. Erect herb, 1-2 feet. Leaves mostly opposite, sessile, usually with broad, stem-clasping bases, marginal teeth sometimes obtuse and remote, at others acute, small, and numerous, oblong to nearly linear, |-1§ inch. Flowers small, pale, in the upper axils. Capsules much elongating.

Very common; also Southern Australia and New Zealand. FI. Nov.-Mar.

3.    E. alpinum, Linn. Small herb, decumbent at the base, then erect, glabrous, or with two hairy lines descending from the leaves. Leaves opposite, stalked, or nearly sessile, oblong, remotely and obscurely toothed, j-J inch. Flowers purple-pink to white, in the upper axils, small. Capsule much elongating. K. conferti folium, H., included; E. tenuipes, 11.

Common on mountains; also in Victoria and New Zealand ; in colder parts of the Northern Hemisphere. FI. Jan.

The common Tasmanian form is exactly E. alpinum, Linn., rom which it diverges.

4.    E. billaedierianum, Ser. n erect herb, 6 inches to lj foot. Leaves opposite, oblong to nearly linear, obtusely and remotely toothed. Flowers in the type large. Sepals 5 inch. Petals f inch, pink to white. Capsule much elongating. E. pallidiflorum, H., included.

Common in many parts, especially in alpine situations ; also in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Jan.

Though so distinct in its large form, it runs on many mountains in an unbroken series into E. alpinum, Linn.


Pistil of few, usually 3, blended carpels. Ovarian cavity common, placentas parietal, immersed in and connate with the floral tube. Calyx of 5 partially united sepals. Petals 5, united or free. Stamens 3-5. Anthers large, waved, and often connate. Flowers usually unisexual. Fruit fleshy or leathery.

A large order, in most warm climates.


Fruit small, dry, prickly, containing but one pendulous ovule. Stamens united in a central column.

5.    angulata, Linn. Herbaceous, creeping, slender, 2-5 feet long, developing climbing tendrils. Leaves alternate, stalked, cordate or palmately 3 or 5-lobed, the ends acute, 1-2 inches long. Flowers small, seldom exceeding 2 lines, few together in axillary stalked umbels or racemes. Fruit nearly I inch long.

Islands of Bass Straits; also in Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, New Zealand, Islands of the Pacific; and throughout America and Southern Africa. FI. Nov.-Dee. '


Pistil of few carpels. The ovarian cavities distinct, wholly inferior. Sepals 3-5. Petals numerous or none. Fruit capsular.

The order is found in all but the colder parts of the world.

Leaves cylindrie. Petals numerous    ...    ... 1. Mesembryanthrmam.

Leaves broad, flat. Petals none ...    ...    ... 2. Tetraqona.


Petals veiy numerous, linear. Stamens numerous. Pistil 5-celled.

Leaves angled.................. 1. M. aquilaterale.

Leaves terete .................2. M. australe.

1.    M. SQUILATERAMS, Haw. A procumbent, much-spreading perennial. Leaves thick and fleshy, three-sided, opposite, and joined across the stem, 2-3 inches long. Ovary \ inch long. Sepals unequal. Petals spreading to about llj inch diameter, pink, purple. Capsule coriaceous, £ inch diameter, slightly convex above.

Abundant on coasts. Common almost throughout Australia, and extends to both North and South America. FI. spring and summer.

2.    M. australe, Sol. A prostrate, creeping perennial, rooting at the nobes. The leaves confined to the very short lateral branchlets, opposite, somewhat flattened, but more often club-shaped, usually f inch long. Flowers red, usually on stalks rather longer than the leaves, about 1 inch diameter, not differing in essential details from those of M. wquilaterale.

North and West Coast, Pittwater, and Muddy Plains. Probably on most salt marshes with the last species. Throughout extra-tropical Australia. A common New Zealand and South African plant. FI. spring and summer.


Calyx 3, 4, or 5 lobed. Petals none. Stamens sometimes very numerous, but usually 12 or 16 in Tasmanian species. Ovary 2-8-celled, with 1 pendulous ovule in each cell. Styles as many as the cells, linear, free. Fruit a hardened capsule.    _

A common coast genns in the Southern Hemisphere.

Leaves mostly exceeding 2 inches. Stamens in clusters 1. T. expansa.

Leaves mostly under 2 inches. Stamens scattered ...    2. T. implexicoma.

1.    P. EXPANSA, D. C. A prostrate, much-spreading perennial. Leaves ovate or triangular, stalked, 2-4 inches long. Flowers small, solitary or two together, shortly stalked or sessile. Calyx-lobes usually 4, about 2 lines long, yellow inside, spreading. Stamens in bundles of 3 or 4. Ovary half buried, 3-8-celled. Fruit j -l inch diameter, globular and smooth, to more or less angular, and with 2-3 horn-like protuberances.

North Coast. Throughout Eastern and Southern Australia; New Zealand to Asia and America. FI. spring and summer.

2.    P. implexicoma, Hook. A prostrate, much-spreading perennial. Leaves mostly crowded on small lateral branches, usually rhomboid, stalked, thick, crystalline below, mostly about 1 inch long. Flowers small, solitary or 2 together in the upper axils, on slender stalks, often 1 inch long, polygamous. .Sepals about 2 lines long, broad, obtuse, yellowish. Stamens about 16, dispersed. Fruit ribbed or tubercled, 4 inch long.

Very common on coasts. Throughout Australia and New' Zealand. FI. spring and summer.


Pistil of 2 carpels attached by their inner sides to a columnar prolongation of the torus, each bearing one pendulous ovule. Perianth superior. Sepals 5, sometimes abortive. Petals 5, rarely absent, equal, or sometimes unequal. Stamens 5, rarely fewer. Fruit not mneli altered from the flow'ering state of the pistil, each carpel with its seed falling away from the column. Flowers usually arranged in umbels, rarely solitary.

In Actinotux one carpel is abortive; the mature pistil becomes unilocular and l-seeded.

i.    Leaves entire or not deeply lobed ...

Leaves deeply lobed or divided    ...

ii.    Leaves broad. Flowers in dense umbels

Leaves filiform, cylindric    ...    ...

iii.    Carpels flattened in the same plane

Carpels flattened parallel to one another Carpels single. Petals absent    ...

iv.    Umbels simple    ..    ...    ...

Umbels compound    ...    ...    ...

Umbels few-flowered, irregular ...

v.    Plant very spiney ...    ...    ...

Carpel solitary. Petals absent ... Leaves very small, palmate...    ...

Leaves large, palmate    ...    ...

Leaves pinnate, dissected    ...    ...

vi.    Bracts linear ...    ...    ...    ...

Bracts absent...    ...    ...    ...

vii. Umbels axillary    ...    ...    ...

Umbels terminal. Fruit smooth ... Umbels terminal. Fruit clothed with hairs ...    ...    ...    ...

ii. iv.

iii. 101.



... v. ... vi. ... vii. ...    7.

... 6. ... 1.














A ctinotu*.




A ciphylla.






Fruit laterally compressed, dorsal rib prominent, lateral ones faint, about as broad as long. Calyx obsolete. Umbels simple, rather dense, axillary, stalked. Distribution world-wide.

Leaves broadly lobed or entire.

Leaves reniform, lobed.

Fruit winged..... ............2. H. pterocarpa.

Fruit not winged ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. H. hirta.

Leaves cordate, glabrous    ...    ...    ...    ...    6. II. axiatica.

Leaves deeply lobed or divided.

Each carpel with a pit on each side ...    ...    ...    4. II. rallicarpa.

Carpels pitted and rough. Leaves 3-lobed, obtuse .5. II. capiUaris. Fruit unpitted. Leaves of 3-5 cuneate segments ...    3. H. tripartita.

1. H. hikta, R. Ur. Small, prostrate, and creeping, hairy. Leaves stalked, reniform, with many broad shallow lobes, 1-1 inch broad. Umbel stalked, dense, many-flowered, axillary. Fruit about 1 line diameter, smooth. II. peduncular is, R. Br., II. tatmanica, H., and II. vagam, H., included.

Very common; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. summer.

2. H. pterocarpa, F. v. M. Small, prostrate, spreading. Leaves on long slender stalks, somewhat orbicular, crenate or with shallow clefts, 1,-1 inch diameter. Flower-stalks shorter than the leaves, very slender ; flowers larger, usually fewer and less crowded than in II. hirta. Fruit very flat, the edge expanding into a broad wing.

Circular Head, George’s Bay, Southport, Remine ; also in Victoria and South Australia. FI. Feb.

3. H. TRIPARTITA, R. Ur. Small, slender, and prostrate, matted oi* spreading. Leaves of 3-5 entire or toothed segments, usually under 3 lines diameter. Flower-stalk slender, bearing a small loose head of 3-6 small, nearly sessile, flowers. Fruit f line diameter, smooth or granular. II. muscosa, Hook.

Common in moist places. Throughout Eastern Australia. FI. spring and summer.

4.    H. callicarpa, Bunge. Small, slender, usually prostrate and spreading. Leaves mostly | inch diameter, of 3 or 5 cnneate toothed segments. Flowers in small umbels, usually 6-10, very minute, each on a short stalk that lengthens considerably under the fruit. Fruit ls-f line broad, smooth, the intermediate rib prominent, curved, with a conspicuous pit in front of it. II. tripartita, Hook.

Near Launceston, George’s Bay, near Hobart in many parts, Longley. Probably common in dry soil, but overlooked. It occurs throughout Southern Australia. FI. Nov.-Jam.

5.    H. capillaris, F. o. M. A minute, slender annual. Leaves deeply 3-lobed. Flowers shortly stalked, few together in a small head on a common stalk. Fruit about j line broad, the intermediate ribs very prominent, the space between them and the dorsal rib tilled with a swollen, pitted development.

Pleasant Boat Harbour, George’s Bay; also in Victoria, South Australia, and West Australia. FI. Nov.-Jan.

6 H. asiatica, D. C. Small, prostrate, and creeping. Leaves mostly cordate, obscurely toothed, j-inch long, smooth, on rather long stalks. Flowers 3-4 together, purple. Bracts well-developed. Fruit about 2 lines diameter.

Very common in swamps. Throughout Australia, New Zealand, and most warm parts of the globe. FI. Nov.-Mar.


Fruit laterally compressed, dorsal rib prominent, lateral ones faint, about as broad as long. Calyx obsolete. Umbels terminal.

Principally Australian, extending to New Caledonia and Borneo. Differing from Hydrocotyle in habit and in not possessing stipules.

Lower leaves divided into segments ...    ...    ... 1. T. australis.

Lower leaves lobed ...    ...    ...    ...    ... 2. T. humilis.

1.    T. australis, B. An erect herb, 1-2 feet. Leaves at the base deeply divided into 3-5 much-divided, toothed segments. Umbels many, lateral or terminal, many-flowered. Flowers small, white. Fruit flat, about 1 line, often unequal. Didiscus pilosus, H.

Hnon, and in many parts in the north and east. Extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov.-Feb.

2.    T. humilis, B. Erect, 3-6 inches. Leaves radical, long-stalked, ovate or oblong, entire or 3-5-lobed, 1-1 inch long. Stem about 4-6 inches, bearing a single terminal umbel. Fruit flat, smooth, 11-2 lines diameter. Didiscus humilis, H.

Sub-alpine, Ben Lomond and northern hills. It occurs also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Dec.-Jan.


Fruit laterally compressed, dorsal rib obtuse, lateral ones fairly prominent, somewhat longer than broad. Sepals fairly developed. Umbels few, flowered, lateral or axillary. Bracts conspicuous.

Limited to Australia.

Shrubby. Leaves with obtuse lobes ...    ...    ...    1.    X. pilosa.

Slender, decumbent.

Leaf-segments few, broad ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    X. pusilla.

Leaf-segments numerous, narrow ...    ...    ...    3.    X. dissecta.

1. X. pilosa, Budge. Erect or depressed, branched under-shrub, 6 inches to 2 feet. Leaves variable, usually divided into few obtuse lobes, hairy and white beneath, about 1 inch long. Flowers 1-3, in small, nearly sessile, lateral umbels. Bracts large and white. Petals narrow, small, white. X. Montana, H.

Common on the North Coast, Goshen, George’s Bay, Port Arthur, Longley, Mainland near Schouten I., Ac., Islands of Bass Straits; also throughout Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.-Feh.

2.    X. pcsii.la, Dunne. A small erect or diffuse plant, of 2-4 inches, slightly covered with spreading white hairs. Leaves of 3 entire ohlong-lanceolate segments, the lateral segments sometimes 2-lobed. Flowers 1-3 together, in small, usually sessile, umbels opposite the leaves, with usually 5 narrow lanceolate bracts suiTounding the flowers. Calyx-lobes broadly lanceolate, acute, nearly as long as the ovary. Petals small and narrow. Fruit about 1^ line diameter, smooth, ribs plain, but not prominent.

North Coast, Remine. Throughout Southern Australia. FI. Jan.

3.    X. dissecta, Hook. Prostrate, spreading, and much-branched, forming tufts of 6 inches to 1 foot in diameter, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves on long stalks, divided into 3 segments, the segments again divided or toothed. Flowers usually 2 or 3 together, in small umbels irreg ularly arising from a common stalk that is inserted opposite a leaf, each head of flowers surrounded by a few narrow linear bracts. Calyx-lobes broadly lanceolate, acute. Petals small and narrow. Fruit about 1 line diameter, with four very distinct ribs on each side.

Sorth Coast, Mount Bischoff, Mount Dnndas, Longley, Ac. Throughout South-Eastern Australia, FI. Dec.


Calyx-lobes prominent, sometimes petal-like, and deciduous. Petals obtuse or acute. Fruit slightly compressed laterally, each carpel 5-ribbed, the lateral ribs free from the commissure.

A genus spreading from Australia to South America, New Zealand, and South Pacific.

Stems slender, bearing 1, 2, or 3 flowers, on long

stalks ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. A. saxifraga.

Stems bearing an irregular umbel of 6-12 flowers ...    2. A. diclwpetalti.

1.    A. saxifraga, Death. Small, tufted, and hairless. Leaves all radical, stalked, spreading; the lamina? cordate, deeply 5-9-lobed, | inch long or less. Flower-stalk erect, often 4 inches long, usually bearing 3 flowers on long stalks at the end, or 2 at the end and 1 lower down, each with a narrow bract at its base. Calyx-lobes triangular, acute, minute. Petals 1 line long, broad, white. Fruit about 2 lines long and 1 broad, scarcely compressed. Microsciadium saxifraga, H.

Loddon Plains, Macquarie Harbour, Remine. In wet heaths. FI. Dec.-Jan.

2.    A. dichophtat.a, Death. A densely-tufted, somewhat hispid perennial. Leaves all radical, on long stalks, the laminse orbicular to reniform, with 5 or 7 short, broad, crenate lobes. Flower-stalk erect, bearing an irregular umbel of 6-12 flowers, and often a small supplementary umbel arising in the place of one of the flowers: the inflorescence surrounded by an involucre of unequal bracts that are often united at the base. Calyx-lobes petal-like, as large as the petals, and falling off with them. Petals 1 line long, acute. Dichupetalum ranuncu-laceum, Hook.

Great Lake, Mount Sorell, Mount La Perouse, Eldon Range. It occurs also in Victoria. FI. Dec.-Jan. 31


lateral ribs bordering the broad commissure in the centre of the convex inner face, the intermediate ribs forming the edges of the carpels.

The genus consists of the following that are confined to Australian distribution. Referred by Mueller to Huanaca.

Leaves quite entire, glabrous ...    ...    ...    ...    1. D. hydrocotylea.

Leaves crenate on margin, hairy    ...    ...    ...    2. D. cor difolia.    '

1.    D. hydrocotylea , Hooh. A glabrous perennial, with a creeping rhizome. Leaves in tufts, on long stalks, orbicular to ovate, thick, with revolute margin, mostly inch diameter. Flower-stem i-1 inch long, bearing a single terminal umbel of 12-20 shortly-stalked flowers, surrounded by an involucre of few unequal, linear bracts.

Marshes and wet sandy ground, about alpine lakes; also in Victoria. FI. Dec.-Jan.

2.    D. cordifolia, Hooh. Very near D. hydrocotylea, but rather larger, more or less hirsute, with spreading hairs, the re volute margins of the leaves distinctly crenate ; the flowers more numerous, and fruits narrower on a longer stalk.

Marshy places at Mount Sorell, Mount La Perouse, Macquarie Harbour, Ac. FI. Dec.-Jan.


Calyx-limb distinct, and usually 5-lobed, in one Tasmanian form absent. Petals when present 5. Ovary with a single cell and ovule. Styles 2. Fruit obliquely ovate.

A genus of very few species, confined to Australia and New Zealand. Peculiar for the obliteration of the ovarian portion of one carpel.

Leaves exceeding j inch. Calyx 5-lobed    ...    ...    1 .A.    bellidioides.

Leaves under | inch. Calyx-lobes absent    ...    ...    2. A.    suffocata.

Leaves divided or deeply obed    ...    ...    ...    3. A.    moorei.

1.    A. bellidioides, Bentli. A small, densely-tufted perennial. Leaves radical, from broadly to narrowly ovate, usually coarsely crenate on the margin, about 4-6 lines long, on a stalk of about the same length, more or less covered with soft hairs. Flowering stem about 1 inch high, bearing a small dense umbel. Involucre of about 6-10 narrow ovate bracts, nnited towards their base. Flowers usually 6-10. Calyx-lobes 5, conspicuous, like the rest of the •calyx somewhat hirsute. Petals none. Fruit about 1 line long. Hemiphues bellidioides, Hook.

Lake St. Clair, Lake Fenton, Mount Fatigue, Mount Dundas, Ac. FI. Dec.-Jan.

Among the varieties, Hooker describes one form, var. fuloa, bearing small linear petals; but there is some doubt of the correctness of the observation.

2.    A. sdffocata, Rod. A smaller plant than the preceding, and of similar habit. Leaves ovate, entire, smooth, about 1 line long, on a hairy stalk rather longer. Flower-stalk about ,^-f inch. Umbel about one-third as large, but otherwise similar to the last. Flowers without any calyx-limb, and only 2 stamens. Fruit about h line long. A. bellidioides, var. suffocata, Hook. ; A. novce-zelandice, Petrie.

On mountains, South-West and West Coasts ; also in New Zealand. FI. Dec.-Jan.

3.    A. moorei, Rod. A small tufted and creeping perennial, usnally with procumbent leafless branches extending to 2-6 inches, the leafy ends ascending. Leaves alternate, 3-segmented, the lateral segments usually 2-cleft, about 2 lines long, segments lanceolate-ovate; stalk slender, about 4 lines long, with a short


broad sheathing-base clothed with white silky hairs. Peduncle terminal, rather short to H inch, slender, hairy. Umbel about 2 lines diameter, bracts about 6, nearly free. Flowers about 5 or 6. Calyx of 4 sepals, and shortly united in a tube above the ovary. Petals none. Stamens apparently always 2. Frnit black, shining.

Swamp halfway up Mount Hartz, Mount Hamilton, Mount Reid, Mount Tyndal. FI. Nov.-Jan.


Calyx-lobes developed into spines. Petals entire. Fruit ovoid, scarcely compressed, the ribs obscure.

A common genus in both hemispheres.

E. vesicttlosum, Lab. Prostrate and spreading. Leaves tufted on the stems, oblong to almost linear, coarsely prickly, mostly 2-3 inches long. Flowers in small, dense, compound umbels at the nodes of the creeping stems ; bracts much exceeding the flower-heads, linear, rigid, and prickly.

Very common in marshy situations; also throughout South-Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.-Feb.


Calyx-lobes inconspicuous. Petals ovate. Fruit short, slightly compressed laterally, ribs prominent, bracts absent.

A genus of few species, but of excessively wide distribution. The only Tasmanian representative is common to southern extra-tropical parts.

A. AUSTRALE, Hook. Usually prostrate and spreading, rarely almost erect. Leaves divided, but to a variable extent, usually into many acntely-lobed segments. Flowers white, many, in small stalked umbels, 3-6 of these arising from a common stalk forming a compound umbel that remains very shortly stalked in the leaf-tufts. There are no bracts to either the primary or secondary umbels. Fruit with very distinct ribs. A. prostration, Lab.

Very common on coasts and in wet places. Throughout Australia, and a common plant throughout extra-tropical Southern Hemisphere. FI. Nov.-Jan.


Calyx-lobes inconspicuous. Petals with indexed tips. Fruit oblong or narrow, usually tapering towards the end, slightly compressed laterally.

A small genus. The following, which is the only one in Australian distribution, is common to South America.

O. andicola, Eiull. A tufted perennial, variable in habit and extent of development. Stems erect, from simple leafless to branched and slightly leafy, and from a few inches to 1 foot or more. Leaves singly to many times divided. Lobes small, linear to oblong. Stems bearing a simple or compound umbel surrounded by 6-10 ovate bracts. Flowers numerous, at first nearly sessile, but the stalks lengthening under the fruit. Fruit narrow-oblong, tapering above H-3 lines long.

Common in very numerous situations ; found also in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. Dcc.-Jan.

Very variable and numerous doubtful species have been formed of the varieties.


Calyx-lobes shortly prominent. Petals acute, concave. Fruit broadly ovoid, very slightly laterally compressed, the carpels almost cylindrical, ribs distinct.

The genus contains but one species that has a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere.

C. lineata, Nutt. A small plant, with a slender, creeping rhizome, developing nodes of growth at intervals Leaves solitary, or few at each node, linear-cylindrical, hollow, but divided by numerous septa from 1 to 6 or 7 inches long. Flowers small, usually few, in a simple umbel at each node, each flower on a slender stalk of 1 to about 4 lines long, and the umbel on a tolerably long, slender peduncle. Fruit about 1 line long.

Probably common in ditches and on the borders of swamps, but overlooked. Zeelian, Bellerive, Jordan River, near Launceston, Riverton ; throughout the greater part of Australia. FI. Jan.-Mar.


Calyx-teeth prominent. Petals ovate or lanceolate, not inflected at the tip. Fruit in typical species oblong and dorsally compressed, the ribs prominent, often developed into narrow wings.

A genus of few species, confined to Australia, New Zealand, and adjoining distribution.

A. procumbens, F. v. M.    A small, densely-tufted plant, with prostrate

branches, the sheaths of the dead leaves persistent. Leaves twice divided, the ultimate segments short, crowded, linear, acute, and tipped with hair-like points. Flowers in a single compound umbel, on a very short stem. Bracts few, linear. Fruit ovoid, about line long, the ribs very prominent. Gingidivm procvni-benx, Hook.

Summit of Mount La Perouse, Adamson Peak, and Mount Hartz. FI. Dec.-Jan.

12. DAUCUS.    .

Calyx-lobes prominent. Petals with indexed tips. Fruit ovoid or oblong scarcely compressed, bristly. Each carpel somewhat dorsally compressed, the primary ribs obscure, but the secondary ones prominent and bearing hooked bristles.

The genus contains but few species, principally belonging to the Northern Hemisphere. The Tasmanian representative is widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere.

D. brachiatus, Sieb. A small, slender, sub-erect annual, seldom exceeding a few inches, more or less hispid. Leaves on long slender stalks, twice divided, the ultimate segments small, acute, linear, or wedge-shaped. Flowers few together, in a long, slender, very irregular, compound umbel, the flower-stalks slender, and very unequal in length. Fruit ovoid, 1-2 lines long, densely covered with hooked bristles.

Very common, especially in rocky situations. Distributed throughout Australia. FI. Nov.-Jan.

The following weeds of cultivation have become established :—

Fenicui.um vulgare, Gaert. Erect, 3-4 feet high. Leaves much divided, the ultimate segments filiform. Umbels compound, without bracts. Flowers yellow.

Scandix pectan, Linn. Small, spreading or erect. Leaves much divided, ultimate segments linear. Umbel simple, surrounded with bracts. Fruit about 1 inch long, linear.


Pistil usually of 2 intimately blended carpels Ovarian cavities distinct, and each containing a solitary pendulous ovule. Sepals o, united at the base, superior.

Petals 5. Stamens similar, and inserted with the petals above the ovary. Fruit succulent and indehiscent.

A large order, of wide distribution, closely related and not clearly distinct from Umbelliferte.


Ovary 2, rarely 3, celled. Styles distinct, of the same number. Fruit not very succulent, and somewhat flattened.

Common in most warm parts of the Old World.

P. gunnII, H. A small shrub, erect and branched, or elongated and ascending amongst undergrowth. Leaves opposite, stalked, usually divided into 5 lanceolate toothed segments, the terminal one about 1 inch and longest, sometimes the segments 5-7, and themselves much and irregularly segmented. Flowers numerous, in small, rather dense, terminal and lateral umbels. Petals green, 1 line long.

Adamson Peak, near La Perouse, and many parts towards the west. FI. Dec.-Jan.

P. SAMHUCiFOLius, Si fib. Tall shrub. Leaves 1 foot long, with many pairs of oblong-lanceolate rather thick segments, with smooth or toothed margins. Umbels loose, compound, terminal. Recorded in error as Tasmanian. Cultivated in many gardens.


Pistil of 3-5 intimately-blended carpels. Ovarian cavities distinct, with one pendulous ovule in each. Perianth superior. Sepals 3-5, united at the base. Petals similar, tubular at the base, sometimes unequal. Fruit very succulent. Leaves opposite, without stipules.

A world-wide order.


Corolla regular, with a short tube and spreading lobes.

A small genus, widely distributed.

S. gaudichauDiana, D. C. Erect, succulent shrub, 2-5 feet. Leaves opposite, 8-12 inches long, of 5 or more oblong, toothed segments, the terminal one 3 inches and longest. Flowers small, numerous,white, in a terminal, usually much-branched, panicle Fruit pale yellow, 2-3 lines in diameter.

In many situations in the north; Bass Straits; also in South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Nov.-Jan.


Pistil usually of 2, rarely more, intimately-blended carpels. Ovarian cavities distinct, and usually 1-ovuled. Perianth superior. Sepals united at the base, sometimes obsolete. Petals united at the base, regular, usually 4 or 5. Fruit various, in Tasmanian forms mostly baccate or in detached 1-seeded carpels. Leaves opposite or whorled, with interpetiolar stipules.

A very large and widely-distributed order. The genera vary greatly, rendering the order difficult to define. It is very closely related to Caprifoliacece.

Leaves opposite.

Shrubby. Calyx present    ...

Herb. Calyx obsolete    ...

Herbs. Fowers massed    ...

Leaves whorled. Calyx obsolete. Corolla tubular at base    ...

Petals free or nearly so    ...

1.    Coprosma.

2.    Nertera.

3.    Opercularia. 32 33


Ovary 2-celled, with 1 erect ovule in each. Fruit, a berry, with 2 pyrenes. Calyx 4-5-lobed. Corolla tabular, with a corresponding number of lobes. Stamens usually 4. Flower, except in C. moorei, unisexual.

Chiefly New Zealand and Australian.

Plant erect, 2-10 feet high. Leaves 1-3 inches, broad ... Spiney. Leaves .j-j inch, thin Rigid. Leaves j-1 inch, thick Procumbent.

Flower unisexual. Berry red Flower bisexual. Berry blue

1.    C. hirtella.

2.    C. bUlardieri.

3.    C. nitida.

4.    C. repew.

5.    C. moorei.

1. C. hirtella. Lob. Rigid, erect, slightly branched, 2-5 feet. Leaves oblong to nearly orbicular, stalked and acute, scabrid on the upper surface, f-2 inches long. Flowers in small terminal or axillary clusters. Berry globose, £ inch, red to black.

Very common in dry places ; also in South Australia,-Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Jan.

2.    C. bjllardieri, Hook. An erect, slender, much-branched shrub, often attaining many feet, the branchlets often reduced to spines. Leaves elliptical to lanceolate, thin, smooth, usually under ^ inch. Flowers solitary, on short axillary shoots. Calyx acutely 4-lobed. Corolla about 2 lines long in the staminate flowers, the tube very short. Style-branches 4-5 lines long. Fruit broadly oblong, under 3 lines long, red.

Very common, and in various situations ; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Sept.-Oct.

3.    C. NITIDA, Hook. A rigid, erect, much-branched, shrub, rarely spiney, 3-6 feet. Leaves elliptical to lanceolate, thick, the margins somewhat recurved, usually about ^ inch long, but often j-1 inch. Flowers similar in detail to C. billardien, but the fruit usually more oblong and nearly twice as large. Prostrate and creeping at a high altitude.

Common in mountainous situations ; also in Victoria. FI. Jan. 34 35


Calyx 2-lobed or obsolete. Flowers usually bisexual, otherwise with the structure of Coprosma.

Widely spread in the Southern Hemisphere.

N. depuessa, Bunk*. Small, prostrate, pale green, herbaceous. Leaves broadly ovate, 1-2 lines long. Flowers solitary, in the terminal axils. Fruit globose, red, about 2 lines diameter.

South Cape Bay, West Coast, Western Mountains ; also occurring in Victoria, New' South Wales, New Zealand, and extending to South America, FI. Nov.-Dee.


Flowers in axillary heads. Sepals 3-5. Corolla 3-5-lobed, short. Stamens 3-5. All the dowers in a head usually blended towards the base, the inner ovarian walls forming a deciduous operculum.

Limited to Australia.

Usually glabrous. "Leaves mostly exceeding \ inch. Capsules

about 2 lines long    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1. O. ovata.

Usually scabrous. Leaves mostly under J inch. Capsules

about 1 line long    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. O.varia.

1.    O. ovata, Hook. Very variable. Prostrate, spreading perennial, from

few to many inches, usually smooth or nearly so. Leaves broadly ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or acute, shortly stalked, mostly £-1 inch long. Flowers few together, in small sessile or shortly-stalked axillary heads. Seeds broad and smooth.    •

Near Launceston, near George’s Bay. It occurs also in Victoria, South Australia, and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Jan.

2.    O. VABiA, Hook. Very variable in growth and details. A prostrate or

ascending perennial, seldom exceeding many inches, usually somewhat scabrous or coarsely pubescent, but sometimes glabrous. Leaves oblong to linear, nearly sessile, mostly inch long. Heads axillary, few-dowered.    Seeds broad,

rugose, the inner face concave, 2-ribbed.

Very common in dry stony places ; also in Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Oct -Jan. 36

The following are the forms placed in specific rank in Hooker’s “ Flora Tasmanise ”:—

.1. subsimplex. Glabrous. Leaves linear, 4 in each whorl.

A. scop aria.    Scabrous-pubescent. Leaves linear, acute, with a fine

point, about j inch long, 6 in the whorl.

A. conferta. Glabrous or nearly so. Leaves linear, not as pointed as in A. scoparia, about j inch long, 6 in the whorl.

A, gunnii. Glabrous or pubescent. Leaves linear, oblong, about j inch long, 6 or sometimes 4 in the whorl.

A. minima. Slightly scabrous-pubescent. Leaves linear, about line long, usually 8 in the whorl, but sometimes 6.


Calyx not apparent. Corolla minutely tubular below, with 4 spreading lobes. Stamens 4. Style deeply bifid. Ovary 2-celled, with an ascending ovule in each. Fruit small, dry, 2-lobed, indehiscent.

Distributed throughout’the temperate regions of the entire globe.

Fruit smooth ..................1. G. umbrosum.

Fruit armed with bristles    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. G. australe.

1.    G. umbrosum, Forst. A very variable perennial. Stems slender, wiry, quadrangular, usually much-elongated, and usually, but not always, with harsh asperities on the angles. Leaves mostly in whorls of 4, usually narrow with recurved margins, but sometimes flat and ovate, generally under \ inch long. Flowers few together, on short axillary branches, very small. Fruit about $ line diameter, smooth. G. gaudichaudi, I). C.; G. oagans, Hook.; G. cilia re, Hook.

Very common ; also throughout South-Eastern Australia and New Zealand FI. spring and summer.

2.    G. australe, D. C. Similar in habit to the last. Scabrous to nearly smooth, but in one form softly pubescent. Leaves in whorls of 4, ovate to lanceolate, 2-4 lines long. Flowers similar to the last, but the fruit armed with hooked bristles. G. squalidum, Hook.; G. albescens, Hook.

Common in dry gravelly places, ascending to 4000 feet. Found throughout all but the western and northern parts of Australia. FI. spring and summer.

Sherardia arvensis, Linn. Small, erect annual, 2-6 inches high. Leaves about 6 in a whorl, lanceolate. Flowers pink, in terminal heads. Sepals 4, conspicuous. Introduced as a weed of cultivation from Europe.

Plants of the following order are establishing themselves in many parts :—

Dipsacacejc. Flowers in dense heads. Calyx superior, of 4 combined sepals. Corolla tubular below, often irregular. Stamens 4, free. Pistil simple, with a solitary pendulous ovule. Fruit an achene.

Dipsacds sylvestris, Linn. Erect, 3-4 feet, coarsely hispid. Fruiting-head oblong. Floral scales persistent, rigid, prickly Scabiosa atropukpurf.a, Linn. Erect, smooth. Lower leaves much divided, upper ones entire. Flowers pink to very dark purple. Heads globose in fruit.


Pistil of a single carpel. Perianth superior. Calyx reduced to few or many scales or bristles, or united in a minute cup, often obsolete, termed a pappus. Corolla of usually 5 petals, united below. Lobes short, the tube united to the lobes or split down one side, becoming strap-shaped. Stamens 5, inserted on the corolla. Anthers blended in a tube round the style, the filaments free (in

Xanthium the anthers are not coherent). Fruit dry. with one erect seed. The Dowers arc minnte, and usually many together, gathered into a dense flower-like capitnlum, surrounded by an involucre of bracts.

A very large order, of world-wide distribution.

Section I. Inner florets tubular, outer ones strap-shaped, i. Pappus of long bristles ...    ...    ...    ...






v. 2. 4.

Pappus obscure or none

Flowers all yellow...    ... '    ...    ...    ...

Strap-florets, white or blue    ...    ...    ...

iii.    Leaves mostly radical    ...    ...    ...    ...

Leaves dispersed ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

iv.    Leaves linear, long, white    ...    ...    ...

Leaves £-lA inch, green    ...    ...    ...    ...

v. Trees or shrubs, if small, still with a tough, woody stem ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Perennial or annual, never hard, woody .... vi. Outer florets white or bluish ...    ...    ...

Outer florets yellow    ...    ...    ...    ...

vii.    All florets reddish, often very small ...    ...

Inner florets yellow    ...    ...    ...    ...

viii.    Bracts with scarious margins    ...    ...    ...

Bracts quite herbaceous...    ...    ...    ...

ix.    Achenes smooth, nearly straight...    ...    ...

Achenes curved, rough    ...    ...    ...    ...

Achenes densely woolly    ...    ...    ...    ...

Section II. Inner florets tubular, outer ones partially strap-shaped.

Flower-heads large. Florets yellow, numerous barbed bristles ...

Section III. Florets all tubular.

i. Pappus none ...    ...    ...    ...

Pappus copious ...    ...    ...    ...

ii.    Achenes with 2 horns ...    ...    ...

Florets numerous, yellow    ...    ...

Florets few    ...    ...    ...    ...

iii.    Leaves generally divided. Flowers terminal Leaves entire or toothed. Flower-heads axillary

iv.    Leaves Aliform. Flowers enclosed at their bases Flowers terminal above the leaves ...

v.    Leaves filiform, white. Achenes lineal’...

Flowers yellow, axillary    ...    ...    ...

Flowers yellow, terminal...    ...    ...

Heads yellow, terminal, compound ...

Section IV. Florets all tubular. Bracts considerably or entirely scarious.

i. ^Pappus conspicuous    ...    ...

Pappus very small or none ...

ii.    Flower-heads spherical, made up

smaller heads ...    ...    ...

Leaves minute. Plant moss-like.

few scales    ...    ...    ...

Not so constructed...    ...    ...

Flower-heads single    ...    ...

Flower-heads clustered    ...    ...













Olearia. Vittadinia.



...    ...    Belli*.

...    ...    30. Cymhonotux.

...    ...    Calendula.

...    . .    Cryptoxtemona.

longer, more deeply divided, or

Pappus of

...    ...    19. Podolepix.

Bracts pariially or entirely herbaceous.

of many Pappus of














7. Nablonium.

Cotula. Myriogyne. Isoetopsi*. Ahrotanella. Millotia. Bed/ordia. Erecht kites. Craspedia.



13. Calocephaltu.

26. Pterygopappus.


iv. vii.

••poy -raaoow vwsoaaoo

iv. Bracts brown, head spherical, terminal, nearly sessile    ...    •    •••    •••    •••

18. IxioU&na.

24. Raoulia.


20.    Leptorrhynchws. vi.

21.    Helipterum.

22.    Helichrysum. viii.


15.    Cassinia.

23. Ozothamnus.

22. Uelichrysuni. 25. Gna/thalium. 12. An/jianthus.

16.    Rvtidom.

Car duns. Centaurea.

Bracts narrow, mostly white. Flowers small ... Heads large, stalked    ...    •••    •••    • ••

v.    Flowers yellow. Bracts narrow, inconspicuous Bracts very conspicuous, spreading, petaloid ...

vi.    Pappus-bristles plumose ...    ...    ...    •••

Pappus-bristles plain or barbed    ...    ...    ...

vii. Shrubs. Flowers small, mostly in loose corymbs Herbs. Flowers, if small, in rather dense clusters    ...    ...    ...    ...    •••    •••

viii. Florets mixed with scales...    ...    ...    ...

Florets without scales    ...    ...    •••

ix.    Flowers rather large. Bracts conspicuous,

white or bright coloured    ...    ...    ...

Flowers small. Bracts brown    ...    ...    ...

x.    Leaves and bracts woolly, white...    ...    ...

Leaves and bracts green ...    ...    ...    ...

Section V. Florets tnbular. Bracts armed with spines.

Margins of bracts entire ... Margins of bracts fringed...

Section VI. Florets all strap-shaped.

i. Pappus-bristles some or all feathery ...

... ii.

Pappus-bristles all simple ... ...

... iv.

ii. Florets intermixed with scales ... ..


No scales anmnf st florets ... ...

... iii.

iii. Stem leafy, many-flowered ... ...


Stem leafless, 1-flowered ... ... ...



iv. Stem many-flowered ... ... ...


Stem hollow, 1-flowered ... ... ...


Stem solid, 1-flowered ... ... ...

... 31.



Bracts herbaceous, or with a scarious margin, in several overlapping series. Outer florets strap-shaped, in one row, white or bluish; inner florets not numerous, tubular, yellow. Aclienes short, and broadly cylindrical. Pappus copious, of long, slender bristles. Shrubs or under-shrubs.

An Australian and New Zealand section of Aster, differing only in the shrubby habit.


i.    Leaves flat, not under | inch    ...    ...    •••

1.    O. viscosa.


5. O. obcordafa.


8. O. xtellulata.

2.    O. argophylla. v.

4. O. persoonioide»>

3.    O. myrxinoides. vii.


Leaves terete, revolute, or very narrow or minute

ii.    Leaves opposite. Strap-florets very few ...

Leaves alternate ...    ...    ...    ...    •••

iii.    Leaves triangular ...    ..    ...    ...    ••

Leaves oblong ...    ...    ...    ...    •••

iv.    Shrub. Leaves 1-4 inches, coarsely toothed,

serrated or entire, hairs mostly stellate ... Small tree. Leaves 3-4 inches, broad, oblong, acute, minutely toothed    ...    ...    ...

Shrub. Hairs simple    ...    ...    ...    ...

v. Leaves entire, oblong, §-l inch ...    ...    ...

Leaves toothed, wrinkled above, 1-1 inch    ...

vi.    Leaves mostly exceeding 1 inch ...    ...    ...

Leaves mostly under J inch    ...    ...    ...

vii.    Flowers solitary, axillary...    ...    ...    ...

9. O. axillaris.

16. O. ciliata. viii.

6.    O. pin folia.

15. (). ylandulosa.

7.    O. led folia.

13.    O. glutinosa.



10.    O. ramulosa.

14.    O. hooheri.

11.    O. floribunda.

12.    O. lepidophyUa.

Flowers solitary, terminal, on    very    long stalks

Flowers not so disposed    ...    ...    ...    ...

viii.    Leaves stiff, pungent    ...    ...    ..

Leaves filiform, terete    ...    ...    ...    ...

Leaves with very recurved margins, stiff, blunt.. Margins slightly recurved, glutinous ...    . .

ix. Leaves 2-4 lines ...    ...    ...    ...    *...

Leaves minute ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

x.    Lower surface of leaves woolly    ...    ...    ...

Lower surface hairless    ...    ...    ...    "...

Leaves linear, 1 line long. Outer florets 2-3 ... Leaves oblong, i line. Outer florets 6-10    ...

1. O. visCOSA, Dentil. Shrub, of few feet in height. Leaves opposite, oblong, narrowed at both ends, margin plain, silvery-white beneath, about 2-3 inches long. Flowers small, numerous, in corymbs. Florets few, usually 2 only strapshaped. Achenes smooth or slightly hairy. Aster viscosus, Lab.; Eurybia viscosa, Hook.

Very common in many situations, especially in the south, it occurs also in Victorfa. FI. Jan.

2.    0. ARCioPHvli.a, F. v. M. A small tree, of 20-30 feet. Leaves alternate, oblong, pointed, 3-5 inches long, margin usually slightly denticulated, the upper surface indented by the veins, the under surface silvery-white. Flowers small, numerous, in corymbs. Florets not numerous, usually about 5 strap-shaped. Achenes slightly hairy. Aster aryophyllus, F. v. M.; Eurybia aryophylla, Hook.

Very common in damp forests. Found also in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. Nov.-Dec.

3.    O. myrsinoides, F. v. M. A shrub, seldom exceeding 2 feet in height. Leaves alternate, oblong, denticulate, mostly VI inch long, smooth, shining, and coarsely reticulate above, silvery-white beneath. Flowers few together, in leafy panicles. Florets variable in number but never very numerous ; ray-florets usually 5 or under. Achenes smooth. Aster myrsinoides, F. v. M. ; Eurybia myrsinoides, Hook.

Very common on hills. Found also in Victoria, South Australia, and New South Wales. FI. Jan.

Var. erubescem, F. v. M. Leaves 1-2 inches long, and flowers larger than in the type. E. erubescent, Hook. Common, especially in the south.

4.    O. PERSOOXIOIDES, Benth. A shrub of 3-5 feet. Leaves oblong or obovate, very obtuse, margin plain, narrowed towards the base, f-1^ inch long, smooth above, silvery-white beneath. Flowers numerous, in leafy panicles. Ray-florets mostly 7 or 8, but often fewer. Achenes hairy. Eurybia persoonioides, Hook.

Common in most mountainous districts ; rather variable. FI. Jan.

Var. lanceolata. Leaves lanceolate, about 2 inches, almost acute. Achenes smooth.

Var. alpina. Flower-heads somewhat larger. Achenes smooth. Leaves brownish beneath. Eurybia alpina, Hook.

5.    0. OBCCRDATA, Benth. A small shrub, seldom exceeding 3 feet. Leaves alternate, usually wedge-shaped, ending in 3 or 5 teeth, or obcordate, the upper surface smooth but often pale, the lower silvery-white. Flowei's solitary, on stalks in the axils of the leaves. Florets not numerous, those of the ray usually 5 or 6, but often fewer. Achenes smooth. Aster obcordatus, F. v. M.; Eurybia obcordata, Hook.

On the summit of most mountains. FI. .Jan.-Feb,

6.    0. PiNii'OLiA, Benth. A shrub, usually about 5 feet high. Leaves alter

nate, numerous, narrow, linear, rigid, and pungent, margins closely revolute, mostly l-lj inch long. Flowers mostly solitary, on long stalks arising from the leaf axils. Florets rather numerous, generally 8 or 10 in the ray. Achenes long, narrow, and smooth. Aster pinifulius, F. v. M.; Eurybia pinifolia, H°ok.    ,    ,.

On the summits of Mounts Wellington, Dundas, La Perouse, Sorell. Field, &c. FI. Jan.-Feb.

7.    O. lkdifolia, Benth. A spreading shrub, usually 3-4 feet high. Leaves very numerous, blunt, longitudinally concave, linear, with closely revolute margins, 1 inch long. Flowers stalked, mostly solitary in the terminal axils, numerous. Florets rather numerous, those of the ray usually 8-10. Achenes smooth Aster ledifolius, F. v. M.; Eurybia ledifolia, Hook.

Distribution similar to the last. FI. Jan.-Feb.

8.    0. stellelata, D. C. A very variable shrub, from 2-10 feet high. The young parts, branches, and under surfaces of the leaves covered with stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, oblong to lanceolate, margin more or less obtusely toothed, J-4 inches long, upper surface (except when young) smooth and reticulated, under surface silvery-white. Flowers numerous, in leafy panicles or terminating lateral branchlets. Florets numerous, those of the ray mostly 8-12. Achenes hairy. Aster stellulalus, F. v. M.; Eurybia fuloida, Hook. ; Euryhia gunniana, Hook.

Very common; also throughout Eastern Australia. FI. Sept.-Feb.

Amongst its numerous varieties the following deserve special mention :—

Yar. liruta. Leaves lanceolate, 2-5 inches long. Eurybia lirata, Hook.

Var. quercifolia. Leaves oblong, entire or obtusely toothed, 1-3 inches long, very scabrous above, often rufous beneath.

9.    O. axillaris, F. v. M. A shrub of from 2-6 feet, grey from dense covering of woolly hair. Leaves mostly linear with recurved margins, but sometimes much broader, j-j inch long. Flowers few, sessile in the axils, and shorter than the leaves. Florets not numerous, the straps of the ray-florets very short. Aster axillaris, F. v. M.; Eurybia linearifolia, Hook.

On the North Coast and Islands of Bass Straits. Found on sea-coast throughout the greater part of Australia. FI. Dec.-Jan.

10.    0. ramulosa, Benth. A small, variable, viscid, twiggy shrub, seldom exceeding 3 feet. Leaves numerous, linear to oblong, margins revolute, 2-6 lines, upper surface scabrous or smooth, lower more or less woolly, acute or nearly so. Flowers numerous, variable in size and colour, from 3-6 lines diameter, and blue and white to yellow and white, usually terminal or terminating short lateral branches, but rarely flowers on simple or branched peduncles clothed only with small bracts. Ray-florets mostly 6-10. Achenes short, slightly compressed, striate or 4-angled. Aster ramulosus, F- v. M.; Eurybia ramulosa, H.

Very common ; also South-East Australia. FI. Nov.-Feb.

11.    O. floribunda, Benth. Very similar to the last. Leaves and flowers much smaller. The ray-florets usually about 3. Aster florulentus, F. v. M.; Eurybia floribunda, H.

Very common in damp situations; also South and East Australia. FI. Oct.-Jan.

12.    (), lkpidopuylla, Benth. A small, much-branched shrub, 2-5 feet. All but the upper surfaces of the leaves white, with copious tomentum. Leaves

minute, clustered, convex, reflexed. Flowers and fruit very close to O: ranutoxa. Aster lepidophyllux, F.-v. M.; liurybia lepidopkylla, H.

Found in many situations on the coast, and also on the summit of most mountains ; also throughout South-Eastern Australia. FI. Jan.-Mar.

13.    O. GLT7T1N0SA, Benth. A shrub seldom exceeding 5 feet. Leaves narrow, linear, but flat, the margins only slightly recurved, f-l| inch long. Flowers few together, in short terminal, or apparently lateral, corymbs. Bay-florets 6-10. Aster g lutes certs, F. v. M., Eurybia linifolia, Hook., A. orarius, F. v. M., included.

North Coast and Bass Straits. It also occurs in Victoria and South Australia. FI. Nov.-Jan.

14.    O. hookeri. Benth. A small, erect shrub, glutinous, and almost or quite glabrous. Leaves linear, curved, blunt, mostly about 2 lines long, the under surface smooth or nearly so. Flowers few, sessile, and terminal. Ray-florets mostly 6 or 8, usually tinged with blue. Achene short, hairy. Pappus pink. Eurybia ericoides, Hook.

Bellerive, Glenorchy. &c., mostly on dry hills : Great Swanport. It occurs also-in Victoria. FI. Dec.

15.    0. olandulosa, Benth. A shrub seldom exceeding 5 feet. Leaves narrow-linear, the margins so closely involute that they appear cylindric, mostly 1-1» inch long. Flowers few or many, in terminal loose corymbs. Ray-florets usually 12-15. Achenes small, silky. Aster glandulosus, F. v. M.; Eurybia glandulosa, Hook.

Common iu marshy places and on river-banks. It occurs throughout SouthEastern Australia, FI. Dec.-Feb.

16.    0. ciliata, F. v. M. A small under-shrub, not exceeding 1 foot, Leaves lineal-, the margins revolute and usually ciliate, |-1 inch long. Flowers solitary, on long terminal penduncles. Ray-florets numerous. Achenes smooth or silky. Aster Ituegelii, F. v. M.; Eurybia ciliata, Hook.

Sorell Creek, Sonth Esk River, Swanport; also throughout Southern Australia, FI. Jan.

2. CELMIS1 A. Cass.

Flowers broad. Bracts imbricate, in several rows, the margins dry or scarious. Ray-florets in a single row. Disk-florets numerous, tubular. Achenes slightly compressed, with 2 or 3 prominent nerves on each side. Pappus of numerous unequal capillary bristles. Herbs with radical leaves and solitary flowers.

The genus does not differ essentially from Aster, and occurs only in New Zealand and Anstralia.

C. longifolia. D. C. Herbaceous perennial, covered with loose, white, silky hairs. Leaves mostly radical, linear to linear-lanceolate, 2-12 inches long, acute, base broad and sheathing. Flower-stem l-lj foot long. Flower solitary, 1-2 inches in diameter. Ray-florets very numerous, white, but tipped with pink or pale purple. Achenes y inch long, linear, silky. Aster celmisia, F. v. M.

Very common in damp alpine situations. It occurs also in New South Wales and Victoria, and is common in New Zealand. FI. Jan. 37

V. australis, 1). C. Herbaceous, with a woody base, about 1 foot high, ascending and diffuse. Leaves from obovate to almost linear, alternate, margin entire or coarsely 8-toothed, mostly irorn i-1 inch long. Flowers solitary, terminal, about | inch diameter. Bay-florets narrow, short, blue. Disk-florets longer than those of the ray, yellow. Achenes long, linear, longitudinally striate. Vittadinia scabra and F. cuneata, Hook.

Very common in many dry situations. Tc occurs throughout Australia, and is a native also of New Zealand. FI. Oet.-Feb.


Bracts numerous, narrow. Receptacle flat or convex Ray-florets very numerous, in 2 or more rows, the straps very narrow. Disk-florets numerous, tubular. Achenes flattened. Pappns of numerous capillary bristles.

A genus of most extensive distribution, but principally of the Northern Hemisphere. Very closely allied to Aster.

E. pappochroma, Lab. A very variable, tufted herb. Leaves mostly radical, linear-spathulate to obovate, entire, or with few obtuse teeth, from hairy on both surfaces to glabrous, |-1| inch long. Flower solitary, stalk £-4 inches long. Ray-florets very numerous and narrow, and hardly exceeding the involucre, pink to white.

Very common on mountain-tops, decending to the coast on the west; also Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Nov.-Feb.

Very variable, but quite indivisible into distinct varieties. All the forms noted in Hook. “ Flora Tasmania?.” and described as species, E. tasmanicus, yunnii, and Stellatus are here included. 38

inches. Flowers | inch diameter. Bracts very obtuse. Ray-florets very short,, concave. Achenes rather flattened, smooth, without a beak. Solenogyne emphyeopua, F. v. M.

Very common in pastures; also Southern and Eastern Australia. FI. Jan.-Mar.


Bracts in 2 rows, nearly equal, scarious on the margin. Ray-florets numerous, in a single row, well-developed. Disk-florets numerous, tubular. Achenes flattened, sometimes greatly so, and winged. Pappus of few short scales or quite obsolete. Composed of herbs, with solitary pedunculate flowers. Ray-florets purple or white. Disk-florets yellow.

The genus is purely Australian and New Zealand.


Leaves confined to a radical rosette.

Leaves obovate, 1-3 inches long ...    ...

Leaves linear, 3-10 inches    ...    ...

Some leaves on the stem    ...    ...    ...

Leaves very deeply lobed    ...    ...    ...

Leaves lobed, flowers 1-1A inch diameter Leaves toothed or entire ...    ...    ...

Fruit winged, leaves usually toothed towards the end ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Fruit not winged, leaves usually entire ... Glabrous or nearly so    ...    ...    ...

Minutely hairy all over    ...    ...    ...

Peduncle leafless ...    ...    ...    ...

Peduncle leafy, continuous    with    main    stem


5. ii. 81.




6. 7. 2. 3.

B. decipiens.

B. cardiocarpa.

B. cilinris.

B. divcrsifolia.

B. scapiformu. B. stricta.

B. nidi ram.

B. angustifolia.

leaf-like bract. Ray-florets bine. Achenes flat, with thickened margins. Pappus of very short acute scales.

Very common ; also throughout Eastern and South-Eastern Australia. FI. Sept.-Mar.

5.    B. cakdiocahpa, F. v. M. Tufted perennial. Leaves radical, narrow-linear, and very long or shorter and broader, the base broader and sheathing the short stock. Flower about li inch in diameter, on a tall, thick, nsualiy-erect stem, bearing a few distinct leaf-like bracts. Ray-florets white- Achenes flat, with thick margins or narrow wings. Pappus of short coarse bristles. B. tinearifolia, Hook., but not of De Candolle.

In marshy situations. George’s Bay, Formosa, Ac. Tn Victoria, South Australia, and New South Wales. FI. Sept.-Oct.

6.    B. scapifoumis, D. C. A perennial, tufted or creeping, in the typical form smooth or slightly hairy. Leaves at the base of the stem obovate to spathulate, coarsely obtusely toothed, or sometimes entire ; leaves on the stem many or few, all small, from spathnlate (with few almost acute teeth) to linear and entire. Stem from a few inches to 1| foot. Flower from I-I5 inch across. Ray-florets blue. Achenes flat, the margins winged or glandular. Pappus of short acute scales or bristles. B. tennhcajia, H., included.

Very common in numerous situations; also in New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland. FI. Nov.-Dee.

7.    B. stricta, D. C. A slender perennial, with ascending, sometimes very elongated Haggling stems, most parts ightly clothed with short glandular hairs. Leaves from oblong-spathulate (with few coarse, acute, or obtuse teeth or lobes) to linear and entire, usually freely scattered along the stems. Flowers about 1 inch across. Ray-florets white or blue. Achenes very flat, with usually broad wings. Pappus of very short acute scales or bristles.

Very common in sandy and rocky places; also in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. Oct.-Feb.

8.    B. ciliakis. Lens. A sub-erect, branched perennial, stems slender, mostly 8-12 inches long. Leaves scattered, all divided into linear lobes, mostly j-H inch long. Flowers about | inch diameter, usually 5 or (1 at the end of each stem, each one on a slender stalk. Ray-florets white. Inner achenes flattened, tubereulate, winged, outer ones tuberculate and not winged. Pappus inconspicuous, of very small bristles in all Tasmanian specimens examined.

In many parts in central districts, Swansea. Found throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Bracts membranous, few, nearly equal, the inner gradually passing into receptacle-scales. Flowers tubular." Achenes flattened, with 2 rigid, pungent, divergent awns, thickened at the base and continuous with the achenes.

The genus is limited to a single species, peculiar to Tasmania.

N. calyceroides, D. C. A small tufted but creeping perennial. Leaves radical, I inear-spathulate, entire or sinuate on the margin, usually acute and narrowed below, the under surface silvery-white, mostly about 1 inch long. Flowers j;-f inch across, solitary, on a stalk about as long as the leaves.

Bass Straits, Macquarie Harbour, Trial Harbour. FI. Dec. 39

Leaves entire or with few bold lobes or divisions. Leaves entire. Flowers 2-3 lines diameter. Bracts broad, blunt    ...    ...    ...    ...

1.    C.Jilifolia.

2.    C. coronopifolia.

3.    C. australis.

4 C. alpina.

5. C. reptans.

6 C. filicula.

Leaves entire or coarsely lobed. Flowers 3-6 lines diameter. Bracts oblong    ...    ...    ...

Leaves much divided.

Receptacle flat or nearly so.

Small, slender, and softly hairy    ...    ...    ...

Small, stout, and smooth ...... ...    ...

Receptacle conical.

Bracts short, very broad and blunt    ..    ...

Bracts ovate ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

1.    C. F1UFOUA, D. C. A small, depressed, almost glabrous annual. Stems ascending, never exceeding a few inches. Leaves filiform, entire, stem-clasping at the base, seldom exceeding 1 inch. Flowers on long slender stalks, under 1 inch diameter. Bracts few, broad, blunt.

Bass Straits. Throughout Southern Australia. FI. Oct.-Jan.

2.    C. CORONOPIFOL1A, D. C. A creeping or ascending perennial of variable habit. Leaves entire to coarsely segmented, linear to oblong, 1-3 inches long, stem-clasping. Flowers on long stalks, inch diameter. Bracts narrow, oblong. Florets very numerous, each on a short stalk, the outer row without corollas, but with transparent wings, the inner florets with small, tubular, 4-toothed corollas.

Abundant in wet situations. Its distribution extends to the whole of the southern temperate region, and part of Europe. FI. spring and summer.

Var. integrifolia. A very small plant, with entire linear leaves, but differing in no essential detail from the type. Is often referred to as a species. George Town, near Hobart, &c.

3.    C. australis, Hook. A small, slender, tufted, and creeping perennial, slightly clothed with long delicate hairs. Leaves pintiately divided, the divisions usually segmented, mostly J-l inch long. Flowers | inch across or smaller, on long slender stalks. Bracts oblong, with a distinct midrib and scarious margin. Outer florets without corollas, and on stalks about as long as themselves, inner florets on shorter stalks. Achenes glandular down the centre of each surface.

Very common about Hobart, in numerous situations. Throughout extra-tropical Australia, and many parts of southern temperate regions. FI. spring and summer.

4.    C. alpina, Hook. A small but stout, tufted or creeping, glabrous perennial. Leaves pinuately divided, segments entire and oblong, or again divided. Flowers { inch diameter, on short thick stalks. Bracts ovate-oblong. Outer florets without corollas. Achenes not stalked.

Midlands, Marlborough, and Mount Field East. It lias also been found in Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland. FI. Dec.

5.    C. reptans, Benth. A small creeping perennial, generally slightly hairy. Leaves pinnately divided, the segments usually again divided into lanceolate segments. Flowers 2-3 lines diameter, on long stalks. Bracts lew, short, broad, almost orbicular. Outer florets with short, broad, 2 or 3 toothed corollas, contracted at the orifice, with the style protruding. Achenes rather thick, broad, and notched above. Inner florets with normal corollas, but abortive ovaries. Leptinella intricata, Hook.

Very common in marshes. Common to South-Eastern Australia. FI. Dec.

Var. major. Larger and coarser, but not differing essentially. Leptinella Ion pipes, Hook.

6. C. filtcula, Hnoh. A small tufted or creeping perennial, more or less hairy. Leaves pinnately divided, the segments usually entire. Flowers about | inch diameter, or rather less, on stalks usually shorter than the leaves. Bracts ovate. Receptacle conical, but often more nearly convex. Outer florets with conical corollas about half as long as the achene, glandular on the margin, very constricted at the orifice, the style protruding. Achenes broad above, narrowed below. Inner florets with normal corollas and abortive ovaries. Leptinella filicula, Hook

Mount Wellington, Hampshire Hills, Mount Field East. Probably on most mountains, but overlooked. It also occurs in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Jan.


Bracts few, nearly equal, scarious on the margin. Receptacle flat or nearly so, without scales. Outer florets with very small tubular corollas, inner ones with more spreading, 4-lobed corollas. • Achenes not compressed, bnt with 3 or 4 prominent ribs. Pappus none.

A genns of few species. Closely allied to Cotula. and often combined with it.

M. minuta, Less. A prostrate, much-branched, spreading plant, 2-8 inches long. Leaves oblong to linear-spathulate, slightly toothed to lobed, y-f inch long. Flowers, in Tasmanian specimens, 2-3 lines diameter, on short stalks, at first terminal, but becoming lateral by the growth of the shoot. Bracts shorter than the achenes, broad and fringed. Corollas very small. Achenes broader above than below, often 4-sided, each angle being obtuse, and a rib down the centre of each surface, a few short hail's dispersed over the surface. Inner florets fertile, the corollas larger, with spreading lobes. Centipeda orbicularis, Low.

Widely spread, but not very common, preferring damp, sandy places. Found throughout Australia and New Zealand. FI. Jan.-Feb.


Bracts few, nearly equal. Receptacle nearly flat, without scales. Florets all tubular. Achenes 4, angled or flat, but not winged. Pappus none.

The genus is essentially of the Southern Hemisphere, and alpine or Antarctic.

Leaves under y inch, crowded. Flower obscure, about

l line long    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    1.    A. forsterioides.

Leaves about 1 inch. Flowers green, about 2 lines

long ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ..    ...    2.    A. scapigera.

1.    A. FORSTERIOIDES, Hook. A small moss-like plant, densely clustered into cushion-like mounds. Leaves linear, acute, 2-3 lines long, with broad sheathing bases, very numerous and overlapping. Flowers very small, terminal, on a very short stalk, that lengthens considerably when in fruit Bracts few, broadly triangular or orbicular, and not 1 line long. Florets usually 3 or 4. Achene hard, shining, obovate, hardly J line long, marked with 4 pale obtuse ribs. Scleroleima forsterioides, H.

Common on the summit of mountains. FI. Nov.-Dec.

2.    A. scapigera, F. v. M. A small tufted perennial. Leaves linear-spathulate, but with sheathing bases, margins recurved, mostly about 1 inch long, numerous. Flowers usually 3 or 4 together, on a leafy stem. Bracts of the involucre about 10 in number, oblong-lanceolate, nearly equal, about 3 lines long. Florets about 20, corollas tubular. Achenes oblong, slightly compressed, marked with 4 obtuse ribs. Trineuron scapigerum, Hook.

Adamson Peak, Mount La Perouse, Lake St. Clair, Mount Dundas, &e. FI. Dec.



Bracts broad, scarious, the outer- ones passing into a leafy form. Florets tubular, the inner ones sterile. Achenes cylindrical, with a pappus of few well-developed scarious scales.

Consisting of but one species.

I. graminifolia, Turcz. Small, densely tufted. Leaves filiform, with sheathing bases, 5 - 1^ inch long. Stems very short, the flower-heads clustered at the bases of the leaves and buried amongst them.

Domain (Hobart), Cornelian Bay. Possibly introduced. Throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. Oct.


Flower-heads small, few-flowered, with an involucre of a few unequal transparent bracts, many heads collected into a compound head surrounded by an irregular involucre of leaf-like bracts. • Florets tubular. Achenes slightly compressed. Pappus minute, dentate, or obsolete.

Limited to Australia.

A. preissianus, IS. Annual, very small and erect to much-branched principally at the base, decumbent with ascending tips, mostly white, with woolly hairs. Leaves alternate or sometimes opposite, 1-4 lines long. Flower-heads 1-3 lines diameter. A. eriocephalus, B., included; Skirrophorus preissianus, and eriocephalus, H.

Muddy Plains, George Town, Bass Straits ; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov-Dec.


Heads globular, dense, compound. No common involucre, involucres of the individual capitulie of few unequal bracts. Florets tubular. Achenes slightly compressed. Pappus of few linear plumose scales.

Limited to Australia.

Much-branched. Leaves filiform, inch long ...    1 C. brownii.

Leaves linear, 1-2 inches.

Heads white ...    .    ...    ...    ...    ...    2. C. lacteus.

Heads yellow...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    3. C. citreu*.

1.    C. brownii, F. v. 31. Rigid, much-branched, spreading, 1 foot high, white. Leaves alternate, mostly filiform, j-J inch long. Heads white, terminating the branches, (-1, inch in diameter. Lcucophyta broivnii, H.

George’s Bay, North Coast, Bass Strait. Throughout Southern Australia. FI. spring and summer.

2.    C. i.actecs, Less. A slender, woody perennial. Stems ascending or erect, usually simple, 1-2 feet long, white. Leaves mostly opposite, linear, blunt, i-2 inches long. Compound head, ovoid to globular, J inch diameter, white.

Brighton, North Coast. Throughout Southern and Eastern Australia. FI. Nov.-Jan.

3.    C. citrects, Less. Close to, and perhaps a variety of, G. lacteus. Loaves very narrow and almost acute. Flower-heads yellow.

Richmond. Found also in New South Wales, South Australia, and Victoria. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Flowers numerous, clustered together in a dense, globular, compound head, surrounded by an involucre of partially scarious bracts. Each flower bearing 3-8 florets, and surrounded by an involucre of several scarious bracts, the receptacle of each flower bearing bracts or scales amongst the florets. Pappus of narrow-linear scales, or more or less plumose bristles.

A small Australian and New Zealand genus.

C. RICHEA, D. C. A tufted perennial, in the typical form more or less covered with white tomentum. Stem simple, erect, often 1 foot high. Leaves mostly at the base of the stem, oblong to lanceolate, narrowed and sheathing at the base, 3 or 4 inches long, stem leaves becoming smaller and narrower. Common flower-head, solitary, nearly globular, 1,-1 inch diameter. General involucre of about 10 oblong, partially scarious bracts somewhat shorter than the head, the bracts subtending the individual flowers similar, but more scarious. Flowers bearing 6-8 florets, the involncral bracts thin and transparent, gradually passing into the scales of the receptacle. C. macrocepliala and uljnna, H., included.

Very common. Throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. Oct.-Jan.


Flowers small and numerous. Bracts many, overlapping, scarious or coloured. Receptacle bearing scarious chaffy scales between the florets. Florets few, tubular. Achenes short, angular or terete. Pappus of numerous fine, simple, or denticulate bristles.

A genus of plants closely allied to Ozothamnus, Helichrysum, and Heliplerum. Differing from Ozothamnus chiefly in bearing scales on the receptacle. It is principally Australian, but has representatives in New Zealand and South Africa.

Shrubs. Leaves linear to lanceolate.

Leaf margins revolute. Corymbs mostly loose ... 1. C. aculeata.

Leaf margins recurved. Corymb rather dense ... 2. C. bmgijolia.

Herb. Leaves large and broad    ...    ...    ...    3. <7. spectubilis.

1.    C. aculeata, R. Br. An erect, branched shrub. Leaves narrow-linear, scabrid above, woolly-white beneath, the margins usually revolute, |-2 inches long. Flowers very numerous, in loose terminal corymbs, about 1| line long. Bracts of the involucre many, unequal, the outer small, scale-like, and pale brown, the inner petal-like and white, without spreading tips, all blunt. Florets many, each one subtended by a scale as long as and similar to the involncral bracts,, only narrower. Achenes usually papillose.

Very common, and often mistaken for Ozothamnus rosmarinifolius, from which it can be easily recognised by not having the spreading tips to the inner involucral bracts of that shrub. It occurs throughout South-Eastern Australia. FI. Dec.

2.    C. longipolia, R. Br. A small, erect, branched shrub. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, the upper surface smooth, the lower woolly-white, margins recurved. Flowers about 2 lines long, numerous, in a rather dense terminal corymb. Bracts similar to those of C. aculeata, only usually all white. Florets seldom more than 8.

Bay of Fires ; also in New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland. FI. Dec. 40


Bracts unequal, broad, and scarious. Receptacle convex, withont scales. Florets all tabular. Achenes hardly compressed. Pappns of many flattened filaments or scales.

A small Australian genus, allied to Helichrysum.

R. pumilo, Benth. A slender annual, of from £-3 inches. Leaves linear, opposite. Flowers about \ inch long, usually many together, in a dense, terminal, leafy panicle. Bracts 8-10, nearly equal. Pappus of 6-12 oblong scales. Pumilo preinsii, Hook.

George Town, mouth of the Tamar, West Head. Throughout Southern Australia. FI. Oct.-Nov.


Flower cylindrical. Bracts narrow, nearly eqnal. Receptacle without scales. Florets tubular. Achenes cylindrical, contracted above. Pappns of numerous, fine, barbellate bristles.

The genus is confided to Anstralian distribution.

M. tenuifolia, D. C. A small, erect, tufted annual, usually somewhat groy with slight woolly pubescence, usually 2, but rarely even 6 inches high. Leaves linear,    inch long. Flowers terminal, solitary. Bracts linear,

herbaceous, 3-4 lines long. Florets very numerous. Achenes linear, with usually a long contracted apex, rough.

Very common in stony pastures. Throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. Oct.


Bracts numerous, linear, unequal, herbaceous, the inner ones with scarious or coloured tips. Receptacle flat or convex, without scales. Florets all tubular. Achenes angular or cylindrical, not contracted above into a thin process. Pappus of fine bristles, sometimes barbellate.

A small Australian genus, differing from Helichrysum chiefly in the herbaceous nature of the involucral bracts.

I. supina, F. v. M. A small, decumbent, branched perennial. Leaves mostly oblong-spathulate, narrowed into a short stalk, j-J inch long. Flowers terminal, solitary, hemispherical. Bracts linear, rigid, the inner ones with narrow scarious tips, 2-3 lines long. Florets very numerous. Pappus of 20 or 30 capillary bristles.

Bass Straits ; also in South Australia. FI. Dec.


Bracts numerous, unequal. Receptacle flat, without scales. Outer florets either with straps or the lobes of the corolla irregular, inner ones tubular. Achenes slightly compressed. Pappus of capillary bristles.

The genus is limited to Australia.

P. ACUMINATA, R. Dr. Stems few together, from a persistent base. 1-2 feet high, generally rough, with short coarse hairs. Leaves at the base oblong to lanceolate, mostly 3-ribbed, 3 or more inches long; stem-leaves few, smaller, lanceolate, the lateral ribs gradually disappearing. Flowers solitary, large, yellow. Bracts numerous, unequal, thin and transparent, pale brown. Ray-florets spreading, deeply divided into 3-5 lobes, inner florets tubular.

Common in many situations. Found also throughout Eastern and Southern Australia. FI. Dec.-Jan.


Bracts very numerous, unequal, and overlapping, herbaceous, with scarious tips. Florets all tubular, very numerous, exceeding the involucre. Achenes contracted above. Pappus of nnmereus slender or barbellate bristles. Small, rather rigid herbs.

Limited to Australia.

Bracts narrow, acnte, ciliate ...    ...    ...    ...    1.    L. squamatus.

Bracts narrow, acute, glandular ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    L. eloiujatw.

Bracts broad, with spreading tips ...    ...    ...    •••    3.    L. niiidulu*.

1.    L. squamatus, Less. Decumbent and ascending. Leaves numerous, linear to lanceolate, white beneath, acute, |-1 inch long. Flower | inch, solitary, on a long terminal peduncle, bearing few small bracts. Bracts narrow, acute, ciliated, closely imbricating.

Very common; also Southern and Eastern Australia. FI. spring and summer.

2.    L. elongates, D. C. Erect, or nearly so, 6-12 inches. Leaves lanceolate, obtuse or acute, mostly 1 inch, gradually reduced up the stem. Flower terminal,

1 inch diameter. Bracts numerous, acute, glandular towards the tip, rather narrow below, outer ones thin and transparent.

Macquarie River; also throughout extra-tropical Australia. FI. Dec.

8. L. nitidclus, D. C. Decumbent, the branches ascending and pubescent. Leaves as in L. elongatus. Flowers    inch. Bracts with broad, spreading,

brown tips. L. linearis, Less.

Very common, mostly in stony places ; in Southern Tasmania, George’s Bay, Remine, &c.; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. spring and summer.


Bracts unequal, in several rows, scarious, often spreading and petaloid. Florets numerous, tubular, shorter than the involucre. Pappus of slender or flattened plumose bristles. Flower-heads solitary.

Confined to Australia and South Africa.

Separated from Helinhrysum on the character of the pappus bristles.

Stems erect, smooth, hairless    ...    ...    ...    ...    1.    H. anthemaidex.

Stems erect, woolly-white    ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    II. inranum.

Plant minute, tufted ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    3.    AT. exitjuum.

1.    H. anthemoides, D. C. Stems numerous, simple, slender, erect, from a perennial root-stock, hairless, often 1 foot high. Leaves linear, smooth, often rough, mostly i inch long. Flowers white, or outer bracts pale brown, f-1 inch diameter. Bracts scarious. Achenes densely silky hairy. Pappus bristles 15-20.

Common in many parts; also throughout Eastern and Southern Australia. FI. Jan.-Feb.

2.    H. incanum, D. C. Stems simple, many together, from a perennial base, 6-12 inches high, together with the leaves woolly white. Leaves linear to nearly oblong, mostly at the base of the stems, and 2-4 inches long; stem-leaves few, small, and bract-like. Flowers often li inch diameter. Inner bracts pure white, outer ones pink, brown, or yellow, scarious, and somewhat woolly. Achenes glabrous. Pappus of 10-20 bristles.

Chiefly in the northern part of the Island, Brighton. It occurs throughout Eastern and Southern Australia FI. Dec.-Jan.

3.    H exigbum, F. v. M. Very small, simple or branched from the base, f-l inch high. Leaves filiform, 1-2 lines long. Flowers solitary, terminal, sessile, 1-2 lines diameter. Bracts few, broad, white or straw. Florets fairly numerous.

Summit of Domain (Hobart), Brady's Look-out. Probably on many hills, but overlooked ; also extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov.


Bracts unequal, in several rows, scarious, usually brightly coloured, spreading and petaloid. Receptacle without scales. • Florets numerous, tubular, usually much shorter than the involucre. Pappus of numerous simple barbellate or nearly plumose bristles.

A widely-distributed genus in warm parts, but more especially in the Southern Hemisphere.

i. Bracts glabrous    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ii.

Bracts pubescent externally, and flowers many together, yellow...    ...    ...    ...

ii.    Leaves woolly on under surface ...    ...    ...

Leaves glabrous or nearly so .    ...

iii.    Fowers yellow    ...    .    . .    ...    ...

Flowers white or    red    ...    ...    ...    ...

iv.    Flowers 1-lJ inch diameter    ...    ...    ...

Flowers j-J inch ...    ..    ...    ...    ...

v.    Leaves narrow, oblong. Bracts lanceolate ...

Leaves linear. Bracts narrow and satiny ...

Plants small. Leaves radical    ...    ...    ...

Shrubby. Leaves dispersed    ..    ...    ...

Stunted, usually 1-flowered    ...    ...    ...

Branched, erect. Leaves often many inches

long ..................

Leaves lanceolate    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

Leaves linear    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...

soorpioides, Lab. Stems erect, annual, usually unbranched, 6 inches Leaves linear to spathulate, usually white, with pubescence, Flowers solitary, terminal, straw-yellow, f-1 i inch diameter. Bracts narrow, slightly exceeding the flowers.

Very common; also Southern and Eastern Australia. FI. spiing and summer.

2. H. dealbatum, Lab. Stems simple, ascending from a persistent base. Lower leaves lanceolate and 2 inches long, upper ones linear and shorter, all silvery-white beneath Flowers terminal, solitary, about 1 inch diameter. Bracts in many rows, the outer ones short and broad, pink; the inner row lanceolate, white, striate; the innermost row similar but shorter. Florets numerous, very short, much exceeded by the involucre. Achenes usually papillose. Pappus bristles barbellate, coarsely so towards the end.

Common, mostly in poor soil on hills; also in Victoria. FI. spring summer.



1. H.

to foot high. 1-1| inch long.


iii. vii.

1.    H. scorpioides.




2.    II. dealbatum.

5.    H. leuaopridium.

3.    //. pumilum.

7. H. obtusifolium.

6.    II. miUigani.




H. bracteatum. H. apirnlatum.

H. semipapposum.


8. H. pumilum, Hook. Small, densely-tufted plant. Leaves clustered at the base of the stem, linear, with revolute margins, usually smooth above, 1-2 inches long. Flower-stem usually 2-4 inches long, with few small linear leaf-like bracts. Flower about f inch across. Bracts in many rows, mostly broadly lanceolate, outer ones pale brown or red, the inner ones white. Florets numerous, and shorter than the involucre. Achenes usually densely silky hairy. Pappus bristles barbellate.

Macquarie Harbour, Mt. Dundas, Mt. La Perouse, Adamson Peak, and numerous other mountains. FI. Dec.-Jan.

4. H. bracteatum, D. C. An erect perennial, more or less simple, and l-flowered, or freely branched, 2 feet high, with many flowers, in a loose leafy panicle at the end of the branches. The stems and leaves more or less rough, but not developing a woolly covering. Leaves scattered, oblong to linear, 1-4 inches long. Flowers mostly 1| inch diameter. Bracts numerous, broad, bright yellow, shining, the outer ones darker. Florets very numerous, much

shorter than the involucre. Achenes linear, usually smooth. Pappus bristles cohering at the base, almost plumose. H. lucidum, Henek.

Very common ; chiefly on sea-coast and marshy situations. Found throughout Australia. FI. Nov.-Jan.

Var. albidum, D. 0. A variety with white, rather narrower involucral bracts, but with the same achenes and pappus. H. papillosum, Hook.

5.    H. leucopsidium, U. C. Usually a rather tall, slender perennial or more or less decumbent, stems about 1 foot, slightly and loosely woolly. Leaves mostly linear, sometimes broader, margins recurved but sinuate, upper surface rough but green, under surface white, mostly about 1| inch long, freely scattered along the stems. Flowers large, terminal, solitary, about H inch diameter. Bracts very numerous, linear-lanceolate, acute, satiny. Florets very numerous, much shorter than the involucre. Achenes smooth. Pappns bristles slightly barbellate.

Gould’s Country, North Coast, Bass Straits; also throughout the coastal parts of extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

6.    H. milliqani, Hook. A small, tufted perennial, with simple, erect, woolly-white stems, about 6 inches high. Leaves mostly at the base, the lowest stalked, ovate, flat, gradually becoming lanceolate above. Flower-heads terminal, solitary, 1£ inch diameter. Bracts numerous, broad, white or tinged with pink or straw. Florets numerous, much shorter than the involucre. Achenes and pappns similar to those of H. bracteatum, of which plant this is doubtless but au alpine form.

Mount Sorell, Mount La Perouse, Adamson Peak, <fcc. FI. Dec.-Jan.

7.    H. obtusifolium, F. v. M. et Sond. A small, erect, branched under-shrub. Leaves linear, with more or less revolute margins, white beneath, §-§ inch long. Flowers terminal, solitary or few, in a loose panicle, inch. Bracts broadly lanceolate, the outer ones tinted with brown, inner ones white. Florets numerous, much shorter than the involucre. Achenes smooth or papillose. Bristles strongly barbellate. H. spieeri, F. v. M., included.

Huonville, Longley, Bass Straits; also extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee,

8.    H. APicut.ATUM, D. C. A sub-erect perennial, several simple stems arising from a persistent base, 1-2 feet high, and together with the leaves clothed with close white tomentum. Leaves scattered, mostly spathulate to lanceolate, 1-2 inches long. Flowers many, clustered at the ends of the stems, mostly inch diameter. Bracts small, numerous, lanceolate, not much exceeding the florets, bright yellow, or sometimes the outer ones brown, mostly woolly or ciliate. Achenes smooth or slightly seabrid. Pappus bristles few, strongly denticulate, almost plumose.

Very common. Common throughout Australia. FI. spring and summer.

9.    H. SF.M1PAPPOSUM, D.C. A sub-erect perennial, many simple branches arising from a persistent base, together with the under surfaces of the leaves covered with close white tomentum. Leaves scattered, numerous, narrow-linear, mostly about 1 inch long. Flowers numerous, in dense terminal clusters, j inch diameter. Bracts small, numerous, more or less woolly, hardly or not at all exceeding the florets. Achenes smooth. Pappus bristles few, slightly denticulate below, almost plumose towards the point.

Common. Probably similar distribution to the last. FI. spring and summer.

Though this and II. apiculatum are thoroughly distinct when typical plants are examined, they are so clearly connected by varieties that this becomes doubtfully distinct as a species.


Plower-lieads relatively small. Bracts unequal, in several rows, imbricate, the inner ones sometimes with short spreading tips, scarious. Receptacle not bearing scales. Florets few to many, tubular, usually exceeding the involucre. Pappus bristles rather numerous, slender, thickened or barbellate towards the ends. Shrubs ; the flowers in loose or dense terminal or lateral corymbs.

Confined to Australia and New Zealand.

Closely allied to, and often combined with, Helichrysum; but the Tasmanian forms constitute a sufficiently circumscribed group to still maintain the genus.

i.    Leaves linear to lanceolate    ...    ...    •••

Leaves oblong or obcordate    ...    ...    ...

Leaves minute ...    ...    ...    •••    •••

ii.    Flowers nearly globose ...    ...    ...    ...

Flowers cylindric or oblong    ...    ...    ...

. Bracts without white spreading tips ...    ...

Bracts with well-developed white tips...    ...

iv. Leaves linear, spreading    ...    ...    ...

Leaves spathulate, overlapping    ...    ...

v. Flowers mostly terminal    ...    ...    ..

Flowers mostly terminating lateral branches ... vi. Florets few. Flowers narrow ...    ...    ...

Florets fairly numerous. Flowers broad ... vii. Leaves w'ith very recurved margins, hairy and scabious above... ...    ...    ...    ...

Leaves flat, glabrous above    ...    ...    ...

viii. Leaves obtuse, rather rigid    ...    ...    ...

Leaves    slender, acute or nearly so    ...    ...

ix.    Leaves    oblong, under ^ inch . .    ...    ...

Leaves    oblong, exceeding ^ inch    ...    ...

Leaves    obcordate. Flowrers yellow    ...    ...

x.    Leaves    about 1 line, spreading    ...    ...

Leaves minute, appressed to    stem    ...    ...

Leaves minute, reflexed...    ...    ...    ...

ii. ix. x. 1.















14. 1112.

O. reticulatus.

(). cine re us.

O. lycopodioides.

O. thyrsoideus.

O. rosmarinifolius. 0. fernigineus.

O. ledifolius.

O. ffunnii.

(). backhousii.

O. antennuria.

O. obcordata.

O. selayinoides.

O. hookeri.

O. snutellifolius.

1. O. RETICTTLATUS, D. C. Erect shrub, 5-8 feet. Leaves linear, obtuse, 1-2 inches, margins recurved, upper surface glabrous and indented by the veins. Flowers numerous, nearly j inch in diameter. Bracts without spreading tips. Florets very numerous, exceeding the involucre, giving the flow'er a spherical appearance. Helichrysum reticulatum, Less.

Southport Lagoon, Blowhole, Eagleliawk Neck, Pirates’ Bay, &c. FI. Jan.

2. O. ciNERRUS, D. C. Erect shrub, 5-8 feet. Leaves linear, obtuse, |-| inch, margins recurved, upper surface glabrous. Flowers numerous, terminal, rather large. Inner bracts without white spreading tips. Helichrysum cinereum, F. v. M.

Recherche, Ralph’s Bay, George’s Bay, Scamander, and North Coast: Bass Straits; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Dec.

Var. hracteolatus. Stunted. The leaves more rigid, the grosser foliar bases persistent. Flowers broader. Helichrysum bracteulatum, B. Flinders Island. 41

numerous, in many terminal corymbs. Inner bracts white and spreading. Florets few. Helichrysum rosmarinifolium, Less.

Very common, chiefly in damp places; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Nov.-Jan.

Var. ericifolius. Stunted. Leaves smooth or hairy, more rigid and obtuse, and relatively broader, inch. Flowers larger. Very common.

4.    0. FERRUGiNEUS, D. C. A taller and more spreading shrub. Leaves linear-lanceolate, flat margin, very slightly recurved, upper surface smooth, 1-2 inches long. Flowers rather smaller and with fewer florets, otherwise as in the last. II. ferrugineum, Less.

Very common in damp places ; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Dec.

Var. gravesii. Erect, very much branched anil spreading. Leaves rusty beneath, scented.

5.    O. LEDIFOLIUS, II. Rigid, erect, branched, 3-5 feet. Leaves rigid, broadly linear, obtuse, with recurved margins, upper surface smooth, inch long. Flowers rather large, ^ inch long. The inner bracts with conspicuous, white, spreading tips. H. ledifulium, F. v. M. Continuous with 0. romarinifolms, var. ericifolius.

Common on mountains; also in Bass Straits. FI. Jan.

6.    0. gunnti, II. Slender, erect, 3-6 feet. Leaves narrow-linear, obtuse or acute, Ij-jf inch, margins recurved, upper surface glabrous. Flowers terminal, rather large, usually not very numerous. Inner bracts with white spreading tips. II. gunnii, F. v. M.

North Coast, Bass Straits. FI. Dec.

7.    O. thyrsoidecfs, D.C. A much-branched, slender, weak, sub-erect, spreading shrub, 4-8 feet. Young shoots glabrous or hispid. Leaves narrow-linear, obtuse or acute, ^-H inch long, margin slightly recurved, upper surface smooth. Flowers terminating nnmerons lateral branches or terminal in stunted exposed plants, flowers otherwise as in O. rosmarinif'olius.

Common in shaded situations on hills. Often included in O. rosmarinifvlius. FI. Jan.

8.    O. backhousii, H. Erect, branched, and rigid, 1-3 feet. Leaves narrow-oblong to nearly linear, inch long, margins slightly recurved, upper surface smooth. Flowers in dense terminal corymbs, relatively large, , inch, with numerous florets. II. backhousii, F. v. M.

Common on mountains. Mount Wellington, Mount Sorell, Mount Olympus, Mount Murchison, Ac. FI. Jan.

In the lowland form the leaves are broad, sometimes nearly orbicular, and the flowers very slender with few florets, the white tips of the inner bracts very conspicuous. Port Arthur, Swanport.

9.    O. antennaria, H. An erect shrub, 8-12 feet. Leaves usually rather narrow-obovate, j-1 inch long. Flowers rather large, in numerous loose terminal corymbs. Bracts without spreading tips. Florets numerous. II. antennarium. F. v. M.

Common on mountains, chiefly in the south and west. FI. Nov.-Dee.

10.    O. obcordatus, D. C. A small, erect, much-branched shrub, attaining 4-5 feet. Leaves usually about 2 lines long, broadly obcordate, narrowed below into a very short stalk, varying from this to much longer and al most oblong, very fragrant. Flowers lather small, yellow, very numerous, in a spreading terminal corymb. Bracts woolly, less closely appressed than in allied species, the inner ones without white spreading tips. Florets not numerous. Helichrysum obcor datum, Bentli

Common about Hobart; also in New South Wales and Victoria. FI. Dec.

11.    O. hook Liu, Hook. A small, erect, rather stiff, much-branched shrub. Leaves scale-like, |-1 line long, ovate, erect, and closely pressed with the upper surfaces against the stem, margin closely recurved against the lower surface so as to almost conceal it. Flowers in small dense clusters at the ends of the branches. Bracts few, outer ones marked with brown or red, the inner with white tips. Helichrymm baccharoides, Bentli.

Very common on mountains. It occurs also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Jan.-Feb.

12.    O. SCUTELLIKOLIUS, Hook. A small, erect shrub, covered, except the upper surfaces of the leaves, with dense white tonientnm. Leaves scale-like, about j line long, closely reflexed so that the lower surface is pressed against the stem, distant from one another. Flowers few together, in small close heads at the ends of lateral branchlets. Bracts few, pale, woolly, the inner with small, but not spreading, white tips. Florets usually about 10-12. Helichrysum xcuteUifolium, Benth.

Port Arthur, George’s Bav. Riverton, track from New Norfolk to Huon, &c. FI. Nov.

13.    O. lycopodioides, Hook. An erect shrub, slightly branched, the branchlets arising from under the old clusters of flowers. Leaves about 2 lines or under, oblong to almost linear, erect, concave above. Flowers in dense terminal heads or clusters. Bracts numerous, marked with brown or purple, the inner without spreading tips. Florets numerous. Helichrysum lycopodioides, Benth.

Swanport, Prosser River, Kelvedon. FI. Oct.

14.    O. selaginoides, Hook. A spreading, much-branched under-shrub, seldom above 1 foot high. Leaves about 1 line long, oblong, thick, spreading, base decurrent. Flowers in small, dense, terminal clusters. Bracts few, pale brown, the inner with short, white, spreading tips. Florets about 10. Helichrysum selaginoides, Benth.

Mountains near Lake Orescent. FI. Dec.

24. RAO U LI A.

Bracts unequal, in several rows, scarious, the lips of the inner ones sometimes white and spreading. Receptacle without scales. Florets not numerous, some outer ones with long tubular corollas and no stamens, the inner ones with shorter tubular corollas and often sterile. Small tufted perennials.

The genus is distributed throughout southern cool climates, and is very closely allied to Gnaphalium.

Bracts without white tips ...    ..    ...    ...    1.    R.    planchoni.

Bracts with obtuse white tips.

Leaves obcordate, white ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    R.    catipes.

Leaves narrow-obovate, rusty ...    ..    ...    ...    3.    R.    meredithce.

1.    R. planchoni, II. Densely-tufted perennial, a few inches diameter, covered with white or rusty tomentum. Leaves very numerous, obovate, 2-5 lines long. Flower solitary, on a short stalk, involucre 2-3 lines long. Bracts narrow, brown, acute, spreading after the fall of the fruit. Gnaphalium planchoni, H.; Antennaria planchoni, F. v. M.

Mounts Wellington, Dundas, Ben Lomond, Olympus, &c. FI. Dec.-Jan. 42

Bracts obtuse, the inner ones with conspicuously white tips, but not spreading. Antennaria nukigena, F. v. M.; Leontopodium rati pea, F. v. M.

On most mountain-tops, but not common in the south ; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Dec.

3. R. M krkmth.e, F. v. M. Tufted, the stems 1-2 inches long, usually erect and densely massed. Leaves oblong, often very narrow, rusty, 1-2 lines long. Flowers solitnry, sessile, or on fairly long stalks. Bracts narrow obtuse, the white tips long and spreading. Leontopodium meredithee, F. v. M.

Common on the mountains of the south and west. FI. Dec.


Bracts unequal, partially or entirely scarious, rarely with spreading tips-Receptacle without scales. Florets seldom numerous, tubular, the greater number without stamens, a few central ones hermaphrodite and barren. Pappus of numerous simple or barbellate bristles. All herbaceous.

The genus is represented almost throughout the world. It forms the stock from which many adjoining genera are artificially separated.

Leaves green above ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    2.    G.japonicum.

Plant white.

Leaves filiform, 2-4 lines    ...    ...    ...    ...    4.    G.    indutum.

Leaves 1-2 inches.

G. luteo-album. ■ G. alpigenum.

G. candidissimum.

Bracts straw-coloured    ...    ...    ...    ...    1.

Bracts greenish ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    3.

Bracts red with white tips ...    ...    ...

1. G. luteo-album, D. C. Erect, woolly-white, 6 inches to 1 foot. Leaves linear to lanceolate with a broad base, the lower ones broader and stalked. Flowers numerous, in a dense panicle, about 2 lines long. The bracts light brown, shining, obtuse. Florets numerous.

As widely distributed as the genus. FI. Nov.-Mar.

2.    G. japonicum, Thunb. Depressed or erect annual or perennial, very variable, 1-12 inches high, the stem and under surfaces of the leaves white. Leaves green above, lanceolate to obovate, margin usually undulate, j-1 inch long. Flowers few to numerous, in dense terminal heads, usually surrounded with a few leaves. Bracts rather narrow, brown, about 2 lines long. Florets few. G. inoolucratum, Forst., and G. collinum, Lab., included.

Very common. On the sea-coast assuming a decumbent habit, and perennial. Throughout extra-tropical Australia, and extending from New Zealand to Japan. FI. spring and summer.

Var. radicans. Leaves linear, with recurved margins. Generally dwarfed. Flowers often solitary. On mountains, except on the West Coast, where it descends to the sea ; also in Victoria.

3.    G. alpigenum, //. Ascending, 2-6 inches, white, except the upper surfaces of the older leaves. Leaves spathnlate to obovate, stalked, |-2 inches long. Flowers few or many, in dense terminal heads, subtended by a few leaves. Bracts rather narrow, 1-2 lines long, pale, some green. Floi-ets few.

About the summit of most mountains; also in Victoria. FI. Dec.-Jan. 43

G. CAXDiDissiMUAi, Lam. Erect, woolly-white, 6-8 inches. Leaves spathulate, 1-2 inches. Flowers small, numerous, in terminal sessile heads. Bracts red with white tips. Introduced and widely spread.


Bracts few, scarious, equal or nearly so. Receptacle without scales. Florets few, outer one with very slender corollas and without anthers, inner ones with broader corollas, hermaphrodite and sterile. Pappus of few rather broad, flat, barbel late bristles or scales.

Limited to a single species, endemic in Tasmania.

P. lawrexcii, H. Small, densely tufted, forming dense mats. Leaves broadly cordate, imbricate, mucronate, g-1 line long. Flowers solitary, terminal, sessile, and buried in the leaves or shortly stalked. Bracts line long.

On the summits of most mountains, in sage-coloured patches amongst darker green plants of similar habit. FI. Dec.-Jan.


Bracts not very numerous, nearly equal, with a few smaller ones at the base, margins scarious. Florets numerous, t ubular. Pappus of numerous barbel late bristles. Shrubs with axillary flowers.

Limited to the two Australian species. Differing from Senecio only in the flowers being axillary.

Flowers clustered ...    ...    ..    ...    ...    1. B. salicina.

Flowers solitary, rarely 2 in an axil ...    ...    ...    2. B. linearis.

1.    B. salicina, D. C. Tall shrub, 6-15 feet. Leaves broadly lanceolate, stalked, acute, flat, white beneath, 4-6 inches long. Flowers numerous, in axillary panicles, about 3 lines long. Senecio bedfordii, F. v. M.

Very common; also in' Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Nov.-Dec.

2.    B linearis, D. C. Very similar to the last, only smaller. Leaves linear, with recurved margins, |-4 inches long. Flowers usually solitary, never numerous in the axils, | inch long. Senecio bi/lardieri, F. v. M. Some forms have the narrow recurved leaves of this with the flowers of the last.

Common on hills; Bass Straits. FI. Dec.-Jan.


Bracts nearly equal, with a few smaller ones at the base. Florets numerous, yellow outer ones usually strap-shaped, the inner ones tubular, sometimes all tubular. Pappus of very numerous barbellate bristles.

A very large genus, of world-wide distribution.

... ii.

... vii.

...    5.    S.    centropappus.

... iii.

... iv.

...    1.    (S’,    papillosus.

...    2.    S.    primulifolius.

... v.

... vi.

...    7.    (S’,    velleyoides.

...    8.    S.    australis.

...    6.    i$.    luutus.

i.    Outer florets strap-shaped    ...    ..

Florets all tubular    ...    ...    ...

ii.    Tree. Leaves linear,    thick    ...    ...

Leaves broad, stalked, entire ...    ...

Leaves narrow or divided    ...    ...

iii.    Leaf-margin entire    ...    ...    ...

Leaf-margin crenate    ...    ...    ...

iv.    Flowers numerous, in terminal panicles

Flowers few, often solitary    ...    ...

v.    Leaves broadly stem-clasping ..    ...

Leaves narrow, entire ...    ...    ...

Leaves lobed or divided    ...    ...

vi.    Decumbent, leaves linear    ...    ...

4. iS. xpatbvlatus.

3. iS. pertinatus.

9. S. odoratm.

S. vulgaris. ng, obtuse, y-£ inch, upper

Erect, leaves usually lobed    ...    ...

vii.    Erect. Leaves entire ...    ...

Decumbent. Leaves lobed    ...

1. S. pafili.osus, F. v. M. Leaves radical, oblo surface rough, with small coarse hairs, stalk slender and as long as the lamina. Stem erect, bearing few bracts, 4-8 inches. Flower terminal, solitary, | inch diameter.

Adamson Peak. Mount La Perouse. FI. Dec.-Jan.

2. S. primcmfolhjs, F. v. M. Leaves mostly radical, oblong or ovate-cordate, crenate or obscurely toothed, usually coarsely marked with the veins, |-2 J inches, long, on a stalk longer or shorter than the lamina. Stem often 6-12 inches long, with few bracts. Flowers usually 3 or 4. terminal, £ inch diameter.

Mount La Peronse. FI. Dec.-Jan.

3. S. pectinatus, D. C. Perennial, somewhat creeping. Leaves mostly radical at the base of the flower-stem, spathulate, 1-| inch long,, pinnately divided into numerous short obtuse lobes. Stem slender, 4-8 inches, with many leafy bracts. Flower terminal, solitary, | inch diameter, orange-yellow. Involucral bracts continuous with the stem bracts, and passing, in a graduated size, to the long inner bracts.

It occurs on most mountains; also in Victoria and New South Wales. FI. Oct.-Feb.

The species is most variable. The following are marked varieties:—

Var. ochroleuca. The habit of the type, only the leaves are nearly entire, linear, and the flowers are a pale cream colour. Common on many monn tains.

Var. legtnearpus. Leaves 2-3 inches long, broadly spathulate, coarsely obtusely toothed. Flowers 3-6, in a loose terminal panicle. Mount Wellington, Hartz Mountain, Mount Sorell, Mount La Perouse. Growing with the type, but maintaining its distinctness.

Var. pleiocephalus. Tufted, stems numerous. Leaves spathulate and lobed, as in the type, but more dispersed on the stems, about 1 inch long. Stems 6-9 inches. Flowers smaller than in the type, 3-6, in a loose terminal panicle. Ironstone Mountain and western mountains. But for the peculiar outer bracts of the involucre, it would pass for a form of S. lautus.

4.    S. spathflatus, A. Rich. Usually an ascending, much-branched perennial, but sometimes almost shrubby. Leaves linear-spathulate to obovate. coarsely and remotely toothed, stalked to stem-clasping, rather thick, mostly -1 s inch long. Flowers few, rather large, on long leafy stalks. Ray-florets 12-20. bright yellow, spreading.

In many places on the coast. It also occurs in New South Vales, Victoria, and South Australia. FI. Dec.

5.    S. centropappus, F. v. M. A tall, much-branched shrub or small tree, 10-12 feet high. Leaves broadly linear, thick, fleshy, 2-4 inches long. Flower-heads many, in corymbs Involucral bracts about 8, ovate, blunt, 2-2j lines long. Strap-shaped florets 4-6. Disk-florets 10-12. Pappus bristles almost plumose. Centropappus brunonis, H.

Mount Wellington, Mount Dromedary. FI. Jan.

6.    S. lactus, Forst. A much-branched, erect perennial, 1-3 feet. Leaves very variable, usually’ 3-4 inches long, and divided into few or many broad or narrow linear segments, but sometimes only toothed or even quite entire, at other the segments are nnmenius and capillary. Flowers few, in a loose terminal panicle, f inch diameter. The innei bract.’ all equal, the outer al short and clothing; the base of the involucre. Strap-florets about 12, much exceeding the involucre. S', capillifolius, H., included.

Very common ; also throughout Australia and New Zealand. FI. Nov.-Jan.

In some of the entire-leaved forms the ray-florets are very short, hardly spreading beyond the involucre.

One plant from George’s Bay, in very poor condition, but apparently belonging to this species, has flowers only half as large as the type; the straps of the outer florets are very minute, in some flowers appearing absent.

7.    S. velleyoides, D. C. Erect, branched, 2-6 feet. Leaves broadly lanceolate to oblong, coarsely toothed, broadly stem-clasping, 3-6 inches. Flowers numerous, in a terminal corymb, about 1 inch diameter.

Common on damp hills, especially after fires; also Eastern Australia. FI. Jan.-Feb.

8.    S. australis, Willd. Tall, erect, much-branched, 3-6 feet. Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, 3-6 inches long. Flowers numerous, in loose terminal corymbs, about ^ inch diameter. Bracts about 10, obtuse, 2 lines long, all equal, except a few short ones at the base. Ray-florets 5 or 6. S. dri/adeus, Sieb.

Very common, especially after fire ; also South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. FI. Nov.-Feb.

9.    S. odoratus, D. C. Stout, erect, 2-3 feet. Leaves narrow-oblong, obscurely toothed, base stem-clasping, 2-4 inches. Flowers numerous, in dense terminal corymbs. Bracts about 8, 2 lines long. Florets all tubular, exceeding the involucre.

North-East Coast, Bass Straits; also Southern and Eastern Australia. FI. Dec.-Jan.

S. vulgaris, Linn. Small, spreading annual. Leaves obovate, coarsely lobed. Flowers many. Florets all tubular. Introduced from Europe.


Flower-heads cylindrical. Bracts narrow, mostly equal, but a few small ones at the base. Florets narrow, tubular. Pappus of numerous slender bristles. Herbs; flowers yellow, in terminal corymbs.

The genus is widely dispersed in the Southern Hemisphere. It is very close to Seneciu.

.    1.    E.    prenantkoidex.

.    2.    E.    arguta.

.    3.    E.    quadridentata.

   4.    E.    gunnii.

5. E. hispidula.

glabrous or nearly so. tfie margins finely and

Nearly or quite glabrous    ...

Leaves coarsely toothed...    ...

Leaves linear, revolute ...    ...

Leaves narrow-oblong ...    ...

Leaves linear, with few coarse teeth

acutely toothed. Flowers very numerous. Bracts about 8 or 10, about 2 lines long.

Very common in shady, damp places; also South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and New Zealand. FI. Jan.

1. E. prenanthoidj58, D. C. Erect, much-branched, Leaves broadly or narrowly lanceolate, 3-6 inches long,

In some plants the outer pistillate flowers develop short straps.

2. E. arguta, I). C. Erect, 1-2 feet, more or less woolly or scabrous, very variable. Leaves from linear to oblong, coarsely- toothed, 1-2 inches long, often purple beneath. Flowers not very numerous, often broadest towards the base. Bracts about 12, usually 3 lines long, but in some specimens much shorter.

Very common; also throughout extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. FI. Nov.-Jan.

3.    E. quadkidentata, I). C. Erect, branched, more or less clothed with delicate loose wool, 1-2 feet. Leaves mostly linear, with recurved margins, 1-3 inches long, sometimes flat. Flowers numerous, cylindrical. Bracts about 12, 3-4 lines long.

Very common, chiefly in dry places; also throughout extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. FI. Nov.-Feb.

4.    E. gunnii, If. Erect, usually unbranched, 1-1| foot, bearing loose wool on the surface. Leaves narrow-oblong, 2-3 inches long, the under surface purple. Flowers not numerous, narrow Bracts about 15, purple, about 5 lines long.

Common on mountains ; also in Victoria. FI. Dee.-Jan.

5. E. hispidula, D. C. Erect, usually simple, 1-2 feet, woolly, scabrous or nearly glabrous. Leaves linear, usually coarsely toothed, those of the stems with broad bases, 1^-3 inches. Flowers few, rather stout. Bracts 16-24, about 4 lines long.

Launceston, Circular Head, &c.; also extra-tropical Australia. FI. Nov.-Jan.


Bracts unequal, herbaceous. Outer florets ligulate, inner ones tubular. Achenes broadly oblong, slightly bent, the inner surface nearly flat. Pappus none. Scale-like projections of the receptacle developed amongst the florets.

Limited to the single Australian species. Allied to the Calendulas of South Africa.

C. lawsonianus, Gaud. Tufted perennial, with a veiy short stem. Leaves in a rosette, obovate, nsually coarsely toothed, 2-5 inches long, narrowed into a slender stalk, white beneath. Flowers few, solitary, on short stalks, pale yellow, inch diameter. Achenes brown, shining, about 1 line long.

Mount Direction, Richmond Road. Common in central and northern parts; also throughout extra-tropical Australia FI. Oct.


Inner bracts nearly equal, outer ones short. Receptacle without scales. Florets all strap-shaped. Achenes cylindrical, not beaked. Pappus of rather few scales, flattened below, tapering, and often plumose above.

A genus of two species. Besides the Australian plant, there is one in South America.

M. forsteri, H. A tufted herb, with an abbreviated stem. Leaves 4-10 inches long, linear to lanceolate, glabrous, usually bordered with few remote teeth oi- lobes. Flowers solitary, on long stalks, yellow, 1 inch diameter.

Very common in pastures ; also throughout extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. FI. spring and summer.

Amongst the numerous Composite plants that have appeared as weeds, the following seem fairly disposed to establish themselves :—

Ehigeron linifolics, Willd. Erect, woody annual, 1-2 feet. Flowers numerous, terminal, without spreading rays. Leaves linear, revolute, woolly.

Bellis perennis, Linn. Tufted. Leaves radical, oblong, stalked. Flowers | inch in diameter, solitary, on short slender stalks, with one row of ray-florets, white, tipped with purple. Pappus none.

Xanthium SPINOSDM, Linn. A sub-erect, much-branched, shrub-like annual. Leaves lanceolate or with few lobes, 3-6 inches long, with trifid spines at the base. Male flowers clustered in the terminal axils. Female flowers in the lower axils, armed with numerous hooked spines.

Chrysanthemum leccanthkmu.m. Livn. Erect, simple or nearly so, 1-2 feet. Flowers large, with numerous spreading white straps, solitary or with one below. Pappus none.

C. parthf.nium, Per it. Erect, branched. Flowers numerous, in a terminal panicle, about i inch, with white spreading rays. Achene with a minute cup-like pappus.

Matricaria discoidea, D. C. Erect, branched, 3-5 inches. Flowers numerous, terminal, conical, with numerous minute tubular florets. Pappus none.

Anthemis nobilis, Linn. Procumbent. Leaves much divided, fragrant. Flowers inch, with white spreading rays. Central flowers tubular, yellow, each subtended by a scale.

Achii.i.f.a millefolium, Linn. Erect or depressed, 1-2 feet. Leaves very dissected. Flowers numerous, in terminal corymbs, small, purple to white, with spreading ray-florets. Pappus none.

Tanacetum vuloare, Linn. Erect herb. Leaves much divided. Flowers numerous, in a terminal corymb. Florets all tubular, yellow, protruding from the involucre.

Podothkca angustifolla, Cass. Tufted, decumbent or erect. Flower-head solitary, on a short or long bracteate stem. Involucre narrow, cylindrical, 1-1| inch long. Bracts numerous, unequal. Florets tubular. Pappus of 4-6 flattened plumose bristles.

Cryptostemma calendulacea, It. Hr. Tufted, stemless. Leaves in a rosette, obovate, usually segmented, 3-6 inches long, white beneath. Flowers solitary, on slender stalks, 1-lf inch diameter. Bay-florets pale yellow, spreading, inner ones tubular, purple. Achenes w'oolly.

Calendula officinalis, Linn. Herb. Leaves obovate-spathulate, 3-6 inches long. Flowers solitary, deep yellow'. Outer florets rayed, inner tubular, 1-14 inch diameter. Achenes bent, rough.

C. arvkxsis, Lmn. Similar to the last, but smaller in all details.

Rhauadiolus hedypnois, All. Minute and erect or spreading to several inches. Leaves narrow, obovate, entire or toothed. Flowers 2-8 lines long, yellow. Bracts few, equal, curved and rigid when in fruit. Achenes slender, curved. Peduncle thickened below the involucre when in fruit.

In the following some or all of the leaves and bracts are spiney :—

Cardcus pycnocephalus, Jacq. Erect, slender, 1-4 feet, cottony. Leaves divided, wavy, very prickly', wings extending down the stem, 2-4 inches long. Flowers few, in terminal clusters, f-1 inch long.

Carduus (Cnicus) lanceolatus, Linn. Erect, branched, 2-4 feet. Leaves divided, very prickly, not extending in broad W'ings down the stem. Flowers solitary, l|-2 inches long. Bracts very pungent and somewhat spreading.

C. (Cnicus) pratensis, Huth. Stem simple, 1-2 feet. Leaves white, narrow-oblong, toothed, 2-4 inches long. Flo were solitary', about £ inch long. Bracts acute, but not spiney.

C. (Cnicus) arvensis, Curt. Stems spreading underground. Flowering-branches erect, 4-10 inches. Leaves divided, very crisp and prickly. Flowers many, terminal, about] £ inch long. Males nearly globular, females obi one

C. (Silybum) marianbm, Linn. Erect, 3-5 feet. Leaves lobed, shining, variegated with white veins, 6 inches to H foot long. Flowers terminal, solitary, 2 inches long. Bracts with long spreading spines.

Centaurea calcitrapa, Linn. Erect, abont 1 foot. Leaves 4-6 inches long, narrow, of many segments. Flowers terminal, sessile amongst the npper leaves, purple, about Uf inch long. Bracts ending in stiff spreading spines, f-1 inch long.

C. melitensis, Linn. Erect, 6 inches to 1 foot, branched. Leaves oblong,

1-3 inches long. Flowers yellow, about J inch long, l or 2 together, terminal, sessile in the npper leaves. Bracts armed with acute branched spines.

The following plants are not spiney; the florets are all ligulate :—

Tragopogon porrifolium, Linn. Erect, 2-3 feet, pale green, glabrous. Leaves long, linear. Flower terminal, purple. Bracts exceeding the florets, l inch long.

Helminthia echioides, Gcert. Erect or sub-erect, 1-2 feet, rough, with stiff hairs. Leaves lanceolate, toothed, rough. Flowers yellow, terminal, usually many together, £ inch. Outer bracts leafy, united in an outer involucre.

Picris hieracoides, Linn. Erect, rough, with stiff hairs. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 3-6 inches, obscurely toothed. Flowers few, terminal, yellow, j inch diameter. Florets much exceeding the involucre. Achenes not beaked. Pappus of numerous white bristles, some of which at least are plumose. So freely dispersed as to appear indigenous.

Leontodon hirtus, Linn. Tufted, 3-6 inches. Leaves lanceolate, remotely toothed, 2-6 inches. Flowers solitary, § inch diameter, on slender stalks, drooping when in bud. Florets exceeding the involucre, spreading. Acheue tapering at the top, bearing a pappus of about a dozen feathery hairs. There are no scales amongst the florets.

Hypochjsris glabra, Linn. Usually small, but sometimes 8 inches high, glabrous. Leaves oblong, obtusely toothed, Jt-3 inches long. Flowers few, on blanched stems, or solitary in dwarf specimens, inch long, yellow. Florets hardly exceeding the involucre. Achenes beaked, except the outer ones. Pappus of many feathery bristles, each flower subtended by a scale.

H. radicata, Linn. Coarser than the last, except in dwarf specimens, hispid. Flowers larger. Florets exceeding the involucre. Achenes all beaked.

Lactuca saligna, Linn. Erect, slender, sparely branched, 1-2 feet. Lower leaves broad and lobed, upper ones linear. Flowers numerous, yellow, cylindrical, j inch long, nearly sessile, dispersed along the stem. Achene with a long slender beak. Pappus of numerous simple hairs.

Sonchcs oleraceous, Linn. Erect, 1-2 feet, very succulent. Leaves oblong, usually divided deeply into few broad lobes, 6-8 inches long. Flowers many, in a terminal panicle, yellow, ^-1 inch diameter. Involucre with usually a broad base. Achenes flattened, not beaked. Pappus of very numerous simple hairs.

8. asper, Hoff. Similar to the last, only the leaves much more divided, and the divisions irregularly and acutely toothed. The coast form is more robust in all details, and its distribution about Recherche and South Cape may indicate that it is indigenous.


Taraxacum dens-LEONIS, Deaf. Coarse, succulent, annual, hairless, stem abbreviated. Leaves spreading, narrow-obovate, usually much divided into regular (usually acute) lobes, 3-12 inches. Flowers, yellow, solitary, on an erect bollow stalk 1-1^ inch in diameter. Onter bracts recurved. Achenes tapering into a long slender beak. Pappus of numerous spreading simple bristles.

Ceepis setosa, Hall. Erect, much-branched, 8 inches to 1 foot. Leaves oblong, simple or lobed, 2-3 inches. Flowers yellow, inch long, terminating the numerous branches. Achenes cylindrical, tapering above'into a slender beak. Pappus of numerous white simple hairs.

Cichorium INTYRUS, Linn. Erect, branched, glabrous, 1-3 feet. Leaves below oblong, deeply lobed, upper ones linear. Flowers blue, $ inch, numerous, axillary, dispersed along the stems. The florets spreading, and much exceeding the involucre. Achenes short, broad, crowned by a ring of minute erect scales.

Lapsana communis, Linn. Sub-erect, slender, much-branched. Leaves lobed, the terminal one very broad. Flowers numerous, terminating the branches, solitary, yellow, j inch long. Involucre of 8 nearly equal bracts, besides a few small outer ones. Achenes slightly flattened, without any pappus.


or partially so, 5, sometimes at the base.

A few species other hand to

Pistil of 2 intimately blended carpels. Ovaiian cavities distinct inferior. Fruit capsular, many-seeded. Sepals usually free,

2-lipped. Corolla usually irregular, of 5 petals, united only Stamens 2, usually united with the style to form a column.

A small order, with its greatest development in Australia, generally dispersed in the Pacific to South America, and on the tropical Asia.



Forster a. Donatia.

One petal much altered.

Altered petal much reduced, bearing a large gland ...    1.

Altered petal Hot much reduced, erect and hooded ...    2.

Petals equal or nearly so.

Stamens combined with style ...    ...    ...    ...    3.

Stamens free ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    ...    4. 44

pink, rarely white, numerous, in an elongated spike, which together with the stalk often attain 18 inches, the calyces and stem covered with glandular pubescence. Calyx-lobes united in two obtuse lips. Corolla-lobes about 4-6 lines long, with a few linear papillose appendages at the base; labellum sharply recurved, about 11 line long, dagger-shaped, with a large glandular formation on the surface for reception of t he column. Candoltea serrulata, Lab.

Very common in all situations; also throughout Eastern and Southern Australia. FI. spring and summer.

2.    S. PERPBSILLCM, Hook. A small annual, usually under 2 inches, more or less glandular, pubescent. Leaves linear to obovate, in a rosette at the base of the stem, seldom more than 1 line long. Flowers small, few in a loose corymb or solitary. Calyx-lobes about 1 line long, oblong, 5 in number. Corolla-tube short; lobes nearly equal; labellum narrow, concave, ascending. Capsule nearly globular. C perpusiUa, F. v. M.

George Town ; also in Victoria and West Australia. FI. Nov.-Dee.

3.    S. DiiSPKOTDM, II. Hr. A small erect annual, usually under 3'inches, and without the pubescence of the last. Leaves scattered, ovate to linear, about 1 line long. Flowers few, in a loose corymb. Calyx-lobes short, 5, bnt two of them partially united. Corolla very small. Capsule linear, 3 lines long. C. despecta, F. v. JV1.

George Town, Western Plains, Islands of Bass Straits. FI. Nov.-Dee.


Corolla irregular, 4 lobes nearly equal, the other considerably altered, often hood-shaped over the column. Column short and erect. Ovary 1-celled, with the rudiment of a dissepiment. Capsule globular, crowned by the persistent calyx-lobes. Seeds few.

A small Australian genus, closely allied to Sti/lidium, from which it differs principally in the column being fixed and erect, and the labellum being irritable.

L. DUBIA, Sond. A simple or branched pubescent annual, seldom exceeding 2 inches. Leaves oblong, narrowed into a stalk below, 2-3 lines long. Flowers many, racemed on the stems, each flower subtended by a leaf-like bract. Calyx about l line long, 5-lobed. Corolla-tube about as long as the calyx. Lobes about the same length, very obtuse. Labellum scarcely exceeding the column.

Brighton, Mount Field; Bass Straits; also throughout Southern Australia. FI. Dec.-Jan.


Corolla nearly regular, with 5 nearly equal lobes. Column erect. Stigma 2-lobed. Ovary 1-celled, but with a partial dissepiment towards the base.

The genus is closely allied to Campanulacete, but has the column of StylidietB. It consists of few species, found principally in New Zealand and the extreme south of South America.

F. bf.lxidifolia, Hook. A small densely-tufted perennial. Leaves numerous, in a radical rosette, oblong to spathulate, inch long, Stems slender, 3-4 inches long, bearing usually 2 very small linear bracts in the upper half. Flower usually solitary. Calyx-lobes 5, obtuse. Corolla-tube about 1 line long. The lobes about the same length, obovate. Anthers and stigma not usually attaining maturity on the same plant. Capsule irregularly ovoid, about 3 lines long.

Western mountains, Mount Dundas, Adamson Peak, La Perouse, Ac. FI. Dec.-.lan.


Calyx-lobes 4 or 5. Petals of the same number, inserted round a broad flat disk. Stamens 2 or 3, inserted on or within the disk. Ovary inferior, 2 or

3-celled, with several ovules in each. Styles short and thick, united at the base.

A genus of small tufted plants, containing but few species. The characters are tolerably distinct from any particular order, approaching in many details most nearly the Saxifrages, but the fruit is that of Stylidiums; and although the stamens do not combine with the style, they are inserted close to its base.

I). NOV2E-ZEALANDIEJ), Hook. A small densely-tufted perennial, with an almost moss-like appearance. Leaves linear, about 2 lines long, very crowded along the stems. Flowers solitary, sessile, terminal. Calyx-lobes 5, linear. Petals 5, white, ovate, about 2 lines long. Stamens 2, inserted near the centre of the disk, close to the base of the style, and almost cohering with it. Ovules about 12 in each cell, in a dense tuft, pendulous from the top. Fruit a capsule, about 2 lines long, dehiscing transversely.

Summit of many mountains ; Mt. La Perouse, Mt. Olympus, &c.; also an alpine New Zealand plant. FI. Dec.-Feb.


Floral-tube adnate to the ovary, in rare instances free. Sepals 5, sometimes reduced or obsolete. Corolla irregular, but sometimes appearing almost regular. The free portion of the petals usually lanceolate, but in most instances developing marginal expansions or wings. S