COMPLIMENTARY

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AN INTRODUCTION

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VICTORIAN FOREST TREES

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FORESTS COMMISSION, VICTORIA

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Miscellaneous Publication No. 8


AN INTRODUCTION

to

VICTORIAN FOREST TREES

Forests Commission, Victoria

Melbourne    1961

8653/61

CONTENTS

Page.


Foreword    ..    ..    ..    .    ..    5

Nomenclature    ..    ..    ..    ..    .    7

Identification of Eucalypts    ..    ..    ..    7

(i)    Bark    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    7

(ii)    Leaves    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..    8

(iii)    Buds and Fruits ..    ..    ..    ..    11

Identification of some Other Forest Trees    ..    16

Forest Regions and Types    ..    ..    ..    19

Notes on Major Eucalypt Species    ..    ..    24

Notes on Other Major Species    ..    ..    ..    38

FOREWORD

This booklet is issued by the Forests Commission of Victoria to aid bush walkers, boy scouts and all those other members of the community who would be interested to probe a little deeper than just to accept our forest trees as being either “ gums ”, “ wattles ” or “ the bush It is not a key to the separation of the many and varied species of eucalypts and acacias, but it does set out the simple elements of botanical significance and how to recognize them. Armed with such knowledge and fortified by practice our reader can refer with confidence to more advanced works on the subject.

The forests of Victoria comprise a striking majority of species of Eucalyptus. With the exception of the wattles (Acacia), she-oaks (Gasuarina) and native pines (Callitris), other plant families which include trees are poorly represented. In the higher rainfall areas, blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon), myrtle beech (Nothofagus cunninghamii), musk, hazel and blanket wood constitute the gully flora and, with the exception of myrtle beech, are widely represented in the shrubby undergrowth.

The portion dealing with forest regions and types and the occurrence of the Victorian eucalypts has been taken from “ Handbook of Forestry in Victoria ”, 1957, by K. V. M. Ferguson, M.A., B.Sc.; the diagrams of eucalypt buds and fruits from “ Illustrations of Buds and Fruits of Eucalyptus Species ”, Forestry and Timber Bureau, Commonwealth of Australia, Leaflet No. 63, 1954,1 and those depicting Acacia, Casuarina and Callitris from “ The Forest Flora of New South Wales ”, 1907, by J. H. Maiden. Due acknowledgement in each case is hereby given accordingly.

A. O. LAWRENCE,

Chairman,

Forests Commission.

NOMENCLATURE

The first species of Eucalyptus known to science was collected by David Nelson, assistant botanist on Cook’s Third Voyage (1776-9). It was described by L’Heritier in 1788 and named Eucalyptus obliqua, L’Herit., the generic name arising from the Greek eu= well, kalyptos = covered, alluding to the cap or lid which covers the stamens in the bud. The origin of the name Acacia is from the Greek akakia, a name given to some prickly plants growing in Egypt. Casuarina is derived from the Latin Casuarius, likening the drooping branchlets to the feathers of the cassowary, and Callitris comes from the Greek kallos = beautiful, treis = three, because of the symmetrical arrangement of the leaves.

The question often arises as to why a system of botanical nomenclature is used for trees. A generic name and its associated specific name are essential for scientific purposes because mistaken reference is thereby avoided. Vernacular or common names sometimes create confusion since different vernacular names are frequently given to the same tree, for example, Eucalyptus leucoxylon is commonly called white ironbark or yellow gum in Victoria, and blue gum in South Australia.

IDENTIFICATION OF EUCALYPTS

Owing to the close relationship of some species and the great variability of the parts of the plants, Eucalyptus is a difficult genus to classify. Nevertheless, many species exhibit distinct characters which enable their identity to be readily determined. As a means of preliminary identification in the field, a knowledge of bark, leaf, bud and fruit characters will prove most useful to the beginner.

Bark

Victorian eucalypts may be grouped on broad lines in the following bark classifications:—

(a)    Ironbark:

Very hard ; deeply furrowed near base of tree ; bark grey to black in colour, sometimes showing red at base of furrow.

Species:

Red Ironbark—E. sideroxylon Silvertop—E. sieberiana

(b)    Gum or Smooth-bark:

Usually smooth and slaty-grey to white, but may be rough and dark at butt of tree. Bark is shed seasonally either in long strips or in large plates. At certain seasons bark may be tinged pale-green (E. viminalis), red (£. rubida) or dull yellow.

Species :

Manna Gum—E. viminalis

Candle-bark Gum—E. rubida

Yellow Gum—E. leucoxylon

Red Gum—E. camaldulensis

Blue Gum—E. globulus var. bicostata

Shining Gum—E. nitens

Snow Gum—E. pauciflora

(c)    Peppermint :

Grey in colour ; soft but not fibrous ; structure reveals definite trellis formation.

Species :

Common Peppermint—E. radiata Broad-leaf Peppermint—E. dives Mountain Ash—E. regnans

(d)    Box:

Firm to hard ; lacks characteristic structure ; rarely ridged or furrowed except at butt of old trees. Yellowish (E. melliodora) to dark-grey.

Species:

Yellow Box—E. melliodora

Grey Box—E. hemiphloia

Red Box—£. polyanthemos

Black Box—E. largiflorens

Gippsland or Coast Grey Box—E. bosistoana

(e)    Stringy bark:

Soft and fibrous with stringy structure ; stringy fibre may be short as in Messmate, or very long. Brown in colour.

Species:

Messmate—£. obliqua Red Stringybark—E. macrorrhyncha Brown Stringybark—E. baxteri White Stringybark—E. scabra Yellow Stringybark—E. muelleriana Alpine Ash—E. delegatensis

Leaves

Another useful means of identification is available from the appearance of the leaves. The mature and juvenile leaves of the same species are often quite dissimilar. Mature leaves can be divided into a number of different categories according to the species concerned. The most common shapes are broad-lanceolate, narrow-lanceolate, oblique,


Heart-shaped E. leucoxylon


Leaves Opposite Stem-clasping E. globulus var. bicostata

falcate, and ovate. Colour also sometimes assists in identification ; greyish-green (E. polyanthemos), bluish (E. fruticetorum), pale-green (E. sideroxylon), dark-green (E. viridis). The arrangement of the veins is occasionally of importance ; namely, divergent parallel veins (E. botryoides), main veins parallel longitudinally (E. pauciflora).

The juvenile foliage of seedlings, or of shoots which develop on a tree as a result of damage can also assist in identification. The arrangement, colour, and shape of young leaves is often quite different from the foliage of the adult tree, and the shape of the stem is sometimes equally dissimilar. Some of the more common features of juvenile leaves are provided by the following examples :—Arrangement of the foliage ; leaves opposite and without stalks (sessile), sometimes stem-clasping E. globulus var. bicostata. Colour; leaves bluish-grey (glaucous), E. goniocalyx. Shape; leaves very broad and shortly-pointed (ovate) E. dives; long and narrow (linear-lanceolate) E. radiata ; rounded (orbicular) E. rubida ; heart-shaped (cordate) E. leucoxylon. Shape of the stem ; square, E. nitens, E. globulus var. bicostata, and E. goniocalyx.

Buds and Fruits

In a publication such as this, it is quite impossible to present a comprehensive picture of the extraordinary variability exhibited by this genus as a whole. As an example, however, the illustrations of buds and fruits depicted at natural size herein convey some idea of the extreme differences which occur between some species.

Those diagrams appearing on pages 12 and 13 illustrate the size-range of buds and of fruits; their varying shapes and the ornamentation of species having widely scattered habitats in Australia. On pages 14 and 15, the examples shown belong to some of the most important species occurring in Victoria. It can be seen that while these particular species do not show the great differences of those displayed on pages 12 and 13 they are nevertheless by no means morphologically similar.

Very large buds and fruits are depicted on page 12 and much smaller examples appear on page 13. Eucalypt fruits (capsules) consist of three main parts ; the calyx tube, the rim which is found at the top of the calyx tube, and the valves that open to permit the seeds to escape. The calyx tube forms the main body of the capsule ; sometimes it is quite smooth (E. delegatensis), ribbed (E. angulosa), or variously ornamentated (E. pyriformis). The rim may be flattened (E. muelleriana), rising (E. macrorrhyncha), or falling (E. sideroxylon). The valves may be strongly exserted (E. cornuta, E. camaldulensis), sunken (E. sieberiana, E. obliqua), level with the top of the calyx tube or nearly so (E. scabra, E. nitens).

The buds of some species have stalks (pedicels) joined to a common stem (peduncle), (E. leucoxylon), others c!o not (E. cornuta). Occasionally they are grouped in threes (E. viminalis). A bud is composed of two parts ; the lower part is known as the calyx tube, and

Non-Victorian Species



Drooping White Gum (£. papuana F.y.M.) Western Australia. Northern Territory, Queensland and Papua.


Grey Ironbark (£. paniculata Sm.) New South Wales and Queensland.



Urn-fruited Gum (£. urnigera Hook.) Tasmania.



Sydney Blue Gum (£. saligna Sm.) New South Wales.

Small-fruited Grey Gum (£. propinqua Deane and Maiden) New South Wales and Queensland.




Tropical Red Box (£. brachyandra F.v.M.) Western Australia and Northern Territory.

Swamp Stringybark (£. congfomerata Maiden and Blakely) New South Wales and Queensland.



Common Peppermint (E. radial a Sieb.)







Mountain Ash (£. regnans F.v.M.)    Grey Box (£. hemiphloia F.v.M.)




Coast or Gippsland Grey Box (£. bosistoana F.v.M.)

the upper part as the lid or operculum which is shed as the flower opens. As is the case with capsules, the buds vary greatly in size and form. The cap is usually shorter than the calyx tube (E. hemiphloia), sometimes it is much longer (£. cornuta), or sometimes it is of about equal length (E. goniocalyx). It may be pointed (E. camaldulensis, E. macrorrhyncha), rounded (E. delegatensis, E. papuana), or ribbed (E. pyriformis).

IDENTIFICATION OF SOME OTHER FOREST TREES

The features separating the genera Acacia, Casuarina and Callitris are quite distinct but, as with Eucalyptus, difficulty can be experienced in identifying individual species.


Some species of the genus Acacia have bipinnate leaves, for example A. dealbata (Silver Wattle), and A. mearnsii syn. mollissima (Black Wattle), or after the seedling stage, a leaf-like structure which is really a flattened leaf stalk (phyllode), e.g., A. pycnantha (Golden Wattle) and A. melanoxylon (Blackwood). The seeds are contained in a pod (legume).

The foliage of Casuarina is represented by whorled teeth united into sheaths surrounding the summit of each joint (node) of the branchlet, the number of teeth being within a certain range according to the species concerned ; for example, usually nine to twelve in the case of C. stricta (Drooping Sheoke), nine or ten C. cristata syn. lepidophloia (Belar), and six to eight C. suberosa (Black Sheoke). The cones which hold the seeds vary in size and shape ; those of C. stricta are sometimes as large as 21 inches long and 1J inches broad with strongly projecting valves from which the seeds escape ; those of C. suberosa are much smaller, usually cylindrical in shape and about i inch broad ; and those of C. luehmannii (Buloke) are quite flattened in comparison, consisting of only two or three rows of valves.

The various species of the genus Callitris are usually identified from the nature of the cones. The seedling leaves are mainly in whorls of three completely free but, with the exception of the tip, they soon become adherent (decurrent) to the stem. Victorian species of Callitris have cones with six woody valves, half of them smaller than the others, and opening outwards when mature. Some species exhibit a simple three-sided swelling (columella) rising from the inside of the base of the cone such as C. hugelii syn. glauca (White Cypress Pine), and C. preissii ssp. murrayensis syn. propinqua (Slender Cypress Pine); others show a threc-lobed columella, for example C. endlicheri syn! calcarata (Red Cypress Pine) and C. rhomboidea syn. tasmanica (Oyster Bay Pine); and the cones of C. preissii ssp. verrucosa syn. verrucosa (Scrub Pine) which is usually a stunted multi-stemmed tree or shrub, are densely covered with small swellings (tubercules) The columella is generally short and thick.

CASUARINA AND CALLITRIS




C



Buloke (Casuarina luehmannii

R. T. Baker)

(a)    Cones

(b)    Branchlet enlarged


D

Drooping Sheoke (Casuarina

stricta Ait.)

(c) Cone (rf) Seed



Red Cypress Pine (Callitris eitclliclteri Pari.) (e) Cone


Scrub Pine (Callitris preissii ssp. verrucosa A. Cunn.) (A) Cone

(/) Seeds

(g) Branchlet enlarged

References to the illustrations on pages 17 and 18 show some of the features mentioned in the foregoing text.

FOREST REGIONS AND TYPES

The Victorian indigenous forests generally are of a sclerophyllous type and their composition is characterized by a very marked predominance of species of the genus Eucalyptus, members of other genera usually being relegated to the understorey. In relation to the comparatively small area of the State (87,884 square miles) there is considerable variation in forest composition, quality and distribution due to a diversity of locality factors—e.g., average annual rainfall varies from under 10 inches to over 70 inches ; elevations from sea level to 6,500 feet; topography from flat coastal and inland plains to rugged and rocky mountain terrain ; temperatures from equable and mild along the coast to extreme in the north-west; soils from shallow, barren, dry and rocky to deep, moist, fertile volcanic loams.

The general climate is a temperate winter and early spring (July-October) rainfall type. Late spring and summer rains are erratic. Regional climate is influenced to a marked degree by the Dividing Range which traverses the State from east to west at a distance of 60-90 miles from the southern coastline, rising to a maximum height of 6,509 feet at Mount Bogong. This intercepts the moist, southerly winds from the ocean, with the result that annual rainfall north of the Divide seldom exceeds 25 inches. At elevations below about 2,500 feet falls of snow are few and light, but occasional severe frosts are experienced inland. Snow at the higher altitudes may lie on the ground for up to six months. The best forests are in regions of over 40 inches rainfall; the 25 in.-40 in. belt also carries good commercial forests ; where rainfall is under 25 inches, forests are more open and of slow growth.

Winter temperatures, except in the highlands, vary little throughout the State, but there are considerable regional differences in summer temperatures which are generally high. Average daily maximum midsummer temperature in coastal, Gippsland and highland regions is considerably lower than north of the Dividing Range. Hot weather is accompanied usually by low humidity.

The predominant soils of the forest country of the foothills and mountain slopes are podzolized sandy or silty loams from metamorphic rocks, sedimentary sandstones, mudstones and shales chiefly of the Ordovician, Silurian and Jurassic periods, and igneous intrusions mainly of granitic type. Soils of the northern, north-western and coastal plains are mainly sands and sandy loams of recent Tertiary origin. Soils of the extensive and virtually treeless plains of the western district are loams from weathering of newer basalt lava flows.

The occurrence of the following principal forest types is illustrated on the accompanying map facing (page 20).

THE TEMPERATE MODERATE RAINFALL FORESTS (Mountain Forests)

These occupy the cool, higher rainfall zone in mountain country ; average annual rainfall 40 inches to over 70 inches, predominantly in winter and spring ; regular winter snows often lying up to six months at the higher altitudes; average elevations 1,500 ft.-4,500 ft., with extremes from 600 feet to the timber line at 6,000 feet; mild summer temperatures rarely reaching 100° F., cold winters with temperatures at higher levels falling to below 20° F. Soils generally deep, moist, fertile loams, predominant rock formations being granodioritic and porphyritic in the central and north-eastern highlands, and Jurassic sandstones and shales in southern localities. Topography usually steep, rough and often rocky, with mountain plateaux intersected by deep gullies. Best forest development is on the cooler and moister westerly and southerly slopes, this type of forest descending to lower elevations on these aspects.

Within the type, three zones are recognized, viz., alpine, alpine ash, and mountain ash respectively.

In the alpine zone, tree vegetation is intermittent and interspersed with high plain grasslands, swamps and rocky outcrops. Trees are stunted and dwarf in character, seldom exceeding 30 feet in height. The principal species is the multi-stemmed Eucalyptus pauciflora var. alpina (Snow Gum) which grows in pure stands over extensive areas of the north-eastern highlands. Other species occurring include E. kybeanensis, E. perriniana, E. stellulata, and stunted E. delegatensis and £. rubida. Undergrowth is light, consisting usually of snow grass and dwarf alpine shrubs. This type of vegetation occurs generally about 4,500 feet, descending lower on cold southerly or exposed sites.

The alpine ash zone abuts on the alpine zone, descending to 3,200 feet on southerly aspects and to 3,700 feet on drier northerly slopes. This zone extends from Mt. Macedon along the north-eastern highlands to the New South Wales border. The predominant species, Eucalyptus delegatensis, occurs in extensive pure stands and on the margin of the zone in mixture with E. regnans, E. nitens, E. rubida, E. fastigata, E. radiata and E. pauciflora var. alpina. Undergrowth as a rule is not heavy except after fire.

The mountain ash zone is located below the alpine ash zone, descending on the average to 1,500 feet and to 600 feet on wet, southerly aspects and in sheltered gullies. The best forests are on deep, fertile, well-drained soils on sheltered southerly slopes. These forests occur chiefly in the Otway and south Gippsland ranges, and in the eastern highlands mainly south of the Dividing Range from Mount Disappointment to Mount Baldhead in the east. The principal species. Eucalyptus regnans, grows extensively in pure stands throughout this range, but the zone includes also pure and mixed stands particularly of E. viminalis, E. obliqua and £. goniocalyx. Undergrowth is very luxuriant and hygrophyllous in character; in the gullies Acacia melanoxylon, Nothofagus cunninghamii, and Atherosperma moschatum frequently form a second story, with tree ferns and other moisture-loving shrubs as a dense understory.

LEGEND

I MOUNTAIN FORESTS. Including Mountain Ash, Alpine Ash, Snow Gum, and non-productive Alpine areas



VICTORIA

SHOWING

ZONES OF NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF PRINCIPAL FOREST TYPES

THE SCLEROPHYLLOUS STRINGYBARK-PEPPERMINT-GUM

TYPE

(Foothill Forests)

This type    is by far the most extensive    in    the    State, occupying

practically all    the country along and south    of    the    Dividing Range,

excluding the    high-rainfall mountain areas and    the    western basaltic

plains. Climate and soils vary considerably.    Annual    rainfall averages

20 in.-45 in. predominantly in winter and early spring ; elevations range from sea level to 3,000 feet; snowfalls are infrequent and of short duration except at the higher levels ; summers are long and dry. Soils are mainly loams derived from sedimentary rocks, with tertiary sands and gravels on the coastal plains. The best forests are on well-drained foothill slopes from 500 ft.-2,000 ft. elevation.

Essentially the forests comprise mixed stands of varied composition with limited areas of pure forest, and for convenience in description may be considered in four zones.

In the western coastal zone extending from the South Australian border eastwards to Port Phillip Bay, soils generally are poor tertiary sands and gravels, rainfall 20 in.-30 in. and elevations below 1,000 feet. The two main species are E. baxteri and E. obliqua, associated species including E. ovata, E. vitrea, E. radiata, E. aromaphloia, E. vimirtalis and in the Otway Peninsula E. globulus.

In the west-central hill zone from Mount Macedon east to the Grampians, soils are mainly clay loams from Ordovician sandstones and shales, rainfall from 25 in.-40 in., and elevations 1,000 ft.-3,000 ft. The predominant species are E. obliqua and E. radiata. Associated species include E. baxteri (Grampians), E. macrorrhyncha, E. elaeophora, E. radiata and E. dives on drier sites, E. globulus var. bicostata (Pyrenees and Mount Cole), E. rubida (Wombat State Forest), E. vimirtalis, E. ovata and E. aromaphloia. Undergrowth is usually of medium density, xerophilous, and comprised mainly of leguminous and heathy shrubs.

The north-eastern zone comprises foothills mainly north of the Dividing Range from 1,000 ft.-3,000 ft. in elevation. Soils are derived chiefly from metamorphic and sedimentary rocks ; rainfall 25-in.-40 in.; summers warm and dry ; frequent winter frosts. The composition of the forests is very varied, and pure stands of any extent are rare. The predominating species are E. obliqua on moister ridges and slopes and E. macrorrhyncha on drier sites. Principal associated species include E. goniocalyx, E. globulus var. bicostata, E. ovata, E. viminalis, E. radiata, and on dry, shallow sites E. maculosa, E. dives, E. polyanthemos and E. elaeophora. Undergrowth is of medium density and height growth, consisting generally of xerophilous shrubs.

The Gippsland foothill and coastal zone includes all the country from sea level up to 3,000 feet elevation, excluding any within the mountain forest zone, extending east from Port Phillip Bay to the New South Wales border. Rainfall varies from 25 inches to over 40 inches, in the eastern half of the zone being well distributed throughout the year, and in the western half predominantly in winter and early spring.

Winter temperatures are mild, in summer warm to hot. On the coastal plains, soils are chiefly teritary sands, often over limestone, and in the hills clay loams from Silurian and Ordovician formations, Devonian sandstones, and metamorphosed rocks. Forests are essentially of mixed hardwood types, with occasional pure stands of limited extent on specific sites. In the eastern half of the zone, E. scabra and E. sieberiana predominate in the coastal belt, principal associated species including E. bosistoana, E. botryoides, E. muelleriana, E. consideniana, E. sideroxylon, E. obliqua, E. macrorrhyncha, E. baxteri, E. polyanthemos, E. goniocalyx and E. radiata. In the western half, E. obliqua and E. radiata are the most abundant and widely distributed species, other prominent representatives including E. viminalis, E. goniocalyx, E. baxteri and E. sieberiana. Undergrowth is often dense, various acacias being prominent, and in damp gullies in the eastern half forms dense so-called “ jungles ” of semi-tropical character.

Except on the poorest sites, forests of this type constitute a valuable source of commercial hardwood timber. The fire hazard in summer is relatively high, due largely to the inflammable nature of the vegetation, but the majority of species are comparatively fire-resistant and possess strong recuperative powers.

THE SCLEROPHYLLOUS BOX-IRONBARK FORESTS

The principal zone of occurrence is on the low foothills north of the Dividing Range between the Wimmera and Goulburn rivers. Red ironbark (E. sideroxylon) is also found extensively in the mixed forests of East Gippsland, on stony soils of the Lerderderg river locality, and on dry, stony, coastal sites in the vicinity of Airey’s Inlet.

The zone of major occurrence is characterized by low annual rainfall averaging 20 inches ; long, dry summers with frequent high temperatures and occasional drought, and sometimes severe winter frost. Permanent streams are few, topography undulating, average elevation 800 feet. Soils are chiefly shallow sandy or clay loams over clay, from Ordovician sandstones and shales.

The forests are open and typically mixed, with some pure stands on sites favourable to a particular species. The main components are limited to E. sideroxylon, characteristic of the drier ridges and upper slopes, and E. leucoxylon and E. hemiphloia on the lower slopes and flats. Associated species include E. elaeophora, E. macrorrhyncha and E. polyanthemos on dry, stony ridges, and E. melliodora and E. camaldulensis on the alluvial flats. Undergrowth is sparse to absent.

THE RIVER REDGUM FORESTS

This type is confined to alluvial plains in the north and west of the State and occurs under two sets of environmental conditions, viz., in the 10 in.-18 in. rainfall zone on heavy alluvial soils bordering the Murray and Goulburn rivers and adjacent lagoons which are periodically

inundated by seasonal floodwaters, and on recent sandy loams of the western plains adjacent to the South Australian border in the 24 in.-28 in. rainfall belt. Topography is typically flat at elevations of 250 ft.-500 ft. Summer temperatures are high and severe frosts common in winter. In the riverain forests, normal flooding is from October to December, but occasionally floodwaters may remain on the low-lying ground for up to twelve months.

The principal species is E. camaldulensis which almost invariably forms pure stands. Best growth is on the lower ground which receives regular flooding. Its main associate along the rivers and lagoons is E. largiflorens which forms open pure stands on the higher ground reached only very occasionally by floodwaters, and on the western plains E. leucoxylon and E. largiflorens. Undergrowth is light and consists mainly of grasses and reeds.

THE MALLEE FORESTS

Although not strictly classifiable as “ forest ”, this tree vegetation occupies extensive areas in the north-west. This is an arid region, with annual rainfall from under 10 inches to 16 inches, practically confined to winter. Summer temperatures and evaporation rate are high, with numerous days of hot, dry, northerly winds and periodic drought years ; occasional severe frosts. Soils are pure Tertiary sands or light sandy loams over limestone; permanent watercourses are non-existent; topography a slightly undulating raised estuarine plain with east-west sand ridges up to 30 feet high ; general elevation 200 ft.-300 ft.

The main tree vegetation consists of a number of species of dwarf, usually multi-stemmed eucalypts seldom over 20 feet in height in mixed stands. These develop an abnormally swollen root-stock and are extremely drought-resistant. The sparse undergrowth is comprised of xerophytic shrubs and native grasses. Associated tree species include Callitris hugelii, Casuarina cristata, and Myoporum platycarpum, with E. camaldulensis and E. largiflorens along watercourses and lagoons. Except for minor local uses, the mallee eucalypt stands have no commercial value but are extremely useful in protecting the loose sandy soils from erosion by wind.

SAVANNAH AND SAVANNAH WOODLANDS

These terms are used to describe the open and widely dispersed tree growth, generally unimportant from a forestry angle, of the western basaltic plains. Soils are a chocolate loam, topography gently undulating, rainfall 20 in.-30 in., summer temperatures high. The main species represented are E. leucoxylon, E. pauciflora, E. hemiphloia, E. melliodora, E. ovata, E. viminalis and E. camaldulensis but these occur more as scattered trees and clumps of trees than in stands. E. cladocalyx and other eucalypts have been extensively planted in belts to provide protection from wind for stock and timber for local use.

NOTES ON MAJOR EUCALYPT SPECIES

The following species are described :—

E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden and Blakely (from E. capitellata Sm.)—Brown Stringybark.

E. bosistoana F.v.M.—Coast Grey Box (Gippsland Grey Box).

E. camaldulensis Dehn. (syn. E. rostrata Schlecht)—River Red Gum.

E. delegatensis R. T. Baker (syn. E. gigantea Hook.)—Alpine Ash.

E. globulus var. bicostata Ewart—Blue Gum.

E. goniocalyx F.v.M.—Mountain Grey Gum.

E. hemiphloia F.v.M. (incl. var. microcarpa Maiden)—Grey Box.

E. largiflorens F.v.M. (syn. E. bicolor A. Cunn.)—Black Box.

E. leucoxylon F.v.M.—Yellow Gum (White Ironbark).

E. macrorrhyncha F.v.M.—Red Stringybark.

E. melliodora A. Cunn.—Yellow Box.

E. muelleriana Howitt—Yellow Stringybark.

E. nitens Maiden—Shining Gum.

E. obliqua L’Her.—Messmate Stringybark (Messmate).

E. polyanthemos Schauer—Red Box.

E. radiata Sieb.—Common Peppermint.

E. regnans F.v.M.—Mountain Ash.

E. rubida Dean and Maiden—Candlebark.

E. scabra Dum—Cours (syn. E. eugenioides Sieb.)—White Stringybark.

E. sideroxylon (A. Cunn.) Benth.—Red Ironbark.

E. sieberiana F.v.M.—Silvertop.

E. viminalis Labill.—Manna Gum.

E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden and Blakely—Brown Stringybark.

Indigenous to Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. In Victoria occurs in all areas on and south of the Divide, in the west extending as a stunted tree through the Wimmera into the southern Mallee. As a timber tree, its main occurrence is in the south-west, the Grampians and Pyrenees ranges, and the central Gippsland hill districts.

Grows best on sandy loams over clay on moist, well-drained hill slopes ; rainfall 20 in.-60 in.; elevation sea level to 3,000 feet.

Grows to medium size, averaging 50 feet to 120 feet with girths up to 10 feet; growth reasonably rapid ; reproduces freely from seed and coppice. In the lowlands occurs usually in pure, somewhat open, stands or in mixture with E. obliqua ; on hill country generally in mixture with E. sieberiana, E. radiata, E. goniocalyx and other stringybarks.

A typical stringybark with thick, furrowed, brown fibrous bark extending to the smaller branches.

Juvenile leaves sessile and opposite, frequently with reddish margins. Mature leaves dark-green and shining, 3 in.-6 in. long.

Buds and flowers sessile in clusters of five to ten. The operculum obtuse and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruits occur in almost sessile heads, almost round, but slightly

flattened, 3/10 x 4/10 in. The rim brown or red, valves slightly sunk or projecting.

E. bosistoana F.v.M.—Coast Grey Box (Gippsland Grey Box).

Native to Victoria and New South Wales. In Victoria its range restricted to coastal areas east of the Mitchell river and in the Yarram locality.

Prefers good alluvial loams, especially over limestone, in sheltered gullies but also occurs on poorer Tertiary soils over clay ; rainfall 30 in.-40 in.; elevation sea level to 1,000 feet.

Typically a tall tree with symmetrical crown and straight, clear bole ; grows to 150 feet with girths to 12 feet ; on better sites growth reasonably fast; reproduces moderately well from seed. Forms pure stands on better quality sites, or in mixture with E. muelleriana, E. scabra, E. goniocalyx, E. sideroxyloti, E. sieberiana, E. ovata and E. melliodora.

Bark rough and persistent on the stem for the first 10 ft.-30 ft. or more ; on the upper portion of the stem and on the branches bark smooth and pale-grey.

Juvenile leaves opposite and rounded ; mature leaves alternate, narrow, pale-green, smooth and shining, 3J in.-7 in. long.

Buds and flowers in groups of three to seven. Operculum conical, the same length as the calyx tube.

Fruit hemispherical, about } inch in diameter, with four to six valves usually sunken.

E. camaldulensis Dehn. (syn. E. rostrata Schlecht)—River Redgum.

Native to all mainland States. In Victoria grows generally along lowland watercourses throughout the western half of the State and in the north-east, but in forest formation its main occurrences are along the River Murray and its principal tributaries, and on the plains between the Grampians and the South Australian border.

As a forest tree grows under two sets of conditions—on alluvial soils adjacent to rivers, old watercourses and lagoons subject to annual or periodic inundation by floodwaters or where there is permanent subsoil moisture in low rainfall (10 in.—18 in.) areas, and on the heavier soils of the western plains in the 24 in.-28 in. rainfall belt. Can withstand high temperatures, severe drought and moderate frost. Elevation 100 ft.-l,200 ft.

Growth rapid under favourable conditions ; attains height of 80 ft.-120 ft., with diameters to 14 feet; tends to develop spreading crown, with short massive bole which is frequently not straight; regenerates readily from seed and coppice, and produces abundant seed. Almost invariably in pure stands, but associates occasionally with E. largiflorens along rivers and with E. leucoxylon on the plains.

Bark smooth and greyish-white, shedding in thin leaves or flakes.

Juvenile leaves opposite, narrow to broad-lanceolate ; mature leaves alternate, 3 in.-8 in. long and tapering gradually from base to tip.

Buds and flowers on rather long pedicels in clusters of four to eight on short peduncles. Operculum conical, one and a half to two and a half times longer than the goblet shaped calyx tube.

Fruit hemispherical, 3/10 in. x 2/10 in. with prominently projecting valves and a domed rim.

E. delegatensis R. T. Baker (syn. E. gigantea Hook.)—Alpine Ash.

Indigenous to Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. Its Victorian range is from Mount Macedon easterly to the New South Wales border.

Favours good, well-drained soils derived from basaltic and granitic type rocks but also grows on shallower soils from Silurian sandstones and metamorphosed formations. Topography typically rugged and broken with much rock outcropping on steeper slopes. Moderate summer and cold winter climate ; heavy snow for up to six months of the year and severe frosts ; rainfall 40 inches to over 70 inches. Optimum altitude range 3,100    ft.-4,000 ft., with extremes

2,400 ft.-5,200 ft.

On better class sites grows to 250 feet, with diameters to 10 feet and merchantable long lengths to 140 feet. On poorer soils, exposed situations and towards the upper altitude limit tends to become short-boled and branchy. Occurs usually in even-aged pure stands, but also in mixture with E. radiata and E. rubida, and less frequently E. regnans, E. viminalis and E. nitens and at its upper altitude range E. pauciflora var. alpina. Growth rapid when young ; reproduces freely from seed but does not produce coppice shoots.

Bark on the lower half of the trunk reddish, very thick and woolly (like a stringybark); upper bark smooth, pale bluish-grey or white and falls in long, thin strips.

Juvenile leaves bluish-green and more rounded than the mature leaves which are dark-green, alternate, 8 in.-lO in. long, tapering and often curved.

Buds and flowers in clusters of seven to fifteen. Operculum hemispherical and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit pear shaped, 4/10 in. x 5/10 in., with enclosed valves.

This species frequently replaces white mountain ash (E. regnans) at higher elevations. It can be readily distinguished by its reddish, thick and persistent bark and bluish-green juvenile leaves.

E. globulus var. bicostata Ewart.—Blue Gum.

Native to Victoria and New South Wales. In Victoria its range extends from Cape Otway to the north-east and Gippsland.

Prefers good, moderately heavy soil. Grows particularly well on soils derived from granite in the Tallarook, Strathbogie, Blue and Shelley ranges.

Typically a tall tree, up to 150 feet high, with a symmetrical crown and straight, clean bole. On better sites growth is reasonably fast; reproduces moderately well from seed and coppice.

Bark rough and persistent on the lower portion of the stem ; upper portion and branches smooth and blue-green in colour.

Juvenile leaves sessile, almost clasping the square stem, rounded and a typical bright bluish-green in colour. Mature leaves tapering, dark glossy green and may be up to 24 inches long in the early stages of a tree’s development.

Buds and flowers in groups of three. Operculum thick, cap-shaped and warty, as long as or longer than the calyx tube. Both operculum and calyx tube bluish-green in colour.

Fruit sessile, bluish-green, usually slightly warty, usually more than i-inch in diameter, with a broad rim, and short, thick valves.

E. goniocalyx F.v.M.—Mountain Grey Gum.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. Widely distributed in Victoria on the hills and lowlands from the Grampians and Otway ranges on the west to the New South Wales border but of infrequent occurrence north of the Dividing Range.

Attains best development on fertile loams and in moist gullies at moderate elevations, preferring southerly aspects ; also occurs on poorer sandy soils of the coastal lowlands and on drier sites at the upper altitudes and in higher rainfall areas. Elevation range from sea level to 4,200 feet; rainfall 30 in.-60 in.; generally moderate climate.

Under favourable conditions a tall, straight, clean tree growing to over 200 feet with log lengths to 80 feet and diameters to 10 feet. Older trees are subject to insect and fungous attack and deteriorate rapidly. Seldom forms pure stands and grows in mixture with a wide range of species. Its most common associates are E. radiata and E. obliqua, and in the eastern localities E. scabra and E. muelleriana; also in mixture with E. sieberiana, E. viminalis, E. regnans, E. consideniana, E. rubida, E. baxteri, E. bosistoana, E. botryoides and E. fastigata. Growth rapid and vigorous ; reproduces freely from both seed and coppice.

Bark smooth and mottled, falling in ribbons but sometimes persistent and rough at the butt.

Juvenile leaves glaucous, opposite, broadly-lanceolate or heartshaped at first sessile on a square stem but later shortly stalked. Mature leaves alternate, dark glossy green and tapering, 12 in.-15 in. long.

Buds and flowers in groups of four to eight on short peduncles which are ridged and serve as a useful feature for identification. Operculum bluntly conical, narrower and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit angled, pear-shaped and almost sessile, valves enclosed or slightly protruding leaving a wide opening at the end of the fruit.

E. hemiphloia F.v.M. (incl. var. microcarpa Maiden) Grey Box.

Indigenous to Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. In Victoria, its range is practically restricted to the lower foothills and plains north of the Divide from the eastern limit of the Mallee to the Kiewa river ; also on low sandhills along the River Murray upstream from Swan Hill.

Prefers reasonably fertile, well-drained Ordovician clay loams of flats and open gullies ; rainfall 15 in.-25 in., elevation 400 ft.—1,850 ft.; a hardy species withstanding drought and frost.

A medium-sized tree with somewhat short bole and large, open crown, growing to over 100 feet. Growth comparatively slow. A shy seeder and natural seedling regeneration is usually difficult to establish ; coppices freely and vigorously. Seldom in pure stands of any extent; its main associates are E. leucoxylon, E. melliodora and E. sideroxylon, also E. polyanthemos and E. elaeophora.

Bark on the trunk grey, sub-fibrous and persistent while on the upper trunk and branches it is smooth.

Juvenile leaves shortly stalked and rounded. Mature leaves tapering, 3 in.-5 in. long, of somewhat variable width.

Buds and flowers in groups of four to eight. Operculum conical, the same length as the calyx tube.

Fruit cylindrical, slightly smaller than 3/10 in. x 2/10 in. with valves deeply enclosed.

E. largiflorens F.v.M. (syn. E. bicolor A. Cunn.) Black Box.

Indigenous to all mainland States except Western Australia. In Victoria occurs mainly in pure stands in the vicinity of watercourses and lagoons and in other moist situations in the north-west and northern plains.

Grows best on heavy alluvial soils subject to occasional flooding, often on the slightly higher ground fringing stands of E. camaldulensis. A small tree seldom exceeding 50 feet in height with spreading crown and usually with crooked or twisted bole. Regenerates readily from both seed and coppice.

Bark hard, rugged and persistent on the trunk, often smooth and white at the end of the branches.

Juvenile leaves opposite, narrow-lanceolate with short stalks. Mature leaves alternate, oblong to lanceolate, 3 in.-6in. long and i in.-li in. wide ; tip often curved.

Buds and flowers in groups of three to seven. Operculum hemispherical and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit hemispherical, very small (less than 2/10 inch diameter), with sunken valves.

E. leucoxylon F.v.M.—Yellow Gum (White Ironbark).

Native to South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. In Victoria its main occurrence as a forest tree is on the lower foothills on the north side of the Divide between the Wimmera and Goulburn rivers, but its range extends through the plains in the western half of the State except in the extreme north-west.

Best development on the heavier clayey soils derived from sedimentary formations. Essentially a tree of the plains and gentle slopes. Elevation range sea level—1,800 feet; rainfall 15 in.-28 in. mainly in winter ; hot summer and cold winter temperatures. Can withstand drought and frost.

A medium-sized tree growing to 100 feet with relatively short bole and open, spreading crown ; growth reasonably fast; if overcrowded, tends to develop a crooked bole ; reproduces vigorously by coppice shoots ; produces fair seed crops and regenerates well from seed if protected from grazing animals. Seldom forms pure stands of any extent and occurs in mixture particularly with E. hemiphloia on the northern plains and foothills, and with E. camaldulensis in western localities ; also less frequently with E. polyanthemos, E. melliodora, E. sideroxylon and E. elaeophora.

Bark smooth and whitish, rarely rough and persistent at the butt.

Juvenile leaves opposite, sessile to shortly-stalked and heart-shaped. Mature leaves alternate, narrow and tapering, 3 in.-6 in. long.

Buds and flowers usually in groups of three on a slender peduncle. Operculum conical, equal to or greater in length than the calyx tube.

Fruit almost goblet shaped, up to i inch long, with sunken valves.

This is an interesting species in that it is difficult to distinguish mature leaves, buds, flowers and fruit from those of Red Ironbark (E. sideroxylon) despite the marked differences in bark. (Red Ironbark has a black to reddish, very thick and deeply furrowed persistent bark.)

E. macrorrhyncha F.v.M.—Red Stringybark.

Indigenous to Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. In Victoria is very widely distributed, occurring in practically all localities from the Grampians easterly. Its principal zone of occurrence is, however, the north-east.

Typically a tree of dry, stony ridges with northerly to westerly aspects. Soils generally poor, shallow and stony derived from Silurian sedimentary formations. Often on exposed sites. Climate moderate to hot, rainfall 15 inches to over 15 inches, elevation range 150 ft.-2,850 ft. Withstands dry conditions well and hardy to frost.

Essentially a hill species, and at low elevations and in drier localities is usually stunted in form. Grows to 140 feet in height, with clean, straight bole on favourable sites. Produces abundant seed and coppices readily. Invariably in mixed stands and associates with a wide range of species—commonly occurs with E. elaeophora, E. radiata, E. divesE. globulus var. bicostata and E. polyanthemos ; also with E. sideroxylon, E. sieberiana, E. goniocalyx, E. melliodora, E. rubida and other stringybarks.

Bark typical of the stringybark group, persistent, furrowed and fibrous.

Juvenile leaves opposite and shortly stalked, with short hairs. Mature leaves alternate, thick, dark-green and glossy, 3 in.-6 in. long and 1 in.-li in. broad.

Buds and flowers in groups of six to twelve on fairly long pedicels. Operculum conical, equal to or longer than the calyx tube.

Fruit rounded, 4/10 inch in diameter, each fruit on a distinct stalk, usually with a prominent red rim and a domed top. Valves usually three, strongly exserted.

E. melliodora A. Cunn.—Yellow Box.

Native to Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. In Victoria has a wide range from the Grampians in the west to the New South Wales border and occurs both north and south of the Divide.

In the western half of the State generally a tree of the plains, preferring moist, heavier-type alluvial soils particularly along watercourses ; climate warm to hot; rainfall 12 in.-25 in.; elevation 200 ft.-l ,000 ft. In the east and north-east, mainly at higher elevations on drier soil types of ridges and steep slopes ; soils shallow and stony, granitic or sedimentary ; rainfall 30 in.-40 in.; elevations up to 2,650 feet.

Only attains commercial size on the more favourable sites at low elevations where it is a handsome tree with short bole and spreading, umbrageous crown. May attain height of 100 feet but usually not over 60 feet. At the higher altitudes generally a stunted tree of no value for timber. Almost invariably occurs in mixture, on the plains with E. camaldulensis, E. hemiphloia, E. leucoxylon, E. polyanthemos and E. baxteri, and on high ridges with E. elaeophora, E. polyanthemos, E. macrorrhyncha, E. radiata and E. globulus var. bicostata. Reproduces moderately well from seed and coppice.

Bark is pale-lead to yellowish in colour, scaly and persistent on the trunk ; smooth and greenish on the branches.

Juvenile leaves opposite and oblong to elliptical. Mature leaves alternate, narrow-lanceolate, glaucous, 2 in.-4 in. long and i in.-l in. broad

Buds and flowers occur in clusters of three to eight. Operculum conical to hemispherical and about the same length as the calyx tube.

Fruit is hemispherical, 2/10 in. in diameter, with valves enclosed.

E. muelleriana Howitt—Yellow Stringybark.

Indigenous to Victoria, Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia. In Victoria is practically confined to east of the Thomson river, from close to the coast to moderate elevations on the ranges on the south side of the Divide.

Attains best development on rich alluvial heavy loam soils in sheltered, well-drained gullies but also ascends the steep slopes to the tops of the higher ridges on poor, shallow and stony soils from sedimentary rock formations. Prefers southerly and easterly aspects. Climate generally mild but occasional snowfall at higher altitudes ; lainfall 30 in.-50 in.; elevation 30 ft.-2,900 ft.

A tall tree to over 150 feet, with diameters up to 7 feet, clean cylindrical bole and rather light crown. On the more favourable sites occurs in pure stands or in mixture with E. obliqua, E. scabra and E. botryoides ; on ridge tops usually in association with E. sieberiana but on the poorer sites on ridges and steep slopes also occurs with E. sideroxylon, E. goniocalyx, E. radiata, E. polyanthemos, E. consideniana and E. baxteri. Reproduces readily from seed and moderately well by coppice.

Bark typical of the stringybark group, persistent, furrowed and fibrous ; the inner bark usually yellow.

Juvenile leaves opposite, almost sessile, lanceolate, with a shining upper surface and tufts of hairs on the lower. Mature leaves alternate, narrow to broad-lanceolate, usually sickle-shaped and pointed.

Buds and flowers in groups of seven to twelve. Operculum hemispherical and about equal in length to the calyx tube.

Fruit rounded, up to i in. in diameter ; valves small, usually enclosed.

E. nitens Maiden—Shining Gum.

Native to Victoria and New South Wales. In Victoria is confined to the higher altitudes in the eastern highlands from Warburton to the New South Wales border. Its main occurrence as a major forest species is on the Errinundra plateau.

Best development on deep, fertile soils derived from Ordovician shales and mudstones ; also on granitic soils. Climate temperate, with warm summers and cold severe winters ; frequent fogs, rainfall 40 inches to over 60 inches mainly in winter ; heavy snowfalls over periods up to five months ; elevation 2,900 ft.-4,200 ft.

A very tall, straight tree to over 250 feet in height, with merchantable log lengths to 150 feet and diameters up to 14 feet. Forms extensive pure stands but also grows in mixture with E. delegatensis, E. fastigata, E. obliqua, E. viminalis, E. goniocalyx, E. pauciflora var. alpina, E. radiata and E. regnans. Reproduces well from seed and produces moderate coppice regrowth.

Bark rough and persistent at the butt, elsewhere smooth and shining, falls in ribbons.

Juvenile leaves opposite, sessile to stem clasping, glaucous, and somewhat rounded. Mature leaves alternate, smooth and shining, narrow and tapering, up to 12 in.-18 in. long.

Buds and flowers sessile in groups of three to seven. Operculum conical and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit usually sessile and egg-shaped, 2/10 in.-3/10 in. in diameter. Valves minute, usually enclosed.

E. oblique L’Her—Messmate Stringybark (Messmate).

Native to Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and New South Wales. In Victoria very widely distributed, occurring in all districts along and south of the Divide and at medium altitudes on the ranges north of the Divide.

Grows on a wide variety of soil types from light sandy soils to heavy clay loam ; prefers well-drained, moist, deep loams from volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Attains its best development in shallow, sheltered gullies and on lower slopes of the cool, inland hill country at moderate elevations. Rainfall 20 inches to over 60 inches, predominantly in winter ; snow for up to five months at higher altitudes ; climate generally mild ; elevations from sea level to 4,100 feet.

Grows to over 250 feet in height with log lengths to 110 feet and diameters to 10 feet; bole straight and clean ; growth rapid. A heavy seeder and regenerates freely in openings of reasonable size ; coppices readily. Occurs in pure stands on the more favourable sites, but more generally in mixture when it frequently is the predominant constituent; associates with a wide range of species, but principally with E. radiata and E. goniocalyx ; also with E. regnans, E. nitens, E. jastigata, E. ovata and E. viminalis at the higher elevations, E. baxteri and E. vitrea in the south-west, other stringybarks, E. botryoides, E. sieberiana and E. bridgesiana in East Gippsland, and in the central, north-eastern and western highlands with various stringybarks, E. dives, E. radiata, E. rubida, E. aromaphloia, E. ovata, E. viminalis and E. globulus var. bicostata.

Bark fibrous, deeply furrowed and persistent to the smaller branches, which have a shiny surface.

Juvenile leaves opposite, broad, and almost sessile. Mature leaves stalked, alternate with a very oblique base, tapering and usually 4 in.—6 in. long.

Buds and flowers in clusters of four to eight on stout peduncles. Operculum hemispherical and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit pear-shaped, up to 3/10 inch in diameter, with a broad rim and sunken valves.

E. polyanthemos Schauer—Red Box.

Native to Victoria and New South Wales. In Victoria its distribution is widespread.

Typically a tree of poor sites, it is usually found on low, slaty or shaly ridges, in moist or moderately dry areas. It may be found at elevations of 2,000 feet.

A tree which is frequently of good shape, but restricted in height to 40 ft.-l 10 ft.

Bark scaly and persistent, smooth on the branches or with grey or green patches and coming off in ribbons.

Juvenile leaves round, glaucous, somewhat large and on rather long stalks. Mature leaves alternate, li in.-3 in. long and nearly as broad, on stalks about f inch long. The colour of the leaves is quite a distinctive bluish-green.

Buds and flowers in groups of three to six. Operculum conical, usually with resinous spots and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit is hemispherical, 2/10 inch in diameter, with a narrow rim and deeply enclosed valves.

E. radiata Sieb.—Common Peppermint.

Indigenous to Victoria, Tasmania and New South Wales. In Victoria very widely distributed, occurring in all districts except the Mallee and the south-western, western and northern plains.

Occurs at all elevations from 50 ft.-4,350 ft. but attains best development at moderate elevations in cool districts. Usually on rather poor, shallow soils derived from sedimentary sandstones and shales ; frequently occupies exposed sites on ridges and steep slopes, but may be replaced by E. dives on the drier sections in such situations. Hardy, withstands frost and snow but not high temperatures. Rainfall range 20 inches to over 60 inches.

Of poor form and stunted on low quality sites. Growth rapid on better-class soils. Up to 150 feet in height but more usually a mediumsized tree under 100 feet. Regenerates readily from seed and coppices vigorously. In most localities not a reliable commercial timber tree in the larger sizes, being subject to rot and attack by insects and fungi. Grows in pure stands but is more generally in mixture, commonly with E. obliqua and E. goniocalyx but also with E. dives, E. rubida, E. viminalis, E. macrorrhyncha, E. consideniana, E. scabra, E. sieberiana, E. globulus var. bicostata, E. elaeophora, E. aromaphloia, E. maculosa, and at the highest altitudes E. pauciflora var. alpina.

Bark closely fibrous, persistent on trunk and large branches.

Juvenile leaves narrow and tapering, usually in opposite pairs, occasionally in threes. Mature leaves tapering, 2 in.-7 in. long, usually narrow but often over 1 inch broad.

Buds and flowers usually in clusters of eight to sixteen, sometimes up to 48. Operculum hemispherical, about the same length as the calyx tube.

Fruit almost pear-shaped on long, slender pedicels ; valves usually have a somewhat wrinkled surface and are approximately 2/10 inch in diameter.

E. regnans F.v.M.—Mountain Ash.

Indigenous to Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. In Victoria restricted to the mountain regions of the Otway peninsula, south Gippsland and the central and north-eastern highlands westward from Mount Disappointment to the New South Wales border.

Prefers deep, rich, well-drained soils derived from Jurassic mudstones and shales in the Otways and south Gippsland, and from granitic, basaltic, sedimentary and metamorphic type rocks elsewhere. Grows best in sheltered gullies and on slopes with southerly aspects in cold, moist climate. Withstands heavy snowfalls. Rainfall 40 inches to over 70 inches ; optimum elevation 1,000 ft.-3,500 ft. with extremes of 550 ft.-4,400 ft. Sensitive to fire damage.

A very tall tree to over 300 feet with girth to 48 feet; log lengths to 180 feet. Bole straight with little taper, base buttressed up to 15 feet; crown light. Growth very rapid when young. A light-demanding species. Does not produce coppice, but regenerates prolifically from seed under favourable conditions. Usually grows in pure stands, but occasionally also in mixture with E. nitens, E. obliqua, E. viminalis, E. goniocalyx, E. delegatensis and E. jastigata.

Bark smooth and white, occasionally brown and fibrous at the extreme base.

Juvenile leaves opposite and almost sessile, broad with dented margins and with a whitish waxy bloom. Mature leaves stalked, narrow and tapering and slightly curved, 2 in.—4 in. long.

Buds and flowers in clusters of four to eight on slender peduncles. Operculum hemispherical and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit hemispherical to conical, 2/10 in.-3/10 in. in diameter, with the valves usually projecting slightly.

E. rubida Dean and Maiden—Candlebark.

Indigenous to Victoria, Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania and South Australia. In Victoria on the hill and mountain country practically throughout the State, and especially abundant on the north-eastern highlands.

Occurs mainly on poorer soil types from heavy clay loams of Ordovician and Silurian origin to shallow, stony soils from sedimentary and metamorphic rocks ; at the higher elevations is mainly on the drier sites on exposed ridges and steep slopes particularly on northerly aspects. Rainfall 25 inches to over 60 inches ; elevation from 1,000 feet to over 5,000 feet; withstands severe winter climate in the mountains, with frequent snow.

Under optimum conditions may attain 180 feet in height, with log lengths to 100 feet and diameters to 4 feet. Often of poor form and usually not a reliable timber tree, especially in the larger sizes when subject to insect and fungal attack. Occurs both pure and in mixture with E. delegatensis and E. pauciflora var. alpina at the higher altitudes, E. radiata at intermediate levels, and E. obliqua at lower elevations ; also with E. goniocalyx, E. viminalis, E. macrorrhyncha, E. globulus var. bicostata and E. dives. Not a free seeder but reproduces reasonably well from coppice.

Bark smooth for the most part, the outer layer falling off in flakes or rolled-up ribbons, leaving the surface white or pale-yellow with reddish patches.

Juvenile leaves opposite, glaucous, sessile and almost round. Mature leaves stalked and tapering, 3 in.-6 in. long.

Buds and flowers usually in groups of three on short, rounded peduncles. Operculum nearly hemispherical and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit almost sessile, domed, 2/10 in.-3/l0 in. in diameter, with a prominent rim and protruding valves.

(The mature tree of this species is very difficult to distinguish from the Manna gum (E. viminalis). The most reliable feature for separating these species is the form of the juvenile leaves, which are almost round and glaucous in E. rubida, narrow and tapering in E. viminalis.)

E. scabra (Dum-Cours (syn. E. eugenioides Sieb.) White Stringy’oark (including E. agglomerata Maiden-Grey Stringybark).

Occurs in Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. In Victoria is found from the vicinity of Warragul to the New South Wales border, with its main occurrence in east Gippsland on the coastal plains and lower seaward slopes on the south side of the Dividing Range.

Confined to sedimentary soils, preferring well-drained loams and sandy clays; also on poor Tertiary sands near the coast. Best development on moist slopes and sheltered gullies at the lower elevations, deteriorating in form and size on the drier upper slopes and ridges. Rainfall 25 in.—45 in.; elevation sea level to 2,800 feet. On better sites a tree of good form with straight, clean bole ; does not grow to a particularly large size, normally up to 120 feet in height with log lengths to 60 feet and diameters to 4 feet. A good pole tree. Regenerates freely from seed and coppices well. Occasionally forms pure stands, but more commonly in mixture when its main associates are E. obliqua, E. goniocalyx and E. sieberiana; also occurs with E. baxteri, E. muelleriana, E. botryoides, E. andreana and E. bosistoana on the moister sites, E. radiata, E. polyanthemos, E. macrorrhyncha and E. sideroxylon on drier spurs, and E. consideniana on poorly drained sites.

Bark fibrous and furrowed up to the smaller branches ; usually greyish on the outside and brown to yellow on the inside.

Juvenile leaves opposite, almost sessile, tapering with hairs along the midrib and margin. Mature leaves stalked, tapering, dark-green and thick, 3 in.-6 in. long.

Buds and flowers in crowded heads of six to twelve on short, thick pedicels. Operculum conical, usually as long as the calyx tube.

Fruit hemispherical, 2/10 in.-3/10 in. in diameter. The rim usually narrow around a large opening with small, usually enclosed valves, sometimes exsert.

E. sideroxylon (A. Cunn.) Benth.—Red Ironbark.

A native of Victoria and New South Wales. In Victoria its main zones of occurrence are on the foothills north of the Divide from Stawell to the Goulburn river, and in east Gippsland from the vicinity of Glenmaggie Reservoir practically to the New South Wales border. Also in the Chiltem district of the north-east, around Airey’s Inlet in the Otway locality, and on the ranges north-west of Melbourne.

Usually on rather dry, shallow stony soils of Silurian and Ordovician origin ; also on ironstone gravels and occasionally on granitic sites. Prefers clayey soil, well-drained, on slopes of low ridges. Rainfall 15 in.—25 in. in northern districts, elsewhere up to 30 inches ; elevation sea level to 1,800 feet; usually on northerly aspects. Hardy, withstanding severe drought and heavy frosts. Growth comparatively slow. Seldom exceeds 100 feet in height with diameters up to 5 feet. In northern localities often in pure stands but also in mixture with E. leucoxylon, E. polyanthemos, E. elaeophora, E. hemiphloia and E. macrorrhyncha ; in eastern districts almost invariably in mixture with such species as E. sieberiana, E. polyanthemos, E. muelleriana, E. scabra, E. goniocalyx, E. consideniana and E. baxteri. Reproduces vigorously from coppice ; comparatively light seeder and regeneration from seed usually poor except on the moister sites.

Bark is black to reddish, hard, deeply furrowed and persistent.

Juvenile leaves opposite, shortly stalked and rather narrow. Mature leaves alternate, on short stalks, narrow and tapering, 3 in.-6 in. long and rather pale-green, often silvery.

Buds and flowers in clusters of three to seven on rather long pedicels. Operculum conical and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit almost goblet-shaped, up to I inch long, with a narrow rim and valves deeply enclosed.

The leaves, buds, flowers and fruits of this species are very similar to those of Yellow gum (or White ironbark), although both species have totally different bark.

E. sieberiana F.v.M.—Silvertop.

Native to Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales. In Victoria is confined to the eastern half of the State where it is of rare occurrence north of the Divide. The principal commercial stands occur on the coastal lowlands and lower foothills of east Gippsland.

Prefers sandy clay and clay loam soils over sandstone. Typically a tree of the drier ridges, especially at the higher elevations where it occupies dry, barren, stony ridge-top sites. Its best development is on the tops of low. flat, well-drained spurs at the lower altitudes. Rainfall 25 inches to 50 inches ; elevation 50 feet to 3,750 feet. Hardy but rather sensitive to fire damage. Forms practically pure stands over extensive areas ; also in mixture with E. sideroxylon, E. macrorrhyncha, and E. radiata on the drier poor quality sites, and elsewhere variously with E. muelleriana, £. scabra, E. obliqua, E. goniocalyx, E. globulus var. bicostata, E. consideniana, E. botryoides and E. baxteri. Growth rapid ; attains heights to 150 feet with 80-ft. log length and diameters over 4 feet ; bole long and clean, apt to develop pipe with age. Heavy seeder and regeneration easy to obtain ; tends to oust other species in mixture by its fast growth and prolific regeneration ; coppices freely.

Bark hard and deeply furrowed on the trunk, smooth and white on the branches.

Juvenile leaves paired, almost sessile and elliptical. Mature leaves stalked, tapering, bluish-green and somewhat shiny. 4 in.—6 in. long and about 1 inch wide.

Buds and flowers in clusters on rather long pedicels, the peduncles somewhat flattened. Operculum hemispherical and shorter than the calyx tube.

Fruit narrow and pear-shaped, 3/10 inch in diameter, shining and usually with a well-defined dark-red rim, valves enclosed.

E. viminalis Labill.—Manna Gum.

Indigenous to Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, New South Wales and Queensland. Widely distributed in Victoria, occurring in all districts except north of the Divide in the north and north-west. Its main occurrence as a commercial tree is in the central highlands and the Otway ranges.

Prefers deep fertile soils, moist but well drained, in sheltered gullies. In the hill country, frequently occurs in narrow belts along the banks of streams in pure stands or in mixture with E. ovata. In the mountain ranges, often found immediately below stands of E. delegatensis or E. regnans.

A handsome, tall, straight tree with shapely crown on favourable sites, growing to over 200 feet in height with log lengths to 120 feet and diameters to over 6 feet. At lower elevations usually a small tree of more spreading habit and on the coastal lowlands develops a persistent rough bark. Rainfall 25 inches to over 60 inches, elevations from sea level to 4,800 feet. Occasionally in pure stands, but more commonly in mixture particularly with E. radiata and E. goniocalyx, also E. rubida, E. fastigata, E. regnans, and E. delegatensis at high elevations, and E. globulus var. bicostata, E. obliqua. E. ovata, E. botryoides and E. macrorrhyncha at lower levels. Regenerates moderately well from both seed and coppice.

Bark rough and persistent for a few feet at the butt, or quite smooth throughout, white to yellowish-white and often hanging from the branches in long ribbons.

Juvenile leaves opposite, sessile and somewhat wedge-shaped. Mature leaves stalked and tapering, 3 in.-6 in. in length.

Buds and flowers usually in groups of three on short peduncles. Operculum hemispherical and usually longer than the calyx tube.

Fruit almost sessile, domed, 2/10 in.-3/10 in. in diameter, with a prominent rim and protruding valves.

(The mature tree of this species is difficult to distinguish from Candlebark (£. rubida). However, the juvenile leaves of E. rubida are quite different, being glaucous, almost round, not tapering as in E. viminalis.)

NOTES ON OTHER MAJOR SPECIES

Genus Acacia

The genus Acacia consists of over 800 species, two-thirds of which occur in Australia, all but one of which are endemic. In Victoria about 80 species are represented, the majority of which do not reach tree status. The main species of economic importance in Victoria are A. pycnantha Bth., Golden Wattle, A. melanoxylon R.Br., Blackwood, A. mearnsii DeWild, (syn. A. molissima Willd.) Black Wattle and A. dealbata Link.. Silver Wattle.

A. pycnantha Bth., Golden Wattle.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. The tree is usually too small for anything other than fuel for which it is prized. The bark is a useful source of tannin.

A. melanoxylon R.Br., Blackwood.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. Grows to 100 feet, the wood is dark to pale-brown, often figured and therefore useful for furniture and fittings.

A. mearnsii DeWild. (syn. A. molissima Willd.) Black Wattle.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. The bark of this species is valued for its tannin content ; the wood burns freely.

A. dealbata Link., Silver Wattle.

Widespread in Victoria ; also in New South Wales and Queensland. Useful as firewood ; the gum is occasionally collected. The bark is of inferior quality for tanning purposes.

Genus Casuarina

This genus comprises some twenty species mainly Australian. There are eight well-defined species in Victoria the following four species of which yield useful timber :—

C. suberosa Ott. and Diet., Black Sheoke.

C. luehmannii R. T. Baker, Buloke.

C. stricta Ait., Drooping Sheoke.

C. cristata Miq. (syn. C. lepidophloia F.v.M.) Belar.

C. suberosa Ott. and Diet., Black Sheoke.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and Tasmania. It is widely spread in Victoria with the exception of the north-west. Up to 40 feet in height. The timber is dark and durable and can be used for veneers, mauls and tool handles ; a good fuel ; the branches have less fodder value than the other species.

C. luehmannii R. T. Baker, Buloke.

Native to Victoria, and the interior of New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland. In Victoria it is confined to the north-west and south. Up to 50 feet in height. The timber is hard and durable, and strikingly figured by the broad medullary rays ; useful for furniture and cabinet work ; durable in the ground and is a good fuel.

C. stricta Ait., Drooping Sheoke.

Native to Victoria and throughout temperate Australia. It is widely spread in Victoria. Up to 30 feet in height. The timber is reddish-brown, hard and tough ; the prominent dark medullary rays make the timber useful for cabinet work, furniture and turnery ; does not last particularly well in the ground but is a good fuel.

C. cristata Miq. (syn. C. lepidophloia F.v.M.) Belar.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. In Victoria it is confined to the far north-west. Occasionally up to 70 feet in height. The timber is pale outside but the heartwood is dark brown, tough and durable ; useful for tool handles, staves, cabinet work and fuel.

Genus Callitris

Callitris is represented in each Australian State and New Caledonia ; it comprises fourteen species and a number of sub-species. In Victoria five representatives occur, the following three of which yield timber of commercial value :—

C. hugelii (Carr.) (syn. C. glauca R.Br.) White Cypress Pine. C. preissii Miq. ssp. murrayensis Joy Garden (syn. C. propinqua R.Br.) Slender Cypress Pine.

C. endlicheri (Pari.) (syn. C. calcarata (R.Br.) Red Cypress Pine.

C. hugelii (Carr.) (syn. C. glauca R.Br.) White Cypress Pine.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. In Victoria it is confined mainly to the central-north and far north-west. The timber varies from light to dark brown and is fairly dense ; it takes a good polish, is resistant to termites and is useful for furniture, linings, weather boards, flooring and fencing; it is a good fuel but burns rather too readily. Up to 80 feet high.

C. preissii Miq. ssp. murrayensis Joy Garden (syn. C. propinqua R.Br.)

Slender Cypress Pine.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. It is confined in Victoria to the central-north and far north-west but has been recorded from near Lethbridge north of Geelong. Its uses are similar to those of the White Cypress Pine. Up to 60 feet high.

C. endlicheri (Pari.) (syn. C. calcarala R.Br.) Red Cypress Pine.

Native to Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. In Victoria it is restricted to the eastern and north-eastern parts of the State. The timber is useful for interior work, furniture and cabinet work but contains more knots than the White Cypress Pine ; the tree is rarely more than 50 feet high.

By Authority: A. C. Brooks, Government Printer. Melbourne.

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Based on plates in “ A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus ”, by J. H. Maiden.

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