The VISA-A questionnaire: a valid and reliable index of the clinical severity of Achilles tendinoplasty

Robinson, J., Cook, Jill, Purdam, Craig, Visentini, P., Ross, J., Maffulli, Nicola, Taunton, J. and Khan, K. 2001, The VISA-A questionnaire: a valid and reliable index of the clinical severity of Achilles tendinoplasty, British journal of sports medicine, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 335-341.

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Title The VISA-A questionnaire: a valid and reliable index of the clinical severity of Achilles tendinoplasty
Author(s) Robinson, J.
Cook, Jill
Purdam, Craig
Visentini, P.
Ross, J.
Maffulli, Nicola
Taunton, J.
Khan, K.
Journal name British journal of sports medicine
Volume number 35
Issue number 5
Start page 335
End page 341
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Place of publication Loughborough, England
Publication date 2001-10
ISSN 0306-3674
Keyword(s) achilles
Summary Background: There is no disease specific, reliable, and valid clinical measure of Achilles tendinopathy. Objective: To develop and test a questionnaire based instrument that would serve as an index of severity of Achilles tendinopathy. Methods: Item generation, item reduction, item scaling, and pretesting were used to develop a questionnaire to assess the severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The final version consisted of eight  questions that measured the domains of pain, function in daily living, and sporting activity. Results range from 0 to 100, where 100 represents the perfect score. Its validity and reliability were then tested in a population of non-surgical patients with Achilles tendinopathy (n = 45), presurgical patients with Achilles tendinopathy (n = 14), and two normal control populations (total n = 87). Results: The VISA-A questionnaire had good test-retest (r = 0.93), intrarater (three tests, r = 0.90), and interrater (r = 0.90) reliability as well as good stability when compared one week apart (r = 0.81). The mean (95% confidence interval) VISA-A score in the non-surgical patients was 64 (59–69), in presurgical patients 44 (28–60), and in control subjects it exceeded 96 (94–99). Thus the VISA-A score was higher in non-surgical than presurgical patients (p = 0.02) and higher in control subjects than in both patient populations (p<0.001). Conclusions: The VISA-A questionnaire is reliable and displayed construct validity when means were compared in patients with a range of severity of Achilles tendinopathy and control subjects. The continuous numerical result of the VISA-A questionnaire has the potential to provide utility in both the clinical setting and research. The test is not designed to be diagnostic. Further studies are needed to determine whether the VISA-A score predicts prognosis.
Language eng
Field of Research 110314 Orthopaedics
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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