Retention of essential amino acids during extrusion of protein and reducing sugars

Singh, Shivendra, Wakeling, Lara and Gamlath, Shirani 2007, Retention of essential amino acids during extrusion of protein and reducing sugars, Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, vol. 55, no. 21, pp. 8779-8786, doi: 10.1021/jf071769z.

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Title Retention of essential amino acids during extrusion of protein and reducing sugars
Author(s) Singh, Shivendra
Wakeling, Lara
Gamlath, ShiraniORCID iD for Gamlath, Shirani
Journal name Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Volume number 55
Issue number 21
Start page 8779
End page 8786
Publisher American Chemical Society
Place of publication Columbus, Ohio
Publication date 2007-10-17
ISSN 0021-8561
Keyword(s) extrusion
egg protein
milk protein
essential amino acid
Maillard reaction
lysine retention
Summary This research investigates the retention of essential amino acid profiles of products during the extrusion of proteins and reducing sugars. Animal proteins (egg and milk protein at 10 and 30% levels) and reducing sugars (fructose and galactose at 0, 2, and 8% levels), with pregelatinized wheat flour, were extruded at 110 and 125 °C product temperatures and feed moistures of 19 and 23.5% for egg protein and 13.75 and 16% for milk protein. The nutritional property analyzed was essential amino acid retention, and sugar retention was also considered to understand the relationship of sugars with retention of amino acids. Lysine showed the lowest retention (up to 40%) of all the essential amino acids. Retention of other essential amino acids varied from 80 to 100% in most situations. Apart from lysine,  tryptophan, threonine, and methionine were found to be significantly changed (P < 0.05) with processing conditions. Increased protein and sugar levels resulted in a significant degradation of lysine. Greater lysine retention was found at a lower temperature and higher feed moisture. Results of sugar retention also showed similar patterns. The products made from fructose had greater lysine retention than products made from galactose with any type of protein. The outcomes of this research suggested that the combination of milk protein and fructose at a lower temperature and higher feed moisture is most favorable for developing high-protein extruded products.
Language eng
DOI 10.1021/jf071769z
Field of Research 090805 Food Processing
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2007, American Chemical Society
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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