Chronic mental stress is a cause of essential hypertension : presence of biological markers of stress

Esler, Murray, Eikelis, Nina, Schlaich, Markus, Lambert, Gavin, Alvarenga, Marlies, Dawood, Tye, Kaye, David, Barton, David, Pier, Ciaran, Guo, Ling, Brenchley, Celia, Jennings, Garry and Lambert, Elisabeth 2008, Chronic mental stress is a cause of essential hypertension : presence of biological markers of stress, Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 498-502, doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.04904.x.

Attached Files
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads

Title Chronic mental stress is a cause of essential hypertension : presence of biological markers of stress
Author(s) Esler, Murray
Eikelis, Nina
Schlaich, Markus
Lambert, Gavin
Alvarenga, Marlies
Dawood, Tye
Kaye, David
Barton, David
Pier, Ciaran
Guo, Ling
Brenchley, Celia
Jennings, Garry
Lambert, Elisabeth
Journal name Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology
Volume number 35
Issue number 4
Start page 498
End page 502
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
Place of publication Carlton, Vic.
Publication date 2008-04
ISSN 0305-1870
Keyword(s) noradrenaline
nerve growth factor
panic disorder
stress biomarkers
Summary 1. In searching for biological evidence that essential hypertension is caused by chronic mental stress, a disputed proposition, parallels are noted with panic disorder, which provides an explicit clinical model of recurring stress responses.
2. There is clinical comorbidity; panic disorder prevalence is increased threefold in essential hypertension. Plasma cortisol is elevated in both.
3. In panic disorder and essential hypertension, but not in health, single sympathetic nerve fibres commonly fire repeatedly within an individual cardiac cycle; this appears to be a signature of stress exposure. For both conditions, adrenaline cotransmission is present in sympathetic nerves.
4. Tissue nerve growth factor is increased in both (nerve growth factor is a stress reactant). There is induction of the adrenaline synthesizing enzyme, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, in sympathetic nerves, an explicit indicator of mental stress exposure.
5. The question of whether chronic mental stress causes high blood pressure, still hotly debated, has been reviewed by an Australian Government body, the Specialist Medical Review Council. Despite the challenging medicolegal implications, the Council determined that stress is one proven cause of hypertension, this ruling being published in the 27 March 2002 Australian Government Gazette. This judgement was reached after consideration of the epidemiological evidence, but in particular after review of the specific elements of the neural pathophysiology of essential hypertension, described above.
Language eng
DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.04904.x
Field of Research 170101 Biological Psychology (Neuropsychology
Socio Economic Objective 929999 Health not elsewhere classified
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Persistent URL

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Psychology
Connect to link resolver
Unless expressly stated otherwise, the copyright for items in DRO is owned by the author, with all rights reserved.

Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 114 times in TR Web of Science
Scopus Citation Count Cited 124 times in Scopus
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Access Statistics: 921 Abstract Views, 0 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
Created: Fri, 14 Aug 2009, 13:56:45 EST

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact