Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods

Nestel, P., Cehun, M, Pomeroy, S, Abbey, M. and Weldon, G. 2001, Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods, European journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1084-1090.

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Title Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods
Author(s) Nestel, P.
Cehun, M
Pomeroy, S
Abbey, M.
Weldon, G.
Journal name European journal of clinical nutrition
Volume number 55
Issue number 12
Start page 1084
End page 1090
Total pages 7
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Place of publication London, England
Publication date 2001-12
ISSN 0954-3007
Keyword(s) sterol esters
low-fat foods
Summary Objectives: To determine the efficacy on plasma cholesterol-lowering of plant sterol esters or non-esterified stanols eaten within low-fat foods as well as margarine.
Design: Randomised, controlled, single-blind study with sterol esters and non-esterified plant stanols provided in breakfast cereal, bread and spreads. Study 1 comprised 12 weeks during which sterol esters (2.4 g) and stanol (2.4 g) -containing foods were eaten during 4 week test periods of cross-over design following a 4 week control food period. In Study 2, in a random order cross-over design, a 50% dairy fat spread with or without 2.4 g sterol esters daily was tested.
Subjects: Hypercholesterolaemic subjects; 22 in study 1 and 15 in study 2.
Main outcome measures: Plasma lipids, plasma sterols, plasma carotenoids and tocopherols.
Results: Study 1¾median LDL cholesterol was reduced by the sterol esters (-13.6%; P<0.001 by ANOVA on ranks; P<0.05 by pairwise comparison) and by stanols (-8.3%; P=0.003, ANOVA and <0.05 pairwise comparison). With sterol esters plasma plant sterol levels rose (35% for sitosterol, 51% for campesterol; P<0.001); plasma lathosterol rose 20% (P=0.03), indicating compensatory increased cholesterol synthesis. With stanols, plasma sitosterol fell 22% (P=0.004), indicating less cholesterol absorption. None of the four carotenoids measured in plasma changed significantly. In study 2, median LDL cholesterol rose 6.5% with dairy spread and fell 12.2% with the sitosterol ester fortified spread (P=0.03 ANOVA and <5% pairwise comparison).
Conclusion: 1. Plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols, two-thirds of which were incorporated into low-fat foods, contributed effectively to LDL cholesterol lowering, extending the range of potential foods. 2. The LDL cholesterol-raising effect of butter fat could be countered by including sterol esters. 3. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols were not reduced in this study.
Language eng
Field of Research 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Socio Economic Objective 920411 Nutrition
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2001, Nature Publishing Group
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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