Salt promotes passive overconsumption of dietary fat in humans

Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P, Costanzo, Andrew, Newman, Lisa P and Keast, Russell SJ 2016, Salt promotes passive overconsumption of dietary fat in humans, Journal of nutrition, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 838-845, doi: 10.3945/jn.115.226365.

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Title Salt promotes passive overconsumption of dietary fat in humans
Author(s) Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P
Costanzo, Andrew
Newman, Lisa P
Keast, Russell SJORCID iD for Keast, Russell SJ
Journal name Journal of nutrition
Volume number 146
Issue number 4
Start page 838
End page 845
Total pages 8
Publisher American Society for Nutrition
Place of publication Rockville, Md.
Publication date 2016-04-01
ISSN 0022-3166
Keyword(s) salt
ad libitum food intake
fat taste sensitivity
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Nutrition & Dietetics
Summary BACKGROUND: Excess fat consumption has been linked to the development of obesity. Fat and salt are a common and appetitive combination in food; however, the effect of either on food intake is unclear. Fat taste sensitivity has been negatively associated with dietary fat intake, but how fat taste sensitivity influences the intake of fat within a meal has, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated.

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were, first, to investigate the effects of both fat and salt on ad libitum food intake and, second, to investigate the effects of fat taste sensitivity on satiation responses to fat and whether this was affected by salt.

METHODS: Forty-eight healthy adults [16 men and 32 women, aged 18-54 y, body mass index (kg/m(2)): 17.8-34.4] were recruited and their fat taste sensitivity was measured by determination of the detection threshold of oleic acid (18:1n-6). In a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design, participants attended 4 lunchtime sessions after a standardized breakfast. Meals consisted of elbow macaroni (56%) with sauce (44%); sauces were manipulated to be1) low-fat (0.02% fat, wt:wt)/low-salt (0.06% NaCl, wt:wt),2) low-fat/high-salt (0.5% NaCl, wt:wt),3) high-fat (34% fat, wt:/wt)/low-salt, or4) high-fat/high-salt. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, pleasantness, and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness (secondary outcomes) were measured.

RESULTS: Salt increased food and energy intakes by 11%, independent of fat concentration (P= 0.022). There was no effect of fat on food intake (P= 0.6), but high-fat meals increased energy intake by 60% (P< 0.001). A sex × fat interaction was found (P= 0.006), with women consuming 15% less by weight of the high-fat meals than the low-fat meals. Fat taste sensitivity was negatively associated with the intake of high-fat meals but only in the presence of low salt (fat taste × salt interaction on delta intake of high-fat - low-fat meals;P= 0.012).

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that salt promotes passive overconsumption of energy in adults and that salt may override fat-mediated satiation in individuals who are sensitive to the taste of fat.
Language eng
DOI 10.3945/jn.115.226365
Field of Research 1111 Nutrition And Dietetics
0702 Animal Production
0908 Food Sciences
Socio Economic Objective 920411 Nutrition
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2016, American Society for Nutrition
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Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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