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Effect of dietary fat intake and genetics on fat taste sensitivity: a co-twin randomized controlled trial

Costanzo, Andrew, Nowson, Caryl, Orellana, Liliana, Bolhuis, Dieuwerke, Duesing, Konsta and Keast, Russell 2018, Effect of dietary fat intake and genetics on fat taste sensitivity: a co-twin randomized controlled trial, American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 683-694, doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy022.

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Title Effect of dietary fat intake and genetics on fat taste sensitivity: a co-twin randomized controlled trial
Author(s) Costanzo, AndrewORCID iD for Costanzo, Andrew orcid.org/0000-0001-6586-7965
Nowson, CarylORCID iD for Nowson, Caryl orcid.org/0000-0003-3736-4337
Orellana, LilianaORCID iD for Orellana, Liliana orcid.org/0000-0003-3736-4337
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke
Duesing, Konsta
Keast, RussellORCID iD for Keast, Russell orcid.org/0000-0003-2147-7687
Journal name American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume number 107
Issue number 5
Start page 683
End page 694
Total pages 12
Publisher Oxford University Press
Place of publication Oxford, England
Publication date 2018-05
ISSN 1938-3207
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Nutrition & Dietetics
fat taste
fat intake
weight
randomized controlled trial
co-twin
zygosity
heritability
OROSENSORY PERCEPTION
ORAL-SENSITIVITY
LINOLEIC-ACID
CD36 GENE
PREFERENCE
OBESE
TWIN
CONSUMPTION
THRESHOLDS
HUMANS
Summary Background: Individuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT). However, some individuals may be less susceptible to diet-mediated changes in FATT due to variations in gene expression.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-wk low-fat or high-fat diet on FATT while maintaining baseline weight (<2.0 kg variation) to assess heritability and to explore the effect of genetics on diet-mediated changes in FATT. Design: A co-twin randomized controlled trial including 44 pairs (mean ± SD age: 43.7 ± 15.4 y; 34 monozygotic, 10 dizygotic; 33 women, 10 men, 1 gender-discordant) was conducted. Twins within a pair were randomly allocated to an 8-wk low-fat (<20% of energy from fat) or high-fat (>35% of energy from fat) diet. FATT was assessed by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank) at baseline and at 4 and 8 wk. Linear mixed models were fit to assess diet effect on FT rank and diet effect modification due to zygosity. A variance components model was fit to calculate baseline heritability.

Results: There was a significant time × diet interaction for FT rank after the 8-wk trial (P < 0.001), with the same conclusions for the subset of participants maintaining baseline weight (low-fat; n = 32; high-fat: n = 35). There was no evidence of zygosity effect modification (interaction of time × diet × zygosity: P = 0.892). Heritability of baseline FT rank was 8%.

Conclusions: There appears to be little to no genetic contribution on heritability of FATT or diet-mediated changes to FATT. Rather, environment, specifically dietary fat intake, is the main influencer of FT sensitivity, regardless of body weight.
Language eng
DOI 10.1093/ajcn/nqy022
Field of Research 11 Medical And Health Sciences
09 Engineering
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2018 American Society for Nutrition
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution non-commercial licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30110275

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
Open Access Collection
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.