Openly accessible

Unexpectedly high prevalence of asthenopia in Australian school children identified by the CISS survey tool

Junghans, BM, Azizoglu, Serap and Crewther, SG 2020, Unexpectedly high prevalence of asthenopia in Australian school children identified by the CISS survey tool, BMC Ophthalmology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-13, doi: 10.1186/s12886-020-01642-3.

Attached Files
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
azizoglu-unexpectedlyhigh-2020.pdf Published version application/pdf 1.08MB 47

Title Unexpectedly high prevalence of asthenopia in Australian school children identified by the CISS survey tool
Author(s) Junghans, BM
Azizoglu, SerapORCID iD for Azizoglu, Serap orcid.org/0000-0003-3420-4098
Crewther, SG
Journal name BMC Ophthalmology
Volume number 20
Issue number 1
Article ID 408
Start page 1
End page 13
Total pages 13
Publisher BMC
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2020-10-12
ISSN 1471-2415
Keyword(s) Asthenopia
Middle school
CISS questionnaire
Refractive error
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Ophthalmology
INSUFFICIENCY SYMPTOM SURVEY
COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME
CONVERGENCE INSUFFICIENCY
CLINICAL-EVALUATION
WORKING CHILDREN
SPECTACLE USE
EYESTRAIN
SCHOOLCHILDREN
HYPEROPIA
Middle school; CISS questionnaire
Summary Background: To date there have been few systematic attempts to establish the general prevalence of asthenopia in unselected populations of school-aged children. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of Borsting et al’s 2003 Revised Convergence-Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) into a general school vision screening could aid in the identification of children with visual discomfort and indicate the need for further investigation. Methods: Vision screening of an unselected middle school population investigated and analysed the incidence of self-reported nearwork-related visual discomfort via the CISS along with distance and near visual acuities plus non-cycloplegic autorefraction using a Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001. Results: Of the 384 unselected students approached in Grades 6–9, 353 participated (92.2%, mean 13.2 ± 1.4 years). The mean CISS score for the population without amblyopia and/or strabismus (96.0% of all students) was 16.8 ± 0.6, i.e., 45% of students in this cohort had CISS scores greater than one standard deviation above the mean found by Borsting et al. in 2003 during their validation study of the CISS on 9 to 18 year old children without binocular anomalies. Regression analyses indicated significantly higher (p < 0.001) mean CISS scores for the 3.2% who were hyperopes ≥ + 2.00D by non-cycloplegic autorefraction (27.7 ± 14.7) and for those who were amblyopic (24.3 ± 6.6) or strabismic (34.0 ± 9.8). The mean CISS score of 31.6 ± 9.0 for non-amblyopic/strabismic students having near vision poorer than 0.1 LogMAR was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than for those with good acuity. Conclusion: The most important finding of this study was the high incidence of asthenopia in an unselected population and that refractive status per se was not a major contributor to CISS scores. The results highlight the usefulness of the CISS questionnaire for assessment of visual discomfort in school vision screenings and the need for future exploration of near binocular vision status as a potential driver of asthenopia in school students, especially given current trends for frequent daily use of computers and handheld devices and necessarily prolonged accommodative-convergence effort at near, both at school and at home.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/s12886-020-01642-3
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 1113 Opthalmology and Optometry
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2020, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30144036

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Medicine
Open Access Collection
Connect to link resolver
 
Unless expressly stated otherwise, the copyright for items in DRO is owned by the author, with all rights reserved.

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.

Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 0 times in TR Web of Science
Scopus Citation Count Cited 0 times in Scopus
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Access Statistics: 88 Abstract Views, 47 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
Created: Wed, 14 Oct 2020, 19:06:09 EST

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.