The association between dietary sodium intake, adiposity and sugar-sweetened beverages in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Grimes, Carley, Bolton, Kristy, Booth, Alison, Khokhar, Durreajam, Service, Carrie, He, FH and Nowson, Caryl 2020, The association between dietary sodium intake, adiposity and sugar-sweetened beverages in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis, British Journal of Nutrition, pp. 1-19, doi: 10.1017/s0007114520004122.

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Title The association between dietary sodium intake, adiposity and sugar-sweetened beverages in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Author(s) Grimes, CarleyORCID iD for Grimes, Carley orcid.org/0000-0002-9123-1888
Bolton, KristyORCID iD for Bolton, Kristy orcid.org/0000-0001-6721-4503
Booth, AlisonORCID iD for Booth, Alison orcid.org/0000-0003-4914-7006
Khokhar, Durreajam
Service, Carrie
He, FH
Nowson, CarylORCID iD for Nowson, Caryl orcid.org/0000-0001-6586-7965
Journal name British Journal of Nutrition
Start page 1
End page 19
Total pages 19
Publisher Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Place of publication Cambridge, Eng.
Publication date 2020-10-15
ISSN 0007-1145
1475-2662
Keyword(s) adiposity
diet
obesity
salt intake
sodium intake
systematic review
Summary ABSTRACT Higher intakes of sodium may contribute to weight gain. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between dietary sodium intake and measures of adiposity in children and adults. Given the previous link between sodium intake and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which are a known risk factor for obesity, a secondary aim examining the relationship between sodium intake and SSB consumption was assessed. A systematic literature search identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which reduced dietary sodium (≥3 months). Meta-analysis was performed for outcomes with ≥3 studies. Cross-sectionally higher sodium intakes were associated with overweight/obesity in adults (5 studies; n=11,067; (OR) 1.74, 95%CI 1.43,2.13) and in children (3 studies; n=3625, OR=3.29,2.25, 4.80); and abdominal obesity (5 studies; n=19,744; OR=2.04, 1.72, 2.42) in adults. Overall, associations remained in sensitivity analyses which adjusted for energy. Findings from longitudinal studies were inconsistent. RCTs in adults indicated a trend for lower body weight on reduced sodium compared to control diets (15 studies; n=5274; -0.29 kg, -0.59,0.01; P=0.06), however it is unclear if energy intakes were also altered on reduced sodium diets. Among children higher sodium intakes were associated with higher intake of SSBs (4 studies, n=10,329, b=22, 16,26 g/d), no studies were retrieved for adults. Overall there was a lack of high quality studies retrieved. Whilst cross-sectional evidence indicates sodium intake was positively associated with adiposity, these findings have not been clearly confirmed by longitudinal studies or randomised controlled trials.
Notes In Press
Language eng
DOI 10.1017/s0007114520004122
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 0702 Animal Production
0908 Food Sciences
1111 Nutrition and Dietetics
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30144467

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Health and Social Development
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